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Sample records for impending venous gangrene

  1. Endovascular Treatment of Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens with Impending Venous Gangrene: Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy as the First-Line Thrombus Removal Method

    SciTech Connect

    Oguzkurt, Levent Ozkan, Ugur; Demirturk, Orhan S.; Gur, Serkan

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Our purpose was to report the outcome of endovascular treatment with manual aspiration thrombectomy as the first-line thromboablative method for phlegmasia cerulea dolens. Methods: Between October 2006 and May 2010, seven consecutive patients (5 women, 2 men; age range, 31-80 years) with the diagnosis of phlegmasia cerulea dolens secondary to acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis had endovascular treatment with manual aspiration thrombectomy. Catheter-directed thrombolysis and stent placement were used as adjunctive procedures. Phlegmasia was left-sided in five and right-sided in two patients. Results: All patients had associated great saphenous vein thrombosis in addition to iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Aspiration thrombectomy completely removed the thrombus from the popliteal vein to the inferior vena cava (IVC) in all cases. Three patients with May-Thurner syndrome had stent placement in the left common iliac vein. Two patients had early recurrences. Repeated aspiration thrombectomy was unsuccessful in one patient. There were no complications related to the procedure. One patient who had been successfully treated died of sepsis and another patient who had unsuccessful repeated interventions had below-the-knee amputation. Overall, the clinical success and survival rates of patients in this study were 86%. On follow-up, three patients with successful treatment were asymptomatic with no deep venous insufficiency. One of these patients died during the 4-month follow-up period. Two patients had mild ankle swelling with deep venous insufficiency. Conclusions: Manual aspiration thrombectomy with adjunctive use of catheter-directed thrombolysis and stent placement is an effective endovascular treatment method with high clinical success and survival rates for phlegmasia cerulean dolens.

  2. Warfarin-induced venous limb ischemia/gangrene complicating cancer: a novel and clinically distinct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Theodore E; Cook, Richard J; Sarode, Ravi; Sloane, Debi A; Crowther, Mark A

    2015-07-23

    Venous limb gangrene (VLG) can occur in cancer patients, but the clinical picture and pathogenesis remain uncertain. We identified 10 patients with metastatic cancer (7 pathologically proven) who developed severe venous limb ischemia (phlegmasia/VLG) after initiating treatment of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT); in 8 patients, cancer was not known or suspected at presentation. The patients exhibited a novel, clinically distinct syndrome: warfarin-associated supratherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR; median, 6.5) at onset of limb ischemia, rising platelet count during heparin anticoagulation, and platelet fall after stopping heparin. Despite supratherapeutic INRs, patient plasma contained markedly elevated thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex levels (indicating uncontrolled thrombin generation) and protein C (PC) depletion; this profile resembles the greatly elevated TAT/PC activity ratios reported in patients with warfarin-associated VLG complicating heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Analyses of vitamin K-dependent factors in 6 cancer patients with available serial plasma samples showed that variations in the INR corresponded most closely with changes in factor VII, with a highly collinear relationship between VII and PC. We conclude that venous limb ischemia/gangrene is explained in some cancer patients by profoundly disturbed procoagulant-anticoagulant balance, whereby warfarin fails to block cancer-associated hypercoagulability while nonetheless contributing to severe PC depletion, manifest as a characteristic supratherapeutic INR caused by parallel severe factor VII depletion. PMID:25979950

  3. Gas gangrene

    MedlinePLUS

    Tissue infection - Clostridial; Gangrene - gas; Myonecrosis; Clostridial infection of tissues ... Blood culture to determine the bacteria causing the infection Gram stain of fluid from the infected area ...

  4. Fournier gangrene.

    PubMed

    Parry, Nadiah

    2015-03-01

    Fournier gangrene is a rapidly progressive necrotizing infection of the perineal and genital fascia, often polymicrobial. Severity is increased in older patients, diabetics and the immunocompromised. As in this case, the disease can have an indolent onset. Early recognition and aggressive treatment is important. PMID:25838914

  5. Fournier gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Nadiah

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Fournier gangrene is a rapidly progressive necrotizing infection of the perineal and genital fascia, often polymicrobial. Severity is increased in older patients, diabetics and the immunocompromised. As in this case, the disease can have an indolent onset. Early recognition and aggressive treatment is important. PMID:25838914

  6. Gas gangrene (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. It ... causing painful swelling and destruction of involved tissue. Gas gangrene is rapidly progressive and often fatal.

  7. Gas gangrene (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Patients ... vascular diseases are more prone to spontaneously develop gas gangrene, which is rapidly progressive and often fatal.

  8. Lower limb gangrene postcardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Rozati, Hamoun; Shah, Sonya Pratik; Peng, Ying Ying

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old gentleman presented with a 1-day history of left foot pain. He had recently been discharged following a coronary artery bypass graft; during the admission, he had received an intravenous heparin infusion. Examination revealed black-purple discolouration of the first and second digits of the left foot with pitting oedema to the level of the knee. The posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis pulses were both shown to be patent. A new thrombocytopenia was noted. Ultrasound imaging revealed multiple deep vein thrombosis. The history of recent heparin exposure coupled with venous gangrene secondary to deep vein thrombosis was consistent with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. He was treated acutely with intravenous danaparoid and later with warfarin. There was complete resolution of the venous gangrene at 1 month follow-up. PMID:23417943

  9. Fournier's gangrene. Case report.

    PubMed

    Matilsky, Danielle; Lewiss, Resa E; Whalen, Michael; Saul, Turandot

    2014-09-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a condition marked by fulminant polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the urogenital and perineal areas. We present a patient with Fournier's gangrene and describe the physical examination and bedside sonographic findings. These findings can assist in the evaluation of patients with concerning symptoms so there can be timely administration of antibiotics and specialist consultation when necessary. PMID:25110769

  10. Fournier's gangrene current approaches.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Omer F; Koksal, Neset; Altinli, Ediz; Celik, Atilla; Uzun, Mehmet A; C?kman, Oztekin; Akbas, Alpaslan; Ergun, Ersin; Kiraz, Hasan A; Karaayvaz, Muammer

    2014-08-22

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare but highly mortal infectious disease characterised by fulminant necrotising fasciitis involving the genital and perineal regions. The objective of this study is to analyse the demographics, clinical feature and treatment approaches as well as outcomes of Fournier's gangrene. Data were collected retrospectively from medical records and operative notes. Patient data were analysed by demographics, aetiological factors, clinical features, treatment approaches and outcomes. Twelve patients (five female and seven male) were enrolled in this study. The most common aetiology was perianal abscess (41·6%). Wound cultures showed a mixture of microorganisms in six (50%) patients. For faecal diversion, while colostomy was performed in six cases (50%), Flexi-Seal was used in two cases (16·6%). In four patients (33·4%), no faecal diversion was performed. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) system was effective in the last four patients (33·4%). The mean hospitalisation period in patients who used NPWT was 18?days, while it was 20?days in the others. NPWT in Fournier's gangrene is a safe dressing method. It promotes granulation formation. Flexi-Seal faecal management is an alternative method to colostomy and provides protection from its associated complications. The combination of two devices (Flexi-Seal and NPWT) is an effective and comfortable method in the management of Fournier's gangrene in appropriate patients. PMID:25145578

  11. Peripheral gangrene in a case of severe dengue.

    PubMed

    Nair, B T; Sanjeev, R K; Tarikjot, S B

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 10-year-old male who developed gangrene of his fingers and toes following severe dengue fever complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Child developed bilateral dry gangrene of fingers and toes. All the peripheral pulses of the affected limbs were palpable. The child had no history of taking B-blockers, ergot alkaloids or other related medications. Color Doppler of peripheral arterial and venous systems of all limbs indicated normal flow. Blood was positive for D-dimers and fibrin degradation products. The patient was managed with broad spectrum antibiotics, fluid resuscitation, low molecular weight heparin, blood transfusions, fresh frozen plasma and other supportive measures. Peripheral gangrene seen in DIC associated with dengue is very rare and carries a higher mortality. PMID:26755235

  12. The Impending Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Raymond L.; Burgess, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician’s ability to diagnose the patient’s condition. What if testing was not available … because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons – not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ? 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well. PMID:23653714

  13. Fournier's Gangrene: Current Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mallikarjuna, M. N.; Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Patil, Vijayraj S.; Shivswamy, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an acute, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal, infective necrotizing fasciitis affecting the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions, which commonly affects men, but can also occur in women and children. There has been an increase in number of cases in recent times. Despite advanced management mortality is still high and averages 20–30%. Early diagnosis using Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score and stratification of patients into high risk category using Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score help in early initiation of treatment. Triple antibiotic combined with radical debridement is the mainstay of treatment. There have been many advances in management of Fournier gangrene including use of vaccum assisted closure and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. With introduction of newer devices like Flexi-Seal, fecal diversion can be done, avoiding colostomy. Reconstruction of perineal defects using skin grafts, flaps, and urethral reconstruction using gracilis flaps can reduce the morbidity associated with FG and provide acceptable functional and aesthetic outcomes. PMID:23251819

  14. Surgical treatment of impending myocardial infarction: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    FitzGibbon, G. M.; Hooper, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Two men, aged 29 and 44, presented with clinical and electrocardiographic evidence suggesting impending myocardial infarction. Selective coronary angiography revealed serious obstructive coronary atherosclerosis including gross stenosis of the main left coronary artery in both. Emergency surgical operations were performed, a double aorto-coronary venous bypass in one and a single venous bypass combined with a Vineberg operation in the other. Neither patient sustained myocardial infarction. Both patients are very well more than six months after operation. Clinical, electrocardiographic and angiographic evidence of the effectiveness of these operations is presented. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:5061126

  15. Management of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kolluri, Raghu

    2014-06-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) results from venous hypertension secondary to superficial or deep venous valvular reflux, as well as venous obstruction. The most severe clinical manifestation of CVI is venous leg ulceration that can result in significant morbidity, including venous gangrene and amputation, albeit rare. Treatment modalities are aimed at reducing venous hypertension. Diuretic therapy, although widely used, only provides short-term improvement of the edema but provides no long-term benefit. Compression therapy is the cornerstone in the management of CVI. Compression can be achieved using compression bandaging, compression pumps, or graduated compression stockings. Topical steroid creams may reduce inflammation, venous eczema, and pain in the short term, but they can be detrimental in the long run. Apligraf (a living, bilayered, cell-based product) in conjunction with compression therapy was noted to be more effective in healing venous leg ulcerations, when compared with treatment with compression therapy and zinc paste. Endovascular and surgical techniques that minimize valvular reflux and relieve venous obstruction improve venous hemodynamics, promoting wound healing. PMID:24840970

  16. [Gas gangrene panophthalmitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kessler, S; Schmid, E; Pagon, S

    1976-01-01

    Gas gangrene panophthalmitis is a rare condition of penetrating injury to the globe. The infecting organism is usually Clostridium perfringens. Characteristic symptoms are a brawny swelling of the lids, marked chemosis, coffee-coloured discharge, hypopyon, ring abscess of the cornea, formation of gas bubbles in the anterior chamber, rise of intraocular tension and early amaurosis. Treatment consists in the evisceration or enucleation of the globe, rarely in the exenteration of the orbit. Antibiotics along (Penicillin, Tetracyclines) are insufficient. Administration of antiserum is almost completely abandoned, it is probably more dangerous than helpful. The use of hyperbaric oxygen is not indicated in cases of gas gangrene panophthalmitis. Extraocular extension of the infection and its danger for the individual is prevented by well-times surgical procedure. PMID:979027

  17. Fournier's gangrene: a model for early prediction.

    PubMed

    Palvolgyi, Roland; Kaji, Amy H; Valeriano, Javier; Plurad, David; Rajfer, Jacob; de Virgilio, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Early diagnosis remains the cornerstone of management of Fournier's gangrene. As a result of variable progression of disease, identifying early predictors of necrosis becomes a diagnostic challenge. We present a scoring system based on objective admission criteria, which can help distinguish Fournier's gangrene from nonnecrotizing scrotal infections. Ninety-six patients were identified, 38 diagnosed with Fournier's gangrene and 58 diagnosed with scrotal cellulitis or abscess. Statistical analyses comparing admission vital signs, laboratory values, and imaging studies were performed and Classification and Regression Tree analysis was used to construct a scoring system. Admission heart rate greater than 110 beats/minute, serum sodium less than 135 mmol/L, blood urea nitrogen greater than 15 mg/dL, and white blood cell count greater than 15 × 10(3)/?L were significant predictors of Fournier's gangrene. Using a threshold score of two or greater, our model differentiates patients with Fournier's gangrene from those with nonnecrotizing infections with a sensitivity of 84.2 per cent. Only 34.2 per cent of patients with Fournier's gangrene had hard signs of necrotizing infection on admission, which were not observed in patients with nonnecrotizing infections. Objective admission criteria assist in distinguishing Fournier's gangrene from scrotal cellulitis or abscess. In situations in which results of the physical examination are ambiguous, this scoring system can heighten the index of suspicion for Fournier's gangrene and prompt rapid surgical intervention. PMID:25264631

  18. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  19. Fungal Fourniers Gangrene in an Immunocompromised Patient.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Winston; Roberts, Robyn; Tarry, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the groin, perianal and perineal region that is often polymicrobial in nature, often averaging 3 species of bacteria per patient. The typical infection can be due to a host of microbes, including gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic species including. Many of the causative organisms are found in the normal microbial flora of the perineum. Therefore, Fourniers is an opportunistic infection most commonly affecting the immunosuppressed. The majority of Fournier's gangrene are bacterial; however there have been cases of fungal Fournier's gangrene reported in the literature. PMID:26793562

  20. Fungal Fourniers Gangrene in an Immunocompromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Winston; Roberts, Robyn; Tarry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the groin, perianal and perineal region that is often polymicrobial in nature, often averaging 3 species of bacteria per patient. The typical infection can be due to a host of microbes, including gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic species including. Many of the causative organisms are found in the normal microbial flora of the perineum. Therefore, Fourniers is an opportunistic infection most commonly affecting the immunosuppressed. The majority of Fournier's gangrene are bacterial; however there have been cases of fungal Fournier's gangrene reported in the literature. PMID:26793562

  1. Gangrene

    MedlinePLUS

    Andros G, Lavery LA. Diabetic foot ulcers. In: Cronenwett JL, Johnston W, eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 112. Zhang WW, Abou-Zamzam AM Jr. Lower extremity amputation: General considerations. In: ...

  2. Pulmonary gangrene as a complication of mucormycosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zagoria, R.J.; Choplin, R.H.; Karstaedt, N.

    1985-06-01

    Pulmonary gangrene, a rare complication of pneumonia occurs when vascular thrombosis leads to necrosis of a large portion of lung. The devitalized lung is then sloughed into a cavity, resulting in a characteristic radiographic appearance. The previously reported cases of pulmonary gangrene have been associated with either bacterial or tuberculous pneumonia; the authors describe a case resulting from mucormycosis. In addition to the plain-film findings, the computed tomographic (CT) appearance is described.

  3. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia during treatment of Fournier gangrene.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Timothy Lee; Thangasamy, Isaac A; Reynolds, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage (BAH) associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) in a 61-year-old man admitted to hospital for the treatment of Fournier's gangrene. He presented to hospital with scrotal swelling and fever, and developed spreading erythaema and a gangrenous scrotum. His scrotum was surgically debrided and intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Unfractionated heparin was given postoperatively for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. The patient deteriorated clinically 8-11?days postoperatively with delirium, chest pain and severe hypertension followed by hypotension and thrombocytopaenia. Abdominal CT scan revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Antibodies to the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex were present. HIT-associated BAH was diagnosed and heparin was discontinued. Intravenous bivalirudin and hydrocortisone were started, with rapid improvement in clinical status. BAH is a rare complication of HIT and should be considered in the postoperative patient with unexplained clinical deterioration. PMID:25315802

  4. Symmetrical Peripheral Gangrene Following Snake Bite

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Minal; Parikh, Mital; Patel, Dwijal; Chudasma, Ketan

    2014-01-01

    SPG (Symmetrical peripheral gangrene) is defined as symmetrical distal ischemic damage at two or more sites in the absence of large vessels obstruction. It has been ascribed to a number of infectious and non infectious conditions including connective tissue, cardiovascular, neoplastic and iatrogenic causes. We report a unique case of SPG in a 35-year-old Indian female who developed spontaneous gangrene of the distal phalanges of the right and left index, middle, ring and little fingers and the distal phalanges of all toes of the right and left foot following a snake bite. There have been very few cases of peripheral gangrene and acute renal failure associated with snake bite in literature. PMID:25386476

  5. Contemporary diagnosis and management of Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Chennamsetty, Avinash; Khourdaji, Iyad; Burks, Frank; Killinger, Kim A

    2015-08-01

    Fournier's gangrene, an obliterative endarteritis of the subcutaneous arteries resulting in gangrene of the overlying skin, is a rare but severe infective necrotizing fasciitis of the external genitalia. Mainly associated with men and those over the age of 50, Fournier's gangrene has been shown to have a predilection for patients with diabetes as well as people who are long-term alcohol misusers. The nidus for the synergistic polymicrobial infection is usually located in the genitourinary tract, lower gastointestinal tract or skin. Early diagnosis remains imperative as rapid progression of the gangrene can lead to multiorgan failure and death. The diagnosis is often made clinically, although radiography can be helpful when the diagnosis or the extent of the disease is difficult to discern. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score can be used to stratify patients into low, moderate or high risk and the Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) can also be used to determine the severity and prognosis of Fournier's gangrene. Mainstays of treatment include rapid and aggressive surgical debridement of necrotized tissue, hemodynamic support with urgent resuscitation with fluids, and broad-spectrum parental antibiotics. After initial radical debridement, open wounds are generally managed with sterile dressings and negative-pressure wound therapy. In cases of severe perineal involvement, colostomy has been used for fecal diversion or alternatively, the Flexi-Seal Fecal Management System can be utilized to prevent fecal contamination of the wound. After extensive debridement, many patients sustain significant defects of the skin and soft tissue, creating a need for reconstructive surgery for satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. PMID:26445600

  6. [Severe acute pancreatitis associated with gallbladder gangrene].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Sánchez, Abel S; Aguirre-Mejía, Rosa Y; Echenique-Martínez, Sergio E

    2014-01-01

    We present a diabetic patient who developed severe acute pancreatitis associated to gallbladder gangrene, in this case we assessed the applicability of classification criteria and management of the pathways for acute pancreatitis and also we suggest some topics that could be investigated in the future. PMID:24721961

  7. Fournier gangrene: rare complication of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ossibi, Pierlesky Elion; Souiki, Tarik; Ibn Majdoub, Karim; Toughrai, Imane; Laalim, Said Ait; Mazaz, Khalid; Tenkorang, Somuah; Farih, My Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rare complication of rectal cancer. Its discovery is often delayed. It's incidence is about 0.3/100,000 populations in Western countries. We report a patient with peritoneal perforation of rectal cancer revealed by scrotal and perineal necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:26161211

  8. Fournier gangrene: rare complication of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ossibi, Pierlesky Elion; Souiki, Tarik; Majdoub, Karim Ibn; Toughrai, Imane; Laalim, Said Ait; Mazaz, Khalid; Tenkorang, Somuah; Farih, My Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rare complication of rectal cancer. Its discovery is often delayed. It's incidence is about 0.3/100 000 populations in Western countries. We report a patient with peritoneal perforation of rectal cancer revealed by scrotal and perineal necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:26161211

  9. A clinical case of Fournier's gangrene: imaging ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Di Serafino, Marco; Gullotto, Chiara; Gregorini, Chiara; Nocentini, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rapidly progressing necrotizing fasciitis involving the perineal, perianal, or genital regions and constitutes a true surgical emergency with a potentially high mortality rate. Although the diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene is often made clinically, emergency ultrasonography and computed tomography lead to an early diagnosis with accurate assessment of disease extent. The Authors report their experience in ultrasound diagnosis of one case of Fournier's gangrene of testis illustrating the main sonographic signs and imaging diagnostic protocol. PMID:25368689

  10. Fournier's gangrene and its emergency management

    PubMed Central

    Thwaini, A; Khan, A; Malik, A; Cherian, J; Barua, J; Shergill, I; Mammen, K

    2006-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rare but life threatening disease. Although originally thought to be an idiopathic process, FG has been shown to have a predilection for patients with diabetes as well as long term alcohol misuse; however, it can also affect patients with non?obvious immune compromise. The nidus is usually located in the genitourinary tract, lower gastrointestinal tract, or skin. FG is a mixed infection caused by both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora. The development and progression of the gangrene is often fulminating and can rapidly cause multiple organ failure and death. Because of potential complications, it is important to diagnose the disease process as early as possible Although antibiotics and aggressive debridement have been broadly accepted as the standard treatment, the death rate remains high. PMID:16891442

  11. Kawasaki Disease and Peripheral Gangrene in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Iran; Ziaee, Vahid; Sadrosadat, Taravat; Moardinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Sayadpour-Zanjani, Keyhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Early diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki disease as the most common cause of acquired heart disease in childhood, may significantly improve the prognosis. Diagnosing infantile Kawasaki (younger than a year) is difficult because of obscure symptoms; at the same time they are at the higher risk of coronary abnormalities. Case Presentation: We report three infants with prolonged (more than 5 days) fever and peripheral gangrene without any other clinical manifestations of Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki was diagnosed due to dilation of coronary artery and other aortic branches, thrombocytosis, and rising of ESR and CRP. All patients were treated with high dose aspirin, IVIG and pulse therapy with methylprednisolone. Additionally, cytotoxic drugs or infliximab were used for two of them because of severe aneurysms in the aortic branches. All 3 patients received aspirin with anti-platelet aggregation dose and 2 patients heparin as an anti-coagulant agent for longtime. After adequate treatment, peripheral gangrene, arterial dilations and aneurysms improved, but during 12 months follow-up coronary aneurysms did not improve completely. Conclusions: Peripheral gangrene must be regarded as an important sign of infantile Kawasaki disease early treatment of which can prevent severe permanent coronary involvements and sequels. PMID:26635941

  12. Human Fulminant Gas Gangrene Caused by Clostridium chauvoei?

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Noriyuki; Isomine, Shinji; Kato, Haru; Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Takahashi, Motohide; Sakaida, Koji; Nagano, Yukiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2008-01-01

    The first human case of fulminant gas gangrene caused by Clostridium chauvoei, a pathogen causing ruminant blackleg, was confirmed for a 58-year-old man suffering from diabetes mellitus. The patient developed conspicuous emphysematous gangrene in the right chest wall as well as intravascular gas entrapments and died 2 h after hospital arrival. PMID:18256217

  13. Human fulminant gas gangrene caused by Clostridium chauvoei.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Noriyuki; Isomine, Shinji; Kato, Haru; Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Takahashi, Motohide; Sakaida, Koji; Nagano, Yukiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2008-04-01

    The first human case of fulminant gas gangrene caused by Clostridium chauvoei, a pathogen causing ruminant blackleg, was confirmed for a 58-year-old man suffering from diabetes mellitus. The patient developed conspicuous emphysematous gangrene in the right chest wall as well as intravascular gas entrapments and died 2 h after hospital arrival. PMID:18256217

  14. Upper Limb Ischemic Gangrene as a Complication of Hemodialysis Access

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Mohammed, Emil; Mencia, Marlon

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb ischemia is a well-recognized complication of dialysis access creation but progression to gangrene is uncommon. We report a case of upper limb ischemic gangrene and discuss the lessons learned during the management of this case. Clinicians must be vigilant for this complication and they should be reminded that it requires urgent management to prevent tissue loss. PMID:25810944

  15. Fournier's Gangrene as a Postoperative Complication of Inguinal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Dinc, Tolga; Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Sozen, Isa; Yildiz, Baris Dogu; Coskun, Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is the necrotizing fasciitis of perianal, genitourinary, and perineal regions. Herein, we present a case of scrotal Fournier's gangrene as a postoperative complication of inguinal hernia repair. A 51-year-old male with giant indirect hernia is presented. Patient underwent inguinal hernia repair, and after an unproblematic recovery period, he was discharged. He applied to our outpatient clinic on the fifth day with swollen and painful scrotum and it turned out to be Fournier's gangrene. Polypropylene mesh was not infected. Patient recovered and was discharged after repeated debridements. Basic principles in treatment of Fournier's gangrene are comprised of initial resuscitation, broad-spectrum antibiotics therapy, and early aggressive debridement. In the management of presented case, aggressive debridement was made right after diagnosis and broad-spectrum antibiotics were given to the hemodynamically stable patient. In these circumstances, the important question is whether we could prevent occurrence of Fournier's gangrene. PMID:25506030

  16. Fournier's Gangrene as a Postoperative Complication of Inguinal Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Dinc, Tolga; Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Sozen, Isa; Yildiz, Baris Dogu; Coskun, Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is the necrotizing fasciitis of perianal, genitourinary, and perineal regions. Herein, we present a case of scrotal Fournier's gangrene as a postoperative complication of inguinal hernia repair. A 51-year-old male with giant indirect hernia is presented. Patient underwent inguinal hernia repair, and after an unproblematic recovery period, he was discharged. He applied to our outpatient clinic on the fifth day with swollen and painful scrotum and it turned out to be Fournier's gangrene. Polypropylene mesh was not infected. Patient recovered and was discharged after repeated debridements. Basic principles in treatment of Fournier's gangrene are comprised of initial resuscitation, broad-spectrum antibiotics therapy, and early aggressive debridement. In the management of presented case, aggressive debridement was made right after diagnosis and broad-spectrum antibiotics were given to the hemodynamically stable patient. In these circumstances, the important question is whether we could prevent occurrence of Fournier's gangrene. PMID:25506030

  17. A conservative approach to perineal Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Milanese, Giulio; Quaresima, Luigi; Dellabella, Marco; Scalise, Alessandro; Di Benedetto, Giovanni Maria; Muzzonigro, Giovanni; Minardi, Daniele

    2015-03-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a disease involving necrosis of perineum and external genitalia; in 95% of cases it is possible to diagnose the Fournier's gangrene just by physical examination. The clinical presentation of FG varies from an initial localized infection to large areas with necrotizing infection. The disease typically affect elderly men (6°-7° decade) with important systemic comorbidities; women are less frequently affected. Despite improvements in diagnosis and management, the mortality rate nowadays is between 20% and 43%. The severity and mortality of the disease is dependent upon the general condition of the patient at presentation and upon the rate of spread of the infection. Treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach: intensive systematic management, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, early surgical debridement (wide abscission of necrotic tissues and surgical drainage of peritoneum, scrotum, penis, and inguinal areas), hyperbaric oxygen therapy; surgery can eventually be repeated if necessary; reconstructive surgery has an important role in the final treatment of the disease. The technical difficulties frequently encountered and the inability to make a complete removal of the necrotizing tissues at the time of surgery in some cases has led to the application of combined techniques, in view of the enhancement effect of specific advanced medications, targeted antibiotic therapy and hyperbaric medicine. We have considered 6 patients affected by Fournier's gangrene treated at our institution; all the patients received treatment with the help of plastic surgeons of the same institution. After debridement, all the patients were treated with advanced specific dressings consisting of plates and strips made of calcium alginate, hydrogels and polyurethane and twodimensional cavity foams. Reconstructive surgery was necessary in one case. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) has been performed in all cases. The multidisciplinary approach, the combined use of HBO therapy and the adoption of advanced specific dressings, have made possible the complete healing of the lesions in a shorter period, avoiding further surgery in 5 out of 6 patients. PMID:25847893

  18. Isolated Penile Fournier's Gangrene Presenting with Glans Penis Involvement.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Aykan, Serdar; Tuken, Murat; Kandirali, Engin

    2015-10-01

    Fournier's Gangrene (FG) is a type of necrotizing infection or gangrene usually affecting the perineum. Penile gangrene is a rare disease because of rich collateral circulation and blood flow in the perineum and lower abdomen. We report an unusual and rare presentation of FG with isolated glans penis necrosis in a 62-year-old man. The patient underwent subtotal penectomy and closure of the wound with penile skin flap after covering the spongious tissue with dartos fascial flap enclosing the urethra. The recovery phase was uneventful and the patient had no urinating symptoms during follow-up. PMID:26522204

  19. A case of Fournier's gangrene necessitating total penectomy.

    PubMed

    De, Shuvro; Belsante, Michael J; Tausch, Timothy J; Simhan, Jay

    2015-12-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an uncommon necrotizing infection affecting the genital and perineal area. Penile involvement in particular is rare owing to its rich vascular supply. In this report, we document a case of Fournier's gangrene involving penile and urethral tissue requiring multiple debridements resulting in significant penile deformity and a non-healing wound. Eventually, the patient underwent penectomy and perineal urethrostomy creation. In this case, penectomy and perineal urethrostomy provide a functional outcome for highly refractory and complex patients with Fournier's gangrene involving penile tissue. PMID:26688143

  20. Venous insufficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood clot in the legs. Risk factors for venous insufficiency include: Age Family history of this condition Female gender (related to levels of the hormone progesterone) History of deep vein thrombosis in the legs Obesity Pregnancy Sitting or standing ...

  1. [Venous aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Ritter, H; Weber, J; Loose, D A

    1993-01-01

    Incidence, etiology, diagnostic procedures and therapy of venous aneurysms, basing on 152 own cases, are discussed. The main procedure for diagnosis is phlebography. It must be distinguished between aneurysms of epi- and subfascial veins. The localization determines the surgical procedure which represents the only successful therapy. Without proper treatment, venous aneurysms may be responsible for complications such as thrombophlebitis, thrombosis with pulmonary embolism, aneurysm rupture and compression of adjacent structures. The results of surgical treatment are excellent. PMID:8322498

  2. An outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commerical broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is an emerging disease with increasing economic importance. This experiment was undertaken to describe symptoms, patholgocial changes and diagnosis of GD and to study their immunopathology and cytokine expression alterations. In addition to description of symptoms, pathol...

  3. Halo sign on indium-111 leukocyte scan in gangrenous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, J.M.; Boykin, M.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Cawthon, M.A.; Landry, A.J.

    1986-02-01

    A 56-year-old man with a long history of Crohn's disease was evaluated by In-111 labeled leukocyte scanning. A halo of leukocyte activity was seen around the gallbladder fossa. A gangrenous gallbladder was removed at surgery.

  4. Iatrogenic non-clostridial gas gangrene - a case report.

    PubMed

    Sh, Jayanth; Yp, Girish Chandra; J, Ramkumar

    2016-03-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections of the lower limbs are quite common and can at times progress rapidly to become both limb and life-threatening infections. Muscular infections usually occur in areas of the body that have been compromised or injured by a foreign body, trauma, ischaemia, injection of illicit drugs, malignancy or surgery. Gas gangrene is one such limb-threatening infection. The gas-forming infection can be clostridial or non-clostridial. Clostridia are the main causative organism of the gas gangrene. Non-clostridial gas gangrene is a rare condition and is known to be associated with high mortality. Here, we report one such rare case where a middle-aged man succumbed to non-clostridial gas gangrene after he was administered an intramuscular injection. The case was registered as a suspicious death by the police and the body was subjected to medico legal autopsy. PMID:26672772

  5. [Our experience in Fournier's gangrene with severe septic shock].

    PubMed

    Lukász, Péter; Ecsedy, Gábor; Lovay, Zoltán; Nagy, István; Kári, Dániel; Vörös, Attila; Ender, Ferenc

    2014-06-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare, rapidly progressing necrotizing fasciitis, which involves the genital area and perineum, progresses towards the thighs and abdominal wall through fascial plains. In our surgical department we treated seven patients with Fournier's gangrene between 2007 and 2011. Early diagnosis, immediate radical surgical debridement, necrosectomy, appropriate antibiotics and intensive care are all required and necessary for the successful treatment. Despite appropriate therapy, two patients were lost in septic shock. PMID:24873767

  6. [Cases of Fournier's Gangrene in Kinki University].

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Shingo; Minami, Takafumi; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Saito, Mitsutaka; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Hayashi, Taiji; Tsuji, Hidenori; Nozawa, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Tokumi; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to identify risk factors that may influence outcomes for patients presenting with Fournier gangrene. Twelve patients hospitalized and treated between August 2007 and August 2013 were included in this study. Distinct features were noted after one or two weeks of hospitalization. We did not observe a significant correlation between death risk and the extent of necrosis in this patient set. However, the extent of necrosis tended to correlate with the duration of hospitalization in the survivors. We also compared the results of blood biochemical analyses between the surviving and non-surviving groups. A significant difference was noted in the levels of glucose (Glu) after two weeks. In the non-surviving group, Glu levels were increased. These findings suggest a relationship between glycemic control after the initiation of therapy and death. We also examined the results of blood biochemical analyses according to the duration of hospitalization. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at admission and LDH levels after two weeks were significantly higher in the patients with a duration of hospitalization longer than the median duration of 61.5 days. These findings suggest a relationship between the duration of hospitalization and the extent of necrosis at diagnosis. PMID:26153050

  7. Recognition of risk factors and prognostic indicators in Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Judith A; Ramponi, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare but rapidly progressive necrotizing infection that results from the synergistic action of multiple aerobic and anaerobic organisms colonized on the skin and in the anogenital area. This is a case report of a middle-aged man with late presentation of Fournier's gangrene that was treated aggressively by a team of infectious disease specialists, surgeons, intensivists, and intensive care unit specialty nurses over a 3-week period. Despite heroic efforts by the multidisciplinary team, the patient's condition deteriorated and he died of multisystem failure. The purpose of this article was to alert clinicians to the etiology, pathophysiology, risk factors for invasive necrosis, prognostic indicators, and current diagnostic and treatment recommendations. Fournier's gangrene represents a true medical and surgical emergency and requires early recognition and a team approach to management. PMID:25741955

  8. Contemporary diagnosis and management of Fournier’s gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Khourdaji, Iyad; Burks, Frank; Killinger, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene, an obliterative endarteritis of the subcutaneous arteries resulting in gangrene of the overlying skin, is a rare but severe infective necrotizing fasciitis of the external genitalia. Mainly associated with men and those over the age of 50, Fournier’s gangrene has been shown to have a predilection for patients with diabetes as well as people who are long-term alcohol misusers. The nidus for the synergistic polymicrobial infection is usually located in the genitourinary tract, lower gastointestinal tract or skin. Early diagnosis remains imperative as rapid progression of the gangrene can lead to multiorgan failure and death. The diagnosis is often made clinically, although radiography can be helpful when the diagnosis or the extent of the disease is difficult to discern. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score can be used to stratify patients into low, moderate or high risk and the Fournier’s Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) can also be used to determine the severity and prognosis of Fournier’s gangrene. Mainstays of treatment include rapid and aggressive surgical debridement of necrotized tissue, hemodynamic support with urgent resuscitation with fluids, and broad-spectrum parental antibiotics. After initial radical debridement, open wounds are generally managed with sterile dressings and negative-pressure wound therapy. In cases of severe perineal involvement, colostomy has been used for fecal diversion or alternatively, the Flexi-Seal Fecal Management System can be utilized to prevent fecal contamination of the wound. After extensive debridement, many patients sustain significant defects of the skin and soft tissue, creating a need for reconstructive surgery for satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. PMID:26445600

  9. Fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in metastatic colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    BOZKURT, MUSTAFA; OKUTUR, KEREM; AYDIN, KÜBRA; NAMAL, ESAT; ÖZTÜRK, AKIN; BALCI, CEM; DEMIR, GÖKHAN

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. A 39-year-old patient with descending colon, high-grade adenocarcinoma and coexisting liver and lymph node metastases received two courses of chemotherapy. The patient developed sudden acute abdominal symptoms accompanied by septic shock parameters. The imaging findings on computed tomography were characteristic for abdominal gas gangrene, involving liver metastases, portal vein and lymph nodes with associated pneumoperitoneum. The patient succumbed to the disease within hours following the onset of symptoms. PMID:22740933

  10. Fournier's gangrene caused by Listeria monocytogenes as the primary organism.

    PubMed

    Asahata, Sayaka; Hirai, Yuji; Ainoda, Yusuke; Fujita, Takahiro; Okada, Yumiko; Kikuchi, Ken

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with a history of tongue cancer presented with Fournier's gangrene caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b. Surgical debridement revealed undiagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have an apparent dietary or travel history but reported daily consumption of sashimi (raw fish). Old age and immunodeficiency due to rectal adenocarcinoma may have supported the direct invasion of L monocytogenes from the tumour. The present article describes the first reported case of Fournier's gangrene caused by L monocytogenes. The authors suggest that raw ready-to-eat seafood consumption be recognized as a risk factor for listeriosis, especially in cases of skin and soft tissue infection. PMID:25798155

  11. The care of a patient with Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Öz?aker, Esma; Yavuz, Meryem; Alt?nba?, Yasemin; ?ahin Köze, Burçak; Nurülke, Birgül

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare, necrotizing fasciitis of the genitals and perineum caused by a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. This infection leads to complications including multiple organ failure and death. Due to the aggressive nature of this condition, early diagnosis is crucial. Treatment involves extensive soft tissue debridement and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Despite appropriate therapy, mortality is high. This case report aimed to present nursing approaches towards an elderly male patient referred to the urology service with a diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene. PMID:25779717

  12. Venous thrombosis - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood clot formation in the veins is called venous thrombosis. Venous thrombosis most commonly forms in the veins of the legs. Risk factors for venous thrombosis include prolonged bed rest or immobility, as can ...

  13. Spontaneous occurrence of synergistic bacterial gangrene following external pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Husseinzadeh, N.; Nahhas, W.A.; Manders, E.K.; Whitney, C.W.; Mortel, R.

    1984-06-01

    A case of spontaneous synergistic bacterial gangrene occurring after external pelvic irradiation is presented in a 25-year-old woman with invasive cervical cancer. Treatment consisted of aggressive antibiotic therapy and extensive excision and debridement followed by split-thickness skin grafting. Both recovery and cosmetic results were satisfactory. The pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and treatment modalities are presented.

  14. Peripheral gangrene in children with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malina, Michal; Gulati, Ashima; Bagga, Arvind; Majid, Mohammad A; Simkova, Eva; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy with severe clinical manifestation, frequent recurrence, and poor long-term prognosis. It is usually caused by abnormalities in complement regulation. We report 2 cases of children affected by a catastrophic extrarenal complication. A 4-year-old Indian girl developed gangrene of the finger tips 2 days after initial presentation of aHUS. Factor H autoantibodies were identified. Renal function continued to decline despite daily plasma exchanges, and she was started on peritoneal dialysis 5 days after admission. The distal tips of the left hand remained gangrenous with a line of demarcation. Three weeks later, she did not return for follow-up and died at home because of dialysis-related complications. An Arabic girl developed end-stage renal disease due to aHUS in the fourth month after birth. A de novo activating C3 mutation was found. At age 9 months, she suddenly developed ischemic changes in fingers of both hands and several toes. The lesions progressed, and several finger tips became gangrenous despite intense plasma exchange therapy. The decision was made to administer complement blocking therapy with the C5 antibody eculizumab. All nonnecrotic digits rapidly regained perfusion. The 3 already gangrenous fingers healed with loss of the end phalanges. During maintenance, eculizumab aHUS activity subsided completely and some late recovery of renal function was observed. aHUS may present by thrombotic macroangiopathy of small peripheral arteries. Eculizumab appears effective in preserving tissue viability if administered before gangrene occurs and should be considered as first-line rescue therapy in such cases. PMID:23230076

  15. Anticipatory control of impending postural perturbation in elite springboard divers.

    PubMed

    Popa, T; Bonifazi, M; della Volpe, R; Rossi, A; Mazzocchio, R

    2008-12-01

    Among athletes, elite springboard divers (ED) should develop an optimal anticipatory control of postural stability, as a result of specific training. Postural strategies of ED and healthy subjects (HS) while expecting an impending perturbation were compared. The mean center of pressure (COP) position was analyzed during control quiet stance (cQS) and during anticipatory quiet stance (aQS(1-4)), i.e., in expectation of four backward translations of the support surface. During cQS, COP position in ED was not significantly different as compared to HS. During aQS(1-4,) a significant increase in the mean COP position was observed in both groups with ED adopting a more forward inclined vertical alignment than HS. In ED specific training may have resulted in a reference frame offset in a more anterior direction while expecting an impending perturbation. We suggest that leaning more forward may represent a more reliable way of coping with predictable perturbations of postural stability. PMID:18726612

  16. Bacteriological studies of gas gangrene and related infections.

    PubMed

    De, A; Varaiya, A; Mathur, M; Bhesania, A

    2003-01-01

    Gas gangrene, a life threatening condition is predominantly caused by Clostridium spp. Over a five year period (1996-2000), 580 wound swabs were processed from patients who had vehicular accidents with crush injury. The specimens were processed for anaerobic and aerobic organisms by standard laboratory techniques. Of the 580 swabs, 55(9.48%) were primary smear positive for spore bearing bacteria, of which 48 grew Clostridium spp. They were the sole anaerobic isolates in 30 patients (62.5%) whereas Clostridium spp. along with nonsporing anaerobes were isolated in 18 patients. Clostridium perfringens was the predominant isolate in 39 out of 48 cases (81.3%). However, 16 wound swabs which were primarily smear negative for spore bearers, grew Bacteriodes fragilis (11) and Fusobacterium species (5). All these 16 patients had foul smelling discharge with crepitation in the tissues. Our study highlights that apart from Clostridium spp., non-clostridial crepitant infections may present as myonecrosis simulating gas gangrene. PMID:17643021

  17. Peripheral gangrene complicating idiopathic and recessive hemolytic uremic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, B S; Garcia, C D; Chesney, R W; Segar, W E; Giugno, K; Chem, R

    2000-09-01

    Three patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) developed peripheral gangrene. Bilateral carotid artery thromboses occurred in one of these patients after recovery from HUS. One patient had a long history of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In the second patient, a flu-like illness preceded the onset of HUS. The third was one of two sisters, with the HUS appearing more than 1 year apart. None had evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The patient with rheumatoid arthritis had renal cortical necrosis but recovered moderate renal function after treatment with dialysis and plasmapheresis for 6 months. The child with a genetic form of HUS died of renal failure and had massive cortical necrosis and vascular thrombosis at autopsy. This is the first report of peripheral gangrene in children with idiopathic HUS and autosomal recessive HUS. PMID:10975312

  18. Fournier's gangrene caused by Actinomyces funkei, Fusobacterium gonidiaformans and Clostridium hathewayi.

    PubMed

    Tena, Daniel; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2014-06-01

    We report the first case of Fournier's gangrene caused by three unusual anaerobic organisms: Actinomyces funkei, Fusobacterium gonidiaformans and Clostridium hathewayi. The infection occurred in a 73-year-old man without typical risk factors for the development of Fournier's gangrene. Clinical outcome was good after prolonged antibiotic treatment and extensive debridement of the perineum. The case suggests that A. funkei, F. gonidiaformans and C. hathewayi should be considered as potential pathogens of Fournier's gangrene. Human infections caused by these organisms are very rare but can be underestimated because correct identification is very difficult, especially in polymicrobial infections such as Fournier's gangrene. PMID:24631671

  19. Gangrenous Appendicitis in a Boy with Mobile Caecum

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Zeynep; Gunduz, Metin; Sekmenli, Taner; Kivrak, Hatice Yazar

    2015-01-01

    A mobile caecum and ascending colon is an uncommon congenital disorder, and it is even rarer as the cause of an acute abdomen during childhood. This report presents the case of a 6-year-old boy with acute gangrenous appendicitis with a mobile caecum and ascending colon. Data from the surgical course, as well as laboratory and imaging studies, were acquired and carefully examined. Emergency ultrasound (US) was performed and revealed no signs of appendicitis in the right lower quadrant. Serial imaging study, including non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), was performed. An imaging study identified epigastric appendicitis with mobile caecum. Surgery was executed under general anesthesia with a median incision extending from the epigastrium to the suprapubic region. The caecum was mobile and placed in the right epigastric area, next to the left lobe of the liver and gallbladder. The gangrenous appendix was discovered posterior to the caecum and transverse colon, enlarging to the left upper quadrant. Appendectomy was executed, the gangrenous appendix was confirmed pathologically, and the patient was released 4 days later. In the US, if there are unusual clinical findings or no findings in patients with abdominal pain, CT is beneficial in determining the location of the caecum and appendix and preventing misdiagnosis in children. PMID:26060548

  20. A current appraisal of problems with gangrenous bowel.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, W O; Petro, A B; Williamson, J W

    1976-01-01

    Gangrenous bowel most often results from hernia, adhesions and mesenteric insufficiency. The overall mortality rate for 151 cases was 37%. This figure was 20% for hernia, 23% for adhesions and 74% for mesenteric insufficiency. In the latter category where bowel resection was feasable the mortality rate was 40%. Other causes of bowel gangrene had a mortality rate of 28%. In many instances the pathophysiologic processes were of such a nature that current medical expertise has not reached a level of development to effectively cope with the situation. There were, however, a significant number of cases where survival may have been achieved had it not been for deficiences on the part of the patient, the primary health care personnel or those in attendence at the referral center. The basic keystone for a successful outcome in the management of patients with the gangrenous bowel problem is early surgical intervention. All will be lost if patient exposure to this source of lethal toxins is allowed to proceed to an irreversible stage. Liberal antibiotic administration probably postpones the arrival of intractable hypotension. Other factors which can be expected to improve the survival rate include minimization of technical errors, repair of incidental hernias, elemination of dependence upon nasogastric tubes for the definitive management of patients with complete bowel obstruction (with one or two exceptions), and a firm commitment to the diligent pursuit and early definitive management of postoperative complications. PMID:973752

  1. Enterostomy can decrease the mortality of patients with Fournier gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Dong; Zhu, Wei-Fang; Qiao, Jian-Jun; Lin, Jian-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the significance of enterostomy in the emergency management of Fournier gangrene. METHODS: The clinical data of 51 patients (49 men and 2 women) with Fournier gangrene who were treated at our hospital over the past 12 years were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according the surgical technique performed: enterostomy combined with debridement (the enterostomy group, n = 28) or debridement alone (the control group, n = 23). Patients in the enterostomy group received thorough debridement during surgery and adequate local drainage after surgery, as well as administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The clinical data and outcomes in both groups were analyzed. RESULTS: The surgical procedures were successful in both patient groups. In the enterostomy group, 10 (35.8%) patients required skin grafting with a total of six debridement procedures. While in the control group, six (26.1%) patients required four debridement procedures. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Following surgery, the time to normal body temperature (6 d vs 8 d, P < 0.05) and average length of hospital stay (14.3 ± 7.8 d vs 20.1 ± 8.9 d, P < 0.05) were shorter in the enterostomy group. The case fatality rate was lower in the enterostomy group than that in the control group (3.6% vs 21.7%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Enterostomy can decrease the case fatality rate of patients with Fournier gangrene. PMID:24976731

  2. [Fournier's gangrene: Cervical and facial extension. A very rare case].

    PubMed

    Carloni, R; Pechevy, L; Isola, N; Vidal, L; Goga, D; Watier, E; Bertheuil, N

    2016-02-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a fearsome disease with a bad prognosis and a mortality rate ranging between 10 and 80% according to the literature. It is extensive in 13 to 54% of cases. Up to date, cervico-facial extension has never been reported. We describe the case of a 51-year-old overweighed woman with a history of type 2 diabetes and a narrow lumbar canal who was referred to our institution for significant fatigue and increasingly painful legs. A diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene was made after correlating the physical findings with the results of a full body scan. Diffuse subcutaneous emphysema involving the face, neck, mediastinum, abdominal wall, right buttock, perineum and the right thigh was identified. Treatment included multiple surgical debridements, admission to intensive care unit, and an efficient antibiotic therapy that enabled preservation of the patient's life. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cervical and mediastinal extension of Fournier's gangrene to be reported. No clear guidelines exit on the management of this complication (cervico-facial and mediastinal drainage). We share our experience of this unusual case. PMID:25766003

  3. Legal abortion: the impending obsolescence of the trimester framework.

    PubMed

    Mangel, C P

    1988-01-01

    Women who wish to terminate a pregnancy, and physicians willing to perform abortions, are subject to increasing harassment from groups which challenge the constitutional abortion right upheld by the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade. Their vulnerability, in fact, parallels the vulnerability of the abortion right. This Article analyzes the inherent weakness and impending obsolescence of the trimester framework established in Roe. Present medical evidence of maternal health risks and fetal viability demonstrates that the trimester framework is inconsistent with current medical knowledge, and will likely be rendered obsolete by developments in medical technology. The Article suggests that adoption of an alternative constitutional basis for legal abortion is necessary to preserve the abortion right, and explores the utility of two arguments grounded in the equal protection doctrine. Finally, it discusses means of preserving legal abortion within the confines of the trimester framework established in Roe v. Wade. PMID:3068986

  4. Percutaneous Stabilization of Impending Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    SciTech Connect

    Deschamps, Frederic Farouil, Geoffroy Hakime, Antoine Teriitehau, Christophe Barah, Ali Baere, Thierry de

    2012-12-15

    Objective: Percutaneous osteosynthesis plus cementoplasty (POPC) is a minimally invasive technique that has never been reported before and that we have prospectively evaluated for patients with impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur. Methods: We performed POPC in 12 patients (3 males, 9 females) with metastasis of the proximal femur with a high risk of fracture (Mirels' score {>=}8) between February 2010 and July 2011. Patients were not candidates for standard surgical stabilization. We analyzed the feasibility, duration, and complication of the procedure, the risk of fracture, the decrease in pain (Visual Analog Scale, VAS), and length of stay in hospital. Data were prospectively collected in all patients. Results: The mean Mirels' score was 9.8 {+-} 1.2 (range, 8-11). The technical success was 100%. POPC was performed under general anesthesia (n = 6) or conscious sedation (n = 6). The mean duration was 110 {+-} 43 (range, 60-180) minutes. All patients stood up and walked the second day after the procedure. The average length of stay in the hospital was 4 {+-} 1.6 (range, 2-7) days. We experienced two hematomas in two patients and no thromboembolic complication. For symptomatic patients (n = 8), VAS decreased from 6.5/10 (range, 2-9) before treatment to 1/10 (range, 0-3) 1 month after. No fracture occurred after a median follow-up of 145 (range, 12-608) days. Conclusions: POPC for impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur seems to be a promising alternative for cancer patients who are not candidates for surgical stabilization. Further studies are required to confirm this preliminary experience.

  5. Deep venous thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Deep venous thrombosis is a condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein deep inside a part ... C, et al. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Venous ... and deep vein thrombosis. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls ...

  6. Mesenteric venous thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a blood clot in one or more of the major veins that drain blood from the ... Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a clot that blocks blood flow in a mesenteric vein. There are two such veins through ...

  7. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePLUS

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... catheter is attached to a device called a port that will be under your skin. The port ...

  8. Improved vacuum sealing drainage in the treatment of gas gangrene: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaofa; Zhao, Dewei; Wang, Benjie

    2015-01-01

    In this case, improved vacuum sealing drainage was used for gas gangrene treatment, which is different from traditional therapies of gas gangrene and this is the first report of using improved vacuum sealing drainage to treat gas gangrene. The patient was a 12-year-old Asian Male who was presented to the Emergency Department with a one-day history of left femoral progressing swelling, paining and fevering. Four days ago, rusty iron bars were plugged into the muscle of the left femoral when he played. Then he was taken to the local clinic and injected with tetanus antitoxin. A diagnosis of gas gangrene was made and modified vacuum sealing drainage device was used after thorough debridement. After two weeks’ treatment, left femoral was kept and gas gangrene was cured successfully. PMID:26770624

  9. [Freezing of the extremity with acute ischemic gangrene before amputation].

    PubMed

    Malyschew, J I; Fokin, A A; Sotow, S P; Werbowetzki, L P

    1990-01-01

    This is a report on 153 patients (from 22 to 86 years of age) with acute ischemic gangrene of the lower limbs and severe concomitant diseases (ischemic heart disease, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc.). Freezing of the necrotic limb with application of a tourniquet and general medical treatment were performed previous to amputation. Freezing was accomplished by dry ice and common ice in 16 patients and by a special refrigerator in 137 patients. 17 patients in a very grave condition died during refrigeration. Amputation of the lower limb was performed in 136 patients, 110 of them tolerated the operation favourably. Complications of wound-healing were observed in 23.1%. PMID:2371788

  10. Successful combined approach to a severe Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Tommaso; Mori, Francesco; Perello, Raffaella; Dini, Mario; Russo, Giulia Lo

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a successful reconstruction of a severe Fournier's gangrene (FG) involving the scrotum, the perineum, the right ischial area and extended to the lower abdomen. There are many different surgical techniques to repair and reconstruct the defect following debridement in FG. The authors treated this complex wound using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), dermal regeneration template and a split-thickness skin graft. Complete recovery was achieved and no major complications were observed. The patient showed a satisfying functional and aesthetic result. PMID:24987219

  11. Successful combined approach to a severe Fournier's gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, Tommaso; Mori, Francesco; Perello, Raffaella; Dini, Mario; Russo, Giulia Lo

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a successful reconstruction of a severe Fournier's gangrene (FG) involving the scrotum, the perineum, the right ischial area and extended to the lower abdomen. There are many different surgical techniques to repair and reconstruct the defect following debridement in FG. The authors treated this complex wound using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), dermal regeneration template and a split-thickness skin graft. Complete recovery was achieved and no major complications were observed. The patient showed a satisfying functional and aesthetic result. PMID:24987219

  12. Phagedena: gangrenous and necrotic ulcerations of skin and subcutaneous tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R.; Bell, M.

    1982-01-01

    Phagedena is an old term for serious deep, necrotic and gangrenous skin ulcers. In the past these have been regarded as severe infections. A review of 31 cases revealed that except in cases of Streptococcus pyogenes or Clostridium welchii infection a bacterial of fungal infection was only one of several factors that led to the development of phagedenic ulcers. Initiating factors may be a bacterial infection, a debilitated state as a result of immunosuppressive therapy or of such conditions as alcoholism, severe diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease or severe arteriosclerosis, and various types of injury or trauma. Continuing factors include enzymatic mechanisms, the release of toxins from large areas of dead tissue and vascular disorders. In general, antibiotics are of limited value. systemic corticosteroid therapy may be useful in the subacute or chronic case. In acute, spreading, gangrenous phagedena with surrounding erythema, fever and systemic toxic effects, immediate excision of dead tissue may be lifesaving. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:7066792

  13. Fournier's Gangrene: Conventional Dressings versus Dressings with Dakin's Solution

    PubMed Central

    Altunoluk, Bülent; Resim, Sefa; Efe, Erkan; Eren, Mustafa; Benlioglu, Can; Kankilic, Nazim; Baykan, Halit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Fournier's gangrene is a fulminant and destructive inflammation of the scrotum, penis, and perineum. The objective of this study was to compare 2 different approaches to wound management after aggressive surgical debridement. Methods. Data from 14 patients with Fournier's gangrene were retrospectively collected (2005–2011). Once the patients were stabilized following surgery, they were treated with either daily antiseptic (povidone iodine) dressings (group I, n = 6) or dressings with dakin's solution (sodium hypochloride) (group II, n = 8). Results. The mean age of the patients was 68.2 ± 7.8 (55–75) years in group I and 66.9 ± 10.2 (51–79) years in group II. Length of hospital stay was 13 ± 3.5 (7–16) days in group I and 8.9 ± 3.0 (4–12) days in group II (P < 0.05). The number and rate of mortality was 1/6 (16.7%) in group I, and 1/8 (12.5%) in group II. Conclusions. The hospitalization time can be reduced with the use of dakin's solution for the dressings in the treatment of FG. Also, dressings with dakin's solution seems to have favorable effects on morbidity and mortality. Consequently dakin's solution may alter the treatment of this disastrous disease by reducing cost, morbidity and mortality. PMID:22567424

  14. The bacteriology of gangrenous and perforated appendicitis--revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Bennion, R S; Baron, E J; Thompson, J E; Downes, J; Summanen, P; Talan, D A; Finegold, S M

    1990-01-01

    By using optimum sampling, transport, and culture techniques in patients with gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, we recovered than has previously been reported. Thirty patients older than 12 years with histologically documented gangrenous or perforated appendicitis had peritoneal fluid, appendiceal tissue, and abscess contents (if present) cultured. Appendiceal tissue was obtained so as to exclude the lumen. A total of 223 anaerobes and 82 aerobic or faculatative bacteria were recovered, an average of 10.2 different organisms per specimen. Twenty-one different genera and more than 40 species were encountered. Bacteroides fragilis group and Escherichia coli were isolated from almost all specimens. Within the B. fragilis group, eight species were represented. Other frequent isolates included Peptostreptococcus (80%), Pseudomonas (40% [P. aeruginosa, 23.3%, other Pseudomonas spp., 16.7%]), B. splanchnicus (40%), B. intermedius (36.7%), and Lactobacillus (36.7%). Interestingly a previously undescribed fastidious gram-negative anaerobic bacillus was isolated from nearly one half of all patients. This organism was found to have low DNA homology (by dot blot) with the known organisms most closely resembling it. PMID:2405791

  15. Cerebral venous angiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.; Gilmor, R.L.; Richmond, B.

    1984-04-01

    Several unusual cases of cerebral venous angiomas as well as some characteristic cases are reported. The characteristic angiographic feature is that of a collection of dilated medullary veins draining into a single large draining vein, which appears first in the early venous phase and persists into the late venous phase of the arteriogram. Computed tomography (CT) was abnormal in 12/13 cases. The draining vein was the most common abnormality identified on CT. Coronal and sagittal reconstruction may be helpful in demonstrating the draining vein. A case of large twin venous angiomas, a case of hemorrhage from a venous angioma, and a case of a venous angioma with an incidentally associated glioblastoma are presented.

  16. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  17. Venous air embolism through central venous access

    PubMed Central

    Schlimp, Christoph J; Loimer, Thomas; Schmidts, Michael B; Rieger, Michael; Lederer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    An 25-year-old man was buried by an avalanche during off-slope skiing. He was rescued by his companions and resuscitated by mouth-to-mouth ventilation. The emergency physician from a helicopter based emergency medical service placed two venous lines in both external jugular veins and secured the airway with a tracheal tube. When transferred to the emergency department an additional central venous catheter was inserted via his right femoral vein. The subsequent computed tomography scan revealed several small air bubbles adjacent to the endothelium of the brachiocephalic vein. In an experimental setting, it was shown that air could enter the circulation via a central venous catheter within a few seconds, but measured values of embolising air were smaller than the calculated values when applying the law of Hagen-Poiseuille. Nevertheless, it is important to keep the lumens of a central venous catheter filled with saline before any manipulation in order to prevent or attenuate venous air embolism. PMID:21709833

  18. Pulmonary Gangrene Due to Rhizopus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Probable Sarcina Organisms.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Muthu, Valliappan; Bal, Amanjit; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Dhooria, Sahajal; Das, Ashim; Singh, Harkant

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary gangrene is a life-threatening condition, which represents the fulminant end of the infectious lung diseases usually caused by polymicrobial infection. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria act synergistically to produce massive tissue necrosis which might be augmented by the angioinvasive nature of fungi like Mucor. We report a successfully treated case of pulmonary gangrene in a poorly controlled diabetic patient, which was associated with polymicrobial infection. It was caused by Rhizopus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and unusual anaerobic organism Sarcina. This is the first report describing the presence of Sarcina organisms in a case of pulmonary gangrene. Adequate glycemic control, treatment of coexisting polymicrobial infection and prompt antifungal therapy along with surgical intervention were useful in the index patient. This case also highlights the effectiveness of combined medical and surgical intervention in a case of pulmonary gangrene. PMID:26022794

  19. Don’t underestimate fournier’s gangrene: report of 8 cases in 10 month survey

    PubMed Central

    Danesh, Hosein Ali; Saboury, Mahdy; Sabzi, Ameneh; Saboury, Moosa; Jafary, Maryamsadat; Saboury, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fourniers gangrene caused by synergic aerobic and anaerobic organism is a life threatening disorder. Methods: The medical records of 8 among 839 patients admitted to imam ali general hospital Zahedan university of Medical Sciences with fourniers gangrene during the 10 months period between 2012 and 2013 were reviewed. Results: The most common etiology and presentation were abscess and perianal pain respectively. Mixed bacterial flora was common finding in patient. Single debridement was carried out in 2 patients and repeated procedure was needed in 6. Conclusion: This disease is characterized with high mortality of up to 75% but in our study the rate was 37.5%. In other studies diabetes mellitus was found to be the common condition related to fourniers gangrene but in our study the common etiology was perianal abscess. Fourniers gangrene should be rule out in any patient with perianal pain and flulike, swelling skin. PMID:26034725

  20. Skin gangrene as an extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Yumi Cristina; Capareli, Gabriela Cunha; Boin, Maria Fernanda Feitosa de Camargo; Lellis, Rute; Freitas, Thaís Helena Proença de; Simone, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases can commonly present many cutaneous lesions which can contribute to the diagnosis of the disease or its activity. The most frequent cutaneous or mucocutaneous manifestations suggesting ulcerative rectocolitis activity are erythema nodosum (3-10%), pyoderma gangrenosum (5-12%) and aphthous stomatitis (4%). Other reactive skin manifestations related to immunological mechanisms associated with the inflammatory bowel disease are: Sweet's syndrome, arthritis-dermatitis syndrome associated with inflammatory bowel disease and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. We describe the case of a young man with diagnosis of ulcerative rectocolitis, which presented an extensive cutaneous gangrene secondary to microvascular thrombosis. The case represents a dermatologic rarity and should be recognized as a cutaneous manifestation related to the hypercoagulability state observed in the disease's activity. PMID:25387503

  1. Fournier’s gangrene after adult male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the advent of mass voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for the partial prevention of HIV, previously rare adverse events associated with adult male circumcision are likely to be encountered with higher frequency. Fournier’s gangrene, defined as a polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, perianal or genital areas, is one such rare and life-threatening adverse event. In this report, we present two cases that were identified in the context of a VMMC programme over a 3-year period during which approximately 100,000 adult circumcisions were performed. Case presentations Case 1: A 19-year-old male who had VMMC performed using the dorsal slit technique developed pain and blisters on the scrotal skin on the sixth postoperative day. He had no co-morbidities, and serology for HIV was negative. On examination, locally he had scrotal skin necrosis with an offensive odour and was dehydrated but afebrile. Repeated aggressive debridement was done while he stayed in a hospital for 3 weeks; at which point, he had healthy granulation tissue and was free of infection. The wound had closed spontaneously and completely by the fifth month. Case 2: A 52-year-old male who had VMMC performed with the sleeve resection method developed pain and swelling of the penis and scrotum on the fourth postoperative day. He had a low-grade fever of 37.6°C. He was not diabetic or immunosuppressed and had a negative HIV serology. He was admitted and was given IV antibiotics, and repeated aggressive debridement was performed. On the third week of hospitalization, he had healthy granulation tissue and received a split skin graft on the penile shaft. At 4 months, the scrotal defect had completely closed. Conclusion Fournier’s gangrene is a rare occurrence after adult male circumcision with associated high morbidity. These are the first descriptions in the VMMC era. PMID:25635197

  2. Penile Gangrene with Abscess Formation after Modified Al-Ghorab Shunt for Idiopathic Ischemic Priapism

    PubMed Central

    Ford-Glanton, Beneranda S.; Siddiqui, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Penile gangrene is a rare but unfortunate complication of surgical intervention and priapism shunts. The literature regarding penile gangrene following surgical correction of priapism is sparse, the majority of which dates back to thirty to forty years. Here, we present the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with priapism that required operative management with a modified Al-Ghorab shunt and eventually suffered from complete necrosis of the penis with abscess formation in both corpora cavernosa. PMID:25276468

  3. Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hmoud, Bashar; Singal, Ashwani K.; Kamath, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis is increasingly recognized as a cause of mesenteric ischemia. Acute thrombosis commonly presents with abdominal pain and chronic type with features of portal hypertension. Contrast enhanced CT scan of abdomen is quite accurate for diagnosing and differentiating two types of mesenteric venous thrombosis. Prothrombotic state, hematological malignancy, and local abdominal inflammatory conditions are common predisposing conditions. Over the last decade, JAK-2 (janus kinase 2) mutation has emerged as an accurate biomarker for diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm, an important cause for mesenteric venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation is the treatment of choice for acute mesenteric venous thrombosis. Thrombolysis using systemic or transcatheter route is another option. Patients with peritoneal signs or refractory to initial measures require surgical exploration. Increasing recognition of mesenteric venous thrombosis and use of anticoagulation for treatment has resulted in reduction in the need for surgery with improvement in survival. PMID:25755568

  4. Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aid of a hand-held instrument called a Doppler. This allows the examiner to listen to the blood flow. The most accurate and detailed test, however, is a venous duplex ultrasound exam. This provides an ultra - sound image or ...

  5. Rectal cancer and Fournier's gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-08-14

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  6. Fournier's Gangrene: A Summary of 10 Years of Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Abdullah; Gümü?, Metehan; Turkoglu, Ahmet; Bozda?, Zübeyir; Ülger, Burak Veli; Agaçayak, Elif; Böyük, Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to present our clinical experience with FG treatment. Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rare but serious disease characterized by progressive necrosis in the genitourinary and perineal region. The retrospective study included 43 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups as survivors and nonsurvivors. Included in the analysis were data pertaining to demographics, predisposing factors, comorbidities, results of bacteriologic analyses, number of debridements, duration of treatment, FG Severity Index (FGSI) score, fecal diversion methods (trephine ostomy or Flexi-Seal Fecal Management System-FMS), and dressing methods (wet or negative aspiration system). In the nonsurvivor group, urea, WBC, and age were significantly higher, whereas albumin, hematocrit, platelet count, and length of hospital stay (LOHS) were significantly lower compared to the survivor group. Mean FGSI was lower in survivors in comparison with nonsurvivors (5.00 ± 1.86 and 10.00 ± 1.27, respectively; P < 0.001). We conclude that FGSI is an important predictor in the prognosis of FG. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) should be performed in compliant patients in order to enhance patient comfort by reducing pain and the number of dressings. Fecal diversion should be performed as needed, preferably by using FMS. The trephine ostomy should be the method of choice in cases where an ostomy is necessary. PMID:25859652

  7. [A case of Fournier's gangrene reconstructed using a rectus abdominis muscle flap].

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Masato; Nishimura, Taiji; Kondo, Yukihiro; Yamazaki, Keiichi; Sakai, Shigeki; Ishii, Naohiro; Kojo, Ken; Hosoda, Kei

    2011-07-01

    We encountered a case of Fournier's gangrene complicated with vesicorectocutaneous fistula that was treated with a pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flap (pedicled RA m-c flap). A 75-year-old man was admitted with consciousness disorder and swelling of the scrotum. The patient had noticed swelling of the scrotum 4 days before admission, but he had ignored this condition. The scrotum and the penis appeared necrotic. On the basis of clinical and radiological findings, we diagnosed this condition as Fournier's gangrene. Surgical debridement was performed in conjunction with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. After the patient's general condition was improved, the broad defect in the perineal tissue was covered with a pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flap. The flap was successful. In Japan, this is the first case of Fournier's gangrene complicated with vesicorectocutaneous fistula that was treated with a pedicled RA m-c flap. In order to determine whether plastic surgery after debridement shortens the duration of hospitalization, we reviewed the cases of 120 patients with Fournier's gangrene in Japan. We conclude that plastic surgery after debridement does not shorten the duration of hospitalization, however, this procedures is very useful to deep and broad defects by Fournier's gangrene. PMID:21961279

  8. Fournier gangrene presenting in a patient with undiagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Fournier gangrene is a rare necrotising fascitis of the perineum and genitals caused by a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The first case was described by Baurienne in 1764 but the condition was named by Fournier in 1883 who reported the cases of five men with the condition with no apparent etiology. Infection most commonly arises from the skin, urethra, or rectal regions. Despite appropriate therapy, mortality in this disease is still high. We report a case of a low rectal malignancy presenting as Fournier gangrene. This case report serves to highlight an extremely unusual presentation of rectal cancer, a common surgical pathology. Case presentation The patient is a 48 years old Afghanian male that admitted with Fournier gangrene. In the course of medical and surgical treatment the presence of extensive rectal adenocarcinoma was discovered. After partial recovery, standard loop colostomy was inserted. Skin grafting of necrotic areas was performed and systemic rectal cancer chemotherapy initiated after full stabilization. Conclusion Fournier gangrene is an uncommon but life threatening condition with high associated mortality and morbidity. Usually there is an underlying cause for the development of Fournier gangrene, that if addressed correctly, can lead to a good outcome. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the morbidity and mortality of this life threatening condition. Good management is based on aggressive debridement, broad spectrum antibiotics and intensive supportive care. PMID:20062653

  9. Central venous access with occlusive superior central venous thrombosis.

    PubMed Central

    Torosian, M H; Meranze, S; McLean, G; Mullen, J L

    1986-01-01

    Thrombotic occlusion of the entire superior central venous system is a rare complication of central venous catheterization. Three patients are presented with complete occlusion of the superior vena cava secondary to prolonged central venous catheterization. Thrombotic occlusion of the superior vena cava precludes central venous access by conventional techniques. Thoracotomy with direct catheterization of the right atrium and inferior vena cava cannulation represent alternative approaches but may be associated with significant morbidity. The present report describes a unique combined angiographic/operative technique designed to obtain central venous access with low morbidity in patients with occlusive thrombosis of the superior central venous system. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. PMID:3942419

  10. A Study of Community College Leadership Practices in Response to the Impending Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The literature attests to a leadership crisis that is predicted to impact leadership pipelines in just about every industry imaginable, including community colleges. This impending crisis is thought to be a result of baby boomer retirements plus the lack of next generation workers equipped with the skills to replace them. Community colleges are…

  11. How a Faculty Made Sense of the Impending Succession of Its Principal. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauske, Janice R.; Ogawa, Rodney T.

    This study sought to describe how an elementary school faculty made sense of the impending succession of its principal, and to extend Gephart's effort to develop a grounded theory of leader succession by examining an unforced succession in an organization whose members exerted little if any influence on the selection process. On the basis of…

  12. Honey in the treatment of Fournier's gangrene as an adjuvant: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Haidari, Mohammad; Nazer, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadinejad, Mojtaba; Almasi, Vahid; Khorramabadi, Manouchehr Shams; Pournia, Yadollah

    2014-05-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a progressive polymicrobial necrotising infection. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of Fournier's gangrene infection in patients who received topical honey with their therapeutic regimens. The cross-sectional study included 17 patients with Fournier's gangrene. Under spinal anaesthesia, the necrotic areas were debrided. In the first week, every day, the wounds were cleansed with Betadine, normal saline, and 2% oxygenated water, then 30-50cc of honey was used after the wounds were dried. The wounds were then dressed. This method of dressing was taught to the patients' attendants. The granulation tissues, generally bright pink, were observed on the 10th day. Four (23.5%) patients underwent colostomy and 1 (5.9%) died. All the patients were discharged two weeks after the initial debridement. Compared with other studies, honey reduced the healing and hospitalisation time as well as additional costs. PMID:25272547

  13. Fournier's gangrene due to perioperative iatrogenic colon perforation in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Georgios; Koukoulaki, Maria; Vardas, Konstantinos; Grigorakis, Alkis; Vougas, Vasileios; Drakopoulos, Spiros

    2015-11-01

    Fournier's gangrene is not a common cause of morbidity in renal transplant recipients, but, if it occurs, it is difficult to treat because of the immunosuppression and associated increased mortality rate. We describe the case of a male patient who underwent renal transplantation with complicated post-operative course, resulting in cecum perforation (thermal injury due to cautery use during transplantation) requiring exploratory laparotomy and cecostomy. A few days later, he developed Fournier's gangrene and urgent radical surgical debridement of the scrotum was performed, along with aggressive antibiotic regimen and the immunosuppressive treatment was modified. Subsequently, the patient underwent scheduled cecostomy closure (right hemicolectomy), while the scrotum trauma healed with tertiary intention. Epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, therapeutic options and morbidity-mortality rates of Fournier's gangrene are reviewed, emphasizing the role of immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients to disease development. PMID:26586068

  14. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Digital Gangrene: A Rare Presentation of Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Santokh; Chand, Gian; Charan, Shiv; Arora, Sahil; Singh, Parampreet

    2013-01-01

    Digital gangrene in upper limbs may be due to systemic sclerosis, trauma, connective tissue disorders, vasculitic disorders and various myeloproliferative disorders or as a part of tropical diabetes hand syndrome which follows trauma. Peripheral arterial disease in diabetics commonly involves lower limbs. The present case, 45-year-old diabetic, presented with dry gangrene in fingertips of both hands for last two weeks without any history of trauma or lower limb gangrene. On examination and workup of the patient was found to have bilateral upper limb arterio-occlusive disease involving ulnar vessels as a macrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus. This presentation of diabetic hand syndrome is very, very rare, hence being reported. PMID:24298503

  15. Venous dynamics in leg lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Kim, D I; Huh, S; Hwang, J H; Kim, Y I; Lee, B B

    1999-03-01

    To determine whether there is anatomical and/or functional impairment to venous return in patients with lymphedema, we examined venous dynamics in 41 patients with unilateral leg lymphedema. A Volometer was used for computer analysis of leg volume, a color Duplex Doppler scanner was used to determine deep vein patency and skin thickness, and Air-plethysmography was used to assess ambulatory venous pressure, venous volume, venous filling index and the ejection fraction. In the lymphedematous leg, volume and skin thickness were uniformly increased (126.4 +/- 21.3% and 156.9 +/- 44.5%) (mean +/- S.D.), respectively. The ambulatory venous pressure was also increased (134 +/- 60.7%) as was the venous volume (124.5 +/- 37.5%), and the venous filling index (134.5 +/- 50.5%). The ejection fraction was decreased (94.9 +/- 26.1%). Greater leg volume correlated with increased venous volume and venous filling index (values = 0.327, 0.241, respectively) and decreased ejection fraction (r = -0.133). Increased subcutaneous thickness correlated with increased venous filling index and venous volume (r = 0.307, 0.126, respectively) and decreased ejection fraction (r = -0.202). These findings suggest that soft tissue edema from lymphatic stasis gradually impedes venous return which in turn aggravates the underlying lymphedema. PMID:10197322

  16. Pathophysiology of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Myers, D D

    2015-03-01

    In this chapter, an overview of some of the prominent risk factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of venous thrombosis will be discussed. In 1856, Dr Rudolf Virchow developed the concept outlining the genesis of intravascular thrombosis. Dr Virchow hypothesized that circulatory stasis due to interrupted blood flow, changes in the blood leading to blood coagulation, and irritation or damage to the vascular endothelium would initiate acute venous thrombus generation. Presently, it is known that these above-mentioned risk factors are influenced by increasing age, gender, and obesity. The current chapter will focus on recent preclinical and clinical investigations that will give the reader insight into the prothrombotic mechanisms that lead to acute venous thrombosis. PMID:25729062

  17. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile. PMID:24436666

  18. A case of nontraumatic gas gangrene in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    YASUDA, Masahiko; INOUE, Takashi; UENO, Masami; MORITA, Hanako; HAYASHIMOTO, Nobuhito; KAWAI, Kenji; ITOH, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The common marmoset is widely used in neuroscience and regenerative medicine research. However, information concerning common marmoset disorders, particularly infectious diseases, is scarce. Here, we report a case of a female common marmoset that died suddenly due to gas gangrene. The animal presented with gaseous abdominal distention at postmortem, and Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from several tissues. Vacuoles, a Gram-positive bacteremia and intravascular hemolysis were observed microscopically in the muscles, liver and lungs. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed nontraumatic gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens type A in this common marmoset. PMID:26156080

  19. Gangrene therapy and antisepsis before lister: the civil war contributions of Middleton Goldsmith of Louisville.

    PubMed

    Trombold, John M

    2011-09-01

    It is commonly accepted that Louis Pasteur is the father of microbiology and Joseph Lister is the father of antisepsis. Middleton Goldsmith, a surgeon in the Union Army during the American Civil War, meticulously studied hospital gangrene and developed a revolutionary treatment regimen. The cumulative Civil War hospital gangrene mortality was 45 per cent. Goldsmith's method, which he applied to over 330 cases, yielded a mortality under 3 per cent. His innovative work predated Pasteur and Lister, making his success truly remarkable and worthy of historical and surgical note. PMID:21944621

  20. The Role of X-Rays in the Treatment of Gas Gangrene: A Historical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Dhawan, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    While the use of x-rays to treat patients with gas gangrene ended in the early 1940’s with the advent of antibiotics, x-ray had been widely accepted as a useful and highly effective treatment for this condition. The present paper re-assesses the historical foundations of this belief, the quality of the data, use of confirmatory animal models, and underlying mechanisms that might account for the therapeutic role of x-rays in the treatment of gas gangrene. PMID:23304109

  1. Management of a young female patient with Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, Theodoros; Myrou, Athena; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an acute, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal, infective necrotizing fasciitis affecting the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions. Lemierre's syndrome is a condition characterized by thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and bacteremia caused by primarily anaerobic organisms, following a recent oropharyngeal infection. Although the literature about either of them is rich, there is no report about co-appearance of the two syndromes. We present the case of a young healthy female patient who suffered concomitantly from Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome after minor surgery. PMID:25489369

  2. A case of nontraumatic gas gangrene in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masahiko; Inoue, Takashi; Ueno, Masami; Morita, Hanako; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Kawai, Kenji; Itoh, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    The common marmoset is widely used in neuroscience and regenerative medicine research. However, information concerning common marmoset disorders, particularly infectious diseases, is scarce. Here, we report a case of a female common marmoset that died suddenly due to gas gangrene. The animal presented with gaseous abdominal distention at postmortem, and Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from several tissues. Vacuoles, a Gram-positive bacteremia and intravascular hemolysis were observed microscopically in the muscles, liver and lungs. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed nontraumatic gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens type A in this common marmoset. PMID:26156080

  3. Fournier's Gangrene in a Two Year Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bains, Satinder Pal Singh; Singh, Vikram; Gill, Manmeet Kaur; Jain, Amit; Arry, Vivek

    2014-08-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and external genitalia is a life-threatening infective gangrene, primarily seen in adults. It may be seen at any age but it is relatively uncommon in children. Here, we report a case of Fournier's gangrene in a two year old male child who was treated aggressively with broad spectrum antibiotics and early surgical debridement with hemodynamic stabilization. Even though no obvious precipitating cause was identified, hygiene was thought to be the inciting factor. Early surgical debridement with appropriate antibiotics and aggressive supportive care gave good results. PMID:25302233

  4. Fournier’s Gangrene in a Two Year Old Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Satinder Pal Singh; Singh, Vikram; Jain, Amit; Arry, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and external genitalia is a life-threatening infective gangrene, primarily seen in adults. It may be seen at any age but it is relatively uncommon in children. Here, we report a case of Fournier’s gangrene in a two year old male child who was treated aggressively with broad spectrum antibiotics and early surgical debridement with hemodynamic stabilization. Even though no obvious precipitating cause was identified, hygiene was thought to be the inciting factor. Early surgical debridement with appropriate antibiotics and aggressive supportive care gave good results. PMID:25302233

  5. Elective gangrene of the corpus spongiosum of idiopathic origin: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kharbach, Youssef; Tenkorang, Somuah; Bouchikhi, Amine; Mellas, Soufiane; Ammari, Jalaleddine El; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Fassi, Mohammed Jamal El; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Penile gangrene is rare and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It can be dry or wet. Treatment for dry gangrene is based on surgery, watchful waiting allowing spontaneous amputation of necrotic tissue or revascularization. It often depends on the general condition of the patient. We report a case of a 54-year-old patient with no significant medical history who presented with necrosis of the glans penis. Upon surgical exploration, we found an elective necrosis of the entire corpus spongiosum for which partial penectomy was performed. No etiology was found. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported in the literature. PMID:25553173

  6. Elective gangrene of the corpus spongiosum of idiopathic origin: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kharbach, Youssef; Tenkorang, Somuah; Bouchikhi, Amine; Mellas, Soufiane; Ammari, Jalaleddine El; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Fassi, Mohammed Jamal El; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Penile gangrene is rare and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It can be dry or wet. Treatment for dry gangrene is based on surgery, watchful waiting allowing spontaneous amputation of necrotic tissue or revascularization. It often depends on the general condition of the patient. We report a case of a 54-year-old patient with no significant medical history who presented with necrosis of the glans penis. Upon surgical exploration, we found an elective necrosis of the entire corpus spongiosum for which partial penectomy was performed. No etiology was found. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported in the literature. PMID:25553173

  7. Gangrene of the penis, scrotum, and perineum, occurred after radiotherapy of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    ?yczkowski, Marcin; Bryniarski, Piotr; Nowakowski, Krzysztof; Muska?a, Bartosz; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 58-year-old man hospitalized because of gangrene of the penis and scrotum, after radiochemotherapy for rectal cancer. At the time of the admission the patient presented with extensive gangrene with necrosis affecting the scrotum and the penis. During the first day of hospitalization the patient was operated. Due to the progress of the disease he had to be operated again. The status of the patient, which initially was very bad, was gradually improving. He was discharged from the hospital after 59 days in a good general state with good wound healing. PMID:24707380

  8. Reconstruction of Defects After Fournier Gangrene: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Karian, Laurel S.; Lee, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of scrotal defects after Fournier gangrene is often achieved with skin grafts or flaps, but there is no general consensus on the best method of reconstruction or how to approach the exposed testicle. We systematically reviewed the literature addressing methods of reconstruction of Fournier defects after debridement. Methods: PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched from 1950 to 2013. Inclusion criteria were reconstruction for Fournier defects, patients 18 to 90 years old, and reconstructive complication rates reported as whole numbers or percentages. Exclusion criteria were studies focused on methods of debridement or other phases of care rather than reconstruction, studies with fewer than 5 male patients with Fournier defects, literature reviews, and articles not in English. Results: The initial search yielded 982 studies, which was refined to 16 studies with a total pool of 425 patients. There were 25 (5.9%) patients with defects that healed by secondary intention, 44 (10.4%) with delayed primary closure, 36 (8.5%) with implantation of the testicle in a medial thigh pocket, 6 (1.4%) with loose wound approximation, 96 (22.6%) with skin grafts, 68 (16.0%) with scrotal advancement flaps, 128 (30.1%) with flaps, and 22 (5.2%) with flaps or skin grafts in combination with tissue adhesives. Four outcomes were evaluated: number of patients, defect size, method of reconstruction, and wound-healing complications. Conclusions: Most reconstructive techniques provide reliable coverage and protection of testicular function with an acceptable cosmetic result. There is no conclusive evidence to support flap coverage of exposed testes rather than skin graft. A reconstructive algorithm is proposed. Skin grafting or flap reconstruction is recommended for defects larger than 50% of the scrotum or extending beyond the scrotum, whereas scrotal advancement flap reconstruction or healing by secondary intention is best for defects confined to less than 50% of the scrotum that cannot be closed primarily without tension. PMID:26171090

  9. Venous ulcers - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Risk factors for venous ulcers include: Varicose veins History of blood clots in the legs ( deep vein thrombosis ) Leg swelling Age Being female (related to levels of the hormone progesterone) Being tall Family history of venous insufficiency ...

  10. Venous oxygen saturation.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Christiane; Bloos, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Early detection and rapid treatment of tissue hypoxia are important goals. Venous oxygen saturation is an indirect index of global oxygen supply-to-demand ratio. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurement has become a surrogate for mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). ScvO2 is measured by a catheter placed in the superior vena cava. After results from a single-center study suggested that maintaining ScvO2 values >70% might improve survival rates in septic patients, international practice guidelines included this target in a bundle strategy to treat early sepsis. However, a recent multicenter study with >1500 patients found that the use of central hemodynamic and ScvO2 monitoring did not improve long-term survival when compared to the clinical assessment of the adequacy of circulation. It seems that if sepsis is recognized early, a rapid initiation of antibiotics and adequate fluid resuscitation are more important than measuring venous oxygen saturation. PMID:25480771

  11. Total colectomy in a gangrenous large bowel due to a rare double closed loop obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sali, Priyanka Akhilesh; Pilania, Vineet; Sutar, Sudhir; Krishna, Kumar; Ghetla, Smriti; Shetty, Tilakdas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Closed loop obstruction is commonly encountered in sigmoid volvulus. When such obstruction becomes fulminant, it is called acute necrotizing colitis. Gangrene of the entire large bowel from the caecum till the distal end of the sigmoid is a rare entity. Presentation of the case We present here one such case of necrotizing colitis in a 27 years old gentleman who presented with large bowel obstruction and septic shock. Computed tomography (CT) revealed sigmoid volvulus with ischaemic changes. The rest of the colon was dilated. On laparotomy, a gangrenous sigmoid due to the volvulus was found along with complete gangrene of the proximal bowel from the ileocaecal junction till the volvulus. This was probably due to a double closed loop obstruction, one at the sigmoid volvulus and the second being between a probable competent ileocaecal valve and the proximal end of the volvulus. A total colectomy with an end ileostomy was performed. Discussion Necrotising colitis involving the entire colon is seldom seen. Large bowel obstruction is a known surgical emergency due to a probable closed loop obstruction due to a competent ileocaecal valve. Conclusion To our knowledge, such gangrene of the entire large bowel due to a sigmoid volvulus and a competent ileocaecal valve has not been reported in literature so far. We also highlight here, the rapid ischaemic changes that follow a closed loop obstruction. In our case the CT has shown ischaemic changes only in the sigmoid. Hence, timely diagnosis and intervention is imperative. PMID:26516683

  12. GENOME-WIDE DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN BROILER CHICKENS WITH GANGRENOUS DERMATITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is a disease of poultry associated with the infection of Clostridium septicum (CS) and/or C. perfringens (CP) type A. While GD causes significant morbidity, mortality, and economic loss to the poultry industry, the fundamental mechanisms underlying this host-pathogen inte...

  13. A rare case of symmetrical four limb gangrene following emergency neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Pho NH; Acharya, Vikas; Parikh, Dhruv; Shad, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The authors report a case of symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) following emergency neurosurgery. Presentation of case A 35-year-old female presented to hospital in Thailand with nausea, headache, and subsequent seizures. She was found to have a large intracranial space-occupying lesion with mass effect. Following emergency surgical debulking and decompression, she suffered from severe sepsis with multiple organ failure, treated with high dose intravenous vasopressors and developed secondary gangrene in all four limbs. She was repatriated to the UK with a baseline GCS of 8 and multiple postoperative medical complications. With initial conservative management, the patient made a prolonged but satisfactory progression to recovery prior to semi-elective debridement and selected digit amputation of the gangrene. Discussion This is the first reported case of four limb symmetrical peripheral gangrene following an emergency craniotomy. Conclusion Although rare, SPG is a substantial complication with high mortality and morbidity and therefore should be especially taken into account for emergency intracranial pathologies in neurosurgical patients, particularly if they require emergency surgery. PMID:26406313

  14. Sepsis with an Atopobium-Like Species in a Patient with Fournier's Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Oyaert, Matthijs; Cools, Piet; Breyne, Joke; Heyvaert, Gert; Vandewiele, Anne; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vervaeke, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Atopobium species are Gram-positive, anaerobic, catalase-negative, fastidious bacteria belonging to the family Coriobacteriaceae. We report the isolation of an Atopobium-like species in a patient with Fournier's gangrene and highlight the role of 16S rRNA gene sequencing in the identification of fastidious organisms in the clinical laboratory. PMID:24153131

  15. "Cold spot" imaging with gas gangrene in three phase skeletal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Greene, G; Maurer, A H; Malmud, L S; Charkes, N D

    1983-09-01

    A photon deficient "cold spot" was noted in all three phases of a three phase bone study in a patient with gas gangrene of the foot. The scintigraphic findings correlated with the area of soft tissue gas noted in radiographs. PMID:6641073

  16. Immunopathology and Cytokine Responses in Commercial Broiler Chickens with Gangrenous Dermatitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gangrene dermatitis (GD) is an emerging disease of increasing economic importance in poultry that results from infection by Clostridium septicum and C. perfringens (CP) type A. Lack of a reproducible disease model has been a major obstacle in understanding the immunopathology of GD. To gain better u...

  17. Clinicobiochemical investigations of gangrenous mastitis in does: immunological responses and oxidative stress biomarkers*

    PubMed Central

    El-Deeb, Wael M.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 50 does were used to determine selected hematological and biochemical parameters with special references to oxidative stress markers, acute phase protein profiles, and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and gangrenous mastitis affected does. Animals were divided into two equal groups represented as clinically healthy (control) and diseased groups, respectively. The bacteriological examination of milk samples from diseased does revealed many types of bacterial infection. The isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (N=23/25), Escherichia coli (N=11/25), and Clostridium perfringens (N=4/25). There was a significant increase in the levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified free fatty acids, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase and a significant reduction in the levels of glucose, cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in does with gangrenous mastitis compared to healthy does. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde and uric acid with a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, super oxide dismutase, and catalase in does with gangrenous mastitis compared to healthy does. In addition, there was a significant increase in the haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in does with gangrenous mastitis compared to healthy ones. Conclusively, oxidative stress biomarkers, acute phase proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines play an essential task as biomarkers for gangrenous mastitis in does. Mastitis may be considered as one of the ketotic stressors in does after parturition. PMID:23303629

  18. Sugar inhibits the production of the toxins that trigger clostridial gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Méndez, M B; Goñi, A; Ramirez, W; Grau, R R

    2012-01-01

    Histotoxic strains of Clostridium perfringens cause human gas gangrene, a devastating infection during which potent tissue-degrading toxins are produced and secreted. Although this pathogen only grows in anaerobic-nutrient-rich habitats such as deep wounds, very little is known regarding how nutritional signals influence gas gangrene-related toxin production. We hypothesize that sugars, which have been used throughout history to prevent wound infection, may represent a nutritional signal against gas gangrene development. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that sugars (sucrose, glucose) inhibited the production of the main protein toxins, PLC (alpha-toxin) and PFO (theta-toxin), responsible for the onset and progression of gas gangrene. Transcription analysis experiments using plc-gusA and pfoA-gusA reporter fusions as well as RT-PCR analysis of mRNA transcripts confirmed that sugar represses plc and pfoA expression. In contrast an isogenic C. perfringens strain that is defective in CcpA, the master transcription factor involved in carbon catabolite response, was completely resistant to the sugar-mediated inhibition of PLC and PFO toxin production. Furthermore, the production of PLC and PFO toxins in the ccpA mutant strain was several-fold higher than the toxin production found in the wild type strain. Therefore, CcpA is the primary or unique regulatory protein responsible for the carbon catabolite (sugar) repression of toxin production of this pathogen. The present results are analyzed in the context of the role of CcpA for the development and aggressiveness of clostridial gas gangrene and the well-known, although poorly understood, anti-infective and wound healing effects of sugars and related substances. PMID:22079896

  19. Evaluation of factors affecting mortality in Fournier’s Gangrene: Retrospective clinical study of sixteen cases

    PubMed Central

    Oymac?, Erkan; Co?kun, Ali; Yakan, Sava?; Erkan, Nazif; Uçar, Ahmet Deniz; Y?ld?r?m, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Fournier’s gangrene is a progressive, necrotizing fasciitis due to synergistic infection of the perineum and external genitalia that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study is to review the diagnostic and treatment methods that effect mortality in Fournier’s gangrene. Material and Methods: Sixteen patients who were diagnosed and treated at our clinic between 2011 and 2013 due to Fournier’s gangrene were retrospectively analyzed. The surviving and non-surviving patient groups were compared in terms of age, sex, onset time of symptoms, isolated microorganisms, concomitant diseases, Fournier’s gangrene severity index (FGSI), and length of hospital stay. Results: Ten of our cases (62.5%) were male and six (37.5%) were female, with a mean age of 61.2±12.3 (42–73) years. The mortality rate was 18.8% (3 cases). The mean duration of symptoms before admission was 4.31±1.81 (2–8) days. This period was 6.67±1.52 days in patients who succumbed to death, and 3.77±1.42 days in patients who survived (p=0.007). Ten cases (62.5%) had concomitant diabetes mellitus. The most common organism isolated in wound cultures was Escherichia coli (68.7%), and Acinetobacter baumannii, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. in the remaining patients. The mean FGSI of surviving patients was 3.84±1.77, and 7.66±0.57 in fatal cases (p=0.003). The mean length of hospital stay was 25.5 days (2–57) and duration of hospitalization was significantly longer in survivors (p<0.05). Conclusion: The delay in diagnosis and higher FGSI may be responsible for worsening of prognosis and mortality in Fournier’s gangrene. Early diagnosis and determination of the severity of the disease, aggressive surgical debridement and appropriate antimicrobial therapy may improve prognosis. PMID:25931901

  20. Impending Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Roger E.; Olivo, Thomas G.; Gioia, Joyce L.

    Filled with evidence and advice for corporate leaders in for-profit, not-for-profit, governmental, and education organizations, this book addresses how to evaluate one's organization's vulnerability and take action. An introduction is followed by a section on the new roles of the chief executive officer, chief operating officer, chief financial…

  1. Impending Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Roger E.; Olivo, Thomas G.; Gioia, Joyce L.

    Filled with evidence and advice for corporate leaders in for-profit, not-for-profit, governmental, and education organizations, this book addresses how to evaluate one's organization's vulnerability and take action. An introduction is followed by a section on the new roles of the chief executive officer, chief operating officer, chief financial…

  2. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Heit, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and—in women—pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing. PMID:26076949

  3. Central venous catheterisation.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, A. H.; Anderson, J. R.; Walls, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-one central venous catheter placements have been carried out with a serious-complication rate of 3.7%. Major long-term complications occurred in 5 patients. Malplacement of the catheter was more common when the infraclavicular subclavian route was used. Inadvertent removal occurred on 10 occasions and a new design of catheter hub is expected to eliminate this problem. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 PMID:6776868

  4. Aesthetic scrotal reconstruction following extensive Fournier’s gangrene using bilateral island pedicled sensate anterolateral thigh flaps: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Joseph H.; Clarke-Pearson, Emily M.; Dayan, Erez; Smith, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving an aesthetic appearance of the scrotum after extensive Fournier’s gangrene is a reconstructive challenge. Testicular coverage is often prioritized over scrotal cosmesis due to the comorbidities typically seen in this patient population. We describe our treatment of a young, healthy male with extensive Fournier’s gangrene, with loss of the scrotum. Bilateral neurotized anterolateral thigh flaps were used to achieve a sensate and aesthetically acceptable result. PMID:24554975

  5. Aesthetic scrotal reconstruction following extensive Fournier's gangrene using bilateral island pedicled sensate anterolateral thigh flaps: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Joseph H; Clarke-Pearson, Emily M; Dayan, Erez; Smith, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    Achieving an aesthetic appearance of the scrotum after extensive Fournier's gangrene is a reconstructive challenge. Testicular coverage is often prioritized over scrotal cosmesis due to the comorbidities typically seen in this patient population. We describe our treatment of a young, healthy male with extensive Fournier's gangrene, with loss of the scrotum. Bilateral neurotized anterolateral thigh flaps were used to achieve a sensate and aesthetically acceptable result. PMID:24554975

  6. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration. PMID:26358306

  7. Treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Rathbun, Suman W; Kirkpatrick, Angelia C

    2007-04-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) results from venous hypertension secondary to superficial or deep venous valvular reflux. Treatment modalities are aimed at reducing venous valvular reflux, thereby inhibiting the ensuing pathologic inflammatory process. Compression therapy using pumps, bandaging, and/or graded compression stockings is the mainstay of treatment for CVI. Compression therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing venous hypertension retarding the development of inflammation and pathologic skin changes. Pharmacologic agents such as diuretics and topical steroid creams reduce swelling and pain short term but offer no long-term treatment advantage. Herbal supplements may reduce the inflammatory response to venous hypertension, but are not licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration, and vary in their efficacy, quality, and safety. However, several randomized controlled trials using the herbal horse chestnut seed extract containing aescin have shown short-term improvement in signs and symptoms of CVI. Endovascular and surgical techniques aimed at treatment of primary and secondary venous valvular reflux have been shown to improve venous hemodynamics promoting healing of venous ulcers and improving quality of life. The newer endovascular treatments of varicose veins using laser, radiofrequency ablation, and chemical foam sclerotherapy show some promise. PMID:17484814

  8. Altered Heart Rhythm Dynamics in Very Low Birth Weight Infants With Impending Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Tuzcu, Volkan; Nas, Selman; Ulusar, Umit; Ugur, Ahmet; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraventricular hemorrhage remains an important problem among very low birth weight infants and may result in long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities. Neonatologists have been unable to accurately predict impending intraventricular hemorrhage. Because alterations in the autonomic nervous system’s control of heart rhythm have been associated with intraventricular hemorrhage after its development, we sought to determine if early subtle alterations of heart rhythm could be predictive of impending intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants. METHODS This case-control study included 10 newborn very low birth weight infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (5 grade IV, 4 grade III, and 1 grade II) and 14 control infants without intraventricular hemorrhage. Heart rhythm data from the first day of life before the development of intraventricular hemorrhage were evaluated. Detrended fluctuation analysis, a nonlinear fractal heart rate variability method, was used to assess the fractal dynamics of the heart rhythm. Fractal scaling exponents were calculated by using this analysis. RESULTS Twenty-four infants (mean ± SD, birth weight: 845 ± 213g: gestational age: 26.1 ± 1.9 weeks) participated in the study. The short-term scaling exponent was significantly larger in infants who later developed intraventricular hemorrhage compared with those who did not (0.60 ± 0.1 vs 0.45 ± 0.1). A value of 0.52 resulted in 70% sensitivity and positive predictive value and 79% specificity and negative predictive value. The short-term scaling exponent was the only significant predictor of intraventricular hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS Fractal dynamics of the heart rhythm is significantly altered in very low birth weight infants before developing intraventricular hemorrhage and may be predictive of impending intraventricular hemorrhage. PMID:19255007

  9. Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, V V; Stringer, M D

    1990-01-01

    The objective of prophylaxis in venous thromboembolism is, first, to prevent fatal pulmonary embolism and, second, to reduce the morbidity associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the postphlebitic limb. This should now be standard practice for most patients over 40 years of age undergoing major surgery and for younger patients with a history of venous thromboembolism. Particularly high-risk groups include patients over 60 years of age undergoing major surgery, those with malignancy, and those requiring hip operations. Low-dose subcutaneous heparin 5,000 IU commencing 2 hours preoperatively and continuing 12 hourly until the patient is fully mobile is unequivocally effective in preventing DVT in medical and surgical patients and, most importantly, significantly reduces the incidence of fatal postoperative pulmonary embolism and total mortality. Such prophylaxis, in the presence of established DVT, also limits proximal clot propagation, which is the precursor of major pulmonary embolism. Low-dose heparin prophylaxis is associated with a small risk of bleeding complications, evidenced mostly by an increased frequency of wound hematoma rather than major clinical hemorrhage. Low molecular weight heparin fragments (e.g., Fragmin, Choay, Enoxaparine) are emerging as useful alternative agents, having the advantage of once daily administration and yet providing similar efficacy in the prevention of DVT. Mechanical methods of prevention which counteract venous stasis, such as graduated elastic compression stockings, are also useful in protecting against DVT but have not been shown to prevent fatal postoperative pulmonary embolism. They are recommended particularly for patients in whom heparin prophylaxis is best avoided (e.g., neurosurgery) and possibly in combination with heparin in very high-risk patients. PMID:2122604

  10. Mechanical perturbations applied during impending movement evoke startle-like responses

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Vengateswaran J.; Shemmell, Jonathan B.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Stretch reflexes have been considered one of the simplest circuits in the human nervous system. Yet, their role is controversial given that they assist or resist an imposed perturbation depending on the task instruction. Evidence shows that a loud acoustic stimulus applied prior to an impending movement elicits a movement-direction dependent muscle activity. In our study, we found that a perturbation can also trigger this early onset of movement, if applied during movement preparation. These responses were also perturbation direction dependent. This suggests an interaction of between the limb-stabilizing stretch reflexes and the voluntary activity. PMID:19963543

  11. Gangrene in Takayasu's arteritis: a report of two cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Chowdhury, Abhra Chandra; Lal, Hira; Mohindra, Namita; Agarwal, Vikas

    2016-03-01

    Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a granulomatous large vessel vasculitis more commonly seen in India. The vascular inflammation in TA results in stenoses of affected vessels. Usually this is a slow process with good collateral circulation; only rarely does critical limb ischemia result. We present two patients of TA who presented with gangrene of extremities, and review eight prior such patients reported in the literature. With appropriate diagnosis and treatment with oral corticosteroids and low-dose aspirin, none of our patients had recurrence at a mean follow-up of 3.8 ± 2.8 years. Although rare, TA can present with gangrene and rheumatologists need to be aware of this unusual but limb-threatening manifestation of TA to institute appropriate therapy in a timely manner. PMID:26563339

  12. Unusual foreign body in the sigmoid colon, chronic alcohol abuse, and Fournier gangrene: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Dietmar; Mohor, Georgiana Simona; Solovan, Caius

    2015-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is an infectious condition with fulminant evolution and is sometimes life-threatening. Here, we present the case of an immunocompromised 59-year-old male with surgical history of a pancreatic pseudocyst stented endoscopically. After unrecognized stent migration in the sigmoid without colonic perforation, he developed severe necrosis of the scrotum and perineum, which spontaneously perforated, presenting a smell suggesting moist gangrene. FG that has spread to the male genital organs presents therapeutic challenges. The purpose of our study is to present this case, typical for FG, with an educational aim both for the internal and surgical specialties, and the goal of further multidisciplinary collaboration for the optimal management of the patient with personalized treatment. PMID:25878494

  13. Treatment of two cases of Fournier's gangrene and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rubegni, Pietro; Lamberti, Arianna; Natalini, Ylenia; Fimiani, Michele

    2014-04-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare polymicrobial necrotising soft tissue infection affecting the perineum and scrotum. It is rapidly progressive, destructive and associated with high morbidity and mortality. Management protocol includes prompt diagnosis, early institution of antibiotic therapy and adequate wound debridement, usually requiring multiple operations. Rapid accurate diagnosis is crucial for successful outcome, while early aggressive surgical intervention together with fluid, hemodynamic and nutritional support and broad-spectrum antibiotics are essential to reduce mortality. Dermatologists are often the first specialist consulted. Two cases of Fournier's gangrene are reported in this report. The aim of the report is to underline the importance of an immediate diagnostic approach to save patients, favoured by a close collaboration among dermatologist, surgeon and urologist. PMID:23164064

  14. Fournier’s gangrene caused by Listeria monocytogenes as the primary organism

    PubMed Central

    Asahata, Sayaka; Hirai, Yuji; Ainoda, Yusuke; Fujita, Takahiro; Okada, Yumiko; Kikuchi, Ken

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with a history of tongue cancer presented with Fournier’s gangrene caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b. Surgical debridement revealed undiagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have an apparent dietary or travel history but reported daily consumption of sashimi (raw fish). Old age and immunodeficiency due to rectal adenocarcinoma may have supported the direct invasion of L monocytogenes from the tumour. The present article describes the first reported case of Fournier’s gangrene caused by L monocytogenes. The authors suggest that raw ready-to-eat seafood consumption be recognized as a risk factor for listeriosis, especially in cases of skin and soft tissue infection. PMID:25798155

  15. Unusual foreign body in the sigmoid colon, chronic alcohol abuse, and Fournier gangrene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Dietmar; Mohor, Georgiana Simona; Solovan, Caius

    2015-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is an infectious condition with fulminant evolution and is sometimes life-threatening. Here, we present the case of an immunocompromised 59-year-old male with surgical history of a pancreatic pseudocyst stented endoscopically. After unrecognized stent migration in the sigmoid without colonic perforation, he developed severe necrosis of the scrotum and perineum, which spontaneously perforated, presenting a smell suggesting moist gangrene. FG that has spread to the male genital organs presents therapeutic challenges. The purpose of our study is to present this case, typical for FG, with an educational aim both for the internal and surgical specialties, and the goal of further multidisciplinary collaboration for the optimal management of the patient with personalized treatment. PMID:25878494

  16. [Studies of oral microbiogenesis. II. Significance of staphylocci present in periodontal lesions, pulp gangrene and in the alveolus after tooth extraction].

    PubMed

    Sefer, M; Boanchiş, A; Greceanu, V; Costache, D; Crăifăleanu, G

    1979-01-01

    A study was carried out on the properties and significance of staphylococci isolated from the alveoli after dental extraction (12 strains), from parodontal pus (19 strains) and pulpar gangrene (15 strains). By their frequency, staphylococci of the Staphylococcus aureus have an etiologic significance in pulpar gangrene. Of particular importance for the diagnosis and epidemiology was the predominance of lysotype 80 among the staphylococci isolated from pulpar gangrene and lysotype 77 in healthy carriers. In 2 of 11 patients the coexistence of the same lysotype was found in the pulpar gangrene and nasal secretion. PMID:379963

  17. Analysis of prognostic factors affecting mortality in Fournier’s gangrene: A study of 72 cases

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Essarghini, Mohamed; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Belhamidi, Mohamed Said; Bensal, Abdelhak; Zemmouri, Adil; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Sair, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fournier’s gangrene is a rapidly progressing necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital area associated with a high mortality rate. We presented our experience in managing this entity and identified prognostic factors affecting mortality. Methods: We carried out a retrospective study of 72 patients treated for Fournier’s gangrene at our institution between January 2005 and December 2014. Patients were divided into survivors and non-survivors and potential prognostic factors were analyzed. Results: Of the 72 patients, 64 were males (89%) and 8 females (11%), with a mean age of 51 years. The most common predisposing factor was diabetes mellitus (38%). The mortality rate was 17% (12 patients died). Statistically significant differences were not found in age, gender, and predisposing factors, except in heart disease (p = 0.038). Individual laboratory parameters significantly correlating with mortality included hemoglobin (p = 0.023), hematocrit (p = 0.019), serum urea (p = 0.009), creatinine (p = 0.042), and potassium (p = 0.026). Severe sepsis on admission and the extent of affected surface area also predicted higher mortality. Others factors, such as duration of symptoms before admission, number of surgical debridement, diverting colostomy and length of hospital stay, did not show significant differences. The median Fournier’s Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) was significantly higher in non-survivors (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Fournier’s gangrene is a severe surgical emergency requiring early diagnosis and aggressive therapy. Identification of prognostic factors is essential to establish an optimal treatment and to improve outcome. The FGSI is a simple and valid method for predicting disease severity and patient survival. PMID:26600888

  18. Hyperbilirubinemia as a predictor of gangrenous/perforated appendicitis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Poras; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, Neeraj; Biswal, Upendra C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the study were: 1) to establish the role of hyperbilirubinemia as a new diagnostic tool to predict gangrenous/perforated appendicitis; and 2) to compare other variables such as age, duration of symptoms, clinical profile, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and ultrasound in a similar role. Methods This is a prospective study conducted on 50 consecutive cases of acute appendicitis admitted to the emergency ward. These were subjected to investigations to support the diagnosis. These cases were also subjected to liver function tests and clinical diagnosis was confirmed perioperatively and post-operatively by histopathological examination. Their clinical and investigative data were compiled and analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using either chi square test or fisher's exact test. The level of significance was set at P< 0.05. Results Total serum bilirubin including both direct and indirect was found to be significantly increased in case of acute suppurative appendicitis. Serum bilirubin was much higher (P <0.000) in cases of gangrenous/perforated appendicitis. Conclusion Serum bilirubin is an important adjunct in diagnosing the presence of gangrenous/perforated appendicitis. PMID:24714371

  19. [Systemic necrotizing vasculitis presenting as gangrene combined with diabetes insipidus: a case report].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing; Liu, Yu-lan

    2015-12-18

    The male patient reported here presented as gangrene and central diabetes insipidus (CDI), who had characteristics of vasculitis. The patient complained about polydipsia and polyuria half a year ago, and then developed tingling, pain and blackish discoloration of some fingers and toes 3 month ago. He also had Raynaud's phenomenon. After admission, his laboratory examination showed the rise of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin, β2-glycoprotein I and the activity of rheumatoid factors, lupus anticoagulant test. his pituitary gland showed loss of posterior signal on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, his vasopressin test was active. However, there was no sufficient evidence to diagnose any specific disease; as a consequence the patient was diagnosed as idiopathic systemic necrotizing vasculitis (SNV). For SNV, the patient was treated with glucocorticoid 40 mg/d and impact therapy of cyclophosphamide 0.4 g every 2 weeks. He also received symptomatic treatment for gangrene and CDI. Cutaneous involvement leading to gangrene was widely reported in SNV, however pituitary involvement in SNV leading to CDI was rare. The prognosis of this patient was poor. PMID:26679670

  20. Old man gallbladder syndrome: Gangrenous cholecystitis in the unsuspected patient population

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, Teena; Schiowitz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute cholecystitis is a common surgical condition, but not many are aware of the serious complication of gangrenous cholecystitis (GC). Presence of GC increases patients’ postoperative complications, morbidity and mortality. Predictive factors for GC include age >45, male gender, white blood cell count >13,000/mm3 and ultrasound findings of a negative Murphy’s sign. Case presentation (1) GW, 83 male with dull right upper quadrant pain and a negative Murphy’s sign with further imaging showing a thickened septated gallbladder suggestive of GC. Patient’s surgery was difficult and he received a cholecystostomy tube for drainage. (2) PH, 75 male with minimal right upper quadrant pain, equivocal ultrasound with a negative Murphy’s sign and computer tomography (CT) showing acute cholecystitis. Patient was taken to the operating room for cholecystectomy, with pathology consistent with gangrenous cholecystitis. Discussion Multiple laboratory findings and imaging patterns have been found to be highly predictive of GC. Along with age and WBC, thickened gallbladder wall and lack of mucosal enhancement have been predictive of GC. On physical examination, lack of Murphy’s sign secondary to denervation from gangrenous changes also increases the index of suspicion for GC. Conclusion GC is a serious complication of acute cholecystitis with increased morbidity and mortality. There should be a high index of suspicion for GC if the above unique physical and laboratory findings are present. PMID:25917175

  1. Comparison of Diverting Colostomy and Bowel Management Catheter Applications in Fournier Gangrene Cases Requiring Fecal Diversion.

    PubMed

    Eray, Ismail Cem; Alabaz, Omer; Akcam, Atilgan Tolga; Ulku, Abdullah; Parsak, Cem Kaan; Sakman, Gurhan; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2015-12-01

    In some patients of Fournier gangrene originated from perianal region, it is important to prevent fecal contamination in order to provide healing without wound infection. For this purposes, diverting colostomy or bowel management catheter methods were performed. In this study, it is aimed to carry out a comparison of prognosis and cost efficiency between diverting colostomy and bowel management catheter methods applied for preventing fecal contamination in Fournier's gangrene patients. Fourty-eight patients with diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene, serious perianal infections, and preserved sphincters and without rectum injury after debridement were included in the study. The cases were divided into two groups as patients who were subjected to colostomy for fecal diversion and who were subjected to bowel management catheter without colostomy. Then, the groups were compared in terms of age, predisposing factors, duration of hospital stay, mortality, additional surgery requirements, and cost. Fourty-eight patients were included the study. Sixteen patients were treated without colostomy. Decreased duration of total hospital stay, additional surgery requirements, and hospital expense in bowel management catheter group has determined. It is thought that preferring bowel management catheter method instead of colostomy in patients without rectum injury, who require diverting colostomy and have undamaged anal sphincters, can relieve patients, patients' relatives, healthcare organizations, and the national economy of a serious burden. In addition, although patients' satisfaction and workforce loss factors are not taken into consideration in this study, the bowel management catheter method is thought to have positive effects also on these parameters. PMID:26730041

  2. [Venous access devices in oncology].

    PubMed

    Ma?ásek, V; Soumarová, R; Kociánová, I; Ma?ásková, M

    2012-01-01

    Specific anti-cancer therapy is administered mainly via the parenteral route, Adequate venous access is, therefore, a topical issue in oncology In some patients on long-term therapy, the peripheral venous system is extensively burdened We present an overview of risk factors associated with parenteral application of medicins We provide a comparison of different types of venous access devices and discuss recommendations on general indications for permanent venous access devices We suggest an approach to the choice of the most appropriate venous access device for an oncology patient available to date We present our experience with PICC (peripherally implanted central catheters) implantations used in 30 oncology patients in our centre In addition to venous ports, PICCs represent another safe method of permanent venous access with low rate of complications Indications for the use of a specific permanent venous access device (PICC or port) partly overlap and evidenced-based recommendations are lacking However, we discuss the few suggestions that have been formulated on this issue. PMID:22348215

  3. Venous thrombosis in athletes.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Gregory; Whiteside, William K; Kanwisher, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Because deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can occur following orthopaedic procedures, knowledge of hereditary and acquired risk factors for DVT is essential. Hereditary forms of thrombophilia include factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations, and deficiencies of antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S. Acquired risk factors include but are not limited to trauma, immobilization, and surgical procedures. In general, athletes have a low risk of venous thrombosis; however, this population is exposed to many acquired thrombogenic risk factors, including hemoconcentration, trauma, immobilization, long-distance travel, and the use of oral contraceptives. Thus, orthopaedic surgeons should consider screening athletes for thrombogenic risk factors, including history of venous thrombosis, hypercoagulable disorders, or high altitude exercise, during preparticipation physicals and preoperative examinations. If a patient is determined to be at high risk of DVT, preventive measures such as physical antithrombotic measures and/or low-molecular-weight heparin should be instituted. If an athlete develops a DVT, a risk factor assessment should be conducted along with anticoagulation treatment in accordance with the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines. PMID:23378374

  4. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  5. Venous thromboembolism in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Samková, Aneta; Lejhancová, Katerina; Hak, Jirí; Lukes, Antonín

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during childhood is low with two peaks - neonatal and adolescent age. This retrospective study is focused on clinical characteristics ofVTE during adolescence. The main goals are to assess the most frequent inherited and acquired risk factors and to evaluate the benefit of D-dimers in diagnostics of venous thromboemblism. The data of 18 adolescents were analysed--16 girls (88.9%), 2 boys (11.1%). In 9 patients (50%) thrombosis of the lower limb deep veins was diagnosed, six patients (33.3%) suffered from symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) and 3 patients (16.7%) from thrombosis at unusual sites. One patient had an idiopathic VTE, the mean number of the inherited and acquired risk factors was 2.6. The most frequent inherited risk factor was Leiden mutation of factor V (27.8%). The most frequent acquired risk factor was oral contraception (OC) in 12 out of 16 girls (75%). All of our patients on oral contraception had one or more additional risk factors. 10 out of 18 (55.6%) patients with VTE had elevated activity of factor VIII. The sensitivity of D-dimers was low (50%) in patients with distal lower limb thrombosis, but very high (100%) in patients with PE. PMID:23101270

  6. Frosted branch angiitis in one eye and impending CRVO in the other: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abiraj; Yangzes, Sonam; Singh, Ramandeep

    2015-01-01

    We present a unique case of frosted branch angiitis in one eye and impending central retinal vein occlusion in other eye of a pregnant woman, which could be an initial manifestation of Behçet's disease. A 28-year-old, 33?weeks pregnant woman presented with sudden diminution of vision in her right eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was light perception in the right eye and 20/20 in her left eye. The fundus examination revealed frosted branch angiitis in the right eye and impending central retinal vein occlusion in the left eye. After a thorough initial examination, she was administered intravenous methyl prednisolone 1?g once a day for 3?days followed by oral steroids. All extensive work up to find the cause of frosted branch angiitis was negative except for positive human leukocyte antigen B51. Systemic work up was normal. On last follow-up at 6?months, the patient had visual acuity of 20/60 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Her systemic work up was normal up to follow-up. She still remains a diagnostic dilemma, with Behçet's disease as the closest diagnosis. PMID:26055592

  7. Overview of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Abad Rico, José Ignacio; Llau Pitarch, Juan Vicente; Rocha, Eduardo

    2010-12-14

    Thrombosis occurs at sites of injury to the vessel wall, by inflammatory processes leading to activation of platelets, platelet adherence to the vessel wall and the formation of a fibrin network. A thrombus that goes on to occlude a blood vessel is known as a thromboembolism. Venous thromboembolism begins with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which forms in the deep veins of the leg (calf) or pelvis. In some cases, the DVT becomes detached from the vein and is transported to the right-hand side of the heart, and from there to the pulmonary arteries, giving rise to a pulmonary embolism (PE). Certain factors predispose patients toward the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including surgery, trauma, hospitalization, immobilization, cancer, long-haul travel, increased age, obesity, major medical illness and previous VTE; in addition, there may also be a genetic component to VTE. VTE is responsible for a substantial number of deaths per annum in Europe. Anticoagulants are the mainstay of both VTE treatment and VTE prevention, and many professional organizations have published guidelines on the appropriate use of anticoagulant therapies for VTE. Treatment of VTE aims to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with the disease, and any long-term complications such as VTE recurrence or post-thrombotic syndrome. Generally, guidelines recommend the use of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH) or fondaparinux for the pharmacological prevention and treatment of VTE, with the duration of therapy varying according to the baseline characteristics and risk profile of the individual. Despite evidence showing that the use of anticoagulation prevents VTE, the availability of several convenient, effective anticoagulant therapies and the existence of clear guideline recommendations, thromboprophylaxis is underused, particularly in patients not undergoing surgery. Greater adherence to guideline-recommended therapies, such as LMWH, which can be administered on an outpatient basis, should reduce the mortality associated with this preventable disease. PMID:21162604

  8. Death talk: gender differences in talking about one’s own impending death

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to common practice based on a generally agreed interpretation of Icelandic law on the rights of patients, health care professionals cannot discuss prognosis and treatment with a patient’s family without that patient’s consent. This limitation poses ethical problems, because research has shown that, in the absence of insight and communication regarding a patient’s impending death, patient’s significant others may subsequently experience long-term psychological distress. It is also reportedly important for most dying patients to know that health care personnel are comfortable with talking about death and dying. There is only very limited information concerning gender differences regarding death talk in terminal care patients. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of detailed prospective “field notes” from chaplain interviews of all patients aged 30–75 years receiving palliative care and/or with DNR (do not resuscitate) written on their charts who requested an interview with a hospital chaplain during a period of 3 years. After all study patients had died, these notes were analyzed to assess the prevalence of patient-initiated discussions regarding their own impending death and whether non-provocative evocation-type interventions had facilitated such communication. Results During the 3-year study period, 195 interviews (114 men, 81 women) were conducted. According to the field notes, 80% of women and 30% of men initiated death talk within the planned 30-minute interviews. After evoking interventions, 59% (67/114) of men and 91% (74/81) of women engaged in death talk. Even with these interventions, at the end of the first interview gender differences were still statistically significant (p?=?0.001). By the end of the second interview gender difference was less, but still statistically significant (p?=?0.001). Conclusions Gender differences in terminal care communication may be radically reduced by using simple evocation methods that are relatively unpretentious, but require considerable clinical training. Men in terminal care are more reluctant than women to enter into discussion regarding their own impending death in clinical settings. Intervention based on non-provocative evocation methods may increase death talk in both genders, the relative increase being higher for men. PMID:24618410

  9. Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency and related venous disorders.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Om P

    2014-03-01

    The present review provides an update of the biological profile of Pycnogenol in the light of its use in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and related venous disorders such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), post-thrombotic syndrome, long haul air-travel-related leg oedema, venous ulcers and acute haemorrhoids. Pycnogenol is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator activities, antithrombotic effects and collagen stabilizing properties make it uniquely able to target the multi facet pathophysiology of CVI and related venous disorders. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce oedema of the legs in CVI, reduce the incidence of deep venous thrombosis during long haul flights and enhance the healing of venous ulcers and haemorrhoidal episodes by topical application and/or oral administration. This review highlights clinical research findings on the safety, compliance and efficacy of Pycnogenol, including its use in combination products. PMID:23775628

  10. Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

  11. Design and fabrication of prototype system for early warning of impending bearing failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meacher, J.; Chen, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    A test program was conducted with the objective of developing a method and equipment for on-line monitoring of installed ball bearings to detect deterioration or impending failure of the bearings. The program was directed at the spin-axis bearings of a control moment gyro. The bearings were tested at speeds of 6000 and 8000 rpm, thrust loads from 50 to 1000 pounds, with a wide range of lubrication conditions, with and without a simulated fatigue spall implanted in the inner race ball track. It was concluded that a bearing monitor system based on detection and analysis of modulations of a fault indicating bearing resonance frequency can provide a low threshold of sensitivity.

  12. Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes Claire M. Hull , PhD ; Julia A. Harris , ... general adult population are indisputable. However, for the marathon athlete who trains intensively and for long periods ...

  13. Varicose Veins and Venous Insufficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Patient Section Who Are Interventional Radiologists? Multimedia Insurance Coverage IR Treatments Abdominal aortic aneurysms Angiography ... radiology Interventional radiology case studies Developed by ACR Multimedia gallery Multimedia Archive Varicose Veins and Venous Insufficiency ...

  14. Novel application of vacuum sealing drainage with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate for managing infective wounds of gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Wu, Xing-Huo; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Wu, Qiang; Xia, Tian; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Ye, Zhe-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic gas gangrene is a fatal infection mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens. It is a challenge to manage gas gangrene in open wounds and control infection after debridement or amputation. The aim of the present study was to use vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate to manage infective wounds of gas gangrene and observe its clinical efficacy. A total of 48 patients with open traumatic gas gangrene infection were included in this study. Amputations were done for 27 patients, and limb salvage procedures were performed for the others. After amputation or aggressive debridement, the VSD system, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam dressing and polyurethane (PU) film, with continuous irrigation of 1:5000 potassium permanganate solutions, was applied to the wounds. During the follow-up, all the patients healed without recurrence within 8-18 months. There were four complications. Cardiac arrest during amputation surgery occurred in one patient who suffered from severe septic shock. Emergent resuscitation was performed and the patient returned to stable condition. One patient suffered from mixed infection of Staphylococcal aureus, and a second-stage debridement was performed. One patient suffered from severe pain of the limb after the debridement. Exploratory operation was done and the possible reason was trauma of a local peripheral nerve. Three cases of crush syndrome had dialysis treatment for concomitant renal failure. In conclusion, VSD can convert open wound to closed wound, and evacuate necrotic tissues. Furthermore, potassium permanganate solutions help eliminate anaerobic microenvironment and achieve good therapeutic effect on gas gangrene and mixed infection. VSD with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate is a novel, simple and feasible alternative for severe traumatic open wounds with gas gangrene infection. PMID:26223928

  15. Difference in virulence between Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing gangrenous mastitis versus subclinical mastitis in a dairy sheep flock

    PubMed Central

    Vautor, Eric; Cockfield, Joshua; Le Marechal, Caroline; Le Loir, Yves; Chevalier, Marlène; Robinson, D. Ashley; Thiery, Richard; Lindsay, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy sheep ranges from subclinical mastitis to lethal gangrenous mastitis. Neither the S. aureus virulence factors nor the host-factors or the epidemiological events contributing to the different outcomes are known. In a field study in a dairy sheep farm over 21 months, 16 natural isolates of S. aureus were collected from six subclinical mastitis cases, one lethal gangrenous mastitis case, nasal carriage from eight ewes and one isolate from ambient air in the milking room. A genomic comparison of two strains, one responsible for subclinical mastitis and one for lethal gangrenous mastitis, was performed using multi-strain DNA microarrays. Multiple typing techniques (pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis, multiple-locus variable-number, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, spa typing and sas typing) were used to characterise the remaining isolates and to follow the persistence of the gangrenous isolate in ewes’ nares. Our results showed that the two strains were genetically closely related and they shared 3 615 identical predicted open reading frames. However, the gangrenous mastitis isolate carried variant versions of several genes (sdrD, clfA-B, sasA, sasB, sasD, sasI and splE) and was missing fibrinogen binding protein B (fnbB) and a prophage. The typing results showed that this gangrenous strain emerged after the initial subclinical mastitis screening, but then persisted in the flock in the nares of four ewes. Although we cannot dismiss the role of host susceptibility in the clinical events in this flock, our data support the hypothesis that S. aureus populations had evolved in the sheep flock and that S. aureus genetic variations could have contributed to enhanced virulence. PMID:19576164

  16. [A Case of Pyoderma Gangrenosum of the Penis Difficult to Distinguish from Fournier Gangrene].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Makoto; Inoue, Takaaki; Nishida, Teruhisa; Kawabata, Takashi; Kawakita, Shigenari; Muguruma, Kouei; Murota, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum of the penis which was difficult to distinguish from Fournier gangrene. The patient was a 54-year-old male who was aware of redness and swelling of the glanspenis for 1 month prior to a consultation at our department. Although he was diagnosed with herpes and treated at a nearby hospital, his symptoms did not improve. Subsequently, the patient visited our department following the onset of pain and fever. During his initial consultation, he had a fever of 39 °C as well as redness and swelling of the glans penis with partial spontaneous purulent discharge. His blood test revealed an elevated white blood cell count (20, 000/?l) and C-reactive protein (19.1 mg/dl). Because Fournier gangrene was suspected, administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents was initiated but proved to be ineffective. An abscess (2 cm in diameter) was also noted in the umbilical region.Enterococcus faecalis was detected by the bacterial culture ; and therefore, Fournier gangrene was diagnosed. A partial penectomy was performed to control the infection. Pathological findings showed only non-specific inflammation ; however, fever persisted postoperatively and blood test results showed no improvement. Furthermore, new abscess lesions emerged on the right heel and back. Because the re-performed abscess bacterial culture test result was negative, pyoderma gangrenosum was suspected, and he was started on oral prednisolone (20 mg/day). On the following day, his fever subsided and his blood test results also showed improvement. A final diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum was ultimately made. PMID:26699892

  17. [Thromboprophylaxis of venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-07-01

    Recently in Japan, venous thromboembolism (VTE) [deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE)] has increased with the Westernization of eating habits and the aging of society. In the West, prophylactic guidelines have been discussed for many years, and, unfortunately, Japan falls far behind the West in this area. We developed Japanese Guidelines for VTE prophylaxis based on the 6th ACCP guidelines in 2004. The incidence of perioperative PTE in Japan has been investigated by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists since 2002. The rate of perioperative PTE was estimated to be 4.76 per 10,000 operations in 2003. As we expected, it significantly decreased after the guidelines for thromboprophylaxis were issued and the management fee for PTE prophylaxis was covered by health insurance in April 2004. However, mechanical prophylaxis is not sufficient to prevent mortality rates, and advanced prophylaxis by anticoagulants, such as low-molecular-weight heparin/Xa inhibitors along with unfractionated heparin/vitamin K antagonists will be essential. As a result of use of anticoagulants, mortality rates have been significantly decreased recently. PMID:25163326

  18. Antiphospholipid syndrome in a young Nigerian girl presenting with gangrenous toes.

    PubMed

    Anakwue, Raphael Chinedu; Chijioke, Chioli; Mbah, Anthony; Onuh, Augustine; Okwara, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 21-year-old Nigerian girl with toe gangrene, which is one of the most unlikely forms of presentation of antiphospholipid syndrome among Africans. The essence of this case report is to raise awareness that, although antiphospholipid syndrome typically presents in Africans in association with a pregnancy-related event or a neuropathology, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all African patients with unexplained vasculitis. A high index of suspicion and early treatment will prevent toe amputations and reduce mortality rates. PMID:24337244

  19. Gangrenous Cystitis in A Woman Following Vaginal Delivery: An Uncommon Occurrence - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Pooja; Aggarwal, Neelam; Shankaregowda, Sriharsha Ajjur

    2015-01-01

    Gangrenous cystitis is now a rare condition with the advent of antibiotics and better obstetric services. It has a multifactorial causation manifesting as urosepsis or peritonitis. We report a case of 24-year-old lady who presented at day 12 postpartum with abdominal distension and vomitings. History of prolonged labour was present. Peritoneal tap was suggestive of pyoperitoneum. Hence she was taken up for emergency laparotomy and incidentally found to have bladder necrosis. Partial cystectomy was done and patient was discharged in a satisfactory condition after 2 weeks. PMID:26676158

  20. [A case of freeze-dried gas gangrene antitoxin for the treatment of Clostridium perfringens sepsis].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Juichiro; Nakamura, Hideki; Yamada, Shinya; Sekoguchi, Satoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Tomatsuri, Naoya; Sato, Hideki; Okuyama, Yusuke; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Norimasa

    2015-02-01

    A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with high fever. We diagnosed a gas-containing liver abscess and performed percutaneous abscess drainage. However, 15 hours after admission, he developed massive intravascular hemolysis and acidosis. Sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens was suspected and we treated the patient intensively with multidisciplinary approaches, including antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy. Furthermore, we administered freeze-dried gas gangrene antitoxin. Despite intensive care, the patient died 43 hours after admission. PMID:25748160

  1. Scrotal reconstruction using a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap following Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun H; Lee, Jung H; Kim, Sue M; Jun, Young J; Kim, Young J

    2014-08-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a type of necrotising fasciitis around the scrotum and perineum. Because of its aggressive nature, patients should be treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and emergency, radical debridement during the acute phase. After recovering from the acute phase, reconstruction of the scrotal and perineal soft tissue defects is needed and is often challenging. Traditionally, various reconstruction methods have been used, including skin grafts, fasciocutaneous flaps and musculocutaneous flaps, each with its pros and cons. We successfully covered a wide scrotal defect using a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap, which has not been previously reported for this indication. The design and operative technique are introduced in this study. PMID:25091799

  2. [Gangrene of the penis due to strangulation by a rubber band: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yutaro; Oda, Shinpei; Fujikata, Shiro; Tanimoto, Shuji; Kan, Masaharu

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of strangulation of the penis by a rubber band. A 79-year-old man placed a rubber band tightly around the corona of his glans penis in order to prevent urinary incontinence. After five days, he was taken to our hospital in an ambulance for high temperature and general malaise. We found the rubber band and removed it immediately. Gangrene of the penis continued and he did not recover from sepsis, so we performed partial penectomy. After the operation, he completely recovered. Penile strangulation using a soft constricting object such as a rubber band might result in severe complications and we should be careful. PMID:24759505

  3. Management of necrotizing pneumonia and pulmonary gangrene: A case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chatha, Neela; Fortin, Dalilah; Bosma, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing pneumonia is an uncommon but severe complication of bacterial pneumonia, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The availability of current data regarding the management of necrotizing pneumonia is limited to case reports and small retrospective observational cohort studies. Consequently, appropriate management for these patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To describe five cases and review the available literature to help guide management of necrotizing pneumonia. METHODS: Cases involving five adults with respiratory failure due to necrotizing pneumonia admitted to a tertiary care centre and infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=1) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=1) were reviewed. All available literature was reviewed and encompassed case reports and retrospective reviews dating from 1975 to the present. RESULTS: All five patients received aggressive medical management and consultation by thoracic surgery. Three patients underwent surgical procedures to debride necrotic lung parenchyma. Two of the five patients died in hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Necrotizing pneumonia often leads to pulmonary gangrene. Computed tomography of the thorax with contrast is recommended to evaluate the pulmonary vascular supply. Further study is necessary to determine whether surgical intervention, in the absence of pulmonary gangrene, results in better outcomes. PMID:24791253

  4. Role of Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto

    2003-12-15

    Gas gangrene is an acute and devastating infection most frequently caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe myonecrosis, intravascular leukocyte accumulation, and significant thrombosis. Several lines of evidence indicate that C. perfringens phospholipase C (Cp-PLC), also called alpha-toxin, is the major virulence factor in this disease. This toxin is a Zn2+ metalloenzyme with lecithinase and sphingomyelinase activities. Its three dimensional structure shows two domains, an N-terminal domain which contains the active site, and a C-terminal domain required for the Ca2+dependent interaction with membranes. Cp-PLC displays several biological activities: it increases capillary permeability, induces platelet aggregation, hemolysis, myonecrosis, decreases cardiac contractility, and is lethal. Experiments with genetically engineered Cp-PLC variants have revealed that the sphingomyelinase activity and the C-terminal domain are required for toxicity. The myotoxicity of Cp-PLC is largely dependent on its membrane damaging effect. In addition, it has been suggested that the alterations in the blood flow induced by this toxin also contribute to muscle damage. In gas gangrene, Cp-PLC dysregulates transduction pathways in endothelial cells, platelets and neutrophils leading to the uncontrolled production of several intercellular mediators and adhesion molecules. Thus, Cp-PLC alters the traffic of neutrophils to the infected tissue and promotes thrombotic events, enhancing the conditions for anaerobic growth. PMID:15019495

  5. Fournier's gangrene: A retrospective analysis of 26 cases in a Canadian hospital and literature review.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Michael; Valiquette, Anne Sophie; Ismail, Salima

    2015-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of all cases of Fournier's Gangrene (FG) at our hospital over a 12-year period. A total of 26 cases were assessed. Our goal was to determine the mortality rate and to identify risk factors associated with FG. We also wanted to examine three potential prognostic factors in relation to patient survival, including the time delay from emergency room admission to surgery, the initial extent of the disease, and the impact of more than one debridement procedure under general anesthesia. The time between emergency room admission and the beginning of surgical debridement was not statistically different between survivors and non-survivors. The extent of surgical debridement was close to the margin of statistical significance (p = 0.07) and can be considered an index of the extent of the disease. FG extending to the thighs or to the abdominal wall carries a worse prognosis. The number of surgical debridement procedures done under anesthesia was statistically different between survivors and non-survivors. Patients were 4.8 times more at risk of dying if they are required to have more than one surgical debridement under general anesthesia. This presumably reflects persistent gangrene following initial surgical debridement, fluid resuscitation, and wide spectrum antibiotic treatment. PMID:26225189

  6. Management of Fournier's gangrene--report of 7 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fajdic, J; Bukovic, D; Hrgovic, Z; Habek, M; Gugic, D; Jonas, D; Fassbender, Walter J

    2007-04-26

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare infection characterized with fast-progressing myonecrosis, that affect regions of perineum, genitalia and perianal area. This retrospective study presents authors' experiences and their principles in early diagnosis and treatment of Fournier's gangrene. The goal of this paper is to point out numerous diagnostically and therapeutic difficulties that lead to a high mortality if not recognized in time. We here describe seven male patients with myonecrosis and necrotising fasciitis in scrotal, perianal and perineal regions. Average age was 61 years (form 57 to 66 years of age), and average length of treatment was 25.8 days (from 14 to 36 days), with lethality of 14% (one case). We have recognised diabetes mellitus as risk factor, together with urethrostenosis, and other diseases of the perianal region (hemorrhoids, anal fissure, abscesses). Our hypothesis is that the key of the successful treatment is to treat as soon as symptoms onset, early and aggressive necrectomy under broad antibiotic protection. We also emphasize the possibility of recurrence of this disease even several years after treatment. PMID:17509961

  7. Systemic venous drainage: can we help Newton?

    PubMed

    Corno, Antonio F

    2007-06-01

    In recent years substantial progress occurred in the techniques of cardiopulmonary bypass, but the factor potentially limiting the flexibility of cardiopulmonary bypass remains the drainage of the systemic venous return. In the daily clinical practice of cardiac surgery, the amount of systemic venous return on cardiopulmonary bypass is directly correlated with the amount of the pump flow. As a consequence, the pump flow is limited by the amount of venous return that the pump is receiving. On cardiopulmonary bypass the amount of venous drainage depends upon the central venous pressure, the height differential between patient and inlet of the venous line into the venous reservoir, and the resistance in the venous cannula(s) and circuit. The factors determining the venous return to be taken into consideration in cardiac surgery are the following: (a) characteristics of the individual patient; (b) type of planned surgical procedure; (c) type of venous cannula(s); (d) type of circuit for cardiopulmonary bypass; (e) strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass; (f) use of accessory mechanical systems to increased the systemic venous return. The careful pre-operative evaluation of all the elements affecting the systemic venous drainage, including the characteristics of the individual patient and the type of required surgical procedure, the choice of the best strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the use of the most advanced materials and tools, can provide a systemic venous drainage substantially better than what it would be allowed by the simple "Law of universal gravitation" by Isaac Newton. PMID:17336540

  8. Treatment of Hyaluronic Acid Filler-Induced Impending Necrosis With Hyaluronidase: Consensus Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Biesman, Brian S; Dayan, Steven H; DeLorenzi, Claudio; Lambros, Val S; Nestor, Mark S; Sadick, Neil; Sykes, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Injection-induced necrosis is a rare but dreaded consequence of soft tissue augmentation with filler agents. It usually occurs as a result of injection of filler directly into an artery, but can also result from compression or injury. We provide recommendations on the use of hyaluronidase when vascular compromise is suspected. Consensus recommendations were developed by thorough discussion and debate amongst the authors at a roundtable meeting on Wednesday June 18, 2014 in Las Vegas, NV as well as significant ongoing written and verbal communications amongst the authors in the months prior to journal submission. All authors are experienced tertiary care providers. A prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment with high doses of hyaluronidase (at least 200 U) are critically important. It is not felt necessary to do a skin test in cases of impending necrosis. Some experts recommend dilution with saline to increase dispersion or lidocaine to aid vasodilation. Additional hyaluronidase should be injected if improvement is not seen within 60 minutes. A warm compress also aids vasodilation, and massage has been shown to help. Some experts advocate the use of nitroglycerin paste, although this area is controversial. Introducing an oral aspirin regimen should help prevent further clot formation due to vascular compromise. In our experience, patients who are diagnosed promptly and treated within 24 hours will usually have the best outcomes. PMID:25964629

  9. Preventing Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medicine. The full reports are titled “Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Hospitalized Patients: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians” and “Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Hospitalized Medical Patients and Those With Stroke: ...

  10. Chronic Venous Disease (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... preventing recurrence of venous ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; :CD002303. Mani R, Vowden K, Nelson EA. ... for treating venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; :CD001899. Callam MJ. Epidemiology of varicose veins. ...

  11. Cerebral venous thrombosis: diagnosis dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Chiewvit, Pipat; Piyapittayanan, Siriwan; Poungvarin, Niphon

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is increasing common disease in daily practice with sharing clinical nonspecific symptoms. This disorder is potentially lethal but treatable, oftenly it was overlooked in both clinical and radiologic in routine practice. Whenever, clinical suspected, prompt investigation by noninvasive imaging Magnetic resonance (MR) or advanced modilities such as cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), MRV (MR Venography) will helpful in prompt diagnosis and treatment. These imaging modalities may reveal either direct sign (visualization of intraluminal clot) and indirect signs (paranchymatous change, intracranial hemorrhage). By using of effective treatment will improve the prognosis of the patient. This review summarizes insights into etiology, incidence, imaging modalities and current of the treatment. PMID:22368772

  12. Central venous catheters: incidence and predictive factors of venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Mary; Desai, Amishi; Pasupneti, Shravani; Kress, John; Funaki, Brian; Watson, Sydeaka; Herlitz, Jean; Hines, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Central venous catheter access in an acute setting can be a challenge given underlying disease and risk for venous thrombosis. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are commonly placed but limit sites for fistula creation in patients with chronic renal failure (CKD). The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of venous thrombosis from small bore internal jugular (SBIJ) and PICC line placement. This investigation identifies populations of patients who may not be ideal candidates for a PICC and highlights the importance of peripheral vein preservation in patients with renal failure. Materials and methods: A venous Doppler ultrasound was performed at the time of SBIJ insertion and removal to evaluate for thrombosis in the internal jugular vein. Data was collected pre- and post-intervention to ascertain if increased vein preservation knowledge amongst the healthcare team led to less use of PICCs. Demographic factors were collected in the SBIJ and PICC groups and risk factor analysis was completed. Results: 1,122 subjects had PICC placement and 23 had SBIJ placement. The incidence of thrombosis in the PICC group was 10%. One patient with an SBIJ had evidence of central vein thrombosis when the catheter was removed. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated a history of transplant, and the indication of total parenteral nutrition was associated with thrombosis (p < 0.001). The decrease in PICCs placed in patients with CKD 6 months before and after intervention was significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: There are subsets of patients with high risk for thrombosis who may not be ideal candidates for a PICC. PMID:25997503

  13. Multiple venous aneurysms of neck

    PubMed Central

    Swaika, Sweta; Basu, Sudipta; Bhadra, Ram C.; Maitra, Sujay

    2013-01-01

    Venous aneurysm of neck is a rare anomaly, usually presenting as a painless mass which increases in size on valsalva maneuver. A child with multiple aneurysms of the right common facial and external jugular veins diagnosed on Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance venography is reported. PMID:23599580

  14. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  15. Venous ulceration, fibrinogen and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of long and short-term venous hypertension upon lymph fibrinogen concentrations was studied in an attempt to explain the peri-capillary deposition of fibrin reported in patients with post-phlebitic syndromes. The clearance of radioactive fibrinogen/thrombin clots from the subcutaneous tissues of rats and human volunteers was also studied. Both long- and short-term venous hypertension were found to increase fibrinogen transport across the interstitial space by more than 600%. Not only was there evidence of fibrinolytic activity in the lymph but after long-term venous hypertension alpha 2 antiplasmin activity was also detectable. Skin biopsies from the venous hypertensive ankles showed deposition of interstitial fibrin. The clearance of radioactive fibrinogen/thrombin clots from the subcutaneous tissues of the rat was found to be delayed if the rats were given epsilon amino caproic acid but it could not be increased with stanozolol. In human subjects it was found that patients with lipodermatosclerosis had delayed clot clearance and retarded blood fibrinolytic activity when compared with normal volunteers and patients with uncomplicated varicose veins. The principle cause why tall men are more subject to ulcers than short men, Dr Young conceived to be then length of the column of blood in their veins; which by its pressure, renders the legs less able to recover when hurt by any violence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:6742738

  16. [THERAPEUTIC GUIDE IN VENOUS ULCERS].

    PubMed

    López Herranz, Marta; Bas Caro, Pedro; García Jábega, Rosa Ma; García Carmona, Francisco Javier; Villalta García, Pedro; Postigo Mota, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    The treatment of venous ulcers and wounds in general, is a complex and important public health problem, with personal effects, family and health, without addressing the economic impact includes assistance, care of patients with ulcerative lesions. The increase in life expectancy, driven by improved socio-sanitary conditions that this aging population, facilitates the emergence of chronic diseases may be complicated by the presence of skin ulcers. There is no doubt that the best way to treat a skin ulcer is avoiding to occur, hence the importance of early diagnosis and risk factors act alone them. In relation to venous ulcers is crucial, provide local treatment, act on the cause, because if not, relapse is the norm in this type of injury. Currently, the moist wound healing, is an important step in solving earlier of these chronic wounds. This has meant that the pharmaceutical industry has been involved in researching and creating different types of dressings, having specific activity at different stages of venous ulcer healing, ie inflammatory phase, proliferative and remodeling. The proliferation of these products has been increasing over the years, not surprisingly, are described therapeutic 12 families that are applied in the management, care of these injuries. The fact of existing therapeutic options highlights the ineffectiveness of these products individually. Therefore, the nurse will not forget that the optimal treatment of venous ulcers, necessarily involves choosing the right product for every type and stage of the lesion. In this decision process, strongly influenced by the specific characteristics of each patient and injury, the nurse will take into account a lot of factors when choosing the product, not forgetting that an ulcer is not cured with a single therapeutic element, several products being used throughout the process to evolutionary venous ulcer until complete resolution. PMID:26118204

  17. Neutrophil Functions and Cytokines Expression Profile in Buffaloes with Impending Postpartum Reproductive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Manas Kumar; Kumar, Harendra; Nandi, Sukdeb

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to correlate the periparturient immune status in terms of neutrophil functions and cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with impending postpartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes. Forty pregnant buffaloes were observed for occurrence of postpartum reproductive disorders (PRD), i.e., metritis, endometritis and delayed uterine involution etc., during one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period. A representative number (n = 6) of buffaloes that did not develop any PRD were included in group I (healthy, control), while the animals which experienced PRD were assigned into group II (PRD, n = 8). The blood samples were collected at weekly interval from one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period considering the day of calving as ‘d 0’. Differential leucocytes counts, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production activity in isolated neutrophils and the mRNA expression profile of cytokines i.e., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ in PBMC culture were studied in all the samples. A higher total leucocytes, neutrophil and band cells count along with impaired neutrophil functions i.e., lowered level of production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide before parturition and during early postpartum period were observed in buffaloes developing PRD. Further, a lower expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA in PBMC culture was observed at calving in buffaloes that subsequently developed PRD at later postpartum. Thus, suppression in neutrophil function and cytokine expression at prepartum to early postpartum period predisposes the buffaloes to develop postpartum reproductive disorders. Hence, monitoring of neutrophils function and cytokine expression profile would be effective to predict certain reproductive disorders at late pregnancy or immediately after parturition in buffaloes. In future, this may be a novel approach for determining suitable management and therapeutic decisions for prevention of commonly occurring reproductive disorders in farm animals. PMID:25049724

  18. Fournier's gangrene secondary to an acutely inflamed appendix herniating into the deep inguinal ring.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Piyush B; Khan, Mashuk; Zilvetti, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) requires prompt recognition and management. We report the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with extensive pain and purple discolouration from the right iliac fossa to perineum. Computed tomography demonstrated gas within the right hemiscrotum extending into the inguinal canal and right buttock, with a right pelvic fluid and air collection. At debridement necrotic fluid was arising from the superficial inguinal ring so laparotomy was performed, revealing a grossly inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal; a right hemicolectomy was performed. Unfortunately, the patient went into cardiac arrest and passed away on the operating table. Histological analysis demonstrated acute-on-chronic inflammation involving the appendix. The condition where appendicitis is implicated in FG is usually due to retroperitoneal rupture and tracking into the perineal spaces. This is the first case reported of an inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal and thus causing FG. PMID:25829533

  19. Pedal Gangrenous Changes in the Digits of an Adolescent With Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bhoola, Prashant H; Shtofmakher, Garry; Bahri, Ankur; Patel, Ankur A; Barlizo, Sharon R; Trepal, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the colon and is occasionally associated with thrombosis. We report the case of an adolescent with ulcerative colitis who presented with bilateral gangrenous toes without signs of ascending cellulitis. Radiographs indicated the presence of bilateral and erosive changes in the distal phalanges. The vascular team referred the patient for podiatric intervention for distal vasculitis and thrombosis of the digital vessels. Transphalangeal amputations were performed, and postoperative antibiotics were initiated. The surgical sites healed uneventfully, and the patient was able to resume daily activities. Thrombosis of the foot in the context of ulcerative colitis is a rare, but serious, complication that can lead to serious comorbidities, including amputation. PMID:25135104

  20. Atopobium deltae sp. nov., isolated from the blood of a patient with Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Cools, Piet; Oyaert, Matthijs; Vaneechoutte, Mario; De Laere, Emmanuel; Vervaeke, Steven

    2014-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, obligately anaerobic, short rod, designated strain HHRM1715(T), was isolated from the blood of a patient with Fournier's gangrene, complicated by sepsis. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain HHRM1715(T) was shown to belong to the genus Atopobium and was most closely related to Atopobium minutum (95?% similarity). The results of 16S rRNA-gene-based phylogenetic analysis, cellular fatty acid analysis and differential biochemical tests, showed that strain HHRM1715(T) represented a novel species of the genus Atopobium. We therefore describe Atopobium deltae sp. nov. with HHRM1715(T) (?=?LMG 27987(T)?=?CCUG 65171(T)) as the type strain and propose an emended description of the genus Atopobium with regard to the DNA G+C content. PMID:24944340

  1. Fournier's gangrene secondary to an acutely inflamed appendix herniating into the deep inguinal ring

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Piyush B.; Khan, Mashuk; Zilvetti, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) requires prompt recognition and management. We report the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with extensive pain and purple discolouration from the right iliac fossa to perineum. Computed tomography demonstrated gas within the right hemiscrotum extending into the inguinal canal and right buttock, with a right pelvic fluid and air collection. At debridement necrotic fluid was arising from the superficial inguinal ring so laparotomy was performed, revealing a grossly inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal; a right hemicolectomy was performed. Unfortunately, the patient went into cardiac arrest and passed away on the operating table. Histological analysis demonstrated acute-on-chronic inflammation involving the appendix. The condition where appendicitis is implicated in FG is usually due to retroperitoneal rupture and tracking into the perineal spaces. This is the first case reported of an inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal and thus causing FG. PMID:25829533

  2. Partial penectomy after debridement of a Fournier's gangrene progressing with an isolated penile necrosis.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Fatih; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Sonmezay, Erkan; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Ozgor, Faruk; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan

    2014-09-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic and immune compromised patients. Here, we report an unusual case of FG with isolated glans penis necrosis in a diabetic 77-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department complaining 5 days of pain and darkening of the glans penis. Examination of the patient's glans penis was consistent with FG and included significant erythema and infectious discharge. He was given intravenous antibiotics and emergency debridement was done. On following days, the necrotic area spread to distal parts of both cavernosal areas. Partial penectomy was performed. Isolated penile involvement in FG is very rare. Performing partial penectomy in appropriate cases can save penile length, stop the progression of disease, and increase the quality of life. PMID:25541853

  3. Solitary Candida albicans Infection Causing Fournier Gangrene and Review of Fungal Etiologies.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Tiffany A; Bieniek, Jared M; Sumfest, Joel M

    2014-01-01

    Polymicrobial bacterial infections are commonly found in cases of Fournier gangrene (FG), although fungal growth may occur occasionally. Solitary fungal organisms causing FG have rarely been reported. The authors describe a case of an elderly man with a history of diabetes who presented with a necrotizing scrotal and perineal soft tissue infection. He underwent emergent surgical debridement with findings of diffuse urethral stricture disease and urinary extravasation requiring suprapubic tube placement. Candida albicans was found to be the single causative organism on culture, and the patient recovered well following antifungal treatment. Fungal infections should be considered as rare causes of necrotizing fasciitis and antifungal treatment considered in at-risk immunodeficient individuals. PMID:25009452

  4. Surgically treated gangrenous or perforated appendicitis. A comparison of aztreonam and clindamycin versus gentamicin and clindamycin.

    PubMed Central

    Berne, T V; Yellin, A E; Appleman, M D; Gill, M A; Chenella, F C; Heseltine, P N

    1987-01-01

    A randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical study of 84 patients with surgically treated gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was done to compare the efficacy of the combination of aztreonam, the first monobactam antibiotic, with gentamicin when either was combined with clindamycin. Fifty-six patients who were treated with aztreonam and clindamycin (A/C) and 28 patients who were treated with gentamicin and clindamycin (G/C) fulfilled criteria for evaluation. A matched historic control group of 56 G/C patients was also included for comparison. All measures of outcome, including days of fever, hospitalization, antibiotic therapy, and the incidence of antibiotic failures, were similar. It was concluded that aztreonam was as effective as gentamicin in this study and may offer some advantages with regard to toxicity and serum drug level monitoring. PMID:3545106

  5. Diabetic Foot Gangrene Patient with Multi-drug Resistant Pseudomonas Putida Infection in Karawaci District, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hardjo Lugito, Nata Pratama; Nawangsih, Cucu; Moksidy, Jevany Claudia; Kurniawan, Andree; Tjiang, Margaret Merlyn

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a rod-shaped, non fermenting Gram-negative organism frequently found in the environment that utilizes aerobic metabolism, previously thought to be of low pathogenicity. It had been reported as cause of skin and soft tissue infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. A female green grocer, 51 year-old came to internal medicine out-patient clinic with gangrene and osteomyelitis on her 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) digit and wound on the sole of the right foot since 1 month prior. The patient had history of uncontrolled diabetes since a year ago. She was given ceftriaxone 2 grams b.i.d, metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d empirically and then amikacin 250 mg b.i.d, followed by amputation of the digits and wound debridement. The microorganism's culture from pus revealed multi drug resistant Pseudomonas putida. She recovered well after antibiotics and surgery. PMID:25722620

  6. Gas Gangrene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Surgically removing the dead and infected tissue Administering penicillin intravenously Managing shock and other complications Possibly treating ... it with water and start antibiotics such as penicillin or clindamycin. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source ...

  7. Fournier's gangrene: early diagnosis. How to diagnose, how to manage it.

    PubMed

    Polistena, A; Cavallaro, G; D'Ermo, G; Avenia, N; De Toma, G

    2014-04-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rare surgical emergency and a life-threatening condition with a rapidly progressive gangrene defined as a necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal or genital areas leading to septic shock and death if untreated. Risk factors are diabetes, immune compromise, obesity, drug use, or genital trauma. Patients are treated by incision and drainage. Aim of the study is to analyze cases of early manifestations of FG and consider aspect of diagnosis based on clinical presentation and the importance of precocious surgical treatment. We had experience of early lesions of FG in 22 cases. We report three cases in which the initial clinical presentation was typical of precocious signs referable to FG. Foley catheter was used in all cases, no diverting colostomy was performed. The patients were treated by artificial i.v. feeding. No extensive demolition of perineal tissues were operated, neither plastic surgery was required. Antibiotic therapy combined to surgical treatment with incision and drainage were performed in all cases. Admission in the intensive care unit was effective when indicated. No mortality was registered in all 22 cases of the series. FG is rare, severe condition requiring a multidisciplinary approach. An early diagnosis and an aggressive surgical treatment, improved by antibiotic therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and proper wound care are the key points of FG management. In selected patients, colostomy or cystostomy must be considered when simple catheterization is not sufficient. Severe cases must be therefore referred to high-volume and specialized centres with specialist professional and intensive care facilities. PMID:24847898

  8. Case of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unusual Venous Infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraju, Susheel Kumar; Pasupaleti, Bhimeswarao; Juluri, Naganarasimharaju

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively rare condition when compared with vascular accidents of arterial origin representing 0.5-1% of all strokes. Unlike arterial infarcts parenchymal changes are seldom present and when present most of the times are reversible. We present a case report of 28-year-old female with thrombosis of internal cerebral veins and straight sinus and hemorrhagic infarcts in bilateral basal ganglia and bilateral thalami .The findings of bilateral symmetrical hyper intensities in basal ganglia and thalami on MRI may be due to various causes of diverse etiology and cerebral venous thrombosis remains an important cause. Early recognition and prompt anticoagulation therapy helps to reduce the mortality to a great extent. The MRI imaging features of straight sinus thrombosis and other imaging differentials are discussed. PMID:26023623

  9. Sepsis, venous return, and teleology.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, R G

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of heart-circulation interaction is crucial to our ability to guide our patients through an episode of septic shock. Our knowledge has advanced greatly in the last one hundred years. There are, however, certain empirical phenomena that may lead us to question the wisdom of our prevailing treatment algorithm. Three extreme but iatrogenically possible haemodynamic states exist. Firstly, inappropriately low venous return; secondly, overzealous arteriolar constriction; and finally, misguided inotropy and chronotropy. Following an unsuccessful fluid challenge, it would be logical to first set the venous tone, then set the cardiac rate and contractility, and finally set the peripheral vascular resistance. It is hypothesized that a combination of dihydroergotamine, milrinone and esmolol should be superior to a combination of noradrenaline and dobutamine for surviving sepsis. PMID:25245463

  10. Hyperintensity in the subarachnoid space on contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging after central venous catheter removal.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyusik; Lee, Sehoon

    2013-10-01

    Cerebral air embolism is a rare complication of central venous catheterization. A 61-year-old man developed a left-sided hemiparesis immediately after his right jugular venous catheter removal. A diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained 2 h after the symptom onset was normal. However, postgadolinium cerebral spinal fluid enhancement was seen on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MRI. A repeat diffusion-weighted MRI, 18 h later, showed restricted diffusion in the bilateral hemispheres. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier caused by the air bubbles might lead to accumulation of gadolinium in the subarachnoid space. Postgadolinium cerebral spinal fluid enhancement may be an early, sensitive predictor of blood-brain barrier disruption and impending cerebral infarct after air embolism. PMID:23733105

  11. Treatment of High-risk Venous Thrombosis Patients Using Low-dose Intraclot Injections of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Regional Anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Richard; Butman, John A.; Lonser, Russell R.; Sherry, Richard M.; Pandalai, Prakash K.; Horne, McDonald K.; Lozier, Jay N.

    2013-01-01

    Seven patients with venous thrombosis and contraindications to traditional thrombolytic therapy, consisting of recent intracranial surgery, recent pineal or retroperitoneal hemorrhage, active genitourinary or gastrointestinal bleeding, epidural procedures, and impending surgery, were successfully treated with a modified thrombolytic regimen. To improve safety, prolonged continuous infusions of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was eliminated in favor of once-daily low-dose intraclot injections of tPA to minimize the amount and duration of tPA in the systemic circulation, and low-therapeutic or regional anticoagulation was used to reduce anticoagulant risks. These modifications may allow thrombolytic treatment for selected patients with severe venous thrombosis who are deemed to be at high risk. PMID:23273695

  12. Venous allografts for vascular reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Vermassen, F; Degrieck, N; De Kock, L; Goubeau, J; Van Landuyt, K; Derom, F

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate various protocols for the preservation of venous allografts 162 arterial reconstructions were performed in mongrel dogs bypassing their ligated femoral arteries. The cumulative 6-month patency-rates as determined by weekly palpation and regular angiography were. Group I = Synthetic grafts: (a) Dacron 48%, (b) PTFE 53%. Group II = Fresh venous grafts: (a) autografts 100%, (b) allografts 37%. Group III = Veins preserved in saline at 4 degrees C for 1 month: (a) autografts 44%, (b) allografts 34%. Group IV = Veins preserved in saline at -70 degrees C: (a) autografts 58%, (b) allografts 47%. Group V = Veins preserved in glutaraldehyde solution: (a) autografts 26%, (b) allografts 22%. Group VI = Veins preserved in Hanks-solution with 15% DMSO at -160 degrees C: (a) autografts 77%, (b) allografts 35%. Histological as well as immunological studies suggest that these results are determined by the preservation protocol in Groups III, IV and V and by the presence of rejection in Groups I and VI. As the results with the allografts are not superior to those obtained with synthetic grafts, their use should be confined to those cases where the use of synthetic materials should be avoided at any price. Further experiments with immunosuppression and antigenic matching are indicated to see whether this would improve the results obtained with viable venous allografts. PMID:1287000

  13. Benign surgical emphysema of the hand and upper limb: gas is not always gangrene—a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Andreas; Ekwobi, C; Sheick, H; Ho?Asjoe, M

    2007-01-01

    Subcutaneous emphysema of the hand can result from benign causes. Differentiating this from emphysema caused by gas?forming organisms is essential in the acute stages of presentation as the management differs considerably. We present two cases of benign surgical emphysema and highlight the importance of distinguishing between this and gas gangrene. A considered history and the absence of systemic features associated with benign causes of subcutaneous air will prevent unnecessary surgical exploration. PMID:17954847

  14. Fistula-in-Ano Complicated by Fournier's Gangrene Our Experience in North-Eastern Region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Ali, Nuhu; Gadam, Ibrahim A; Gali, Bata M; Tahir, Chubado; Yawe, KDT; Dahiru, Adamu B; Mohammed, Baba S; Wadinga, Dauda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fistula-in-ano when complicated by Fournier's gangrene is an unusual finding and always carries high morbidity. This study details our experience in managing 10 cases. Methods of Study: Case files of all patients managed in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and Federal Medical Center of Yola and Gombe from January, 2007 to December, 2011 were retrieved from Medical Record Departments and other Hospital Records. These were analyzed for demographic, clinical and pathological variables, the type of treatment and follow-up. Results: A total of 10 men with a mean age of 50.5 years (35-60) were managed in the period of study. Nearly, 50% of the patients were farmers, 30% businessmen and 20% were civil servant. 7 (70%) of these patients presented with Fournier's gangrene within 4 weeks of development of fistula-in-ano and the rest within 8 weeks. 4 (40%) of these patients had inadequate drainage of their perianal abscess and 2 (20%) had incision and drainage. Another 4 (40%) had spontaneously rupture of the perianal abscess. 6 (60%) of the fistula-in-ano was submuscular, 30% subcutaneous and 10% were complex or recurrent. Nearly, 20% of patients had fistulotomy and seton application for adequate drainage. Mucosal advancement flap was performed in 5 (50%) and fistulotomy in 3 (30%) patients. Another 30% had fistulotomy and continuing sitz bath. Conclusion: Cryptoglandular infection is an important cause of perianal abscesses and fistula-in-ano and if poorly managed results in Fournier's gangrene. Early broad spectrum parenteral antibiotic therapy and primary surgical treatment can prevent Fournier's gangrene. PMID:24497752

  15. Early scrotal approximation after hemiscrotectomy in patients with Fournier’s gangrene prevents scrotal reconstruction with skin graft

    PubMed Central

    Akilov, Oleg; Pompeo, Alexandre; Sehrt, David; Bowlin, Paul; Molina, Wilson R.; Kim, Fernando J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We report the outcomes of an early loose closure of the scrotum with a modified U-stitch to minimize use of split thickens skin graft for patients with hemiscrotal tissue loss after surgical debridement. Methods: From January 2006 to August 2011, 28 male patients presented with Fournier’s gangrene, requiring major urological surgical care and scrotal debridement at Denver Health Medical Center. Surgical outcomes were compared between patients receiving a novel U-Stitch approximation and those treated by traditional management. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47.1 ± 10.2 years. In total 8 patients (2.2%) developed bacteremia and 3 (0.1%) had methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. There was conversion from the U-Stitch approximation patients to traditional management. U-stitch patients required less hospitalization than patients requiring split-thickness skin graft (STSG) due to loss of >50% of the total scrotal tissue (11 vs. 35 days, p = 0.081). The U-stitch demonstrated non-inferiority to traditional treatment. Conclusion: Immediate loose scrotal wound approximation with efficient surgical debridement for Fournier’s gangrene may prevent testis exposure facilitating local wound treatment, decreasing the length of hospital stay in patients with Fournier’s gangrene involving the scrotum. Future randomized trials may validate these findings. PMID:23914264

  16. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Applied Before and After Split-Thickness Skin Graft Helps Healing of Fournier Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Junna; Xie, Ting; Wu, Minjie; Ni, Pengwen; Lu, Shuliang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fournier gangrene is a rare but highly infectious disease characterized by fulminant necrotizing fasciitis involving the genital and perineal regions. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT; KCI USA Inc, San Antonio, TX) is a widely adopted technique in many clinical settings. Nevertheless, its application and effect in the treatment of Fournier gangrene are unclear. A 47-year-old male patient was admitted with an anal abscess followed by a spread of the infection to the scrotum, which was caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NPWT was applied on the surface of the scrotal area and continued for 10 days. A split-thickness skin graft from the scalp was then grafted to the wound, after which, NPWT utilizing gauze sealed with an occlusive dressing and connected to a wall suction was employed for 7 days to secure the skin graft. At discharge, the percentage of the grafted skin alive on the scrotum was 98%. The wound beside the anus had decreased to 4?×?0.5?cm with a depth of 1?cm. Follow-up at the clinic 1 month later showed that both wounds had healed. The patient did not complain of any pain or bleeding, and was satisfied with the outcome. NPWT before and after split-thickness skin grafts is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in the treatment of Fournier gangrene. PMID:25654376

  17. Xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix promotes growth of granulation tissues in the wound healing of Fournier gangrene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoxin; Lv, Lei; Mamat, Masut; Chen, Zhao; Zhou, Zhitao; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the application values of Xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix (XADM) in preparation of a Fournier gangrene wound bed. Thirty-six consecutive cases of patients with Fournier gangrene between 2002 and 2012 were enrolled in our department of our hospital. The patients were divided into two groups according to different methods of wound bed preparation after surgical débridement, including the experimental group (17 cases) and the control group (19 cases). The wounds in the experimental group were covered with XADM after surgical wound débridement, whereas the wounds were cleaned with hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite solution (one time/day) in the control group. The wound bed preparation time and hospital stay were then compared in the two groups. The wound preparation time was 13.64 ± 1.46 days and hospitalization period was 26.06 ± 0.83 days in the experimental XADM group. In the control group, the wound bed preparation time and hospitalization period were 22.37 ± 1.38 and 38.11 ± 5.60 days, respectively. The results showed statistical differences between these two groups. When used in wound débridement after Fournier gangrene, XADM protects interecological organizations, promotes the growth of granulation tissues, and maximally retains function and morphology of the perineum and penis. PMID:25569072

  18. Drug treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulceration: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Cheatle, T R; Scurr, J H; Smith, P D

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of venous insufficiency and venous ulceration has for many years relied on established principles of compression and limb elevation. Drug treatment has been of little benefit. In recent years, a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying skin damage in venous disease has allowed more rational pharmacotherapeutic approaches to be made. This review examines these, with special reference to current theories of the cause of venous ulceration. PMID:2061904

  19. Optimizing Venous Drainage Using an Ultrasonic Flow Probe on the Venous Line

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Joshua L.; Young, Haven A.; Lawson, D. Scott; Husain, S. Adil; Calhoon, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The use of smaller cannulae for minimally invasive surgery techniques and/or aggressive miniaturization of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuitry has necessitated the need to augment venous drainage to achieve adequate flow rates. Vacuum assisted venous drainage (VAVD) has become the dominant method to augment venous drainage. VAVD, however, has been associated with a number of known side effects including increased transmission of gaseous microemboli to the patient, venous line chatter, and increased arterial to venous shunts in the circuit. Historically, our practice has been to monitor the arterial output flow rate and to monitor VAVD by observing venous line chatter and changes in the venous reservoir level. In 2008 our pediatric cardiothoracic service began monitoring venous line flow rates by using a second ultrasonic flow probe placed on the venous line. After 12 months, our staff perfusionists reviewed the impact of monitoring venous line flow rates on VAVD and its known side effects on daily clinical practice. When monitoring venous line flow rates, empiric observation revealed that less overall vacuum pressure was needed for our CPB cases. This novel approach to monitoring venous drainage has aided us in providing optimal vacuum levels and therefore, may reduce some of the known side effects experienced with excessive VAVD. PMID:22164455

  20. [Central venous access in adults].

    PubMed

    Thorup, Line; Frederiksen, Joachim Møller

    2014-12-15

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are most commonly used in patients undergoing major surgery, patients admitted to the intensive care unit and in haematological and oncological departments. The placement of a CVC allows life saving and life prolonging treatment. The choice of catheter depends on the disease of the patient, catheter requirement, intended treatment, local preferences and expected period of use. Complications associated with CVC can be severe and potentially life threatening. The incidence of infectious/thrombotic complications and catheter dysfunction increases with the number of indwelling days. PMID:25534225

  1. Gradients and phase velocities of ULF geomagnetic disturbances used to determine the source of an impending strong earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismaguilov, V. S.; Kopytenko, Yu. A.; Hattori, K.; Hayakawa, M.

    2006-05-01

    Results of studying the behavior of the vectors of gradients and phase velocities of ULF geomagnetic disturbances ( F < 1 Hz) in the Japan seismic zone are presented. The gradient and phase velocity vectors along the Earth’s surface were determined using data of the group of three high-sensitivity three-component magnetovariation stations (MVC-3DS) located at triangle vertices at a small (˜5 km) distance from one another (magnetic gradiometer). Two such groups of stations were installed in 1999 southwest and southeast of Tokyo at a distance of ˜150 km from each other. It has been indicated that, several months before strong earthquakes ( M > 5), the values of gradients and phase velocities start anomalously changing, and directions toward sources of impending strong earthquakes appear in the distribution of gradient vector directions. Directions from sources of impending earthquakes appear in the distribution of phase velocity vector directions. It is proposed to use gradients and phase velocities of ULF and ELF geomagnetic disturbances as one of the factors in a short-term prediction of strong earthquakes.

  2. Transhepatic Venous Approach for Balloon-assisted Cervical Collateral Venous Access

    SciTech Connect

    Eyheremendy, Eduardo P.; Malizia, Patricio; Sierre, Sergio

    2011-12-15

    Central venous catheter placement is indicated in many situations, and an increasing number of patients require temporary and long-term central catheters. Frequently, patients who have undergone multiple central veins catheterizations develop complete and diffuse venous occlusion, and this constitutes a difficult-to-manage clinical problem. We report a case of a 20-year-old patient who was referred to our department for central venous line placement who manifested bilateral femoral, jugular, and subclavian veins occlusion. A central venous catheter was implanted through a cervical collateral vein, targeting on and puncturing an angioplasty balloon, and advanced into the collateral vein through a transhepatic venous access.

  3. Clostridium septicum Gas Gangrene in Colon Cancer: Importance of Early Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Nanjappa, Sowmya; Shah, Sweta; Pabbathi, Smitha

    2015-01-01

    The Clostridia species are responsible for some of the deadliest diseases including gas gangrene, tetanus, and botulism. Clostridium septicum is a rare subgroup known to cause atraumatic myonecrosis and is associated with colonic malignancy or immunosuppression. It is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus found in the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to direct, spontaneous infections of the bowel and peritoneal cavity. The anaerobic glycolysis of the tumor produces an acidic, hypoxic environment favoring germination of clostridial spores. Tumor-induced mucosal ulceration allows for translocation of sporulated bacteria from the bowel into the bloodstream, leading to fulminant sepsis. C. septicum bacteremia can have a variable presentation and is associated with greater than 60% mortality rate. The majority of deaths occur within the first 24 hours if diagnosis and appropriate treatment measures are not promptly started. We report a case of abdominal myonecrosis in a patient with newly diagnosed colon cancer. The aim of this study is to stress the importance of maintaining a high suspicion of C. septicum infection in patients with underlying colonic malignancy. PMID:26793397

  4. [Fournier's gangrene, a battle won. Traditional cures versus a polyhexanide solution].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Cancio, M Concepción; Verdú Moresco, Aránzazu; Lorente Fernández, Gemma

    2008-11-01

    This article won the top place in the Third Prontosan Scientific Prize in 2008. Fournier's Gangrene is a rare process having an unknown origin which affects soft tissue in the genital and perirectal area. The authors describe the case of a 61 year old patient suffering from this disease, the recommended treatment by the Nurses' Consulting Office for Bed Sores, or Decubitus Ulcers, and Chronic Skin Ulcerations, and the patient's evolution. The medical team carried out a complete evaluation of this patient and his/her injury and took a sample to make a surface culture from. After this initial evaluation, the medical team's first recommendation was to apply treatment consisting of using polyhexanide combined with a calcic alginate dressing to control oozing; the objective of this treatment is to clean and decontaminate the wound and to provide the optimum conditions for a correct cicatrisation process in the least time possible. After 58 days undergoing treatment, the affected area did not show any sign nor symptom of infection and was practically finished with the cicatrisation process. The use of polyhexanide, in this case, proved to be the ideal therapeutic option to clean, decontaminate and maintain the conditions optimum for a correct cicatrisation of this wound. PMID:19203119

  5. Quantitative real-time PCR assay for Clostridium septicum in poultry gangrenous dermatitis associated samples.

    PubMed

    Neumann, A P; Dunham, S M; Rehberger, T G; Siragusa, G R

    2010-08-01

    Clostridium septicum is a spore-forming anaerobe frequently implicated in cases of gangrenous dermatitis (GD) and other spontaneously occurring myonecrotic infections of poultry. Although C. septicum is readily cultured from diseased tissues it can be difficult to enumerate due to its tendency to swarm over the surface of agar plates. In this study a quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed in order to more accurately measure the levels of C. septicum in healthy as well as GD associated poultry samples. The assay was specifically designed to target the C. septicum alpha toxin gene, csa, which is, to our knowledge, carried by all strains of C. septicum and has been shown to be essential for virulence. Genomic DNAs from a diverse collection of bacterial species, including closely related Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium carnis, Clostridium tertium as well as several strains of Clostridium perfringens, all failed to produce a positive reaction. An approximate reproducible limit of detection in spiked extracts of at least 10(3) cfu/g of C. septicum was observed for a variety of different sample types. C. septicum levels in broiler chicken field samples estimated from the results of qPCR were statistically correlated to culture based enumerations obtained from those same tissues. PMID:20399850

  6. [Fournier's gangrene-variety of clinical model of critical states in surgery].

    PubMed

    Aliev, S A; Aliev, E S; Mirzoev, R A; Mirzoeva, K A

    2015-01-01

    The investigation based on a retrospective analysis of the treatment results of Fournier's gangrene (FG) in 27 patients aged from 34 till 82 years old. There were 27 patients. Diseases of colorectal zone were the nosological reasons of FG in 15 patients. Diseases of urogenital tract had 10 patients with FG. The development of FG was determined by closed trauma (1 patient) and a gunshot wound of the perineum and the scrotum in one patient. The slowly progressive (limited) forms of the disease were noted in 15 patients, although the rapid progressive (extensive) forms were in 12 patients.All the patients had the clinical manifestations of the disease and at the same time laboratory indices indicated a presence of generalized infection and they were characterized by symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). There were 6 patient, who died out of 27.The lethality consisted of 22.2%. The reasons of the death were an infection-toxic shock (1 case), a progressive endotoxicosis (3 cases) and a pulmonary artery thromboembolism (2 cases). The results obtained testified that early diagnostics and the active strategy with radical surgical d-bridement of necrotic suppurative foci combined with programmed (staged) sanitation necrosectomy, complex system of local wound treatment, the rational antibacterial therapy, a task-specific and syndrome correction of dyscrasia could be the actual ways to improve the treatment results in patients with FG. PMID:25962304

  7. Rectal cancer and Fournier’s gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  8. Stent Placement on Fresh Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vorwerk, Dierk; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schuermann, Karl

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To report on the efficacy of fixing fresh venous thrombus to the venous wall by stent placement. Methods: Seven patients underwent stenting to treat acute venous thrombosis. In two patients, the hemodialysis fistula was thrombosed with the thrombus extending into the brachial veins. In three patients, the hemodialysis fistula was patent but massive swelling of the ipsilateral arm was caused by proximal venous thrombosis. Two patients presented with iliac venous thrombosis within stented pelvic veins. Stent placement was preceded by other mechanical thrombectomy methods in all cases. Results: Attachment of thrombus to the venous wall was successful in all cases treated. Acute rethrombosis did not occur. Follow-up patency in dialysis patients was 7.2 {+-} 2.1 months. One patient had rethrombosis of the dialysis graft 3 months after primary treatment. Three patients developed restenosis within a mean period of 7.7 months. One shunt remained patent for 10 months with no event of reobstruction during follow-up. In both patients with iliac stent placement, the vein remained patent over a follow-up period of 8 and 12 months respectively. Conclusion: Stenting fresh venous thrombus can achieve immediate venous patency. It may be used as an alternative approach when all other percutaneous methods fail. Frequent restenosis within stented veins limits its use to very selected cases.

  9. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M. Kleidon, Tricia M.

    2005-12-15

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  10. The venous circulation: a piscine perspective.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Erik; Axelsson, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Vascular capacitance describes the pressure-volume relationship of the circulatory system. The venous vasculature, which is the main capacitive region in the circulation, is actively controlled by various neurohumoral systems. In terrestrial animals, vascular capacitance control is crucial to prevent orthostatic blood pooling in dependent limbs, while in aquatic animals like fish, the effects of gravity are cancelled out by hydrostatic forces making orthostatic blood pooling an unlikely concern for these animals. Nevertheless, changes in venous capacitance have important implications on cardiovascular homeostasis in fish since it affects venous return and cardiac filling pressure (i.e. central venous blood pressure), which in turn may affect cardiac output. The mean circulatory filling pressure is used to estimate vascular capacitance. In unanaesthetized animals, it is measured as the central venous plateau pressure during a transient stoppage of cardiac output. So far, most studies of venous function in fish have addressed the situation in teleosts (notably the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), while any information on elasmobranchs, cyclostomes and air-breathing fishes is more limited. This review describes venous haemodynamic concepts and neurohumoral control systems in fish. Particular emphasis is placed on venous responses to natural cardiovascular challenges such as exercise, environmental hypoxia and temperature changes. PMID:17920321

  11. Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lionaki, Sophia; Derebail, Vimal K.; Hogan, Susan L.; Barbour, Sean; Lee, Taewoo; Hladunewich, Michelle; Greenwald, Allen; Hu, Yichun; Jennette, Caroline E.; Jennette, J. Charles; Falk, Ronald J.; Cattran, Daniel C.; Nachman, Patrick H.; Reich, Heather N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of venous thromboembolic events in a large cohort of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and to identify predisposing risk factors. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We studied patients with biopsy-proven membranous nephropathy from the Glomerular Disease Collaborative Network (n=412) and the Toronto Glomerulonephritis Registry (n=486) inception cohorts. The cohorts were pooled after establishing similar baseline characteristics (total n=898). Clinically apparent and radiologically confirmed venous thromboembolic events were identified. Potential risk factors were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Sixty-five (7.2%) subjects had at least one venous thromboembolic event, and this rate did not differ significantly between registries. Most venous thromboembolic events occurred within 2 years of first clinical assessment (median time to VTE = 3.8 months). After adjusting for age, sex, proteinuria, and immunosuppressive therapy, hypoalbuminemia at diagnosis was the only independent predictor of a venous thromboembolic event. Each 1.0 g/dl reduction in serum albumin was associated with a 2.13-fold increased risk of VTE. An albumin level <2.8 g/dl was the threshold below which risk for a venous thromboembolic event was greatest. Conclusions We conclude that clinically apparent venous thromboembolic events occur in about 7% of patients with membranous nephropathy. Hypoalbuminemia, particularly <2.8 g/dl, is the most significant independent predictor of venous thrombotic risk. PMID:22076873

  12. Septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Ismail A; Wasay, Mohammad

    2016-03-15

    Septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, once a common and deadly disease, has fortunately become rare now. Not only that the incidence has fallen significantly after the antibiotic era, the morbidity and mortality has also decreased substantially. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is by far the commonest form of septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Due to its rare occurrence, a lot of current generation clinicians have not encountered the entity in person. Despite all the advances in diagnostic modalities, a high index of clinical suspicion remains the mainstay in prompt diagnosis and management of this potentially lethal condition. Keeping this in view, the authors have reviewed the subject including the old literature and have summarized the current approach to diagnosis and management. Septic cavernous thrombosis is a fulminant disease with dramatic presentation in most cases comprised of fever, periorbital pain and swelling, associated with systemic symptoms and signs. The preceding infection is usually in the central face or paranasal sinuses. The disease rapidly spreads to contralateral side and if remains undiagnosed and untreated can result in severe complications or even death. Prompt diagnosis using radiological imaging in suspected patient, early use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and judicial use of anticoagulation may save the life and prevent disability. Surgery is used only to treat the nidus of infection. PMID:26944152

  13. Coronary venous oximetry using MRI.

    PubMed

    Foltz, W D; Merchant, N; Downar, E; Stainsby, J A; Wright, G A

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Fick law, coronary venous blood oxygen measurements have value for assessing functional parameters such as the coronary flow reserve. At present, the application of this measure is restricted by its invasive nature. This report describes the design and testing of a noninvasive coronary venous blood oxygen measurement using MRI, with a preliminary focus on the coronary sinus. After design optimization including a four-coil phased array and an optimal set of data acquisition parameters, quality tests indicate measurement precision on the order of the gold standard optical measurement (3%O(2)). Comparative studies using catheter sampling suggest reasonable accuracy (3 subjects), with variability dominated by sampling location uncertainty ( approximately 7%O(2)). Intravenous dipyridamole (5 subjects) induces significant changes in sinus blood oxygenation (22 +/- 9% O(2)), corresponding to flow reserves of 1.8 +/- 0.4, suggesting the potential for clinical utility. Underestimation of flow reserve is dominated by right atrial mixing and the systemic effects of dipyridamole. Magn Reson Med 42:837-848, 1999. PMID:10542342

  14. Venous pressure in man during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, K. A.; Roecker, L.; Gauer, O. H.; Krause, R.; Wicke, H. J.; Leach, C.; Landry, R.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether the body fluid shift from the lower limbs toward the head that occurs during spaceflight leads to lasting increases of venous pressure in the upper body, venous pressure and hematocrit measurements were made on four astronauts before flight and 1 and 12 hours after recovery and compared with measurements in space. During the mission the hematocrit was elevated and the venous pressure lowered by 1 to 8 centimeters of water as compared with the preflight data. One hour after landing the hematocrit decreased, indicating a hemodilution, venous pressures were unexpectedly high, and a body weight loss of 4 to 5 percent was observed. Twelve hours later the venous pressures were the lowest recorded during the study. The fluid shift apparently takes place during the first several hours of spaceflight. Thereafter, the pressure in the peripheral veins and the central circulation is lower than that measured before flight.

  15. Venous anatomy of the thumb.

    PubMed

    Matloub, H S; Strathy, K M; Sanger, J R; Yousif, N J

    1991-11-01

    The venous anatomy of 20 thumbs (10 pairs) was detailed by latex injection. The thumbs were studied on the dorsal, palmar, radial, and ulnar surfaces. Characteristic patterns were found; these included a dominant longitudinal network, palmar veins within the pulp, oblique veins at the interphalangeal joint on the radial side, and a web space vein. A layered vascular pattern with a superficial fine network overlying a deeper system was noted. Cross sections were taken at the metacarpophalangeal joint and at the proximal and distal phalanges. The distribution of the vessels in cross section reveals consistent dorsal veins at all levels, as well as palmar veins distal to the interphalangeal joint in all thumbs. Palmar veins were present over the length of the proximal phalanx in more than 65% of the thumbs. PMID:1748753

  16. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Heit, John A; Spencer, Frederick A; White, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is categorized by the U.S. Surgeon General as a major public health problem. VTE is relatively common and associated with reduced survival and substantial health-care costs, and recurs frequently. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and VTE risk factors, including increasing patient age and obesity, hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, nursing-home confinement, active cancer, trauma or fracture, immobility or leg paresis, superficial vein thrombosis, and, in women, pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent VTE risk factors and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be relatively constant, or even increasing. PMID:26780736

  17. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2010-06-29

    Risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) are often modifiable and overlap with risk factors for coronary artery disease. Encouraging our patients to adopt a heart-healthy lifestyle by abstaining from cigarettes, maintaining lean weight, limiting red meat intake, and controlling hypertension might lower the risk of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), although a cause-effect relationship has not been firmly established. For hospitalized patients, guidelines have provided evidence-based strategies to identify patients at risk, such as elderly persons and those with cancer, congestive heart failure, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or undergoing major surgery. Most should receive pharmacological prophylaxis, which will minimize the risk of VTE. Because approximately 3 of every 4 pulmonary embolism and DVT events occur outside the hospital setting, patients should also be assessed for persistent high-risk of VTE at the time of hospital discharge. PMID:20620709

  18. Fournier gangrene with extensive necrosis of urethra and bladder mucosa: A rare occurrence in a patient with advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paonam, Somorendro S.; Bag, Sananda

    2015-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is polymicrobial necrotizing infection of subcutaneous tissues and deep fascia, commonly involving the perineum, external genitalia, anterior abdominal wall and medial aspect of thighs. Urethral pathology, although often the inciting factor for FG, extensive involvement with urethral necrosis is very rare. This is the first report in English literature, describing complete sloughing of the bulbar urethra with ischemic necrosis of the bladder mucosa from FG. Such extensive disease is associated with high mortality, despite higher antibiotics, through debridement and intensive care. Urethral involvement needs extensive debridement and temporary or permanent urinary diversion. PMID:26692675

  19. Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Distribution Width as Markers in the Diagnosis of Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhe; Pan, Jiyong; Zhang, Yingyi; Wang, Ziyi; Zhu, Ming; Yang, Baoshun; Shi, Lei; Jing, Huirong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Acute gangrenous appendicitis (AGA) is a common medical condition; however, the grade of appendicitis usually cannot be established preoperatively. We have attempted to identify some indicators, such as the mean platelet volume (MPV) and the platelet distribution width (PDW), to diagnose AGA. Aims. To evaluate whether or not the MPV and PDW are suitable markers to diagnose AGA. Methods. A retrospective study of 160 patients with AGA and 160 healthy patients was undertaken. Disease diagnosis was confirmed based on the pathologic examination of surgical specimens. Patient white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil ratio (NR), platelet (PLT) count, MPV, PDW, and hematocrit (HCT) were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these indices in AGA. Results. There were no significant differences between the AGA and control groups in age and gender. Compared to the control group, the WBC count, NR, and PDW were significantly higher (P < 0.001, resp.) and the MPV and HCT were significantly lower (P < 0.001, resp.) in the AGA group. The diagnostic specificities of the WBC count, NR, PLT count, MPV, PDW, and HCT were 86.3%, 92.5%, 58.1%, 81.7%, 83.9%, and 66.3%, respectively. Therefore, the NR had the highest diagnostic specificity for the diagnosis of AGA. Conclusions. This is the first study to assess the MPV and PDW in patients with AGA. Our present study showed that the MPV is reduced and the PDW is increased in patients with AGA; the sensitivity of PDW was superior to the MPV. A decreased MPV value and an increased PDW could serve as two markers to diagnose AGA. The NR had the highest specificity for the diagnosis of AGA. PMID:26688600

  20. Radiotherapy, Bisphosphonates and Surgical Stabilization of Complete or Impending Pathologic Fractures in Patients with Metastatic Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolanczyk, Michal J.; Fakhrian, Khashayar; Adamietz, Irenäus A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the treatment outcomes of patients with metastatic bone disease with complete or impending pathologic fractures, who were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT), bisphosphonates or both after orthopedic stabilization. Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the results of RT, bisphosphonates or both after orthopedic stabilization for complete or impending pathologic fractures in 72 patients with skeletal metastases. After surgery, 32 patients (44%) were treated with RT alone (group 1), 31 patients (43%) were treated with RT and bisphosphonates (group 2) and 9 (13%) patients were treated with bisphosphonates (group 3), respectively. Patients were treated with a median dose of 30Gy (30-40 Gy/2-3Gy per fraction).The local tumor progression, pain progression and need for re-operation or re-radiotherapy were assessed from patients' medical records. Median follow-up time was 9 months. Results: Median overall survival time was 14 months (95% CI: 12-17). Secondary surgical intervention at the same location was necessary in 1 patient of group 1 (2%), 2 patients of group 2(5%) and 2 patients of group 3 (15%), respectively (p=0.097). Local tumor progress was observed in 3 patients of group 1 (9%), 2 patients of group 2 (7%) and 4 patients in group 3 (44%), respectively (p=0.021). Local pain progress was observed in 19%, 16% and 67% of the same groups (p=0.011). Conclusion: Our data confirm the efficacy and necessity of postoperative RT after orthopedic stabilization for metastatic bone disease to control the local disease. Bisphosphonates do not obviate the need for RT in the management of bone metastases after surgical stabilization. The combined treatment might lead to a better local tumor and pain control. PMID:26722368

  1. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is relatively unimportant. Low calf venous compliance probably results from stiffer venous, skeletal muscle, and connective tissues, and better-developed local and central neural controls of venous distensibility. This research establishes that upper-to-lower body reduction of venous compliance can explain headward positioning of the hydrostatic indifference level in humans.

  2. Measurement of venous compliance (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirsk, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    The prime objective of this International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) investigation is to measure the bulk compliance (distensibility) of the veins in the lower leg before, during, and after spaceflight. It is of particular interest whether venous compliance over the range of both positive and negative transmural pressures (various states of venous distention and collapse) changes throughout the duration of spaceflight. Information concerning the occurrence and character of compliance changes could have implications for the design of improved antigravity suits and further the understanding of inflight and postflight venous hemodynamics.

  3. Direct puncture angiography in congenital venous malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Boxt, L.M.; Levin, D.C.; Fellows, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    Angiodysplasia of the extremities is a broad group of vascular lesions of arterial, capillary, and venous origin. They are generally detected initially during late childhood or early adulthood. Although they may cause swelling and pain, they are often asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally on physical examination performed for other reasons. One of the most troublesome diagnostic aspects of these lesions is the fact that while they consist of enlarged venous channels, standard venographic techniques may fail to demonstrate them. Three cases are described in which the diagnosis of venous angioma was made by direct needle puncture and contrast material injection, after arteriographic and/or venographic examination was either negative or nondiagnostic.

  4. Quality of life in patients with venous stasis ulcers and others with advanced venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tracz, Edyta; Zamojska, Ewa; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Zaborski, Daniel; Grzesiak, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    The quality of life (QoL) in patients with advanced venous insufficiency (including venous stasis ulcers, skin discoloration, stasis eczema, and lipodermatosclerosis) assessed using the Clinical Etiological Anatomical Pathophysiological (CEAP) and Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) classifications is presented. Also, disease features such as: intensity of pain, edema and inflammatory response that exerted the most profound effect on different domains of QoL are reported. The global QoL in patients with lower leg venous ulcerations was relatively similar to that observed in other patients with chronic venous insufficiency. The presence of venous ulcerations was associated with lower QoL in a Physical domain. Significant correlations were found between pain intensity and the values of Physical, Physiological, Level of Independence and Environmental domains, between edema intensity and Social domain as well as between the intensity of inflammatory response and Physical and Spiritual domains. PMID:25658932

  5. Asian venous thromboembolism guidelines: prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Liew, N C; Chang, Y H; Choi, G; Chu, P H; Gao, X; Gibbs, H; Ho, C O; Ibrahim, H; Kim, T K; Kritpracha, B; Lee, L H; Lee, L; Lee, W Y; Li, Y J; Nicolaides, A N; Oh, D; Pratama, D; Ramakrishnan, N; Robless, P A; Villarama-Alemany, G; Wong, R

    2012-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is under-utilized in Asia because of the misconception that its incidence is lower in Asians as compared to the Caucasians. The available data on VTE in Asia is limited due to the lack of well-designed multicenter randomized controlled trials as well as non-standardized research designs, making data comparison difficult. Emerging data indicates that the VTE incidence is not low in Asia, and is comparable to that reported in the Western literature in some instances. There is also a trend towards increasing incidence of VTE, as demonstrated by a number of hospital-based studies in Asia. This could be attributed to lifestyle changes, ageing population, increasing awareness of VTE and wider availability of Duplex ultrasound. The risk of VTE in hospitalized patients remain the same in Asians and Caucasians, even though there may be factors that are inherent to patients in Asia that influence the slight variation in incidence. The utilization rate of VTE prophylaxis remains suboptimal in Asia. The Asian Venous Thrombosis Forum (AVTF) comprises participants from various countries such as China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and experts from Australia and Europe. The forum evaluated the available data on VTE from the Asian region and formulated guidelines tailored to meet the needs of the region. We recommend that serious considerations are given to VTE prophylaxis especially in the at-risk group and a formal hospital policy be established to facilitate the implementation. On admission to the hospital, we recommend assessing the patients for both VTE and bleeding risk. We recommend mechanical prophylaxis for patients at increased risk of bleeding and utilizing it as an adjunctive measure in combination with pharmacological prophylaxis in patients with high risk of VTE. For patients undergoing general or gynecological surgery and with moderate risk for VTE, we recommend prophylaxis with one of the following: low dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux or intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC). For the same group of patients at high risk of VTE, we recommend pharmacological or combination of pharmacological and mechanical prophylaxis. For patients undergoing major orthopedic surgeries like total hip replacement, total knee replacement and proximal hip fracture surgery, we recommend using one of the following: LMWH, fondaparinux, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, dabigatran, warfarin or aspirin with IPC. For patients admitted to the hospital with acute medical illness and has moderate risk of VTE, we recommend prophylaxis with LDUH, LMWH or Fondaparinux. For the same group at high risk of VTE, we recommend combination of pharmacological and mechanical prophylaxis. PMID:23222928

  6. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  7. [Venous thromboembolic disease: presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Álvarez-Cordovés, M M; Pérez-Monje, A

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease in its clinical spectrum includes both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, which is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It is a relatively common disease with significant morbidity and requires an accurate diagnosis. They are numerous risk factors for venous thromboembolism, and there is evidence that the risk of thromboembolic disease increases proportionally to the number of predisposing risk factors present. The primary care physician should know the risk factors and suspect the presence of venous thromboembolic disease when there is a compatible clnical picture. The treatment for this pathology is anticoagulation. We report a patient with cardiovascular risk factors who was seen with pain in the right leg and shortness of breath and referred to the hospital with suspected venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and pleural effusion. PMID:23834985

  8. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  9. Fournier’s gangrene: A retrospective analysis of 26 cases in a Canadian hospital and literature review

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Michael; Valiquette, Anne Sophie; Ismail, Salima

    2015-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of all cases of Fournier’s Gangrene (FG) at our hospital over a 12-year period. A total of 26 cases were assessed. Our goal was to determine the mortality rate and to identify risk factors associated with FG. We also wanted to examine three potential prognostic factors in relation to patient survival, including the time delay from emergency room admission to surgery, the initial extent of the disease, and the impact of more than one debridement procedure under general anesthesia. The time between emergency room admission and the beginning of surgical debridement was not statistically different between survivors and non-survivors. The extent of surgical debridement was close to the margin of statistical significance (p = 0.07) and can be considered an index of the extent of the disease. FG extending to the thighs or to the abdominal wall carries a worse prognosis. The number of surgical debridement procedures done under anesthesia was statistically different between survivors and non-survivors. Patients were 4.8 times more at risk of dying if they are required to have more than one surgical debridement under general anesthesia. This presumably reflects persistent gangrene following initial surgical debridement, fluid resuscitation, and wide spectrum antibiotic treatment. PMID:26225189

  10. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkin, A. A.; Urakov, A. L.; Nigmatullina, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient's exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  11. [Secondary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Sternitzky, R; Hochauf, S; Schellong, S M

    2007-02-01

    Making decisions about any modality of secondary prophylaxis in patients with venous thromobembolism (VTE) has to balance the risk of bleeding induced by anticoagulants against the benefit of reducing the risk of recurrent disease. It has to be kept in mind that the magnitude of risk is not only defined by the number of events per time period but also by the impact of the event on the fate of the patient. With standard intensity vitamin K antagonists (VKA), the risk of bleeding is more closely related to comorbidities than to other factors, eg age. The risk of VTE recurrence differs largely between patient groups. The criterion of presence or absence of a permanent or transient clinical trigger factor for the actual VTE episode has a greater impact than an abnormal result in thrombophilia testing. The standard period of secondary prophylaxis for proximal DVT and for PE is three to six months. The concept of prolonging this period for several months according to the risk of recurrence is seriously challanged by the observation that the prolongation period seems to delay recurrencies rather than truly avoiding them. For this reason, patients who clearly are threatened by recurrent episodes should receive indefinitive secondary prophylaxis. This is the case for cancer patients, patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome, and those who belong to families with severe and symptomatic protein C, protein S, or antithrombin deficiencies. Patients with recurrent VTE, with idiopathic VTE, or with combined thrombophilic conditions may only benefit from indefinitive secondary prophylaxis if the bleeding risk of the anticoagulant regimen under consideration is very low. PMID:17279274

  12. Venous waterfalls in coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, R E; Kaplow, S M

    1991-03-21

    Several studies of flow through collapsible tubing deformed by external pressures have led to a concept known as the "vascular waterfall". One hallmark of this state is a positive zero-flow pressure intercept (Pe) in flow-pressure curves. This intercept is commonly observed in the coronary circulation, but in blood-perfused beating hearts a vascular waterfall is not the only putative cause. To restrict the possibilities, we have measured flow-pressure curves in excised non-beating rabbit hearts in which the coronary arteries were perfused in a non-pulsatile way with a newtonian fluid (Ringers solution) containing potent vasodilator drugs. Under these circumstances, vascular waterfalls are believed to be the only tenable explanation for Pe. In physical terms the waterfall is a region where the vessel is in a state of partial collapse with a stabilized intraluminal fluid pressure (Pw). It is argued that the most probable site of this collapse was the intramural veins just before they reached the epicardial surface. In accord with the waterfall hypothesis, Pe increased as the heart became more edematous, but flow-pressure curves also became flatter, implying multiple waterfalls with differing Pws, leading to complete collapse of some of the venous channels. The principal compressive force is believed to have been the interstitial fluid pressure as registered through a needle (Pn) implanted in the left ventricular wall, but a small additional force (Ps) was probably due to swelling of interstitial gels. A method is presented for estimating Ps and Pw. Unlike rubber tubing, blood vessels are both collapsible and porous. Apparently because of increased capillary filtration, Pn was found to increase linearly with the perfusion pressure. Thus, Pw was not the same at all points on the flow-pressure curve. This finding has interesting implications with respect to the concept of coronary resistance. PMID:2062096

  13. Noninvasive measurement of internal jugular venous oxygen saturation by photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Ke, Haixin; Reddy, Kavya; Sharma, Anshuman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    The metabolic rate and oxygen consumption of the brain is reflected in jugular venous oxygen saturation. In many clinical conditions, such as head trauma, stroke, and low cardiac output states, the brain is at risk for hypoxic-ischemic injury. The current gold standard for monitoring brain oxygenation is invasive and requires jugular vein catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance; and therefore it is rarely used. Photo-acoustic tomography in combination with ultrasound can be used to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein in real-time. This noninvasive method will enable earlier detection and prevention of impending hypoxic brain injury. A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser delivers light through an optical fiber bundle, and a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22) detects both the pulse-echo ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) signals. A custom-built multichannel data acquisition system renders co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images at 5 frames per second. After the jugular vein was localized in healthy volunteers, dualwavelength PA images were used to calculate the blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation from the internal jugular vein in vivo. The preliminary results raise confidence that this emerging technology can be used clinically as an accurate, noninvasive indicator of cerebral oxygenation.

  14. Disopyramide stress test: a sensitive and specific tool for predicting impending high degree atrioventricular block in patients with bifascicular block.

    PubMed Central

    Englund, A.; Bergfeldt, L.; Rosenqvist, M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the value of intravenous disopyramide as part of an invasive electrophysiological study in predicting impending high degree atrioventricular block in patients with bifascicular block. DESIGN--An invasive electrophysiological study was performed in the basal state and after the infusion of disopyramide (2 mg/kg body weight). The progression to high degree atrioventricular block was assessed by bradycardia-detecting pacemakers or repeated 12-lead electrocardiogram recordings, or both. PATIENTS--73 patients with bifascicular block were included, of whom 25 had a history of unexplained syncope. The remaining 48 patients had no arrhythmia related symptoms and were included as controls. All patients had an ejection fraction of > 35%. RESULTS--After a mean follow up of 23 months, seven patients in the syncope group and three in the non-syncope group had a documented high degree atrioventricular block or pacemaker-detected bradycardia of < or = 30 beats/min for > or = 6 s. The sensitivity of the disopyramide test was 71% and the specificity 98%. The corresponding figures for an abnormal electrophysiological study in the basal state were 14% and 91%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS--The sensitivity of an invasive electrophysiological study in patients with bifascicular block and syncope can be markedly increased by the use of intravenous disopyramide. A positive test is a highly specific finding and warrants pacemaker implantation. PMID:8541172

  15. Venous Malformation: update on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis & management

    PubMed Central

    Dompmartin, Anne; Vikkula, Miikka; Boon, Laurence M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to discuss the current knowledge on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic management of venous malformations. Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular anomalies. They are simple, sporadic or familial (cutaneo-mucosal venous malformation or glomuvenous malformations), combined (e.g. capillaro-venous, capillaro-lymphaticovenous malformations) or syndromic (Klippel-Trenaunay, Blue Rubber Bleb Naevus and Maffucci). Genetic studies have identified causes of familial forms and of 40% of sporadic VMs. Another diagnostic advancement is the identification of elevated D-dimer level as the first biomarker of venous malformations within vascular anomalies. Those associated with pain are often responsive to Low Molecular Weight Heparin which should also be used to avoid disseminated intravascular coagulopathy secondary to intervention, especially if fibrinogen level is low. Finally, development of a modified sclerosing agent, ethylcellulose–ethanol, has improved therapy. It is efficient and safe, and widens indications for sclerotherapy to sensitive and dangerous areas such as hands, feet and periocular area. PMID:20870869

  16. Direct oral anticoagulants in rare venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Finazzi, Guido; Ageno, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The direct inhibitors of thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban) are currently used in patients with venous thrombosis of the lower or upper limbs or with pulmonary embolism. However, the use of these direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in subjects with abdominal or cerebral venous thrombosis is more contentious due to the paucity of available data. In a few case reports and small series of patients hitherto published, the DOACs showed good efficacy and safety, supporting an extension of their use to these rare conditions. Thus, prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials have been set up. In this article, we review the published clinical experience with DOACs in rare venous thrombosis, and provide updated information on ongoing clinical trials. PMID:26875179

  17. [Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access].

    PubMed

    Fuzier, Régis; Rougé, Pierre; Pierre, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    International guidelines advocate the use of first-line ultrasound for central venous catheter, particularly for the internal jugular vein. The role of ultrasound in peripheral venous access remains questionable. In some specific situations, such as pediatrics, obesity and patients with poor venous network, problems to cannulate peripheral vein may occur. Success rate of peripheral intravenous access increases with the diameter of the vein and for a depth of the vein between 0.3 and 1.5cm. The type of puncture (long-axis or short-axis) and the type of catheters have little influence on the success rate. Specific considerations have to be taken concerning infection control. PMID:26632089

  18. Complex central venous catheter insertion for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Powell, Steven; Belfield, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of payment by results in the UK, there has been no decrease in central venous catheter (CVC) use. In part, this may relate to a requirement to dialyse through a CVC while autogenous access matures. Mortality data have improved in parallel and patients on hemodialysis live longer, which may lead to an increased exposure to CVCs.Exposure to CVCs carries a significant risk of infection and occlusion requiring their repositioning or exchange. The mid to long-term sequelae of CVC use is central venous occlusion leaving clinical teams with an ever increasing challenge to find adequate venous access.In this article, we will discuss the challenges faced by operators inserting CVCs into the hemodialysis-dependent patient who has exhausted more tradition insertion sites. These include translumbar caval catheters, transocclusion and transcollateral catheters, transjugular Inferior Vena Cava catheter positioning, and transhepatic catheters. We will demonstrate the techniques employed, complications, and anticipated longevity of function. PMID:24817471

  19. The Role of Platelets in Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Montoro-García, Silvia; Schindewolf, Marc; Stanford, Sophia; Larsen, Ole Halfdan; Thiele, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Multiple factors contribute to the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Platelets have attracted much interest in arterial cardiovascular disease, whereas their role in VTE has received much less attention. Recent evidence suggests that platelets may play a more important role in VTE than previously anticipated. This review discusses the mechanisms that link platelets with venous thrombotic disease and their potential applications as novel risk factors for VTE. In addition, animal studies and randomized clinical trials that highlight the potential effect of antiplatelet therapy in venous thrombosis are evaluated to assess the role of platelets in VTE. The clinical significance of platelets for VTE risk assessment in specific patient cohorts and their role as a suitable therapeutic target for VTE prevention is acknowledged. The role of platelets in VTE is a promising field for future research. PMID:26926584

  20. Noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.

  1. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis with Staghorn Calculus, Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis and Enterocolitis: A Multidisciplinary Challenge of Kidney-Preserving Conservative Therapy.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Alexander; Tuerk, Christian; Schima, Wolfgang; Broessner, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XP) is a rare form of pyelonephritis and without treatment destructive to the kidney. We describe a 74-year-old Caucasian immunocompetent female patient with XP and multiple abscesses on the upper pole of the right kidney and several impacted obstructing renal calculi in the middle calyx that developed severe colitis and gangrenous appendicitis during therapy. Proteus mirabilis was detected as the major pathogen in the urine culture. Kidney preserving therapy was carried out by intensive parenteral bacterial eradication, CT-guided abscess drainage and stone destruction by 3 sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy under ureteral stenting. Large tumor masses in XP are often daunting and may lead to a nephrectomy. However, kidney-preserving therapy is possible and should be considered in non-septic patients or in case of a solitary kidney. PMID:26889137

  2. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis with Staghorn Calculus, Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis and Enterocolitis: A Multidisciplinary Challenge of Kidney-Preserving Conservative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Alexander; Tuerk, Christian; Schima, Wolfgang; Broessner, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XP) is a rare form of pyelonephritis and without treatment destructive to the kidney. We describe a 74-year-old Caucasian immunocompetent female patient with XP and multiple abscesses on the upper pole of the right kidney and several impacted obstructing renal calculi in the middle calyx that developed severe colitis and gangrenous appendicitis during therapy. Proteus mirabilis was detected as the major pathogen in the urine culture. Kidney preserving therapy was carried out by intensive parenteral bacterial eradication, CT-guided abscess drainage and stone destruction by 3 sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy under ureteral stenting. Large tumor masses in XP are often daunting and may lead to a nephrectomy. However, kidney-preserving therapy is possible and should be considered in non-septic patients or in case of a solitary kidney. PMID:26889137

  3. Gangrene of the Digits of the Right Lower Limb in a Patient with Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Rankine-Mullings, Angela E.; Knight-Madden, Jennifer M.; Reid, Marvin; Ferguson, Trevor S.

    2014-01-01

    Thrombosis may play an important role in the pathophysiology of certain complications of sickle cell disease (SCD). While the association between SCD and ulcerative colitis (UC) is still debatable, inflammatory bowel disease is known to be associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. We report a case of a 16-year old girl known to have homozygous SCD and also diagnosed with UC who presented with digital ischemia of her right lower limb. This led to gangrene and subsequent amputation of the first, second and third digits of that limb. This case highlights that patients with both UC and SCD may have an increased risk of thromboembolism and raises the question as to whether patients with UC and SCD should be screened for thrombophilia. PMID:24847432

  4. Venous sinus occlusive disease: MR findings

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, W.T.C.; Simonson, T.M.; Tali, E.T.; Fisher, D.J. ); Wang, A.M. ); Koci, T.M. ); Simon, J.H. ); Jinkins, J.R. ); Tsai, Fong )

    1994-02-01

    To study MR patterns of venous sinus occlusive disease and to relate them to the underlying pathophysiology by comparing the appearance and pathophysiologic features of venous sinus occlusive disease with those of arterial ischemic disease. The clinical data and MR examinations of 26 patients with venous sinus occlusive disease were retrospectively reviewed with special attention to mass effect, hemorrhage, and T2-weighted image abnormalities as well as to abnormal parenchymal, venous, or arterial enhancement after intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine administration. Follow-up studies when available were evaluated for atrophy, infraction, chronic mass effect, and hemorrhage. Mass effect was present in 25 of 26 patients. Eleven of the 26 had mass effect without abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Fifteen patients had abnormal signal on T2-weighted images, but this was much less extensive than the degree of brain swelling in all cases. No patient showed abnormal parenchymal or arterial enhancement. Abnormal venous enhancement was seen in 10 of 13 patients who had contrast-enhanced studies. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage was seen in nine patients with high signal on T2-weighted images predominantly peripheral to the hematoma in eight. Three overall MR patterns were observed in acute sinus thrombosis: (1) mass effect without associated abnormal signal on T2-weighted images, (2) mass effect with associated abnormal signal on T2-weighted images and/or ventricular dilatation that may be reversible, and (3) intraparenchymal hematoma with surrounding edema. MR findings of venus sinus occlusive disease are different from those of arterial ischemia and may reflect different underlying pathophysiology. In venous sinus occlusive disease, the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (vasogenic edema and abnormal parenchymal enhancement) does not always occur, and brain swelling can persist up to 2 years with or without abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Clinical features and diagnosis of venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsh, J.; Hull, R.D.; Raskob, G.E.

    1986-12-01

    The clinical diagnosis of venous thrombosis is inaccurate because the clinical findings are both insensitive and nonspecific. The sensitivity of clinical diagnosis is low because many potentially dangerous venous thrombi are clinically silent. The specificity of clinical diagnosis is low because the symptoms or signs of venous thrombosis all can be caused by nonthrombotic disorders. A current approach to the diagnosis of clinically suspected venous thrombosis favors the use of impedance plethysmography over Doppler ultrasonography as the main test for this disorder. This is because impedance plethysmography is precise and objective, whereas the interpretation of Doppler ultrasonography is subjective and requires considerable skill and experience to form reliable diagnoses. The use of serial impedance plethysmography has been evaluated recently in a prospective study. The rationale of repeated impedance plethysmography evaluation is based on the premise that calf vein thrombi are only clinically important when they extend into the proximal veins, at which point detection with impedance plethysmography is possible. Therefore, by performing repeated examinations with impedance plethysmography in patients with clinically suspected venous thrombosis, it is possible to identify patients with extending calf vein thrombosis who can be treated appropriately. Impedance plethysmography is performed immediately on referral; if it is positive in the absence of clinical conditions that are known to produce falsely positive results, the diagnosis of venous thrombosis is established, and the patient is treated accordingly. If the result of the initial impedance plethysmography evaluation is negative, anticoagulant therapy is withheld, and impedance plethysmography is repeated the following day, again on day 5 to 7 and on day 10 to 14. 87 references.

  6. Thrombolytic therapy for central venous catheter occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Jacquelyn L.; Reiss, Ulrike; Wilimas, Judith A.; Metzger, Monika L.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Howard, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term central venous catheters have improved the quality of care for patients with chronic illnesses, but are complicated by obstructions which can result in delay of treatment or catheter removal. Design and Methods This paper reviews thrombolytic treatment for catheter obstruction. Literature from Medline searches using the terms “central venous catheter”, “central venous access device” OR “central venous line” associated with the terms “obstruction”, “occlusion” OR “thrombolytic” was reviewed. Efficacy of thrombolytic therapy, central venous catheter clearance rates and time to clearance were assessed. Results Alteplase, one of the current therapies, clears 52% of obstructed catheters within 30 min with 86% overall clearance (after 2 doses, when necessary). However, newer medications may have higher efficacy or shorter time to clearance. Reteplase cleared 67–74% within 30–40 min and 95% of catheters overall. Occlusions were resolved in 70 and 83% of patients with one and 2 doses of tenecteplase, respectively. Recombinant urokinase cleared 60% of catheters at 30 min and 73% overall. Alfimeprase demonstrated rapid catheter clearance with resolution in 40% of subjects within 5 min, 60% within 30 min, and 80% within 2 h. Additionally, urokinase prophylaxis decreased the incidence of catheter occlusions from 16–68% in the control group to 4–23% in the treatment group; in some studies, rates of catheter infections were also decreased in the urokinase group. Conclusions Thrombolytic agents successfully clear central venous catheter occlusions in most cases. Newer agents may act more rapidly and effectively than currently utilized therapies, but randomized studies with direct comparisons of these agents are needed to determine optimal management for catheter obstruction. PMID:22180420

  7. Current Status of the Application of Intracranial Venous Sinus Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kan; Yu, Tiecheng; Yuan, Yongjie; Yu, Jinlu

    2015-01-01

    The intracranial venous sinus is an important component of vascular disease. Many diseases involve the venous sinus and are accompanied by venous sinus stenosis (VSS), which leads to increased venous pressure and high intracranial pressure. Recent research has focused on stenting as a treatment for VSS related to these diseases. However, a systematic understanding of venous sinus stenting (VS-Stenting) is lacking. Herein, the literature on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), venous pulsatile tinnitus, sinus thrombosis, high draining venous pressure in dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and tumor-caused VSS was reviewed and analyzed to summarize experiences with VS-Stenting as a treatment. The literature review showed that satisfactory therapeutic effects can be achieved through stent angioplasty. Thus, the present study suggests that selective stent release in the venous sinus can effectively treat these diseases and provide new possibilities for treating intracranial vascular disease. PMID:26516306

  8. Central venous obstruction in the thorax.

    PubMed

    Collin, G; Jones, R G; Willis, A P

    2015-06-01

    Central venous stenosis and occlusion can occur secondary to a spectrum of conditions ranging from aggressive malignancy to benign extrinsic anatomical compression in otherwise healthy individuals. Irrespective of aetiology, significant morbidity in the acute setting and long term can occur unless prompt accurate diagnosis and appropriate management is initiated, the radiologist being central to both. The present review will provide radiologists with a thorough illustration and explanation of the range of central venous conditions in the thorax (including deep vein thrombosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, haemodialysis, and malignancy related causes), the salient imaging findings and interventional management using case examples from the authors' practice. PMID:25843485

  9. Jugular Venous Catheterization: A Case of Knotting

    PubMed Central

    Erk?l?ç, E.; Aksoy, M.; Gümü?, T.; Sar?, S.; Kesimci, E.

    2015-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman, diagnosed for cancer of the ovary, had a central catheter that was placed with difficulty through the right internal jugular vein intraoperatively. After oophorectomy, it was realized that the catheter was knotted. Thus, the central venous catheter was removed successfully using a traction technique in the operating room. Central venous catheter use may result in various complications, although it has been used as an invasive method for hemodynamic monitoring and fluid and drug infusion. Here, we present catheter knotting in a case with solutions for this complication, under literature review. PMID:26633975

  10. Complications of 1303 central venous cannulations.

    PubMed

    Yilmazlar, A; Bilgin, H; Korfali, G; Eren, A; Ozkan, U

    1997-06-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC), now a common procedure, has several major complications. We assessed their incidence in a prospective study of 1303 cannulations done in the intensive care unit or operating theatre. Chest radiographs were obtained to verify proper catheter placement and to detect pneumothorax. Complications were arterial puncture in 68 (5.2%) patients, arrhythmias in 21 (1.6%), cardiopulmonary arrest in 1 (0.1%), and pneumothorax in 5 (0.5%). The tip of the CVC was incorrectly located in 149 (11.2%). The chest radiograph was a valuable method for detecting complications of central venous catheterization. PMID:9227379

  11. Complications of 1303 central venous cannulations.

    PubMed Central

    Yilmazlar, A; Bilgin, H; Korfali, G; Eren, A; Ozkan, U

    1997-01-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC), now a common procedure, has several major complications. We assessed their incidence in a prospective study of 1303 cannulations done in the intensive care unit or operating theatre. Chest radiographs were obtained to verify proper catheter placement and to detect pneumothorax. Complications were arterial puncture in 68 (5.2%) patients, arrhythmias in 21 (1.6%), cardiopulmonary arrest in 1 (0.1%), and pneumothorax in 5 (0.5%). The tip of the CVC was incorrectly located in 149 (11.2%). The chest radiograph was a valuable method for detecting complications of central venous catheterization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9227379

  12. Anatomic considerations for central venous cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael P; Heller, Stephanie F; Rivera, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed. PMID:22312225

  13. Surgical implications of portal venous system malformation

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Charles

    1974-01-01

    The significance of congenital abnormalities in predisposing to portal hypertension and variceal haemorrhage needs to be remembered when these effects manifest in childhood, as portal venography will permit elucidation of the complicated congenital developmental abnormalities underlying the pathological condition and permit rational surgical amelioration. In the presence of portal hypertension the development of a collateral venous circulation may be represented by a hepatopetal or hepatofugal circulatory pattern and will closely parallel the developmental areas where portal and systemic venous circulations meet, being representative of the embryological anastomosis between the vitelloumbilical system and the posterior cardinal system of veins. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4614690

  14. Venous thromboembolism - management in general practice.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nicola H; Brighton, Timothy; Harris, Mark F; Caplan, Gideon A; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Chong, Beng H

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis, treatment and management of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis are increasingly becoming the responsibility of the general practitioner. Effective treatments exist, as do guidelines for management of hospitalised patients. However, very little research has been done into the implementation of management strategies in community based patients. In 2008, an estimated 15 000-23 000 Australians experienced venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective studies report mortality rates following VTE of 5-23%, although in symptomatic patients with adequate anticoagulation, mortality is 1-2%. PMID:19283234

  15. [Valvular insufficiency after venous thrombosis. Experimental study].

    PubMed

    Pouchè, A; Gafà, M; Guadagni, G

    1977-01-01

    Venous thrombosis can produce lesions of valvular cusps which are generally ascribe to the phase of thrombus organization. Valvular lesions hold a very important role in the genesis of the post phlebitic chronic venous insufficiency. Experimental thrombosis had been induced in dogs with electrical stimulation of femoral veins to study morphological aspects of valvular cusps in various evolutive phases of thrombosis. Results emphasize too early onset and quick evolution of valvular damage. It can contribute to explain frequent failures of attempted therapy about prevention of post phlebitic syndromes. PMID:610713

  16. Assessment of Venous Thrombosis in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Grover, Steven P; Evans, Colin E; Patel, Ashish S; Modarai, Bijan; Saha, Prakash; Smith, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and common complications, including pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome, represent a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Experimental models of venous thrombosis have provided considerable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate thrombus formation and subsequent resolution. Here, we critically appraise the ex vivo and in vivo techniques used to assess venous thrombosis in these models. Particular attention is paid to imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and high-frequency ultrasound that facilitate longitudinal assessment of thrombus size and composition. PMID:26681755

  17. The Impact of Lower Extremity Venous Ulcers due to Chronic Venous Insufficiency on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Koupidis, Sotirios A; Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Stathopoulos, Vassilios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2008-01-01

    Lower extremity venous ulcers comprise a complex medical and social issue. The conservative and/or surgical management of venous ulcers is often inadequate. In addition, the psychosocial aspect of the disease is often overlooked and most often undertreated. Common symptoms such as pain, low self-esteem and patient isolation are usually not recognized and therefore not adequately managed. This mini-review summarizes the current data on the management of lower extremity venous ulcers and their impact on the quality of life of these patients. PMID:19430523

  18. Signs and Symptoms of Impending Death in End-of-life Elderly Dementia Sufferers: Point of View of Formal Caregivers in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Uemura, Kazumasa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to clarify the signs and symptoms of impending death in end-of-life senile dementia from the point of view of formal caregivers in rural areas. Patient/Materials and Methods: We used qualitative data based on retrospective analyses. The data was gathered following a workshop on end-of-life care of the elderly with dementia attended by formal caregivers that was held in Iga City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, in September 2011. There was a total of 29 workshop participants. The workshop products were created in the first session of the workshop entitled “Signs of death.” During the session, we used the brainstorming method, and participants took turns stating at least two signs, symptoms or premonitions of death. In the end, there were 93 cards in total displaying signs of impending death observed in the end stage of dementia. These 93 entries were then classified into clear categories. Results: The categories defined were breathing disorder, consciousness decline, vital power decline, reduced oral intake, feces disorder, calm and peaceful character, blood pressure decline, change in skin color, patient odor, edema, preagonal vital power, body temperature decline, bedsore/wound deterioration, body weight reduction, cyanosis, and oliguria. The most frequently cited symptoms fell in the breathing disorder category (12 cards), followed by consciousness decline (9 cards), vital power decline (9 cards), reduced oral intake (6 cards), and feces disorder (6 cards). Also frequently mentioned were symptoms falling in the calm and peaceful character, patient odor and preagonal vital power categories. Conclusion: The results show that formal caregivers in rural areas identified breathing disorder as a top indicator of impending death in end-of-life senile dementia cases. The results also highlight some other characteristic signs of impending death, such as preagonal vital power and calm and peaceful character. This research could help develop formal caregivers’ observational skills in the end-of-life care settings. PMID:25649740

  19. Impending ionospheric anomaly preceding the Iquique Mw8.2 earthquake in Chile on 2014 April 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinyun; Li, Wang; Yu, Hongjuan; Liu, Zhimin; Zhao, Chunmei; Kong, Qiaoli

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the coupling relationship between great earthquake and ionosphere, the GPS-derived total electron contents (TECs) by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe and the foF2 data from the Space Weather Prediction Center were used to analyse the impending ionospheric anomalies before the Iquique Mw8.2 earthquake in Chile on 2014 April 1. Eliminating effects of the solar and geomagnetic activities on ionosphere by the sliding interquartile range with the 27-day window, the TEC analysis results represent that there were negative anomalies occurred on 15th day prior to the earthquake, and positive anomalies appeared in 5th day before the earthquake. The foF2 analysis results of ionosonde stations Jicamarca, Concepcion and Ramey show that the foF2 increased by 40, 50 and 45 per cent, respectively, on 5th day before the earthquake. The TEC anomalous distribution indicates that there was a widely TEC decrement over the epicentre with the duration of 6 hr on 15th day before the earthquake. On 5th day before the earthquake, the TEC over the epicentre increased with the amplitude of 15 TECu, and the duration exceeded 6 hr. The anomalies occurred on the side away from the equator. All TEC anomalies in these days were within the bounds of equatorial anomaly zone where should be the focal area to monitor ionospheric anomaly before strong earthquakes. The relationship between ionospheric anomalies and geomagnetic activity was detected by the cross wavelet analysis, which implied that the foF2 was not affected by the magnetic activities on 15th day and 5th day prior to the earthquake, but the TECs were partially affected by anomalous magnetic activity during some periods of 5th day prior to the earthquake.

  20. Impending proliferation of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Castleman, B I; Vera Vera, M J

    1980-01-01

    The international asbestos industry is under considerable pressure in some countries to control dust exposures in the workplace and restrict pollution. In addition, major firms in the United States face mounting compensation costs for past failures to protect asbestos workers. At the same time, however, the asbestos industry is expanding in developing nations, largely on the strength of sales of asbestos-cement construction materials. This report describes problems encountered with the use of asbestos-cement in schools and low-income housing in Puerto Rico, resulting in the condemnation of these buildings and the relocation of over 1,000 families at public expense. The manufacturer of the asbestos-cement panels, a Colombian affiliate of the European-based multinational Eternit, escaped all liability. The issue is presented as a needless, expanding threat to public health worldwide. Safe, economic alternatives exist, such as the use in some cases of crop waste fibers in place of asbestos as a cement binder. There have also been major advances in the commercialization of asbestos-free brake and clutch friction products. PMID:7419310

  1. Thrombotic Venous Diseases of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Sabol, Timothy P.; Molina, Marco; Wu, George Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombotic venous diseases of the liver do not occur frequently, but when they do, they can present as difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The aim of this article is to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapeutic options of these serious vascular problems. PMID:26623265

  2. Nonclinical aspects of venous thrombosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Struble, Evi; Harrouk, Wafa; DeFelice, Albert; Tesfamariam, Belay

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state which carries an excess risk of maternal venous thrombosis. Endothelial injury, alterations in blood flow and activation of the coagulation pathway are proposed to contribute to the hypercoagulability. The risk for thrombosis may be accentuated by certain drugs and device implants that directly or indirectly affect the coagulation pathway. To help ensure that these interventions do not result in adverse maternal or fetal outcomes during pregnancy, gravid experimental animals can be exposed to such treatments at various stages of gestation and over a dosage range that would identify hazards and inform risk assessment. Circulating soluble biomarkers can also be evaluated for enhancing the assessment of any increased risk of venous thrombosis during pregnancy. In addition to traditional in vivo animal testing, efforts are under way to incorporate reliable non-animal methods in the assessment of embryofetal toxicity and thrombogenic effects. This review summarizes hemostatic balance during pregnancy in animal species, embryofetal development, biomarkers of venous thrombosis, and alterations caused by drug-induced venous thrombosis. PMID:26404176

  3. Venous Thrombosis in Handsewn vs. Coupled Venous Anastomoses in 857 Consecutive Breast Free Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Anita R; Mehrara, Babak J; Pusic, Andrea L; Cordeiro, Peter G; Matros, Evan; McCarthy, Colleen M; Disa, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Background The Anastomotic Coupling Device has demonstrated safety and efficacy; however, the coupler has never been compared directly to handsewn venous anastomoses exclusively in breast reconstruction. We hypothesized that rates of venous thrombosis would be lower using the coupler versus handsewn anastomoses in free flap breast reconstruction. Methods We performed a retrospective review utilizing clinic records, hospital records, and operative reports for 857 consecutive breast free flaps at a single institution from 1997-2012. Data was collected on reconstruction type, recipient vessels, timing, laterality, preoperative radiation, chemotherapy, venous thrombosis, and flap outcome. We compared rates of venous thrombosis between handsewn and coupled anastomoses for breast free flaps. Chi square test was used to calculate statistical significance. Results A total of 857 consecutive free flaps were performed for breast reconstruction in 647 patients over 16 years. The venous anastomosis was handsewn in 303 flaps, and the anastomotic coupler was used in 554 flaps. The rate of venous thrombosis requiring anastomotic revision in the handsewn group was 0.04% (12/303), compared to 0.01% in the coupled group (8/554; p=0.02). Conclusion The anastomotic coupler was more effective in preventing venous thrombosis than handsewn anastomoses in our series. While our study demonstrates improved patency rates using the venous coupler in breast reconstruction, we were unable to definitively separate this finding from potential confounding variables due to the low rates of thrombosis in both groups. Our data is consistent with current literature, which suggests that the coupler is a safe and effective alternative to hand sutured anastomoses. PMID:26372685

  4. Malposition of central venous catheter in the jugular venous arch via external jugular vein -a case report-

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SoWoon; Lee, Ju Ho; Park, Chunghyun; Hong, Yong-woo

    2015-01-01

    The central venous cannulation is commonly performed in the operating rooms and intensive care units for various purposes. Although the central venous catheter (CVC) is used in many ways, the malpositioning of the CVC is often associated with serious complications. We report a case of an unexpected malposition of a CVC in the jugular venous arch via external jugular vein. PMID:25844137

  5. Bubble generation and venous air filtration by hard-shell venous reservoirs: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S J; Willcox, T; Gorman, D F

    1997-09-01

    We have previously shown significant bubble formation in Medtronic Maxima hard-shell venous reservoirs (HSVRs). In the present study, we not only investigated the mechanism of this bubble formation, but also the extent of bubble clearance by membrane oxygenators and arterial line filters. In addition, we also compared the performance of five HSVRs with respect to bubble formation and venous air filtration. Salvaged clinical CPB circuits containing different HSVRs were studied by downstream Doppler monitoring under fixed flow-decreasing volume, fixed volume-increasing flow, and entrained venous air conditions. Bubbles formed in the Medtronic Maxima top entry HSVR at volumes below 800 ml and flows above 3.5 l min-1, and were incompletely removed by a membrane oxygenator and arterial line filter. Decreased bubbling was seen when the reservoir atmosphere was flushed with CO2, suggesting that these bubbles formed in a fountain at the venous inflow. The Medtronic Maxima Forte HSVR formed significantly fewer bubbles at low volumes, and filtered venous air effectively. Negligible bubble formation occurred in the Sorin, Terumo, or Baxter reservoirs. The minimum recommended operating volume for the Medtronic Maxima top entry reservoir should be reset at 600 ml and this device should always be used with an arterial filter. Bubble formation is substantially reduced in the new Medtronic Maxima Forte HSVR and this device is a good filter for venous air. PMID:9300478

  6. Partial Aortic Occlusion and Cerebral Venous Steal: Venous Effects of Arterial Manipulation in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Liebeskind, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke therapy emphasizes early arterial clot lysis or removal. Partial aortic occlusion has recently emerged as an alternative hemodynamic approach to augment cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke. The exact mechanism of cerebral flow augmentation with partial aortic occlusion remains unclear and may involve more than simple diversion of arterial blood flow from the lower body to cerebral collateral circulation. The cerebral venous steal hypothesis suggests that even a small increase in tissue pressure in the ischemic area will divert blood flow to surrounding regions with lesser tissue pressures. This may cause no-reflow (absence of flow after restoration of arterial patency) in the ischemic core and “luxury perfusion” in the surrounding regions. Such maldistribution may be reversed with increased venous pressure titrated to avoid changes in intracranial pressure. We propose that partial aortic occlusion enhances perfusion in the brain by offsetting cerebral venous steal. Partial aortic occlusion redistributes blood volume into the upper part of the body, manifest by an increase in central venous pressure. Increased venous pressure recruits the collapsed vascular network and, by eliminating cerebral venous steal, corrects perifocal perfusion maldistribution, analogous to positive end expiratory pressure recruitment of collapsed airways to decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the lungs. PMID:21441149

  7. Fournier's gangrene (necrotising fasciitis) complicated by renal and respiratory insufficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Frisman, E; Rácz, O; Beck, J; Firment, J; Bodnárová, L

    2016-01-01

    A case report of a 68-year-old male obese diabetic patient with an abscess of left femoral region, and diffuse inflammation of abdominal wall and genital region developing sepsis, respiratory and renal failure. At admission in the regional hospital a diagnosis of polymicrobial necrotising fasciitis with suspected sepsis was declared. The patient was transferred to the special intensive care unit (SICU) of Burns and reconstructive surgery at the Kosice-Saca. The patient was treated surgically, with hyperbaric oxygen and pharmacologically to control his diabetes. The main aetiological agent of the condition was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In addition to respiratory and metabolic acidosis and gastric bleeding occurred. Due to acute renal failure (day 38) the patient was transferred to clinic of anaesthesiology and the intensive care medicine at the University Hospital in Kosice. The patient was treated by continuous veno-venous haemodialysis, mechanical ventilation and nasogastric nutritional support. On day 48 the conscious sub-febrile patient with healed wounds was transferred back to the regional hospital with ventilation support and continuous renal replacement therapy. His diabetes was uncontrolled, and only kidney parameters remained pathological. The survival of this patient with an extremely poor prognosis was achieved through prompt transfer to a specialised centre, early identification of the aetiological agent and immediate appropriate antibiotic treatment as a result of good cooperation between surgeons and laboratory specialists. PMID:26762496

  8. [Thrombophlebitis of venous sinuses in otitis media].

    PubMed

    Kuczkowski, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Thrombophlebitis of dura venous sinuses is a rare intracranial complication of otitis media, which may be sometimes accompanied by symptoms or sepsis. Anatomical conditions and early diagnosis of this vascular complication determine the treatment modality. Aim of this study was the assessment of diagnostics and treatment of venous sinuses thrombophlebitis in acute and chronic otitis media considering anatomy and the venous sinuses and status of coagulation system. Otogenic thrombophlebitis may occur in lateral, transverse, upper and lower petrosal sinuses, and rarely in cavernous. In some cases thrombophlebitis proces may expand into brain or emissary mastoid veins. Lateral sinus thrombophlebitis in chronic otitis media usually appears clinically as septic fever, earache, and increasing neurologic signs. In acute otitis media when thrombophlebitis develops the patient complains about headache, high fever and visual acquity. Diagnosis of venous sinus thrombophlebitis is based on clinical signs, radiological imaging (CT scan, MRI), bacteriological examinations and laboratory biochemical tests. Contrast enhanced CT scan shows "delta sign". Septic thrombophlebitis sinus sigmoidei is caused by mixed bacterial flora. Surgical treatment in cases with septic thrombus consists of radical modiffied ear operation and lateral sinus exposure. Thrombectomy and jugular vein ligation is performed when sepsis or thrombus is present. Mastoidectomy and tympanic cavity drainage is performed in cases with lateral sinus thrombosis in acute mastoiditis. Intravenous antibiotics therapy should be continued for 2 weeks. Anticoagulants should be given taking into consideration parameters of coagulation system and the type of thrombus. Treatment results of venous sinuses thrombophlebitis are good if they are not accompanied by other intracranial complications. PMID:18552016

  9. A new top-loading venous bag provides vacuum-assisted venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Tamari, Y; Lee-Sensiba, K; Beck, J; Chan, R; Salogub, M; Hall, M; Lee, T; Ganju, R; Mongero, L

    2002-09-01

    A new venous bag has been developed, prototyped, and tested. The new bag has its inlet, outlet purge, and infusion tubes extending upward from the top of the bag, and are threaded through, bonded to, and sealed within a flat rigid top plate. This design allows the bag to be hung from its top plate by its tubes. It also allows the bag to be: 1) dropped into or removed from its holder, as is done with existing hard-shell reservoirs so that its weight pulls it into the holder without the need for eyelets and hooks and 2) placed closer to the floor so that gravity drainage is facilitated. The V-Bag (VB) is easily sealed within an accompanying rigid housing. Once sealed, vacuum applied to the housing is transmitted across the flexible walls of the bag to the venous blood. Thus, vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) is obtained as it is with a hard-shell reservoir, but without any contact of air with the blood. Bench tests, using a circuit that simulated the venous side of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit, showed that applying suction to the housing increased venous flow, and the fractional increase in flow was not a function of the venous cannula, but of the level of vacuum applied. In the gravity drainage mode, the bubble counts at the outlet of the V-Bag compared to two other bags were lower at any pumping condition. When used in the VAVD mode, bubble counts were two orders of magnitude lower than when using kinetically assisted venous drainage (KAVD) with a centrifugal pump. Results obtained with the VB suggest its clinical usefulness. PMID:12243444

  10. Risk factors for venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Longfang; Zhao, Qianru; Yang, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the risk factors associated with an increased risk of symptomatic peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related venous thrombosis. Retrospective analyses identified 2313 patients who received PICCs from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. All 11 patients with symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis (thrombosis group) and 148 who did not have thromboses (non-thrombosis group) were selected randomly. The medical information of 159 patients (age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, smoking history, nutritional risk score, platelet count, leucocyte count as well as levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and degradation products of fibrin) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the risk factors for thrombosis. Of 2313 patients, 11 (0.47%) were found to have symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis by color Doppler ultrasound. Being bedridden for a long time (odds ratio [(OR]), 17.774; P=0.0017), D-dimer >5 mg/L (36.651; 0.0025) and suffering from one comorbidity (8.39; 0.0265) or more comorbidities (13.705; 0.0083) were the major risk factors for PICC-catheter related venous thrombosis by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Among 159 patients, the prevalence of PICC-associated venous thrombosis in those with ?1 risk factor was 10.34% (12/116), in those with ?2 risk factors was 20.41% (10/49), and in those with >3 risk factors was 26.67% (4/15). Being bedridden >72 h, having increased levels of D-dimer (>5 mg/L) and suffering from comorbidities were independent risk factors of PICC-related venous thrombosis. PMID:25664112

  11. Portal Venous Interventions: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Madoff, David C; Gaba, Ron C; Weber, Charles N; Clark, Timothy W I; Saad, Wael E

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, there have been numerous advances in the management of liver cancer, cirrhosis, and diabetes mellitus. Although these diseases are wide ranging in their clinical manifestations, each can potentially be treated by exploiting the blood flow dynamics within the portal venous system, and in some cases, adding cellular therapies. To aid in the management of these disease states, minimally invasive transcatheter portal venous interventions have been developed to improve the safety of major hepatic resection, to reduce the untoward effects of sequelae from end-stage liver disease, and to minimize the requirement of exogenously administered insulin for patients with diabetes mellitus. This state of the art review therefore provides an overview of the most recent data and strategies for utilization of preoperative portal vein embolization, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement, balloon retrograde transvenous obliteration, and islet cell transplantation. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26789601

  12. Microcirculatory dysfunction in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI).

    PubMed

    Jünger, M; Steins, A; Hahn, M; Häfner, H M

    2000-01-01

    The elevated ambulatory pressure in the peripheral venous system of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) patients manifests itself not only in the form of disturbed macrocirculation but also and particularly in microangiopathic changes. For this reason, it is closely correlated with trophic disorders of the skin and can ultimately lead to ulceration. Using microcirculation research techniques, we are able to provide clear evidence of a typical microangiopathy in chronic venous insufficiency. Fifty CVI in Widmer stages I, II, and III were examined with fluorescence video microscopy, intravital video capillaroscopy, transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure measurement, TcpO2 and laser Doppler flowmetry. The effects of compression therapy with individually fitted compression stockings on capillary morphology were studied over a period of 4 weeks in 20 CVI patients in Widmer stages I and II. The capillary pressure was measured during simulated muscle contraction using a servo-null micropressure system. We periodically drew blood from the dorsalis pedis vein and a brachial vein of 11 healthy test persons and 8 patients with stage III CVI during experimental venous hypertension in order to evaluate the expression pattern of leukocyte adhesion molecules involved in inflammation: LFA-1 (CD11a), Mac-1 (CD11b), p150,95 (CD11c), CD18, VLA-4 (CD49d), and L-selectin (CD62L). In the same patients, we used immunohistochemical methods to examine clinically unaffected skin and the skin near an ulcer, focusing on the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. The microangiopathic changes observed with worsening clinical symptoms include a decrease in the number of capillaries, glomerulus-like changes in capillary morphology, a drop in the oxygen content (tcpO2) of the skin, increased permeability of the capillaries to low-molecular-weight substances, increased laser Doppler flux reflecting elevated subcutaneous flow, and diminished vascular reserve. These microangiopathic changes worsen in linear proportion to the clinical severity of chronic venous insufficiency. In patients with venous ulcerations, the baseline expression of LFA-1 and VLA-4 on lymphocytes, Mac-1 expression on the myeloid cell line, and L-selectin expression on all three cell lines was not significantly different form that in healthy controls. During orthostatic stress, there was a significant reduction in the expression of L-selectin in blood cells collected at foot level in the controls (p=0.002), but not in the patients. Clinical improvement by compression therapy was accompanied by an increase in the number of nutritive capillaries, while the diameter of the capillaries and the dermal papillae was reduced. When ulcers healed in a short period (<6 weeks), we observed a concomitant increase in the number of capillaries (p<0.05). Microangiopathy appears before tropic disorders of the skin develop. Even trophically normal skin areas may have dilated nutritive capillaries, an early sign of disturbed skin perfusion. These changes represent a plausible explanation for the development and to recurrency tendency of venous ulcers. The reduced expression of lymphocytic L-selectin in healthy controls during the orthostatic stress test may be an indication that the cells are activated by venous stasis. Clinically effective therapeutic measures improve the impaired microcirculation of the skin in the ankle area. PMID:11151969

  13. Central venous catheter-related thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Geerts, William

    2014-12-01

    Thrombotic complications associated with the use of central venous catheters (CVCs) are common and lead to distressing patient symptoms, catheter dysfunction, increased risk of infections, long-term central venous stenosis, and considerable costs of care. Risk factors for catheter-related thrombosis include use of larger, multilumen, and peripherally inserted catheters in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Symptomatic catheter-related thrombosis is treated with anticoagulation, generally without removing the catheter. The intensity and duration of anticoagulation depend on the extent of thrombosis, risk of bleeding, and need for continued use of a CVC. To date, the clinical benefit of prophylactic doses of anticoagulant has been disappointing and these agents are not used routinely for this purpose. This chapter focuses on recent evidence, remaining controversies, and practical approaches to reducing the burden of thrombosis associated with CVCs. PMID:25696870

  14. [Deep venous thrombosis and severe burns].

    PubMed

    Cracowski, J L; Bosson, J L; Cracowski, C; Bouchut, J C

    1998-02-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a frequent and potentially serious complication in severely burned patients. We report the case of a burned patient (40% of total body surface burned), who had right femoral deep venous thrombosis and severe pulmonary embolism, although a prophylaxis was conducted with low molecular weight heparin, graduated compression stockings and rotating bed. This case shows that DVT early diagnosis and prophylaxis is difficult in severely burned patients. Systematic screening of DVT by duplex scan is possible only for femoral veins, which renders duplex scan more suitable for femoral catheter follow up than for systematic DVT screening. Computed tomography venography seems to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of proximal thrombosis. Prophylaxis is best achieved with the use of preventive low molecular weight heparins, graduated compression stockings, and early mobilisation when possible. However, the place of low molecular weight heparins at high doses and external pneumatic calf compression needs to be evaluated by prospective studies. PMID:9551347

  15. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Approach to venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Leg ulcerations are a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% in the adult population. Venous leg ulcers are primarily treated in outpatient settings and often are managed by dermatologists. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers combined with available evidence-based data will provide an update on this topic. A systematized approach and the judicious use of expensive advanced therapeutics are critical. Specialized arterial and venous studies are most commonly noninvasive. The ankle brachial pressure index can be performed with a handheld Doppler unit at the bedside by most clinicians. The vascular laboratory results and duplex Doppler findings are used to identify segmental defects and potential operative candidates. Studies of the venous system can also predict a subset of patients who may benefit from surgery. Successful leg ulcer management requires an interdisciplinary team to make the correct diagnosis, assess the vascular supply, and identify other modifiable factors to optimize healing. The aim of this continuing medical education article is to provide an update on the management of venous leg ulcers. Part I is focused on the approach to venous ulcer diagnostic testing. PMID:26979354

  16. Chronic Venous Access in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Richard W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of chronic venous catheters has become routine in the management of neoplastic disease. If an anticipated result of diagnosis related grouping (DRG) reimbursement to hospitals is earlier patient discharge and reliance on more intensive outpatient management, concern about the safety and maintenance of such catheters in the outpatient elderly will become a more common issue. With careful patient selection and emphasis on catheter care, insertion of these catheters in the elderly is safe and reliable. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:3735452

  17. Venous ulcer infection caused by Arcanobacterium haemolyticum.

    PubMed

    Pânzaru, C; Tăranu, T

    2001-01-01

    A. haemolyticum has been described as an unusual pathogen causing pharyngotonsillitis and extra pharyngeal infections like ulcerative lesions infection mainly in patients with underlying condition (peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, alcoholism). A case of A. haemolyticum venous leg ulcer infection is reported in a 66 year-old diabetic male patient. Bacteriological diagnosis is based on conventional culture technique. But, due to its coryneform appearance and time growing, it is probably underreported. PMID:12561674

  18. Postintervention duration of anticoagulation in venous surgery.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate-Hoek, A J; Prins, M H; Wittens, C H A; ten Cate, H

    2013-03-01

    For a substantial proportion of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), current treatment strategies are suboptimal and new treatment options are needed. Especially for the group of patients who are at the highest risk for post-thrombotic syndrome, new treatment modalities such as catheter-directed thrombolysis and additional stenting are being investigated. With current clinical studies addressing new technical options, the medical management of patients following these interventions deserves attention. The duration of anticoagulant treatment following surgical or radiological interventions for DVT seems not to be influenced by the presence of a venous stent. According to recent ACCP 2012 guidelines the anticoagulant management in patients who have had any method of thrombus removal performed, the same intensity and duration of anticoagulant therapy as in comparable patients who do not undergo thrombosis removal is recommended (Grade 1B). In the acute phase of thrombosis, irrespective of the technique and whether or not stenting is applied, immediate anticoagulation following the procedure is pertinent to reduce the risk of recurrent thrombosis and thrombus propagation. The long-term treatment duration after venous interventions therefore may be tailored based on common risk factors for recurrent thrombosis and the individual risk for bleeding. Selected thrombophilia factors, d-dimer assessment and residual venous thrombosis provide markers for recurrent DVT. Currently, vitamin K antagonists) provide the main anticoagulants for (prolonged) anticoagulation, while the new oral anticoagulants emerge as promising alternatives. In case prolonged anticoagulation after unprovoked DVT is not indicated, cardiovascular risk management is warranted because of an increased rate of arterial thrombotic events after DVT; aspirin may be indicated as secondary prevention against recurrent thrombosis (while providing primary prevention against arterial thrombosis). PMID:23482544

  19. Venous Thromboembolism in Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Polikoff, Lee A.; Faustino, Edward Vincent S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the current literature on venous thromboembolism in critically ill children Recent findings There is increasing concern for venous thromboembolism and its complications in critically ill children. Critically ill children are at increased risk of thromboembolism because of the treatment that they are receiving and their underlying condition. A complex relationship exists between thrombosis and infection. A thrombus is a nidus for infection while infection increases the risk of thrombosis. Pediatric-specific guidelines for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism are lacking. Current guidelines are based on data from adults. Novel anticoagulants are now available for use in adults. Studies are ongoing to determine their safety in children. Risk assessment tools have recently been developed to determine the risk of thromboembolism in critically ill children. Certain molecules are associated with thromboembolism in adults. Summary Pediatric critical care practitioners should be cognizant of the importance of venous thromboembolism in critically ill children to allow for early identification and treatment. Adequately powered clinical trials are critically needed to generate evidence that will guide the treatment and prevention of thromboembolism in critically ill children. Risk assessment tools that incorporate biomarkers may improve our ability to predict the occurrence of thromboembolism in critically ill children. PMID:24732566

  20. Anomalous venous system in the human heart.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Zhou, Ming; Abe, Hiroshi

    2007-12-01

    In a 2002 cadaveric dissection course, a complex manner of rare variation was found in the abnormal venous system of the heart of an 88-year-old Japanese man who died of acute pneumonia. The superior vena cava and the left and right brachiocephalic veins were normal. In this case, a complex venous system existed as follows. (1) A left superior vena cava was persistent. (2) The innominate vein was present. It went upward between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk, passed through the ventral side of the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, and then anastomosed with the left superior vena cava. The oblique vein of the left atrium, as a fibrous bundle, was connected to the junction of the left superior vena cava and the innominate vein in the pericardium. (3) The great cardiac vein was divided into two branches. One was located at the right side of the left coronary artery, forming the origin of the innominate vein. The other extended to the coronary sinus as a normal great cardiac vein. (4) The orifice of the coronary sinus on the right atrium was obliterated. (5) The abnormal orifice existed between the left atrium and the coronary sinus. The formation process and functional significance of such venous variations are discussed. PMID:18062155

  1. Transpulmonary passage of venous air emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Hills, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-seven paralyzed anesthetized dogs were embolized with venous air to determine the effectiveness of the pulmonary vasculature for bubble filtration or trapping. Air doses ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 ml/kg min in 0.05-ml increments with ultrasonic Doppler monitors placed over arterial vessels to detect any microbubbles that crossed the lungs. Pulmonary vascular filtration of the venous air infusions was complete for the lower air doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 ml/kg min. When the air doses were increased to 0.35 ml/kg min, the filtration threshold was exceeded with arterial spillover of bubbles occurring in 50 percent of the animals and reaching 71 percent for 0.40 ml/kg min. Significant elevations were observed in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Systemic blood pressure and cardiac output decreased, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic pressure remained unchanged. The results indicate that the filtration of venous bubbles by the pulmonary vasculature was complete when the air infusion rates were kept below a threshold value of 0.30 ml/kg min.

  2. [Anatomic and functional features of venous valves].

    PubMed

    Griton, P; Vanet, P; Cloarec, M

    1997-05-01

    The comparison of the venous system in the human organism, and in particular the venous valves of the lower limbs, with studies conducted in animal models helped us to understand better the mechanisms involved in adapting to the upright position and walking. We examined work conducted in several species from the horse to the dog, especially in animals who often take on an upright position such as the chimpanzee and the kangouroo, in search for structures comparable to those in man. Different types of valves can be described in man: flotting valves (bicuspid, pigeon nest valves); reinforced valves (mid-thigh); reinforcing valves (periarticular zone in the knee); finally, "flat" valves which are highly resistant formations but with little anti-back flow action. We also describe valvular structures with muscle cells found in the plantar aspect of the foot and the veins of the quadriceps muscle, these valves may have an active hematopropulsive action (Bassi). These results allowed us to identify certain common points between the structures observed in the posterior legs of certain animals and to propose models for investigating venous diseases. PMID:9480339

  3. Porto-spleno-mesenteric venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Battistelli, S; Coratti, F; Gori, T

    2011-02-01

    Porto-spleno-mesenteric (PSM) venous thrombosis is a rare clinical condition that, while being mostly unrecognized, is nonetheless often severe with a high morbidity and mortality. PSM venous thrombosis is the cause of as many as 5-10% of all abdominal ischemic events, and it presents with a highly variable and non-specific pattern of abdominal symptoms. Such complex and non-specific presentation can delay diagnosis, determining the poor clinical outcome of this condition. This review article discusses the information available on the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and general management of PSM venous thrombosis, with a focus on a number of some clinical issues that remain unaddressed. In particular, the current understanding of the predisposing factors and the heterogeneous clinical manifestations of this condition are described in detail. The recent advances in imaging techniques, which are leading to an improved diagnostic accuracy and facilitate an early diagnosis are also presented. Further, the indications and limits of both pharmacological and surgical treatment options are discussed. PMID:21248667

  4. [Management of venous thromboembolism: A 2015 update].

    PubMed

    Galanaud, J-P; Messas, E; Blanchet-Deverly, A; Quéré, I; Wahl, D; Pernod, G

    2015-11-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) constitute venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). Venous thromboembolic disease is a common, serious, and multifactorial disease, the incidence of which increases with age. Risk factors, whether transient (surgery, plaster immobilization, bed rest/hospitalization) or chronic/persistent (age, cancer, clinical or biological thrombophilia, etc.), modulate the duration of treatment. In the absence of pathognomonic clinical sign or symptom, diagnostic management relies in the evaluation of the clinical pre-test probability followed by a laboratory or an imaging testing. So far, compression ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography angiography are the best diagnostic tests to make a positive diagnosis of DVT or PE, respectively. Anticoagulants at therapeutic dose for at least 3months constitute the cornerstone of VTE management. Availability of new direct oral anticoagulants, which have recently been shown to be as effective and as safe as vitamin K antagonist in clinical trials, should facilitate ambulatory management of VTE and favour extended treatments for individuals with unprovoked VTE or VTE provoked by a chronic/persistent risk factor. PMID:26235049

  5. Transhepatic venous approach to permanent pacemaker placement in a patient with limited central venous access

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Adeel M; Harris, Gregory S; Movahed, Assad; Chiang, Karl S; Chelu, Mihail G; Nekkanti, Rajasekhar

    2015-01-01

    The end-stage renal disease population poses a challenge for obtaining venous access required for life-saving invasive cardiac procedures. In this case report, we describe an adult patient with end-stage renal disease in whom the hepatic vein was the only available access to implant a single-lead permanent cardiac pacemaker. A 63-year-old male with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis and permanent atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter presented with symptomatic bradycardia. Imaging studies revealed all traditional central venous access sites to be occluded/non-accessible. With the assistance of vascular interventional radiology, a trans-hepatic venous catheter was placed. This was then used to place a right ventricular pacing lead with close attention to numerous technical aspects. The procedure was completed successfully with placement of a single-lead permanent cardiac pacemaker. PMID:26380831

  6. Transhepatic venous approach to permanent pacemaker placement in a patient with limited central venous access.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Adeel M; Harris, Gregory S; Movahed, Assad; Chiang, Karl S; Chelu, Mihail G; Nekkanti, Rajasekhar

    2015-09-16

    The end-stage renal disease population poses a challenge for obtaining venous access required for life-saving invasive cardiac procedures. In this case report, we describe an adult patient with end-stage renal disease in whom the hepatic vein was the only available access to implant a single-lead permanent cardiac pacemaker. A 63-year-old male with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis and permanent atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter presented with symptomatic bradycardia. Imaging studies revealed all traditional central venous access sites to be occluded/non-accessible. With the assistance of vascular interventional radiology, a trans-hepatic venous catheter was placed. This was then used to place a right ventricular pacing lead with close attention to numerous technical aspects. The procedure was completed successfully with placement of a single-lead permanent cardiac pacemaker. PMID:26380831

  7. Foudroyant Course of an Extensive Clostridium septicum Gas Gangrene in a Diabetic Patient with Occult Carcinoma of the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Kutup, Asad; Gehl, Axel; Zustin, Jozef; Grossterlinden, Lars G.; Rueger, Johannes M.; Lehmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background. Spontaneous gas gangrene is a rare disease in which Clostridium septicum frequently can be detected. After an incubation period of 5–48 hours, a very painful swelling is accompanied by a rapidly spreading toxic-infectious clinical picture ultimately leading to septic shock and multiple organ failure. We present a case of a completely documented rare infectious disease with triage findings including initial vital signs, initial medical findings, and the emergency lab., radiological, intraoperative, histopathological, microbiological, and postmortem results. After initial diagnosis of the underlying disease, the patient has been immediately transferred to the operating theatre. The laboratory findings reflect the devastating effect of toxin ? which is a toxin typically produced by C. septicum. The patient presented both an anaemia and a manifest coagulopathy as well as an onset of multiple organ failure. Despite the aggressive medical and surgical measures that have been taken, this patient could not be saved. Discussion. The case presented vividly emphasises the difficulty to identify these cases early enough to save a patient. This documentation may help health care providers to identify this life threatening disease as early as possible in future cases. PMID:23864974

  8. A case report on management of synergistic gangrene following an incisional abdominal hernia repair in an immunocompromised obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Merali, N.; Almeida, R.A.R.; Hussain, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a case on conservative management of salvaging the mesh in an immunocompromised morbidly obese patient, who developed a synergistic gangrene infection following a primary open mesh repair of an incisional hernia. Presentation of case Our patient presented with a surgical wound infection, comorbidities were Chronic Lymphoblastic Leukemia (CLL), Body Mass Index (BMI) of 50, hypertension and diet controlled type-2 diabetes. In surgery, wide necrotic wound debridement, early and repetitive wound drainages with the use of a large pore polypropylene mesh and a detailed surgical follow up was required. High dose intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) was administrated in combination with adopting a multidisciplinary approach was key to our success. Discussion Stoppa Re et al. complied a series of 360 ventral hernia mesh repairs reporting an infection rate of 12% that were managed conservatively. However, our selective case is unique within current literature, being the first to illustrate mesh salvage in a morbid obese patient with CLL. Recent modifications in mesh morphology, such as lower density, wide pores, and lighter weight has led to considerable improvements regarding infection avoidance. Conclusion This case has demonstrated how a planned multidisciplinary action can produce prosperous results in a severely obese immunocompromised patient with an SSI, following an incisional hernia repair. PMID:26322822

  9. Microparticles: new light shed on the understanding of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Qi, Xiao-long; Xu, Ming-xin; Mao, Yu; Liu, Ming-lin; Song, Hao-ming

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles are small membrane fragments shed primarily from blood and endothelial cells during either activation or apoptosis. There is mounting evidence suggesting that microparticles perform a large array of biological functions and contribute to various diseases. Of these disease processes, a significant link has been established between microparticles and venous thromboembolism. Advances in research on the role of microparticles in thrombosis have yielded crucial insights into possible mechanisms, diagnoses and therapeutic targets of venous thromboembolism. In this review, we discuss the definition and properties of microparticles and venous thromboembolism, provide a synopsis of the evidence detailing the contributions of microparticles to venous thromboembolism, and propose potential mechanisms, by which venous thromboembolism occurs. Moreover, we illustrate a possible role of microparticles in cancer-related venous thromboembolism. PMID:25152025

  10. Core content for training in venous and lymphatic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Min, Robert J; Comerota, Anthony J; Meissner, Mark H; Carman, Teresa L; Rathbun, Suman W; Jaff, Michael R; Wakefield, Thomas W; Feied, Craig F

    2014-01-01

    The major venous societies in the United States share a common mission to improve the standards of medical practitioners, the educational goals for teaching and training programs in venous disease, and the quality of patient care related to the treatment of venous disorders. With these important goals in mind, a task force made up of experts from the specialties of dermatology, interventional radiology, phlebology, vascular medicine, and vascular surgery was formed to develop a consensus document describing the Core Content for venous and lymphatic medicine and to develop a core educational content outline for training. This outline describes the areas of knowledge considered essential for practice in the field, which encompasses the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with acute and chronic venous and lymphatic disorders. The American Venous Forum and the American College of Phlebology have endorsed the Core Content. PMID:25059735

  11. Venous Return and Clinical Hemodynamics: How the Body Works during Acute Hemorrhage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Tao; Baker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Venous return is a major determinant of cardiac output. Adjustments within the venous system are critical for maintaining venous pressure during loss in circulating volume. This article reviews two factors that are thought to enable the venous system to compensate during acute hemorrhage: 1) changes in venous elastance and 2) mobilization of…

  12. Venous Return and Clinical Hemodynamics: How the Body Works during Acute Hemorrhage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Tao; Baker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Venous return is a major determinant of cardiac output. Adjustments within the venous system are critical for maintaining venous pressure during loss in circulating volume. This article reviews two factors that are thought to enable the venous system to compensate during acute hemorrhage: 1) changes in venous elastance and 2) mobilization of…

  13. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Treating venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Venous leg ulcers account for approximately 70% of all leg ulcers and affect 2.2 million Americans annually. After a comprehensive patient and wound assessment, compression therapy remains the cornerstone of standard care. Adjuvant care with topical or systemic agents is used for wounds that do not heal within 4 weeks. Once healed, long-term compression therapy with stockings or surgical intervention will reduce the incidence of recurrence. This continuing medical education article aims to outline optimal management for patients with venous leg ulcers, highlighting the role of a multidisciplinary team in delivering high quality care. PMID:26979355

  14. Transient reduction in venous susceptibility during posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Morgan; Wanono, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Delphine; Domont, Fanny; Trunet, Stéphanie; Dormont, Didier; Bertrand, Anne

    2015-11-15

    We report a case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in which followed-up MRI demonstrated a transient reduction in venous signal on initial SWAN images. The progressive normalization of venous signal on D10 and D40 imaging paralleled the progressive decrease of hyperperfusion on CBF images. Decreased venous susceptibility has never been reported in PRES; it relates most likely to a transient BOLD effect induced by brain hyperperfusion. PMID:26434616

  15. [Dosage of O-beta hydroxyethylrutoside in chronic venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Stemmer, R; Furderer, C R

    1986-01-01

    45 patients suffering from varicose veins with or without a chronic insufficiency up to stage II, took 1, 2 or 3 g of Oc-beta hydroxyerhylrutoside P.O. Photo reflexometry and plethysmography with mercury gauge demonstrated the results. The various parameters showed the medication to be effective after 10 and 21 days of treatment. A dosage adjusted to the gravity of the venous involvement improves the venous pump of the leg and therefore the venous return. PMID:3562569

  16. Neoplastic zebras of venous thrombosis: Diagnostic challenges in vascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, A; Lekah, A; Kurklinsky, A K

    2015-12-01

    Venous thrombosis is a common medical problem. Imaging differentiation of neoplasms and venous clots may prove challenging. We report three cases of "mistaken identities" of venous thrombi and neoplasms on the basis of clinical findings and different imaging modalities: ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging studies are not always reliable and consideration of clinical features, including pretest probability, is necessary for correct diagnosis. A combination of imaging modalities and biopsies is needed for correct diagnosis in some cases. PMID:25300312

  17. Venous Leg Ulcer in a Sarcoidosis Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Byun, Sang Young; Kim, In Su

    2015-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers, the most common form of leg ulcers, are relevant to the pathogenicity of pericapillary fibrin cuff. Sarcoidosis, a multiorgan granulomatous disease, causes fibrin deposition in tissues. We report a case of a 50-year-old man with venous leg ulcers coexisting with sarcoidosis. On the basis of the histologic findings, we propose the hypothesis that sarcoidosis patients are prone to the development of venous leg ulcers. PMID:26719645

  18. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zacharia, George Sarin; Rangan, Kavitha; Kandiyil, Sunilkumar; Thomas, Varghese

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is defined by a positive ascitic fluid bacterial culture and an elevated ascitic fluid absolute polymorphonuclear count (≥250 cells/mm3) without an evident intra-abdominal, surgically treatable source of infection. Transient ascites is well documented in patients with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction but spontaneous bacterial peritonitis complicating extrahepatic portal venous obstruction is extremely uncommon. The postulated reasons for the low incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction includes: lower incidence of ascites; intact hepatic reticuloendothelial system; and a relatively high ascitic fluid protein content. Here we report two cases of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis complicating extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. PMID:24714664

  19. Mesenteric venous collateral vessels mimicking cystic pancreatic neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, B; Robbins, J B; Zeglis, M D; Scheiman, J M; Simeone, D M; Francis, I R

    2010-01-01

    We report an unusual case of intrapancreatic mesenteric venous collateral vessels following partial pancreatic surgical resection resembling pancreatic neoplasm upon greyscale sonographic and unenhanced CT examinations. PMID:20675462

  20. [Medial venous catheter or midline (MVC)].

    PubMed

    Carrero Caballero, Ma Carmen; Montealegre Sanz, María; Cubero Pérez, Ma Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Current clinical practice is characterised for importance of the patient's quality of life and the need to reduce the costs of their treatment. We search intravenous therapy alternatives that meet the needs of the patient, reducing the complications associated with the use of venous catheters. Scientific evidence shows that there are midline venous catheters that offer patients and professionals the possibility of extending the duration of infusion therapy, using more venous compatibility materials, and with less risk of infection. The Midlines are becoming in a safe an efficient device for intravenous therapy, continuous and intermittent infusion, provided the necessary care by expert nurses. Midline catheters are peripheral venous access devices between 3 to 10 inches in length (8 to 25 cm). Midlines are usually placed in an upper arm vein, such as the brachial or cephalic, and the distal extreme ends below the level of the axillary line. Midlines catheters implanted in the cephalic or deep basilica veins get more blood flow. This large blood volume justifies the lower risk of mechanical or chemical phlebitis. Midlines are routinely used for two to six weeks. Due that the extrem of these catheters does not extend beyond the axillary line, there are limitations for its use: type of infused drugs, velocity of infusion, etc. In general, solutions that have pH 5 to 9, or an osmolarity less than 500 mOsm are appropriate for infusion through a Midline. Its use is recommended in case of treatments over 7 days with low irritant capacity fluids. According to the Infusion Nurses Society's standards of practice, Midline catheters are appropriate for all intravenous fluids that would normally be administered through a short peripheral IV Importantly, due that the catheter does not pass through the central veins, Midlines can be placed without a chest X-ray to confirm placement. For certain situations, Midlines are suitable for acute units and even for care home settings. Midlines have been associated with lower rates of phlebitis than short peripheral IVs, and less infections in contrast to central lines. There are different implantation techniques, which have evolved in terms of materials (silicone and polyurethane) and technological advances (ultrasound): Seldinger technique with micropuncture and Ultrasound-guided Seldinger technique. At present where scientific evidence, clinical needs, efficiency and costs are influential parameters, Midlines should be considered as an alternative peripheral venous access. Unlike PICC lines, Midline catheters offer peripheral, not central venous access. Midlines should be considered early in treatment instead of serial short peripheral IVs. These devices permit the infusion of most or all infusates that are appropriate for short peripheral IVs with the added advantage that Midlines can last much longer; at least six weeks and perhaps for months. PMID:24624619

  1. Predictors of Venous Thromboembolic Events Associated with Central Venous Port Insertion in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hohl Moinat, Christine; Périard, Daniel; Hayoz, Daniel; André, Pascal; Kung, Marc; Betticher, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Insertion of central venous port (CVP) catheter in the cancer population is associated with increased incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). However, trials have shown limited benefit of antithrombotic treatment to prevent catheter-related venous thrombosis. This prospective observational cohort study was designed to assess the incidence of VTE closely related to CVP implantation in patients with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy, and to identify a high risk subgroup of patients. Between February 2006 and December 2011, 1097 consecutive cancer patients with first CVP implantation were included. Catheter-related VTE were defined as deep venous thrombosis in the arm, with or without pulmonary embolism (PE), or isolated PE. The incidence of CVP-associated VTE was 5.9% (IC95 4.4–7.3%) at 3 months, and 11.3% (IC95 9.4–13.2%) at 12 months. The incidence of any VTE was 7.6% (IC95 6.0–9.3%) at 3 months, and 15.3% (IC95 13.1–17.6%) at 12 months. High Khorana risk score and lung cancer were significant predictors of 3 month VTE. In conclusion, this large cohort study of patients with first CVP catheter implantation confirms the high incidence of VTE associated with the CVP implantation and allow identifying high risk patients who may benefit from thromboprophylaxis. PMID:24665264

  2. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    Meppiel, Elodie; Crassard, Isabelle; de Latour, Régis Peffault; de Guibert, Sophie; Terriou, Louis; Chabriat, Hugues; Socié, Gérard; Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disorder of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by hemolytic anemia, marrow failure, and a high incidence of life-threatening venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous system is the second most frequent location of thrombosis after hepatic veins. However, data about PNH-related cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are very scarce because of the rarity of both the disorders. We report a French study about PNH patients with CVT. Patients were recruited retrospectively, from the Société Française d’Hématologie (SFH) registry of 465 patients with PNH; the Lariboisière registry of 399 patients with CVT; and a direct contact with 26 French Hematology Units. We review cases reported since 1938 in the English and French language literature. We then compared patients of our series with cases from the literature, with non-PNH-related CVT cases from Lariboisière registry, and with PNH patients without CVT from SFH registry. Fifteen patients were included between 1990 and 2012. Most patients were women (12/15) and half of them presented associated hormonal venous thrombosis risk factors. Three patients had concomitant hepatic vein thrombosis. CVT was the first manifestation of PNH in 4 patients. No major difference in CVT characteristics was found compared with non-PNH-related CVT cases, except for a younger age at diagnosis in PNH patients (P?

  3. Sickle Cell Trait Causing Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Priyanka; Dhiman, Pratibha; Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is considered as a benign condition as these individuals carry only one defective gene and typically have their life span similar to the normal population without any health problems related to sickle cell. Only under extreme conditions, red cells become sickled and can cause clinical complications including hematuria and splenic infarction. Although twofold increased risk of venous thrombosis has been described in African Americans, there is no data available from Indian population. We here report a case of sickle cell trait from India whose index presentation was thrombosis of unusual vascular territory. PMID:26221548

  4. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zamboni, P; Galeotti, R; Menegatti, E; Malagoni, A M; Tacconi, G; Dall’Ara, S; Bartolomei, I; Salvi, F

    2009-01-01

    Background: The extracranial venous outflow routes in clinically defined multiple sclerosis (CDMS) have not previously been investigated. Methods: Sixty-five patients affected by CDMS, and 235 controls composed, respectively, of healthy subjects, healthy subjects older than CDMS patients, patients affected by other neurological diseases and older controls not affected by neurological diseases but scheduled for venography (HAV-C) blindly underwent a combined transcranial and extracranial colour-Doppler high-resolution examination (TCCS-ECD) aimed at detecting at least two of five parameters of anomalous venous outflow. According to the TCCS-ECD screening, patients and HAV-C further underwent selective venography of the azygous and jugular venous system with venous pressure measurement. Results: CDMS and TCCS-ECD venous outflow anomalies were dramatically associated (OR 43, 95% CI 29 to 65, p<0.0001). Subsequently, venography demonstrated in CDMS, and not in controls, the presence of multiple severe extracranial stenosis, affecting the principal cerebrospinal venous segments; this provides a picture of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) with four different patterns of distribution of stenosis and substitute circle. Moreover, relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive courses were associated with CCSVI patterns significantly different from those of primary progressive (p<0.0001). Finally, the pressure gradient measured across the venous stenosies was slightly but significantly higher. Conclusion: CDMS is strongly associated with CCSVI, a scenario that has not previously been described, characterised by abnormal venous haemodynamics determined by extracranial multiple venous strictures of unknown origin. The location of venous obstructions plays a key role in determining the clinical course of the disease. PMID:19060024

  5. The distally based, venous supercharged anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Hung; Zelken, Jonathan; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Chih-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan

    2016-01-01

    The distally-based anterolateral thigh flap is an attractive option for proximal leg and knee coverage but venous congestion is common. Restoration of antegrade venous drainage via great saphenous vein supercharge to the proximal flap vein is proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare outcomes of 18 large, distally-based anterolateral thigh flaps with and without venous augmentation on the basis of flap size, venous congestion, and clinical course. The average age of 12 men and 6 women was 35.9-year old (range, 16-50 years old). Wounds resulting from trauma, burn sequela, sarcoma, and infection were localized to the knee, proximal leg, knee stump and popliteal fossa. The mean defect was 17.6 × 9.4 cm(2) (range, 6 × 7 cm(2) to 22 × 20 cm(2) ). The mean flap size was 21.4 × 8.8 cm(2) (range, 12 × 6 to 27 × 12 cm(2) ). There were 14 cases in the venous supercharged group and 4 cases in the group without supercharge. The mean size of flaps in the venous supercharged group was significantly larger than that in the group without supercharge (22.6?±?3.8 × 9.1?±?1.7 cm vs. 17.5?±?4.4 × 7.8?±?1.7 cm, P?=?0.03). Venous congestion occurred in all four flaps without supercharge that lasted 3-7 days and partial flap loss occurred in two cases. There was no early venous congestion and partial flap loss in supercharged flaps but venous congestion secondary to anastomotic occlusion developed in two cases. Early exploration with vein grafting resolved venous congestion in one case. Late exploration in the other resulted in flap loss. Preventive venous supercharge is suggested for the large, distally-based anterolateral thigh flap. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:20-28, 2016. PMID:25653210

  6. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters. Low-risk alternatives for ongoing venous access.

    PubMed Central

    Merrell, S W; Peatross, B G; Grossman, M D; Sullivan, J J; Harker, W G

    1994-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the use of peripherally inserted central venous catheters to provide ongoing venous access in general medical and surgical patients in a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. Between 1985 and 1988 trained nurses successfully inserted 393 catheters in 460 suitable patients (an 85.4% success rate). Correct catheter tip placement in the superior vena cava was documented in 359 of the 393 (91.3%) catheter insertions, but an additional 30 catheters were in a position deemed adequate for the intended use. The mean duration of catheter use was 27.6 +/- 5.2 (1 standard deviation) days (median 20 days, range 1 to 370 days). A total of 65 patients left the hospital with catheters in place, with the mean length of catheter use at home being 36.2 +/- 6.0 days (range 2 to 266). In all, 79% of the catheters were in use until the successful completion of therapy or patient death; catheter-related complications led to premature catheter removal in the remaining 21%. Catheter-related complications included bland phlebitis (8.2%), occlusion (8.2%), local infection (3.6%), bacteremia or fungemia (2.1%), mechanical failure or rupture (2.6%), venous thrombosis (0.7%), and other (3.3%). One patient required vein excision for the management of suppurative phlebitis, but no deaths were attributed to catheter use. This study illustrates the use and safety of peripherally inserted central venous catheters to provide reliable vascular access over prolonged periods in an elderly veteran population. At our facility, percutaneous central venous catheters and surgically implanted (Hickman or Broviac) catheters are now reserved for use in patients in whom peripherally inserted catheters cannot be placed. Images PMID:8128698

  7. [Definition, classification and diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency - part II].

    PubMed

    Kasperczak, Jarosław; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Breborowicz, H Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Venous insufficiency can be defined as a fixed venous outflow disturbance of the limbs. It is caused by the malfunction of the venous system, that may or may not be associated with venous valvular insufficiency and may involve the superficial or deep venous system of the lower limbs, or both. The CEAP scale includes clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic aspects and has been used in the assessment of venous insufficiency Clinical classification comprises of 7 groups. It takes into account the appearance of the skin of the lower limbs, presence of edema, teleangiectasis and varicose ulcers. CLINICAL GRADING: Group C0 - no visible changes in the clinical examination; Group C1 - telangiectasis, reticular veins, redness of the skin around the ankles; Group C2 - varicose veins, Group C3 - the presence of edema without skin changes; Group C4 - lesions dependent of venous diseases (discoloration, blemishes, lipodermatosclerosis); C5 Group - skin changes described above with signs of healed venous ulcers; Group C6 - skin lesions such as in groups C1 to C4 plus active venous ulcers. ETIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION INCLUDES: Ec - congenital defects of the venous system, Ep - primary pathological changes of the venous system, without identification of their causes; Es - secondary causes of venous insufficiency of known etiology (post-thrombotic, post-traumatic, etc.). There are many methods of assessing the venous system. One of the most accurate methods is an ascending phlebography which is especially useful in determining detailed anatomy of the venous system, venous patency and identification of perforans veins. The second method may be a descending phlebography useful in determining the venous reflux and morphology of venous valves. Another radiological method is varicography in which the injection of the contrast medium directly into the veins is performed. It is especially useful in the ,,mapping" of venous connections. Trans-uterine phlebography when contrast medium is injected into the bottom of the uterus and its flow is observed, is a very rare test. A similar method is used in a selective phlebography of the ovarian vein and internal iliac vein. This examination is performed when there is a suspicion of connections between varicose veins of the inferior extremities and the pelvis, in case of the occluded iliac and femoral veins. However these tests are highly invasive, causing a lot of discomfort and are connected with numerous complications, particularly the development of venous thromboembolism. An invasive study but not exposing to the emission of ionizing radiation, is a measurement of the marching pressure (known also as ambulatory venous pressure - AVP). Ultrasound Doppler is the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of venous system. Color Doppler technique is irreplaceable due to its non-invasiveness, availability constantly improving of the ultrasound machines and is the method of choice in pregnancy Unfortunately clinical correlation of Doppler ultrasound and thrombosis is bad. Invasive methods, which include various types of phlebographies, have been reserved only for cases of very high diagnostic doubt. PMID:23488310

  8. Venous bullet embolism: a complication of airgun pellet injuries.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, I W; Jamieson, M P; Pollock, J C

    1991-02-01

    Bullet emboli are an interesting but rare occurrence and their management when situated in the venous system remains controversial. Two cases of venous bullet embolism to the right heart are reported due to airgun pellet injuries. Both cases required bullet embolectomy using cardio-pulmonary bypass. PMID:2031167

  9. Cerebrofacial Venous Anomalies, Sinus Pericranii, Ocular Abnormalities and Developmental Delay

    PubMed Central

    Macit, B.; Burrows, P.E.; Yilmaz, S.; Orbach, D.B.; Mulliken, J.B.; Alomari, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The clinical implications of venous cerebrovascular maldevelopment remain poorly understood. We report on the association of cerebrofacial venous anomalies (including sinus pericranii), ocular abnormalities and mild developmental delay in two children. In addition, one child had a seizure disorder. Complex cerebrofacial slow-flow vascular anomalies may herald an underlying developmental aberration affecting the cerebrofacial and orbital regions PMID:22681729

  10. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section 870.1140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section 870.1140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section 870.1140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section 870.1140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section 870.1140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous...

  15. Fibrinolytic components of human uterine arterial and venous blood

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, A. V. P.; Das, P. C.; Myerscough, P. R.; Cash, J. D.

    1967-01-01

    The fibrinolytic components of uterine arterial and venous blood were studied in 14 patients undergoing various obstetrical and gynaecological procedures. There was a highly significant higher concentration of plasminogen activator, as measured by the euglobulin lysis time, and fibrin degradation products in the uterine venous blood. PMID:5602553

  16. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Farrukh S; Schneck, Michael J; Morales-Vidal, Sarkis; Javaid, Furqan; Ruland, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are part of the spectrum of venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is one of the most frequent medical complications in stroke patients. The risk of VTE is even higher after hemorrhagic stroke. This article reviews various screening methods, diagnostic techniques, and pharmacologic as well as nonpharmacologic means of preventing VTE after hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:23611851

  17. Imaging of venous thromboemboli with labeled platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, K.M.; Fedullo, P.F.

    1984-07-01

    Prevention and optimal treatment of venous thromboembolism requires techniques that can: (1) monitor patients at high risk; (2) promptly detect thromboemboli; (3) follow the course of patients during treatment. Multiple techniques have been introduced to assist in these tasks. Some have not been well validated. Others, while established as of substantial value, have limitations with respect to specificity, sensitivity, patient access, patient acceptability, or risk. The dynamic nature of venous thromboembolism makes it unlikely that any one procedure will satisfy all diagnostic needs. Platelets labeled with 111In (111In-P) have promise as a useful addition to the existing diagnostic armamentarium. Because 111In-P are incorporated into forming and growing thromboemboli, and can provide a gamma camera image, they offer certain potential advantages versus other techniques. However, to establish the clinical value and proper use of the 111In-P technique, additional investigations are needed to determine the impact of thrombus location, age, anticoagulant therapy, and imaging technique and timing upon in vivo visualization of thromboemboli.

  18. Immunological aspects of chronic venous disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grudzi?ska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a very common health problem concerning up to 1/3 of the society. Although venous hypertension and valvular incompetence have been long known to be crucial for development of the illness, its exact aetiology remains unclear. Recent findings indicate that inflammatory processes may be crucial for development of incompetent valves and vein wall remodelling. One of the most interesting theories describes “leucocyte trapping” as the mechanism responsible for elevated vein wall permeability and oxidative stress in the veins. At the same time, the cytokine profile of the blood in incompetent veins has not been thoroughly examined. Popular anti-inflammatory drugs relieve some symptoms but do not have much proved effects in prevention and treatment. We intend to summarize the existing knowledge of the immunological aspects of CVD in order to emphasize its importance for understanding the aetiology of this illness. We also wish to indicate some aspects that remain to be studied in more detail. PMID:26155174

  19. Endovascular treatments for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongming; Sang, Hongfei; Dai, Qiliang; Xu, Gelin

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon but potentially fatal condition. CVST usually occurs young adults with a female predominance. The current mainstay for treating CVST is anticoagulation with heparin. However, more aggressive interventions, endovascular treatment as an example, may be indicated in selected patients who are non-responsive to heparin and other anticoagulants. Endovascular approaches include catheter-based local chemical thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty and mechanical thrombectomy, all of which may rapidly recanalize the occluded venous sinus, restore the blood flow, reduce the increased intracranial pressure, and subsequently relieve the corresponding symptoms. However, as an invasive strategy, endovascular procedures per se may cause complications, such as intracranial hemorrhage, vessel dissection and pulmonary embolization, which may substantially decrease the benefit-risk ratio of the treatment. Due to the rareness of the condition and the limited indication of this invasive strategy, safety and efficacy of endovascular procedures in treating CVST are less feasible to be evaluated in large randomized clinical trails. Therefore, the evidences for justifying this treatment strategy are largely derived from case reports, cohort studies and clinical observations. PMID:25771984

  20. [Cerebral venous thrombosis. Report of 76 cases].

    PubMed

    Bousser, M G

    1991-01-01

    Progress in neuroimaging has led to a considerable change in our knowledge of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). Together with a series of 76 cases, a review of literature is presented. CVT is a far from negligible variety of stroke. It may occur at any age and despite numerous causes (nowadays mostly non infective), the proportion of cases of unknown aetiology remains around 25%. Superior sagittal sinus and lateral sinus are the most frequently involved, often associated with cortical vein thrombosis. Cavernous sinus thrombosis remains the most common form of septic thrombosis. Thrombosis of the galenic system and of cerebellar veins are uncommon. The clinical picture is extremely variable with a mixture of focal signs (deficits or seizures) and symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. The mode of onset is also variable, over hours, days, weeks or months. The presentation can thus be very misleading, simulating an arterial stroke or an abscess, an encephalitis, a tumor or a pseudo-tumor cerebri. CT scan is crucial to rule out other conditions and angiography to confirm the diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis. MRI is very performing since it visualizes the thrombus itself and allows a non invasive follow up. Most cases have a benign course but mortality is still around 30% in infective cases and 10% in non infective ones. Although it has long been debated, the benefit of anticoagulant (heparin) is now well established. PMID:1940650

  1. The cerebral venous system and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark H; Imray, Christopher H E

    2016-01-15

    Most hypobaric hypoxia studies have focused on oxygen delivery and therefore cerebral blood inflow. Few have studied venous outflow. However, the volume of blood entering and leaving the skull (?700 ml/min) is considerably greater than cerebrospinal fluid production (0.35 ml/min) or edema formation rates and slight imbalances of in- and outflow have considerable effects on intracranial pressure. This dynamic phenomenon is not necessarily appreciated in the currently taught static "Monro-Kellie" doctrine, which forms the basis of the "Tight-Fit" hypothesis thought to underlie high altitude headache, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema. Investigating both sides of the cerebral circulation was an integral part of the 2007 Xtreme Everest Expedition. The results of the relevant studies performed as part of and subsequent to this expedition are reviewed here. The evidence from recent studies suggests a relative venous outflow insufficiency is an early step in the pathogenesis of high altitude headache. Translation of knowledge gained from high altitude studies is important. Many patients in a critical care environment develop hypoxemia akin to that of high altitude exposure. An inability to drain the hypoxemic induced increase in cerebral blood flow could be an underappreciated regulatory mechanism of intracranial pressure. PMID:26294747

  2. Arterial-venous specification during development.

    PubMed

    Swift, Matthew R; Weinstein, Brant M

    2009-03-13

    The major arteries and veins of the vertebrate circulatory system are formed early in embryonic development, before the onset of circulation, following de novo aggregation of "angioblast" progenitors in a process called vasculogenesis. Initial embryonic determination of artery or vein identity is regulated by variety of genetic factors that work in concert to specify endothelial cell fate, giving rise to 2 distinct components of the circulatory loop possessing unique structural characteristics. Work in multiple in vivo animal model systems has led to a detailed examination of the interacting partners that determine arterial and venous specification. We discuss the hierarchical arrangement of many signaling molecules, including Hedgehog (Hh), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Notch, and chicken ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) that promote or inhibit divergent pathways of endothelial cell fate. Elucidation of the functional role of these genetic determinants of blood vessel specification together with the epigenetic factors involved in subsequent modification of arterial-venous identity will allow for potential new therapeutic targets for vascular disorders. PMID:19286613

  3. [Neonatal renal venous thrombosis in 2008].

    PubMed

    Dauger, S; Michot, C; Garnier, A; Hurtaud-Roux, M-F

    2009-02-01

    Venous thromboses are rare in childhood. In the neonatal period, these are mainly neonatal renal venous thromboses (NRVT). We propose a synthesis of the main recent reviews on NRVT published over the last 15 years. These studies reported the higher male prevalence, the predominance of left kidney vein involvement, the increasing incidence in premature newborns, and a high level of thrombophilia in screened newborns. The usual presentation of NRVT, which associates abdominal mass, macroscopic hematuria, and thrombocytopenia, has been progressively modified by these new epidemiological features. The abdominal Doppler ultrasound scan is widely used for diagnosis and must be systematically associated with a transfontanellar ultrasound to look for cerebral hemorrhage, which should be a contraindication for anticoagulation. Recent consensus recommends at least prophylactic heparin therapy in the majority of cases to prevent thrombus extension. Fibrinolysis should be reserved for bilateral thrombosis with systemic effects. Despite improvements in screening and care, mean-term and long-term sequellae such as kidney atrophia, moderate renal insufficiency, systemic hypertension, and relapses in case of thrombophilia are still frequent and severe. A systematic follow-up by pediatric nephrologists is recommended. PMID:19150233

  4. Vegetables intake and venous thromboembolism: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    A higher intake of vegetables has been convincingly associated with a decreased risk of arterial thrombotic disorders, so that a similar association may be expected with venous thromboembolism. An electronic search was conducted in Medline, Web of Science and Scopus to identify epidemiological studies that investigated the independent association between intake of vegetables and risk of venous thrombosis. Our systematic literature search allowed to identify four prospective and one case-control studies. Although a lower risk of venous thromboembolism was reported in one prospective and one case-control studies, no significant association was found between larger intake of vegetables and risk of venous thrombosis in the remaining three large prospective studies. Taken together, the epidemiological data available in the current scientific literature do not support the notion that higher consumption of vegetables may have a significant impact on the risk of venous thrombosis. PMID:27023878

  5. Occult pulmonary embolism: a common occurrence in deep venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, G.S.; Cronan, J.J.; Tupper, T.B.; Messersmith, R.N.; Denny, D.F.; Lee, C.H.

    1987-02-01

    Ventilation-perfusion scans were used in a prospective study to determine the prevalence of occult pulmonary embolus in proven deep venous thrombosis. Fifty-eight patients without symptoms of pulmonary embolism, but with venographically proven deep venous thrombosis, were subjected to chest radiographs, /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated-albumin perfusion scans, and /sup 133/Xe ventilation scans. Of the 49 patients with deep venous thrombosis proximal to the calf veins, 17 (35%) had high-probability scans. Of all 58 patients, only 12 (21%) had normal scans. When the study population was compared with a group of 430 patients described in reports of pulmonary perfusion in asymptomatic persons, a significantly higher percentage of high-probability scans was found in the study population with deep venous thrombosis. Baseline ventilation-perfusion lung scanning is valuable for patients with proven above-knee deep venous thrombosis.

  6. Unilateral Loss of Spontaneous Venous Pulsations in an Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mader, Thomas H.; Gibson, C. Robert; Lee, Andrew G.; Patel, Nimesh; Hart, Steven; Pettit, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous venous pulsations seen on the optic nerve head (optic disc) are presumed to be caused by fluctuations in the pressure gradient between the intraocular and retrolaminar venous systems. The disappearance of previously documented spontaneous venous pulsations is a well-recognized clinical sign usually associated with a rise in intracranial pressure and a concomitant bilateral elevation of pressure in the subarachnoid space surrounding the optic nerves. In this correspondence we report the unilateral loss of spontaneous venous pulsations in an astronaut 5 months into a long duration space flight. We documented a normal lumbar puncture opening pressure 8 days post mission. The spontaneous venous pulsations were also documented to be absent 21 months following return to Earth.. We hypothesize that these changes may have resulted from a chronic unilateral rise in optic nerve sheath pressure caused by a microgravity-induced optic nerve sheath compartment syndrome.

  7. Venous return curves obtained from graded series of valsalva maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The effects were studied of a graded series of valsalva-like maneuvers on the venous return, which was measured transcutaneously in the jugular vein of an anesthetized dog, with the animal serving as its own control. At each of five different levels of central venous pressure, the airway pressure which just stopped venous return during each series of maneuvers was determined. It was found that this end-point airway pressure is not a good estimator of the animal's resting central venous pressure prior to the simulated valsalva maneuver. It was further found that the measured change in right atrial pressure during a valsalva maneuver is less than the change in airway pressure during the same maneuver, instead of being equal, as had been expected. Relative venous return curves were constructed from the data obtained during the graded series of valsalva maneuvers.

  8. A Reliable Test to Detect Impending Pump Failure during Long-Term Support on the Novacor® N100 Left Ventricular Assist System

    PubMed Central

    Dohmen, P. M.; Laube, H.; de Jonge, K.; Konertz, W.

    2001-01-01

    The Durastudy is a new surveillance protocol to detect impending pump failure in Novacor® N100 Left Ventricular Assist Systems implanted for the long term. Our patient, a 54-year-old man with a history of dilated cardiomyopathy and contraindications for heart transplantation, received a Novacor pump in May 1995 and did not experience sustainable ventricular recovery during the subsequent 3 years. After more than 3 years of support, symptoms of pump wear were detected in this patient, through application of the Durastudy protocol. This enabled us to electively exchange the pump at 3.8 years. Our patient remained in New York Heart Association functional class I until he died in July 1999 of causes unrelated to the pump, after some 1,514 days of support. This, we believe, still constitutes a world record. PMID:11453127

  9. Penile reconstruction with dermal template and vacuum therapy in severe skin and soft tissue defects caused by Fournier's gangrene and hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Ludolph, Ingo; Titel, Torsten; Beier, Justus P; Dragu, Adrian; Schmitz, Marweh; Wullich, Bernd; Horch, Raymund E

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article is to improve the treatment of patients with complete skin loss of the penile shaft after Fournier's gangrene or hidradenitis suppurativa using modern biomatrices and topical negative pressure therapy. From January 2010 to December 2011, three patients with Fournier's gangrene or hidradenitis suppurativa were treated. After initial radical debridements, topical negative pressure therapy was applied for wound stabilisation. After that dermal templates (acellular dermal matrix) were used to achieve early healing and topical negative pressure-dressing in a special setting or a special foam compression bandage was used together with a urinary catheter. After integration of the dermal template, a split-thickness skin graft is used for coverage and again secured with a circular total negative pressure-dressing. In all cases, the split-thickness skin grafts healed very well applying this therapy concept. The patients were very satisfied with the functional as well as with the aesthetic outcome. We suggest a new method of staged reconstruction to successfully preserve the functionality of the penis after complete loss of the skin and soft tissue of the penile shaft using modern biomatrices and topical negative pressure therapy. PMID:24618357

  10. Rapid identification and differentiation of pathogenic clostridia in gas gangrene by polymerase chain reaction based on the 16S-23S rDNA spacer region.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Y; Yamamoto, K; Kojima, A; Norimatsu, M; Tamura, Y

    2000-12-01

    In cattle, sheep, and other ruminants, clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) is mostly caused by Clostridium chauvoei, C septicum, C novyi and C sordellii. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system using common primers designed from multiple alignment of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes of Clostridium species was developed to identify pathogenic clostridia. The PCR was performed with total DNA from 26 strains which included seven different Clostridia species. These bacteria were differentiated at species level by the different PCR product patterns. To characterise the 16S-23S rDNA spacer regions of these clostridia further, most PCR products of these bacteria were sequenced. The smallest PCR products of each bacterium represented the fundamental 16S-23S rDNA spacer region; larger PCR products of each bacterium were caused by insertion sequences, i.e. tRNA gene sequences. The authors' observations indicate that the PCR patterns of the 16S-23S rDNA spacer regions have the potential to be used as an identification marker of pathogenic clostridia in gas gangrene. PMID:11124102

  11. Venous outflow reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation: Dealing with venous anomalies.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Long-Bin; Thorat, Ashok; Yang, Horng-Ren; Li, Ping-Chun

    2015-12-24

    The reconstruction of the vascular outflow tract of partial liver grafts has received considerable attention in the past, especially in the setting of right liver grafts with undrained segments. Hepatic venous outflow reconstruction is an important factor for successful living donor liver transplantation outcome. However, in presence of undrained anterior sector and presence of multiple short hepatic veins that drain substantial portions of liver, outflow reconstruction without backtable venoplasty may lead to severe graft congestion and subsequent graft dysfunction. Various backtable venoplasty techniques in presence of multiple hepatic veins that can be used in either right- or left-lobe liver transplantation are devised to ensure a single, wide outflow channel. In this overview, various techniques to overcome the hepatic venous variations of liver allograft and outflow reconstruction are discussed. PMID:26722643

  12. Venous outflow reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation: Dealing with venous anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Long-Bin; Thorat, Ashok; Yang, Horng-Ren; Li, Ping-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of the vascular outflow tract of partial liver grafts has received considerable attention in the past, especially in the setting of right liver grafts with undrained segments. Hepatic venous outflow reconstruction is an important factor for successful living donor liver transplantation outcome. However, in presence of undrained anterior sector and presence of multiple short hepatic veins that drain substantial portions of liver, outflow reconstruction without backtable venoplasty may lead to severe graft congestion and subsequent graft dysfunction. Various backtable venoplasty techniques in presence of multiple hepatic veins that can be used in either right- or left-lobe liver transplantation are devised to ensure a single, wide outflow channel. In this overview, various techniques to overcome the hepatic venous variations of liver allograft and outflow reconstruction are discussed. PMID:26722643

  13. Venous stasis, deep venous thrombosis and airline flight: can the seat be fixed?

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Harry B; Gertz, S David

    2007-05-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolization (PE) associated with air travel are directly related to the duration of flight and seating in non-aisle seats. In this study, we assessed a modification of a standard airline seat (NewSit) designed to decrease the incidence of DVT on long flights. This seat raises the feet from the floor, facilitates mobility, and permits intermittent calf compression. Air plethysmography (APG) was used to measure the ejected venous volume of the calves of 25 volunteers before and after sitting for 5 hours on the conventional and modified seats. The mean percent (+/- standard deviation [SD]) increase in venous volume for the conventional seat after 5 hours of continuous sitting was significantly greater than that for the modified seat (26.6 +/- 18.5% vs 3.5 +/- 13.1%, P < 0.0001 by paired, two-tailed t-test). Improvement (any) was seen in 23 of 25 patients, with 15 of the 23 (65%) being better than 1 SD of the mean (P < 0.0001 by Chi-square analysis). This study suggests that the leg movement and calf compression associated with the modified airline seat (NewSit) may decrease the probability of DVT due to prolonged periods of sitting by reducing venous stasis as measured by APG. Further studies involving a larger randomized patient cohort, as well as analysis of the effect of this modification on specific coagulation markers such as tissue plasminogen activator and fibrin D-dimer, are planned. PMID:17484958

  14. Evaluation of prosthetic venous valves, fabricated by electrospinning, for percutaneous treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Masaki; Kubota, Shinichiro; Tashiro, Hideo; Tonami, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) remains a major health problem worldwide. Direct venous valve surgical repair and venous segment transplantation are clinical options; however, they are highly invasive procedures. The objectives of this study were to fabricate prosthetic venous valves (PVVs) by electrospinning, for percutaneous treatment of CVI, and evaluate their hydrodynamic characteristics in vitro at the same locations and under the same flow conditions. The PVVs consisted of polyurethane fiber scaffolds attached to a cobalt-chromium stent. PVVs with two different valve-leaflet configurations were compared: biomimetic PVV (bPVV) and open PVV (oPVV). A balloon catheter was used to implant the devices in a poly(vinyl chloride) tube and the column outlet was set at a height of 100 cm above the test valve to simulate the elevation of the heart above a distal vein valve while standing; 50 wt% glycerin solution was used as the test fluid. The devices were evaluated for antegrade flow, effect of ankle flexion, and stagnation zones around the valve leaflets. During sudden hydrostatic backpressure, little leakage and constant peripheral pressure were observed for the devices; under forward pulsatile pressure of 0-4 mmHg, to simulate the effect of breathing, the oPVV had a higher flow rate than the bPVV. With regard to the effect of ankle flexion, the oPVV was functionless. Moreover, the stagnation zone around the oPVV valve leaflets was larger than that around the bPVV valve leaflets. These results suggest that the bPVV would be clinically suitable for percutaneous treatment of CVI. PMID:21789716

  15. Venous thromboembolism: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Michele G; Hooper, W Craig; Critchley, Sara E; Ortel, Thomas L

    2010-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), defined as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or both, affects an estimated 300,000-600,000 individuals in the U.S. each year, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. It is a disorder that can occur in all races and ethnicities, all age groups, and both genders. With many of the known risk factors-advanced age, immobility, surgery, obesity-increasing in society, VTE is an important and growing public health problem. Recently, a marked increase has occurred in federal and national efforts to raise awareness and acknowledge the need for VTE prevention. Yet, many basic public health functions-surveillance, research, and awareness-are still needed. Learning and understanding more about the burden and causes of VTE, and raising awareness among the public and healthcare providers through a comprehensive public health approach, has enormous potential to prevent and reduce death and morbidity from deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism throughout the U.S. PMID:20331949

  16. [Ambulatory treatment of deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Metz, D; Hezard, N; Brasselet, C

    2001-11-01

    Conventional treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been based, until recently, on non-fractionated heparin by continuous intravenous infusion in hospital until effective anticoagulation could be obtained by oral anticoagulants introduced early. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) seems to be as effective and has a better bio-availability, which means that there are fewer adverse effects. This usage has logically led to the increase in the possibilities of treatment of DVT at home. However, certain precautions are necessary, especially the evaluation of the individual patient's risk with this strategy. This requires multidisciplinary collaboration and the respect of strict rules (precise diagnostic objective, hospital admission at the slightest doubt of pulmonary embolism) to demonstrate the value of ambulatory LMWH therapy which would improve patient comfort and allow early mobilisation. PMID:11794978

  17. Physician alerts to prevent venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Gregory; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2010-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which encompasses deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a common but usually preventable complication of hospitalization associated with substantial mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Despite published guidelines for the prevention of VTE among hospitalized patients, underutilization of prophylaxis continues to be a problem in the United States, Canada, and worldwide. Although much of the emphasis placed on prevention has focused on improving in-hospital prophylaxis, nearly 75% of patients develop VTE in the outpatient setting. Of these patients, a substantial proportion had undergone surgery or hospitalization in the three months preceding the diagnosis of VTE. While extended out-of-hospital prophylaxis has been validated in the orthopedic and surgical oncology literature, data regarding the prevention of VTE in other hospitalized patient populations after discharge have been limited. In this review article, we discuss decision support strategies for improving VTE prevention during hospitalization and at the time of discharge. PMID:19888553

  18. [The diagnostic scores for deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Junod, A

    2015-08-26

    Seven diagnostic scores for the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs are analyzed and compared. Two features make this exer- cise difficult: the problem of distal DVT and of their proximal extension and the status of patients, whether out- or in-patients. The most popular score is the Wells score (1997), modi- fied in 2003. It includes one subjective ele- ment based on clinical judgment. The Primary Care score 12005), less known, has similar pro- perties, but uses only objective data. The pre- sent trend is to associate clinical scores with the dosage of D-Dimers to rule out with a good sensitivity the probability of TVP. For the upper limb DVT, the Constans score (2008) is available, which can also be coupled with D-Dimers testing (Kleinjan). PMID:26502582

  19. Provisional Matrix Deposition in Hemostasis and Venous Insufficiency: Tissue Preconditioning for Nonhealing Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Tony J.; Broadbent, James A.; McGovern, Jacqui A.; Broszczak, Daniel A.; Parker, Christina N.; Upton, Zee

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds represent a major burden on global healthcare systems and reduce the quality of life of those affected. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the biochemistry of wound healing progression. However, knowledge regarding the specific molecular processes influencing chronic wound formation and persistence remains limited. Recent Advances: Generally, healing of acute wounds begins with hemostasis and the deposition of a plasma-derived provisional matrix into the wound. The deposition of plasma matrix proteins is known to occur around the microvasculature of the lower limb as a result of venous insufficiency. This appears to alter limb cutaneous tissue physiology and consequently drives the tissue into a ‘preconditioned’ state that negatively influences the response to wounding. Critical Issues: Processes, such as oxygen and nutrient suppression, edema, inflammatory cell trapping/extravasation, diffuse inflammation, and tissue necrosis are thought to contribute to the advent of a chronic wound. Healing of the wound then becomes difficult in the context of an internally injured limb. Thus, interventions and therapies for promoting healing of the limb is a growing area of interest. For venous ulcers, treatment using compression bandaging encourages venous return and improves healing processes within the limb, critically however, once treatment concludes ulcers often reoccur. Future Directions: Improved understanding of the composition and role of pericapillary matrix deposits in facilitating internal limb injury and subsequent development of chronic wounds will be critical for informing and enhancing current best practice therapies and preventative action in the wound care field. PMID:25785239

  20. Chronic venous disease and venous leg ulcers: An evidence-based update.

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Johnson, Jan J; Yates, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a complex chronic vascular condition with multifaceted primary and secondary etiologies leading to structural and functional changes in veins and valves and blood flow of the lower legs. As a consequence, a spectrum of clinical manifestations arise, ranging from symptoms of mild leg heaviness and achiness to debilitating pain, and signs of skin changes, such as eczema and hemosiderosis, to nonhealing, heavily draining venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Triggers such as trauma to the skin are responsible for a large majority of VLU recurrences. Diagnostic testing for venous reflux includes ultrasound imaging; unfortunately, there are no diagnostic tests to predict VLUs. The hallmark of treatment of both CVD and VLUs is compression. Leg elevation, exercise, and wound management with dressings and advanced healing technologies that provide an environment conducive to healing should focus on reducing pain, necrotic debris, drainage, and odor, as well as preventing infection. VLUs that become chronic without evidence of healing over a 4-week period respond best to multidisciplinary wound experts within a framework of patient-centered care. Nurses are in key positions to provide early recognition of the signs and symptoms as well as initiate prompt diagnostic and promote early treatment to offset the progression of the disease and improve quality of life. PMID:26025146

  1. [Deep venous thromboses and occult cancers].

    PubMed

    Chraibi, S; Bennis, A; Kemmou, O; Fadouach, S; Tahiri, A; Chraibi, N

    1997-03-01

    The association between venous thrombosis and cancer has been known for a long time. Thrombophlebitis often occurs during the course of a known cancer, but sometimes constitutes the presenting sign. Based on a series of 10 cases of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) revealing an underlying cancer, the authors analyse the various aspects of this association and the elements which help to guide the diagnosis towards a cancer. A simple assessment comprising clinical examination, full blood count and differential white cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, protein electrophoresis, chest x-ray and abdomino-pelvic ultrasonography was performed on admission in 75 cases of presumably idiopathic DVT and revealed a cancer in 10 cases: 6 women and 4 men with a mean age of 53 years. Cancers were located in the urogenital tract in 5 cases, in the bronchi in 2 cases, in the stomach in one case, and there was one case of acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) and another case of liposarcoma of the left iliac fossa. The histological type most frequently encountered was adenocarcinoma in 6 cases. In 9 out of 10 cases, the cancer was discovered at the stage of metastases. However, a localized cancer was detected in one case, in which surgical treatment allowed cure of the patient. Comparison of the various characteristics of DVT between the group of DVT revealing a cancer and the group of DVT which remained idiopathic did not reveal any statistically significant difference. A simple, inexpensive assessment looking for a cancer must be systematically performed in all cases of idiopathic DVT in patients between the ages of 50 and 85 years. Other more elaborate examinations may be requested on the basis of the results of the preliminary assessment. PMID:9183394

  2. Setting a standard for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Turpie, A G

    2001-11-01

    Trials of the new antithrombotic agent fondaparinux sodium in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery are discussed. Phase II studies conducted in more than 900 hip-replacement and 400 knee-replacement patients demonstrated significant dose-dependent reductions in the frequency of venous thromboembolism. Phase III trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux sodium 2.5 mg s.c. once daily starting six hours after surgery compared with enoxaparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Four multicenter, randomized, comparative, double-blind Phase III trials were conducted: two in total hip replacement patients (Ephesus and Pentathlon 2000), one in knee surgery patients (PentaMaks), and one in hip fracture surgery patients (Penthifra). All four studies followed the same design template, and the comparator was one of two regimens of enoxaparin approved for this indication. Enoxaparin sodium 30 mg s.c. every 12 hours starting postoperatively was used in Pentathlon 2000 and PentaMaks, and enoxaparin sodium 40 mg s.c. once daily starting preoperatively was used in Ephesus and Penthifra. The primary efficacy endpoint was the occurrence of VTE up to day 11, as determined by venography or confirmation of symptoms. The main safety outcome was occurrence of major bleeding. In total, 7344 patients were randomized and efficacy was evaluated in 5385 (73.3%). Risk of VTE was reduced by 50% in patients receiving fondaparinux compared with those receiving enoxaparin. Safety profiles for clinically relevant bleeding were similar between the two drugs. Fondaparinux sodium, a novel antithrombotic agent, is effective for the prevention of VTE, with a favorable safety profile, in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. PMID:11715835

  3. Cardiovascular Pressures with Venous Gas Embolism and Decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Robinson, R.; Sutton, T.; Kemper, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    Venous gas embolism (VGE) is reported with decompression to a decreased ambient pressure. With severe decompression, or in cases where an intracardiac septal defect (patent foramen ovale) exists, the venous bubbles can become arterialized and cause neurological decompression illness. Incidence rates of patent foramen ovale in the general population range from 25-34% and yet aviators, astronauts, and deepsea divers who have decompression-induced venous bubbles do not demonstrate neurological symptoms at these high rates. This apparent disparity may be attributable to the normal pressure gradient across the atria of the heart that must be reversed for there to be flow potency. We evaluated the effects of: venous gas embolism (0.025, 0.05 and 0.15 ml/ kg min for 180 min.) hyperbaric decompression; and hypobaric decompression on the pressure gradient across the left and right atria in anesthetized dogs with intact atrial septa. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was used as a measure of left atrial pressure. In a total of 92 experimental evaluations in 22 dogs, there were no reported reversals in the mean pressure gradient across the atria; a total of 3 transient reversals occurred during the peak pressure gradient changes. The reasons that decompression-induced venous bubbles do not consistently cause serious symptoms of decompression illness may be that the amount of venous gas does not always cause sufficient pressure reversal across a patent foramen ovale to cause arterialization of the venous bubbles.

  4. Statins and prevention of venous thromboembolism: Myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Sébastien; Cordeanu, Eléna-Mihaela; Nouri, Salah; Mirea, Corina; Stephan, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    The pleiotropic effects of statins, beyond their cholesterol-lowering properties, are much debated. In primary prevention, several observational cohort and case-control studies appear to show that statins reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism by about 30%. In a single randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial (JUPITER), which included 17,000 patients, rosuvastatin 20mg/day reduced the risk of venous thromboembolism by 43%. However, these patients were at low risk of venous thromboembolism, and the frequency of the event was, in principle, low. In secondary prevention, several observational studies and post-hoc analyses of randomized clinical trials have suggested that statins may prevent recurrence of venous thromboembolism. However, none of these studies had enough scientific weight to form the basis of a recommendation to use statins for secondary prevention. The putative preventive effect of statins appears to be independent of plasma cholesterol concentration and could be a pharmacological property of the statin class, although a dose-effect relationship has not been demonstrated. The mechanism through which statins might prevent venous thrombosis is thought to involve their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects or perhaps a more specific action, by blocking the degradation of antithrombotic proteins. A mechanism involving the action of statins on interactions between risk factors for atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism is supported by some studies, but not all. In the absence of firm evidence, statins cannot currently be recommended for primary or secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26778087

  5. Postoperative deep venous thrombosis in Japan. Incidence and prophylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, K.; Shirai, N.; Hayashi, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Hirose, M.

    1983-06-01

    The incidence of postoperative deep venous thrombosis was investigated using the iodine-125-fibrinogen method in 256 patients undergoing major surgery. Deep venous thrombosis was found in 49 patients (15.3 percent), and nonfatal pulmonary embolism developed in one of seven patients in whom the thrombus extended to the popliteal vein. The same investigation was performed in 110 patients who wore a graduated compression stocking on one leg, with the other leg serving as a control. Deep venous thrombosis was found in 4 of 110 stockinged legs (3.6 percent) and in 16 of 110 control legs (14.5 percent). The incidence of deep venous thrombosis decreased significantly in patients who wore the stocking. An increase in femoral venous flow velocity was found in the stockinged legs by the Doppler method. The mean velocity of venous return by xenon-133 clearance was significantly greater in the stockinged legs than in the control legs. These findings were considered to support the efficacy of graduated compression stockings for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis.

  6. Biliary Tract Anatomy and its Relationship with Venous Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S.; Sharma, Malay

    2013-01-01

    Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma. PMID:25755590

  7. Biliary tract anatomy and its relationship with venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S; Sharma, Malay

    2014-02-01

    Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma. PMID:25755590

  8. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: risk assessment, prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Tukaye, Deepali N; Brink, Heidi; Baliga, Ragavendra

    2016-03-01

    Thrombosis and thromboembolic events contribute to significant morbidity in cancer patients. Venous thrombosis embolism (which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) accounts for a large percentage of thromboembolic events. Appropriate identification of cancer patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism and management of thromboembolic event is crucial in improving the quality of care for cancer patients. However, thromboembolism in cancer patients is a complex problem and the management has to be tailored to each individual. The focus of this review is to understand the complex pathology, physiology and risk factors that drive the process of venous thrombosis and embolism in cancer patients and the current guidelines in management. PMID:26919091

  9. Vertebral venous channels: CT appearance and differential considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.; Guerra, J. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the anatomy, radiologic images, and pathology of venous channels in the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies was performed using cadavers and patients. These structures may be mistaken for fractures, lytic lesions, or other abnormalities on high-resolution axial computed tomographic (CT) scans of the spine. A distinct osseous wall, absence of extension over multiple contiguous levels, lack of displacement, and predominant localization in the mid-axial plane of the vertebral body are characteristic features of venous channels. An understanding of the normal intraosseous venous anatomy should prevent misinterpretation of clinical CT studies in most instances.

  10. Submandibular venous hemangioma: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Adam N; Vyhmeister, Ross; Kamran, Mudassar; Teefey, Sharlene A

    2015-10-01

    Hemangiomas of the submandibular space are very rare. Only 11 cases have been reported in the English literature, all of which were cavernous hemangiomas. In this report, we describe the case of a venous hemangioma in a 70-year-old woman. Ultrasound examination revealed a lobulated, homogeneous, hypoechoic mass, and minimal flow was detected on power Doppler evaluation. The mass and the submandibular gland were surgically excised, and the endothelium was found to be positive for CD31 and D2-40 markers, consistent with venous hemangioma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a venous hemangioma in the submandibular space. PMID:25502778

  11. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-03-15

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.

  12. [Venous thromboembolic risk during repatriation for medical reasons].

    PubMed

    Stansal, A; Perrier, E; Coste, S; Bisconte, S; Manen, O; Lazareth, I; Conard, J; Priollet, P

    2015-12-01

    In France, approximately 3000 people are repatriated every year, either in a civil situation by insurers. Repatriation also concerns French army soldiers. The literature is scarce on the topic of venous thromboembolic risk and its prevention during repatriation for medical reasons, a common situation. Most studies have focused on the association between venous thrombosis and travel, a relationship recognized more than 60 years ago but still subject to debate. Examining the degree of venous thromboembolic risk during repatriation for medical reasons must take into account several parameters, related to the patient, to comorbid conditions and to repatriation modalities. Appropriate prevention must be determined on an individual basis. PMID:26548535

  13. Venous gas embolism - Time course of residual pulmonary intravascular bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Luehr, S.; Katz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the time course of residual pulmonary intravascular bubbles after embolization with known amounts of venous air, using an N2O challenge technique. Attention was also given to the length of time that the venous gas emboli remained as discrete bubbles in the lungs with 100 percent oxygen ventilation. The data indicate that venous gas emboli can remain in the pulmonary vasculature as discrete bubbles for periods lasting up to 43 + or - 10.8 min in dogs ventilated with oxygen and nitrogen. With 100 percent oxygen ventilation, these values are reduced significantly to 19 + or - 2.5 min.

  14. Venous return and clinical hemodynamics: how the body works during acute hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Baker, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Venous return is a major determinant of cardiac output. Adjustments within the venous system are critical for maintaining venous pressure during loss in circulating volume. This article reviews two factors that are thought to enable the venous system to compensate during acute hemorrhage: 1) changes in venous elastance and 2) mobilization of unstressed blood volume into stressed blood volume. We show that mobilization of unstressed blood volume is the predominant and more effective mechanism in preserving venous pressure. Preservation of mean circulatory filling pressure helps sustain venous return and thus cardiac output during significant hemorrhage. PMID:26628647

  15. The fetal venous system, Part II: ultrasound evaluation of the fetus with congenital venous system malformation or developing circulatory compromise.

    PubMed

    Yagel, S; Kivilevitch, Z; Cohen, S M; Valsky, D V; Messing, B; Shen, O; Achiron, R

    2010-07-01

    The human fetal venous system is well-recognized as a target for investigation in cases of circulatory compromise, and a broad spectrum of malformations affecting this system has been described. In Part I of this review, we described the normal embryology, anatomy and physiology of this system, essential to the understanding of structural anomalies and the sequential changes encountered in intrauterine growth restriction and other developmental disorders. In Part II we review the etiology and sonographic appearance of malformations of the human fetal venous system, discuss the pathophysiology of the system and describe venous Doppler investigation in the fetus with circulatory compromise. PMID:20205158

  16. Upper extremity impedance plethysmography in patients with venous access devices.

    PubMed

    Horne, M K; Mayo, D J; Alexander, H R; Steinhaus, E P; Chang, R C; Whitman, E; Gralnick, H R

    1994-10-01

    Central venous access devices (VADs) are often associated with thrombotic obstruction of the axillary-subclavian venous system. To explore the accuracy of impedance plethysmography (IPG) in identifying this complication we performed IPG on 35 adult cancer patients before their VADs were placed and approximately 6 weeks later. At the time of the second IPG the patients also underwent contrast venography of the axillary-subclavian system. The venograms revealed partial venous obstruction in 12 patients (34%) and complete obstruction in two (5.7%). Although the IPG results from venographically normal and abnormal patients overlapped extensively, mean measurements of venous outflow were significantly lower in the patient population with abnormal venograms (P = 0.052 for Vo; P = 0.0036 for Vo/Vc). In our hands, therefore, upper extremity IPG cannot be used to make clinical decisions about individual patients with VADs, but it can distinguish venographically normal and abnormal populations. PMID:7878628

  17. Aetiology and management of atrophie blanche in chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    McVittie, Elizabeth; Holloway, Samantha

    2015-12-01

    The presence of chronic venous insufficiency results in venous hypertension, which can lead to the development of venous leg ulceration. Patients often present with oedema of the lower limb and skin changes, for example, the presence of haemosiderin and lipodermatosclerosis, as well as ulceration. In some instances, patients can also develop atrophie blanche (AB)-white fibrotic areas on the skin adjacent to the ulcer. AB remains an ambiguous term owing to the use of many synonyms. Hence, health professionals need to be aware of the clinical presentation of AB and should be able to clearly differentiate between scarring caused by previous ulcers and that caused by the presence of AB. In this article, the authors discuss the underlying diseases associated with AB and explore the treatment of AB in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:26639077

  18. Hemoglobin oxygenation of venous-perfused forearm flaps.

    PubMed

    Wolff, K D; Dollinger, P

    1998-12-01

    To understand how venous flaps function we investigated whether blood flowing via the venous network reaches the capillaries of the skin. While measuring spectrophotometrically intracapillary hemoglobin oxygenation of fasciocutaneous forearm flaps in 12 patients, flap perfusion was changed by manipulating nutrient vessels. Conventionally perfused radial forearm flaps had an intracapillary hemoglobin oxygenation of 51% to 74% but decreased to 6.9% to 12.2% within 90 to 120 minutes after arterial occlusion and perfusion only from the cephalic vein entering the flap cranially (type I venous flap). Radial forearm flaps without any vascular connection showed no oxygenated hemoglobin after 180 to 240 minutes in the capillary network. After microsurgical vein anastomosis and release of the blood flow only via the cephalic or accompanying veins, hemoglobin oxygenation returned immediately to about 10%. We conclude from our results that there is actual capillary perfusion, albeit very slight, in type I venous forearm island flaps. PMID:9869139

  19. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. A novel approach to repair.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, U A; Moodie, D S; Gill, C C; Sterba, R; Currie, P; Stewart, R

    1989-01-01

    Isolated partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage with an intact atrial septum is a rare finding. The authors describe their experience with three patients (ages 9, 37, and 54 years), with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava, right atrium, and inferior vena cava, who underwent extracardiac conduit repair of this anomaly. In all three patients, a synthetic Gortex graft was used for reconstruction of the venous pathways to the left atrium. The follow-up period ranged from 10 to 82 months (mean, 42 months). All three patients were evaluated with intravenous digital angiography, transesophageal echocardiography, or both at 10, 33, and 82 months postoperatively. Patency of the grafts with no evidence of obstruction and excellent pulmonary venous flow was shown. This surgical technique is an excellent option for correction of this anomaly, and intravenous digital subtraction angiography is a useful diagnostic tool during the postoperative period to evaluate patency of the repair. PMID:2605777

  20. Management of venous bullet embolus in a child.

    PubMed

    Doud, Andrea N; Hines, Michael H; Pranikoff, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Bullet embolus is a rare complication of penetrating missile injury in children with only a handful of case reports. We describe a seven year old with a venous bullet embolus to the right ventricle. PMID:25197862

  1. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  5. Current challenges in diagnostic imaging of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Menno V; Klok, Frederikus A

    2015-12-01

    Because the clinical diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is nonspecific, integrated diagnostic approaches for patients with suspected venous thromboembolism have been developed over the years, involving both non-invasive bedside tools (clinical decision rules and D-dimer blood tests) for patients with low pretest probability and diagnostic techniques (compression ultrasound for deep-vein thrombosis and computed tomography pulmonary angiography for pulmonary embolism) for those with a high pretest probability. This combination has led to standardized diagnostic algorithms with proven safety for excluding venous thrombotic disease. At the same time, it has become apparent that, as a result of the natural history of venous thrombosis, there are special patient populations in which the current standard diagnostic algorithms are not sufficient. In this review, we present 3 evidence-based patient cases to underline recent developments in the imaging diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26637722

  6. Current challenges in diagnostic imaging of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Menno V; Klok, Frederikus A

    2015-11-19

    Because the clinical diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is nonspecific, integrated diagnostic approaches for patients with suspected venous thromboembolism have been developed over the years, involving both non-invasive bedside tools (clinical decision rules and D-dimer blood tests) for patients with low pretest probability and diagnostic techniques (compression ultrasound for deep-vein thrombosis and computed tomography pulmonary angiography for pulmonary embolism) for those with a high pretest probability. This combination has led to standardized diagnostic algorithms with proven safety for excluding venous thrombotic disease. At the same time, it has become apparent that, as a result of the natural history of venous thrombosis, there are special patient populations in which the current standard diagnostic algorithms are not sufficient. In this review, we present 3 evidence-based patient cases to underline recent developments in the imaging diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26585807

  7. Central Venous Access Catheters (CVAC) and Gastrostomy (Feeding) Tubes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Patient Section Who Are Interventional Radiologists? Multimedia Insurance Coverage IR Treatments Abdominal aortic aneurysms Angiography ... radiology Interventional radiology case studies Developed by ACR Multimedia gallery Multimedia Archive Central Venous Access Catheters (CVAC) ...

  8. Incidence of Venous Thromboembolic Events Among Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Josephine P; Shaheen, Wassim H; Truong, Son V; Brown, Edward F; Beasley, Brent W; Gajewski, Byron J

    2003-01-01

    Chronic care facility stay has been shown to be an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Review of the literature, however, reveals a paucity of data addressing the issue of venous thromboembolism in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of venous thromboembolic events among nursing home residents. A retrospective cohort study was derived from data compiled in the State of Kansas Minimum Data Set (MDS) for nursing home residents from July 1, 1997 to July 1, 1998. A total of 18,661 residents (median age, 85 years, 74% female, 95% white) satisfied the study criteria. The outcome measures of the primary endpoint—development of a venous thromboembolic event (VTE)—were obtained from the MDS quarterly health assessments and the Medicare ICD-9 codes. We determined the incidence of VTE among nursing home residents as 1.30 events per 100 person-years of observation. PMID:14687280

  9. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  10. Venous obstruction in permanent pacemaker patients: an isotopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Pauletti, M.; Di Ricco, G.; Solfanelli, S.; Marini, C.; Contini, C.; Giuntini, C.

    1981-01-01

    Isotope venography was used to study the venous circulation proximal to the superior vena cava in two groups of pacemaker patients, one with a single endocavitary electrode and the other with multiple pacing catheters. A control group of patients without pacemakers was also studied. Numerous abnormalities were found, especially in the group with multiple electrodes. These findings suggest that venous obstruction is a common complication of endocardial pacing.

  11. Impedance Phlebography for the Diagnosis of Venous Thrombosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzicǎ, Denise; Dorohoi, Dana-Ortansa

    2007-04-01

    We used a noninvasive diagnostic technique, occlusive cuff impedance phlebography (IPG) for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. Eleven patients were examined by IPG with overall diagnostic accuracy of 95% sensitivity, 81% - specificity. Nine patients had symptoms suggestive of deep venous thrombosis but this diagnosis was confirmed in only 25%. The use of impedance phleobography to screen high-risk patients prospectively and evaluate patients with pulmonary emboli is discussed.

  12. Venous air embolism following insufflation of the urethra.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L; Boghaert, A; Thienpont, L

    1986-01-01

    Venous air embolism following urethral inflation only scarcely documented: an extensive search of the literature yielded four papers relating to this subject. We report a new case of venous air embolism due to this uncommon etiology. Careful study revealed some common pathogenetic features with previously reported cases. Some important precautions can diminish the likelihood of gas embolism and reduce its fatal outcome in situations, similar to the kind mentioned. PMID:3564882

  13. Multiple medullary venous malformations decreasing cerebral blood flow: Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Tomura, N.; Inugami, A.; Uemura, K.; Hadeishi, H.; Yasui, N. )

    1991-02-01

    A rare case of multiple medullary venous malformations in the right cerebral hemisphere is reported. The literature review yielded only one case of multiple medullary venous malformations. Computed tomography scan showed multiple calcified lesions with linear contrast enhancement representing abnormal dilated vessels and mild atrophic change of the right cerebral hemisphere. Single-photon emission computed tomography using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine demonstrated decreased cerebral blood flow in the right cerebral hemisphere.

  14. [Chronic venous insufficiency: Update on pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Gkogkolou, P; Meyer, V; Goerge, T

    2015-05-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency is very common and has an important socioeconomic impact. It is associated with a high morbidity for the patients and causes high costs for the healthcare systems. In recent years novel treatment modalities have evolved and their efficacy has been evaluated in many studies. Knowledge of pathophysiology, the diagnostic procedures and therapeutic options for chronic venous insufficiency is important for effective treatment of affected patients. PMID:25868570

  15. Air travel-associated venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Omer; Eklof, Bo; Tobu, Mahmut; Fareed, Jawed

    2003-01-01

    Long-distance air travel is increasing and cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following air travel have attracted both considerable public attention and legal claims against airlines. VTE is a common disorder worldwide with a notably high incidence in older individuals. Many biochemical factors that lead to, or accentuate, thrombus formation are associated with increased risk of VTE. These factors include thrombophilia, activated protein C resistance and factor V Leiden, prothrombin gene mutation, antiphospholipid antibodies, protein S and protein C deficiencies, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and homocysteinemia. Individual physical characteristics including age, weight and height are significant for personal risk of VTE as are other factors such as use of oral contraceptives in women. In the case of air travel-related venous thrombosis, superimposed upon these individual factors are the environmental factors directly related to air travel. Travel-related factors include stasis associated with prolonged periods of immobility, physiological stresses resulting from exposure to the cabin environment (low humidity and hypoxia) in long-haul flight and other in-flight factors. It is suggested that passenger behavior (movement, avoidance of dehydration and of alcohol) and appropriate pharmacological prophylaxis for high-risk travelers can reduce the likelihood of VTE. Physical prophylaxis (use of compression stockings or in-flight exercise devices) may also be of general benefit to passengers. It is recommended that airlines become more proactive in educating passengers concerning the dangers of VTE and in promoting passenger actions that can reduce risk. Airlines should also work to avoid cramped seating conditions (seat size and pitch) that contribute to prolonged immobility. Governments and regulatory authorities should mandate the provision of adequate seating conditions and a good cabin environment and should support studies that will define risks and determine the efficacy of protocols to minimize dangers of VTE. Increased long-haul air traffic and an aging population suggest that travel-related VTE may present a growing healthcare threat and has highlighted a need for additional biomedical research into the causes and potential solutions to this problem. PMID:12634460

  16. Cerebral venous thrombosis in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Hak; Chae, Min Kyu; Cha, Jae Myung; Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil; Baek, Il Hyun; Jeon, Jung Won; Lim, Jun Uk; Hong, In Taik; Ki, Hye-Jin; Kang, Jae Bin

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism compared with the general population. The most common sites of venous thromboembolism in IBD patients are the deep veins of the legs, the pulmonary system, and portal and mesenteric veins. However, cerebral venous thrombosis is rarely associated with IBD. This report describes a case of cerebral venous thrombosis in a patient with Crohn's disease. A 17-year-old girl, diagnosed 4 years earlier with Crohn's disease, presented with headache and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with venography showed venous thrombosis in the cortical veins, superior sagittal sinus, right transverse sinus, and right internal jugular vein. The patient immediately started anticoagulation therapy with intravenous heparin infusion followed by daily oral rivaroxaban 10 mg. Follow-up imaging after 2 weeks showed resolution of the thrombosis, with recanalization of the cortical veins, superior sagittal sinus, right transverse sinus, and right internal jugular vein. She continued rivaroxaban therapy for 6 months, and remained well, without neurologic sequelae. A high level of concern for cerebral venous thrombosis may be important when treating active IBD patients, because anticoagulation treatment can prevent fatal complications. PMID:26884741

  17. Disturbed blood flow regulation in venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jünger, M; Klyscz, T; Hahn, M; Rassner, G

    1996-01-01

    Microangiopathy of the skin has been recognized as an important factor in the development of skin diseases connected with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Here the relationship between postcapillary transmural pressure and precapillary vaso-constriction - we call it the postural feedback system - was examined in venous ulcers (n = 12) and compared to blood flow regulation in the inner ankle area of healthy controls (n = 12). Blood flow changes were measured by laser Doppler fluxmetry. Changes in the laser Doppler flux (LDF) minus the biological zero value were measured after 3 min of arterial occlusion, during 3 min of venous occlusion, while the leg was elevated and while it was lowered and expressed relative to the pretest resting value. In venous ulcers the LDF remained nearly unchanged after arterial occlusion (3 vs. 190%, p < 0.001), leg elevation caused an LDF decrease contrary to what was seen in the controls (-17 vs. +80%, p < 0.001), in the lowered leg an LDF decrease was found (-51 vs. -65%) and venous occlusion led to a profound reduction of flux (-78 vs. -84%). In severe CVI the precapillary arterioles seem to be dilated even with the leg at heart level. This finding means that the postural feedback system under resting conditions is upregulated, and 'luxus' hyperperfusion results. The upregulated postural feedback system contributes to the cutaneous microangiopathy due to chronic venous congestion. PMID:8951524

  18. The origin and onset of acute venous thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lemin; Duan, Qianglin; Yang, Fan; Wen, Siwan

    2015-01-01

    Under the condition of immune cell balancing function collapse, acute venous thrombosis originates from intravenous immune adhesive inflammations triggered by cells which are infected by foreign pathogenic microorganism and malignant cells. With the condition of immune cell balancing function collapse, the human body lost the function of clearing intravenous foreign pathogenic microorganism and malignant cells timely and effectively. Thus, integrins ?2 and ?3 on the membrane of white blood cells and platelets are activated to combine with the ligand fibrinogen into a reversible mesh-like structure, which is like the intravenous biological filter and acts as physical defense of the human body to prevent the cells which are infected by foreign pathogenic microorganism and malignant cells in the distal veins from flowing back to the whole body. Meanwhile, blood cells mainly red blood cells stagnate and fulfill the filter, which blocks the blood flow in the local veins and thus results in venous thrombotic diseases. People with collapsed immune cell balancing functions are the certain groups of people who will develop venous thromboembolism. Anyone who had venous thromboembolism indicates alloantigen cells in the veins, which are mainly pathogenic microorganism infected cells and malignant cells and trigger the onset of venous thromboembolism. Only under the condition of immune cell balancing function collapse, the risk factors, such as advanced age, infection, trauma, surgery, autoimmune disease, pregnancy as well as long trip syndrome, could cause venous thromboembolism. PMID:26884891

  19. Atrial natriuretic peptide increases resistance to venous return in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Y.W.; Frohlich, E.D.; Trippodo, N.C.

    1987-05-01

    To examine mechanisms by which administration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) decreases venous return, the authors compared the hemodynamic effects of ANP furosemide (FU), and hexamethonium (HEX) with those of vehicle (VE) in anesthetized rats. Compared with VE, ANP reduced mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, and cardiac index and increased calculated resistance to venous return. /sup 141/Ce-labeled microspheres were used to determine cardiac output. Mean circulatory filling pressure, distribution of blood flow between splanchnic organs and skeletal muscles, and total peripheral resistance remained unchanged. FU increased urine output similar to that of ANP, yet produced no hemodynamic changes, dissociating diuresis, and decreased cardiac output. HEX lowered arterial pressure through a reduction in total peripheral resistance without altering cardiac output or resistance to venous return. The results confirm previous findings that ANP decreases cardiac output through a reduction in venous return and suggest that this results partly from increased resistance to venous return and not from venodilation or distribution of blood flow.

  20. Cerebral venous thrombosis in a patient with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Hak; Chae, Min Kyu; Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil; Baek, Il Hyun; Jeon, Jung Won; Lim, Jun Uk; Hong, In Taik; Ki, Hye-Jin; Kang, Jae Bin

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism compared with the general population. The most common sites of venous thromboembolism in IBD patients are the deep veins of the legs, the pulmonary system, and portal and mesenteric veins. However, cerebral venous thrombosis is rarely associated with IBD. This report describes a case of cerebral venous thrombosis in a patient with Crohn's disease. A 17-year-old girl, diagnosed 4 years earlier with Crohn's disease, presented with headache and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with venography showed venous thrombosis in the cortical veins, superior sagittal sinus, right transverse sinus, and right internal jugular vein. The patient immediately started anticoagulation therapy with intravenous heparin infusion followed by daily oral rivaroxaban 10 mg. Follow-up imaging after 2 weeks showed resolution of the thrombosis, with recanalization of the cortical veins, superior sagittal sinus, right transverse sinus, and right internal jugular vein. She continued rivaroxaban therapy for 6 months, and remained well, without neurologic sequelae. A high level of concern for cerebral venous thrombosis may be important when treating active IBD patients, because anticoagulation treatment can prevent fatal complications. PMID:26884741

  1. Peripheral venous pressure as a reliable predictor for monitoring central venous pressure in patients with burns

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Lulu; Joshi, Vikas S.; Ollapally, Anjali; Jain, Prithi; Shetty, Kishan; Ribeiro, Karl Sa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Optimizing cardiovascular function to ensure adequate tissue oxygen delivery is a key objective in the care of critically ill patients with burns. Hemodynamic monitoring may be necessary to optimize resuscitation in serious burn patients with reasonable safety. Invasive central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring has become the corner stone of hemodynamic monitoring in patients with burns but is associated with inherent risks and technical difficulties. Previous studies on perioperative patients have shown that measurement of peripheral venous pressure (PVP) is a less invasive and cost-effective procedure and can reliably predict CVP. Objective: The aim of the present prospective clinical study was to determine whether a reliable association exists between changes in CVP and PVP over a long period in patients admitted to the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU). Subjects and Methods: The CVP and PVP were measured simultaneously hourly in 30 burns patients in the BICU up to 10 consecutive hours. The predictability of CVP by monitoring PVP was tested by applying the linear regression formula and also using the Bland–Altman plots of repeated measures to evaluate the agreement between CVP and PVP. Results: The regression formula revealed a reliable and significant association between CVP and PVP. The overall mean difference between CVP and PVP was 1.628 ± 0.84 mmHg (P < 0.001). The Bland–Altman diagram also showed a perfect agreement between the two pressures throughout the 10 h period. Conclusion: Peripheral venous pressure measured from a peripheral intravenous catheter in burns patients is a reliable estimation of CVP, and its changes have good concordance with CVP over a long period of time. PMID:25878426

  2. Clinical characteristics of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Wei; Li, Jin-Ping; Song, Ying-Lun; Tan, Ke; Wang, Yu; Li, Tao; Guo, Peng; Li, Xiong; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Qi-Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the risk factors, clinical presentation, neuroimaging features, treatment, and prognosis of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 19 patients with a diagnosis of CVST admitted to Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing, China between January 2010 and December 2013. Results: There were 9 men and 10 women (age range: 27-75 years). Headache (84.2%) and focal signs (57.9%) were the 2 most common symptoms. Direct evidence of thrombosis was found on CT in 42.1%, and on MRI in 52.6%. Two or more sinuses were involved in 78.9% of cases, in which the transverse sinus plus sigmoid sinus were the most commonly involved combination. All patients received anticoagulant therapy. Most patients (84.2%) had no neurological sequelae at discharge, and only 3 patients (15.8%) recovered with sequelae. Conclusion: Our study provides detailed information on the clinical manifestations, neuroimages, management, outcome, and risk factors of the patients with CVST. PMID:26166601

  3. Interventional treatment of venous thromboembolism: a review.

    PubMed

    Imberti, Davide; Ageno, Walter; Manfredini, Roberto; Fabbian, Fabio; Salmi, Raffaella; Duce, Rita; Gallerani, Massimo

    2012-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is the third most common cardiovascular disease after coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the general population. Full dose anticoagulation is the standard therapy for VTE, both for the acute and the long-term phase. The latest guidelines of the American College of Chest Physicians recommend treatment with a full-dose of unfractioned heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or thrombolysis for most patients with objectively confirmed VTE. Catheter-guided thrombolysis and trombosuction are interventional approaches that should be used only in selected populations; interruption of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with a filter can be performed to prevent life-threatening PE in patients with VTE and contraindications to anticoagulant treatment, bleeding complications during antithrombotic treatment, or VTE recurrences despite optimal anticoagulation. In this review we summarize the currently available literature regarding interventional approaches for VTE treatment (vena cava filters, catheter-guided thrombolysis, thrombosuction) and we discuss current evidences on their efficacy and safety. Moreover, the appropriate indications for their use in daily clinical practice are reviewed. PMID:22119500

  4. Venous Thromboembolism: New Concepts in Perioperative Management.

    PubMed

    Elisha, Sass; Heiner, Jeremy; Nagelhout, John; Gabot, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious pathophysiologic condition that is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially during the perioperative period. A collective term, VTE is used to describe a blood clot that develops inside the vasculature and results in a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or a pulmonary embolism (PE). Deep vein thrombosis and PE are the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, superseded only by myocardial infarction and stroke. Patients who receive treatment for acute PE are 4 times more likely to die of a recurrent VTE within the next year. In hospitalized patients who have had surgery, the incidence of VTE and PE is estimated to be 100 times more prevalent than in the general population. The Joint Commission has established Surgical Care Improvement Project measures to address prophylactic interventions to minimize the incidence of VTE. This journal course will review the current approaches to pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic prevention and management of VTE during the perioperative period. Identification and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and acute PE are also described. PMID:26137764

  5. Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Maria Laura; Pilo, Luca; Piseddu, Gavino; Tilocca, Pier Luigi; Cossu, Franca; Noya, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Patients with morbid obesity who undergo bariatric surgery are usually considered at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism. Considering that deep vein thrombosis is often asymptomatic, primary prevention is the key to reducing morbidity and mortality. Between 1995 and 2003, 151 patients underwent surgery for morbid obesity at the Obesity Surgery Centre-University of Sassari. At the beginning of our experience in this field, in the first 65 cases, prophylaxis of thromboembolism consisted in a single intravenous injection of heparin sodium at the time of induction of anaesthesia. The dose of heparin ranged from 2500 to 5000 IU according to weight and any diseases associated with obesity. In a later stage of our experience (86 cases) we modified the drug therapy and used low doses of calcic heparin: the dose was obtained by daily monitoring of Pt, TT and aPTT in order to obtain good anticoagulation. This treatment was usually begun 4-5 days before the operation and continued until the patient was discharged (8-9 days). In the first group of patients we had 2 cases (3%) of fatal acute pulmonary embolism. In the second group 1 (1.16%) case of non-fatal pulmonary embolism developed on postoperative day 20. No clear consensus emerges from the literature as to the best approach to reduce the risk of thromboembolism in bariatric surgery to a minimum. Our experience suggests that "personalized heparin prophylaxis" before, during and after bariatric surgery could be the key to reducing morbidity and mortality. PMID:17663372

  6. Venous thromboembolism in brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Cote, David J; Smith, Timothy R

    2016-03-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a relatively common and well-described condition, affecting approximately 1-2% of the general population. VTE can lead to significant morbidity and death via pulmonary embolism (PE). During the post-operative period, VTE occurs at higher rates due to natural thrombotic responses to injury and limited post-operative mobility. In general, rates of post-operative VTE are higher in patients undergoing operations for cranial and spinal lesions than for lesions of other types, a phenomenon that is not fully explained. Proposed mechanisms include increased local synthesis of tissue factor in brain tumor patients and a higher rate of paresis in patients undergoing operations on the central nervous system. Several studies have demonstrated that other risk factors for VTE include age, sex, ethnicity, hospital stay length, and coagulation state. Tumor type and size have also been explored as potential risk factors. Despite higher rates of VTE development, neurosurgeons are often hesitant to prescribe post-operative anticoagulants for fear of hemorrhage. Here we review the literature on VTE in brain tumor patients, with a focus on their etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis. In most brain tumor patients, aggressive chemical and mechanical VTE prophylaxis is indicated in the post-operative period to prevent the formation of VTE. PMID:26597608

  7. Pulmonary Venous Obstruction in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Chuang-Chi; Chang, Hung; Yang, Tsai-Sheng; Wen, Ming-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background. We study the clinical significance and management of pulmonary venous obstruction in cancer patients. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study to characterize the syndrome that we term “pulmonary vein obstruction syndrome” (PVOS) between January 2005 and March 2014. The criteria for inclusion were (1) episodes of shortness of breath; (2) chest X-ray showing abnormal pulmonary hilum shadow with or without presence of pulmonary edema and/or pleural effusion; (3) CT scan demonstrating pulmonary vein thrombosis/tumor with or without tumor around the vein. Results. Two hundred and twenty-two patients developed PVOS. Shortness of breath was the main symptom, which was aggravated by chemotherapy in 28 (13%), and medical/surgical procedures in 21 (9%) and showed diurnal change in intensity in 32 (14%). Chest X-rays all revealed abnormal pulmonary hilum shadows and presence of pulmonary edema in 194 (87%) and pleural effusion in 192 (86%). CT scans all showed pulmonary vein thrombosis/tumor (100%) and surrounding the pulmonary veins by tumor lesions in 140 patients (63%). PVOS was treated with low molecular weight heparin in combination with dexamethasone, and 66% of patients got clinical/image improvement. Conclusion. Physicians should be alert to PVOS when shortness of breath occurs and chest X-ray reveals abnormal pulmonary hilum shadows. PMID:26425121

  8. Venous thromboembolism in COPD hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Barba, Raquel; Zapatero, Antonio; Marco, Javier; Losa, Juan E; Plaza, Susana; Casas, Jose Manuel; Canora, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). We analyzed a large Spanish database to determine the incidence of VTE in these patients during hospitalization. A retrospective chart review of cohort of consecutive patients admitted with COPD as the primary reason for discharge in Spain between January 1st 2006 and December 31st 2007 was performed. For each patient, demographic data, risk factors for VTE and the diagnosis of VTE during hospitalization was recorded. We analyzed the clinical data of 313,233 adults with acute exacerbations of COPD admitted to the hospital at any public centre in Spain, in 2006 and 2007. We identify 3,562 new diagnosed VTE events among 270,840 COPD patients hospitalized more than two days (incidence 1.32%). Hospitalized-acquired VTE risk factors were male gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.77; CI95% 1.66-1.90), neoplasic disease (OR 2.93 CI95% 2.69-3.16, systemic arterial disease (OR 1.17 CI95% 1.10-1.36), decubitus ulcer (OR 1.19 CI95% 1.01-1.43), diabetes (OR 0.74 IC95% 0.69-0.81), and atrial fibrillation (OR 0.79 CI95% 0.72-0.87). VTE appears as a major threat to patients admitted for acute exacerbation of COPD, and pharmacologic prophylaxis should be considered in all high risk situations. PMID:22016148

  9. Intracerebral hemorrhage due to developmental venous anomalies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodi; Wang, Yuzhou; Chen, Wenming; Wang, Wensheng; Chen, Kaizhe; Liao, Huayin; Lu, Jianjun; Li, Zhigang

    2016-04-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) and cavernous malformations (CM) are a common form of mixed vascular malformation. The relationship between DVA, CM and hemorrhage is complicated. It is important to differentiate hemorrhagic CM and hemorrhagic DVA. A retrospective review of all patients with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) between 1 May 2008 and 1 May 2013 was performed. ICH due to DVA or CM were identified and compared for demographic features, clinical symptoms, neurological deficits, and radiological findings. A total of 1706 patients with acute spontaneous ICH were admitted to our hospital during the study period. Among these, 10 (0.59%) were caused by DVA and 42 (2.47%) were caused by CM. No significant differences were found in age (p=0.252) or sex ratio (p=1.000) between the two groups. Compared with CM-induced ICH, DVA-induced ICH were characterized by cerebellar predominance (p=0.000) and less severe neurological deficits (p=0.008). Infratentorial hemorrhagic DVA are characterized by cerebellar predominance and benign clinical course. Infratentorial hemorrhagic CM are mainly located in the brainstem. DVA should be given suspected rather than CM when considering the etiology of a cerebellar hemorrhage, especially in young adults. PMID:26803466

  10. Inflammation as a cause of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory markers are highly amenable to appraise and adjust and could already serve as a diagnostic indicator and also as a predictor of prognosis over the management of many health problems. Inflammation is implicated in venous thromboembolism (VTE). However there is still an intense curiosity about whether it is a cause or only a consequence of the thromboembolic process. The more likely scenario is that some inflammatory mediators contribute to the development of VTE, which per se induces an inflammatory reaction. Here we will review evidences supporting the role of inflammation as a cause of VTE. Genetic association studies have provided possible links between inflammation-related genetic variants, especially cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13), and VTE, leading to establish the fundamental role of genetic background in predisposition to VTE and variable inflammatory processes in individuals. Additionally, several inflammation-related conditions including aging, autoimmune disease, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hormone replacement therapy, infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, overweight or obesity, pregnancy or postpartum, respiratory diseases, and trauma have been associated with an increased risk of VTE. At this moment, despite their theoretical potential, to achieve the implementation of the inflammation-related laboratory tests in practice is a long task and future studies with larger sample sizes are required to address whether the properties of the inflammatory process, particularly intensity and duration, are useful in determining the risk of VTE and following outcomes. PMID:26811138

  11. Dialysis central venous catheter types and performance.

    PubMed

    Gallieni, Maurizio; Brenna, Irene; Brunini, Francesca; Mezzina, Nicoletta; Pasho, Sabina; Giordano, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    The choice of both short-term (nontunneled) and long-term (tunneled) central venous catheters (CVCs) for hemodialysis is a difficult one, due to the large number of available catheters, with very different characteristics and cost.CVC-related complications (in particular infections, thrombosis and inefficient dialysis) can determine ominous consequences and death, with extremely elevated costs due to prolonged hospitalization and expensive procedures. Thus, the correct balance between cost and quality of CVC is required when deciding which kind of CVC should be adopted.In this regard, the design of CVCs has become a very active area of industrial and clinical research, with the ultimate goal of improving the long-term function of the catheter and of reducing complication rates, because even small improvements in the complication or reintervention rates have a positive impact on individual patient care and cost to society. In this article we review the general features of CVCs, including differences between tunneled and nontunneled CVCs, materials and their compatibility with lock solutions, the implications of straight versus precurved design in nontunneled CVCs, lumen and tip features with their clinical implications, catheter coatings and their effect on infection and thrombosis. PMID:24817472

  12. Imaging Diagnosis of Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, S.; Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is a broad term that includes Budd-Chiari syndrome and occlusion of veins that constitute the portal venous system. Due to the common risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of these clinically distinct disorders, concurrent involvement of two different regions is quite common. In acute and subacute SVT, the symptoms may overlap with a variety of other abdominal emergencies while in chronic SVT, the extent of portal hypertension and its attendant complications determine the clinical course. As a result, clinical diagnosis is often difficult and is frequently reliant on imaging. Tremendous improvements in vascular imaging in recent years have ensured that this once rare entity is being increasingly detected. Treatment of acute SVT requires immediate anticoagulation. Transcatheter thrombolysis or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is used in the event of clinical deterioration. In cases with peritonitis, immediate laparotomy and bowel resection may be required for irreversible bowel ischemia. In chronic SVT, the underlying cause should be identified and treated. The imaging manifestations of the clinical syndromes resulting from SVT are comprehensively discussed here along with a brief review of the relevant clinical features and therapeutic approach. PMID:26600801

  13. [Prevention of venous thromboembolism and anticoagulant therapy].

    PubMed

    Yorozu, Tomoko

    2014-03-01

    Perioperative pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) occurred in 2.93 per 10,000 cases and mortality of PTE was 14% in Japan according to the surveillance of Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists from 2009 to 2011. Anesthesiologists have to evaluate perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk carefully and take adequate measures to prevent PTE. The first step is the assessment of the preoperative probability of VTE and the next step is the assessment of the risk for VTE during and after operation. If a patient has moderate probability of VTE preoperatively, diagnostic procedures are recommended. If the d-dimer is positive, whole-leg ultrasound is recommended. If DVT is positive in proximal vein, further investigation or anticoagulant therapy are considered. Primary preventions of VTE during and after surgeries are as follows. In patients with low or moderate risks for VTE, intermittent pneumatic compression is recommended. In patients with high risks for VTE, pharmacologic prophylaxes are recommended. In recent years newly developed anticoagulants can be available other than low-dose unfractionated heparin. However, the incidence of VTE in Japanese populations is different from western countries. Moreover our own evidence has not fully been accumulated yet. Therefore further investigations for prevention of perioperative VTE in Japan are expected for our own new guidelines. PMID:24724437

  14. Primary smooth muscle tumors of venous origin.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M G; Gelb, A M; Nussbaum, M; Haveson, S; Ghali, V

    1982-12-01

    Vein tumors are rare, difficult to diagnose, and usually malignant. We have encountered three: a leiomyoma of the jugular vein and leiomyosarcomas of the saphenous vein and inferior vena cava (IVC). The leiomyoma was lost to follow-up, the saphenous vein leiomyosarcoma survived nine years, and the leiomyosarcoma of the IVC is six months without recurrence. Half of venous leiomyosarcomas arise in the IVC, predominately in women over 50 years of age. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice since malignant or benign status cannot be determined operatively. Resection should include a segment of the original vessel. This poses problems in the IVC when the renal veins require sacrifice. Right renal vein interruption mandates nephrectomy. Edema following IVC resection is evaluated. The incidence is lower than anticipated when resection is for tumor if there is no history of phlebitis. The IVC was reconstructed with a composite autograft but this is not now recommended. Despite significant local recurrences or distal metastases, cure or long-term palliation can often be achieved. Radiation and chemotherapy do not improve survival or prevent recurrence. PMID:7149825

  15. Severe Acute Respiratory Failure due to Inhalation of Baby Powder and Successfully Treated with Venous-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Panarello, Giovanna; Occhipinti, Giovanna; Piazza, Marcello; Capitanio, Guido; Vitulo, Patrizio; Gridelli, Bruno; Pilato, Michele; Arcadipane, Antonio

    2015-12-15

    Accidental inhalation of powder is a potential problem for infants. The clinical effects of inhaling powder depend on the powder contents, degree of aspiration, and the child's underlying systemic response. We present a case of accidental inhalation of rice starch powder in a 17-month-old girl, which led to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome responsive to conventional treatment, ultimately requiring venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:26657704

  16. Detection of venous air embolism in dogs by emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, G.B.; Richard, R.B.; Snider, M.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Emission spectrometers provide alternative, relatively inexpensive methods for detecting the concentration of respiratory gas nitrogen. Mass spectrometers are accepted as reliable monitors of end-tidal nitrogen for detection of venous air embolisms. We evaluated an inexpensive emission spectrometer for detecting changes in nitrogen levels and compared it with a mass spectrometer for detecting increased end-tidal nitrogen levels in dogs with venous air embolisms. During in vitro gas flow studies (helium; oxygen; helium/oxygen mixtures; or 70% nitrous oxide/30% oxygen with 0, 1, 2, or 3% isoflurane), air boluses (0.01 to 5.0 ml) were injected into a gas flow circuit and outlet nitrogen levels were measured by a Collins 21232 emission spectrometer. Responses were greater after each bolus when helium rather than oxygen was the major diluent gas. During in vivo studies, 5 dogs were anesthetized, ventilated, denitrogenated, and given venous air embolisms (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 ml.kg-1) during oxygen and then during Heliox (20% oxygen:80% helium) breathing. End-tidal nitrogen increased approximately two-fold after venous air embolisms given during Heliox as compared with oxygen ventilation. In all 0.1-ml.kg-1 venous air embolisms end-tidal nitrogen increased when the emission spectrometer was used, but venous air embolisms less than 1.0 ml.kg-1 were not consistently detected by mass spectrometry. Emission spectrometry can be used to detect increased end-tidal nitrogen levels indicative of venous air embolism and may be a more sensitive detector than mass spectrometry.

  17. Living-Engineered Valves for Transcatheter Venous Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Benedikt; Robert, Jérôme; Ksiazek, Agnieszka; Wyss, Yves; Frese, Laura; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Kehl, Debora; Modregger, Peter; Peter, Silvia; Stampanoni, Marco; Proulx, Steven; Falk, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) represents a major global health problem with increasing prevalence and morbidity. CVI is due to an incompetence of the venous valves, which causes venous reflux and distal venous hypertension. Several studies have focused on the replacement of diseased venous valves using xeno- and allogenic transplants, so far with moderate success due to immunologic and thromboembolic complications. Autologous cell-derived tissue-engineered venous valves (TEVVs) based on fully biodegradable scaffolds could overcome these limitations by providing non-immunogenic, non-thrombogenic constructs with remodeling and growth potential. Methods: Tri- and bicuspid venous valves (n=27) based on polyglycolic acid–poly-4-hydroxybutyrate composite scaffolds, integrated into self-expandable nitinol stents, were engineered from autologous ovine bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelialized. After in vitro conditioning in a (flow) pulse duplicator system, the TEVVs were crimped (n=18) and experimentally delivered (n=7). The effects of crimping on the tissue-engineered constructs were investigated using histology, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, grating interferometry (GI), and planar fluorescence reflectance imaging. Results: The generated TEVVs showed layered tissue formation with increasing collagen and glycosaminoglycan levels dependent on the duration of in vitro conditioning. After crimping no effects were found on the MSC level in scanning electron microscopy analysis, GI, histology, and extracellular matrix analysis. However, substantial endothelial cell loss was detected after the crimping procedure, which could be reduced by increasing the static conditioning phase. Conclusions: Autologous living small-diameter TEVVs can be successfully fabricated from ovine BM-MSCs using a (flow) pulse duplicator conditioning approach. These constructs hold the potential to overcome the limitations of currently used non-autologous replacement materials and may open new therapeutic concepts for the treatment of CVI in the future. PMID:24156382

  18. Review of the cost of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria M; Hogue, Susan; Preblick, Ronald; Kwong, Winghan Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second most common medical complication and a cause of excess length of hospital stay. Its incidence and economic burden are expected to increase as the population ages. We reviewed the recent literature to provide updated cost estimates on VTE management. Methods Literature search strategies were performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, Health Economic Evaluations Database, EconLit, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 2003–2014. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications. Results Eighteen studies were identified and are summarized in this review; of these, 13 reported data from the USA, four from Europe, and one from Canada. Three main cost estimations were identified: cost per VTE hospitalization or per VTE readmission; cost for VTE management, usually reported annually or during a specific period; and annual all-cause costs in patients with VTE, which included the treatment of complications and comorbidities. Cost estimates per VTE hospitalization were generally similar across the US studies, with a trend toward an increase over time. Cost per pulmonary embolism hospitalization increased from $5,198–$6,928 in 2000 to $8,764 in 2010. Readmission for recurrent VTE was generally more costly than the initial index event admission. Annual health plan payments for services related to VTE also increased from $10,804–$16,644 during the 1998–2004 period to an estimated average of $15,123 for a VTE event from 2008 to 2011. Lower costs for VTE hospitalizations and annualized all-cause costs were estimated in European countries and Canada. Conclusion Costs for VTE treatment are considerable and increasing faster than general inflation for medical care services, with hospitalization costs being the primary cost driver. Readmissions for VTE are generally more costly than the initial VTE admission. Further studies evaluating the economic impact of new treatment options such as the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants on VTE treatment are warranted. PMID:26355805

  19. The Current Role of Venous Sampling in the Localization of Endocrine Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Jeshen H. G. Drake, William; Matson, Matthew

    2007-07-15

    Endocrine venous sampling plays a specific role in the diagnosis of endocrine disorders. In this article, we cover inferior petrosal sinus sampling, selective parathyroid venous sampling, hepatic venous sampling with arterial stimulation, adrenal venous sampling, and ovarian venous sampling. We review their indications and the scientific evidence justifying these indications in the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic endocrine tumors, Conn's syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytomas, and androgen-secreting ovarian tumors. For each sampling technique, we compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of other imaging techniques and, where possible, look at how it impacts patient management. Finally, we incorporate venous sampling into diagnostic algorithms used at our institution.

  20. Evaluation of treatment with carboxymethylcellulose on chronic venous ulcers*

    PubMed Central

    Januário, Virginia; de Ávila, Dione Augusto; Penetra, Maria Alice; Sampaio, Ana Luisa Bittencourt; Noronha Neta, Maria Isabel; Cassia, Flavia de Freire; Carneiro, Sueli

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the chronic leg ulcers, venous ulcers are the most common and constitute a major burden to public health. Despite all technology available, some patients do not respond to established treatments. In our study, carboxymethylcellulose was tested in the treatment of refractory chronic venous ulcers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of carboxymethylcellulose 20% on the healing of chronic venous ulcers refractory to conventional treatments. METHODS: This is an analytical, pre-experimental study. Thirty patients were included with refractory venous ulcers, and applied dressings with carboxymethylcellulose 20% for 20 weeks. The analysis was based on measurement of the area of ulcers, performed at the first visit and after the end of the treatment. RESULTS: There was a reduction of 3.9 cm2 of lesion area (p=0.0001), corresponding to 38.8% (p=0.0001). There was no interruption of treatment and no increase in lesion area in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: Carboxymethylcellulose 20% represents a low cost and effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of refractory chronic venous ulcers. However, controlled studies are necessary to prove its efficacy. PMID:26982773

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma developed on chronic venous leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Sîrbi, Adelina Gabriela; Florea, Marius; P?tra?cu, Virgil; Rotaru, Maria; Mogo?, Dan Gabriel; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; M?rg?ritescu, Nicolae Drago?

    2015-01-01

    Chronic venous leg ulcers (VLU), especially long-lasting non-healing ulcers, are among the risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Malignant transformation of a VLU is a rare finding and the relative risk of carcinomatous transformation is quite low (about 5.8). SCC arising in the context of a VLU has a particularly aggressive behavior. A 76-year-old male patient with no relevant medical familial history, with chronic venous insufficiency CEAP C6 for 10 years [recurrent leg ulcers with favorable outcome (healing) after specific local and systemic treatment], showing for about three years one ulcerated lesion located on the anterior upper third of the right calf non-responsive to specific treatment, which subsequently increased their size and merged. Biopsy sample was taken. Histopathology showed epidermal acanthosis, papillomatosis, intense parakeratosis, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, dysplasia and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with areas of acantholysis. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67, EMA, cytokeratin 34?E12 and p63) was performed and all types of immunostaining were moderately to intense positive. Above-knee leg amputation and specific oncologic treatment were proposed as possible curative solutions but the patient refused. Ten months after diagnosis and discharge form the Department of Dermatology, the patient died. Patients with chronic venous leg ulcers and clinically suspicious lesions should be evaluated for malignant transformation of the venous lesion. When diagnosed, malignancy complicating a chronic venous leg ulcer requires a resolute treatment as it may be fatal. PMID:25826522

  2. [Present and future in the management of venous vascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Gavorník, Peter; Dukát, Andrej; Gašpar, ?udovít; Gavorníková, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence and the incidence of chronic and acute venous vascular disease has been shown to be globally very high, in both industrialized and developing countries. Chronic venous diseases of lower extremities are being an integral part of the third millennium's deadly angiopandemy, at the present time. The rate of the most severe cases with advanced stage of venous failure is approximately twice as high in the population (2.1 %) as has been assumed so far. Among venoactive drugs (VAD), micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) of diosmin hesperidin remains the agent with the highest degree of recommendation and it also indicated to pharmacotherapeutical support of leg ulcer healing, along with sulodexide and pentoxifylline. Compressive sclerotherapy, liquid or foam, is a safe and effective invasive method to treat telangiectasias, reticular varicose veins and subcutaneous varicose veins. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) represent one of the therapeutic and preventive options of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with a limitation in patients with malignant conditions and in pregnancy. The most effective is triple simultaneous pharmaco-kinezio-mechano-phlebothromboemboloprophylaxis. Superficial vein thromboses longer than 5 cm are indicated to anticoagulant therapy too. PMID:25813260

  3. Venous drainage through bone marrow after replantation: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, K; Murakami, R; Tasaki, Y; Fujii, T; Mukae, N

    1998-12-01

    Venous drainage is vital for successful replantation, but it is not always possible to reconstruct because of missing or damaged veins. We devised an experimental model to study venous drainage through bone marrow while the new subcutaneous venous system regenerated. Adult male Wistar rats were placed into three groups. Group A rats had their hindlimbs amputated at the lower leg, but the tibia and sural and saphenous artery connections were preserved. Group B rats were prepared the same as Group A, except that a step-cut osteotomy was performed in the tibia. The bone ends were then realigned and kept in place with stainless steel wire. Group C rats were prepared the same as Group B, except that the ends of the bone were not aligned. All unoperated limbs served as controls for evaluations of blood flow. Experimental limbs were evaluated for skin colour and viability, blood flow and dye injection. Skin colour was investigated daily. Blood flow was measured postoperatively during three phases: immediate (up to 1 h), early (from 1 h to 24 h), and late (from 1 day to 7 days after operation). Survival of limbs varied in Groups A and B, while all limbs in Group C necrosed by day 7. Blood flow was returning to near control (normal) levels by day 7 in Group A and B limbs. India ink was observed in the medullary cavity at day 7. After replantation, bone marrow plays a critical role in venous drainage until the subcutaneous venous drainage system regenerates. PMID:10209468

  4. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: Masked multimodal imaging assessment

    PubMed Central

    Brod, Staley A.; Kramer, Larry A.; Cohen, Alan M.; Barreto, Andrew D.; Bui, Thanh-Tung; Jemelka, James R.; Ton, Kelly; Lindsey, John W.; Nelson, Flavia; Narayana, Ponnada A.; Wolinsky, Jerry S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was implicated in the pathophysiology of MS. Objective We evaluated neurosonography (NS), magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and transluminal venography (TLV) in subsets of MS patients drawn from a single center, prospective case-control study of 206 MS and 70 non-MS volunteers. Methods As previously reported, findings on high resolution B-mode NS imaging with color and spectral Doppler of the extracranial and intracranial venous drainage consistent with CCSVI were similar among MS and non-MS volunteers (3.88% vrs. 7.14%; p=0.266). Ninety-nine MS participants consented to intravascular contrast enhanced 3D MRV to assess their major systemic and intracranial venous circulation, and 40 advanced to TLV that included pressure measurements of the superior vena cava, internal jugular, brachiocephalic, and azygous veins. Results NS findings and MRV patterns were discrepant for 26/98 evaluable subjects, including four with abnormal findings on NS that had normal venous anatomy by MRV. In no instance were TLV pressure gradients indicative of clinically significant functional stenosis encountered. The three imaging approaches provided generally consistent data with discrepancies referable to inherent technique properties. Conclusions Our findings lend no support for altered venous outflow dynamics as common among MS patients, or likely contribute to the disease process. PMID:23828872

  5. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bever, Katherine M.; Masha, Luke I.; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C.; Sloan, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60–11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  6. Evaluation of lymphatic function: abnormal lymph drainage in venous disease.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, P S

    1995-09-01

    The essential function of the lymphatic system is to return to the vascular system extravascular molecules and colloids too large to re-enter directly. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy employs this principle and has proved useful in the differential diagnosis of chronic limb swelling, in the identification of subtle or incipient lymphoedema and in edema of compound origin where a lymphatic component would otherwise go unnoticed. In a study exploring the contribution of lymphatic insufficiency to poor wound healing in chronic venous leg ulceration 32 patients were compared to 22 normal control subjects using quantitative lymphoscintigraphy. In subjects less than 65 years lymphatic function was reduced in the ulcerated limbs compared to normal limbs (p<0.0001). In those aged more than 65 years lymphatic function was lower in ulcerated limbs but not significantly so, owing to a decline in lymph drainage with age in normal controls (r = 0.62, p = 0.0001). In patients with unilateral leg ulceration lymphatic function was reduced in the ulcerated limb compared with the contralateral leg (<65 years, p = 0.05; >65 years, p = 0.03). The finding of impaired lymph drainage with chronic venous insufficiency suggests that lymphatic pathology may be as important as venous pathology in the "chronic venous leg ulcer" and treatment should be aimed at improving lymphatic as well as venous function. PMID:8919262

  7. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Bever, Katherine M; Masha, Luke I; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C; Sloan, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60-11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  8. Preliminary clinical investigations of a new noninvasive venous pulse oximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Daniel; Smith, Peter R.; Caine, Michael P.; Spyt, Tomasz; Boehm, Maria; Machin, David

    2003-10-01

    For decades, the monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation, SvO2 has been performed invasively using fibre-optic catheters. This procedure is not without risk as complications may arise from catheterisation. The group has devised a new non-invasive venous oximetry method which involves inducing regular modulations of the venous blood volume and associated measurement of those modulations using optical means. A clinical investigation was conducted in Glenfield Hospital, UK to evaluate the sensitivity of the new technique to haemodynamic changes such as Cardiac Output (CO) in intraoperative and postoperative cardiac patients. Preliminary trials on patients recovering from cardiac surgery yielded an average correlation of r = 0.72 between CO at different Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) augmentation levels and SvO2 measured by the new venous oximeter. In intraoperative patients undergoing off-pump cardiac surgery, SvO2 recorded by the new technique responded to unplanned events such as a cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: The new venous oximetry technique is a promising technique which responds to haemodynamic changes such as CO and with further development might offer an alternative means of monitoring SvO2 non-invasively.

  9. The Same Angiographic Factors Predict Venous and Arterial Graft Patency

    PubMed Central

    Gaudino, Mario; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Roberto, Marco; Cammertoni, Federico; Cosentino, Nicola; Falcioni, Elena; Panebianco, Mario; D’Amario, Domenico; Crea, Filippo; Massetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the value of angiographic factors in predicting failure of both venous and arterial coronary artery bypass graft. We retrieved from our angiographic database 148 patients who underwent venous and/or arterial CABG and for whom a control coronary angiography at more than 1 month after surgery was available. Pre-CABG and follow-up angiographies were analyzed in order to evaluate diameter stenosis (DS,%), stenosis length (mm), Bogaty score (extent index), Sullivan score, and Gensini score for the extent of coronary artery disease, and Jeopardy Duke score for the extent of myocardial area supplied by an artery. Thirty-nine patients (26%) experienced graft failure at follow-up (mean follow-up 11.3?±?4.6 months). Patients with venous graft failure [26 (20%)] had significantly smaller DS (P?=?0.013), shorter stenosis length (P?=?0.01), and lower extent index (P?=?0.015), Sullivan score (P?=?0.013), Gensini score (P?=?0.04) as compared with those without venous graft failure. Patients with arterial graft failure [13 (11%)] had significantly lower DS (P?=?0.008), shorter stenosis length (P?=?0.001), and lower extent index (P?=?0.03) and Sullivan score (P?=?0.023) as compared with those without arterial graft failure. Venous and arterial graft failure are associated with less severe stenosis and less extensive atherosclerosis of the grafted vessel. PMID:26735525

  10. [Venous thromboembolism associated with long-term use of central venous catheters in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Debourdeau, P; Chahmi, D Kassab; Zammit, C; Farge-Bancel, D

    2008-06-01

    Increased incidence of cancers and the development of totally implanted venous access devices that contain their own port to deliver chemotherapy will lead to a greater than before numbers of central venous catheter-related thrombosis (CVCT). Medical consequences include catheter dysfunction and pulmonary embolism. Vessel injury caused by the procedure of CVC insertion is the most important risk factor for development of CVCT. This event could cause the formation of a fresh thrombus, which is reversible in the large majority of patients. In some cases, thrombus formation is not related to catheter insertion. The incidence of CVC-related DVT assessed by venography has been reported to vary from 30 to 60% but catheter-related DVT in adult patients is symptomatic in only 5% of cases. The majority of patients with CVC-related DVT is asymptomatic or has nonspecific symptoms: arm or neck swelling or pain, distal paresthesias, headache, congestion of subcutaneous collateral veins. In the case of clinical suspicion of CVC-related deep venous thrombosis (DVT), compressive ultrasonography (US), especially with doppler and color imaging, currently is first used to confirm the diagnosis. Consequently, contrast venography is reserved for clinical trials and difficult diagnostic situations. There is no consensus on the optimal management of patients with CVC-related DVT. Treatment of CVC-related VTE requires a five- to seven-day course of adjusted-dose unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) followed by oral anticoagulants. Long-term LMWH that has been shown to be more effective than oral anticoagulant in cancer patients with lower limb DVT, could be used in these patients. The efficacy and safety of pharmacologic prophylaxis for CVC related thrombosis is not established and the last recommendations suggest that clinicians not routinely use prophylaxis to try to prevent thrombosis related to long-term indwelling CVCs in cancer patients. Additional studies performed in high risk populations with appropriate dosage and timing will help to define which patients could benefit from prophylaxis. PMID:18395994

  11. Cerebral venous sinus pressure in seated dogs: impact of PEEP, cervical venous compression, and abdominal compression.

    PubMed

    Hibino, H; Matsuura, M

    1985-08-01

    The authors studied the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (10 cmH2O PEEP), abdominal compression, and neck compression on dural venous sinus pressure (VSP) in seated dogs. Abdominal compression increased the central venous pressure (CVP) as well as both the systemic arterial pressure and the cardiac output and thus may offer a useful substitute for an antigravity suit. Except when CVP was greater than 8 mmHg, there was little or no correlation between CVP and VSP. Moreover, each method increased VSP, but this effect was closely related to VSP prior to application of the method (pre-VSP). On comparing the VSP changes in relation to the pre-VSP levels when they were either above or below -1.0 mmHg, significant differences were noted in VSP increases, i.e., -0.4 +/- 1.3 (mean +/- SEM) and 4.3 +/- 1.2 mmHg by PEEP, 1.9 +/- 0.3 and 6.4 +/- 0.4 mmHg by abdominal compression, and 10.2 +/- 1.3 and 1.5 +/- 0.5 mmHg by neck compression, respectively. This indicates that PEEP and abdominal compression were more effective in increasing relatively highly negative pre-VSP (less than -1.0 mmHg), while neck compression greatly increased pre-VSP when it was at or above a slightly negative pressure (-1.0 mmHg). The authors conclude that a single application of any one of these three methods during sitting-position surgery may not be effective in increasing cerebral dural sinus pressure. PMID:3896029

  12. A case report: Pulmonary venous malformation complicated with pulmonary hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Supakul, Nucharin; Fan, Rong; Karmazyn, Boaz

    2012-12-01

    Pulmonary venous malformation is extremely rare. We present imaging and clinical findings of a 17-year-old male with multifocal subcutaneous venous malformations and multiple cystic lesions in the liver and spleen, suggestive of slow flow vascular malformation. In the right lung, chest radiography followed by chest CT demonstrated large tortuous pulmonary veins and cystic emphysematous changes. Tc99m-MAA (pertechnetate-labeled macroaggregated albumin) lung perfusion scan demonstrated only 3% of normal perfusion to the right lung, with no evidence of arteriovenous shunting. The child had diffuse intraparenchymal hemorrhage throughout the right lower and middle lobes and underwent resection. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of venous malformation complicated with bleeding. PMID:23217914

  13. [Calcification of thrombus associated with central venous catheter: unusual complication].

    PubMed

    Dounas, M; Yamami, A; Peillon, P; Martinais, P; Angenard, F

    2000-11-01

    Thrombosis originating from the tip of central venous catheter is a well known complication. The calcification of such a thrombus is very rare. Until now, only two cases had been described with long-term indwelling central venous catheters used for total parenteral nutrition. We report the first case of a calcified thrombus occurred during a short-term central venous catheterisation. The presumptive mechanism of thrombus calcification is precipitation of calcium salts and its deposition on a pre-existent thrombus. In total parenteral nutrition the mechanism of calcification seems to be multifactorial. Thus, the precipitation of calcium phosphate is increased by the following factors: higher calcium and phosphate concentrations, the use of calcium chloride instead of calcium gluconate, lower pH solutions, slow infusion rate. PMID:11244709

  14. Digital subtraction angiography of the portal venous system

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.D.; Stewart E.T.; Milbrath, J.R.; SanDretto, M.; Milde, M.

    1983-03-01

    Venous-phase arteriography after celiac or superior mesenteric artery injection is the most common technique used to demonstrate portal venous anatomy, flow direction, and portal systemic shunts. Large-volume contrast material injections and intraarterial vasodilators or balloon occlusion technique are required for optimal examinations using film-screen recording. A technique for performing venous-phase arteriography with digital subtraction imaging after celiac and superior mesenteric artery injection is described. The major advantage of intraarterial digital subtraction technique in comparison to film-screen recording is sensitivity to intravascular iodine with a consequent reduction in contrast material load and examination time. Technical success is limited only by motion artifact and should approximate the 80%-90% figure achieved for intravenous digital subtraction angiography of the aortorenal vessels.

  15. Fecal Impaction Causing Pelvic Venous Compression and Edema

    PubMed Central

    Naramore, Sara; Aziz, Faisal; Alexander, Chandran Paul; Methratta, Sosamma; Cilley, Robert; Rocourt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema. PMID:26500749

  16. Fecal Impaction Causing Pelvic Venous Compression and Edema.

    PubMed

    Naramore, Sara; Aziz, Faisal; Alexander, Chandran Paul; Methratta, Sosamma; Cilley, Robert; Rocourt, Dorothy

    2015-09-28

    Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema. PMID:26500749

  17. Arterio-venous shunts or low oxygen utilization?

    PubMed

    Rozin, Alexander P

    2010-02-01

    An idea of arteriovenous shunts (AVS) was proposed for explanation of dynamic regulation of oxygenation and venous hyperoxia. A formula enabling calculation of AVS and real CO2 production has recently been derived by comparing data of arterial and venous blood gases. Regarding venous hyperoxia, there is a need to differentiate capillary to tissue transport defect (low oxygen utilisation-LOU) from AVS, which may exist simultaneously. The AVS may be associated with normal or relatively high oxygen utilization from the capillary vessels and increased CO2 production. AVS is proposed to carry protective and 'stealing' properties including renal, cardiac, and pulmonary hemodynamic. Calculations of the AVS may be important for dynamic assessment of vascular and metabolic status and in emergency medicine. PMID:20026514

  18. Venous malformations: Sclerotherapy with a mixture of ethanol and lipiodol

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Jin-Suck; Shin, Kyoo-Ho; Na, Jae-Bum; Won, Jong-Yun; Hahn, Soo-Bong

    1997-07-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the usefulness of a mixture of absolute ethanol and lipiodol in the management of venous malformations. Methods. Percutaneous sclerotherapy was performed with a mixture of absolute ethanol and lipiodol (9:1) in 17 patients with venous malformations, once in 12 patients, twice in 5. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by pain reduction. Conventional radiographs (n=15) and posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging (n=5) were obtained for the follow-up evaluation. Results. Sclerotherapy was successful in all but two patients. The therapeutic effect was excellent in two patients, good in seven, fair in five, and poor in one. Radiopacity of lipiodol was beneficial for monitoring the procedure rather than for follow-up evaluations. Areas with low signal-intensity strands were increased on T2-weighted images obtained after the sclerotherapy. Conclusion. Sclerotherapy with a mixture of ethanol and lipiodol is effective in treating venous malformations.

  19. Multiple Venous Malformations with Phleboliths: Radiological-Pathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chava, Venkateswara Rao; Shankar, Ashwini Naveen; Vemanna, Naveen Shankar; Cholleti, Sudheer Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Vascular malformations are congenital lesions that are present at birth and do not regress. However, they often present later in life. They are subdivided into two categories: (1) slow- or low-flow and (2) fast- or high-flow malformations. Low-flow malformations contain combinations of capillary, venous, and lymphatic components. Venous malformations can occur anywhere in the body, but are most frequently seen in the head and neck (40%). These lesions present in a variety of ways, from a vague blue patch to a soft blue mass, which may be single isolated or may occur in multiple areas. Treatment depends on the type of lesion, the location, degree of involvement, and the clinical symptoms. Here we are report the imaging and histopathologic findings in a patient with multiple venous malformations affecting the left side of the face and trunk. PMID:24516776

  20. [PERIPHERALLY INSERTED CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER THROUGH DRUM SYSTEM].

    PubMed

    Salas Campos, Luis

    2015-11-01

    It described a one lumen central venous catheter peripherally inserted drum system whose insertion into the vein is performed through a plastic splittable cannula by braunula technique. The braunula technique is particularly important in certain urgent or emergency situations, where speed and aseptic conditions of which the procedure is performed represent a further improvement over other insertion techniques. The catheter mantains the advantages, in terms of easy placement, that all devices equipped with a drum system have but at the same time eliminates the complications presented by other similar catheters whose insertion to the venous circulation used to be performed through a needle. These catheters allow quick, simple and safe access to the central venous circulation and reduce risks associated with the procedure, improving patient safety. PMID:26749753

  1. Baller-Gerold syndrome associated with congenital portal venous malformation.

    PubMed Central

    Savarirayan, R; Tomlinson, P; Thompson, E

    1998-01-01

    We report a 4 year old boy in whom the clinical features of craniosynostosis and bilateral absent radii led to a diagnosis of Baller-Gerold syndrome. Additional congenital abnormalities included midface hypoplasia, atrial and ventricular septal defects, right hydronephrosis, partial sacral agenesis, and anterior ectopic anus. Evidence of portal venous hypertension was present from 8 months and a congenital portal venous malformation was discovered at 2 years. This is the first reported case of Baller-Gerold syndrome associated with a congenital portal venous malformation. We discuss the diagnostic confusion between this syndrome and other overlapping malformation syndromes and propose optimal evaluation strategies aimed at clarifying the nosology of these syndromes. Images PMID:9733037

  2. Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis treated by direct aspiration thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Murashima, Naoya; Isobe, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    A 69-year-old man, with hepatits C virus-related liver cirrhosis and hemophilia B, developed massive ascites and watery diarrhea after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices. A multi detector row computed tomography revealed a superior mesenteric venous thrombus without bowel infarction. It was assumed that the thrombus was caused by transient congestion of the portal system after retrograde propagation of the sclerosant agent, in a condition where anticoagulation proteins, such as proteins C and S, had decreased. Because long systemic thrombolytic therapy was hazardous for the patient with hemorrhagic diathesis due to impaired coagulation, a direct thrombolysis was performed with urokinase followed by aspiration thrombectomy, with cannulation of the portal venous system using a transjugular intrahepatic approach. The patient had no complications in this procedure and subsequently diarrhea and refractory ascites were resolved. Direct thrombectomy via the transjugular intrahepatic route may be a useful therapy for mesenteric venous thrombus in the cirrhotic patient. PMID:18613368

  3. Primary hyperaldosteronism: comparison of CT, adrenal venography, and venous sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Geisinger, M.A.; Zelch, M.G.; Bravo, E.L.; Risius, B.F.; O'Donovan, P.B.; Borkowski, G.P.

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-nine patients with primary hyperaldosteronism were evaluated with computed tomography (CT), adrenal venous sampling, and adrenal venography. Twenty-three patients had aldosteronomas and six had bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia. Sixteen (70%) of the adenomas were accurately located by CT. All nodules of 1.5 cm or larger diameter and 50% of nodules 1.0 to 1.4 cm in diameter were demonstrated. Nodules of less than 1.0 cm in diameter generally were not detected. High-resolution CT appeared more sensitive than standard CT (75% vs 58%). Adrenal venous sampling for aldosterone assay was the most sensitive of the three methods, localizing 22 (96%) of the 23 adenomas. Eighteen (78%) of the adenomas were identified by adrenal venography, although two patients with bilateral cortical hyperplasia were mistakenly diagnosed as having a small adenoma. No such false-positive studies were encountered with CT or adrenal venous sampling.

  4. Venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer.

    PubMed

    Seddighzadeh, Ali; Shetty, Ranjith; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2007-09-01

    Patients with cancer have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). To further define the demographics, comorbidities, and risk factors of VTE in these patients, we analyzed a prospective registry of 5,451 patients with ultrasound confirmed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) from 183 hospitals in the United States. Cancer was reported in 1,768 (39%), of whom 1,096 (62.0%) had active cancer. Of these, 599 (54.7%) were receiving chemotherapy, and 226 (20.6%) had metastases. Lung (18.5%), colorectal (11.8%), and breast cancer (9.0%) were among the most common cancer types. Cancer patients were younger (median age 66 years vs. 70 years; p < 0.0001), were more likely to be male (50.4% vs. 44.5%; p = 0.0005), and had a lower average body mass index (26.6 kg/m(2) vs. 28.9 kg/m(2); p < 0.0001). Cancer patients less often received VTE prophylaxis prior to development of DVT compared to those with no cancer (308 of 1,096, 28.2% vs. 1,196 of 3,444, 34.6%; p < 0.0001). For DVT therapy, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) as monotherapy without warfarin (142 of 1,086, 13.1% vs. 300 of 3,429, 8.7%; p < 0.0001) and inferior vena caval filters (234 of 1,086, 21.5% vs. 473 of 3,429, 13.8%; p < 0.0001) were utilized more often in cancer patients than in DVT patients without cancer. Cancer patients with DVT and neurological disease were twice as likely to receive inferior vena caval filters than those with no cancer (odds ratio 2.17, p = 0.005). In conclusion, cancer patients who develop DVT receive prophylaxis less often and more often receive filters than patients with no cancer who develop DVT. Future studies should focus on ways to improve implementation of prophylaxis in cancer patients and to further define the indications, efficacy, and safety of inferior vena caval filters in this population. PMID:17849056

  5. Obstruction of Venous Drainage Linked to Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ke; Chao, A-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chung, Chih-Ping; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Sheng, Wen-Yung; Wu, Jiang; Hu, Han-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal extracranial venous drainage modality has been considered an etiology of transient global amnesia (TGA). Evidence suggests that the transmission of the intrathoracic/intraabdominal pressure during a Valsalva maneuver (VM) is mainly through the vertebral venous system, and patency of internal jugular vein (IJV) is essential for venous drainage and pressure releasing. We hypothesize that obstruction of IJV venous drainage is a contributing factor in TGA pathogenesis. A magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol was used in 45 TGA patients and 45 age- and sex-matched controls to assess the morphologies of IJV, brachiocephalic vein (BCV) and asymmetry of transverse sinus (TS). The IJV was divided into the upper- and middle-IJV segments. Compared to the controls, TGA patients had significantly higher rates of moderate and severe compression/stenosis at the bilateral upper-IJV segment (left: 37.8% vs. 17.8%, P = 0.0393; right: 57.8% vs.15.6%, P<0.0012), in left BCV (60% vs. 8.9%, P<0.0004), and in TS hypoplasia (53.3%% vs. 31.1%, P = 0.0405). The prevalence of at least one site of venous compression/stenosis in IJV or BCV was significantly higher in patients than in controls (91.1% vs. 33.3%, P<0.0004). The diameter of the left TS in MRV, but not in T1 contrast imaging, was significantly smaller in TGA patients than in controls (0.31±0.21 vs. 0.41±0.19, P = 0.0290), which was compatible with downstream venous stenosis/obstruction. TGA patients have a higher prevalence of compression/stenosis of the bilateral IJV and the left BCV and TS hypoplasia, which is new evidence that supports the role of extracranial veins in TGA pathogenesis. PMID:26173146

  6. Sulodexide for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Bignamini, Angelo A.; Davì, Giovanni; Palareti, Gualtiero; Matuška, Ji?í; Holý, Martin; Pawlaczyk-Gabriel, Katarzyna; Džupina, Andrej; Sokurenko, German Y.; Didenko, Yury P.; Andrei, Laurentia D.; Lessiani, Gianfranco; Visonà, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background— Patients with a first episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism have a high risk of recurrence after discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy. Extending anticoagulation reduces the risk of recurrence but is associated with increased bleeding. Sulodexide, a glycosaminoglycan, exerts antithrombotic and profibrinolytic actions with a low bleeding risk when administered orally, but its benefit for preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism is not well known. Methods and Results— In this multicenter, double-blind study, 615 patients with first-ever unprovoked venous thromboembolism who had completed 3 to 12 months of oral anticoagulant treatment were randomly assigned to sulodexide 500 lipasemic units twice daily or placebo for 2 years, in addition to elastic stockings. The primary efficacy outcome was recurrence of venous thromboembolism. Major or clinically relevant bleeding was the primary safety outcome. Venous thromboembolism recurred in 15 of the 307 patients who received sulodexide and in 30 of the 308 patients who received placebo (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27–0.92; P=0.02). The analysis in which lost to follow-up was assigned to failure yielded a risk ratio among treated versus control subjects of 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.35–0.85; P=0.009). No major bleeding episodes occurred; 2 patients in each treatment group had a clinically relevant bleeding episode. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups. Conclusion— Sulodexide given after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment reduced the risk of recurrence in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism, with no apparent increase of bleeding risk. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/. Identifier: EudraCT number 2009-016923-77. PMID:26408273

  7. Transmedullary Venous Anastomoses: Anatomy and Angiographic Visualization Using Flat Panel Catheter Angiotomography.

    PubMed

    Gregg, L; Gailloud, P

    2015-07-01

    Flat panel catheter angiotomography, a recently developed angiographic technique, offers a spinal equivalent to the venous phase obtained during cerebral angiography. This report of 8 clinical cases discusses the flat panel catheter angiotomography appearance of a type of spinal venous structure until now principally known through the analysis of postmortem material, transmedullary venous anastomosis. The illustrated configurations include centrodorsolateral, median anteroposterior, median anteroposterior with duplicated origin, and combined centrodorsolateral/median anteroposterior transmedullary venous anastomoses, while a pathologic example documents the potential role of transmedullary venous anastomoses as collateral venous pathways. Two of the reported configurations have not been previously documented. Transmedullary venous anastomoses are normal venous structures that need to be differentiated from spinal cord anomalies, such as intramedullary vascular malformations. PMID:25953764

  8. Malfunctioning central venous catheters in children: a diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Barnacle, Alex; Arthurs, Owen J.; Roebuck, Derek

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access is increasingly becoming the domain of the radiologist, both in terms of the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) and in the subsequent management of these lines. This article seeks to provide an overview of the CVC types available for paediatric patients and a more detailed explanation of the spectrum of complications that may lead to catheter malfunction. A standard catheter contrast study or ‘linogram’ technique is described. The normal appearances of such a study and a detailed pictorial review of abnormal catheter studies are provided, together with a brief overview of how information from catheter investigations can guide the management of catheter complications. PMID:17932667

  9. Vacuum-assisted venous drainage, angel or demon: PRO?

    PubMed

    Durandy, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) was proposed to optimize venous drainage during bypass through femoral venous cannulation. It is currently used in both adult and pediatric surgery when siphon gravity venous drainage is suboptimal. In pediatric surgery, the major advantages of VAVD are a significant decrease in cardiopulmonary bypass prime volume and an improved drainage with all collateral benefits. To limit gravity drainage, we use a two-level heart-lung machine dedicated to pediatric perfusion. The top level of the cardiotomy reservoir is positioned at the patient atrial level, making it possible to downsize the length and diameter of venous and arterial lines. Since 2008, a negative pressure of approximately -30 mmHg has been used for all patients. Initiation of bypass is performed in a classical way with a cardiotomy reservoir open; vacuum is added as soon as the maximal gravity drainage is reached. During bypass, when the blood level in the reservoir decreases to the safety limit level, a small increase in negative pressure is used to improve venous drainage. For weaning from bypass, the negative pressure is gradually decreased to zero, then the reservoir is opened and the venous line progressively closed. Prime volumes were significantly reduced to 100 mL for small neonates, 125 mL for infants, and 175 mL for older children with flow up to 1.5 L/min(-1). A low prime volume is expected to improve blood conservation and decrease donor exposure, prevent drawbacks of transfusion (immunomodulation, infection), increase the incidence of blood-free surgery in smaller babies, and decrease whole body systemic inflammation by decreasing surface of foreign material in contact with blood and inflammation associated with blood transfusion. The main drawbacks described have been retrograde flow in the venous line with cerebral air embolus and an increased incidence of gaseous microemboli. These drawbacks are avoidable through appropriate training of perfusionists. When negative pressure is "reasonable," complications are more theoretical than significant in clinical practice. A technique with a benefit/drawback ratio of 1:0 is utopian, but the advantages of VAVD far outweigh any potential drawbacks when applied properly. PMID:23930382

  10. Vacuum-Assisted Venous Drainage, Angel or Demon: PRO?

    PubMed Central

    Durandy, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) was proposed to optimize venous drainage during bypass through femoral venous cannulation. It is currently used in both adult and pediatric surgery when siphon gravity venous drainage is suboptimal. In pediatric surgery, the major advantages of VAVD are a significant decrease in cardiopulmonary bypass prime volume and an improved drainage with all collateral benefits. To limit gravity drainage, we use a two-level heart–lung machine dedicated to pediatric perfusion. The top level of the cardiotomy reservoir is positioned at the patient atrial level, making it possible to downsize the length and diameter of venous and arterial lines. Since 2008, a negative pressure of approximately ?30 mmHg has been used for all patients. Initiation of bypass is performed in a classical way with a cardiotomy reservoir open; vacuum is added as soon as the maximal gravity drainage is reached. During bypass, when the blood level in the reservoir decreases to the safety limit level, a small increase in negative pressure is used to improve venous drainage. For weaning from bypass, the negative pressure is gradually decreased to zero, then the reservoir is opened and the venous line progressively closed. Prime volumes were significantly reduced to 100 mL for small neonates, 125 mL for infants, and 175 mL for older children with flow up to 1.5 L/min?1. A low prime volume is expected to improve blood conservation and decrease donor exposure, prevent drawbacks of transfusion (immunomodulation, infection), increase the incidence of blood-free surgery in smaller babies, and decrease whole body systemic inflammation by decreasing surface of foreign material in contact with blood and inflammation associated with blood transfusion. The main drawbacks described have been retrograde flow in the venous line with cerebral air embolus and an increased incidence of gaseous microemboli. These drawbacks are avoidable through appropriate training of perfusionists. When negative pressure is “reasonable,” complications are more theoretical than significant in clinical practice. A technique with a benefit/drawback ratio of 1:0 is utopian, but the advantages of VAVD far outweigh any potential drawbacks when applied properly. PMID:23930382

  11. Subclavian Vein Stent Fracture and Venous Motion.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Taubman, Kevin; Claiborne, Paul; Blebea, John

    2015-10-01

    Primary subclavian vein stents are not recommended for venous thoracic outlet syndrome before surgical decompression by first rib resection due to a high risk of fracture because they are compressed between the clavicle and first rib. After rib removal, however, stent insertion has been advocated for venous restenosis, and it is felt that stent fracture is unlikely to occur. We present a case suggesting that repetitive differential vein movement during respiration may be one of the causative factors for stent fractures occurring in this anatomic region. PMID:26122410

  12. Multiple venous aneurysms in a patient with hypereosinophilic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malskat, Wsj; Racz, E; Ten Raa, S; Lugtenburg, P J; Hegt, V Noordhoek; de Maeseneer, Mgr

    2016-02-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a diverse group of rare disorders, defined by persistent peripheral blood eosinophilia (>1500 per mm(3)), the absence of a primary cause of eosinophilia (such as parasitic or allergic disease), and evidence of eosinophil-mediated end-organ damage. Arterial aneurysms have been previously reported in these patients. This is the first report of a patient with HES and multiple venous aneurysms, causing recurrent pulmonary thromboembolism. Venous aneurysms can represent eosinophil-mediated, potentially fatal end-organ damage in patients with HES. PMID:25505272

  13. Venous infarction secondary to septic cavernous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kamouchi, Masahiro; Wakugawa, Yoko; Okada, Yasushi; Kishikawa, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Ryu; Toyoda, Kazunori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Inoue, Tooru; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Iida, Mitsuo

    2006-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman with poorly controlled diabetes presented bilateral miosis, bilateral abducens nerve palsy, and left hemiparesis. On MRI, cavernous sinus thrombosis, subdural empyema and hemorrhagic infarction in the frontotemporal lobe were detected. Cerebral angiogram revealed filling defect in the cavernous sinus with venous congestion but no involvement of internal carotid artery. Postmortem examination demonstrated hemorrhagic infarction in the right frontotemporal lobe as well as hemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland. It should be noted that venous congestion due to cavernous sinus thrombosis may cause these complications. PMID:16467601

  14. Erythrocyte volume in acidified venous blood from exercising limbs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Rochelle, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Five male volunteers performed arm exercises in the sitting position by cranking the pedals of a bicycle ergometer at 50 revolutions per min. The initial mechanical work load of 0 kgm/min was increased every minute by 75 kgm/min until exhaustion occurred. The data obtained show a significant acidification of the venous blood from the working arms and a substantial increase in venous pCO2 during this type of muscular activity. However, the erythrocyte volume remained unaltered during the exercise.

  15. [Seed migration to the vertebral venous plexus after prostate brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Wagner, W; Willich, N; Radmard, A; Christ, A; Fleig, P W; Krukemeyer, M G

    2010-11-01

    We report on seed migration to the vertebral venous plexus after low dose rate prostate brachytherapy with (125)I. A 74-year-old man with T1c N0 M0 adenocarcinoma of the prostate with a Gleason score of 6 (3+3) and prostate-specific antigen level of 14.94 ng/ml underwent interstitial prostate brachytherapy. Six weeks after treatment at the follow-up to determine aftercare a migrated seed was detected in the vertebral venous plexus and a second one in the right lung. No tissue damage around the migrated seeds was documented and the patient exhibited no clinical symptoms. PMID:20835698

  16. [Widespread mesenteric venous thrombosis and cirrhosis diagnosed with autopsy].

    PubMed

    Kömür, ?lhami; Özdemirel, Rifat Özgür; Ba?p?nar, Bünyamin; ?am, Bülent; An?k Karayel, Ferah

    2015-09-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare disorder with a high mortality rate. Since patients remain asymptomatic, diagnosis of the disease is difficult. Diagnosis can be mainly made with either laparotomy or autopsy. Many factors are considered in the etiology of mesenteric venous thrombosis. Liver cirrhosis and chronic pyelonephritis, which we detected in the autopsy and histologic examination of our case, are considered as two of the factors. In our study, it was aimed to present a case with near-total intestinal necrosis caused by portal vein thrombosis which spread to the lineal vein, pancreatic vein and to the branches of superior mesenteric veins. PMID:26388282

  17. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Modabber, Milad; Kundu, Sanjoy

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  18. Delayed presentation of Subclavian venous thrombosis following undisplaced clavicle fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kochhar, Tony; Jayadev, Chethan; Smith, Jay; Griffiths, Emmet; Seehra, Kamaljit

    2008-01-01

    Medial clavicle fractures are uncommon, accounting for approximately 5 percent of all clavicle fractures. Vascular injuries are uncommon but are recognised as either an immediate complication due to transection of the vessel by the displaced fracture, or as a late complication, secondary to compression from abundant callus formation. We present an unusual case of positional venous insufficiency in the upper limb as an immediate complication of a closed, minimally displaced clavicle fracture, with secondary subclavian venous thrombosis formation eleven days following the injury. PMID:18647403

  19. Venous gas embolism during cryosurgery for bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, H W; van Beem, H B; Veth, R P

    1995-11-01

    Cryosurgery using liquid nitrogen is a method for treating benign- and low-malignant skeletal tumors. The advantage of preserving the supportive function of bone should be compared to the risk for its complications; postoperative fracture is well known, but less so the occurrence of intraoperative venous gas embolism. This paper describes 17 patients: 2 patients who had serious hemodynamic complications during cryosurgery and a study of 15 patients in whom end-tidal N2 tension was measured in an attempt to investigate the clinical incidence of venous gas embolism during cryosurgery. In the 15 cases analyzed, we did not detect any exhaled N2 during cryosurgery. PMID:7475071

  20. New Anticoagulants for the Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Simon J; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is effective at preventing the development of venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients, and reduces morbidity and mortality in individuals with established thromboembolic disease. Vitamin K antagonists and heparins are currently the most commonly used anticoagulant drugs, but they have practical limitations. Therefore, new antithrombotic agents with predictable dose-responses (thereby decreasing the need for monitoring without compromising efficacy or safety), ideally available in an oral formulation and with a rapidly reversible anticoagulant effect, are needed. New drugs fulfilling some of the above criteria have been developed and have proven to be effective agents for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism. PMID:17319097

  1. [Encapsulated implantable venous access device: two clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Guivarch, E; Kriegel, I; Bonnet, L; di Maria, S; Estève, M

    2009-03-01

    We report two cases of encapsulated indwelling central venous catheter in adults. The patients involved were treated by chemotherapy and their catheter had been implanted for 15 and 6 years. However, this complication is well-known in children and a similar problem is frequently observed with pacemaker leads removal. The difficulty to remove the device is due to fibrous encapsulation of indwelling catheters in the vein wall. In all cases reported, the catheter was left in place. The potential main complications not yet observed are infection of the catheter and venous thrombosis. PMID:19327941

  2. Endovascular Therapy for Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Marc A.; Zaidat, Osama O.; Mueller-Kronast, Nils; Taqi, Muhammad A.; Woo, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports have emerged suggesting that multiple sclerosis (MS) may be due to abnormal venous outflow from the central nervous system, termed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). These reports have generated strong interest and controversy over the prospect of a treatable cause of this chronic debilitating disease. This review aims to describe the proposed association between CCSVI and MS, summarize the current data, and discuss the role of endovascular therapy and the need for rigorous randomized clinical trials to evaluate this association and treatment. PMID:21808631

  3. Preparing for the "Impending Storm."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Julie

    1979-01-01

    Reports on an address by Richard Johns, director of Quill and Scroll, in which he suggests that the continuing existence of high school journalism programs is threatened by reduced funding and by the "back to the basics" movement. Johns offers some ideas for how to prepare for threatened cutbacks. (TJ)

  4. Chronic portomesenteic venous thrombosis complicated by a high flow arteriovenous malformation presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, Adam N; Hebroni, Frank; McWilliams, Justin

    2016-02-01

    Portomesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. The presenting symptoms of chronic portomesenteric venous thrombosis are often non-specific but may present with variceal bleeding. We present the first reported case of chronic portomesenteric venous thrombosis causing a high flow arteriovenous malformation that resulted in extensive gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25871943

  5. Effect of beta-aescin extract from Chinese buckeye seed on chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhihong; Su, Ping

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of domestic beta-aescin treating chronic venous insufficiency through observing its actions on the isolated canine saphenous venous tension, venous pressure, venous return and lymphatic return. The isolated canine spiral saphenous venous tension test was performed to detect the activity of the beta-aescin. Furthermore, in the condition of constant canine femoral artery perfusion kept in the extracorporeal circulation, we measured the changes of the canine femoral artery pressure, femoral artery flow and the lymphatic return flow after intravenous injection of the agent. The results showed that when beta-aescin was administrated at the dose between 5.0 x 10(-5)-5.25 x 10(-4) mol/L, it increased obviously the contractile tension of the venous to norepinephrine in a dose-dependent manner. With canine femoral artery perfusion kept constant, beta-aescin, whose doses were 50 mg and 100 mg, reinforced intently the canine femoral venous tension accelerated the rise of the venous pressure. These finding suggested that domestic betabeta-aescin extracted from Chinese Buckeye Seed had an effect on chronic venous insufficiency by strengthening the venous tension, increasing the venous pressure and promoting venous return and lymphatic return. PMID:23875249

  6. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis, a Nonenhanced CT Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Alsafi, Ali; Lakhani, Amish; Carlton Jones, Lalani

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Retrospectively evaluate the density of cerebral venous sinuses in nonenhanced head CTs (NCTs) and correlate these with the presence or absence of a cerebral venous sinus thrombus (CVST). Materials and Methods. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent waived prior to commencing this retrospective study. Over a two-year period, all CT venograms (CTVs) performed at our institution were retrieved and the preceding/subsequent NCTs evaluated. Hounsfield Units (HUs) of thrombus when present as well as that of normal superior sagittal and sigmoid sinuses were measured. HU of thrombus was compared to that of normal vessels with and without standardisation to the average HU of the internal carotid arteries. Results. 299 CTVs were retrieved, 26 with a thrombus. Both raw and standardised HU measurements were significantly higher in CVST (p < 0.0001) compared to normal vessels. Both raw and standardised HUs are good predictors of CVST. A HU of ?67 and a standardised measurement of ?1.5 are associated with high probability of CVST on NCT. Conclusion. Cerebral venous sinus HU measurements may help improve sensitivity and specificity of NCT for venous sinus thrombosis and avoid potentially unnecessary follow-up examinations. PMID:26064682

  7. Noninvasive methods of measuring oxygen saturation in venous blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesman, S. S.; Mamilov, S. A.; Asimov, M. M.; Gisbreht, A. I.

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of measuring oxygen saturation in venous blood both by artificial modulation of the volume of tissue filled with blood and by determining the respiratory rhythm from a Fourier spectrum is demonstrated. Both methods have advantages and limitations. The results obtained by the two methods correlate well with one another and with published data.

  8. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion

    PubMed Central

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the “central venous oxygen saturation”), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion. PMID:25815301

  9. A rare localization of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Case report

    PubMed Central

    CARANGELO, B.; LAVALLE, L.; TIEZZI, G.; BRANCO, D.; LIPPA, L.; MILEO, E.; COSTANTINO, G.; MARIOTTINI, A.; MUSCAS, G.; MATURO, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the Authors report their experience on the treatment of a case of cavernous venous sinus thrombosis. The diagnosis is clinical and neuroradiological, CT, MRN, cerebral angiography and orbital venography have aided in establishing the diagnosis during life. Very interesting is the therapeutic approach. PMID:26017108

  10. Volume Calculation of Venous Thrombosis Using 2D Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Dhibi, M; Puentes, J; Bressollette, L; Guias, B; Solaiman, B

    2005-01-01

    Venous thrombosis screening exams use 2D ultrasound images, from which medical experts obtain a rough idea of the thrombosis aspect and infer an approximate volume. Such estimation is essential to follow up the thrombosis evolution. This paper proposes a method to calculate venous thrombosis volume from non-parallel 2D ultrasound images, taking advantage of a priori knowledge about the thrombosis shape. An interactive ellipse fitting contour segmentation extracts the 2D thrombosis contours. Then, a Delaunay triangulation is applied to the set of 2D segmented contours positioned in 3D, and the area that each contour defines, to obtain a global thrombosis 3D surface reconstruction, with a dense triangulation inside the contours. Volume is calculated from the obtained surface and contours triangulation, using a maximum unit normal component approach. Preliminary results obtained on 3 plastic phantoms and 3 in vitro venous thromboses, as well as one in vivo case are presented and discussed. An error rate of volume estimation inferior to 4,5% for the plastic phantoms, and 3,5% for the in vitro venous thromboses was obtained. PMID:17281109

  11. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  12. Sporadic Multifocal Venous Malformations of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Michael V.; Patel, Neha A.; Hu, Shirley; Pantelides, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To report a case of unusually widespread sporadic venous malformations of the head and neck associated with normal D-dimer levels and, due to the protean clinical manifestations and increased risk of coagulopathy of these lesions, to review their diagnosis and clinical management. Case Report. A 25-year-old man presented with a one-year history of intermittent right-sided neck swelling and tongue swelling. Physical exam revealed additional lesions present throughout the head and neck. There was no family history suggestive of heritable vascular malformations. Radiographic imaging demonstrated 15 lesions located in various tissue layers consistent with venous malformations. A coagulation screen showed a normal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, D-dimer level, and fibrinogen level. It was determined that the patient was not at increased risk for intraoperative coagulopathy and preoperative heparin administration would not be necessary. The patient's buccal and tongue lesions were subsequently excised with no complications. The patient also underwent sclerotherapy evaluation for his neck mass. Conclusion. This case describes a unique presentation of sporadic multifocal venous malformations. It also emphasizes the importance of prompt diagnosis and workup when multiple venous malformations are present to prevent morbidity during surgical excision secondary to intravascular coagulopathy. PMID:26483982

  13. [Functional anatomy of the venous system of the lower limbs].

    PubMed

    Carpentier, P

    1994-02-10

    Surgical techniques including CHIVA and ambulatory phlebectomy and angiographic methods provide a new approach to the anatomy of the venous system in the lower limbs. The endothelium develops fibrous folds of the intima which form valves preventing backward flow. Staged pairs of valves are found throughout the network. The venous wall has three layers: the inner layer, the intima, acts as a mechanical barrier and regulates coagulation and vasomotricity and plays an important role in exchanges. Venous constriction is produced by the middle layer, the media, and the adventitia, the outer layer, connects the vein to surrounding supportive tissue. The anatomy of the venous system in the lower limbs is divided into a superficial network lying over the superficial aponevrosis. This system drains the teguments. The deep system, below the aponevrosis, drains all the blood flow coming from the muscles. These two systems are connected by perforating veins with valves guaranteeing one-way flow. Communicating veins link together the different veins within each network. PMID:8177868

  14. A familial venous malformation locus is on chromosome 9p

    SciTech Connect

    Boon, L.M.; Mulliken, J.B.; Vikkula, M.

    1994-09-01

    Venous malformation is the most common vascular malformation affecting 0.2% of the population. Depending upon size and location, these slow-flow lesions may cause pain, anatomic distortion and threaten life. Most venous malformations occur sporadically and present as solitary lesions. For this reason, determining their pathogenic bases has proven elusive. However, venous malformations also occur in several rare syndromes, some of which demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. As a first step towards identifying the pathogenic bases for these lesions, we have mapped a locus for an autosomal dominant disorder in a three generation family that manifests as multiple cutaneous and mucosal venous malformations. This locus lies within a 24.5 cM interval on chromosome 9p, defined by the markers D9S157 and D9S163. A maximum LOD score of 4.11 at {theta} = 0.05 is obtained with several markers within the interval. The interferon gene cluster, which has previously been implicated in angiogenesis, and the multiple tumor suppressor gene, responsible for several types of malignant tumors, also lie within this interval and are potential candidates.

  15. Venous air embolism from head and neck wounds.

    PubMed

    Adams, V I; Hirsch, C S

    1989-05-01

    Air emboli in the chambers of the right side of the heart and in the pulmonary artery were documented in 16 autopsies representing shotgun and gunshot wounds of the head, traffic fatalities with head trauma, and one neck incision. The pathology of venous air embolism and its interpretation in the context of death investigation are discussed. PMID:2653272

  16. [Photo-reflex rheography and diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Stemmer, R; Marescaux, J; Furderer, C R

    1984-01-01

    Photo-reflex-rheography is a noninvasive method of measuring the filling of the subcutaneous venous plexuses. Daily recording during the pre- and post-operative period permits comparison of the amplitude of the curves and measurement of the time for refilling. Any diminution of these two parameters suggestive of a deep vein thrombosis is an indication for phlebography. PMID:6718506

  17. Lower motor neuron facial palsy in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Ravi, Yadav; Nagaraja, Dindigur; Veerendrakumar, Mustare

    2013-04-01

    With advances in the neuro-imaging modalities, diverse manifestations of the cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) are being recognized. There are very few reports of isolated cranial nerve palsies in CVT. In this case report, we describe a patient of lower motor neuron facial palsy with CVT who was successfully treated with anticoagulation, highlighting the atypical manifestation of the disease. PMID:23914113

  18. Endovascular treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis: Contemporary multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Mokin, Maxim; Lopes, Demetrius K; Binning, Mandy J; Veznedaroglu, Erol; Liebman, Kenneth M; Arthur, Adam S; Doss, Vinodh T; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2015-08-01

    Endovascular therapy of cerebral venous thrombosis using modern approaches to intracranial recanalization, such as stent retrievers and aspiration thrombectomy, is not well described. We performed a retrospective review of data for consecutive patients with venous sinus thrombosis who underwent endovascular treatment between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 at participating institutions. We identified a total of 13 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis. The most frequently utilized type of endovascular intervention was the Penumbra aspiration system (Penumbra Inc., Alameda, California, USA) (nine cases), followed by local infusion of tissue plasminogen activator (bolus and/or drip in six cases) and stent retrievers (Solitaire FR (Covidien, Irvine, California, USA) in three cases and Trevo (Stryker, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA) in one case). Overall, multimodality treatment (two or more different types of devices or approaches) was performed in 62% of cases. Follow-up data were available for 11 patients; of those, five had a favorable clinical outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2) and three patients died. Various endovascular approaches are utilized in current clinical practice. A multimodal approach to endovascular therapy for the treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis resulted in partial or complete restoration of flow in all cases, yet the mortality rate of 27% indicates the need for improvement in recanalization strategies for this disorder. PMID:26055685

  19. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion.

    PubMed

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the "central venous oxygen saturation"), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion. PMID:25815301

  20. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dake, Michael D.; Zivadinov, Robert; Haacke, E. Mark

    Summary Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a term used to describe impaired venous drainage from the central nervous system (CNS) caused by abnormalities in anatomy and flow affecting the extracranial veins. Recently, it has been proposed that CCSVI may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is hypothesized that venous obstruction results in abnormal flow that promotes inflammation at the blood-brain barrier and that this triggers a process marked by a disturbance of homeostasis within the CNS that leads to demyelination and neurodegeneration. The venous abnormalities of CCSVI are often diagnosed by ultrasound or magnetic resonance venography, however the prevalence of CCSVI detailed in groups of MS patients and patients without MS varies widely in published reports. Increased standardization of diagnostic studies to evaluate both anatomical and physiological findings associated with CCSVI is needed. The purpose of this article is to provide a background to understand the development of the theory of CCSVI and to frame the relevant issues regarding its diagnosis and relationship to the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:22364939

  1. Right Gastric Venous Drainage: Angiographic Analysis in 100 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Nak Jong; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Jae, Hwan Jun; An, Sang Bu; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pattern of right gastric venous drainage by use of digital subtraction angiography. Materials and Methods A series of 100 consecutive patients who underwent right gastric arteriography during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma were included in this study. Angiographic findings were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the presence or absence of the right and aberrant gastric veins, multiplicity of draining veins, aberrant right gastric venous drainage sites, and the termination pattern of aberrant right gastric veins (ARGVs). We also compared the relative size of the right and left gastric veins. Results A total of 49 patients collectively had 66 ARGVs. The common drainage sites for the ARGVs included the hepatic segment IV (n = 35) and segment I (n = 15). The termination pattern of ARGV could be classified into 4 different types. The most common type was termination as a superficial parenchymal blush formation in small areas without demonstrable portal branches. A statistically significant difference was found for the dominancy of the right gastric vein in gastric venous drainage between the two groups with or without ARGV (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). In the group of patients without ARGV (n = 51), the right gastric vein was equal to (n = 9) or larger than (n = 17) the left gastric vein in 26 patients (26 of 51, 51%). Conclusion The incidence of ARGV is higher than expected with four distinct types in its termination pattern. The right gastric vein may play a dominant role in gastric venous drainage. PMID:22247636

  2. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Dake, Michael D; Zivadinov, Robert; Haacke, E Mark

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a term used to describe impaired venous drainage from the central nervous system (CNS) caused by abnormalities in anatomy and flow affecting the extracranial veins. Recently, it has been proposed that CCSVI may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is hypothesized that venous obstruction results in abnormal flow that promotes inflammation at the blood-brain barrier and that this triggers a process marked by a disturbance of homeostasis within the CNS that leads to demyelination and neurodegeneration. The venous abnormalities of CCSVI are often diagnosed by ultrasound or magnetic resonance venography, however the prevalence of CCSVI detailed in groups of MS patients and patients without MS varies widely in published reports. Increased standardization of diagnostic studies to evaluate both anatomical and physiological findings associated with CCSVI is needed. The purpose of this article is to provide a background to understand the development of the theory of CCSVI and to frame the relevant issues regarding its diagnosis and relationship to the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:22364939

  3. What went wrong? The flawed concept of cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Valdueza, José M; Doepp, Florian; Schreiber, Stephan J; van Oosten, Bob W; Schmierer, Klaus; Paul, Friedemann; Wattjes, Mike P

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Zamboni reintroduced the concept that chronic impaired venous outflow of the central nervous system is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), coining the term of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (‘CCSVI'). The diagnosis of ‘CCSVI' is based on sonographic criteria, which he found exclusively fulfilled in MS. The concept proposes that chronic venous outflow failure is associated with venous reflux and congestion and leads to iron deposition, thereby inducing neuroinflammation and degeneration. The revival of this concept has generated major interest in media and patient groups, mainly driven by the hope that endovascular treatment of ‘CCSVI' could alleviate MS. Many investigators tried to replicate Zamboni's results with duplex sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and catheter angiography. The data obtained here do generally not support the ‘CCSVI' concept. Moreover, there are no methodologically adequate studies to prove or disprove beneficial effects of endovascular treatment in MS. This review not only gives a comprehensive overview of the methodological flaws and pathophysiologic implausibility of the ‘CCSVI' concept, but also summarizes the multimodality diagnostic validation studies and open-label trials of endovascular treatment. In our view, there is currently no basis to diagnose or treat ‘CCSVI' in the care of MS patients, outside of the setting of scientific research. PMID:23443168

  4. Histamine and H1-histamine receptors faster venous circulation

    PubMed Central

    Galajda, Zoltan; Balla, Jozsef; Szentmiklosi, A Jozsef; Biro, Tamas; Czifra, Gabriella; Dobrosi, Nora; Cseppento, Agnes; Patonay, Lajos; Roszer, Tamas; Balla, Gyorgy; Popescu, Laurenciu M; Lekli, Istvan; Tosaki, Arpad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The study has analysed the action of histamine in the rabbit venous system and evaluated its potential role in contraction during increased venous pressure. We have found that a great variety exists in histamine sensitivity and H1-histamine receptor expression in various types of rabbit veins. Veins of the extremities (saphenous vein, femoral vein, axillary vein) and abdomen (common iliac vein, inferior vena cava) responded to histamine by a prominent, concentration-dependent force generation, whereas great thoracic veins (subclavian vein, superior vena cavas, intrathoracic part of inferior vena cava) and a pelvic vein (external iliac vein) exhibited slight sensitivity to exogenous histamine. The lack of reactivity to histamine was not due to increased activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or heme oxygenase-1. H1-histamine receptor expression of veins correlated well with the histamine-induced contractions. Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediated mainly the histamine-induced force generation of saphenous vein, whereas it did not act in the inferior vena cava. In contrast, the receptor-operated channels were not involved in this response in either vein. Tyrosine phosphorylation occurred markedly in response to histamine in the saphenous vein, but not in the inferior vena cava. Histamine induced a prominent ? kinase activation in both vessels. Protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were not implicated in the histamine-induced intracellular calcium sensitization. Importantly, transient clamping of the femoral vein in animals caused a short-term constriction, which was inhibited by H1-histamine receptor antagonist in vivo. Furthermore, a significantly greater histamine immunopositivity was detected in veins after stretching compared to the resting state. We conclude that histamine receptor density adapts to the actual requirements of the circulation, and histamine liberated by the venous wall during increased venous pressure contributes to the contraction of vessels, providing a force for the venous return. PMID:21199332

  5. Measurement of Central Venous Pressure Using Ultrasound in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Ahmad; Feiz Disfani, Hamideh; Afzalimoghaddam, Mohammad; Talebian, Mohammad Taghi; Masoumi, Babak; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to assessment of intravascular fluid measurement of central venous pressure (CVP) is used via central venous catheterization (CVC). This procedure is highly invasive and may cause serious complications such as pneumothorax, infection, hematoma and etc. It is so valuable procedure if we can uses a less invasive or noninvasive procedure to assess patients intravascular fluid in critical positions. Objectives: In this study, the ultrasound was used to measure the central venous pressure (CVP). Patients and Methods: In this study, patients with Central venous catheterization were selected using simple random sampling. The largest diameter of longitudinal, transverse views and the cross-section of inferior vena cava (IVC) and internal jugular vein (IJV) were measured using the ultrasound in the bedside of the patients. Central venous pressure was measured using routine methods. Correlations between variables were analyzed using SPSS and linear regression. Results: Twenty patients with the mean age of 60.3 were studied. The main reason for cardiac catheterization was shock. There are no relationship between anterior posterior diameter of inferior vena cava and CVP of patients (P = 0.257). The longest diameter of IVC in ultrasonographic transverse view had significant association with CVP of patients (P = 0.045) but in patients with BMI > 25 it was not significant. Cross section of internal jugular vein had significant association with CVP of patients (P = 0.003). Longitudinal diameter of internal jugular vein had no significant association with CVP of patients (P = 0.052), but transverse diameter of internal jugular generally had significant association with CVP of patients (P = 0.003). Cross section of internal jugular had significant association with CVP (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Noninvasive assessment of the patient hydration condition using the ultrasound is a simple and practicable measure in emergency. With regard to the considerations, it is possible to estimate CVP via diameter measurement and cross-section of the central veins. PMID:26744629

  6. CONGENITAL MACROVESSEL ASSOCIATED WITH CYSTOID MACULAR EDEMA AND AN IPSILATERAL INTRACRANIAL VENOUS MALFORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Sanfilippo, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose: To report a case of congenital retinal macrovessel associated with cystoid macular edema and an ipsilateral intracranial venous malformation. Methods: Case report. Results: A 58-year-old woman with decreased vision was found to have a congenital retinal venous macrovessel associated with cystoid macular edema because of tributary venous occlusion. The patient underwent neuroimaging and an ipsilateral venous malformation of the frontal lobe was discovered. Conclusion: Congenital retinal macrovessel can occasionally be complicated by vascular occlusion and macular edema. The authors report a case of congenital retinal macrovessel associated with an intracranial venous malformation. Clinicians should be aware of this potential association, and further studies are warranted. PMID:26421894

  7. The Critical Importance of Hepatic Venous Blood Flow Doppler Assessment for Patients in Shock.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Jonathan; Aslanian, Pierre; Desjardins, Georges; Belaïdi, Mustapha; Denault, André

    2016-03-01

    Hepatic venous blood flow can be easily obtained using bedside ultrasound with either transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography. Six critically ill patients with shock associated with absent or significantly reduced hepatic venous blood flow in the presence of normal or increased pulmonary venous flow are presented. In all these patients, the etiology of shock was secondary to increased resistance to venous return from either an intraabdominal process or through extrinsic or intrinsic occlusion of the proximal inferior vena cava or right atrium. These shock situations are secondary to increased resistance to venous return. Their treatment is highly specific and typically involves a surgical intervention. PMID:26556108

  8. JUGULAR CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER PLACEMENT THROUGH A MODIFIED SELDINGER TECHNIQUE FOR LONG-TERM VENOUS ACCESS IN CHELONIANS.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Mariana A; Divers, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Long-term or repeated venous access in chelonians is difficult to obtain and manage, but can be critically important for administration of medications and blood sampling in hospitalized patients. Jugular catheterization provides the most rapid and secure route for vascular access, but catheters can be difficult to place, and maintaining catheter patency may be challenging. Long multilumen polyurethane catheters provide flexibility and sampling access, and minimize difficulties, such as catheter displacement, that have been encountered with traditional over-the-needle catheters. We describe placement of 4 Fr. 13-cm polyurethane catheters in three chelonians with the use of a modified Seldinger technique. Venous access was obtained with the use of an over-the-needle catheter, which allowed placement of a 0.018-in.-diameter wire, over which the polyurethane catheter was placed. Indwelling time has ranged between 1 and 4 mo currently. All tortoises were sedated for this procedure. Polyurethane central catheters provide safe, long-term venous access that allows clinicians to perform serial blood sampling as well as intravenous administration of medications, anesthetic agents, and fluids. A jugular catheter can also allow central venous pressure measurement. Utilization of central line catheters was associated with improvements in diagnostic efficiency and therapeutic case management, with minimal risks and complications. PMID:27010289

  9. New insights into pacemaker lead-induced venous occlusion: simulation-based investigation of alterations in venous biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Lonyai, Anna; Dubin, Anne M; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Taylor, Charles A; Shadden, Shawn C

    2010-06-01

    Venous obstruction is a major complication of transvenous pacemaker placement. Despite the increasing use of pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators, a lack of understanding remains with regard to risk factors for the development of device-associated venous obstruction. We hypothesize that computational fluid dynamics simulations can reveal prothrombogenic locations and define thrombosis risk based on patient-specific anatomies. Using anatomic data derived from computed tomography, computer models of the superior vena cava, subclavian, innominate, and internal jugular veins were constructed for three adult patients with transvenous pacemakers. These models were used to perform patient-specific simulations examining blood flow velocity, wall shear stress, and blood pressure, both with and without the presence of the pacing leads. To better quantify stasis, mean exposure time fields were computed from the venous blood flow data. In comparing simulations with leads to those without, evident increases in stasis at locations between the leads and along the surface of the vessels closest to the leads were found. These locations correspond to regions at known risk for thrombosis. This work presents a novel application of computational methods to study blood flow changes induced by pacemaker leads and possible complications such as venous occlusion and thrombosis. This methodology may add to our understanding of the development of lead-induced thrombosis and occlusion in the clinical arena, and enable the development of new strategies to avoid such complications. PMID:20514553

  10. Identification of the cause of severe skin infection by Fournier transform infrared spectroscopy: a case of Fournier's gangrene caused by fish bone.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takae; Harada, Kazutoshi; Akazawa, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Miyuki; Inozume, Takashi; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Shibagaki, Naotaka; Momosawa, Akira; Shimada, Shinji

    2014-06-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is an infrequent but highly lethal infection. Here we report a 74-year-old man who presented with genital swelling and severe malaise. Based on the physical and imaging examination results, the diagnosis of FG was confirmed. Intraoperative findings showed dirty necrosis of soft tissue, and a splinter-shaped foreign body was found in the perirectal region. The foreign body was thought to be the cause of the condition, and it was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We found that the foreign body was a mixture of calcium phosphate and protein, suggesting that the splinter was a bone. Moreover, during the medical interview, the patient mentioned about intake of fish around the time of onset of symptoms. Therefore, to confirm the results of the analysis, DNA was extracted from the foreign body, and genomic PCR with subsequent sequence analysis was performed. The DNA sequence was identical to that of Oncorhynchus kisutch, a salmon that is a very popular food in Japan. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that FG in this case was caused by the penetration into the rectum of an accidentally ingested fish bone. Although some cases of intra-abdominal abscess due to accidental ingestion of fish bone have been reported, FG caused by fish bone is extremely rare. PMID:24909217

  11. Chronic compartment syndrome secondary to venous hypertension: fasciectomy for symptom relief.

    PubMed

    Engelbert, Travis L; Turnipseed, William D

    2014-10-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) from venous hypertension following lower leg deep venous thrombosis or severe venous insufficiency is rare and often difficult to diagnose. Although ileocaval stenting and thrombolysis have improved claudication symptoms related to outflow venous disease, chronic calf claudication from distal vein thrombosis and venous insufficiency have historically been managed with rest, compression, and elevation. Often, conservative options give inadequate symptom relief and active individuals are rarely compliant. We report the presentation, workup, and treatment with fasciectomy for lower leg CCS secondary to venous hypertension. Fasciotomy and fasciectomy have been used for atypical claudication secondary to classic overuse CCS with symptom relief for many individuals. This case illustrates the recognition of claudication induced by CCS secondary to venous insufficiency and an approach to treatment with fasciectomy with a promising outcome. PMID:24911798

  12. Elevated Levels of Coagulation Factor VIII in Patients With Venous Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-05-25

    Chronic venous disease affects millions of people around the world. Venous valvular incompetencies and venous reflux, often a result of outflow obstruction are important contributors to venous disease. The prevalence of thrombophilia is increased in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The recognition of underlying thrombophilia particularly in young patients opens new avenues in the management and prevention plan. We emphasize on the consideration of workup for coagulopathy, especially factor VIII deficiency in young patients with venous disease. We report 3 patients with chronic leg ulcers and high levels of FVIII:C activity in plasma and other associated thrombophilic factors. We highlight the need to get a workup done for thrombophilia in young patients with recurrent and chronic leg ulcers related to venous insufficiency or livedoid vasculopathy. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to define the definite indications for the thrombophilia workups. PMID:24861090

  13. A case of hepatic portal venous gas due to viral gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Mirmanesh, Michael; Nguyen, Quoc-Sy; Markelov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hepatic portal venous gas is the presence of gas within the portal venous system that can result from a variety of insults to the gastrointestinal system, and which may be a diagnostic clue to ominous abdominal pathologies, such as acute bowel ischemia or necrosis. Case We report a case of a 71-year-old man with acute onset abdominal pain whose initial radiologic testing showed extensive portal venous gas. The patient was managed conservatively with resolution of portal venous gas on day 2 of hospitalization. The findings were consistent with a final diagnosis of hepatic portal venous gas caused by viral gastroenteritis. Conclusion History and physical examination along with presenting signs and symptoms, in conjunction with imaging studies, are vital to delineate the cause of hepatic portal venous gas. In the absence of alarming signs and symptoms, hepatic portal venous gas can be conservatively managed without the need for invasive surgical exploration. PMID:24696625

  14. Peripheral Venous Access Ports: Outcomes Analysis in 109 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L.; Patel, Kaushik M.; Siegel, Randall L.; Biswal, Rajiv; Gribbin, Christopher E.; Tokarz, Robert

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective outcomes analysis of central venous catheters with peripheral venous access ports, with comparison to published data.Methods: One hundred and twelve central venous catheters with peripherally placed access ports were placed under sonographic guidance in 109 patients over a 4-year period. Ports were placed for the administration of chemotherapy, hyperalimentation, long-term antibiotic therapy, gamma-globulin therapy, and frequent blood sampling. A vein in the upper arm was accessed in each case and the catheter was passed to the superior vena cava or right atrium. Povidone iodine skin preparation was used in the first 65 port insertions. A combination of Iodophor solution and povidone iodine solution was used in the last 47 port insertions. Forty patients received low-dose (1 mg) warfarin sodium beginning the day after port insertion. Three patients received higher doses of warfarin sodium for preexistent venous thrombosis. Catheter performance and complications were assessed and compared with published data.Results: Access into the basilic or brachial veins was obtained in all cases. Ports remained functional for a total of 28,936 patient days. The port functioned in 50% of patients until completion of therapy, or the patient's expiration. Ports were removed prior to completion of therapy in 18% of patients. Eleven patients (9.9% of ports placed) suffered an infectious complication (0.38 per thousand catheter-days)-in nine, at the port implantation site, in two along the catheter. In all 11 instances the port was removed. Port pocket infection in the early postoperative period occurred in three patients (4.7%) receiving a Betadine prep vs two patients (4.2%) receiving a standard O.R. prep. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.9). Venous thrombosis occurred in three patients (6.8%) receiving warfarin sodium and in two patients (3%) not receiving warfarin sodium. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). Aspiration occlusion occurred in 13 patients (11.7%). Intracatheter urokinase was infused in eight of these patients and successfully restored catheter function in all but two instances. These complication rates are comparable to or better than those reported with chest ports.Conclusion: Peripheral ports for long-term central venous access placed by interventional radiologists in the interventional radiology suite are as safe and as effective as chest ports.

  15. Evaluation and management of peripheral venous and lymphatic malformations.

    PubMed

    Nassiri, Naiem; Thomas, Jones; Cirillo-Penn, Nolan C

    2016-04-01

    The International Society for Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) broadly categorizes vascular anomalies as vascular tumors or vascular malformations. The latter are congenital lesions that are further categorized by their flow properties and include high-flow arteriovenous malformations, slow-flow venous and lymphatic malformations, and congenital mixed syndromes, which can include a combination of malformations. Unlike vascular tumors, vascular malformations never regress and can persist and grow for the duration of the patient's lifespan. As our understanding of the natural history, hemodynamics, and treatment outcomes of these lesions has expanded and evolved over the last few decades, certain fundamental diagnostic and therapeutic principles have been established and are considered standard of care. These overarching principles are crucial to adhere to in the overall management of these lesions and are highlighted and expanded on in this report, which focuses exclusively on peripheral slow-flow venous and lymphatic malformations. PMID:26993876

  16. Cryotherapy and ankle motion in chronic venous disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kelechi, Teresa J.; Mueller, Martina; Zapka, Jane G.; King, Dana E.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared ankle range of motion (AROM) including dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion and eversion, and venous refill time (VRT) in leg skin inflamed by venous disorders, before and after a new cryotherapy ulcer prevention treatment. Fifty-seven-individuals participated in the randomized clinical trial; 28 in the experimental group and 29 received usual care only. Results revealed no statistically significant differences between the experimental and usual care groups although AROM measures in the experimental group showed a consistent, non-clinically relevant decrease compared to the usual care group except for dorsiflexion. Within treatment group comparisons of VRT results showed a statistically significant increase in both dorsiflexion and plantar flexion for patients with severe VRT in the experimental group (6.9 ± 6.8; p = 0.002 and 5.8 ± 12.6; p = 0.02, respectively). Cryotherapy did not further restrict already compromised AROM, and in some cases, there were minor improvements. PMID:23516043

  17. [Thrombosed scapular intramuscular venous malformation: A pediatric case report].

    PubMed

    Fekir, A; Balguerie, X; Bardoux, I; Dacher, J-N; Vivier, P-H

    2015-07-01

    Venous malformation (VM) is a frequent soft tissue mass in children that should not be confused with vascular tumors. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with a bulky thrombosed VM of the shoulder with functional disability. D-dimer levels were high. Pathognomonic phleboliths were demonstrated on conventional x-rays. Echo-doppler confirmed the venous nature of the lesion and areas without flow suspicious for thrombosis. MRI provides the deep extension and can show non-calcified thrombi that are difficult to see with ultrasound. Localized intravascular coagulopathy is often associated with thrombosis phenomena and has to be confirmed by measurement of D-dimer levels in order to initiate anticoagulation quickly with low-molecular-weight heparin. Follow-up includes measurement of D-dimer levels and potentially MRI to evaluate the anticoagulation efficacy and tailor treatment duration. PMID:26047748

  18. Development of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas After Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Derkatch, Sheldon; Pereira, Vitor M; Margolin, Edward A

    2016-03-01

    A 57-year-old man presented with papilledema due to partially recanalized dural sinus thrombosis and was treated with anticoagulation and acetazolamide. One year after treatment and resolution of his symptoms, he had an increase in his optic disc edema accompanied by headaches. Subsequent neuroimaging indicated development of arteriovenous fistulas resulting in cortical and deep venous reflux. Given the high risk of mortality from intracranial hemorrhage, the patient underwent urgent treatment with a liquid embolic agent, which resulted in the resolution of his optic disc edema. Our case is unique in that recurrence of bilateral optic disc edema led to discovery of the rare complication of dural arteriovenous fistulas developing after dural sinus thrombosis. Ongoing monitoring of patients after cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is, therefore, important. PMID:26214086

  19. Historical aspects in the development of venous autografts.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, L H

    1976-01-01

    During the past 75 years much progress has occurred in the field of vascular surgery. During this period, contributions from clinical surgeons have stimulated new scientific discoveries which have led to further clinical applications in a mutually perpetuating cycle of surgical advancement. One of the major achievements has been the use of the venous autograft employed as an arterial substitute. First used by Goyanes in 1906 to replace a popliteal aneurysm, a venous autograft was first successfully employed in the United States by Bernheim in 1915. The stepwise development of this aspect of modern vascular surgery is presented, and the role of other related contributions in making its use feasible is reviewed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1108815

  20. Assessing the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism – a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Fahrni, Jennifer; Husmann, Marc; Gretener, Silvia B; Keo, Hong H

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This risk is lowered by anticoagulation, with a large effect in the initial phase following the venous thromboembolic event, and with a smaller effect in terms of secondary prevention of recurrence when extended anticoagulation is performed. On the other hand, extended anticoagulation is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding and thus leads to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the risk of recurrence for VTE on an individual basis, and a recommendation for secondary prophylaxis should be specifically based on risk calculation of recurrence of VTE and bleeding. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of relevant risk factors for recurrent VTE and a practical approach for assessing the risk of recurrence in daily practice. PMID:26316770

  1. Current treatment of acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Janjigian, Michael P; Muhs, Bart E

    2008-03-01

    The long-term complications of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) include recurrence, increased mortality, and the development of the postthrombotic syndrome. Rates of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) are elevated in patients with cancer and thrombophilia. Heparin, administered either as unfractionated or low-molecular weight, is indicated for at least five days for acute DVT. Long-term treatment is currently a vitamin K antagonist with a variable duration depending on the etiology of the DVT and risk of bleeding. Novel anticoagulant agents that target factor Xa and directly inhibit thrombin are being studied in clinical trials and may one day replace vitamin K antagonists for the long-term treatment of VTE. Interventional approaches such as percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy have the potential to reduce clot burden in acute DVT with lower bleeding risks and help prevent development of the postthrombotic syndrome, a common and potentially debilitating complication of DVT. PMID:18372264

  2. Unusual Infra-Clavicular Venous Circle – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Aithal P, Ashwini; Guru, Anitha; S, Sudarshan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, numerous invasive procedures are preferred in cephalic vein (CV) and axillary vein (AV) than other veins in the neck. Anatomical variations of these veins in the axilla and delto-pectoral region may result in failure and postoperative complications of the procedures. A thorough knowledge of possible variations of AV and CV may immensely contribute to the success of any such procedures where the veins are involved. We report the variations of the CV, tributaries of AV and median cubital vein. We observed a venous circle formed by the tributaries of AV in the infra-clavicular region, deep to the pectoral muscles. Cephalic vein joined proximal end of venous circle just before ending into AV. Further, duplication of the median cubital vein was observed. PMID:25584205

  3. [Insertion and maintenance of peripheral venous catheters in neonates].

    PubMed

    Pastor Rodríguez, Jesús David; Serrano Matás, Encarnación; Muñoz Escolar, Dolores Angeles

    2008-01-01

    Insertion of peripheral venous catheters in premature and term newborns is a common practice in neonatology units and neonatal intensive care units. Nurses are responsible for the insertion and maintenance of peripheral venous catheters and for the prevention of complications. Although this technique is routine, a series of recommendations, supported by evidence-based practice, should be bourne in mind when inserting these catheters. Following these recommendations guarantees successful insertion, and the absence of risks and complications. To achieve this aim, the following steps should be carried out: preparing the material, selecting the vein, selecting the catheter, cleaning and disinfecting the area, inserting the catheter, fixing the catheter, and restoring intravenous therapy. In addition, attention must be paid to potential risks in order to resolve them as quickly as possible, thereby avoiding complications. PMID:18724919

  4. Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection as a Cause of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Francesca; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Mojoli, Francesco; Baldanti, Fausto; Brunetti, Enrico; Pascarella, Michela; Giordani, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Acute Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an unusual cause of venous thromboembolism, a potentially life-threatening condition. Thrombus formation can occur at the onset of the disease or later during the recovery and may also occur in the absence of acute HCMV hepatitis. It is likely due to both vascular endothelium damage caused by HCMV and impairment of the clotting balance caused by the virus itself. Here we report on two immunocompetent women with splanchnic thrombosis that occurred during the course of acute HCMV infection. Although the prevalence of venous thrombosis in patients with acute HCMV infection is unknown, physicians should be aware of its occurrence, particularly in immunocompetent patients presenting with fever and unexplained abdominal pain. PMID:24959338

  5. Sinus venous stenosis, intracranial hypertension and progression of primary headaches.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Roberto; Ranieri, Angelo; Montella, Silvana; Marchese, Mario; Persico, Pasquale; Bonavita, Vincenzo

    2012-05-01

    The recently advanced hypothesis that idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema (IIHWOP) is a powerful risk factor for the progression of pain in individuals prone to episodic primary headache implies that IIHWOP is much more prevalent than it is believed to be in the general population and that it can run almost asymptomatic in most of the affected individuals. In this review, we discuss the evidence available supporting that: (a) sinus venous stenosis-associated IIHWOP is much more prevalent than believed in the general population and can run without symptoms or signs of raised intracranial pressure in most of individuals affected, (b) sinus venous stenosis is a very sensitive and specific predictor of intermittent or continuous idiopathic intracranial hypertension with or without papilledema, even in asymptomatic individuals, (c) in primary headache prone individuals, a comorbidity with a hidden stenosis-associated IIHWOP represents a very common, although largely underestimated, modifiable risk factor for the progression and refractoriness of headache. PMID:22644164

  6. Equine laminitis: a journey to the dark side of venous.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Tom P; Bailey, Simon R; Peroni, John F

    2009-06-15

    Equine laminitis is a crippling condition that continues to defy repeated efforts to delineate the precise mechanisms involved and develop effective therapeutic strategies for use in the clinic. In this article, the possible role of dysfunction of the laminar vasculature is discussed, with particular emphasis on the venous side of the laminar microvasculature and the possible role(s) that metabolic syndrome and thrombosis may play in the dysfunction observed in the laminar microvasculature during the development of laminitis. PMID:19110318

  7. The role of factor Xa inhibitors in venous thromboembolism treatment.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Katherine P; Ansell, Jack E

    2015-01-01

    Three factor Xa inhibitors have been studied in the treatment of venous thromboembolism, both for acute therapy and as extended therapy to prevent recurrent events. Rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban have all proven to be effective in Phase III clinical trials for this indication when compared to current standard of therapy with similar or less bleeding. Nevertheless, the agents all offer different pharmacological profiles, which have an impact on patient selection and potential advantages in clinical practice. PMID:25673997

  8. A history of pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kenneth E

    2009-01-01

    Although enormous progress has been made in understanding the physiology of pulmonary embolism, developing new diagnostic modalities and strategies, and constant refinement in the use of heparin therapy and thrombolytic therapy, venous thromboembolism remains a common and lethal process. As the history of this disease illustrates, advances continue to be made and it is anticipated that with newer diagnostic studies and anticoagulants under development, diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism will continue to improve. PMID:19268798

  9. The role of factor Xa inhibitors in venous thromboembolism treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Katherine P; Ansell, Jack E

    2015-01-01

    Three factor Xa inhibitors have been studied in the treatment of venous thromboembolism, both for acute therapy and as extended therapy to prevent recurrent events. Rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban have all proven to be effective in Phase III clinical trials for this indication when compared to current standard of therapy with similar or less bleeding. Nevertheless, the agents all offer different pharmacological profiles, which have an impact on patient selection and potential advantages in clinical practice. PMID:25673997

  10. Spontaeneous subacute portomesenteric venous thrombosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaque, Muhammed; Cahill, Ronan A; Sheehan, John J; Stephens, Richard B

    2008-01-01

    Although uncommon and often asymptomatic, portal venous thrombosis can have catastrophic consequences for the individual it afflicts, particularly when the process propagates to involve the superior mesenteric vein. Familiarity with the condition's pathogenesis and presentation however permits early diagnosis and allows aggressive conservative management to achieve a successful outcome. Here we describe the successful outcome of such management for a 42-year-old male patient who developed this condition spontaneously. PMID:18752668

  11. Selective Venous Catheterization for the Localization of Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andreopoulou, Panagiota; Dumitrescu, Claudia E; Kelly, Marilyn H; Brillante, Beth A; Cutler Peck, Carolee M; Wodajo, Felasfa M; Chang, Richard; Collins, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is characterized by renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia, and aberrant vitamin D3 metabolism and is caused by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23)–producing mesenchymal tumors, which are often difficult to locate. We investigated the utility of selective venous sampling in tumor localization. The primary endpoint was identification of the FGF-23 concentration ratio between the venous drainage of the tumor bed and the general circulation that was diagnostic of the location of an FGF-23-secreting tumor. Fourteen subjects underwent 15 sampling procedures after functional and anatomic imaging studies. Subjects fit into three imaging categories: no suspicious site, multiple sites, and single site (positive controls). FGF-23 levels were measured by ELISA. Suspicious tumors were resected for diagnosis, confirmation, and cure. In subjects with a positive venous sampling study and subsequent cure, a minimum ratio of 1.6 was diagnostic. In 7 of 14 subjects there was suggestive imaging, a diagnostic ratio, and an associated TIO tumor (true positive). Four of these required complicated resection procedures. In 4 of 14 subjects with no suspicious site on imaging studies, an FGF-23 diagnostic ratio was not detected (true negative). Biopsy or resection of a single lesion in 2 of 14 subjects with a diagnostic ratio failed to identify a TIO tumor (false positive). A diagnostic FGF-23 ratio was absent in 1 of 14 subjects whose tumor was a single highly suspicious lesion on imaging studies (false negative). These data yield a sensitivity of 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47–0.99] and a specificity of 0.71 (95% CI 0.29–0.96). Selective venous sampling for FGF-23 was particularly useful in subjects with multiple suspicious sites or an anatomically challenging planned resection but not in the absence of a suspicious lesion on imaging studies. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:21611969

  12. Healing process of venous ulcers: the role of microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Ambrózy, Ewald; Waczulíková, Iveta; Willfort, Andrea; Böhler, Kornelia; Cauza, Karla; Ehringer, Herbert; Heinz, Gottfried; Koppensteiner, Renate; Mari?, Snezana; Gschwandtner, Michael E

    2013-02-01

    In order to describe adequately the process of healing in the intermediate degrees, we investigated microcirculatory changes in the venous ulcers at well-defined stages of wound repair. We investigated dynamic changes in microcirculation during the healing process of venous ulcers. Ten venous ulcers were investigated in three consecutive clinical stages of wound healing: non granulation tissue (NGTA), GTA and scar. Subpapillary microcirculation was measured by laser Doppler perfusion (LDP) imaging and expressed using LDP values in arbitrary units. Nutritive perfusion by capillary microscopy and expressed as capillary density (CD) - the number of capillaries per square millimetre. Before the development of GTA the LDP was low (median 1·35; lower-upper quartiles 0·71-1·83) accompanied with zero CD in all but one patient who had a density of 1. With the first appearance of GTA in the same area, the LDP was improved (2·22; 1·12-2·33; P = 0·0024) when compared with NGTA, in combination with a significant increase in CD (1·75; 0-3; P = 0·0054). In scar, the LDP was similar to that in the NGTA (1·03; 0·77-1·83; P = 0·278), combined with the highest CD (5·75; 4·5-8) in comparison with the previous stages of the area (for both pairs, P < 0·0001). Venous ulcers are caused by poor nutritive and subpapillary perfusion. Subpapillary perfusion plays a major role in the formation of GTA. In a scar, the increased nutritive perfusion is sufficient to cover the blood supply and keep skin viable while subpapillary perfusion is low. PMID:22313523

  13. Superficial venous insufficiency from the infernal to the endothermal.

    PubMed

    Carradice, D

    2014-01-01

    This review presents the common diseases associated with superficial venous insufficiency of the leg. These include varicose veins, swelling, skin damage and ulceration. The benefits and rationale behind treatment are discussed, followed by the historical advances from ancient mortality and prayer to the modern endovenous revolution. Finally, an overview of modern treatment options will discuss the evidence supporting the gold standard of endothermal ablation and the cost effectiveness of treatment at this time of challenging resource limitation. PMID:24417822

  14. Argon laser vascular fusion: venous and arterial bursting pressures.

    PubMed

    Vlasak, J W; Kopchok, G E; Fujitani, R M; White, R A

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the optimal laser power (watts) for maximal strength of argon laser vascular fusions by measuring bursting pressures of repairs. Longitudinal incisions (n = 105) measuring either 2.5 or 5 mm in length were performed in canine femoral, carotid, and jugular veins and arteries and were fused with the argon laser at 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, or 0.9 W power. Total exposure time for each repair (50 to 80 sec/0.5 cm) was adjusted to yield identical energy fluences of 1,100 J/cm2. Bursting pressure of the fusions was determined by monitored infusion of anticoagulated blood into an isolated segment of the vessel that contained the fusion. Mean bursting pressures for venous and arterial repairs were significantly higher in the 2.5 mm incisions compared with the 5 mm incisions (P less than 0.05). Venous and arterial repairs of equal length performed at each power resulted in equivalent bursting strengths, except that 5 mm venous segments fused with 0.9 W withstood lower pressures than all other venous repairs (P less than 0.05), and 5 mm arterial segments were in turn significantly weaker at 0.3 W (P less than 0.02). We conclude that argon laser fusion is equally suitable for repair of medium-sized veins and arteries and that immediate strength decreases with increasing length of repair. To maximize strength of longer repairs, venotomies should be welded at power settings between 0.3 and 0.7 W while arteriotomies should be fused at power settings between 0.5 and 0.9 W. The differences in optimal power may be explained by variable wall composition and thickness between veins and arteries. PMID:2811570

  15. Spontaneous Hemo-pneumothorax as a Result of Venous Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Jayapadman; Sharma, Ashok K.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous hemopneumothorax is a rare clinical entity that can be life-threatening, with a significant increase in mortality if not recognized and treated in time. We report the case of a young man who presented to us with nontraumatic spontaneous hemopneumothorax. Histologic examination of lung tissue showed the most likely cause of the bleeding to be venous hemangioma, which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported before. PMID:16572882

  16. Embryologicalic collateral venous channel on radionuclide liver/spleen study

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Johnson, D.G.

    1983-07-01

    Obstruction of normal venous portal blood flow generally results in collateral circulation. The obstruction may be intrinsic t the vasculature (e.g., hepatic vein thrombosis, vascular anomalies) or it may be extravascular (e.g., cirrhosis, hepatic masses) and may effect blood flow by deforming and compressing the intrahepatic or splenoportal axis vessels. A technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver/spleen study demonstrates what is thought to be a functional paraumbilical or umbilical vein in a cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension.

  17. Vacuum-assisted Venous Drainage and Gaseous Microemboli in Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shigang; Ündar, Akif

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: When conventional gravity siphon venous drainage cannot achieve satisfactory venous drainage during minimally invasive cardiac and neonatal surgeries, assisted venous drainage techniques are needed to ensure adequate flow. One assisted venous drainage technique, vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD), the aid of a vacuum in the venous reservoir, is now widely used to augment venous drainage during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures. VAVD permits the use of smaller venous cannulae, shorter circuit tubing, and lower priming and blood transfusion volumes, but increases risk of arterial gaseous microemboli and blood trauma. The vacuum should be set as low as possible to facilitate full venous return, and realtime monitoring of gaseous microemboli in the arterial and venous line should be used to achieve the safest conditions. With current ultrasound technology, it is possible to simultaneously detect and classify gaseous microemboli in the CPB circuit. In this article, we summarize the components, setup, operation, advantages, and disadvantages of VAVD techniques and clinical applications and describe the basic principles of microemboli detectors, such as the Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier (Luna Innovations, Roanoke, VA) and Bubble Counter Clinical 200 (GAMPT, Zappendorf, Germany). These novel gaseous microemboli detection devices could help perfusionists locate the sources of entrained air, eliminate hidden troubles, and minimize the postoperative neurologic impairments attributed to gaseous microemboli in clinical practice. PMID:19192754

  18. Assessment of anomalous systemic and pulmonary venous connections by transoesophageal echocardiography in infants and children.

    PubMed Central

    Stümper, O; Vargas-Barron, J; Rijlaarsdam, M; Romero, A; Roelandt, J R; Hess, J; Sutherland, G R

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the value of transoesophageal echocardiography in the preoperative definition of systemic and pulmonary venous connections. DESIGN--Transoesophageal echocardiographic studies were performed prospectively under general anaesthesia in 76 consecutive unoperated children. Results were compared with those obtained by earlier transthoracic ultrasound studies (n = 76), cardiac catheterisation (n = 62), and subsequent surgical inspection (n = 58). SETTING--Two tertiary referral centres. PATIENTS--76 unoperated infants and children (age 0.2-14.8 years, mean age 4.1 years) with congenital heart disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Identification of anomalous systemic and pulmonary venous connections. RESULTS--Transoesophageal studies showed anomalous venous connections in 14 patients. Two had both anomalous systemic and pulmonary venous connections. Transoesophageal studies showed 12 anomalous systemic venous connections in nine patients. In eight patients these were confirmed at operation or catheterisation: one patient is awaiting operation. Six anomalous systemic venous connections were missed during earlier transthoracic studies. Anomalous pulmonary venous connections (one mixed total, six partial) were shown in seven patients. These were confirmed at operation in six and by cardiac catheterisation in one. Four of these patients were missed during earlier transthoracic ultrasound studies. No patient defined as having normal venous connections by the transoesophageal study was subsequently shown to have anomalous venous connections at operation or angiography. CONCLUSIONS--Transoesophageal echocardiography is a highly sensitive tool for the preoperative definition of systemic and pulmonary venous connections. In this series it was better than transthoracic ultrasound and complemented cardiac catheterisation and angiocardiography. Images PMID:1772706

  19. Influence of ligation of the internal iliac veins on the venous plexuses around the sacrum.

    PubMed

    Hata, M; Kawahara, N; Tomita, K

    1998-01-01

    Excessive bleeding is a significant problem during total sacrectomy. Ligation of the internal iliac veins to control bleeding from the pelvic venous plexus has been reported to be mandatory. However, despite ligation of the internal iliac veins, excessive hemorrhage from the pelvic and epidural venous plexuses is often encountered. We postulated that ligation of the internal iliac veins increases blood loss during total sacrectomy and we investigated the influence of ligation of the internal iliac veins on the pelvic and epidural venous plexuses in white rabbits. We also investigated the influence of the animal's operative position on the epidural venous pressure. Venography was performed to study the differences in blood flow patterns before and after ligation of the internal iliac veins. Without ligation, contrast medium passed into the inferior vena cava, but not into the epidural venous plexus. The epidural venous plexus was contrast-filled when the internal iliac veins were ligated. The pressure in the internal iliac veins was increased with their ligation, and decreased with ligation of the abdominal aorta. The pressure was also decreased with intentional bleeding from the epidural venous plexus, and with changing the animal's position to headdown. Ligation of the internal iliac veins leads to congestion of the pelvic venous and epidural venous plexuses. Ligation of the internal iliac arteries and positioning the animal headdown were effective ways to resolve the congestion in these venous plexuses. PMID:9732561

  20. Potential involvement of the extracranial venous system in central nervous system disorders and aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of the extracranial venous system in the pathology of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and aging is largely unknown. It is acknowledged that the development of the venous system is subject to many variations and that these variations do not necessarily represent pathological findings. The idea has been changing with regards to the extracranial venous system. Discussion A range of extracranial venous abnormalities have recently been reported, which could be classified as structural/morphological, hemodynamic/functional and those determined only by the composite criteria and use of multimodal imaging. The presence of these abnormalities usually disrupts normal blood flow and is associated with the development of prominent collateral circulation. The etiology of these abnormalities may be related to embryologic developmental arrest, aging or other comorbidities. Several CNS disorders have been linked to the presence and severity of jugular venous reflux. Another composite criteria-based vascular condition named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was recently introduced. CCSVI is characterized by abnormalities of the main extracranial cerebrospinal venous outflow routes that may interfere with normal venous outflow. Summary Additional research is needed to better define the role of the extracranial venous system in relation to CNS disorders and aging. The use of endovascular treatment for the correction of these extracranial venous abnormalities should be discouraged, until potential benefit is demonstrated in properly-designed, blinded, randomized and controlled clinical trials. Please see related editorial: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/259. PMID:24344742