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Sample records for impending venous gangrene

  1. Endovascular Treatment of Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens with Impending Venous Gangrene: Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy as the First-Line Thrombus Removal Method

    SciTech Connect

    Oguzkurt, Levent Ozkan, Ugur; Demirturk, Orhan S.; Gur, Serkan

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Our purpose was to report the outcome of endovascular treatment with manual aspiration thrombectomy as the first-line thromboablative method for phlegmasia cerulea dolens. Methods: Between October 2006 and May 2010, seven consecutive patients (5 women, 2 men; age range, 31-80 years) with the diagnosis of phlegmasia cerulea dolens secondary to acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis had endovascular treatment with manual aspiration thrombectomy. Catheter-directed thrombolysis and stent placement were used as adjunctive procedures. Phlegmasia was left-sided in five and right-sided in two patients. Results: All patients had associated great saphenous vein thrombosis in addition to iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Aspiration thrombectomy completely removed the thrombus from the popliteal vein to the inferior vena cava (IVC) in all cases. Three patients with May-Thurner syndrome had stent placement in the left common iliac vein. Two patients had early recurrences. Repeated aspiration thrombectomy was unsuccessful in one patient. There were no complications related to the procedure. One patient who had been successfully treated died of sepsis and another patient who had unsuccessful repeated interventions had below-the-knee amputation. Overall, the clinical success and survival rates of patients in this study were 86%. On follow-up, three patients with successful treatment were asymptomatic with no deep venous insufficiency. One of these patients died during the 4-month follow-up period. Two patients had mild ankle swelling with deep venous insufficiency. Conclusions: Manual aspiration thrombectomy with adjunctive use of catheter-directed thrombolysis and stent placement is an effective endovascular treatment method with high clinical success and survival rates for phlegmasia cerulean dolens.

  2. Gangrene

    MedlinePLUS

    Gangrene is the death of tissues in your body. It happens when a part of your body loses its blood supply. Gangrene can happen on the surface of the body, ... that produce a foul-smelling discharge. If the gangrene is internal, you may run a fever and ...

  3. Gas gangrene

    MedlinePLUS

    Tissue infection - Clostridial; Gangrene - gas; Myonecrosis; Clostridial infection of tissues ... Gas gangrene is most often caused by a bacterium called Clostridium perfringens. It also can be caused by group ...

  4. Gas gangrene (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. It generally occurs at a wound or surgical site, causing painful swelling and destruction of ...

  5. Fournier's Gangrene: Current Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mallikarjuna, M. N.; Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Patil, Vijayraj S.; Shivswamy, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an acute, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal, infective necrotizing fasciitis affecting the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions, which commonly affects men, but can also occur in women and children. There has been an increase in number of cases in recent times. Despite advanced management mortality is still high and averages 20–30%. Early diagnosis using Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score and stratification of patients into high risk category using Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score help in early initiation of treatment. Triple antibiotic combined with radical debridement is the mainstay of treatment. There have been many advances in management of Fournier gangrene including use of vaccum assisted closure and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. With introduction of newer devices like Flexi-Seal, fecal diversion can be done, avoiding colostomy. Reconstruction of perineal defects using skin grafts, flaps, and urethral reconstruction using gracilis flaps can reduce the morbidity associated with FG and provide acceptable functional and aesthetic outcomes. PMID:23251819

  6. The Impending Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Raymond L.; Burgess, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician’s ability to diagnose the patient’s condition. What if testing was not available … because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons – not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ? 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well. PMID:23653714

  7. Gangrene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foot ulcers. In: Cronenwett JL, Johnston W, eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; ... General considerations. In: Cronenwett JL, Johnston W, eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; ...

  8. Pulmonary gangrene as a complication of mucormycosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zagoria, R.J.; Choplin, R.H.; Karstaedt, N.

    1985-06-01

    Pulmonary gangrene, a rare complication of pneumonia occurs when vascular thrombosis leads to necrosis of a large portion of lung. The devitalized lung is then sloughed into a cavity, resulting in a characteristic radiographic appearance. The previously reported cases of pulmonary gangrene have been associated with either bacterial or tuberculous pneumonia; the authors describe a case resulting from mucormycosis. In addition to the plain-film findings, the computed tomographic (CT) appearance is described.

  9. Data Mining to Characterize Signatures of Impending System Events

    E-print Network

    Data Mining to Characterize Signatures of Impending System Events or Performance from PMU the Future Electric Energy System #12;#12;Data Mining to Characterize Signatures of Impending System Events Mining to Characterize Signatures of Impending System Events or Performance from PMU Measurements

  10. Fournier's gangrene and its emergency management

    PubMed Central

    Thwaini, A; Khan, A; Malik, A; Cherian, J; Barua, J; Shergill, I; Mammen, K

    2006-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rare but life threatening disease. Although originally thought to be an idiopathic process, FG has been shown to have a predilection for patients with diabetes as well as long term alcohol misuse; however, it can also affect patients with non?obvious immune compromise. The nidus is usually located in the genitourinary tract, lower gastrointestinal tract, or skin. FG is a mixed infection caused by both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora. The development and progression of the gangrene is often fulminating and can rapidly cause multiple organ failure and death. Because of potential complications, it is important to diagnose the disease process as early as possible Although antibiotics and aggressive debridement have been broadly accepted as the standard treatment, the death rate remains high. PMID:16891442

  11. Kawasaki Disease and Peripheral Gangrene in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Iran; Ziaee, Vahid; Sadrosadat, Taravat; Moardinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Sayadpour-Zanjani, Keyhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Early diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki disease as the most common cause of acquired heart disease in childhood, may significantly improve the prognosis. Diagnosing infantile Kawasaki (younger than a year) is difficult because of obscure symptoms; at the same time they are at the higher risk of coronary abnormalities. Case Presentation: We report three infants with prolonged (more than 5 days) fever and peripheral gangrene without any other clinical manifestations of Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki was diagnosed due to dilation of coronary artery and other aortic branches, thrombocytosis, and rising of ESR and CRP. All patients were treated with high dose aspirin, IVIG and pulse therapy with methylprednisolone. Additionally, cytotoxic drugs or infliximab were used for two of them because of severe aneurysms in the aortic branches. All 3 patients received aspirin with anti-platelet aggregation dose and 2 patients heparin as an anti-coagulant agent for longtime. After adequate treatment, peripheral gangrene, arterial dilations and aneurysms improved, but during 12 months follow-up coronary aneurysms did not improve completely. Conclusions: Peripheral gangrene must be regarded as an important sign of infantile Kawasaki disease early treatment of which can prevent severe permanent coronary involvements and sequels. PMID:26635941

  12. Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636

  13. Isolated Penile Fournier's Gangrene Presenting with Glans Penis Involvement.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Aykan, Serdar; Tuken, Murat; Kandirali, Engin

    2015-10-01

    Fournier's Gangrene (FG) is a type of necrotizing infection or gangrene usually affecting the perineum. Penile gangrene is a rare disease because of rich collateral circulation and blood flow in the perineum and lower abdomen. We report an unusual and rare presentation of FG with isolated glans penis necrosis in a 62-year-old man. The patient underwent subtotal penectomy and closure of the wound with penile skin flap after covering the spongious tissue with dartos fascial flap enclosing the urethra. The recovery phase was uneventful and the patient had no urinating symptoms during follow-up. PMID:26522204

  14. Data Mining to Characterize Signatures of Impending System Events

    E-print Network

    Data Mining to Characterize Signatures of Impending System Events or Performance from PMU the Future Electric Energy System #12;#12;Data Mining to Characterize Signatures of Impending System Events Kolluri ­ Entergy. i #12;Executive Summary This project applies data mining techniques to characterize

  15. An outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commerical broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is an emerging disease with increasing economic importance. This experiment was undertaken to describe symptoms, patholgocial changes and diagnosis of GD and to study their immunopathology and cytokine expression alterations. In addition to description of symptoms, pathol...

  16. American Venous Forum

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Complete free venous disease assessment Promoting venous and lymphatic health through education and disease awareness. Addressing your ... disease questions and needs. Learn about venous and lymphatic diseases Get a free access to the Layman's ...

  17. Contemporary diagnosis and management of Fournier’s gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Khourdaji, Iyad; Burks, Frank; Killinger, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene, an obliterative endarteritis of the subcutaneous arteries resulting in gangrene of the overlying skin, is a rare but severe infective necrotizing fasciitis of the external genitalia. Mainly associated with men and those over the age of 50, Fournier’s gangrene has been shown to have a predilection for patients with diabetes as well as people who are long-term alcohol misusers. The nidus for the synergistic polymicrobial infection is usually located in the genitourinary tract, lower gastointestinal tract or skin. Early diagnosis remains imperative as rapid progression of the gangrene can lead to multiorgan failure and death. The diagnosis is often made clinically, although radiography can be helpful when the diagnosis or the extent of the disease is difficult to discern. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score can be used to stratify patients into low, moderate or high risk and the Fournier’s Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) can also be used to determine the severity and prognosis of Fournier’s gangrene. Mainstays of treatment include rapid and aggressive surgical debridement of necrotized tissue, hemodynamic support with urgent resuscitation with fluids, and broad-spectrum parental antibiotics. After initial radical debridement, open wounds are generally managed with sterile dressings and negative-pressure wound therapy. In cases of severe perineal involvement, colostomy has been used for fecal diversion or alternatively, the Flexi-Seal Fecal Management System can be utilized to prevent fecal contamination of the wound. After extensive debridement, many patients sustain significant defects of the skin and soft tissue, creating a need for reconstructive surgery for satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. PMID:26445600

  18. Clostridium septicum gas gangrene in the orbit: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fejes, I; Dégi, R; Végh, M

    2013-02-01

    Our report presents a case of Clostridium septicum gas gangrene in an unusual, orbital localization. The predisposing factors are typical: colon tumour and lymphatic malignancy. Most probably bacteria from the intestinal flora entered the bloodstream through the compromised intestinal wall and settled in the orbit resulting in the development of an abscess containing gas. At the site of the gas gangrene, an indolent B cell lymphoma was present. After surgery and antibiotic treatment, the patient healed from the C. septicum infection; but subsequently died as a consequence of the tumour. PMID:23203898

  19. Remote Triggering Not Evident Near Epicenters of Impending Great Earthquakes

    E-print Network

    Brodsky, Emily

    Remote Triggering Not Evident Near Epicenters of Impending Great Earthquakes by Nicholas J. van der-year seismological history. Each great earthquake presents an opportunity to study a major fault earthquake. This study also carefully addresses the possibility that large earthquakes interact in a cas

  20. Enterostomy can decrease the mortality of patients with Fournier gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Dong; Zhu, Wei-Fang; Qiao, Jian-Jun; Lin, Jian-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the significance of enterostomy in the emergency management of Fournier gangrene. METHODS: The clinical data of 51 patients (49 men and 2 women) with Fournier gangrene who were treated at our hospital over the past 12 years were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according the surgical technique performed: enterostomy combined with debridement (the enterostomy group, n = 28) or debridement alone (the control group, n = 23). Patients in the enterostomy group received thorough debridement during surgery and adequate local drainage after surgery, as well as administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The clinical data and outcomes in both groups were analyzed. RESULTS: The surgical procedures were successful in both patient groups. In the enterostomy group, 10 (35.8%) patients required skin grafting with a total of six debridement procedures. While in the control group, six (26.1%) patients required four debridement procedures. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Following surgery, the time to normal body temperature (6 d vs 8 d, P < 0.05) and average length of hospital stay (14.3 ± 7.8 d vs 20.1 ± 8.9 d, P < 0.05) were shorter in the enterostomy group. The case fatality rate was lower in the enterostomy group than that in the control group (3.6% vs 21.7%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Enterostomy can decrease the case fatality rate of patients with Fournier gangrene. PMID:24976731

  1. Gangrenous Appendicitis in a Boy with Mobile Caecum

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Zeynep; Gunduz, Metin; Sekmenli, Taner; Kivrak, Hatice Yazar

    2015-01-01

    A mobile caecum and ascending colon is an uncommon congenital disorder, and it is even rarer as the cause of an acute abdomen during childhood. This report presents the case of a 6-year-old boy with acute gangrenous appendicitis with a mobile caecum and ascending colon. Data from the surgical course, as well as laboratory and imaging studies, were acquired and carefully examined. Emergency ultrasound (US) was performed and revealed no signs of appendicitis in the right lower quadrant. Serial imaging study, including non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), was performed. An imaging study identified epigastric appendicitis with mobile caecum. Surgery was executed under general anesthesia with a median incision extending from the epigastrium to the suprapubic region. The caecum was mobile and placed in the right epigastric area, next to the left lobe of the liver and gallbladder. The gangrenous appendix was discovered posterior to the caecum and transverse colon, enlarging to the left upper quadrant. Appendectomy was executed, the gangrenous appendix was confirmed pathologically, and the patient was released 4 days later. In the US, if there are unusual clinical findings or no findings in patients with abdominal pain, CT is beneficial in determining the location of the caecum and appendix and preventing misdiagnosis in children. PMID:26060548

  2. Cerebral venous angiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.; Gilmor, R.L.; Richmond, B.

    1984-04-01

    Several unusual cases of cerebral venous angiomas as well as some characteristic cases are reported. The characteristic angiographic feature is that of a collection of dilated medullary veins draining into a single large draining vein, which appears first in the early venous phase and persists into the late venous phase of the arteriogram. Computed tomography (CT) was abnormal in 12/13 cases. The draining vein was the most common abnormality identified on CT. Coronal and sagittal reconstruction may be helpful in demonstrating the draining vein. A case of large twin venous angiomas, a case of hemorrhage from a venous angioma, and a case of a venous angioma with an incidentally associated glioblastoma are presented.

  3. The bacteriology of gangrenous and perforated appendicitis--revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Bennion, R S; Baron, E J; Thompson, J E; Downes, J; Summanen, P; Talan, D A; Finegold, S M

    1990-01-01

    By using optimum sampling, transport, and culture techniques in patients with gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, we recovered than has previously been reported. Thirty patients older than 12 years with histologically documented gangrenous or perforated appendicitis had peritoneal fluid, appendiceal tissue, and abscess contents (if present) cultured. Appendiceal tissue was obtained so as to exclude the lumen. A total of 223 anaerobes and 82 aerobic or faculatative bacteria were recovered, an average of 10.2 different organisms per specimen. Twenty-one different genera and more than 40 species were encountered. Bacteroides fragilis group and Escherichia coli were isolated from almost all specimens. Within the B. fragilis group, eight species were represented. Other frequent isolates included Peptostreptococcus (80%), Pseudomonas (40% [P. aeruginosa, 23.3%, other Pseudomonas spp., 16.7%]), B. splanchnicus (40%), B. intermedius (36.7%), and Lactobacillus (36.7%). Interestingly a previously undescribed fastidious gram-negative anaerobic bacillus was isolated from nearly one half of all patients. This organism was found to have low DNA homology (by dot blot) with the known organisms most closely resembling it. PMID:2405791

  4. Fournier's Gangrene: Conventional Dressings versus Dressings with Dakin's Solution

    PubMed Central

    Altunoluk, Bülent; Resim, Sefa; Efe, Erkan; Eren, Mustafa; Benlioglu, Can; Kankilic, Nazim; Baykan, Halit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Fournier's gangrene is a fulminant and destructive inflammation of the scrotum, penis, and perineum. The objective of this study was to compare 2 different approaches to wound management after aggressive surgical debridement. Methods. Data from 14 patients with Fournier's gangrene were retrospectively collected (2005–2011). Once the patients were stabilized following surgery, they were treated with either daily antiseptic (povidone iodine) dressings (group I, n = 6) or dressings with dakin's solution (sodium hypochloride) (group II, n = 8). Results. The mean age of the patients was 68.2 ± 7.8 (55–75) years in group I and 66.9 ± 10.2 (51–79) years in group II. Length of hospital stay was 13 ± 3.5 (7–16) days in group I and 8.9 ± 3.0 (4–12) days in group II (P < 0.05). The number and rate of mortality was 1/6 (16.7%) in group I, and 1/8 (12.5%) in group II. Conclusions. The hospitalization time can be reduced with the use of dakin's solution for the dressings in the treatment of FG. Also, dressings with dakin's solution seems to have favorable effects on morbidity and mortality. Consequently dakin's solution may alter the treatment of this disastrous disease by reducing cost, morbidity and mortality. PMID:22567424

  5. Phagedena: gangrenous and necrotic ulcerations of skin and subcutaneous tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R.; Bell, M.

    1982-01-01

    Phagedena is an old term for serious deep, necrotic and gangrenous skin ulcers. In the past these have been regarded as severe infections. A review of 31 cases revealed that except in cases of Streptococcus pyogenes or Clostridium welchii infection a bacterial of fungal infection was only one of several factors that led to the development of phagedenic ulcers. Initiating factors may be a bacterial infection, a debilitated state as a result of immunosuppressive therapy or of such conditions as alcoholism, severe diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease or severe arteriosclerosis, and various types of injury or trauma. Continuing factors include enzymatic mechanisms, the release of toxins from large areas of dead tissue and vascular disorders. In general, antibiotics are of limited value. systemic corticosteroid therapy may be useful in the subacute or chronic case. In acute, spreading, gangrenous phagedena with surrounding erythema, fever and systemic toxic effects, immediate excision of dead tissue may be lifesaving. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:7066792

  6. STUDIES ON BACILLUS WELCHII WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GAS GANGRENE.

    PubMed

    Simonds, J P

    1917-06-01

    1. Spores of the Bacillus welchii group of bacteria were found on 100 per cent of the uniforms of Belgian soldiers who had come directly from the trenches, and in the meshes of all the samples examined of the new cloth from which the uniforms were made. 2. In fifteen out of twenty fresh war wounds members of this group of bacteria were found. Of the fifteen patients, only three later developed gas gangrene. Once the spores of Bacillus welchii have been carried into a wound the deep-lying lacerated muscle tissue appears to be the most important factor in the onset of gas gangrene. 3. Bacillus welchii is able to grow and produce gas in broth containing up to 40 per cent saccharose. Some strains were able to multiply and produce gas in 50 per cent saccharose broth; but none of those examined were able to grow when the concentration of the sugar reached 60 per cent. 4. The bubbling of pure oxygen through milk or dextrose broth cultures of Bacillus welchii has a definite depressor action on the production of gas. This does not appear to be-due to a reduced number of organisms in the culture. PMID:19868125

  7. Percutaneous Stabilization of Impending Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    SciTech Connect

    Deschamps, Frederic Farouil, Geoffroy Hakime, Antoine Teriitehau, Christophe Barah, Ali Baere, Thierry de

    2012-12-15

    Objective: Percutaneous osteosynthesis plus cementoplasty (POPC) is a minimally invasive technique that has never been reported before and that we have prospectively evaluated for patients with impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur. Methods: We performed POPC in 12 patients (3 males, 9 females) with metastasis of the proximal femur with a high risk of fracture (Mirels' score {>=}8) between February 2010 and July 2011. Patients were not candidates for standard surgical stabilization. We analyzed the feasibility, duration, and complication of the procedure, the risk of fracture, the decrease in pain (Visual Analog Scale, VAS), and length of stay in hospital. Data were prospectively collected in all patients. Results: The mean Mirels' score was 9.8 {+-} 1.2 (range, 8-11). The technical success was 100%. POPC was performed under general anesthesia (n = 6) or conscious sedation (n = 6). The mean duration was 110 {+-} 43 (range, 60-180) minutes. All patients stood up and walked the second day after the procedure. The average length of stay in the hospital was 4 {+-} 1.6 (range, 2-7) days. We experienced two hematomas in two patients and no thromboembolic complication. For symptomatic patients (n = 8), VAS decreased from 6.5/10 (range, 2-9) before treatment to 1/10 (range, 0-3) 1 month after. No fracture occurred after a median follow-up of 145 (range, 12-608) days. Conclusions: POPC for impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur seems to be a promising alternative for cancer patients who are not candidates for surgical stabilization. Further studies are required to confirm this preliminary experience.

  8. Opioid analgesics stop the development of clostridial gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Anjana; Awad, Milena M; Hiscox, Thomas J; Cheung, Jackie K; Choo, Jocelyn M; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I

    2014-08-01

    Gas gangrene is a potentially fatal disease that is primarily caused by the ubiquitous, anaerobic bacteria Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum. Treatment is limited to antibiotic therapy, debridement of the infected tissue, and, in severe cases, amputation. The need for new treatment approaches is compelling. Opioid-based analgesics such as buprenorphine and morphine also have immunomodulatory properties, usually leading to faster disease progression. However, here we show that mice pretreated with buprenorphine and morphine do not die from clostridial myonecrosis. Treatment with buprenorphine after the onset of infection also arrested disease development. Protection against myonecrotic disease was specific to C. perfringens-mediated myonecrosis; buprenorphine did not protect against disease caused by C. septicum infection even though infections due to both species are very similar. These data provide the first evidence of a protective role for opioids during infection and suggest that new therapeutic strategies may be possible for the treatment of C. perfringens-mediated myonecrosis. PMID:24550443

  9. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene: A rare complication of plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Atul; Singh, DP; Kaur, Gurdeep; Verma, SK; Mahur, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Malaria, the most important of the parasitic diseases of humans, is transmitted in 108 countries containing 3 billion people and causes nearly 1 million deaths each year. With the re-emergence of malaria various life-threatening complications of malaria have been observed. Unarousable coma/cerebral malaria, severe normochromic, normocytic anemia, renal failure, pulmonary edema/adult respiratory distress syndrome, hypoglycemia, hypotension/shock, bleeding/disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hemoglobinuria and jaundice are few of the common complications of severe malaria. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) has been reported as a rare complication of malaria. We report a rare and unique case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria complicated by DIC, severe normocytic normochromic anemia, and SPG. PMID:26629458

  10. Mesenteric venous thrombosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Intestinal ischemia is a serious complication of mesenteric venous thrombosis. Some or all of the intestine dies because of ... Brandt LJ, Feuerstadt P. Instestinal ischemia. In: Feldman M, ... Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 9th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  11. Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aid of a hand-held instrument called a Doppler. This allows the examiner to listen to the blood flow. The most accurate and detailed test, however, is a venous duplex ultrasound exam. This provides an ultra - sound image or ...

  12. Antigenicity of venous allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Axthelm, S C; Porter, J M; Strickland, S; Baur, G M

    1979-01-01

    With isolated exceptions, the clinical use of venous allografts has been disappointing. Considerable evidence indicates that allograft antigenicity plays a major role in the failure of venous allografts when used as arterial replacements. Recent reports suggest that DMSO-cryopreservation of venous allografts may reduce allograft antigenicity while preserving allograft viability. The present study examines the effect of modifications of vein allografts on subsequent allograft antigenicity. Skin grafts were transplanted from ACI to Lewis inbred strains of male rats. Primary skin graft rejection occurred in 9.0 +/- 1.0 days. Subcutaneous implantation of fresh inferior vena cava from ACI rate into Lewis rats resulted in subsequent skin graft rejection in 5.0 +/- 1.0 days, confirming the antigenicity of venous tissue. Cryopreservation of ACI inferior vena cava for seven days prior to implantation, with or without 15% DMSO, resulted in subsequent skin graft rejection in 5.0 +/- 1.0 days. Treatment of ACI inferior vena cava with 0.30% gluteraldehyde for 20 minutes prior to implantation in Lewis rats resulted in skin graft rejection in 9.0 +/- 1.0 days, the same time as a first set rejection. This study indicates that unmodified veins are normally antigenic and that this antigenicity is not eliminated by cryopreservation with or without DMSO. Gluteraldehyde treatment appears to reduce allograft antigenicity, but results in a nonviable graft. At the present time, there is no known way to reduce the antigenicity of viable venous allografts. PMID:106782

  13. Venous dynamics in leg lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Kim, D I; Huh, S; Hwang, J H; Kim, Y I; Lee, B B

    1999-03-01

    To determine whether there is anatomical and/or functional impairment to venous return in patients with lymphedema, we examined venous dynamics in 41 patients with unilateral leg lymphedema. A Volometer was used for computer analysis of leg volume, a color Duplex Doppler scanner was used to determine deep vein patency and skin thickness, and Air-plethysmography was used to assess ambulatory venous pressure, venous volume, venous filling index and the ejection fraction. In the lymphedematous leg, volume and skin thickness were uniformly increased (126.4 +/- 21.3% and 156.9 +/- 44.5%) (mean +/- S.D.), respectively. The ambulatory venous pressure was also increased (134 +/- 60.7%) as was the venous volume (124.5 +/- 37.5%), and the venous filling index (134.5 +/- 50.5%). The ejection fraction was decreased (94.9 +/- 26.1%). Greater leg volume correlated with increased venous volume and venous filling index (values = 0.327, 0.241, respectively) and decreased ejection fraction (r = -0.133). Increased subcutaneous thickness correlated with increased venous filling index and venous volume (r = 0.307, 0.126, respectively) and decreased ejection fraction (r = -0.202). These findings suggest that soft tissue edema from lymphatic stasis gradually impedes venous return which in turn aggravates the underlying lymphedema. PMID:10197322

  14. Pathophysiology of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Myers, D D

    2015-03-01

    In this chapter, an overview of some of the prominent risk factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of venous thrombosis will be discussed. In 1856, Dr Rudolf Virchow developed the concept outlining the genesis of intravascular thrombosis. Dr Virchow hypothesized that circulatory stasis due to interrupted blood flow, changes in the blood leading to blood coagulation, and irritation or damage to the vascular endothelium would initiate acute venous thrombus generation. Presently, it is known that these above-mentioned risk factors are influenced by increasing age, gender, and obesity. The current chapter will focus on recent preclinical and clinical investigations that will give the reader insight into the prothrombotic mechanisms that lead to acute venous thrombosis. PMID:25729062

  15. Fournier's Gangrene: A Summary of 10 Years of Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Abdullah; Gümü?, Metehan; Turkoglu, Ahmet; Bozda?, Zübeyir; Ülger, Burak Veli; Agaçayak, Elif; Böyük, Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to present our clinical experience with FG treatment. Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rare but serious disease characterized by progressive necrosis in the genitourinary and perineal region. The retrospective study included 43 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups as survivors and nonsurvivors. Included in the analysis were data pertaining to demographics, predisposing factors, comorbidities, results of bacteriologic analyses, number of debridements, duration of treatment, FG Severity Index (FGSI) score, fecal diversion methods (trephine ostomy or Flexi-Seal Fecal Management System-FMS), and dressing methods (wet or negative aspiration system). In the nonsurvivor group, urea, WBC, and age were significantly higher, whereas albumin, hematocrit, platelet count, and length of hospital stay (LOHS) were significantly lower compared to the survivor group. Mean FGSI was lower in survivors in comparison with nonsurvivors (5.00 ± 1.86 and 10.00 ± 1.27, respectively; P < 0.001). We conclude that FGSI is an important predictor in the prognosis of FG. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) should be performed in compliant patients in order to enhance patient comfort by reducing pain and the number of dressings. Fecal diversion should be performed as needed, preferably by using FMS. The trephine ostomy should be the method of choice in cases where an ostomy is necessary. PMID:25859652

  16. Fournier gangrene presenting in a patient with undiagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Fournier gangrene is a rare necrotising fascitis of the perineum and genitals caused by a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The first case was described by Baurienne in 1764 but the condition was named by Fournier in 1883 who reported the cases of five men with the condition with no apparent etiology. Infection most commonly arises from the skin, urethra, or rectal regions. Despite appropriate therapy, mortality in this disease is still high. We report a case of a low rectal malignancy presenting as Fournier gangrene. This case report serves to highlight an extremely unusual presentation of rectal cancer, a common surgical pathology. Case presentation The patient is a 48 years old Afghanian male that admitted with Fournier gangrene. In the course of medical and surgical treatment the presence of extensive rectal adenocarcinoma was discovered. After partial recovery, standard loop colostomy was inserted. Skin grafting of necrotic areas was performed and systemic rectal cancer chemotherapy initiated after full stabilization. Conclusion Fournier gangrene is an uncommon but life threatening condition with high associated mortality and morbidity. Usually there is an underlying cause for the development of Fournier gangrene, that if addressed correctly, can lead to a good outcome. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the morbidity and mortality of this life threatening condition. Good management is based on aggressive debridement, broad spectrum antibiotics and intensive supportive care. PMID:20062653

  17. Peripheral gangrene: A rare presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus in a child

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Vahid; Yeganeh, Mehrnoush Hassas; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 12 Final Diagnosis: Antiphospholipid positive SLE Symptoms: Gangrene • Raynaud’s phenomenon • autoamputation of the terminal phalanx of the second left hand finger Medication: Prednisolone • mycophenolate mofetil • captopril Clinical Procedure: Renal Biopsy • treatment of lupus nephritis • control of hypertension Specialty: Pediatric rheumatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: SLE in children has many manifestations. In several studies on SLE in children, gangrene and Raynaud phenomenon have been described as a rare manifestation of SLE during its course in children. Case Report: We present the case of a 12-year-old girl referred to our center, presenting with peripheral gangrene plus Raynaud’s phenomenon, who proved to have SLE. Our patient was treated with steroids and mycophenolate mofetil. She appeared to respond to this combination judging by the disappearance of the digital cyanosis, appearance of extremity pulses, and return of renal function. Conclusions: This case highlights the importance of precise management and awareness of very rare manifestations of a common disease like SLE. Gangrene can be initial symptom of SLE in children. We recommend SLE evolution in all children with gangrene symptom. PMID:24009812

  18. Reconstruction of Defects After Fournier Gangrene: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Karian, Laurel S.; Lee, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of scrotal defects after Fournier gangrene is often achieved with skin grafts or flaps, but there is no general consensus on the best method of reconstruction or how to approach the exposed testicle. We systematically reviewed the literature addressing methods of reconstruction of Fournier defects after debridement. Methods: PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched from 1950 to 2013. Inclusion criteria were reconstruction for Fournier defects, patients 18 to 90 years old, and reconstructive complication rates reported as whole numbers or percentages. Exclusion criteria were studies focused on methods of debridement or other phases of care rather than reconstruction, studies with fewer than 5 male patients with Fournier defects, literature reviews, and articles not in English. Results: The initial search yielded 982 studies, which was refined to 16 studies with a total pool of 425 patients. There were 25 (5.9%) patients with defects that healed by secondary intention, 44 (10.4%) with delayed primary closure, 36 (8.5%) with implantation of the testicle in a medial thigh pocket, 6 (1.4%) with loose wound approximation, 96 (22.6%) with skin grafts, 68 (16.0%) with scrotal advancement flaps, 128 (30.1%) with flaps, and 22 (5.2%) with flaps or skin grafts in combination with tissue adhesives. Four outcomes were evaluated: number of patients, defect size, method of reconstruction, and wound-healing complications. Conclusions: Most reconstructive techniques provide reliable coverage and protection of testicular function with an acceptable cosmetic result. There is no conclusive evidence to support flap coverage of exposed testes rather than skin graft. A reconstructive algorithm is proposed. Skin grafting or flap reconstruction is recommended for defects larger than 50% of the scrotum or extending beyond the scrotum, whereas scrotal advancement flap reconstruction or healing by secondary intention is best for defects confined to less than 50% of the scrotum that cannot be closed primarily without tension. PMID:26171090

  19. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Heit, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and—in women—pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing. PMID:26076949

  20. Clostridium septicum gas gangrene in a previously healthy 8-year-old female with survival.

    PubMed

    Pinzon-Guzman, Carolina; Bashir, Dalia; McSherry, George; Beck, Michael J; Rocourt, Dorothy V

    2013-04-01

    We present the only reported case of an immunocompetent pediatric patient in the literature to have fulminate gas gangrene of the lower extremity and concomitant gastrointestinal tract infection due to Clostridium septicum coinfected with Clostridium difficile colitis respectively. The patient survived with aggressive medical and surgical treatment. PMID:23583163

  1. A rare case of symmetrical four limb gangrene following emergency neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Pho NH; Acharya, Vikas; Parikh, Dhruv; Shad, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The authors report a case of symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) following emergency neurosurgery. Presentation of case A 35-year-old female presented to hospital in Thailand with nausea, headache, and subsequent seizures. She was found to have a large intracranial space-occupying lesion with mass effect. Following emergency surgical debulking and decompression, she suffered from severe sepsis with multiple organ failure, treated with high dose intravenous vasopressors and developed secondary gangrene in all four limbs. She was repatriated to the UK with a baseline GCS of 8 and multiple postoperative medical complications. With initial conservative management, the patient made a prolonged but satisfactory progression to recovery prior to semi-elective debridement and selected digit amputation of the gangrene. Discussion This is the first reported case of four limb symmetrical peripheral gangrene following an emergency craniotomy. Conclusion Although rare, SPG is a substantial complication with high mortality and morbidity and therefore should be especially taken into account for emergency intracranial pathologies in neurosurgical patients, particularly if they require emergency surgery. PMID:26406313

  2. Diagnosis of gas gangrene: does a discrepancy exist between the published data and practice.

    PubMed

    Brucato, Maryellen P; Patel, Krupa; Mgbako, Obinna

    2014-01-01

    The Infectious Disease Society of America has defined gas gangrene as an infection caused by Clostridium species. However, in many clinical settings, soft tissue infections that produce subcutaneous gas have been diagnosed as gas gangrene without identification of the presence of Clostridium species. Instead, the diagnosis was based on clinical and radiographic findings. A chart review was performed of 25 consecutive patients treated at the Atlantic Health System for infections of the lower extremity that were diagnosed as gas gangrene. Wound cultures from the 25 patients grew 31 different species of bacteria. The most prevalent organism was Staphylococcus aureus, which accounted for 17 of 31 (54.84%) different organisms identified and 19.77% of 86 separate aerobic or anaerobic cultures. The most prevalent genus was Streptococcus, which accounted for 20 (64.52%) of the organisms identified and 23.26% of the cultures. The most prevalent anaerobic genus was Peptostreptococcus, which accounted for 8 (25.81%) of the organisms identified and 9.3% of the cultures. None of the cultures grew Clostridium species. These findings showed that gas-forming soft tissue infections of the lower extremity, commonly diagnosed as gas gangrene, are rarely caused by Clostridium species. PMID:24345706

  3. GENOME-WIDE DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN BROILER CHICKENS WITH GANGRENOUS DERMATITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is a disease of poultry associated with the infection of Clostridium septicum (CS) and/or C. perfringens (CP) type A. While GD causes significant morbidity, mortality, and economic loss to the poultry industry, the fundamental mechanisms underlying this host-pathogen inte...

  4. Immunopathology and Cytokine Responses in Commercial Broiler Chickens with Gangrenous Dermatitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gangrene dermatitis (GD) is an emerging disease of increasing economic importance in poultry that results from infection by Clostridium septicum and C. perfringens (CP) type A. Lack of a reproducible disease model has been a major obstacle in understanding the immunopathology of GD. To gain better u...

  5. Sepsis with an Atopobium-Like Species in a Patient with Fournier's Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Oyaert, Matthijs; Cools, Piet; Breyne, Joke; Heyvaert, Gert; Vandewiele, Anne; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vervaeke, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Atopobium species are Gram-positive, anaerobic, catalase-negative, fastidious bacteria belonging to the family Coriobacteriaceae. We report the isolation of an Atopobium-like species in a patient with Fournier's gangrene and highlight the role of 16S rRNA gene sequencing in the identification of fastidious organisms in the clinical laboratory. PMID:24153131

  6. GANGRENE: Exploring the Mortality of Flash Memory Robert Templeman1,2 and Apu Kapadia1

    E-print Network

    Kapadia, Apu

    GANGRENE: Exploring the Mortality of Flash Memory Robert Templeman1,2 and Apu Kapadia1 1Indiana University Bloomington 2Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division Abstract Flash memory is used for non-volatile storage in a vast array of devices that touch users at work, at home, and at play. Flash memory offers

  7. Clostridial abdominal gas gangrene masquerading as a bowel perforation in an advanced-stage ovarian cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Abaid, L N; Thomas, R H; Epstein, H D; Goldstein, B H

    2013-08-01

    The coexistence of clostridial gas gangrene and a gynecologic malignancy is extremely rare, with very few cases involving ovarian cancer. A patient originally presented to our gynecologic oncology service with stage IV ovarian cancer; she underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. On postoperative day 6, the patient developed severe abdominal pain, nausea, and emesis, suggestive of a bowel perforation. Further evaluation confirmed that her symptoms were attributed to Clostridium perfringens-related gas gangrene. Despite immediate surgical intervention, the patient succumbed to her disease. Clostridial gas gangrene is associated with an extremely high mortality rate. Therefore, accurate detection and prompt management are indispensable to ensuring a favorable patient outcome. PMID:23494868

  8. The Impending Leadership Crisis in Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Libraries: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, Tasha Lucas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to disclose the claims of an impending shortage of librarians in academic libraries as it relates to Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The target population of this study was HBCU libraries that had a full-time equivalent enrollment of 3,000 students or more and that were accredited by the Southern…

  9. A Study of Community College Leadership Practices in Response to the Impending Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The literature attests to a leadership crisis that is predicted to impact leadership pipelines in just about every industry imaginable, including community colleges. This impending crisis is thought to be a result of baby boomer retirements plus the lack of next generation workers equipped with the skills to replace them. Community colleges are…

  10. Fatal spontaneous Clostridium septicum gas gangrene: a possible association with iatrogenic gastric acid suppression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiru E; Baras, Alexander; Cornish, Toby; Riedel, Stefan; Burton, Elizabeth C

    2014-06-01

    The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors has been linked to an increased risk for the development of gastric polyps, hip fractures, pneumonia, and Clostridium difficile colitis. There is evidence that chronic acid suppression from long-term use of proton pump inhibitors poses some risk for the development of C difficile-associated diarrhea by decreasing the elimination of pathogenic microbes before reaching the lower gastrointestinal tract. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old woman with a recent history of abdominal pain and fever who presented to the emergency department with rapidly progressive spontaneous necrotizing fasciitis and gas gangrene and died within hours of presentation. Postmortem examination confirmed spreading tissue gas gangrene and myonecrosis. In addition, multiple intestinal ulcers containing Clostridium septicum were present at autopsy. This case illustrates a possible association between proton pump inhibitor therapy and fatal C septicum infection. PMID:24878026

  11. Fournier’s gangrene caused by Listeria monocytogenes as the primary organism

    PubMed Central

    Asahata, Sayaka; Hirai, Yuji; Ainoda, Yusuke; Fujita, Takahiro; Okada, Yumiko; Kikuchi, Ken

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with a history of tongue cancer presented with Fournier’s gangrene caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b. Surgical debridement revealed undiagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have an apparent dietary or travel history but reported daily consumption of sashimi (raw fish). Old age and immunodeficiency due to rectal adenocarcinoma may have supported the direct invasion of L monocytogenes from the tumour. The present article describes the first reported case of Fournier’s gangrene caused by L monocytogenes. The authors suggest that raw ready-to-eat seafood consumption be recognized as a risk factor for listeriosis, especially in cases of skin and soft tissue infection. PMID:25798155

  12. Unusual foreign body in the sigmoid colon, chronic alcohol abuse, and Fournier gangrene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Dietmar; Mohor, Georgiana Simona; Solovan, Caius

    2015-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is an infectious condition with fulminant evolution and is sometimes life-threatening. Here, we present the case of an immunocompromised 59-year-old male with surgical history of a pancreatic pseudocyst stented endoscopically. After unrecognized stent migration in the sigmoid without colonic perforation, he developed severe necrosis of the scrotum and perineum, which spontaneously perforated, presenting a smell suggesting moist gangrene. FG that has spread to the male genital organs presents therapeutic challenges. The purpose of our study is to present this case, typical for FG, with an educational aim both for the internal and surgical specialties, and the goal of further multidisciplinary collaboration for the optimal management of the patient with personalized treatment. PMID:25878494

  13. Unusual foreign body in the sigmoid colon, chronic alcohol abuse, and Fournier gangrene: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Dietmar; Mohor, Georgiana Simona; Solovan, Caius

    2015-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is an infectious condition with fulminant evolution and is sometimes life-threatening. Here, we present the case of an immunocompromised 59-year-old male with surgical history of a pancreatic pseudocyst stented endoscopically. After unrecognized stent migration in the sigmoid without colonic perforation, he developed severe necrosis of the scrotum and perineum, which spontaneously perforated, presenting a smell suggesting moist gangrene. FG that has spread to the male genital organs presents therapeutic challenges. The purpose of our study is to present this case, typical for FG, with an educational aim both for the internal and surgical specialties, and the goal of further multidisciplinary collaboration for the optimal management of the patient with personalized treatment. PMID:25878494

  14. Analysis of prognostic factors affecting mortality in Fournier’s gangrene: A study of 72 cases

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Essarghini, Mohamed; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Belhamidi, Mohamed Said; Bensal, Abdelhak; Zemmouri, Adil; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Sair, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fournier’s gangrene is a rapidly progressing necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital area associated with a high mortality rate. We presented our experience in managing this entity and identified prognostic factors affecting mortality. Methods: We carried out a retrospective study of 72 patients treated for Fournier’s gangrene at our institution between January 2005 and December 2014. Patients were divided into survivors and non-survivors and potential prognostic factors were analyzed. Results: Of the 72 patients, 64 were males (89%) and 8 females (11%), with a mean age of 51 years. The most common predisposing factor was diabetes mellitus (38%). The mortality rate was 17% (12 patients died). Statistically significant differences were not found in age, gender, and predisposing factors, except in heart disease (p = 0.038). Individual laboratory parameters significantly correlating with mortality included hemoglobin (p = 0.023), hematocrit (p = 0.019), serum urea (p = 0.009), creatinine (p = 0.042), and potassium (p = 0.026). Severe sepsis on admission and the extent of affected surface area also predicted higher mortality. Others factors, such as duration of symptoms before admission, number of surgical debridement, diverting colostomy and length of hospital stay, did not show significant differences. The median Fournier’s Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) was significantly higher in non-survivors (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Fournier’s gangrene is a severe surgical emergency requiring early diagnosis and aggressive therapy. Identification of prognostic factors is essential to establish an optimal treatment and to improve outcome. The FGSI is a simple and valid method for predicting disease severity and patient survival. PMID:26600888

  15. Incarcerated inguinal hernia in the presence of Fournier's gangrene: a novel approach to a complex problem.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, James L; Bochicchio, Grant V; Henry, Sharon; Keller, Elena; Scalea, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an aggressive, polymicrobial soft tissue infection that specifically affects the genital and perineal region. Treatment requires early recognition, broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, and radical surgical debridement of all infected tissues. Optimal therapy may necessitate multiple debridements that leave the patient with large tissue defects that require skin grafting for scrotal and perineal reconstruction. The presence of other surgical emergencies, such as an incarcerated inguinal hernia, in the face of Fournier's gangrene presents a rare and challenging dilemma to the general surgeon. With the widespread acceptance of tension-free repair utilizing prosthetic mesh in uncomplicated hernia surgery, outcomes have been improved. However, surgical options for hernia repair may become limited in the face of a regional necrotizing soft tissue infection, for which mesh use in an open repair after debridement of infected tissues is generally contraindicated. In this report, the authors describe three consecutive cases of incarcerated inguinal hernia in the presence of concomitant Fournier's gangrene using a laparoscopic approach and natural biomaterial mesh for abdominal wall reinforcement. PMID:17249467

  16. Old man gallbladder syndrome: Gangrenous cholecystitis in the unsuspected patient population

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, Teena; Schiowitz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute cholecystitis is a common surgical condition, but not many are aware of the serious complication of gangrenous cholecystitis (GC). Presence of GC increases patients’ postoperative complications, morbidity and mortality. Predictive factors for GC include age >45, male gender, white blood cell count >13,000/mm3 and ultrasound findings of a negative Murphy’s sign. Case presentation (1) GW, 83 male with dull right upper quadrant pain and a negative Murphy’s sign with further imaging showing a thickened septated gallbladder suggestive of GC. Patient’s surgery was difficult and he received a cholecystostomy tube for drainage. (2) PH, 75 male with minimal right upper quadrant pain, equivocal ultrasound with a negative Murphy’s sign and computer tomography (CT) showing acute cholecystitis. Patient was taken to the operating room for cholecystectomy, with pathology consistent with gangrenous cholecystitis. Discussion Multiple laboratory findings and imaging patterns have been found to be highly predictive of GC. Along with age and WBC, thickened gallbladder wall and lack of mucosal enhancement have been predictive of GC. On physical examination, lack of Murphy’s sign secondary to denervation from gangrenous changes also increases the index of suspicion for GC. Conclusion GC is a serious complication of acute cholecystitis with increased morbidity and mortality. There should be a high index of suspicion for GC if the above unique physical and laboratory findings are present. PMID:25917175

  17. [Systemic necrotizing vasculitis presenting as gangrene combined with diabetes insipidus: a case report].

    PubMed

    Huang, Q; Liu, Y L

    2015-12-18

    The male patient reported here presented as gangrene and central diabetes insipidus (CDI), who had characteristics of vasculitis. The patient complained about polydipsia and polyuria half a year ago, and then developed tingling, pain and blackish discoloration of some fingers and toes 3 month ago. He also had Raynaud's phenomenon. After admission, his laboratory examination showed the rise of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin, ?2-glycoprotein I and the activity of rheumatoid factors, lupus anticoagulant test. his pituitary gland showed loss of posterior signal on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, his vasopressin test was active. However, there was no sufficient evidence to diagnose any specific disease; as a consequence the patient was diagnosed as idiopathic systemic necrotizing vasculitis (SNV). For SNV, the patient was treated with glucocorticoid 40 mg/d and impact therapy of cyclophosphamide 0.4 g every 2 weeks. He also received symptomatic treatment for gangrene and CDI. Cutaneous involvement leading to gangrene was widely reported in SNV, however pituitary involvement in SNV leading to CDI was rare. The prognosis of this patient was poor. PMID:26679670

  18. Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency and related venous disorders.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Om P

    2014-03-01

    The present review provides an update of the biological profile of Pycnogenol in the light of its use in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and related venous disorders such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), post-thrombotic syndrome, long haul air-travel-related leg oedema, venous ulcers and acute haemorrhoids. Pycnogenol is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator activities, antithrombotic effects and collagen stabilizing properties make it uniquely able to target the multi facet pathophysiology of CVI and related venous disorders. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce oedema of the legs in CVI, reduce the incidence of deep venous thrombosis during long haul flights and enhance the healing of venous ulcers and haemorrhoidal episodes by topical application and/or oral administration. This review highlights clinical research findings on the safety, compliance and efficacy of Pycnogenol, including its use in combination products. PMID:23775628

  19. Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes Claire M. Hull , PhD ; Julia A. Harris , ... general adult population are indisputable. However, for the marathon athlete who trains intensively and for long periods ...

  20. [Thromboprophylaxis of venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-07-01

    Recently in Japan, venous thromboembolism (VTE) [deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE)] has increased with the Westernization of eating habits and the aging of society. In the West, prophylactic guidelines have been discussed for many years, and, unfortunately, Japan falls far behind the West in this area. We developed Japanese Guidelines for VTE prophylaxis based on the 6th ACCP guidelines in 2004. The incidence of perioperative PTE in Japan has been investigated by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists since 2002. The rate of perioperative PTE was estimated to be 4.76 per 10,000 operations in 2003. As we expected, it significantly decreased after the guidelines for thromboprophylaxis were issued and the management fee for PTE prophylaxis was covered by health insurance in April 2004. However, mechanical prophylaxis is not sufficient to prevent mortality rates, and advanced prophylaxis by anticoagulants, such as low-molecular-weight heparin/Xa inhibitors along with unfractionated heparin/vitamin K antagonists will be essential. As a result of use of anticoagulants, mortality rates have been significantly decreased recently. PMID:25163326

  1. Four limb amputations due to peripheral gangrene from inotrope use – Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Chuan Han; Koo, Oon Thien; Howe, Tet Sen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We present a rare case of 4 limb amputations due to peripheral gangrene which resulted from the use of inotropes for septic shock. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 72-year-old woman with no past medical history presented with fever and pain in bilateral big toes. She was diagnosed with Streptococcal pneumoniae septicaemia and was started on broad spectrum antibiotics, dopamine and noradrenaline in the medical intensive care unit. She developed peripheral gangrene of all 4 extremities due to microvascular spasm from inotrope use and 4 limb amputations were performed electively in a single stage. DISCUSSION The gangrene was contributed by the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and septic shock. There was no evidence of an autoimmune disorder or vasculitis on laboratory investigations and tissue histology. CONCLUSION Microvascular spasm is a rare complication of inotrope use which may lead to extensive peripheral gangrene. Anecdotal reports of reversal agents have been discussed. Four limb amputations are a reasonable option especially if done in an elective setting after the gangrene has demarcated itself. Rehabilitation with prosthesis after 4 limb amputations can result in good functional outcome. PMID:26232740

  2. Systemic venous drainage: can we help Newton?

    PubMed

    Corno, Antonio F

    2007-06-01

    In recent years substantial progress occurred in the techniques of cardiopulmonary bypass, but the factor potentially limiting the flexibility of cardiopulmonary bypass remains the drainage of the systemic venous return. In the daily clinical practice of cardiac surgery, the amount of systemic venous return on cardiopulmonary bypass is directly correlated with the amount of the pump flow. As a consequence, the pump flow is limited by the amount of venous return that the pump is receiving. On cardiopulmonary bypass the amount of venous drainage depends upon the central venous pressure, the height differential between patient and inlet of the venous line into the venous reservoir, and the resistance in the venous cannula(s) and circuit. The factors determining the venous return to be taken into consideration in cardiac surgery are the following: (a) characteristics of the individual patient; (b) type of planned surgical procedure; (c) type of venous cannula(s); (d) type of circuit for cardiopulmonary bypass; (e) strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass; (f) use of accessory mechanical systems to increased the systemic venous return. The careful pre-operative evaluation of all the elements affecting the systemic venous drainage, including the characteristics of the individual patient and the type of required surgical procedure, the choice of the best strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the use of the most advanced materials and tools, can provide a systemic venous drainage substantially better than what it would be allowed by the simple "Law of universal gravitation" by Isaac Newton. PMID:17336540

  3. Impending Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Roger E.; Olivo, Thomas G.; Gioia, Joyce L.

    Filled with evidence and advice for corporate leaders in for-profit, not-for-profit, governmental, and education organizations, this book addresses how to evaluate one's organization's vulnerability and take action. An introduction is followed by a section on the new roles of the chief executive officer, chief operating officer, chief financial…

  4. Novel application of vacuum sealing drainage with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate for managing infective wounds of gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Wu, Xing-Huo; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Wu, Qiang; Xia, Tian; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Ye, Zhe-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic gas gangrene is a fatal infection mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens. It is a challenge to manage gas gangrene in open wounds and control infection after debridement or amputation. The aim of the present study was to use vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate to manage infective wounds of gas gangrene and observe its clinical efficacy. A total of 48 patients with open traumatic gas gangrene infection were included in this study. Amputations were done for 27 patients, and limb salvage procedures were performed for the others. After amputation or aggressive debridement, the VSD system, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam dressing and polyurethane (PU) film, with continuous irrigation of 1:5000 potassium permanganate solutions, was applied to the wounds. During the follow-up, all the patients healed without recurrence within 8-18 months. There were four complications. Cardiac arrest during amputation surgery occurred in one patient who suffered from severe septic shock. Emergent resuscitation was performed and the patient returned to stable condition. One patient suffered from mixed infection of Staphylococcal aureus, and a second-stage debridement was performed. One patient suffered from severe pain of the limb after the debridement. Exploratory operation was done and the possible reason was trauma of a local peripheral nerve. Three cases of crush syndrome had dialysis treatment for concomitant renal failure. In conclusion, VSD can convert open wound to closed wound, and evacuate necrotic tissues. Furthermore, potassium permanganate solutions help eliminate anaerobic microenvironment and achieve good therapeutic effect on gas gangrene and mixed infection. VSD with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate is a novel, simple and feasible alternative for severe traumatic open wounds with gas gangrene infection. PMID:26223928

  5. Difference in virulence between Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing gangrenous mastitis versus subclinical mastitis in a dairy sheep flock

    PubMed Central

    Vautor, Eric; Cockfield, Joshua; Le Marechal, Caroline; Le Loir, Yves; Chevalier, Marlène; Robinson, D. Ashley; Thiery, Richard; Lindsay, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy sheep ranges from subclinical mastitis to lethal gangrenous mastitis. Neither the S. aureus virulence factors nor the host-factors or the epidemiological events contributing to the different outcomes are known. In a field study in a dairy sheep farm over 21 months, 16 natural isolates of S. aureus were collected from six subclinical mastitis cases, one lethal gangrenous mastitis case, nasal carriage from eight ewes and one isolate from ambient air in the milking room. A genomic comparison of two strains, one responsible for subclinical mastitis and one for lethal gangrenous mastitis, was performed using multi-strain DNA microarrays. Multiple typing techniques (pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis, multiple-locus variable-number, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, spa typing and sas typing) were used to characterise the remaining isolates and to follow the persistence of the gangrenous isolate in ewes’ nares. Our results showed that the two strains were genetically closely related and they shared 3 615 identical predicted open reading frames. However, the gangrenous mastitis isolate carried variant versions of several genes (sdrD, clfA-B, sasA, sasB, sasD, sasI and splE) and was missing fibrinogen binding protein B (fnbB) and a prophage. The typing results showed that this gangrenous strain emerged after the initial subclinical mastitis screening, but then persisted in the flock in the nares of four ewes. Although we cannot dismiss the role of host susceptibility in the clinical events in this flock, our data support the hypothesis that S. aureus populations had evolved in the sheep flock and that S. aureus genetic variations could have contributed to enhanced virulence. PMID:19576164

  6. [A Case of Pyoderma Gangrenosum of the Penis Difficult to Distinguish from Fournier Gangrene].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Makoto; Inoue, Takaaki; Nishida, Teruhisa; Kawabata, Takashi; Kawakita, Shigenari; Muguruma, Kouei; Murota, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum of the penis which was difficult to distinguish from Fournier gangrene. The patient was a 54-year-old male who was aware of redness and swelling of the glanspenis for 1 month prior to a consultation at our department. Although he was diagnosed with herpes andtreated at a nearby hospital, his symptoms did not improve. Subsequently, the patient visited ourdepartment following the onset of pain and fever. During his initial consultation, he had a fever of 39 °C as well as redness and swelling of the glans penis with partial spontaneous purulent discharge. His blood test revealed an elevated white blood cell count (20, 000/?l) and C-reactive protein (19.1 mg/dl). Because Fournier gangrene was suspected, administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents was initiated butproved to be ineffective. An abscess (2 cm in diameter) was also noted in the umbilical region.Enterococcus faecalis was detected by the bacterial culture ; and therefore, Fournier gangrene was diagnosed. A partial penectomy was performed to control the infection. Pathological findings showed only non-specific inflammation ; however, fever persisted postoperatively and blood test results showed no improvement. Furthermore, new abscess lesions emerged on the right heel and back. Because the re-performed abscess bacterial culture test result was negative, pyoderma gangrenosum was suspected, and he was started on oral prednisolone (20 mg/day). On the following day, his fever subsided and his blood test results also showed improvement. A final diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum was ultimately made. PMID:26699892

  7. [A case of freeze-dried gas gangrene antitoxin for the treatment of Clostridium perfringens sepsis].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Juichiro; Nakamura, Hideki; Yamada, Shinya; Sekoguchi, Satoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Tomatsuri, Naoya; Sato, Hideki; Okuyama, Yusuke; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Norimasa

    2015-02-01

    A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with high fever. We diagnosed a gas-containing liver abscess and performed percutaneous abscess drainage. However, 15 hours after admission, he developed massive intravascular hemolysis and acidosis. Sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens was suspected and we treated the patient intensively with multidisciplinary approaches, including antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy. Furthermore, we administered freeze-dried gas gangrene antitoxin. Despite intensive care, the patient died 43 hours after admission. PMID:25748160

  8. Portomesenteric Vein Thrombosis, Bowel Gangrene, and Bilateral Pulmonary Artery Embolism Two Weeks after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Darcy, David G.; Charafeddine, Ali H.; Choi, Jenny; Camacho, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass surgery are popular and effective options for weight loss surgery. Portomesenteric vein thrombosis (PMVT) is a documented but rare complication of bariatric surgery. Proper surgical technique, careful postoperative prophylaxis, and early mobilization are essential to prevent this event. The diagnosis of PMVT in the postoperative period requires a high index of suspicion and early directed intervention to prevent a possibly fatal outcome. We present a case of PMVT complicated by small bowel ischemia resulting in gangrene that necessitated resection. PMID:26576312

  9. Cerebral venous thrombosis: diagnosis dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Chiewvit, Pipat; Piyapittayanan, Siriwan; Poungvarin, Niphon

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is increasing common disease in daily practice with sharing clinical nonspecific symptoms. This disorder is potentially lethal but treatable, oftenly it was overlooked in both clinical and radiologic in routine practice. Whenever, clinical suspected, prompt investigation by noninvasive imaging Magnetic resonance (MR) or advanced modilities such as cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), MRV (MR Venography) will helpful in prompt diagnosis and treatment. These imaging modalities may reveal either direct sign (visualization of intraluminal clot) and indirect signs (paranchymatous change, intracranial hemorrhage). By using of effective treatment will improve the prognosis of the patient. This review summarizes insights into etiology, incidence, imaging modalities and current of the treatment. PMID:22368772

  10. [Uterine gas gangrene through clostridium perfringens sepsis after uterus rupture postpartum].

    PubMed

    Montavon, C; Krause, E; Holzgreve, W; Hösli, I

    2005-10-01

    Anaerobic infections with Clostridium perfringens (CP) occur rarely but are associated with considerable maternal mortality. We report the case of a patient who developed uterine gas gangrene postpartum and discuss the management of this infection. A 28-year-old patient, GII, PII with history of Caesarean in 2002, delivered a healthy girl per vacuum extraction. Postpartally she presented with an acute abdomen and a laparotomy was performed. The uterotomy suture was intact but a parametrane tear had to be resutured. 36 hours later the patient's condition worsened quickly. Cellulitis was diagnosed and after receiving the results of the wound swabs (CP positive) from the uterus and haematoma, tazobactam and clindamycin were administered. Her condition continued to deteriorate and gaseous gangrene was seen with unilateral extension to the abdomen reaching as far as the axilla cranially and to the thigh caudally. Due to the extensive infection it was necessary to perform a hysterectomy, necrosis removal and splitting of the fascia followed by several debridements and leaving the wound open in order to avoid anaerobic conditions. The patient was discharged after 21 days. She developed a post-traumatic syndrome with severe depression. Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous and is found vaginally in ca. 1 - 10 % of healthy women and usually does not cause a serious infection. Under the right conditions it can cause an endometritis leading to sepsis. Early recognition and interdisciplinary treatment are of extreme importance. In this case the surgical treatment through hysterectomy combined with targeted antibiotic therapy, ultimately saved the patient's life. PMID:16317627

  11. Multiple venous aneurysms of neck

    PubMed Central

    Swaika, Sweta; Basu, Sudipta; Bhadra, Ram C.; Maitra, Sujay

    2013-01-01

    Venous aneurysm of neck is a rare anomaly, usually presenting as a painless mass which increases in size on valsalva maneuver. A child with multiple aneurysms of the right common facial and external jugular veins diagnosed on Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance venography is reported. PMID:23599580

  12. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  13. Chronic Venous Disease and Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Matic, P; Jolic, S; Tanaskovic, S; Soldatovic, I; Katsiki, N; Isenovic, E; Radak, Dj

    2015-07-01

    We report the relations between comorbidities and chronic venous disease. In this cross-sectional study, information was gathered from 1679 Serbian patients. The majority (65.0%) of patients were women. Mild forms of chronic venous disease (clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic [CEAP] classification; C0s-C1) were more frequent in women (11.6%), while severe forms (CEAP C4-C6) were more commonly encountered in men (42.1%). The most frequent comorbidity was emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in both groups (74.3% in males and 70.6% in females). For females, diabetes mellitus (P < .005), arterial hypertension (P < .000), and skeletal/joint diseases (P < .042) were more commonly found in the C4 to C6 category. Both males and females, with severe form of chronic venous disease, may benefit from additional screening for comorbidities. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of association among comorbidities and chronic venous disease. PMID:25005764

  14. A case of Behçet's disease with widespread perforating enteric ulcers preceded by a long history of peripheral gangrene.

    PubMed

    Honne, Kyoko; Kohsaka, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Hideki; Komano, Yukiko; Nakanishi, Shoichi; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki

    2011-12-01

    Patients suffering from Behçet's disease (BD) with intestinal involvement often have an atypical disease course. The disease in many patients does not fully meet the diagnostic criteria defined by the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease, and instead such patients are diagnosed as having an incomplete type of BD according to the criteria of the BD Research Committee of Japan. The patient reported here developed uveitis and gangrene of the extremities as the initial symptoms and was treated with corticosteroid. After 16 years, the gangrene relapsed and multiple deep ulcers suddenly developed in the gastrointestinal tract, with oral ulcer and uveitis. The intestinal perforation was acute, progressive, severe, and extensive. With a diagnosis of incomplete BD with intestinal involvement, she was treated with high-dose glucocorticoid. However, uncontrollable gastrointestinal bleeding led to her death. Histopathological examination revealed that she suffered from intestinal and vascular BD, although gangrene of the extremities has rarely been reported as a manifestation of vascular BD. Thus, the disease course of this patient was characterized by the reappearance of peripheral gangrene after a long interval that preceded the devastating intestinal lesions. PMID:21445717

  15. Case of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unusual Venous Infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraju, Susheel Kumar; Pasupaleti, Bhimeswarao; Juluri, Naganarasimharaju

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively rare condition when compared with vascular accidents of arterial origin representing 0.5-1% of all strokes. Unlike arterial infarcts parenchymal changes are seldom present and when present most of the times are reversible. We present a case report of 28-year-old female with thrombosis of internal cerebral veins and straight sinus and hemorrhagic infarcts in bilateral basal ganglia and bilateral thalami .The findings of bilateral symmetrical hyper intensities in basal ganglia and thalami on MRI may be due to various causes of diverse etiology and cerebral venous thrombosis remains an important cause. Early recognition and prompt anticoagulation therapy helps to reduce the mortality to a great extent. The MRI imaging features of straight sinus thrombosis and other imaging differentials are discussed. PMID:26023623

  16. Cerebral venous development in relation to developmental venous anomalies and Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Monica; Gregg, Lydia; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2011-06-01

    Cerebrovascular venous development and intracranial vascular malformations are extensive topics for which volumes of text may be devoted. However, a basic knowledge of the embryology of cerebral venous system and venous architecture is essential for understanding of cerebral vascular malformations. The aim of this work is to provide the reader with a brief overview of the development of the cranial venous anatomy. We will highlight the superficial and deep venous systems with special attention to developmental venous anomalies and vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. PMID:21596280

  17. Sepsis, venous return, and teleology.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, R G

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of heart-circulation interaction is crucial to our ability to guide our patients through an episode of septic shock. Our knowledge has advanced greatly in the last one hundred years. There are, however, certain empirical phenomena that may lead us to question the wisdom of our prevailing treatment algorithm. Three extreme but iatrogenically possible haemodynamic states exist. Firstly, inappropriately low venous return; secondly, overzealous arteriolar constriction; and finally, misguided inotropy and chronotropy. Following an unsuccessful fluid challenge, it would be logical to first set the venous tone, then set the cardiac rate and contractility, and finally set the peripheral vascular resistance. It is hypothesized that a combination of dihydroergotamine, milrinone and esmolol should be superior to a combination of noradrenaline and dobutamine for surviving sepsis. PMID:25245463

  18. Venous allografts for vascular reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Vermassen, F; Degrieck, N; De Kock, L; Goubeau, J; Van Landuyt, K; Derom, F

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate various protocols for the preservation of venous allografts 162 arterial reconstructions were performed in mongrel dogs bypassing their ligated femoral arteries. The cumulative 6-month patency-rates as determined by weekly palpation and regular angiography were. Group I = Synthetic grafts: (a) Dacron 48%, (b) PTFE 53%. Group II = Fresh venous grafts: (a) autografts 100%, (b) allografts 37%. Group III = Veins preserved in saline at 4 degrees C for 1 month: (a) autografts 44%, (b) allografts 34%. Group IV = Veins preserved in saline at -70 degrees C: (a) autografts 58%, (b) allografts 47%. Group V = Veins preserved in glutaraldehyde solution: (a) autografts 26%, (b) allografts 22%. Group VI = Veins preserved in Hanks-solution with 15% DMSO at -160 degrees C: (a) autografts 77%, (b) allografts 35%. Histological as well as immunological studies suggest that these results are determined by the preservation protocol in Groups III, IV and V and by the presence of rejection in Groups I and VI. As the results with the allografts are not superior to those obtained with synthetic grafts, their use should be confined to those cases where the use of synthetic materials should be avoided at any price. Further experiments with immunosuppression and antigenic matching are indicated to see whether this would improve the results obtained with viable venous allografts. PMID:1287000

  19. Experience with penile venous surgery.

    PubMed

    Motiwala, H G; Patel, D D; Joshi, S P; Baxi, H M; Desai, K D; Shah, K N

    1993-01-01

    Venogenic impotence was detected in 37 out of 141 patients who attended our clinic with a complaint of erectile dysfunction. Eighteen patients presented with primary impotence and the rest had progressive secondary impotence. All 37 patients have shown partial or poor response to 60 mg of intracavernosal papaverine. The corporovenous leak (CVL) was diagnosed on the careful workup of dynamic pharmacocavernosometry and cavernosography. Concomitant arterial cause was noted in 10% cases on the basis of penile duplex Doppler ultrasound study. 24 patients in the age group of 23-60 years underwent the penile venous surgery. The CVL was noted in the deep dorsal vein (23 cases), cavernous vein (16) and in the crural vein (2). The operation consisted of deep dorsal vein (DDV) ligation and excision with all tributaries (8 cases) or DDV ligation and excision+cavernous vein ligation (13 cases), through an infrapubic curvilinear incision. One patient had crural vein ligation and corporoplasty through a perineal incision, one had direct corporeal revascularization for associated arteriogenic impotence with venous leak and another had distal spongiolysis and closure of a corporospongiosal shunt. The results were excellent in 11 cases, improved in 6 and 7 had failures. Surgical intervention is effective in CVL in selected cases but limiting factors in the form of increasing age, concomitant arteriogenic cause, significant crural leak, missing tributaries, recurrent venous leak and unknown factors may also be present to prevent total cure. PMID:8333094

  20. Gas Gangrene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Surgically removing the dead and infected tissue Administering penicillin intravenously Managing shock and other complications Possibly treating ... it with water and start antibiotics such as penicillin or clindamycin. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source ...

  1. Pedal Gangrenous Changes in the Digits of an Adolescent With Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bhoola, Prashant H; Shtofmakher, Garry; Bahri, Ankur; Patel, Ankur A; Barlizo, Sharon R; Trepal, Michael

    2014-08-16

    Ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the colon and is occasionally associated with thrombosis. We report the case of an adolescent with ulcerative colitis who presented with bilateral gangrenous toes without signs of ascending cellulitis. Radiographs indicated the presence of bilateral and erosive changes in the distal phalanges. The vascular team referred the patient for podiatric intervention for distal vasculitis and thrombosis of the digital vessels. Transphalangeal amputations were performed, and postoperative antibiotics were initiated. The surgical sites healed uneventfully, and the patient was able to resume daily activities. Thrombosis of the foot in the context of ulcerative colitis is a rare, but serious, complication that can lead to serious comorbidities, including amputation. PMID:25135104

  2. Fournier's gangrene secondary to an acutely inflamed appendix herniating into the deep inguinal ring.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Piyush B; Khan, Mashuk; Zilvetti, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) requires prompt recognition and management. We report the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with extensive pain and purple discolouration from the right iliac fossa to perineum. Computed tomography demonstrated gas within the right hemiscrotum extending into the inguinal canal and right buttock, with a right pelvic fluid and air collection. At debridement necrotic fluid was arising from the superficial inguinal ring so laparotomy was performed, revealing a grossly inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal; a right hemicolectomy was performed. Unfortunately, the patient went into cardiac arrest and passed away on the operating table. Histological analysis demonstrated acute-on-chronic inflammation involving the appendix. The condition where appendicitis is implicated in FG is usually due to retroperitoneal rupture and tracking into the perineal spaces. This is the first case reported of an inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal and thus causing FG. PMID:25829533

  3. Fournier's gangrene secondary to an acutely inflamed appendix herniating into the deep inguinal ring

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Piyush B.; Khan, Mashuk; Zilvetti, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) requires prompt recognition and management. We report the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with extensive pain and purple discolouration from the right iliac fossa to perineum. Computed tomography demonstrated gas within the right hemiscrotum extending into the inguinal canal and right buttock, with a right pelvic fluid and air collection. At debridement necrotic fluid was arising from the superficial inguinal ring so laparotomy was performed, revealing a grossly inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal; a right hemicolectomy was performed. Unfortunately, the patient went into cardiac arrest and passed away on the operating table. Histological analysis demonstrated acute-on-chronic inflammation involving the appendix. The condition where appendicitis is implicated in FG is usually due to retroperitoneal rupture and tracking into the perineal spaces. This is the first case reported of an inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal and thus causing FG. PMID:25829533

  4. Gangrenous Cholecystitis Related to Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization (TACE) Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Karavias, Dimitrios; Kourea, Helen; Sotiriadi, Athanasia; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Karavias, Dionissios

    2015-11-01

    A 69-year-old male with a history of hepatitis B-induced cirrhosis underwent segmental liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. At his 12-month follow-up, local recurrence in segment VII was diagnosed, measuring 7.8 by 6.2 cm, with irregular margins and the presence of a tumor thrombus in the portal vein. After evaluation by the multidisciplinary liver team, the patient underwent transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads. Forty-eight hours after his discharge, the patient presented with gangrenous cholecystitis and he underwent an uneventful cholecystectomy. Cholecystitis is a well-documented complication of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization due to inadvertent reflux of the embolic material into the cystic artery. However, super selective embolization significantly reduces the risk of cholecystitis. In most cases, management is conservative and only severe cases require further intervention. PMID:26242884

  5. Role of Mebo (Moist Exposed Burn Ointment) in the Treatment of Fournier’S Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meshaan, M.; Abdul Hamid, M.; Quider, T.; Al-Sairafi, A.; Dham, R.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objectives. Fournier’s gangrene (FG), though rare, is a life-threatening extensive fulminant infection of the genitals, perineum, or abdominal wall caused by a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms. Early and aggressive surgical debridement of the necrotic tissue and complete antibiotic coverage are the gold standards in treating FG. The purpose of our study was to assess the role of MEBO (moist exposed burn ointment) in topical treatment of the wound secondary to surgical debridement. Methods. Eleven patients (age range, 40-75 yr; mean, 55 yr) were admitted to the clinical facilities of the Department of Urology at Al Sabah Hospital, Kuwait, suffering from Fournier’s gangrene, in the 31-month period between January 2004 and July 2006. All these patients were treated with broad-spectrum triple antimicrobial therapy as well as extensive debridement of necrotic tissue. The resultant wounds were treated with MEBO in six randomly selected patients and with a placebo in the remaining five patients. Results. The duration of hospital stay was reduced by 41.7% in the MEBO-treated group (30.0 vs 51.5 days) and pain control of pain was faster, which could be attributed to the faster control of infection and wound healing in this group. Conclusion. A combination of appropriate antibiotic coverage and aggressive surgical therapy is mandatory for the treatment of FG. MEBO promotes the healing of the resulting, quite extensive wound, reducing pain and controlling infection. It is a also a cost-effective therapy as it accelerates healing and reduces hospital stay by 41.7%. PMID:21991105

  6. Role of mebo (moist exposed burn ointment) in the treatment of fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Al-Meshaan, M; Abdul Hamid, M; Quider, T; Al-Sairafi, A; Dham, R

    2008-03-31

    Objectives. Fournier's gangrene (FG), though rare, is a life-threatening extensive fulminant infection of the genitals, perineum, or abdominal wall caused by a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms. Early and aggressive surgical debridement of the necrotic tissue and complete antibiotic coverage are the gold standards in treating FG. The purpose of our study was to assess the role of MEBO (moist exposed burn ointment) in topical treatment of the wound secondary to surgical debridement. Methods. Eleven patients (age range, 40-75 yr; mean, 55 yr) were admitted to the clinical facilities of the Department of Urology at Al Sabah Hospital, Kuwait, suffering from Fournier's gangrene, in the 31-month period between January 2004 and July 2006. All these patients were treated with broad-spectrum triple antimicrobial therapy as well as extensive debridement of necrotic tissue. The resultant wounds were treated with MEBO in six randomly selected patients and with a placebo in the remaining five patients. Results. The duration of hospital stay was reduced by 41.7% in the MEBO-treated group (30.0 vs 51.5 days) and pain control of pain was faster, which could be attributed to the faster control of infection and wound healing in this group. Conclusion. A combination of appropriate antibiotic coverage and aggressive surgical therapy is mandatory for the treatment of FG. MEBO promotes the healing of the resulting, quite extensive wound, reducing pain and controlling infection. It is a also a cost-effective therapy as it accelerates healing and reduces hospital stay by 41.7%. PMID:21991105

  7. Special report on taxation. Prepare for impending legislation that could threaten your tax-exempt status!

    PubMed

    Miller, W J

    1991-08-01

    With impending federal action, and the likelihood of "copycat" legislation at the state and local levels if a federal statue is adopted, nonprofit hospitals need to ensure that they will be in compliance if a mandatory charity care bill were to become law. Such facilities should take the initiative now, by clearly articulating their charity care policies and by describing their other undercompensated or uncompensated activities that are maintained in order to benefit their communities. They should also ensure that all of their activities that could be counted as charity care or community benefit are fully documented and quantified. Financial consultants and counsel may be helpful in this process. Exempt facilities also should, of course, closely monitor the progress of the bills discussed above. Most importantly, they should continue to test their charity care and community benefit statistics on a regular basis to determine if their facilities meet the thresholds specified in the bills as they proceed through Congress. PMID:10112749

  8. Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

  9. Optimizing Venous Drainage Using an Ultrasonic Flow Probe on the Venous Line

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Joshua L.; Young, Haven A.; Lawson, D. Scott; Husain, S. Adil; Calhoon, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The use of smaller cannulae for minimally invasive surgery techniques and/or aggressive miniaturization of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuitry has necessitated the need to augment venous drainage to achieve adequate flow rates. Vacuum assisted venous drainage (VAVD) has become the dominant method to augment venous drainage. VAVD, however, has been associated with a number of known side effects including increased transmission of gaseous microemboli to the patient, venous line chatter, and increased arterial to venous shunts in the circuit. Historically, our practice has been to monitor the arterial output flow rate and to monitor VAVD by observing venous line chatter and changes in the venous reservoir level. In 2008 our pediatric cardiothoracic service began monitoring venous line flow rates by using a second ultrasonic flow probe placed on the venous line. After 12 months, our staff perfusionists reviewed the impact of monitoring venous line flow rates on VAVD and its known side effects on daily clinical practice. When monitoring venous line flow rates, empiric observation revealed that less overall vacuum pressure was needed for our CPB cases. This novel approach to monitoring venous drainage has aided us in providing optimal vacuum levels and therefore, may reduce some of the known side effects experienced with excessive VAVD. PMID:22164455

  10. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device...

  11. Transhepatic Venous Approach for Balloon-assisted Cervical Collateral Venous Access

    SciTech Connect

    Eyheremendy, Eduardo P.; Malizia, Patricio; Sierre, Sergio

    2011-12-15

    Central venous catheter placement is indicated in many situations, and an increasing number of patients require temporary and long-term central catheters. Frequently, patients who have undergone multiple central veins catheterizations develop complete and diffuse venous occlusion, and this constitutes a difficult-to-manage clinical problem. We report a case of a 20-year-old patient who was referred to our department for central venous line placement who manifested bilateral femoral, jugular, and subclavian veins occlusion. A central venous catheter was implanted through a cervical collateral vein, targeting on and puncturing an angioplasty balloon, and advanced into the collateral vein through a transhepatic venous access.

  12. Fistula-in-Ano Complicated by Fournier's Gangrene Our Experience in North-Eastern Region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Ali, Nuhu; Gadam, Ibrahim A; Gali, Bata M; Tahir, Chubado; Yawe, KDT; Dahiru, Adamu B; Mohammed, Baba S; Wadinga, Dauda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fistula-in-ano when complicated by Fournier's gangrene is an unusual finding and always carries high morbidity. This study details our experience in managing 10 cases. Methods of Study: Case files of all patients managed in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and Federal Medical Center of Yola and Gombe from January, 2007 to December, 2011 were retrieved from Medical Record Departments and other Hospital Records. These were analyzed for demographic, clinical and pathological variables, the type of treatment and follow-up. Results: A total of 10 men with a mean age of 50.5 years (35-60) were managed in the period of study. Nearly, 50% of the patients were farmers, 30% businessmen and 20% were civil servant. 7 (70%) of these patients presented with Fournier's gangrene within 4 weeks of development of fistula-in-ano and the rest within 8 weeks. 4 (40%) of these patients had inadequate drainage of their perianal abscess and 2 (20%) had incision and drainage. Another 4 (40%) had spontaneously rupture of the perianal abscess. 6 (60%) of the fistula-in-ano was submuscular, 30% subcutaneous and 10% were complex or recurrent. Nearly, 20% of patients had fistulotomy and seton application for adequate drainage. Mucosal advancement flap was performed in 5 (50%) and fistulotomy in 3 (30%) patients. Another 30% had fistulotomy and continuing sitz bath. Conclusion: Cryptoglandular infection is an important cause of perianal abscesses and fistula-in-ano and if poorly managed results in Fournier's gangrene. Early broad spectrum parenteral antibiotic therapy and primary surgical treatment can prevent Fournier's gangrene. PMID:24497752

  13. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Applied Before and After Split-Thickness Skin Graft Helps Healing of Fournier Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Junna; Xie, Ting; Wu, Minjie; Ni, Pengwen; Lu, Shuliang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fournier gangrene is a rare but highly infectious disease characterized by fulminant necrotizing fasciitis involving the genital and perineal regions. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT; KCI USA Inc, San Antonio, TX) is a widely adopted technique in many clinical settings. Nevertheless, its application and effect in the treatment of Fournier gangrene are unclear. A 47-year-old male patient was admitted with an anal abscess followed by a spread of the infection to the scrotum, which was caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NPWT was applied on the surface of the scrotal area and continued for 10 days. A split-thickness skin graft from the scalp was then grafted to the wound, after which, NPWT utilizing gauze sealed with an occlusive dressing and connected to a wall suction was employed for 7 days to secure the skin graft. At discharge, the percentage of the grafted skin alive on the scrotum was 98%. The wound beside the anus had decreased to 4?×?0.5?cm with a depth of 1?cm. Follow-up at the clinic 1 month later showed that both wounds had healed. The patient did not complain of any pain or bleeding, and was satisfied with the outcome. NPWT before and after split-thickness skin grafts is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in the treatment of Fournier gangrene. PMID:25654376

  14. Stent Placement on Fresh Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vorwerk, Dierk; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schuermann, Karl

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To report on the efficacy of fixing fresh venous thrombus to the venous wall by stent placement. Methods: Seven patients underwent stenting to treat acute venous thrombosis. In two patients, the hemodialysis fistula was thrombosed with the thrombus extending into the brachial veins. In three patients, the hemodialysis fistula was patent but massive swelling of the ipsilateral arm was caused by proximal venous thrombosis. Two patients presented with iliac venous thrombosis within stented pelvic veins. Stent placement was preceded by other mechanical thrombectomy methods in all cases. Results: Attachment of thrombus to the venous wall was successful in all cases treated. Acute rethrombosis did not occur. Follow-up patency in dialysis patients was 7.2 {+-} 2.1 months. One patient had rethrombosis of the dialysis graft 3 months after primary treatment. Three patients developed restenosis within a mean period of 7.7 months. One shunt remained patent for 10 months with no event of reobstruction during follow-up. In both patients with iliac stent placement, the vein remained patent over a follow-up period of 8 and 12 months respectively. Conclusion: Stenting fresh venous thrombus can achieve immediate venous patency. It may be used as an alternative approach when all other percutaneous methods fail. Frequent restenosis within stented veins limits its use to very selected cases.

  15. The venous circulation: a piscine perspective.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Erik; Axelsson, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Vascular capacitance describes the pressure-volume relationship of the circulatory system. The venous vasculature, which is the main capacitive region in the circulation, is actively controlled by various neurohumoral systems. In terrestrial animals, vascular capacitance control is crucial to prevent orthostatic blood pooling in dependent limbs, while in aquatic animals like fish, the effects of gravity are cancelled out by hydrostatic forces making orthostatic blood pooling an unlikely concern for these animals. Nevertheless, changes in venous capacitance have important implications on cardiovascular homeostasis in fish since it affects venous return and cardiac filling pressure (i.e. central venous blood pressure), which in turn may affect cardiac output. The mean circulatory filling pressure is used to estimate vascular capacitance. In unanaesthetized animals, it is measured as the central venous plateau pressure during a transient stoppage of cardiac output. So far, most studies of venous function in fish have addressed the situation in teleosts (notably the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), while any information on elasmobranchs, cyclostomes and air-breathing fishes is more limited. This review describes venous haemodynamic concepts and neurohumoral control systems in fish. Particular emphasis is placed on venous responses to natural cardiovascular challenges such as exercise, environmental hypoxia and temperature changes. PMID:17920321

  16. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M. Kleidon, Tricia M.

    2005-12-15

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  17. Venous pressure in man during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, K. A.; Roecker, L.; Gauer, O. H.; Krause, R.; Wicke, H. J.; Leach, C.; Landry, R.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether the body fluid shift from the lower limbs toward the head that occurs during spaceflight leads to lasting increases of venous pressure in the upper body, venous pressure and hematocrit measurements were made on four astronauts before flight and 1 and 12 hours after recovery and compared with measurements in space. During the mission the hematocrit was elevated and the venous pressure lowered by 1 to 8 centimeters of water as compared with the preflight data. One hour after landing the hematocrit decreased, indicating a hemodilution, venous pressures were unexpectedly high, and a body weight loss of 4 to 5 percent was observed. Twelve hours later the venous pressures were the lowest recorded during the study. The fluid shift apparently takes place during the first several hours of spaceflight. Thereafter, the pressure in the peripheral veins and the central circulation is lower than that measured before flight.

  18. An investigation of patterns in hemodynamic data indicative of impending hypotension in intensive care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the intensive care unit (ICU), clinical staff must stay vigilant to promptly detect and treat hypotensive episodes (HEs). Given the stressful context of busy ICUs, an automated hypotensive risk stratifier can help ICU clinicians focus care and resources by prospectively identifying patients at increased risk of impending HEs. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible existence of discriminatory patterns in hemodynamic data that can be indicative of future hypotensive risk. Methods Given the complexity and heterogeneity of ICU data, a machine learning approach was used in this study. Time series of minute-by-minute measures of mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, pulse pressure, and relative cardiac output from 1,311 records from the MIMIC II Database were used. An HE was defined as a 30-minute period during which the mean arterial pressure was below 60 mmHg for at least 90% of the time. Features extracted from the hemodynamic data during an observation period of either 30 or 60 minutes were analyzed to predict the occurrence of HEs 1 or 2 hours into the future. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were trained for binary classification (normotensive vs. hypotensive) and regression (estimation of future mean blood pressure). Results The ANNs were successfully trained to discriminate patterns in the multidimensional hemodynamic data that were predictive of future HEs. The best overall binary classification performance resulted in a mean area under ROC curve of 0.918, a sensitivity of 0.826, and a specificity of 0.859. Predicting further into the future resulted in poorer performance, whereas observation duration minimally affected performance. The low prevalence of HEs led to poor positive predictive values. In regression, the best mean absolute error was 9.67%. Conclusions The promising pattern recognition performance demonstrates the existence of discriminatory patterns in hemodynamic data that can indicate impending hypotension. The poor PPVs discourage a direct HE predictor, but a hypotensive risk stratifier based on the pattern recognition algorithms of this study would be of significant clinical value in busy ICU environments. PMID:20973998

  19. Treatment of Hyaluronic Acid Filler-Induced Impending Necrosis With Hyaluronidase: Consensus Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Biesman, Brian S; Dayan, Steven H; DeLorenzi, Claudio; Lambros, Val S; Nestor, Mark S; Sadick, Neil; Sykes, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Injection-induced necrosis is a rare but dreaded consequence of soft tissue augmentation with filler agents. It usually occurs as a result of injection of filler directly into an artery, but can also result from compression or injury. We provide recommendations on the use of hyaluronidase when vascular compromise is suspected. Consensus recommendations were developed by thorough discussion and debate amongst the authors at a roundtable meeting on Wednesday June 18, 2014 in Las Vegas, NV as well as significant ongoing written and verbal communications amongst the authors in the months prior to journal submission. All authors are experienced tertiary care providers. A prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment with high doses of hyaluronidase (at least 200 U) are critically important. It is not felt necessary to do a skin test in cases of impending necrosis. Some experts recommend dilution with saline to increase dispersion or lidocaine to aid vasodilation. Additional hyaluronidase should be injected if improvement is not seen within 60 minutes. A warm compress also aids vasodilation, and massage has been shown to help. Some experts advocate the use of nitroglycerin paste, although this area is controversial. Introducing an oral aspirin regimen should help prevent further clot formation due to vascular compromise. In our experience, patients who are diagnosed promptly and treated within 24 hours will usually have the best outcomes. PMID:25964629

  20. Impact of neural noise on a sensory-motor pathway signaling impending collision

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Noise is a major concern in circuits processing electrical signals, including neural circuits. There are many factors that influence how noise propagates through neural circuits, and there are few systems in which noise levels have been studied throughout a processing pathway. We recorded intracellularly from multiple stages of a sensory-motor pathway in the locust that detects approaching objects. We found that responses are more variable and that signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are lower further from the sensory periphery. SNRs remain low even with the use of stimuli for which the pathway is most selective and for which the neuron representing its final sensory level must integrate many synaptic inputs. Modeling of this neuron shows that variability in the strength of individual synaptic inputs within a large population has little effect on the variability of the spiking output. In contrast, jitter in the timing of individual inputs and spontaneous variability is important for shaping the responses to preferred stimuli. These results suggest that neural noise is inherent to the processing of visual stimuli signaling impending collision and contributes to shaping neural responses along this sensory-motor pathway. PMID:22114160

  1. Rectal cancer and Fournier’s gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  2. [Fournier's gangrene, a battle won. Traditional cures versus a polyhexanide solution].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Cancio, M Concepción; Verdú Moresco, Aránzazu; Lorente Fernández, Gemma

    2008-11-01

    This article won the top place in the Third Prontosan Scientific Prize in 2008. Fournier's Gangrene is a rare process having an unknown origin which affects soft tissue in the genital and perirectal area. The authors describe the case of a 61 year old patient suffering from this disease, the recommended treatment by the Nurses' Consulting Office for Bed Sores, or Decubitus Ulcers, and Chronic Skin Ulcerations, and the patient's evolution. The medical team carried out a complete evaluation of this patient and his/her injury and took a sample to make a surface culture from. After this initial evaluation, the medical team's first recommendation was to apply treatment consisting of using polyhexanide combined with a calcic alginate dressing to control oozing; the objective of this treatment is to clean and decontaminate the wound and to provide the optimum conditions for a correct cicatrisation process in the least time possible. After 58 days undergoing treatment, the affected area did not show any sign nor symptom of infection and was practically finished with the cicatrisation process. The use of polyhexanide, in this case, proved to be the ideal therapeutic option to clean, decontaminate and maintain the conditions optimum for a correct cicatrisation of this wound. PMID:19203119

  3. Favorable outcome of Fournier gangrene in two patients with diabetes mellitus on continuous peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Darlene; Regmi, Anil; Last, Reuben; Wiggins, Brenda; Sun, Yijuan; Servilla, Karen S; Fair, Joanna R; Massie, Larry; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2014-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG), a form of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genitals, with high morbidity and mortality in the general population, carries the additional risk of involvement of the peritoneal catheter tunnel and peritoneal cavity in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). We describe two men with diabetes who developed FG in the course of PD. Computed tomography showed no extension of FG to the abdominal wall, and spent peritoneal dialysate was clear in both patients. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage and early aggressive debridement followed by negative-pressure wound therapy and repeated debridement led to improvements in clinical status in both cases. Surgical closure and healing of the wound was achieved in one patient; the wound of the second patient is healing, but remains open. Both patients experienced prolonged hospitalization, with a serious decline in nutrition status. In patients on PD, FG can be treated successfully. However, additional measures are required to evaluate for potential involvement of the PD apparatus and the peritoneal cavity in the infectious process; and prolonged hospitalization, worsening nutrition, and multiple surgical interventions can result. PMID:25338433

  4. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is relatively unimportant. Low calf venous compliance probably results from stiffer venous, skeletal muscle, and connective tissues, and better-developed local and central neural controls of venous distensibility. This research establishes that upper-to-lower body reduction of venous compliance can explain headward positioning of the hydrostatic indifference level in humans.

  5. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  8. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  9. Chronic Venous Disease (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the surface of the legs to the deep leg veins, from which calf muscles pump blood ... is located in the superficial veins or the deep veins. (See "Diagnostic evaluation of chronic venous insufficiency" .) ...

  10. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  11. Venous access in the management of hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Leonard A; Kawji, Mohammad; Grygotis, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Venous access is an essential aspect of hemophilia care. When peripheral venipuncture is not feasible, central venous access devices (CVADs) or the creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) allow the infusion of clotting factor concentrate to treat or prevent bleeding events or eliminate inhibitors. Infection is the primary complication associated with CVADs and the most common reason for their removal. Complications of AVF include occlusion and limb length discrepancies. PMID:21030121

  12. Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Distribution Width as Markers in the Diagnosis of Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhe; Pan, Jiyong; Zhang, Yingyi; Wang, Ziyi; Zhu, Ming; Yang, Baoshun; Shi, Lei; Jing, Huirong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Acute gangrenous appendicitis (AGA) is a common medical condition; however, the grade of appendicitis usually cannot be established preoperatively. We have attempted to identify some indicators, such as the mean platelet volume (MPV) and the platelet distribution width (PDW), to diagnose AGA. Aims. To evaluate whether or not the MPV and PDW are suitable markers to diagnose AGA. Methods. A retrospective study of 160 patients with AGA and 160 healthy patients was undertaken. Disease diagnosis was confirmed based on the pathologic examination of surgical specimens. Patient white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil ratio (NR), platelet (PLT) count, MPV, PDW, and hematocrit (HCT) were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these indices in AGA. Results. There were no significant differences between the AGA and control groups in age and gender. Compared to the control group, the WBC count, NR, and PDW were significantly higher (P < 0.001, resp.) and the MPV and HCT were significantly lower (P < 0.001, resp.) in the AGA group. The diagnostic specificities of the WBC count, NR, PLT count, MPV, PDW, and HCT were 86.3%, 92.5%, 58.1%, 81.7%, 83.9%, and 66.3%, respectively. Therefore, the NR had the highest diagnostic specificity for the diagnosis of AGA. Conclusions. This is the first study to assess the MPV and PDW in patients with AGA. Our present study showed that the MPV is reduced and the PDW is increased in patients with AGA; the sensitivity of PDW was superior to the MPV. A decreased MPV value and an increased PDW could serve as two markers to diagnose AGA. The NR had the highest specificity for the diagnosis of AGA. PMID:26688600

  13. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkin, A. A.; Urakov, A. L.; Nigmatullina, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient's exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  14. Venous waterfalls in coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, R E; Kaplow, S M

    1991-03-21

    Several studies of flow through collapsible tubing deformed by external pressures have led to a concept known as the "vascular waterfall". One hallmark of this state is a positive zero-flow pressure intercept (Pe) in flow-pressure curves. This intercept is commonly observed in the coronary circulation, but in blood-perfused beating hearts a vascular waterfall is not the only putative cause. To restrict the possibilities, we have measured flow-pressure curves in excised non-beating rabbit hearts in which the coronary arteries were perfused in a non-pulsatile way with a newtonian fluid (Ringers solution) containing potent vasodilator drugs. Under these circumstances, vascular waterfalls are believed to be the only tenable explanation for Pe. In physical terms the waterfall is a region where the vessel is in a state of partial collapse with a stabilized intraluminal fluid pressure (Pw). It is argued that the most probable site of this collapse was the intramural veins just before they reached the epicardial surface. In accord with the waterfall hypothesis, Pe increased as the heart became more edematous, but flow-pressure curves also became flatter, implying multiple waterfalls with differing Pws, leading to complete collapse of some of the venous channels. The principal compressive force is believed to have been the interstitial fluid pressure as registered through a needle (Pn) implanted in the left ventricular wall, but a small additional force (Ps) was probably due to swelling of interstitial gels. A method is presented for estimating Ps and Pw. Unlike rubber tubing, blood vessels are both collapsible and porous. Apparently because of increased capillary filtration, Pn was found to increase linearly with the perfusion pressure. Thus, Pw was not the same at all points on the flow-pressure curve. This finding has interesting implications with respect to the concept of coronary resistance. PMID:2062096

  15. Fournier’s gangrene: A retrospective analysis of 26 cases in a Canadian hospital and literature review

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Michael; Valiquette, Anne Sophie; Ismail, Salima

    2015-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of all cases of Fournier’s Gangrene (FG) at our hospital over a 12-year period. A total of 26 cases were assessed. Our goal was to determine the mortality rate and to identify risk factors associated with FG. We also wanted to examine three potential prognostic factors in relation to patient survival, including the time delay from emergency room admission to surgery, the initial extent of the disease, and the impact of more than one debridement procedure under general anesthesia. The time between emergency room admission and the beginning of surgical debridement was not statistically different between survivors and non-survivors. The extent of surgical debridement was close to the margin of statistical significance (p = 0.07) and can be considered an index of the extent of the disease. FG extending to the thighs or to the abdominal wall carries a worse prognosis. The number of surgical debridement procedures done under anesthesia was statistically different between survivors and non-survivors. Patients were 4.8 times more at risk of dying if they are required to have more than one surgical debridement under general anesthesia. This presumably reflects persistent gangrene following initial surgical debridement, fluid resuscitation, and wide spectrum antibiotic treatment. PMID:26225189

  16. Noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.

  17. Complex central venous catheter insertion for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Powell, Steven; Belfield, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of payment by results in the UK, there has been no decrease in central venous catheter (CVC) use. In part, this may relate to a requirement to dialyse through a CVC while autogenous access matures. Mortality data have improved in parallel and patients on hemodialysis live longer, which may lead to an increased exposure to CVCs.Exposure to CVCs carries a significant risk of infection and occlusion requiring their repositioning or exchange. The mid to long-term sequelae of CVC use is central venous occlusion leaving clinical teams with an ever increasing challenge to find adequate venous access.In this article, we will discuss the challenges faced by operators inserting CVCs into the hemodialysis-dependent patient who has exhausted more tradition insertion sites. These include translumbar caval catheters, transocclusion and transcollateral catheters, transjugular Inferior Vena Cava catheter positioning, and transhepatic catheters. We will demonstrate the techniques employed, complications, and anticipated longevity of function. PMID:24817471

  18. Noninvasive measurement of internal jugular venous oxygen saturation by photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Ke, Haixin; Reddy, Kavya; Sharma, Anshuman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    The metabolic rate and oxygen consumption of the brain is reflected in jugular venous oxygen saturation. In many clinical conditions, such as head trauma, stroke, and low cardiac output states, the brain is at risk for hypoxic-ischemic injury. The current gold standard for monitoring brain oxygenation is invasive and requires jugular vein catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance; and therefore it is rarely used. Photo-acoustic tomography in combination with ultrasound can be used to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein in real-time. This noninvasive method will enable earlier detection and prevention of impending hypoxic brain injury. A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser delivers light through an optical fiber bundle, and a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22) detects both the pulse-echo ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) signals. A custom-built multichannel data acquisition system renders co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images at 5 frames per second. After the jugular vein was localized in healthy volunteers, dualwavelength PA images were used to calculate the blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation from the internal jugular vein in vivo. The preliminary results raise confidence that this emerging technology can be used clinically as an accurate, noninvasive indicator of cerebral oxygenation.

  19. Current Status of the Application of Intracranial Venous Sinus Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kan; Yu, Tiecheng; Yuan, Yongjie; Yu, Jinlu

    2015-01-01

    The intracranial venous sinus is an important component of vascular disease. Many diseases involve the venous sinus and are accompanied by venous sinus stenosis (VSS), which leads to increased venous pressure and high intracranial pressure. Recent research has focused on stenting as a treatment for VSS related to these diseases. However, a systematic understanding of venous sinus stenting (VS-Stenting) is lacking. Herein, the literature on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), venous pulsatile tinnitus, sinus thrombosis, high draining venous pressure in dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and tumor-caused VSS was reviewed and analyzed to summarize experiences with VS-Stenting as a treatment. The literature review showed that satisfactory therapeutic effects can be achieved through stent angioplasty. Thus, the present study suggests that selective stent release in the venous sinus can effectively treat these diseases and provide new possibilities for treating intracranial vascular disease. PMID:26516306

  20. Jugular Venous Catheterization: A Case of Knotting

    PubMed Central

    Erk?l?ç, E.; Aksoy, M.; Gümü?, T.; Sar?, S.; Kesimci, E.

    2015-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman, diagnosed for cancer of the ovary, had a central catheter that was placed with difficulty through the right internal jugular vein intraoperatively. After oophorectomy, it was realized that the catheter was knotted. Thus, the central venous catheter was removed successfully using a traction technique in the operating room. Central venous catheter use may result in various complications, although it has been used as an invasive method for hemodynamic monitoring and fluid and drug infusion. Here, we present catheter knotting in a case with solutions for this complication, under literature review.

  1. [Valvular insufficiency after venous thrombosis. Experimental study].

    PubMed

    Pouchè, A; Gafà, M; Guadagni, G

    1977-01-01

    Venous thrombosis can produce lesions of valvular cusps which are generally ascribe to the phase of thrombus organization. Valvular lesions hold a very important role in the genesis of the post phlebitic chronic venous insufficiency. Experimental thrombosis had been induced in dogs with electrical stimulation of femoral veins to study morphological aspects of valvular cusps in various evolutive phases of thrombosis. Results emphasize too early onset and quick evolution of valvular damage. It can contribute to explain frequent failures of attempted therapy about prevention of post phlebitic syndromes. PMID:610713

  2. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  3. Thrombotic Venous Diseases of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Sabol, Timothy P.; Molina, Marco; Wu, George Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombotic venous diseases of the liver do not occur frequently, but when they do, they can present as difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The aim of this article is to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapeutic options of these serious vascular problems.

  4. To what extent might deep venous thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency share a common etiology?

    PubMed

    Malone, P Colm; Agutter, P S

    2009-08-01

    According to the valve cusp hypoxia hypothesis (VCHH), deep venous thrombosis is caused by sustained non-pulsatile (streamline) venous blood flow. This leads to hypoxemia in the valve pockets; hypoxic injury to the inner (parietalis) endothelium of the cusp leaflets activates the elk-1/egr-1 pathway, leading to leukocyte and platelet swarming at the site of injury and, potentially, blood coagulation. Here, we propose an extension of the VCHH to account for chronic venous insufficiency. First, should the foregoing events not proceed to frank thrombogenesis, the valves may nevertheless be chronically injured and become incompetent. Serial incompetence in lower limb valves may then generate ''passive'' venous hypertension. Second, should ostial valve thrombosis obstruct venous return from muscles via tributaries draining into the femoral vein, as Virchow illustrated, ''active'' venous hypertension may supervene: muscle contraction would force the blood in the vessels behind the blocked ostial valves to re-route. Passive or active venous hypertension opposes return flow, leading to luminal hypoxemia and vein wall distension, which in turn may impair vasa venarum perfusion; the resulting mural endothelial hypoxia would lead to leukocyte invasion of the wall and remodelling of the media. We propose that varicose veins result if gross active hypertension stretches the valve ''rings'', rendering attached valves incompetent caudad to obstructed sites, replacing normal centripetal flow in perforating veins with centrifugal flow and over-distending those vessels. We also discuss how hypoxemia-related venous/capillary wall lesions may lead to accumulation of leukocytes, progressive blockage of capillary blood flow, lipodermosclerosis and skin ulceration. PMID:19648868

  5. Radiotherapy, Bisphosphonates and Surgical Stabilization of Complete or Impending Pathologic Fractures in Patients with Metastatic Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolanczyk, Michal J.; Fakhrian, Khashayar; Adamietz, Irenäus A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the treatment outcomes of patients with metastatic bone disease with complete or impending pathologic fractures, who were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT), bisphosphonates or both after orthopedic stabilization. Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the results of RT, bisphosphonates or both after orthopedic stabilization for complete or impending pathologic fractures in 72 patients with skeletal metastases. After surgery, 32 patients (44%) were treated with RT alone (group 1), 31 patients (43%) were treated with RT and bisphosphonates (group 2) and 9 (13%) patients were treated with bisphosphonates (group 3), respectively. Patients were treated with a median dose of 30Gy (30-40 Gy/2-3Gy per fraction).The local tumor progression, pain progression and need for re-operation or re-radiotherapy were assessed from patients' medical records. Median follow-up time was 9 months. Results: Median overall survival time was 14 months (95% CI: 12-17). Secondary surgical intervention at the same location was necessary in 1 patient of group 1 (2%), 2 patients of group 2(5%) and 2 patients of group 3 (15%), respectively (p=0.097). Local tumor progress was observed in 3 patients of group 1 (9%), 2 patients of group 2 (7%) and 4 patients in group 3 (44%), respectively (p=0.021). Local pain progress was observed in 19%, 16% and 67% of the same groups (p=0.011). Conclusion: Our data confirm the efficacy and necessity of postoperative RT after orthopedic stabilization for metastatic bone disease to control the local disease. Bisphosphonates do not obviate the need for RT in the management of bone metastases after surgical stabilization. The combined treatment might lead to a better local tumor and pain control. PMID:26722368

  6. A Fatal Spontaneous Gas Gangrene due to Clostridium perfringens during Neutropenia of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Lim; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Ko, Yumi; Hyun, Ji In; Kim, Bo Kyoung; Seo, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jung Woo; Lee, Seok

    2014-09-01

    Most cases of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium species begin with trauma-related injuries but in rare cases, spontaneous gas gangrene (SGG) can occur when patients have conditions such as advanced malignancy, diabetes, or immunosuppression. Clostridium perfringens, a rare cause of SGG, exists as normal flora of skin and intestines of human. Adequate antibiotics with surgical debridement of infected tissue is the only curative therapeutic management. Mortality rate among adults is reported range of 67-100% and majority of deaths are occurred within 24 hours of onset. We experienced a case of SGG on the trunk, buttock and thigh in a neutropenic patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. His clinical course was rapid and fatal during pre-engraftment neutropenic period of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. PMID:25298910

  7. Postintervention duration of anticoagulation in venous surgery.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate-Hoek, A J; Prins, M H; Wittens, C H A; ten Cate, H

    2013-03-01

    For a substantial proportion of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), current treatment strategies are suboptimal and new treatment options are needed. Especially for the group of patients who are at the highest risk for post-thrombotic syndrome, new treatment modalities such as catheter-directed thrombolysis and additional stenting are being investigated. With current clinical studies addressing new technical options, the medical management of patients following these interventions deserves attention. The duration of anticoagulant treatment following surgical or radiological interventions for DVT seems not to be influenced by the presence of a venous stent. According to recent ACCP 2012 guidelines the anticoagulant management in patients who have had any method of thrombus removal performed, the same intensity and duration of anticoagulant therapy as in comparable patients who do not undergo thrombosis removal is recommended (Grade 1B). In the acute phase of thrombosis, irrespective of the technique and whether or not stenting is applied, immediate anticoagulation following the procedure is pertinent to reduce the risk of recurrent thrombosis and thrombus propagation. The long-term treatment duration after venous interventions therefore may be tailored based on common risk factors for recurrent thrombosis and the individual risk for bleeding. Selected thrombophilia factors, d-dimer assessment and residual venous thrombosis provide markers for recurrent DVT. Currently, vitamin K antagonists) provide the main anticoagulants for (prolonged) anticoagulation, while the new oral anticoagulants emerge as promising alternatives. In case prolonged anticoagulation after unprovoked DVT is not indicated, cardiovascular risk management is warranted because of an increased rate of arterial thrombotic events after DVT; aspirin may be indicated as secondary prevention against recurrent thrombosis (while providing primary prevention against arterial thrombosis). PMID:23482544

  8. Porto-spleno-mesenteric venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Battistelli, S; Coratti, F; Gori, T

    2011-02-01

    Porto-spleno-mesenteric (PSM) venous thrombosis is a rare clinical condition that, while being mostly unrecognized, is nonetheless often severe with a high morbidity and mortality. PSM venous thrombosis is the cause of as many as 5-10% of all abdominal ischemic events, and it presents with a highly variable and non-specific pattern of abdominal symptoms. Such complex and non-specific presentation can delay diagnosis, determining the poor clinical outcome of this condition. This review article discusses the information available on the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and general management of PSM venous thrombosis, with a focus on a number of some clinical issues that remain unaddressed. In particular, the current understanding of the predisposing factors and the heterogeneous clinical manifestations of this condition are described in detail. The recent advances in imaging techniques, which are leading to an improved diagnostic accuracy and facilitate an early diagnosis are also presented. Further, the indications and limits of both pharmacological and surgical treatment options are discussed. PMID:21248667

  9. Transpulmonary passage of venous air emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Hills, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-seven paralyzed anesthetized dogs were embolized with venous air to determine the effectiveness of the pulmonary vasculature for bubble filtration or trapping. Air doses ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 ml/kg min in 0.05-ml increments with ultrasonic Doppler monitors placed over arterial vessels to detect any microbubbles that crossed the lungs. Pulmonary vascular filtration of the venous air infusions was complete for the lower air doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 ml/kg min. When the air doses were increased to 0.35 ml/kg min, the filtration threshold was exceeded with arterial spillover of bubbles occurring in 50 percent of the animals and reaching 71 percent for 0.40 ml/kg min. Significant elevations were observed in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Systemic blood pressure and cardiac output decreased, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic pressure remained unchanged. The results indicate that the filtration of venous bubbles by the pulmonary vasculature was complete when the air infusion rates were kept below a threshold value of 0.30 ml/kg min.

  10. Analysis of genetic similarities between Clostridium perfringens isolates isolated from patients with gas gangrene and from hospital environment conducted with the use of the PFGE method.

    PubMed

    Brzychczy-W?och, Monika; Bulanda, Ma?gorzata

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of genetic similarity, with the use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), of Clostridium perfringens isolates originating from patients with gas gangrene and from the hospital environment. The study encompassed two patients with a clinical and microbiological diagnosis of gas gangrene, who were hospitalized in one of the hospitals of the Ma?opolska province in the time period between 31st March 2012 and 18th May 2012. Clostridium perfringens isolates genotyping indicated that the isolates originating from the two studied patients did not display genetic similarity and represented two different PFGE types, which corresponded to two different clones (clone A and B). Whereas the strains isolated from the hospital environment were genetically identical with the strain coming from the second patient and represented one PFGE type, which corresponded to one clone (clone A). As a result of the study, it is possible to conclude that both patients developed endogenous infection. Even so, the examination of the hospital environment indicates the possibility of the appearance of exogenous infections. It prompts recommending and following the exact regulations of sanitary regime in the ward and the operating theater if a patient is diagnosed with gas gangrene. PMID:24791817

  11. Transhepatic venous approach to permanent pacemaker placement in a patient with limited central venous access

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Adeel M; Harris, Gregory S; Movahed, Assad; Chiang, Karl S; Chelu, Mihail G; Nekkanti, Rajasekhar

    2015-01-01

    The end-stage renal disease population poses a challenge for obtaining venous access required for life-saving invasive cardiac procedures. In this case report, we describe an adult patient with end-stage renal disease in whom the hepatic vein was the only available access to implant a single-lead permanent cardiac pacemaker. A 63-year-old male with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis and permanent atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter presented with symptomatic bradycardia. Imaging studies revealed all traditional central venous access sites to be occluded/non-accessible. With the assistance of vascular interventional radiology, a trans-hepatic venous catheter was placed. This was then used to place a right ventricular pacing lead with close attention to numerous technical aspects. The procedure was completed successfully with placement of a single-lead permanent cardiac pacemaker. PMID:26380831

  12. Transhepatic venous approach to permanent pacemaker placement in a patient with limited central venous access.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Adeel M; Harris, Gregory S; Movahed, Assad; Chiang, Karl S; Chelu, Mihail G; Nekkanti, Rajasekhar

    2015-09-16

    The end-stage renal disease population poses a challenge for obtaining venous access required for life-saving invasive cardiac procedures. In this case report, we describe an adult patient with end-stage renal disease in whom the hepatic vein was the only available access to implant a single-lead permanent cardiac pacemaker. A 63-year-old male with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis and permanent atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter presented with symptomatic bradycardia. Imaging studies revealed all traditional central venous access sites to be occluded/non-accessible. With the assistance of vascular interventional radiology, a trans-hepatic venous catheter was placed. This was then used to place a right ventricular pacing lead with close attention to numerous technical aspects. The procedure was completed successfully with placement of a single-lead permanent cardiac pacemaker. PMID:26380831

  13. Venous Return and Clinical Hemodynamics: How the Body Works during Acute Hemorrhage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Tao; Baker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Venous return is a major determinant of cardiac output. Adjustments within the venous system are critical for maintaining venous pressure during loss in circulating volume. This article reviews two factors that are thought to enable the venous system to compensate during acute hemorrhage: 1) changes in venous elastance and 2) mobilization of…

  14. Core content for training in venous and lymphatic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Min, Robert J; Comerota, Anthony J; Meissner, Mark H; Carman, Teresa L; Rathbun, Suman W; Jaff, Michael R; Wakefield, Thomas W; Feied, Craig F

    2014-01-01

    The major venous societies in the United States share a common mission to improve the standards of medical practitioners, the educational goals for teaching and training programs in venous disease, and the quality of patient care related to the treatment of venous disorders. With these important goals in mind, a task force made up of experts from the specialties of dermatology, interventional radiology, phlebology, vascular medicine, and vascular surgery was formed to develop a consensus document describing the Core Content for venous and lymphatic medicine and to develop a core educational content outline for training. This outline describes the areas of knowledge considered essential for practice in the field, which encompasses the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with acute and chronic venous and lymphatic disorders. The American Venous Forum and the American College of Phlebology have endorsed the Core Content. PMID:25059735

  15. Venous Leg Ulcer in a Sarcoidosis Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Byun, Sang Young; Kim, In Su

    2015-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers, the most common form of leg ulcers, are relevant to the pathogenicity of pericapillary fibrin cuff. Sarcoidosis, a multiorgan granulomatous disease, causes fibrin deposition in tissues. We report a case of a 50-year-old man with venous leg ulcers coexisting with sarcoidosis. On the basis of the histologic findings, we propose the hypothesis that sarcoidosis patients are prone to the development of venous leg ulcers. PMID:26719645

  16. Venous Leg Ulcer in a Sarcoidosis Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Byun, Sang Young; Kim, In Su; Park, Kyoung Chan

    2015-12-01

    Venous leg ulcers, the most common form of leg ulcers, are relevant to the pathogenicity of pericapillary fibrin cuff. Sarcoidosis, a multiorgan granulomatous disease, causes fibrin deposition in tissues. We report a case of a 50-year-old man with venous leg ulcers coexisting with sarcoidosis. On the basis of the histologic findings, we propose the hypothesis that sarcoidosis patients are prone to the development of venous leg ulcers. PMID:26719645

  17. Transient reduction in venous susceptibility during posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Morgan; Wanono, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Delphine; Domont, Fanny; Trunet, Stéphanie; Dormont, Didier; Bertrand, Anne

    2015-11-15

    We report a case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in which followed-up MRI demonstrated a transient reduction in venous signal on initial SWAN images. The progressive normalization of venous signal on D10 and D40 imaging paralleled the progressive decrease of hyperperfusion on CBF images. Decreased venous susceptibility has never been reported in PRES; it relates most likely to a transient BOLD effect induced by brain hyperperfusion. PMID:26434616

  18. Sickle Cell Trait Causing Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Priyanka; Dhiman, Pratibha; Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is considered as a benign condition as these individuals carry only one defective gene and typically have their life span similar to the normal population without any health problems related to sickle cell. Only under extreme conditions, red cells become sickled and can cause clinical complications including hematuria and splenic infarction. Although twofold increased risk of venous thrombosis has been described in African Americans, there is no data available from Indian population. We here report a case of sickle cell trait from India whose index presentation was thrombosis of unusual vascular territory. PMID:26221548

  19. Sickle Cell Trait Causing Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Priyanka; Dhiman, Pratibha; Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is considered as a benign condition as these individuals carry only one defective gene and typically have their life span similar to the normal population without any health problems related to sickle cell. Only under extreme conditions, red cells become sickled and can cause clinical complications including hematuria and splenic infarction. Although twofold increased risk of venous thrombosis has been described in African Americans, there is no data available from Indian population. We here report a case of sickle cell trait from India whose index presentation was thrombosis of unusual vascular territory. PMID:26221548

  20. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    Meppiel, Elodie; Crassard, Isabelle; de Latour, Régis Peffault; de Guibert, Sophie; Terriou, Louis; Chabriat, Hugues; Socié, Gérard; Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disorder of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by hemolytic anemia, marrow failure, and a high incidence of life-threatening venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous system is the second most frequent location of thrombosis after hepatic veins. However, data about PNH-related cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are very scarce because of the rarity of both the disorders. We report a French study about PNH patients with CVT. Patients were recruited retrospectively, from the Société Française d’Hématologie (SFH) registry of 465 patients with PNH; the Lariboisière registry of 399 patients with CVT; and a direct contact with 26 French Hematology Units. We review cases reported since 1938 in the English and French language literature. We then compared patients of our series with cases from the literature, with non-PNH-related CVT cases from Lariboisière registry, and with PNH patients without CVT from SFH registry. Fifteen patients were included between 1990 and 2012. Most patients were women (12/15) and half of them presented associated hormonal venous thrombosis risk factors. Three patients had concomitant hepatic vein thrombosis. CVT was the first manifestation of PNH in 4 patients. No major difference in CVT characteristics was found compared with non-PNH-related CVT cases, except for a younger age at diagnosis in PNH patients (P?

  1. A case report on management of synergistic gangrene following an incisional abdominal hernia repair in an immunocompromised obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Merali, N.; Almeida, R.A.R.; Hussain, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a case on conservative management of salvaging the mesh in an immunocompromised morbidly obese patient, who developed a synergistic gangrene infection following a primary open mesh repair of an incisional hernia. Presentation of case Our patient presented with a surgical wound infection, comorbidities were Chronic Lymphoblastic Leukemia (CLL), Body Mass Index (BMI) of 50, hypertension and diet controlled type-2 diabetes. In surgery, wide necrotic wound debridement, early and repetitive wound drainages with the use of a large pore polypropylene mesh and a detailed surgical follow up was required. High dose intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) was administrated in combination with adopting a multidisciplinary approach was key to our success. Discussion Stoppa Re et al. complied a series of 360 ventral hernia mesh repairs reporting an infection rate of 12% that were managed conservatively. However, our selective case is unique within current literature, being the first to illustrate mesh salvage in a morbid obese patient with CLL. Recent modifications in mesh morphology, such as lower density, wide pores, and lighter weight has led to considerable improvements regarding infection avoidance. Conclusion This case has demonstrated how a planned multidisciplinary action can produce prosperous results in a severely obese immunocompromised patient with an SSI, following an incisional hernia repair. PMID:26322822

  2. [Definition, classification and diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency - part II].

    PubMed

    Kasperczak, Jaros?aw; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Breborowicz, H Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Venous insufficiency can be defined as a fixed venous outflow disturbance of the limbs. It is caused by the malfunction of the venous system, that may or may not be associated with venous valvular insufficiency and may involve the superficial or deep venous system of the lower limbs, or both. The CEAP scale includes clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic aspects and has been used in the assessment of venous insufficiency Clinical classification comprises of 7 groups. It takes into account the appearance of the skin of the lower limbs, presence of edema, teleangiectasis and varicose ulcers. CLINICAL GRADING: Group C0 - no visible changes in the clinical examination; Group C1 - telangiectasis, reticular veins, redness of the skin around the ankles; Group C2 - varicose veins, Group C3 - the presence of edema without skin changes; Group C4 - lesions dependent of venous diseases (discoloration, blemishes, lipodermatosclerosis); C5 Group - skin changes described above with signs of healed venous ulcers; Group C6 - skin lesions such as in groups C1 to C4 plus active venous ulcers. ETIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION INCLUDES: Ec - congenital defects of the venous system, Ep - primary pathological changes of the venous system, without identification of their causes; Es - secondary causes of venous insufficiency of known etiology (post-thrombotic, post-traumatic, etc.). There are many methods of assessing the venous system. One of the most accurate methods is an ascending phlebography which is especially useful in determining detailed anatomy of the venous system, venous patency and identification of perforans veins. The second method may be a descending phlebography useful in determining the venous reflux and morphology of venous valves. Another radiological method is varicography in which the injection of the contrast medium directly into the veins is performed. It is especially useful in the ,,mapping" of venous connections. Trans-uterine phlebography when contrast medium is injected into the bottom of the uterus and its flow is observed, is a very rare test. A similar method is used in a selective phlebography of the ovarian vein and internal iliac vein. This examination is performed when there is a suspicion of connections between varicose veins of the inferior extremities and the pelvis, in case of the occluded iliac and femoral veins. However these tests are highly invasive, causing a lot of discomfort and are connected with numerous complications, particularly the development of venous thromboembolism. An invasive study but not exposing to the emission of ionizing radiation, is a measurement of the marching pressure (known also as ambulatory venous pressure - AVP). Ultrasound Doppler is the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of venous system. Color Doppler technique is irreplaceable due to its non-invasiveness, availability constantly improving of the ultrasound machines and is the method of choice in pregnancy Unfortunately clinical correlation of Doppler ultrasound and thrombosis is bad. Invasive methods, which include various types of phlebographies, have been reserved only for cases of very high diagnostic doubt. PMID:23488310

  3. Aged venous thrombi: radioimmunoimaging with fibrin-specific monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Rosebrough, S.F.; Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.; Kudryk, B.J.; Subramanian, G.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.A.; Witanowski, L.S.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Urrutia, E.

    1987-02-01

    Radioimmunoimaging of fresh canine venous thrombi with a murine monoclonal antibody specific for human and dog fibrin has been reported. Successful imaging of canine deep venous thrombi 1, 3, and 5 days old at the time of antibody injection is reported. Images were positive in all dogs, and the uptake of fibrin-specific antibody was equivalent to that of fresh thrombi.

  4. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Farrukh S; Schneck, Michael J; Morales-Vidal, Sarkis; Javaid, Furqan; Ruland, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are part of the spectrum of venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is one of the most frequent medical complications in stroke patients. The risk of VTE is even higher after hemorrhagic stroke. This article reviews various screening methods, diagnostic techniques, and pharmacologic as well as nonpharmacologic means of preventing VTE after hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:23611851

  5. Endovascular treatments for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongming; Sang, Hongfei; Dai, Qiliang; Xu, Gelin

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon but potentially fatal condition. CVST usually occurs young adults with a female predominance. The current mainstay for treating CVST is anticoagulation with heparin. However, more aggressive interventions, endovascular treatment as an example, may be indicated in selected patients who are non-responsive to heparin and other anticoagulants. Endovascular approaches include catheter-based local chemical thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty and mechanical thrombectomy, all of which may rapidly recanalize the occluded venous sinus, restore the blood flow, reduce the increased intracranial pressure, and subsequently relieve the corresponding symptoms. However, as an invasive strategy, endovascular procedures per se may cause complications, such as intracranial hemorrhage, vessel dissection and pulmonary embolization, which may substantially decrease the benefit-risk ratio of the treatment. Due to the rareness of the condition and the limited indication of this invasive strategy, safety and efficacy of endovascular procedures in treating CVST are less feasible to be evaluated in large randomized clinical trails. Therefore, the evidences for justifying this treatment strategy are largely derived from case reports, cohort studies and clinical observations. PMID:25771984

  6. [Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Malý, J; Widimský, J; Dulícek, P

    2009-03-01

    Many of medical patients are significant risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is the most common cause of preventable death in hospitalized patients. Prophylaxis is highly effective in reducing the risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and should be used in most hospitalized patients. Various strategies improve adherence to evidence-based guidelines on the use of prophylaxis, including audit and feedback, and automatic reminders. The important clinical risk factors for PE (or venous thromboembolism VTE) include advanced age, general anaesthesia, prolonged immobility or paralysis, previous VTE, cancer, duration of surgery, orthopaedic surgery of lower limb leg, hip or pelvic fracture, major trauma, stroke, obesity, varicose veins, postoperative infection and heart failure. Medical patients ad bed rest or who are sick are in moderate risk of VTE and evidence based guidelines recommended thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, or low dose of unfractionated heparin or Fondaparinux. For all situations both guidelines recommended against the use of aspirin for VTE prevention. PMID:19378845

  7. [Cerebral venous thrombosis. Report of 76 cases].

    PubMed

    Bousser, M G

    1991-01-01

    Progress in neuroimaging has led to a considerable change in our knowledge of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). Together with a series of 76 cases, a review of literature is presented. CVT is a far from negligible variety of stroke. It may occur at any age and despite numerous causes (nowadays mostly non infective), the proportion of cases of unknown aetiology remains around 25%. Superior sagittal sinus and lateral sinus are the most frequently involved, often associated with cortical vein thrombosis. Cavernous sinus thrombosis remains the most common form of septic thrombosis. Thrombosis of the galenic system and of cerebellar veins are uncommon. The clinical picture is extremely variable with a mixture of focal signs (deficits or seizures) and symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. The mode of onset is also variable, over hours, days, weeks or months. The presentation can thus be very misleading, simulating an arterial stroke or an abscess, an encephalitis, a tumor or a pseudo-tumor cerebri. CT scan is crucial to rule out other conditions and angiography to confirm the diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis. MRI is very performing since it visualizes the thrombus itself and allows a non invasive follow up. Most cases have a benign course but mortality is still around 30% in infective cases and 10% in non infective ones. Although it has long been debated, the benefit of anticoagulant (heparin) is now well established. PMID:1940650

  8. Papilloedema associated with dural venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Tara Leigh; Slagle, W Scott; Elkins, Meghan; Eckermann, Daniel; Musick, Angela

    2014-03-01

    Papilloedema is a diagnostic term used exclusively to describe optic disc oedema associated with increased intracranial pressure. Septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis has become an increasingly rare cause of papilloedema because of the widespread availability of antimicrobial agents; however, it is imperative for optometrists to maintain vigilance for this pathologic process. Presented is a case of a 77-year-old Caucasian male with a complaint of blurred vision and non-specific, diffuse headache. He had a right sixth cranial nerve palsy and bilateral disc oedema. Raised intracranial pressure was confirmed by lumbar puncture. Neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography in conjunction with cytological assessment of the cerebral spinal fluid led to a probable diagnosis of mastoiditis causing multiple dural venous sinus thrombi of the superior sagittal and right transverse sinuses. Sequential evaluation of this complex case is displayed along with pertinent differential diagnoses for optic disc oedema and a review of current standards for diagnosis and management of papilloedema from dural sinus thrombosis. PMID:23865959

  9. Unilateral Loss of Spontaneous Venous Pulsations in an Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mader, Thomas H.; Gibson, C. Robert; Lee, Andrew G.; Patel, Nimesh; Hart, Steven; Pettit, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous venous pulsations seen on the optic nerve head (optic disc) are presumed to be caused by fluctuations in the pressure gradient between the intraocular and retrolaminar venous systems. The disappearance of previously documented spontaneous venous pulsations is a well-recognized clinical sign usually associated with a rise in intracranial pressure and a concomitant bilateral elevation of pressure in the subarachnoid space surrounding the optic nerves. In this correspondence we report the unilateral loss of spontaneous venous pulsations in an astronaut 5 months into a long duration space flight. We documented a normal lumbar puncture opening pressure 8 days post mission. The spontaneous venous pulsations were also documented to be absent 21 months following return to Earth.. We hypothesize that these changes may have resulted from a chronic unilateral rise in optic nerve sheath pressure caused by a microgravity-induced optic nerve sheath compartment syndrome.

  10. Venous return curves obtained from graded series of valsalva maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The effects were studied of a graded series of valsalva-like maneuvers on the venous return, which was measured transcutaneously in the jugular vein of an anesthetized dog, with the animal serving as its own control. At each of five different levels of central venous pressure, the airway pressure which just stopped venous return during each series of maneuvers was determined. It was found that this end-point airway pressure is not a good estimator of the animal's resting central venous pressure prior to the simulated valsalva maneuver. It was further found that the measured change in right atrial pressure during a valsalva maneuver is less than the change in airway pressure during the same maneuver, instead of being equal, as had been expected. Relative venous return curves were constructed from the data obtained during the graded series of valsalva maneuvers.

  11. Venous thromboembolism in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Kenet, Gili; Nowak-Göttl, Ulrike

    2012-09-01

    Thrombosis in children is gaining increased awareness, as advanced medical care has increased treatment intensity of hospitalized pediatric patients. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of children and neonates with venous thromboembolism (VTE) are mostly extrapolated from adult data, despite the uniqueness of their hemostatic system. Whereas inherited thrombophilia (IT) have been established as risk factors for VTE in adults, in children with idiopathic VTE and in pediatric populations in which thromboses were associated with medical diseases, IT have been described as additional risk factors. Follow-up data for VTE recurrence in children suggest a recurrence rate between 3% (neonates) and 21% (idiopathic VTE). Apart from underlying medical conditions, recently reported systematic reviews on pediatric VTE and stroke have shown significant associations between thrombosis and presence of factor V G1691A, factor II G20210A, protein C-, protein S- and antithrombin deficiency, even more pronounced when combined IT were involved. The pooled odds ratios (OR: single IT) for VTE onset ranged from 2.4 for the factor II G20210A mutation (cerebrovascular occlusion) to 9.4 in children with antithrombin deficiency (venous VTE). In addition, the pooled OR for persistent antiphospholipid antibodies/lupus anticoagulants was 6.6 for children with cerebrovascular occlusion and 4.9 for pediatric cases with venous VTE. The factor II G20210A mutation (OR: 2.1), protein C- (OR: 2.4), S- (OR: 3.1), and antithrombin deficiency (OR: 3.0) did also play a significant role at recurrence. Among primarily asymptomatic family members of pediatric VTE index cases annual VTE incidences were 2.82% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.63-4.80%) in carriers of antithrombin, protein C, or protein S-deficiency, 0.42% (0.12-0.53%) for factor II G202010A, 0.25% (0.12-0.53%) for factor V G1691A, and 0.10% (0.06-0.17%) in relatives with no IT. Based on these data diagnosis, screening and treatment issues will be discussed. PMID:22959549

  12. Impending ionospheric anomaly preceding the Iquique Mw8.2 earthquake in Chile on 2014 April 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinyun; Li, Wang; Yu, Hongjuan; Liu, Zhimin; Zhao, Chunmei; Kong, Qiaoli

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the coupling relationship between great earthquake and ionosphere, the GPS-derived total electron contents (TECs) by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe and the foF2 data from the Space Weather Prediction Center were used to analyse the impending ionospheric anomalies before the Iquique Mw8.2 earthquake in Chile on 2014 April 1. Eliminating effects of the solar and geomagnetic activities on ionosphere by the sliding interquartile range with the 27-day window, the TEC analysis results represent that there were negative anomalies occurred on 15th day prior to the earthquake, and positive anomalies appeared in 5th day before the earthquake. The foF2 analysis results of ionosonde stations Jicamarca, Concepcion and Ramey show that the foF2 increased by 40, 50 and 45 per cent, respectively, on 5th day before the earthquake. The TEC anomalous distribution indicates that there was a widely TEC decrement over the epicentre with the duration of 6 hr on 15th day before the earthquake. On 5th day before the earthquake, the TEC over the epicentre increased with the amplitude of 15 TECu, and the duration exceeded 6 hr. The anomalies occurred on the side away from the equator. All TEC anomalies in these days were within the bounds of equatorial anomaly zone where should be the focal area to monitor ionospheric anomaly before strong earthquakes. The relationship between ionospheric anomalies and geomagnetic activity was detected by the cross wavelet analysis, which implied that the foF2 was not affected by the magnetic activities on 15th day and 5th day prior to the earthquake, but the TECs were partially affected by anomalous magnetic activity during some periods of 5th day prior to the earthquake.

  13. Venous outflow reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation: Dealing with venous anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Long-Bin; Thorat, Ashok; Yang, Horng-Ren; Li, Ping-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of the vascular outflow tract of partial liver grafts has received considerable attention in the past, especially in the setting of right liver grafts with undrained segments. Hepatic venous outflow reconstruction is an important factor for successful living donor liver transplantation outcome. However, in presence of undrained anterior sector and presence of multiple short hepatic veins that drain substantial portions of liver, outflow reconstruction without backtable venoplasty may lead to severe graft congestion and subsequent graft dysfunction. Various backtable venoplasty techniques in presence of multiple hepatic veins that can be used in either right- or left-lobe liver transplantation are devised to ensure a single, wide outflow channel. In this overview, various techniques to overcome the hepatic venous variations of liver allograft and outflow reconstruction are discussed. PMID:26722643

  14. Venous outflow reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation: Dealing with venous anomalies.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Long-Bin; Thorat, Ashok; Yang, Horng-Ren; Li, Ping-Chun

    2015-12-24

    The reconstruction of the vascular outflow tract of partial liver grafts has received considerable attention in the past, especially in the setting of right liver grafts with undrained segments. Hepatic venous outflow reconstruction is an important factor for successful living donor liver transplantation outcome. However, in presence of undrained anterior sector and presence of multiple short hepatic veins that drain substantial portions of liver, outflow reconstruction without backtable venoplasty may lead to severe graft congestion and subsequent graft dysfunction. Various backtable venoplasty techniques in presence of multiple hepatic veins that can be used in either right- or left-lobe liver transplantation are devised to ensure a single, wide outflow channel. In this overview, various techniques to overcome the hepatic venous variations of liver allograft and outflow reconstruction are discussed. PMID:26722643

  15. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis and Venous Hemorrhagic Infarction in a Young Woman

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Yuri; Lee, Jun-Beom; Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon cause of cerebral infarction, compared to arterial diseases. It is often unrecognized at initial presentation due to the diversity of causes and clinical manifestations. A 29-year-old female patient complained of severe headache and presented at the emergency room with altered consciousness. Brain computed tomography and brain magnetic resonance image revealed the left sigmoid sinus thrombosis with venous hemorrhagic infarction (VHI) in the left temporal lobe. The patient had no past medical and family history of bleeding diathesis. The laboratory finding at the admission showed severe iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), and protein C and S activities were decreased. After the neurosurgery, iron replacement, and neurorehabilitation, the patient had a good recovery. There has been no known recurrence. We report our therapeutic intervention on a very rare case of CVST and VHI, with IDA as a probable cause of cerebral thrombosis. PMID:25379501

  16. Venous stasis, deep venous thrombosis and airline flight: can the seat be fixed?

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Harry B; Gertz, S David

    2007-05-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolization (PE) associated with air travel are directly related to the duration of flight and seating in non-aisle seats. In this study, we assessed a modification of a standard airline seat (NewSit) designed to decrease the incidence of DVT on long flights. This seat raises the feet from the floor, facilitates mobility, and permits intermittent calf compression. Air plethysmography (APG) was used to measure the ejected venous volume of the calves of 25 volunteers before and after sitting for 5 hours on the conventional and modified seats. The mean percent (+/- standard deviation [SD]) increase in venous volume for the conventional seat after 5 hours of continuous sitting was significantly greater than that for the modified seat (26.6 +/- 18.5% vs 3.5 +/- 13.1%, P < 0.0001 by paired, two-tailed t-test). Improvement (any) was seen in 23 of 25 patients, with 15 of the 23 (65%) being better than 1 SD of the mean (P < 0.0001 by Chi-square analysis). This study suggests that the leg movement and calf compression associated with the modified airline seat (NewSit) may decrease the probability of DVT due to prolonged periods of sitting by reducing venous stasis as measured by APG. Further studies involving a larger randomized patient cohort, as well as analysis of the effect of this modification on specific coagulation markers such as tissue plasminogen activator and fibrin D-dimer, are planned. PMID:17484958

  17. Development of Clostridium septicum gas gangrene as an adverse effect of clindamycin-induced Clostridium difficile infection in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Kiser, Casey J; Urish, Kenneth L; Boateng, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium myonecrosis or gas gangrene is a life-threatening infection characterized by either traumatic or atraumatic etiology. It has been widely described in patients with traumatic open wounds and in immunocompromised patients, including malignancy. A third source can result from natural flora in the gastrointestinal tract after bowel ischemia. This is a rare occurrence and is even less commonly described in the pediatric population. We present a pediatric patient who developed Clostridium septicum myonecrosis as an iatrogenic complication from clindamycin-induced Clostridium difficile ischemic colitis. PMID:24590337

  18. Systemic Venous Inflow to the Liver Allograft to Overcome Diffuse Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lupascu, Cristian; Darius, Tom; Goffette, Pierre; Lerut, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse splanchnic venous thrombosis (DSVT), formerly defined as contraindication for liver transplantation (LT), is a serious challenge to the liver transplant surgeon. Portal vein arterialisation, cavoportal hemitransposition and renoportal anastomosis, and finally combined liver and small bowel transplantation are all possible alternatives to deal with this condition. Five patients with preoperatively confirmed extensive splanchnic venous thrombosis were transplanted using cavoportal hemitransposition (4x) and renoportal anastomosis (1x). Median follow-up was 58 months (range: 0,5 to 130 months). Two patients with previous radiation-induced peritoneal injury died, respectively, 18 days and 2 months after transplantation. The three other patients had excellent long-term survival, despite the fact that two of them needed a surgical reintervention for severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Extensive splanchnic venous thrombosis is no longer an absolute contraindication to liver transplantation. Although cavoportal hemitransposition and renoportal anastomosis undoubtedly are life-saving procedures allowing for ensuring adequate allograft portal flow, careful follow-up of these patients remains necessary as both methods are unable to completely eliminate the complications of (segmental) portal hypertension. PMID:26539214

  19. Provisional Matrix Deposition in Hemostasis and Venous Insufficiency: Tissue Preconditioning for Nonhealing Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Tony J.; Broadbent, James A.; McGovern, Jacqui A.; Broszczak, Daniel A.; Parker, Christina N.; Upton, Zee

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds represent a major burden on global healthcare systems and reduce the quality of life of those affected. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the biochemistry of wound healing progression. However, knowledge regarding the specific molecular processes influencing chronic wound formation and persistence remains limited. Recent Advances: Generally, healing of acute wounds begins with hemostasis and the deposition of a plasma-derived provisional matrix into the wound. The deposition of plasma matrix proteins is known to occur around the microvasculature of the lower limb as a result of venous insufficiency. This appears to alter limb cutaneous tissue physiology and consequently drives the tissue into a ‘preconditioned’ state that negatively influences the response to wounding. Critical Issues: Processes, such as oxygen and nutrient suppression, edema, inflammatory cell trapping/extravasation, diffuse inflammation, and tissue necrosis are thought to contribute to the advent of a chronic wound. Healing of the wound then becomes difficult in the context of an internally injured limb. Thus, interventions and therapies for promoting healing of the limb is a growing area of interest. For venous ulcers, treatment using compression bandaging encourages venous return and improves healing processes within the limb, critically however, once treatment concludes ulcers often reoccur. Future Directions: Improved understanding of the composition and role of pericapillary matrix deposits in facilitating internal limb injury and subsequent development of chronic wounds will be critical for informing and enhancing current best practice therapies and preventative action in the wound care field. PMID:25785239

  20. [Ambulatory treatment of deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Metz, D; Hezard, N; Brasselet, C

    2001-11-01

    Conventional treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been based, until recently, on non-fractionated heparin by continuous intravenous infusion in hospital until effective anticoagulation could be obtained by oral anticoagulants introduced early. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) seems to be as effective and has a better bio-availability, which means that there are fewer adverse effects. This usage has logically led to the increase in the possibilities of treatment of DVT at home. However, certain precautions are necessary, especially the evaluation of the individual patient's risk with this strategy. This requires multidisciplinary collaboration and the respect of strict rules (precise diagnostic objective, hospital admission at the slightest doubt of pulmonary embolism) to demonstrate the value of ambulatory LMWH therapy which would improve patient comfort and allow early mobilisation. PMID:11794978

  1. Venous thromboembolism: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Michele G; Hooper, W Craig; Critchley, Sara E; Ortel, Thomas L

    2010-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), defined as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or both, affects an estimated 300,000-600,000 individuals in the U.S. each year, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. It is a disorder that can occur in all races and ethnicities, all age groups, and both genders. With many of the known risk factors-advanced age, immobility, surgery, obesity-increasing in society, VTE is an important and growing public health problem. Recently, a marked increase has occurred in federal and national efforts to raise awareness and acknowledge the need for VTE prevention. Yet, many basic public health functions-surveillance, research, and awareness-are still needed. Learning and understanding more about the burden and causes of VTE, and raising awareness among the public and healthcare providers through a comprehensive public health approach, has enormous potential to prevent and reduce death and morbidity from deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism throughout the U.S. PMID:20331949

  2. Cardiovascular Pressures with Venous Gas Embolism and Decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Robinson, R.; Sutton, T.; Kemper, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    Venous gas embolism (VGE) is reported with decompression to a decreased ambient pressure. With severe decompression, or in cases where an intracardiac septal defect (patent foramen ovale) exists, the venous bubbles can become arterialized and cause neurological decompression illness. Incidence rates of patent foramen ovale in the general population range from 25-34% and yet aviators, astronauts, and deepsea divers who have decompression-induced venous bubbles do not demonstrate neurological symptoms at these high rates. This apparent disparity may be attributable to the normal pressure gradient across the atria of the heart that must be reversed for there to be flow potency. We evaluated the effects of: venous gas embolism (0.025, 0.05 and 0.15 ml/ kg min for 180 min.) hyperbaric decompression; and hypobaric decompression on the pressure gradient across the left and right atria in anesthetized dogs with intact atrial septa. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was used as a measure of left atrial pressure. In a total of 92 experimental evaluations in 22 dogs, there were no reported reversals in the mean pressure gradient across the atria; a total of 3 transient reversals occurred during the peak pressure gradient changes. The reasons that decompression-induced venous bubbles do not consistently cause serious symptoms of decompression illness may be that the amount of venous gas does not always cause sufficient pressure reversal across a patent foramen ovale to cause arterialization of the venous bubbles.

  3. Relative Changes of Cerebral Arterial and Venous Blood Volumes During Increased Cerebral Blood Flow

    E-print Network

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    Relative Changes of Cerebral Arterial and Venous Blood Volumes During Increased Cerebral Blood Flow-Gi Kim1* Measurement of cerebral arterial and venous blood volumes during increased cerebral blood flow is dependent only on venous blood, not arterial blood. Thus, relative venous and arterial blood volume (r

  4. [Venous thromboembolic risk during repatriation for medical reasons].

    PubMed

    Stansal, A; Perrier, E; Coste, S; Bisconte, S; Manen, O; Lazareth, I; Conard, J; Priollet, P

    2015-12-01

    In France, approximately 3000 people are repatriated every year, either in a civil situation by insurers. Repatriation also concerns French army soldiers. The literature is scarce on the topic of venous thromboembolic risk and its prevention during repatriation for medical reasons, a common situation. Most studies have focused on the association between venous thrombosis and travel, a relationship recognized more than 60 years ago but still subject to debate. Examining the degree of venous thromboembolic risk during repatriation for medical reasons must take into account several parameters, related to the patient, to comorbid conditions and to repatriation modalities. Appropriate prevention must be determined on an individual basis. PMID:26548535

  5. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-03-15

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.

  6. Venous return and clinical hemodynamics: how the body works during acute hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Baker, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Venous return is a major determinant of cardiac output. Adjustments within the venous system are critical for maintaining venous pressure during loss in circulating volume. This article reviews two factors that are thought to enable the venous system to compensate during acute hemorrhage: 1) changes in venous elastance and 2) mobilization of unstressed blood volume into stressed blood volume. We show that mobilization of unstressed blood volume is the predominant and more effective mechanism in preserving venous pressure. Preservation of mean circulatory filling pressure helps sustain venous return and thus cardiac output during significant hemorrhage. PMID:26628647

  7. The fetal venous system, Part II: ultrasound evaluation of the fetus with congenital venous system malformation or developing circulatory compromise.

    PubMed

    Yagel, S; Kivilevitch, Z; Cohen, S M; Valsky, D V; Messing, B; Shen, O; Achiron, R

    2010-07-01

    The human fetal venous system is well-recognized as a target for investigation in cases of circulatory compromise, and a broad spectrum of malformations affecting this system has been described. In Part I of this review, we described the normal embryology, anatomy and physiology of this system, essential to the understanding of structural anomalies and the sequential changes encountered in intrauterine growth restriction and other developmental disorders. In Part II we review the etiology and sonographic appearance of malformations of the human fetal venous system, discuss the pathophysiology of the system and describe venous Doppler investigation in the fetus with circulatory compromise. PMID:20205158

  8. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in a large vein. This device enables ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity to flow into the venous...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in a large vein. This device enables ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity to flow into the venous...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in a large vein. This device enables ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity to flow into the venous...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in a large vein. This device enables ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity to flow into the venous...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in a large vein. This device enables ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity to flow into the venous...

  13. Upper extremity impedance plethysmography in patients with venous access devices.

    PubMed

    Horne, M K; Mayo, D J; Alexander, H R; Steinhaus, E P; Chang, R C; Whitman, E; Gralnick, H R

    1994-10-01

    Central venous access devices (VADs) are often associated with thrombotic obstruction of the axillary-subclavian venous system. To explore the accuracy of impedance plethysmography (IPG) in identifying this complication we performed IPG on 35 adult cancer patients before their VADs were placed and approximately 6 weeks later. At the time of the second IPG the patients also underwent contrast venography of the axillary-subclavian system. The venograms revealed partial venous obstruction in 12 patients (34%) and complete obstruction in two (5.7%). Although the IPG results from venographically normal and abnormal patients overlapped extensively, mean measurements of venous outflow were significantly lower in the patient population with abnormal venograms (P = 0.052 for Vo; P = 0.0036 for Vo/Vc). In our hands, therefore, upper extremity IPG cannot be used to make clinical decisions about individual patients with VADs, but it can distinguish venographically normal and abnormal populations. PMID:7878628

  14. Incidence of Venous Thromboembolic Events Among Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Josephine P; Shaheen, Wassim H; Truong, Son V; Brown, Edward F; Beasley, Brent W; Gajewski, Byron J

    2003-01-01

    Chronic care facility stay has been shown to be an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Review of the literature, however, reveals a paucity of data addressing the issue of venous thromboembolism in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of venous thromboembolic events among nursing home residents. A retrospective cohort study was derived from data compiled in the State of Kansas Minimum Data Set (MDS) for nursing home residents from July 1, 1997 to July 1, 1998. A total of 18,661 residents (median age, 85 years, 74% female, 95% white) satisfied the study criteria. The outcome measures of the primary endpoint—development of a venous thromboembolic event (VTE)—were obtained from the MDS quarterly health assessments and the Medicare ICD-9 codes. We determined the incidence of VTE among nursing home residents as 1.30 events per 100 person-years of observation. PMID:14687280

  15. Current challenges in diagnostic imaging of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Menno V; Klok, Frederikus A

    2015-12-01

    Because the clinical diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is nonspecific, integrated diagnostic approaches for patients with suspected venous thromboembolism have been developed over the years, involving both non-invasive bedside tools (clinical decision rules and D-dimer blood tests) for patients with low pretest probability and diagnostic techniques (compression ultrasound for deep-vein thrombosis and computed tomography pulmonary angiography for pulmonary embolism) for those with a high pretest probability. This combination has led to standardized diagnostic algorithms with proven safety for excluding venous thrombotic disease. At the same time, it has become apparent that, as a result of the natural history of venous thrombosis, there are special patient populations in which the current standard diagnostic algorithms are not sufficient. In this review, we present 3 evidence-based patient cases to underline recent developments in the imaging diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26637722

  16. Seizure in Pregnancy Following Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Farzi, Farnoush; Abdollahzadeh, Mehrsima; Faraji, Roya; Chavoushi, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seizure involves less than 1% of pregnancies; however it is associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare, but potentially life-threatening cause of seizure during pregnancy, presenting primarily as seizure in 12% - 31.9% of cases. Pregnancy and puerperium are known as the risk factors of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Case Presentation: Here is presented a case of seizure after delivery by cesarean section in an otherwise healthy woman. The final diagnosis was cerebral venous sinus thrombosis probably due to hypercoagulable state in pregnancy. Conclusions: If seizure occurs during the peripartum period, along with providing complete cardiovascular and respiratory support, advanced diagnostic measures are needed and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis should be considered as a possible diagnosis. PMID:26161329

  17. Current challenges in diagnostic imaging of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Menno V; Klok, Frederikus A

    2015-11-19

    Because the clinical diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is nonspecific, integrated diagnostic approaches for patients with suspected venous thromboembolism have been developed over the years, involving both non-invasive bedside tools (clinical decision rules and D-dimer blood tests) for patients with low pretest probability and diagnostic techniques (compression ultrasound for deep-vein thrombosis and computed tomography pulmonary angiography for pulmonary embolism) for those with a high pretest probability. This combination has led to standardized diagnostic algorithms with proven safety for excluding venous thrombotic disease. At the same time, it has become apparent that, as a result of the natural history of venous thrombosis, there are special patient populations in which the current standard diagnostic algorithms are not sufficient. In this review, we present 3 evidence-based patient cases to underline recent developments in the imaging diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26585807

  18. Management of venous bullet embolus in a child.

    PubMed

    Doud, Andrea N; Hines, Michael H; Pranikoff, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Bullet embolus is a rare complication of penetrating missile injury in children with only a handful of case reports. We describe a seven year old with a venous bullet embolus to the right ventricle. PMID:25197862

  19. Multiple medullary venous malformations decreasing cerebral blood flow: Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Tomura, N.; Inugami, A.; Uemura, K.; Hadeishi, H.; Yasui, N. )

    1991-02-01

    A rare case of multiple medullary venous malformations in the right cerebral hemisphere is reported. The literature review yielded only one case of multiple medullary venous malformations. Computed tomography scan showed multiple calcified lesions with linear contrast enhancement representing abnormal dilated vessels and mild atrophic change of the right cerebral hemisphere. Single-photon emission computed tomography using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine demonstrated decreased cerebral blood flow in the right cerebral hemisphere.

  20. Disturbed blood flow regulation in venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jünger, M; Klyscz, T; Hahn, M; Rassner, G

    1996-01-01

    Microangiopathy of the skin has been recognized as an important factor in the development of skin diseases connected with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Here the relationship between postcapillary transmural pressure and precapillary vaso-constriction - we call it the postural feedback system - was examined in venous ulcers (n = 12) and compared to blood flow regulation in the inner ankle area of healthy controls (n = 12). Blood flow changes were measured by laser Doppler fluxmetry. Changes in the laser Doppler flux (LDF) minus the biological zero value were measured after 3 min of arterial occlusion, during 3 min of venous occlusion, while the leg was elevated and while it was lowered and expressed relative to the pretest resting value. In venous ulcers the LDF remained nearly unchanged after arterial occlusion (3 vs. 190%, p < 0.001), leg elevation caused an LDF decrease contrary to what was seen in the controls (-17 vs. +80%, p < 0.001), in the lowered leg an LDF decrease was found (-51 vs. -65%) and venous occlusion led to a profound reduction of flux (-78 vs. -84%). In severe CVI the precapillary arterioles seem to be dilated even with the leg at heart level. This finding means that the postural feedback system under resting conditions is upregulated, and 'luxus' hyperperfusion results. The upregulated postural feedback system contributes to the cutaneous microangiopathy due to chronic venous congestion. PMID:8951524

  1. Venous obstruction and cerebral perfusion during experimental cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Tovedal, Thomas; Jonsson, Ove; Zemgulis, Vitas; Myrdal, Gunnar; Thelin, Stefan; Lennmyr, Fredrik

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effects on cerebral perfusion by experimental venous congestion of the superior vena cava (SVC) during bicaval cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) at 34 °C, pigs were subjected to SVC obstruction at levels of 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% of baseline SVC flow at two arterial flow levels (low, LQ, high, HQ). The cerebral perfusion was examined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), cerebral microdialysis and blood gas analysis. SVC obstruction caused significant decreases in the NIRS tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and in SVC oxygen saturations (P<0.05, both groups), while the mixed venous saturation was decreased only in the LQ group. Sagittal sinus venous saturations were measured in the HQ group and found significantly reduced in response to venous congestion (P<0.05). No microdialysis changes were seen at the group level, however, individual ischemic patterns in terms of concomitant venous desaturation, decreased TOI and increased lactate/pyruvate occurred in both groups. The total venous drainage remained stabile throughout the experiment, indicating increased flow in the inferior vena cava cannula. The results indicate that SVC congestion may impair cerebral perfusion especially in the case of compromised arterial flow during CPB. Reduced SVC cannula flow may pass undetected during bicaval CPB, if SVC flow is not specifically monitored. PMID:20696750

  2. [Surgical treatment of chronic venous insufficiency in own material].

    PubMed

    Kózka, Mariusz; Kulawik, Jan; Zub, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays most issues regarding venous disorders are described as chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)-which is defined as all symptoms that manifestate as impaired blood outflow from the lower limbs or in general the result of blood stasis in the deep and superficial venous system. Due to the fact that the symptomatology of venous diseases is wide, the treatment should be multioriented and often as well multi-specialized. The treatment of CVI needs a good understanding of the etiology of the primary insufficiency of the superficial and the deep venous systems. The main purpose of the surgical therapy is to remove the reflux in the great saphenous vein and the perforating veins. Additionally, during the surgical treatment the various veins should be removed in a way that gives the best cosmetic effect. In this article we presented the analysis of different surgical treatments in patients diagnosed with CVI 2-4 grade according to CEAP scale. The patients were hospitalized in our Clinic between april 1998 and april 2003. This group consisted of 311 patients, among them were 257 patients with primary varices, 25 patients with recurrent varices and 29 with postthrombotic syndrome. The choice of surgery was based on clinical examination and the result of venous USG. The most frequent (62%) surgical therapy was removal of the great saphenous vein with miniphlebectomy. To make the treatment more efficient we used the endoscopic method of obliteration of the insufficient perforating veins in lower limbs, called subfascial endoscopic perforating surgery (SEPS). PMID:14679693

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide increases resistance to venous return in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Y.W.; Frohlich, E.D.; Trippodo, N.C.

    1987-05-01

    To examine mechanisms by which administration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) decreases venous return, the authors compared the hemodynamic effects of ANP furosemide (FU), and hexamethonium (HEX) with those of vehicle (VE) in anesthetized rats. Compared with VE, ANP reduced mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, and cardiac index and increased calculated resistance to venous return. /sup 141/Ce-labeled microspheres were used to determine cardiac output. Mean circulatory filling pressure, distribution of blood flow between splanchnic organs and skeletal muscles, and total peripheral resistance remained unchanged. FU increased urine output similar to that of ANP, yet produced no hemodynamic changes, dissociating diuresis, and decreased cardiac output. HEX lowered arterial pressure through a reduction in total peripheral resistance without altering cardiac output or resistance to venous return. The results confirm previous findings that ANP decreases cardiac output through a reduction in venous return and suggest that this results partly from increased resistance to venous return and not from venodilation or distribution of blood flow.

  4. Severe Acute Respiratory Failure due to Inhalation of Baby Powder and Successfully Treated with Venous-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Panarello, Giovanna; Occhipinti, Giovanna; Piazza, Marcello; Capitanio, Guido; Vitulo, Patrizio; Gridelli, Bruno; Pilato, Michele; Arcadipane, Antonio

    2015-12-15

    Accidental inhalation of powder is a potential problem for infants. The clinical effects of inhaling powder depend on the powder contents, degree of aspiration, and the child's underlying systemic response. We present a case of accidental inhalation of rice starch powder in a 17-month-old girl, which led to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome responsive to conventional treatment, ultimately requiring venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:26657704

  5. Imaging Diagnosis of Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, S.; Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is a broad term that includes Budd-Chiari syndrome and occlusion of veins that constitute the portal venous system. Due to the common risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of these clinically distinct disorders, concurrent involvement of two different regions is quite common. In acute and subacute SVT, the symptoms may overlap with a variety of other abdominal emergencies while in chronic SVT, the extent of portal hypertension and its attendant complications determine the clinical course. As a result, clinical diagnosis is often difficult and is frequently reliant on imaging. Tremendous improvements in vascular imaging in recent years have ensured that this once rare entity is being increasingly detected. Treatment of acute SVT requires immediate anticoagulation. Transcatheter thrombolysis or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is used in the event of clinical deterioration. In cases with peritonitis, immediate laparotomy and bowel resection may be required for irreversible bowel ischemia. In chronic SVT, the underlying cause should be identified and treated. The imaging manifestations of the clinical syndromes resulting from SVT are comprehensively discussed here along with a brief review of the relevant clinical features and therapeutic approach. PMID:26600801

  6. Venous thromboembolism in COPD hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Barba, Raquel; Zapatero, Antonio; Marco, Javier; Losa, Juan E; Plaza, Susana; Casas, Jose Manuel; Canora, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). We analyzed a large Spanish database to determine the incidence of VTE in these patients during hospitalization. A retrospective chart review of cohort of consecutive patients admitted with COPD as the primary reason for discharge in Spain between January 1st 2006 and December 31st 2007 was performed. For each patient, demographic data, risk factors for VTE and the diagnosis of VTE during hospitalization was recorded. We analyzed the clinical data of 313,233 adults with acute exacerbations of COPD admitted to the hospital at any public centre in Spain, in 2006 and 2007. We identify 3,562 new diagnosed VTE events among 270,840 COPD patients hospitalized more than two days (incidence 1.32%). Hospitalized-acquired VTE risk factors were male gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.77; CI95% 1.66-1.90), neoplasic disease (OR 2.93 CI95% 2.69-3.16, systemic arterial disease (OR 1.17 CI95% 1.10-1.36), decubitus ulcer (OR 1.19 CI95% 1.01-1.43), diabetes (OR 0.74 IC95% 0.69-0.81), and atrial fibrillation (OR 0.79 CI95% 0.72-0.87). VTE appears as a major threat to patients admitted for acute exacerbation of COPD, and pharmacologic prophylaxis should be considered in all high risk situations. PMID:22016148

  7. Pulmonary Venous Obstruction in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Chuang-Chi; Chang, Hung; Yang, Tsai-Sheng; Wen, Ming-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background. We study the clinical significance and management of pulmonary venous obstruction in cancer patients. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study to characterize the syndrome that we term “pulmonary vein obstruction syndrome” (PVOS) between January 2005 and March 2014. The criteria for inclusion were (1) episodes of shortness of breath; (2) chest X-ray showing abnormal pulmonary hilum shadow with or without presence of pulmonary edema and/or pleural effusion; (3) CT scan demonstrating pulmonary vein thrombosis/tumor with or without tumor around the vein. Results. Two hundred and twenty-two patients developed PVOS. Shortness of breath was the main symptom, which was aggravated by chemotherapy in 28 (13%), and medical/surgical procedures in 21 (9%) and showed diurnal change in intensity in 32 (14%). Chest X-rays all revealed abnormal pulmonary hilum shadows and presence of pulmonary edema in 194 (87%) and pleural effusion in 192 (86%). CT scans all showed pulmonary vein thrombosis/tumor (100%) and surrounding the pulmonary veins by tumor lesions in 140 patients (63%). PVOS was treated with low molecular weight heparin in combination with dexamethasone, and 66% of patients got clinical/image improvement. Conclusion. Physicians should be alert to PVOS when shortness of breath occurs and chest X-ray reveals abnormal pulmonary hilum shadows. PMID:26425121

  8. The incidence of venous thromboembolism and practice of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in hospitalized cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cirrhotic patients are characterized by a decreased synthesis of coagulation and anticoagulation factors. The coagulopathy of cirrhotic patients is considered to be auto-anticoagulation. Our aim was to determine the incidence and predictors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and examine the practice of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis among hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed in a tertiary teaching hospital. We included all adult patients admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009. We grouped our cohort patients in two groups, cirrhotic patients without VTE and cirrhotic with VTE. Results Over one year, we included 226 cirrhotic patients, and the characteristics of both groups were similar regarding their clinical and laboratory parameters and their outcomes. Six patients (2.7%) developed VTE, and all of the VTEs were DVT. Hepatitis C was the most common (51%) underlying cause of liver cirrhosis, followed by hepatitis B (22%); 76% of the cirrhotic patients received neither pharmacological nor mechanical DVT prophylaxis. Conclusion Cirrhotic patients are at risk for developing VTE. The utilization of DVT prophylaxis was suboptimal. PMID:21244669

  9. Living-Engineered Valves for Transcatheter Venous Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Benedikt; Robert, Jérôme; Ksiazek, Agnieszka; Wyss, Yves; Frese, Laura; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Kehl, Debora; Modregger, Peter; Peter, Silvia; Stampanoni, Marco; Proulx, Steven; Falk, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) represents a major global health problem with increasing prevalence and morbidity. CVI is due to an incompetence of the venous valves, which causes venous reflux and distal venous hypertension. Several studies have focused on the replacement of diseased venous valves using xeno- and allogenic transplants, so far with moderate success due to immunologic and thromboembolic complications. Autologous cell-derived tissue-engineered venous valves (TEVVs) based on fully biodegradable scaffolds could overcome these limitations by providing non-immunogenic, non-thrombogenic constructs with remodeling and growth potential. Methods: Tri- and bicuspid venous valves (n=27) based on polyglycolic acid–poly-4-hydroxybutyrate composite scaffolds, integrated into self-expandable nitinol stents, were engineered from autologous ovine bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelialized. After in vitro conditioning in a (flow) pulse duplicator system, the TEVVs were crimped (n=18) and experimentally delivered (n=7). The effects of crimping on the tissue-engineered constructs were investigated using histology, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, grating interferometry (GI), and planar fluorescence reflectance imaging. Results: The generated TEVVs showed layered tissue formation with increasing collagen and glycosaminoglycan levels dependent on the duration of in vitro conditioning. After crimping no effects were found on the MSC level in scanning electron microscopy analysis, GI, histology, and extracellular matrix analysis. However, substantial endothelial cell loss was detected after the crimping procedure, which could be reduced by increasing the static conditioning phase. Conclusions: Autologous living small-diameter TEVVs can be successfully fabricated from ovine BM-MSCs using a (flow) pulse duplicator conditioning approach. These constructs hold the potential to overcome the limitations of currently used non-autologous replacement materials and may open new therapeutic concepts for the treatment of CVI in the future. PMID:24156382

  10. The Current Role of Venous Sampling in the Localization of Endocrine Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Jeshen H. G. Drake, William; Matson, Matthew

    2007-07-15

    Endocrine venous sampling plays a specific role in the diagnosis of endocrine disorders. In this article, we cover inferior petrosal sinus sampling, selective parathyroid venous sampling, hepatic venous sampling with arterial stimulation, adrenal venous sampling, and ovarian venous sampling. We review their indications and the scientific evidence justifying these indications in the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic endocrine tumors, Conn's syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytomas, and androgen-secreting ovarian tumors. For each sampling technique, we compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of other imaging techniques and, where possible, look at how it impacts patient management. Finally, we incorporate venous sampling into diagnostic algorithms used at our institution.

  11. Review of the cost of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria M; Hogue, Susan; Preblick, Ronald; Kwong, Winghan Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second most common medical complication and a cause of excess length of hospital stay. Its incidence and economic burden are expected to increase as the population ages. We reviewed the recent literature to provide updated cost estimates on VTE management. Methods Literature search strategies were performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, Health Economic Evaluations Database, EconLit, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 2003–2014. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications. Results Eighteen studies were identified and are summarized in this review; of these, 13 reported data from the USA, four from Europe, and one from Canada. Three main cost estimations were identified: cost per VTE hospitalization or per VTE readmission; cost for VTE management, usually reported annually or during a specific period; and annual all-cause costs in patients with VTE, which included the treatment of complications and comorbidities. Cost estimates per VTE hospitalization were generally similar across the US studies, with a trend toward an increase over time. Cost per pulmonary embolism hospitalization increased from $5,198–$6,928 in 2000 to $8,764 in 2010. Readmission for recurrent VTE was generally more costly than the initial index event admission. Annual health plan payments for services related to VTE also increased from $10,804–$16,644 during the 1998–2004 period to an estimated average of $15,123 for a VTE event from 2008 to 2011. Lower costs for VTE hospitalizations and annualized all-cause costs were estimated in European countries and Canada. Conclusion Costs for VTE treatment are considerable and increasing faster than general inflation for medical care services, with hospitalization costs being the primary cost driver. Readmissions for VTE are generally more costly than the initial VTE admission. Further studies evaluating the economic impact of new treatment options such as the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants on VTE treatment are warranted. PMID:26355805

  12. Calf pump activity influencing venous hemodynamics in the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Recek, Cestmir

    2013-03-01

    Calf muscle pump is the motive force enhancing return of venous blood from the lower extremity to the heart. It causes displacement of venous blood in both vertical and horizontal directions, generates ambulatory pressure gradient between thigh and lower leg veins, and bidirectional streaming within calf perforators. Ambulatory pressure gradient triggers venous reflux in incompetent veins, which induces ambulatory venous hypertension in the lower leg and foot. Bidirectional flow in calf perforators enables quick pressure equalization between deep and superficial veins of the lower leg; the outward (into the superficial veins) oriented component of the bidirectional flow taking place during calf muscle contraction is no pathological reflux but a physiological centripetal flow streaming via great saphenous vein into the femoral vein. Calf perforators are communicating channels between both systems making them conjoined vessels; they are not involved in the generation of pathological hemodynamic situations, nor do they cause ambulatory venous hypertension. The real cause why recurrences develop has not as yet been cleared. Pressure gradient arising during calf pump activity between the femoral vein and the saphenous remnant after abolition of saphenous reflux triggers biophysical and biochemical events, which might induce recurrence. Thus, abolition of saphenous reflux removes the hemodynamic disturbance, but at the same time it generates precondition for reflux recurrence and for the comeback of the previous pathological situation; this chain of events has been called hemodynamic paradox. PMID:24436580

  13. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Bever, Katherine M; Masha, Luke I; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C; Sloan, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60-11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  14. Preliminary clinical investigations of a new noninvasive venous pulse oximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Daniel; Smith, Peter R.; Caine, Michael P.; Spyt, Tomasz; Boehm, Maria; Machin, David

    2003-10-01

    For decades, the monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation, SvO2 has been performed invasively using fibre-optic catheters. This procedure is not without risk as complications may arise from catheterisation. The group has devised a new non-invasive venous oximetry method which involves inducing regular modulations of the venous blood volume and associated measurement of those modulations using optical means. A clinical investigation was conducted in Glenfield Hospital, UK to evaluate the sensitivity of the new technique to haemodynamic changes such as Cardiac Output (CO) in intraoperative and postoperative cardiac patients. Preliminary trials on patients recovering from cardiac surgery yielded an average correlation of r = 0.72 between CO at different Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) augmentation levels and SvO2 measured by the new venous oximeter. In intraoperative patients undergoing off-pump cardiac surgery, SvO2 recorded by the new technique responded to unplanned events such as a cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: The new venous oximetry technique is a promising technique which responds to haemodynamic changes such as CO and with further development might offer an alternative means of monitoring SvO2 non-invasively.

  15. Evaluation of lymphatic function: abnormal lymph drainage in venous disease.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, P S

    1995-09-01

    The essential function of the lymphatic system is to return to the vascular system extravascular molecules and colloids too large to re-enter directly. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy employs this principle and has proved useful in the differential diagnosis of chronic limb swelling, in the identification of subtle or incipient lymphoedema and in edema of compound origin where a lymphatic component would otherwise go unnoticed. In a study exploring the contribution of lymphatic insufficiency to poor wound healing in chronic venous leg ulceration 32 patients were compared to 22 normal control subjects using quantitative lymphoscintigraphy. In subjects less than 65 years lymphatic function was reduced in the ulcerated limbs compared to normal limbs (p<0.0001). In those aged more than 65 years lymphatic function was lower in ulcerated limbs but not significantly so, owing to a decline in lymph drainage with age in normal controls (r = 0.62, p = 0.0001). In patients with unilateral leg ulceration lymphatic function was reduced in the ulcerated limb compared with the contralateral leg (<65 years, p = 0.05; >65 years, p = 0.03). The finding of impaired lymph drainage with chronic venous insufficiency suggests that lymphatic pathology may be as important as venous pathology in the "chronic venous leg ulcer" and treatment should be aimed at improving lymphatic as well as venous function. PMID:8919262

  16. Feline gangrenous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Courtney R.

    2013-01-01

    A 3.7-kg, 3-year-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with the chief complaint of anorexia and lethargy of 3 days duration with a noticeable decrease in body condition and a large open wound on her ventral caudal abdomen. A diagnosis of acute mastitis with gland abscessation was made. The patient was successfully treated with oral antibiotics and open wound management using surgical debridement and lavage followed by wound dressings using honey. PMID:23997269

  17. Chemotherapy-induced persistent serpentine supra-venous hyperpigmented eruption and persistent supra-venous erythematous eruption: case report.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, P; Lissia, A; Cottoni, F

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the case of an 85-year-old male affected by classic Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS) since 1994. The disease was widespread over much of the skin surface. Since 1995 the patient had undergone several chemotherapy treatments with good, but not lasting results. Due to a worsening in the pathology, in October 2005 the patient was prescribed a further cycle of vinorelbine. Twenty-four hours after the first infusion, followed by isotonic sodium chloride solution vein wash, a supra-venous serpentine erythematous lesion appeared directly above infusion site. The lesion extended centripetally from the injection point and involved the whole supra-venous area. Over the following days, a gradual variation in lesion colour, from erythematous to hyperpigmented, was observed. Given this clinical and histological picture, the diagnosis of persistent serpentine supra-venous hyperpigmented eruption (PSSHE) was made. Draft of a rare secondary effect whose pathogenesis still remain to explain. The literature holds reports of another skin manifestation with similar supra-venous characteristics: persistent supra-venous erythematous eruption (PSSE), clinical entity that enters in differential diagnosis with the PSSHE. Many of the drugs used in chemotherapy have been indicated as responsible for these peculiar side-effects. To the authors' knowledge, the literature reports only one PHSSE case induced by i.v. vinorelbine infusion. PMID:19218916

  18. Nontraumatic vascular emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute venous occlusion.

    PubMed

    Haage, Patrick; Krings, Timo; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2002-11-01

    Risk factors for acute venous occlusion range from prolonged immobilization to hypercoagulability syndromes, trauma, and malignancy. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of acute venous occlusion and to assess the value of interventional strategies for venous thrombosis treatment in an emergency setting.First, diagnosis and treatment of the most common form of venous occlusion, at the level of the lower extremities, is presented, followed by pelvic vein and inferior vena cava occlusion, mesenteric venous thrombosis, upper extremity occlusion, acute cerebral vein thrombosis, and finally acute venous occlusion of hemodialysis access.In acute venous occlusion of the lower extremity phlebography is still the reference gold standard. Presently, duplex ultrasound with manual compression is the most sensitive and specific noninvasive test. Limitations of ultrasonography include isolated distal calf vein occlusion, obesity, and patients with lower extremity edema. If sonography is nondiagnostic, venography should be considered. Magnetic resonance venography can differentiate an acute occlusion from chronic thrombus, but because of its high cost and limited availability, it is not yet used for the routine diagnosis of lower extremity venous occlusion only. Regarding interventional treatment, catheter-directed thrombolysis can be applied to dissolve thrombus in charily selected patients with symptomatic occlusion and no contraindications to therapy. Acute occlusion of the pelvic veins and the inferior vena cava, often due to extension from the femoropopliteal system, represents a major risk for pulmonary embolism. Color flow Doppler imaging is often limited owing to obesity and bowel gas. Venography has long been considered the gold standard for identifying proximal venous occlusion. Both CT scanning and MR imaging, however, can even more accurately diagnose acute pelvis vein or inferior vena cava occlusion. MRI is preferred because it is noninvasive, does not require contrast agent, carries no exposure to ionizing radiation, and is highly accurate and reproducible. Apart from catheter-directed thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy has proven to be a quick and safe treatment modality by enabling the recanalization of thrombotic occlusions in conjunction with minimal invasiveness and a low bleeding risk. Mechanical thrombectomy devices should only be used in conjunction with a temporary cava filter.Contrast-enhanced CT is at present considered the examination of choice for acute mesenteric vein occlusion which has mortality rates as high as 80%. Patients with proven acute mesenteric venous occlusion and contraindications to surgical therapy and no identified bleeding disposition without looming bowel ischemia or infarction are possible contenders to the less invasive percutaneous approach either by (in)direct thrombolysis or mechanical means. Ultrasonography is the primary imaging modality for the diagnosis of upper extremity thrombosis. Computed tomography and MRI are in addition helpful in diagnosing central chest vein occlusions. The interventionalist is rarely involved in the treatment of this entity. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is known to improve lysis rates. Together with balloon angioplasty good results have been obtained. If stenosis or thrombus remains after thrombolysis and angioplasty, stent placement should follow. Within the first two weeks, thrombosed dural sinus and cerebral venous vessels are typically hyperdense on CT compared with brain parenchyma; after the course of 2 weeks, the thrombus will become isodense. In MRI an axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence, an axial diffusion-weighted MRI, coronal T1-weighted spin-echo and T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequences, a coronal gradient-echo and a 3D phase-contrast venous angiogram should be performed. Local thrombolysis is needed only when patients have an exacerbation of clinical symptoms or imaging signs of worsening disease despite sufficient anticoagulation therapy. Acute occlusions of dia

  19. Fecal Impaction Causing Pelvic Venous Compression and Edema.

    PubMed

    Naramore, Sara; Aziz, Faisal; Alexander, Chandran Paul; Methratta, Sosamma; Cilley, Robert; Rocourt, Dorothy

    2015-09-28

    Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema. PMID:26500749

  20. Fecal Impaction Causing Pelvic Venous Compression and Edema

    PubMed Central

    Naramore, Sara; Aziz, Faisal; Alexander, Chandran Paul; Methratta, Sosamma; Cilley, Robert; Rocourt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema. PMID:26500749

  1. Bilateral Emphysematous Pyelonephritis with Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Mao Li; NORDING, Hasnizal; LIM, Chen Hong

    2015-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare life-threatening condition caused by a severe acute necrotising infection of the renal parenchyma and its perinephric tissues, and it is commonly seen in diabetic patients. There is a rare association between emphysematous pyelonephritis and hepatic portal venous gas. Hepatic portal venous gas is an uncommon radiological finding, which implies a significant underlying abdominal disease. The management of emphysematous pyelonephritis has evolved from prompt nephrectomy to medical therapy. In the present report, we present a case of a diabetic woman diagnosed with bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis with hepatic portal venous gas that was successfully managed medically despite the presence of poor prognostic factors, such as acute renal failure and thrombocytopenia. PMID:26715900

  2. Cortical venous thrombosis following exogenous androgen use for bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Herrman, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few reports of patients developing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after androgen therapy. We present a young man who developed cortical venous thrombosis after using androgens to increase muscle mass. He was hospitalised for parasthesia and dyspraxia in the left hand followed by a generalised tonic-clonic seizure. At admission, he was drowsy, not fully orientated, had sensory inattention, pronation drift and a positive extensor response, all on the left side. The patient had been using anabolic steroids (dainabol 20 mg/day) for the last month for bodybuilding. CT angiography showed a right cortical venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was started with intravenous heparin for 11 days and oral anticoagulation (warfarin) thereafter. A control CT angiography 4 months later showed resolution of the thrombosis. He recovered fully. PMID:23389726

  3. Primary hyperaldosteronism: comparison of CT, adrenal venography, and venous sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Geisinger, M.A.; Zelch, M.G.; Bravo, E.L.; Risius, B.F.; O'Donovan, P.B.; Borkowski, G.P.

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-nine patients with primary hyperaldosteronism were evaluated with computed tomography (CT), adrenal venous sampling, and adrenal venography. Twenty-three patients had aldosteronomas and six had bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia. Sixteen (70%) of the adenomas were accurately located by CT. All nodules of 1.5 cm or larger diameter and 50% of nodules 1.0 to 1.4 cm in diameter were demonstrated. Nodules of less than 1.0 cm in diameter generally were not detected. High-resolution CT appeared more sensitive than standard CT (75% vs 58%). Adrenal venous sampling for aldosterone assay was the most sensitive of the three methods, localizing 22 (96%) of the 23 adenomas. Eighteen (78%) of the adenomas were identified by adrenal venography, although two patients with bilateral cortical hyperplasia were mistakenly diagnosed as having a small adenoma. No such false-positive studies were encountered with CT or adrenal venous sampling.

  4. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis after Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    MATSUBARA, Teppei; AYUZAWA, Satoshi; AOKI, Tsukasa; IKEDA, Go; SHIIGAI, Masanari; MATSUMURA, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a simple procedure, but there are several potential complications. We describe the first reported case of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) after VPS. A 69-year-old man suffering from normal pressure hydrocephalus underwent left VPS. Two months later he developed CVT and cerebral venous hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the thrombus formation just adjacent to the shunt tube. One possible cause is compression of the cortical vein after brain shift and/or tension of the cortical vein due to intracranial hypotension (IH). A protein C deficiency was also detected. Surgeons should be aware that cerebral venous thrombosis can occur after VPS. PMID:24257484

  5. Venous malformations: Sclerotherapy with a mixture of ethanol and lipiodol

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Jin-Suck; Shin, Kyoo-Ho; Na, Jae-Bum; Won, Jong-Yun; Hahn, Soo-Bong

    1997-07-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the usefulness of a mixture of absolute ethanol and lipiodol in the management of venous malformations. Methods. Percutaneous sclerotherapy was performed with a mixture of absolute ethanol and lipiodol (9:1) in 17 patients with venous malformations, once in 12 patients, twice in 5. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by pain reduction. Conventional radiographs (n=15) and posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging (n=5) were obtained for the follow-up evaluation. Results. Sclerotherapy was successful in all but two patients. The therapeutic effect was excellent in two patients, good in seven, fair in five, and poor in one. Radiopacity of lipiodol was beneficial for monitoring the procedure rather than for follow-up evaluations. Areas with low signal-intensity strands were increased on T2-weighted images obtained after the sclerotherapy. Conclusion. Sclerotherapy with a mixture of ethanol and lipiodol is effective in treating venous malformations.

  6. Deep venous thrombosis screening in patients with inherited bleeding disorders and central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Cost, C R; Journeycake, J M

    2011-11-01

    Children with inherited bleeding disorders often require central venous catheters (CVCs). Although CVCs are known to be complicated by deep venous thrombosis (DVT), little is known about the timeline of DVT development or risk of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). The aim of this study was to determine the timeline and confirm the incidence of thrombosis in patients with bleeding disorders who have CVCs. In 2002, we instituted a screening programme to monitor for CVC-related complications in children with haemophilia and von Willebrand disease. This is a retrospective review of this cohort. All children with CVC followed up between 1 January 2000 and 1 June 2009 were evaluated for DVT every 24 months with contrast venography and Doppler sonography. An institutional PTS severity scale was utilized at each visit. Thirty-six patients had 37 CVCs placed. Thirty patients had imaging studies, with DVT observed in 14 (47%). Most cases of DVT were diagnosed at the first venogram (median CVC duration 26 months). There were no abnormal ultrasound results. Sixteen patients (44%) had clinical findings consistent with PTS, including 10 (71%) with an abnormal venogram. Dilated chest wall veins appeared to be more strongly associated with underlying DVT (positive predictive value of 0.8) than arm circumference discrepancy. Successful transition to use of peripheral veins occurred at a median of 11 months after abnormal venograms. CVC-related DVT is common in children with inherited bleeding disorders and likely occurs earlier than previously thought. Clinical signs of PTS are also common, but long-term sequelae and severity of PTS are not known. PMID:21435117

  7. Deep Venous Thrombosis Screening in Patients with Inherited Bleeding Disorders and Central Venous Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Cost, Carrye R.; Journeycake, Janna M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Children with inherited bleeding disorders often require central venous catheters (CVC). Although CVCs are known to be complicated by deep venous thrombosis (DVT), little is known about the timeline of DVT development or risk of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Aim To determine the timeline and confirm the incidence of thrombosis in patients with bleeding disorders who have CVCs. Methods In 2002 we instituted a screening program to monitor for CVC-related complications in children with hemophilia and von Willebrand disease. This is a retrospective review of this cohort. All children with CVC followed between January 1, 2000 and June 1, 2009 were evaluated for DVT every 24 months with contrast venography and Doppler sonography. An institutional PTS severity scale was utilized at each visit. Results Thirty-six patients had 37 CVCs placed. Thirty patients had imaging studies, with DVT observed in 14 (47%). Most DVT were diagnosed at the first venogram (median CVC duration 26 months). There were no abnormal ultrasound results. Sixteen patients (44%) had clinical findings consistent with PTS, including 10 (71%) with an abnormal venogram. Dilated chest wall veins appeared to be more strongly associated with underlying DVT (positive predictive value of 0.8) than arm circumference discrepancy. Successful transition to use of peripheral veins occurred at a median of 11 months after abnormal venograms. Conclusions CVC-related DVT is common in children with inherited bleeding disorders, and likely occurs earlier than previously thought. Clinical signs of PTS are also common, but long-term sequelae and severity of PTS are not known. PMID:21435117

  8. Sulodexide for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Bignamini, Angelo A.; Davì, Giovanni; Palareti, Gualtiero; Matuška, Ji?í; Holý, Martin; Pawlaczyk-Gabriel, Katarzyna; Džupina, Andrej; Sokurenko, German Y.; Didenko, Yury P.; Andrei, Laurentia D.; Lessiani, Gianfranco; Visonà, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background— Patients with a first episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism have a high risk of recurrence after discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy. Extending anticoagulation reduces the risk of recurrence but is associated with increased bleeding. Sulodexide, a glycosaminoglycan, exerts antithrombotic and profibrinolytic actions with a low bleeding risk when administered orally, but its benefit for preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism is not well known. Methods and Results— In this multicenter, double-blind study, 615 patients with first-ever unprovoked venous thromboembolism who had completed 3 to 12 months of oral anticoagulant treatment were randomly assigned to sulodexide 500 lipasemic units twice daily or placebo for 2 years, in addition to elastic stockings. The primary efficacy outcome was recurrence of venous thromboembolism. Major or clinically relevant bleeding was the primary safety outcome. Venous thromboembolism recurred in 15 of the 307 patients who received sulodexide and in 30 of the 308 patients who received placebo (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27–0.92; P=0.02). The analysis in which lost to follow-up was assigned to failure yielded a risk ratio among treated versus control subjects of 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.35–0.85; P=0.009). No major bleeding episodes occurred; 2 patients in each treatment group had a clinically relevant bleeding episode. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups. Conclusion— Sulodexide given after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment reduced the risk of recurrence in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism, with no apparent increase of bleeding risk. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/. Identifier: EudraCT number 2009-016923-77. PMID:26408273

  9. Obstruction of Venous Drainage Linked to Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ke; Chao, A-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chung, Chih-Ping; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Sheng, Wen-Yung; Wu, Jiang; Hu, Han-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal extracranial venous drainage modality has been considered an etiology of transient global amnesia (TGA). Evidence suggests that the transmission of the intrathoracic/intraabdominal pressure during a Valsalva maneuver (VM) is mainly through the vertebral venous system, and patency of internal jugular vein (IJV) is essential for venous drainage and pressure releasing. We hypothesize that obstruction of IJV venous drainage is a contributing factor in TGA pathogenesis. A magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol was used in 45 TGA patients and 45 age- and sex-matched controls to assess the morphologies of IJV, brachiocephalic vein (BCV) and asymmetry of transverse sinus (TS). The IJV was divided into the upper- and middle-IJV segments. Compared to the controls, TGA patients had significantly higher rates of moderate and severe compression/stenosis at the bilateral upper-IJV segment (left: 37.8% vs. 17.8%, P = 0.0393; right: 57.8% vs.15.6%, P<0.0012), in left BCV (60% vs. 8.9%, P<0.0004), and in TS hypoplasia (53.3%% vs. 31.1%, P = 0.0405). The prevalence of at least one site of venous compression/stenosis in IJV or BCV was significantly higher in patients than in controls (91.1% vs. 33.3%, P<0.0004). The diameter of the left TS in MRV, but not in T1 contrast imaging, was significantly smaller in TGA patients than in controls (0.31±0.21 vs. 0.41±0.19, P = 0.0290), which was compatible with downstream venous stenosis/obstruction. TGA patients have a higher prevalence of compression/stenosis of the bilateral IJV and the left BCV and TS hypoplasia, which is new evidence that supports the role of extracranial veins in TGA pathogenesis. PMID:26173146

  10. 77 FR 24718 - Scientific Information Request on Chronic Venous Ulcers Treatments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ...Scientific Information Request on Chronic Venous Ulcers Treatments AGENCY: Agency for...HHS. ACTION: Request for Scientific Information...public information requests, including via the...chronic venous ulcer treatments, including...

  11. Mapping hV4 and ventral occipital cortex: The venous eclipse

    E-print Network

    Wandell, Brian A.

    Mapping hV4 and ventral occipital cortex: The venous eclipse Department of Psychology, Stanford: The venous eclipse. Journal of Vision, 10(5):1, 1­22, http://journalofvision.org/content/10/5/1, doi:10

  12. Subclavian Vein Stent Fracture and Venous Motion.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Taubman, Kevin; Claiborne, Paul; Blebea, John

    2015-10-01

    Primary subclavian vein stents are not recommended for venous thoracic outlet syndrome before surgical decompression by first rib resection due to a high risk of fracture because they are compressed between the clavicle and first rib. After rib removal, however, stent insertion has been advocated for venous restenosis, and it is felt that stent fracture is unlikely to occur. We present a case suggesting that repetitive differential vein movement during respiration may be one of the causative factors for stent fractures occurring in this anatomic region. PMID:26122410

  13. Venous surgery in erectile dysfunction: therapeutic strategy and results.

    PubMed

    Austoni, E; Colombo, F; Mantovani, F; Trinchieri, A

    1992-01-01

    The therapeutic rationale of venous surgery is to create an effective obstacle to the pathologically increased venous outflow, determined by an intrinsic pathology of the cavernous bodies. In the last 15 years, many techniques have been proposed, and our therapeutic approach has evolved with our knowledge of penile haemodynamics. Up to October 1990, we performed 316 operations for the relief of impotence. In a 2-year follow-up our recurrence rates were as follows: DDV plus corporpexy (n = 50): 26% (n = 13); DDV plus crura plication (n = 34): 47% (n = 16); DDV plus collateral vein ligation (n = 48): 62.5% (n = 30). PMID:1413328

  14. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Modabber, Milad; Kundu, Sanjoy

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  15. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Builes-Montaño, Carlos Esteban; Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés; Román-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Echeverri-Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:26309345

  16. Vacuum-assisted venous drainage, angel or demon: PRO?

    PubMed

    Durandy, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) was proposed to optimize venous drainage during bypass through femoral venous cannulation. It is currently used in both adult and pediatric surgery when siphon gravity venous drainage is suboptimal. In pediatric surgery, the major advantages of VAVD are a significant decrease in cardiopulmonary bypass prime volume and an improved drainage with all collateral benefits. To limit gravity drainage, we use a two-level heart-lung machine dedicated to pediatric perfusion. The top level of the cardiotomy reservoir is positioned at the patient atrial level, making it possible to downsize the length and diameter of venous and arterial lines. Since 2008, a negative pressure of approximately -30 mmHg has been used for all patients. Initiation of bypass is performed in a classical way with a cardiotomy reservoir open; vacuum is added as soon as the maximal gravity drainage is reached. During bypass, when the blood level in the reservoir decreases to the safety limit level, a small increase in negative pressure is used to improve venous drainage. For weaning from bypass, the negative pressure is gradually decreased to zero, then the reservoir is opened and the venous line progressively closed. Prime volumes were significantly reduced to 100 mL for small neonates, 125 mL for infants, and 175 mL for older children with flow up to 1.5 L/min(-1). A low prime volume is expected to improve blood conservation and decrease donor exposure, prevent drawbacks of transfusion (immunomodulation, infection), increase the incidence of blood-free surgery in smaller babies, and decrease whole body systemic inflammation by decreasing surface of foreign material in contact with blood and inflammation associated with blood transfusion. The main drawbacks described have been retrograde flow in the venous line with cerebral air embolus and an increased incidence of gaseous microemboli. These drawbacks are avoidable through appropriate training of perfusionists. When negative pressure is "reasonable," complications are more theoretical than significant in clinical practice. A technique with a benefit/drawback ratio of 1:0 is utopian, but the advantages of VAVD far outweigh any potential drawbacks when applied properly. PMID:23930382

  17. A Reliable Test to Detect Impending Pump Failure during Long-Term Support on the Novacor® N100 Left Ventricular Assist System

    PubMed Central

    Dohmen, P. M.; Laube, H.; de Jonge, K.; Konertz, W.

    2001-01-01

    The Durastudy is a new surveillance protocol to detect impending pump failure in Novacor® N100 Left Ventricular Assist Systems implanted for the long term. Our patient, a 54-year-old man with a history of dilated cardiomyopathy and contraindications for heart transplantation, received a Novacor pump in May 1995 and did not experience sustainable ventricular recovery during the subsequent 3 years. After more than 3 years of support, symptoms of pump wear were detected in this patient, through application of the Durastudy protocol. This enabled us to electively exchange the pump at 3.8 years. Our patient remained in New York Heart Association functional class I until he died in July 1999 of causes unrelated to the pump, after some 1,514 days of support. This, we believe, still constitutes a world record. PMID:11453127

  18. Severe Edema and Venous Congestion Following Sphenoorbital Meningioma Resection in a Meningiomatosis Case: Importance of Predicting Venous Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Romero, Alicia Del Carmen Becerra; de Freitas, Paulo Eduardo Peixoto; Olijnyk, Leonardo Desesards

    2015-01-01

    To achieve local disease control, radical removal is the best option for sphenoorbital meningiomas. Preservation of the venous system is crucial during the resection of skull base meningiomas. This vascular injury represents a major risk both for life and neurologic function. We present a case of a severe postoperative frontotemporal venous disturbance and cerebral edema following the radical removal of a giant sphenoorbital meningioma in a patient with meningiomatosis and occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus. The anatomical, radiologic, and surgical aspects are reviewed and discussed, with the aim of preventing such a serious complication. PMID:26623234

  19. Venous Port Salvage Utilizing Low Dose tPA

    SciTech Connect

    Whigham, Cliff J.; Lindsey, Jason I.; Goodman, Chad J.; Fisher, Richard G.

    2002-12-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of low dose tPA for catheter salvage in cases of fibrin sheath formation in patients with venous access ports. Prospective evaluation was accomplished in patients who had venous ports with catheter malfunction. There were a total of 50 patients and 56 occlusive events.Each patient had a catheter injection documenting a fibrin sheath.Patient population included 45 for chemotherapy and 5 for antibiotics.A low dose tPA regimen was instilled into the port and upon successful return of function, a completion venogram was accomplished. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study with the average time between placement and dysfunction of 99 days. Five patients had a second occlusive event (38.5 days) and one had a third event (27 days). All patients had a venogram confirming a fibrin sheath as the cause of catheter malfunction. The average dose of tPA was 2.29 mg (range 1 mg-4 mg). Success was achieved in 52 of the 56 occlusive events(92.9%). There were no bleeding complications. Catheter occlusion is a common complication of long-term venous access ports. Aggressive therapy with low-dose tPA can salvage function. It provides safe and effective therapy for venous port malfunction secondary to fibrin sheath.

  20. Lower motor neuron facial palsy in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Ravi, Yadav; Nagaraja, Dindigur; Veerendrakumar, Mustare

    2013-01-01

    With advances in the neuro-imaging modalities, diverse manifestations of the cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) are being recognized. There are very few reports of isolated cranial nerve palsies in CVT. In this case report, we describe a patient of lower motor neuron facial palsy with CVT who was successfully treated with anticoagulation, highlighting the atypical manifestation of the disease. PMID:23914113

  1. Venous air embolism from head and neck wounds.

    PubMed

    Adams, V I; Hirsch, C S

    1989-05-01

    Air emboli in the chambers of the right side of the heart and in the pulmonary artery were documented in 16 autopsies representing shotgun and gunshot wounds of the head, traffic fatalities with head trauma, and one neck incision. The pathology of venous air embolism and its interpretation in the context of death investigation are discussed. PMID:2653272

  2. A mathematical model of venous neointimal hyperplasia formation

    PubMed Central

    Budu-Grajdeanu, Paula; Schugart, Richard C; Friedman, Avner; Valentine, Christopher; Agarwal, Anil K; Rovin, Brad H

    2008-01-01

    Background In hemodialysis patients, the most common cause of vascular access failure is neointimal hyperplasia of vascular smooth muscle cells at the venous anastomosis of arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. The release of growth factors due to surgical injury, oxidative stress and turbulent flow has been suggested as a possible mechanism for neointimal hyperplasia. Results In this work, we construct a mathematical model which analyzes the role that growth factors might play in the stenosis at the venous anastomosis. The model consists of a system of partial differential equations describing the influence of oxidative stress and turbulent flow on growth factors, the interaction among growth factors, smooth muscle cells, and extracellular matrix, and the subsequent effect on the stenosis at the venous anastomosis, which, in turn, affects the level of oxidative stress and degree of turbulent flow. Computer simulations suggest that our model can be used to predict access stenosis as a function of the initial concentration of the growth factors inside the intimal-luminal space. Conclusion The proposed model describes the formation of venous neointimal hyperplasia, based on pathogenic mechanisms. The results suggest that interventions aimed at specific growth factors may be successful in prolonging the life of the vascular access, while reducing the costs of vascular access maintenance. The model may also provide indication of when invasive access surveillance to repair stenosis should be undertaken. PMID:18215280

  3. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  4. Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells

    E-print Network

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    ARTICLES Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells Kristy Red-Horse1 , Hiroo Ueno2 , Irving L. Weissman2 & Mark A. Krasnow1 Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Determining the coronary artery developmental program could aid understanding

  5. [Functional anatomy of the venous system of the lower limbs].

    PubMed

    Carpentier, P

    1994-02-10

    Surgical techniques including CHIVA and ambulatory phlebectomy and angiographic methods provide a new approach to the anatomy of the venous system in the lower limbs. The endothelium develops fibrous folds of the intima which form valves preventing backward flow. Staged pairs of valves are found throughout the network. The venous wall has three layers: the inner layer, the intima, acts as a mechanical barrier and regulates coagulation and vasomotricity and plays an important role in exchanges. Venous constriction is produced by the middle layer, the media, and the adventitia, the outer layer, connects the vein to surrounding supportive tissue. The anatomy of the venous system in the lower limbs is divided into a superficial network lying over the superficial aponevrosis. This system drains the teguments. The deep system, below the aponevrosis, drains all the blood flow coming from the muscles. These two systems are connected by perforating veins with valves guaranteeing one-way flow. Communicating veins link together the different veins within each network. PMID:8177868

  6. Diploic venous anatomy studied in-vivo by MRI.

    PubMed

    Jivraj, Khalil; Bhargava, Ravi; Aronyk, Keith; Quateen, Ahmed; Walji, Anil

    2009-04-01

    Calvarial diploic venous anatomy has been studied post-mortem, but few studies have addressed these venous structures in-vivo. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that intraosseous infusion through the skull diploic space near the diploic veins in animals and humans does access the superior sagittal sinus and the systemic venous system. We developed a volumetric method of imaging the diploic veins in-vivo using MRI, intravenous gadolinium, and digital subtraction to provide for three-dimensional depiction and exact localization of these veins. We hypothesized that this technique would allow for an assessment of the probability of existence, distribution, and concentration of diploic veins in the skull. We scanned 31 neurosurgical patients, and were able to create 3D diploic venous maps in 74% of them. These maps were processed using Adobe Photoshop CS2. Mathworks MatLab 6.5, once customized, counted the number of pixels occupied by the diploic veins in the processed image. The probability of veins was highest in the occipital regions (100%). The inferior occipital (4.1%) and posterior parietal (4.1%) regions had the highest concentrations of diploic veins. Digital subtraction venography using a volumetric MRI sequence can demonstrate the diploic veins in-vivo. The inferior occipital region may be the best area for an intraosseous infusion device because it has the greatest likelihood of containing a vein and also has the highest concentration of veins. PMID:19173254

  7. Sporadic Multifocal Venous Malformations of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Michael V.; Patel, Neha A.; Hu, Shirley; Pantelides, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To report a case of unusually widespread sporadic venous malformations of the head and neck associated with normal D-dimer levels and, due to the protean clinical manifestations and increased risk of coagulopathy of these lesions, to review their diagnosis and clinical management. Case Report. A 25-year-old man presented with a one-year history of intermittent right-sided neck swelling and tongue swelling. Physical exam revealed additional lesions present throughout the head and neck. There was no family history suggestive of heritable vascular malformations. Radiographic imaging demonstrated 15 lesions located in various tissue layers consistent with venous malformations. A coagulation screen showed a normal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, D-dimer level, and fibrinogen level. It was determined that the patient was not at increased risk for intraoperative coagulopathy and preoperative heparin administration would not be necessary. The patient's buccal and tongue lesions were subsequently excised with no complications. The patient also underwent sclerotherapy evaluation for his neck mass. Conclusion. This case describes a unique presentation of sporadic multifocal venous malformations. It also emphasizes the importance of prompt diagnosis and workup when multiple venous malformations are present to prevent morbidity during surgical excision secondary to intravascular coagulopathy. PMID:26483982

  8. Endovascular treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis: Contemporary multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Mokin, Maxim; Lopes, Demetrius K; Binning, Mandy J; Veznedaroglu, Erol; Liebman, Kenneth M; Arthur, Adam S; Doss, Vinodh T; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2015-08-01

    Endovascular therapy of cerebral venous thrombosis using modern approaches to intracranial recanalization, such as stent retrievers and aspiration thrombectomy, is not well described. We performed a retrospective review of data for consecutive patients with venous sinus thrombosis who underwent endovascular treatment between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 at participating institutions. We identified a total of 13 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis. The most frequently utilized type of endovascular intervention was the Penumbra aspiration system (Penumbra Inc., Alameda, California, USA) (nine cases), followed by local infusion of tissue plasminogen activator (bolus and/or drip in six cases) and stent retrievers (Solitaire FR (Covidien, Irvine, California, USA) in three cases and Trevo (Stryker, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA) in one case). Overall, multimodality treatment (two or more different types of devices or approaches) was performed in 62% of cases. Follow-up data were available for 11 patients; of those, five had a favorable clinical outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2) and three patients died. Various endovascular approaches are utilized in current clinical practice. A multimodal approach to endovascular therapy for the treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis resulted in partial or complete restoration of flow in all cases, yet the mortality rate of 27% indicates the need for improvement in recanalization strategies for this disorder. PMID:26055685

  9. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion

    PubMed Central

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the “central venous oxygen saturation”), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion. PMID:25815301

  10. Histamine and H1-histamine receptors faster venous circulation

    PubMed Central

    Galajda, Zoltan; Balla, Jozsef; Szentmiklosi, A Jozsef; Biro, Tamas; Czifra, Gabriella; Dobrosi, Nora; Cseppento, Agnes; Patonay, Lajos; Roszer, Tamas; Balla, Gyorgy; Popescu, Laurenciu M; Lekli, Istvan; Tosaki, Arpad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The study has analysed the action of histamine in the rabbit venous system and evaluated its potential role in contraction during increased venous pressure. We have found that a great variety exists in histamine sensitivity and H1-histamine receptor expression in various types of rabbit veins. Veins of the extremities (saphenous vein, femoral vein, axillary vein) and abdomen (common iliac vein, inferior vena cava) responded to histamine by a prominent, concentration-dependent force generation, whereas great thoracic veins (subclavian vein, superior vena cavas, intrathoracic part of inferior vena cava) and a pelvic vein (external iliac vein) exhibited slight sensitivity to exogenous histamine. The lack of reactivity to histamine was not due to increased activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or heme oxygenase-1. H1-histamine receptor expression of veins correlated well with the histamine-induced contractions. Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediated mainly the histamine-induced force generation of saphenous vein, whereas it did not act in the inferior vena cava. In contrast, the receptor-operated channels were not involved in this response in either vein. Tyrosine phosphorylation occurred markedly in response to histamine in the saphenous vein, but not in the inferior vena cava. Histamine induced a prominent ? kinase activation in both vessels. Protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were not implicated in the histamine-induced intracellular calcium sensitization. Importantly, transient clamping of the femoral vein in animals caused a short-term constriction, which was inhibited by H1-histamine receptor antagonist in vivo. Furthermore, a significantly greater histamine immunopositivity was detected in veins after stretching compared to the resting state. We conclude that histamine receptor density adapts to the actual requirements of the circulation, and histamine liberated by the venous wall during increased venous pressure contributes to the contraction of vessels, providing a force for the venous return. PMID:21199332

  11. Communication between lymphatic and venous systems in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lenan; Takeda, Kazu; Kato, Shigeki; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    The lymphatic system in mice consists of lymphatic vessels and 22 types of lymph nodes. Metastatic tumor cells in the lymphatic system spread to distant organs through the venous system. However, the communication routes between the lymphatic and venous systems have not been fully elucidated. Here, we identify the communication routes between the lymphatic and venous systems in the axillary and subiliac regions of MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr inbred mice, which develop systemic swelling of lymph nodes up to 10mm in diameter, allowing investigation of the topography of the lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels. Using a gross anatomy dissection approach, the efferent lymphatic vessels of the proper axillary lymph node were shown to communicate with the subclavian vein. Furthermore, we found that the thoracoepigastric vein, which connects the subclavian vein and inferior vena cava, runs adjacent to the subiliac and proper axillary lymph nodes, and receives venous blood from these lymph nodes routed through small branches. The direction of blood flow in the thoracoepigastric vein occurred in two directions in the intermediate region between the proper axillary lymph node and subiliac lymph node; one to the subclavian vein, the other to the inferior vena cava. This paper reveals the anatomy of the communication between the lymphatic and venous systems in the axillary and subiliac regions of the mouse, and provides new insights relevant to the investigation of the mechanisms of lymph node metastasis and cancer immunology, and the development of diagnostic and treatment methods for lymph node metastasis, including drug delivery systems. PMID:26009246

  12. CONGENITAL MACROVESSEL ASSOCIATED WITH CYSTOID MACULAR EDEMA AND AN IPSILATERAL INTRACRANIAL VENOUS MALFORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Sanfilippo, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose: To report a case of congenital retinal macrovessel associated with cystoid macular edema and an ipsilateral intracranial venous malformation. Methods: Case report. Results: A 58-year-old woman with decreased vision was found to have a congenital retinal venous macrovessel associated with cystoid macular edema because of tributary venous occlusion. The patient underwent neuroimaging and an ipsilateral venous malformation of the frontal lobe was discovered. Conclusion: Congenital retinal macrovessel can occasionally be complicated by vascular occlusion and macular edema. The authors report a case of congenital retinal macrovessel associated with an intracranial venous malformation. Clinicians should be aware of this potential association, and further studies are warranted. PMID:26421894

  13. A case of hepatic portal venous gas due to viral gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Mirmanesh, Michael; Nguyen, Quoc-Sy; Markelov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hepatic portal venous gas is the presence of gas within the portal venous system that can result from a variety of insults to the gastrointestinal system, and which may be a diagnostic clue to ominous abdominal pathologies, such as acute bowel ischemia or necrosis. Case We report a case of a 71-year-old man with acute onset abdominal pain whose initial radiologic testing showed extensive portal venous gas. The patient was managed conservatively with resolution of portal venous gas on day 2 of hospitalization. The findings were consistent with a final diagnosis of hepatic portal venous gas caused by viral gastroenteritis. Conclusion History and physical examination along with presenting signs and symptoms, in conjunction with imaging studies, are vital to delineate the cause of hepatic portal venous gas. In the absence of alarming signs and symptoms, hepatic portal venous gas can be conservatively managed without the need for invasive surgical exploration. PMID:24696625

  14. Peripheral Venous Access Ports: Outcomes Analysis in 109 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L.; Patel, Kaushik M.; Siegel, Randall L.; Biswal, Rajiv; Gribbin, Christopher E.; Tokarz, Robert

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective outcomes analysis of central venous catheters with peripheral venous access ports, with comparison to published data.Methods: One hundred and twelve central venous catheters with peripherally placed access ports were placed under sonographic guidance in 109 patients over a 4-year period. Ports were placed for the administration of chemotherapy, hyperalimentation, long-term antibiotic therapy, gamma-globulin therapy, and frequent blood sampling. A vein in the upper arm was accessed in each case and the catheter was passed to the superior vena cava or right atrium. Povidone iodine skin preparation was used in the first 65 port insertions. A combination of Iodophor solution and povidone iodine solution was used in the last 47 port insertions. Forty patients received low-dose (1 mg) warfarin sodium beginning the day after port insertion. Three patients received higher doses of warfarin sodium for preexistent venous thrombosis. Catheter performance and complications were assessed and compared with published data.Results: Access into the basilic or brachial veins was obtained in all cases. Ports remained functional for a total of 28,936 patient days. The port functioned in 50% of patients until completion of therapy, or the patient's expiration. Ports were removed prior to completion of therapy in 18% of patients. Eleven patients (9.9% of ports placed) suffered an infectious complication (0.38 per thousand catheter-days)-in nine, at the port implantation site, in two along the catheter. In all 11 instances the port was removed. Port pocket infection in the early postoperative period occurred in three patients (4.7%) receiving a Betadine prep vs two patients (4.2%) receiving a standard O.R. prep. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.9). Venous thrombosis occurred in three patients (6.8%) receiving warfarin sodium and in two patients (3%) not receiving warfarin sodium. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). Aspiration occlusion occurred in 13 patients (11.7%). Intracatheter urokinase was infused in eight of these patients and successfully restored catheter function in all but two instances. These complication rates are comparable to or better than those reported with chest ports.Conclusion: Peripheral ports for long-term central venous access placed by interventional radiologists in the interventional radiology suite are as safe and as effective as chest ports.

  15. Behçet’s Disease as a Model of Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Micaela; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Orlandini, Francesco; Prisco, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology characterized by recurrent oral, genital aphthous ulcerations, uveitis, skin lesions and other multisystem affections associated with vasculitis. Different types of vessels, predominantly veins, can be affected in BD. The frequency of vascular lesions in BD, such as superficial and deep venous thromboses, arterial aneurysms and occlusions, ranges between 7-29%. In this review, various factors of thrombogenesis in BD, particularly pro- and antithrombotic endothelial and non-endothelial factors, factors of coagulation, platelet activation and rheological changes are presented and discussed from positions of Virchow’s triad of venous thrombosis. Despite advances in understanding of thrombogenesis in BD, still many issues of diagnosis and targeted preventive and therapeutic measures remain unresolved. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathobiology of BD-related thrombosis and to provide the clinicians with recommendations over the utility, safety and effectiveness of the antithrombotic therapy in BD. PMID:20360979

  16. [Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency--pathophysiology and treament].

    PubMed

    Tuchendler, Marek; Zwolinski, Jerzy; Stankowski, Jacek; Zapotoczny, Norbert; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Piatkowski, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (sclerosis multiplex--SM) is a chronic nervous sytem disease, which through formation of demyenilisation focus in the central nervous system leads to deterioration of its various functions. In the consequence it may cause invalidity of patient. Etiology of this disease is still unknown. In this article authors describe theory of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis and methods of treatment of this pathology, with all doubts and controversies connected with this method. Autors also present an experimental treatment of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis, which is being performed as a scientific program to evaluate neurological outcomes of endovasculat treatment of CCSVI. PMID:24003674

  17. [Variant anatomy of penile venous vascular bed in adult man].

    PubMed

    Ga?voronski?, I V; Mazurenko, R G

    2012-01-01

    The methods of anatomical preparation and X-ray examination were applied after the preliminary injection of blood vessels with the setting and radio-opaque masses, to study the variant anatomy of penile vascular bed. Organ complexes of minor pelvis and perineum, obtained from 54 cadavers of adult men, were used. It was found that the architecture and the places of the confluence of the main veins of penis are very variable. The trunks of the superficial and deep dorsal vein (DDV) may be single or double. Venous trunks tare connected by a network of anastomoses, more developed in the root of the penis. Valve apparatus in the anastomotic veins is presented only in 80% of the observations. Under normal conditions, the valves of the anastomotic veins provide the outflow of blood in DDV of the penis. The data obtained are of practical importance for understanding the anatomical causes of erectile dysfunction of venous origin. PMID:22724334

  18. Assessing the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism – a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Fahrni, Jennifer; Husmann, Marc; Gretener, Silvia B; Keo, Hong H

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This risk is lowered by anticoagulation, with a large effect in the initial phase following the venous thromboembolic event, and with a smaller effect in terms of secondary prevention of recurrence when extended anticoagulation is performed. On the other hand, extended anticoagulation is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding and thus leads to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the risk of recurrence for VTE on an individual basis, and a recommendation for secondary prophylaxis should be specifically based on risk calculation of recurrence of VTE and bleeding. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of relevant risk factors for recurrent VTE and a practical approach for assessing the risk of recurrence in daily practice. PMID:26316770

  19. Managing venous leg ulcers using compression therapy and dressings.

    PubMed

    Powell, Gail; Wicks, Gill; Will, Katrin

    Patient comfort and satisfaction with both compression therapy and wound care are critical to the success of venous leg ulcer treatment. This study observed 22 patients with venous leg ulcers treated over 12 weeks with two-layer compression hosiery and a range of wound dressings. The mean duration of the ulcers was 10.5 months and 48% had a history of recurrent ulcers. Half the ulcers healed within 12 weeks; there was an increase in the proportion of patients reporting 'no impairment' to their mobility, but it was not significant. The ease of donning the two-layer hosiery was rated as excellent or good at 86% of control visits and the ease of doffing at 78%. In 95% of cases the clinicians said they would use the same combination of products again and 73% of patients were satisfied with it. PMID:26266566

  20. Vacuum-assisted Venous Drainage and Gaseous Microemboli in Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shigang; Ündar, Akif

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: When conventional gravity siphon venous drainage cannot achieve satisfactory venous drainage during minimally invasive cardiac and neonatal surgeries, assisted venous drainage techniques are needed to ensure adequate flow. One assisted venous drainage technique, vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD), the aid of a vacuum in the venous reservoir, is now widely used to augment venous drainage during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures. VAVD permits the use of smaller venous cannulae, shorter circuit tubing, and lower priming and blood transfusion volumes, but increases risk of arterial gaseous microemboli and blood trauma. The vacuum should be set as low as possible to facilitate full venous return, and realtime monitoring of gaseous microemboli in the arterial and venous line should be used to achieve the safest conditions. With current ultrasound technology, it is possible to simultaneously detect and classify gaseous microemboli in the CPB circuit. In this article, we summarize the components, setup, operation, advantages, and disadvantages of VAVD techniques and clinical applications and describe the basic principles of microemboli detectors, such as the Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier (Luna Innovations, Roanoke, VA) and Bubble Counter Clinical 200 (GAMPT, Zappendorf, Germany). These novel gaseous microemboli detection devices could help perfusionists locate the sources of entrained air, eliminate hidden troubles, and minimize the postoperative neurologic impairments attributed to gaseous microemboli in clinical practice. PMID:19192754

  1. Potential involvement of the extracranial venous system in central nervous system disorders and aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of the extracranial venous system in the pathology of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and aging is largely unknown. It is acknowledged that the development of the venous system is subject to many variations and that these variations do not necessarily represent pathological findings. The idea has been changing with regards to the extracranial venous system. Discussion A range of extracranial venous abnormalities have recently been reported, which could be classified as structural/morphological, hemodynamic/functional and those determined only by the composite criteria and use of multimodal imaging. The presence of these abnormalities usually disrupts normal blood flow and is associated with the development of prominent collateral circulation. The etiology of these abnormalities may be related to embryologic developmental arrest, aging or other comorbidities. Several CNS disorders have been linked to the presence and severity of jugular venous reflux. Another composite criteria-based vascular condition named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was recently introduced. CCSVI is characterized by abnormalities of the main extracranial cerebrospinal venous outflow routes that may interfere with normal venous outflow. Summary Additional research is needed to better define the role of the extracranial venous system in relation to CNS disorders and aging. The use of endovascular treatment for the correction of these extracranial venous abnormalities should be discouraged, until potential benefit is demonstrated in properly-designed, blinded, randomized and controlled clinical trials. Please see related editorial: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/259. PMID:24344742

  2. Embryologicalic collateral venous channel on radionuclide liver/spleen study

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Johnson, D.G.

    1983-07-01

    Obstruction of normal venous portal blood flow generally results in collateral circulation. The obstruction may be intrinsic t the vasculature (e.g., hepatic vein thrombosis, vascular anomalies) or it may be extravascular (e.g., cirrhosis, hepatic masses) and may effect blood flow by deforming and compressing the intrahepatic or splenoportal axis vessels. A technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver/spleen study demonstrates what is thought to be a functional paraumbilical or umbilical vein in a cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension.

  3. [Venous thromboembolism medical thromboprophylaxis in patients admitted to palliative units].

    PubMed

    Tardy, Bernard; Chalayer, Emilie; Reynaud, Quitterie; Merah, Adel; Lafond, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism incidence as identification of bleeding risk factors is not well defined in patients admitted to palliative units. There is no randomized controlled trial evaluating medical thromboprophylaxis in patients admitted to palliative units. Medical thromboprophylaxis seems to be inappropriate in patients admitted to palliative units. Medical thromboprophylaxis prescription should be discussed individually in patients admitted to palliative units. Conversely, cancer patients admitted for an acute medical disease should receive medical thromboprophylaxis, if their prognosis exceeds several months. PMID:23886931

  4. Selective Venous Catheterization for the Localization of Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andreopoulou, Panagiota; Dumitrescu, Claudia E; Kelly, Marilyn H; Brillante, Beth A; Cutler Peck, Carolee M; Wodajo, Felasfa M; Chang, Richard; Collins, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is characterized by renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia, and aberrant vitamin D3 metabolism and is caused by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23)–producing mesenchymal tumors, which are often difficult to locate. We investigated the utility of selective venous sampling in tumor localization. The primary endpoint was identification of the FGF-23 concentration ratio between the venous drainage of the tumor bed and the general circulation that was diagnostic of the location of an FGF-23-secreting tumor. Fourteen subjects underwent 15 sampling procedures after functional and anatomic imaging studies. Subjects fit into three imaging categories: no suspicious site, multiple sites, and single site (positive controls). FGF-23 levels were measured by ELISA. Suspicious tumors were resected for diagnosis, confirmation, and cure. In subjects with a positive venous sampling study and subsequent cure, a minimum ratio of 1.6 was diagnostic. In 7 of 14 subjects there was suggestive imaging, a diagnostic ratio, and an associated TIO tumor (true positive). Four of these required complicated resection procedures. In 4 of 14 subjects with no suspicious site on imaging studies, an FGF-23 diagnostic ratio was not detected (true negative). Biopsy or resection of a single lesion in 2 of 14 subjects with a diagnostic ratio failed to identify a TIO tumor (false positive). A diagnostic FGF-23 ratio was absent in 1 of 14 subjects whose tumor was a single highly suspicious lesion on imaging studies (false negative). These data yield a sensitivity of 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47–0.99] and a specificity of 0.71 (95% CI 0.29–0.96). Selective venous sampling for FGF-23 was particularly useful in subjects with multiple suspicious sites or an anatomically challenging planned resection but not in the absence of a suspicious lesion on imaging studies. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:21611969

  5. Venous thromboembolism and coffee: critical review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background Among the various risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE), nutrients seem to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this condition. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between coffee intake and venous thrombosis, and we performed a critical review of clinical studies that have been published so far. Methods An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Science with the keywords “coffee” AND “venous thromboembolism” OR “deep vein thrombosis” OR “pulmonary embolism” in “Title/Abstract/Keywords”, with no language and date restriction. Results According to our criteria, three studies (two prospective and one case-control) were finally selected (inter-study heterogeneity: 78%; P<0.001). Cumulative data suggests that a modest intake of coffee (i.e., 1-4 cups/day) may be associated with an 11% increased risk of VTE compared to abstainers, whereas a larger intake (i.e., ?5 coffee/day) may be associated with a 25% decreased risk. Conclusions Our analysis of published data seemingly confirm the existence of a U-shape relationship between coffee intake and VTE, thus exhibiting a trend that overlaps with that previously reported for cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:26244139

  6. Adrenal Venous Sampling: Where Is the Aldosterone Disappearing to?

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, Miroslav; Ceral, Jiri; Krajina, Antonin; Ballon, Marek; Malirova, Eva; Brodak, Milos; Cap, Jan

    2010-08-15

    Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is generally considered to be the gold standard in distinguishing unilateral and bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion in primary hyperaldosteronism. However, during AVS, we noticed a considerable variability in aldosterone concentrations among samples thought to have come from the right adrenal glands. Some aldosterone concentrations in these samples were even lower than in samples from the inferior vena cava. We hypothesized that the samples with low aldosterone levels were unintentionally taken not from the right adrenal gland, but from hepatic veins. Therefore, we sought to analyze the impact of unintentional cannulation of hepatic veins on AVS. Thirty consecutive patients referred for AVS were enrolled. Hepatic vein sampling was implemented in our standardized AVS protocol. The data were collected and analyzed prospectively. AVS was successful in 27 patients (90%), and hepatic vein cannulation was successful in all procedures performed. Cortisol concentrations were not significantly different between the hepatic vein and inferior vena cava samples, but aldosterone concentrations from hepatic venous blood (median, 17 pmol/l; range, 40-860 pmol/l) were markedly lower than in samples from the inferior vena cava (median, 860 pmol/l; range, 460-4510 pmol/l). The observed difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Aldosterone concentrations in the hepatic veins are significantly lower than in venous blood taken from the inferior vena cava. This finding is important for AVS because hepatic veins can easily be mistaken for adrenal veins as a result of their close anatomic proximity.

  7. Electrolytic Inferior Vena Cava Model (EIM) of Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Jose A.; Wrobleski, Shirley K.; Hawley, Angela E.; Lucchesi, Benedict R.; Wakefield, Thomas W.; Myers,, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models serve a vital role in deep venous thrombosis (DVT) research in order to study thrombus formation, thrombus resolution and to test potential therapeutic compounds (1). New compounds to be utilized in the treatment and prevention of DVT are currently being developed. The delivery of potential therapeutic antagonist compounds to an affected thrombosed vein has been problematic. In the context of therapeutic applications, a model that uses partial stasis and consistently generates thrombi within a major vein has been recently established. The Electrolytic Inferior vena cava Model (EIM) is mouse model of DVT that permits thrombus formation in the presence of continuous blood flow. This model allows therapeutic agents to be in contact with the thrombus in a dynamic fashion, and is more sensitive than other models of DVT (1). In addition, this thrombosis model closely simulates clinical situations of thrombus formation and is ideal to study venous endothelial cell activation, leukocyte migration, venous thrombogenesis, and to test therapeutic applications (1). The EIM model is technically simple, easily reproducible, creates consistent thrombi sizes and allows for a large sample (i.e. thrombus and vein wall) which is required for analytical purposes. PMID:21775963

  8. Variability in the Cardiac Venous System of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krešáková, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina; Schusterová, Ingrid; Fulton, Benjamin; Maloveská, Marcela; Vdoviaková, Katarina; Kravcová, Zuzanna; Boldižár, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rats are often used as animal models in experimental cardiology for studying myocardial infarctions and various cardiologic procedures. Currently the cardiac venous system is a target for the delivery of drugs, gene vectors, angiogenetic growth factors, stem cells, and cardioprotective reagents. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomic configuration and variability of the cardiac venous system in Wistar rats, by using the corrosion cast method and perfusion of colored latex. The distribution of veins in the rat heart disagrees with prior descriptions for other mammals, except mice, which have a similar pattern. Coronary venous drainage in the 36 rats examined consistently involved the left cardiac, left conal, major caudal, right cardiac, and right conal veins. Other veins involved inconsistently included the cranial cardiac vein (58.3% of cases), minor caudal veins (16.7%), conoanastomotic vein (66.7%), and left atrial vein (75%). In 4 cases (11.1%), the collateral veins were located between the left conal and left cardiac veins. In this study, high morphologic variability between cases was manifested by differences in the arrangement, size, mode of opening, and formation of the common root and affected all regions of the heart but primarily the right ventricle. PMID:25651085

  9. Alcohol consumption and venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    A light to moderate consumption of certain types of alcoholic beverages may exert a favorable effect on cardiovascular risk, but no conclusive information is available on the putative relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed an electronic search on Medline and Scopus, using the keywords "venous thromboembolism", "venous thrombosis" and "alcohol", to identify clinical studies linking alcohol intake and VTE risk. The literature search generated 16 studies, 4 of which are case-control, 1 cross-sectional and 11 prospective. Significant reduction of VTE associated with alcohol intake is observed in only 4/16 studies, and in all these the association is only meaningful for a moderate amount of alcohol (i.e., 2-4 glasses). Unlike these trials, two other studies observe that alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of VTE, whereas the association is insignificant in the remainder. Binge drinking increases the VTE risk in one study but not in another. The consumption of beer is associated with a decreased VTE risk in one study but not in two others. We hence conclude that the relationship between intake of alcoholic beverages and increased or decreased risk of VTE is largely elusive. PMID:26446524

  10. Travel as a risk factor for venous thromboembolic disease.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Emile; Morgan, George

    2004-03-30

    There is increasing evidence that prolonged travel may be associated with the development of venous thromboembolic disease: ie deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The data from case reports, retrospective reviews and case control studies have been confirmed by prospective studies. There have been several prospective studies of subjects embarking on airline flights of greater than 4 hours duration aimed at determining the incidence of DVT as detected by ultrasonography. In unprotected subjects, the incidence of thrombosis in the calf veins or muscular veins ranged between 0% and 10%. There is evidence that the incidence of travel-related pulmonary embolism appears to be related to the distance travelled and immobility during the flights. Whether the imputed causation is merely due to immobility and venous compression or to other factors associated with the aircraft cabin requires further clarification. The use of below-knee graduated compression stockings appears to be highly effective. A 100 AXa U/kg single dose of a low molecular weight heparin, given 2-4 hours before the flight, have been reported to be more effective than aspirin and placebo. However, the benefit/risk ratio of such a strategy remains to be assessed. PMID:15096325

  11. Venous thromboembolism at uncommon sites in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Pergantou, Helen; Avgeri, Maria; Komitopoulou, Anna; Xafaki, Panagiota; Kapsimali, Zoey; Mazarakis, Michail; Adamtziki, Eftychia; Platokouki, Helen

    2014-11-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the data of 24 children (whereof 11 neonates), with non-central venous line-related and nonmalignancy-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) at uncommon sites, referred to our Unit from January 1999 to January 2012. Thirty patients who also suffered deep vein thrombosis, but in upper/low extremities, were not included in the analysis. The location of rare site VTE was: portal (n=7), mesenteric (n=2) and left facial vein (n=1), spleen (n=3), lung (n=3), whereas 10 neonates developed renal venous thrombosis. The majority of patients (91.7%) had at least 1 risk factor for thrombosis. Identified thrombophilic factors were: antiphospholipid antibodies (n=2), FV Leiden heterozygosity (n=6), MTHFR C677T homozygosity (n=4), protein S deficiency (n=2), whereas all neonates had age-related low levels of protein C and protein S. All but 6 patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, followed by warfarin in 55% of cases, for 3 to 6 months. Prolonged anticoagulation was applied in selected cases. During a median follow-up period of 6 years, the clinical outcome was: full recovery in 15 patients, evolution to both chronic portal hypertension and esophageal varices in 2 children, and progression to renal failure in 7 of 10 neonates. Neonates are greatly vulnerable to complications after VTE at uncommon sites, particularly renal. Future multicentre long-term studies on neonatal and pediatric VTE at unusual sites are considered worthwhile. PMID:24517966

  12. Transesophageal Echocardiographic Study of Decompression-Induced Venous Gas Emboli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Morris, W. P.

    1995-01-01

    Transesophageal echo-cardiography was used to evaluate venous bubbles produced in nine anesthetized dogs following decompression from 2.84 bar after 120 min at pressure. In five dogs a pulsed Doppler cuff probe was placed around the inferior vena cava for bubble grade determination. The transesophageal echo images demonstrated several novel or less defined events. In each case where the pulmonary artery was clearly visualized, the venous bubbles were seen to oscillate back and forth several times, bringing into question the effect of coincidental counting in routine bubble grade analysis using precordial Doppler. A second finding was that in all cases, extensive bubbling occurred in the portal veins with complete extraction by the liver sinusoids, with one exception where a portal-to-hepatic venous anastomosis was observed. Compression of the bowel released copious numbers of bubbles into the portal veins, sometimes more than were released into the inferior vena cava. Finally, large masses of foam were routinely observed in the non-dependent regions of the inferior vena cava that not only delayed the appearance of bubbles in the pulmonary artery but also allowed additional opportunity for further reaction with blood products and for coalescence to occur before reaching the pulmonary microcirculation. These novel observations are discussed in relation to the decompression process.

  13. Experimental infusion phlebitis: tolerance osmolality of peripheral venous endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, T; Asanami, S; Kubo, S

    1998-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the osmolality that peripheral venous endothelial cells can tolerate and to clarify the relationship between tolerance osmolality and duration of infusion. Nutrient solutions of 539-917 mOsm/kg, prepared to have no acidic effect, were infused into rabbit ear veins, and the veins were examined histopathologically. In each experiment of 8-, 12-, or 24-h infusion, the higher osmolality solutions caused some phlebitic changes, such as loss of venous endothelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, and edema; however, the lowest osmolality solution caused few changes. Infusion of 120 mL/kg of 814 mOsm/kg solution caused phlebitis at 5 or 10 mL.kg-1.h-1, however, the same volume of the same solution scarcely caused phlebitis at 15 mL.kg-1.h-1 because of the shortened infusion duration. These results suggest that the tolerance osmolality of peripheral venous endothelial cells with poor blood flow is about 820 mOsm/kg for 8 h, 690 mOsm/kg for 12 h, and 550 mOsm/kg for 24 h, and that the tolerance osmolality falls as the duration of infusion increases. In conclusion, hypertonic solutions should be infused at as high a rate as is clinically acceptable and compatible with nutrient bioavailability because increasing the infusion rate reduces the duration of infusion and phlebitis. PMID:9646289

  14. Renal lymphangiomatosis, interrupted IVC with persistent primitive hepatic venous plexus and multiple anomalous venous channels: parts of an overlap syndrome?

    PubMed

    Watson, Tom; Martinez, Ester; Crabbe, David; Chetcuti, Phillip; Kraft, Jeannette K

    2012-02-01

    A 5-year-old girl with cutis marmorata telangiectasia congenita (CMTC) and congenital glaucoma, who had previously presented with seizures, transient hemiplegia, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hemihypertrophy, developed a large pleural effusion. Subsequent imaging revealed renal lymphangiomatosis, multiple anomalous intra-abdominal venous channels, an interrupted inferior vena cava with a persistent primitive hepatic venous plexus (PPHVP) and meningeal angiomas. To the best of our knowledge, the CT findings of PPHVP and the combination of the demonstrated abnormalities have not been previously reported. They may represent an overlap syndrome of CMTC, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. The complexity and degree of overlap highlights the importance of an accurate clinical and anatomical description and good communication among clinicians. PMID:21773796

  15. Surgical repair of an impending rupture of left ventricular (LV) aneurysm with septal perforation and rupture of papillary muscle after acute myocarial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tahalele, P; Prasmono, A; Puruhito; Prayitno, B W; Rahardjo, P; Adipranoto, J; Pikir, B S; Pranawa

    2000-12-01

    Acute cardiac rupture following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) carries a high mortality. The progression and rapid hemodinamic deterioration is the usual clinical course, with 50-80% mortality within the first week. The combination of septal perforation, impending cardiac rupture of left ventricular (LV) aneurysm and rupture of papillary muscle after AMI has rarely been reported. This article describes a case of successful surgical repair of this condition in a 52 years old man. The important clinical features were as follows: 1) a sick looking patient in gross congestion heart failure, 2) persistent pulmonary oedema, 3) hepatomegali, 4) arrhythmias, 5) cardiogenic shock. The respirator was removed on the first postoperative day. An echocardiography evaluation on the 3rd postoperative day showed normal LV dimension, normal LV systolic function. There were no VSD and mitral regurgitation, but apical wall and septal still hipokinesia-akinesia. The ejection fraction showed improvement from 44% to 71%. The patient was discharged from hospital on the 30th post-operative day and returned to work after 60th post-operative day. Seven months later today his condition is still good. PMID:11173356

  16. How to prevent venous cannula orifice obstruction during extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sayed, S; Favre, J; von Segesser, L K

    2015-04-01

    Venous cannula orifice obstruction is an underestimated problem during augmented cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), which can potentially be reduced with redesigned, virtually wall-less cannula designs versus traditional percutaneous control venous cannulas. A bench model, allowing for simulation of the vena cava with various affluent orifices, venous collapse and a worst case scenario with regard to cannula position, was developed. Flow (Q) was measured sequentially for right atrial+hepatic+renal+iliac drainage scenarios, using a centrifugal pump and an experimental bench set-up (afterload 60 mmHg). At 1500, 2000 and 2500 RPM and atrial position, the Q values were 3.4, 6.03 and 8.01 versus 0.77*, 0.43* and 0.58* l/min: p<0.05* for wall-less and the Biomedicus® cannula, respectively. The corresponding pressure values were -15.18, -31.62 and -74.53 versus -46.0*, -119.94* and -228.13* mmHg. At the hepatic position, the Q values were 3.34, 6.67 and 9.26 versus 2.3*, 0.42* and 0.18* l/min; and the pressure values were -10.32, -20.25 and -42.83 versus -23.35*, -119.09* and -239.38* mmHg. At the renal position, the Q values were 3.43, 6.56 and 8.64 versus 2.48*, 0.41* and 0.22* l/min and the pressure values were -9.64, -20.98 and -63.41 versus -20.87 -127.68* and -239* mmHg, respectively. At the iliac position, the Q values were 3.43, 6.01 and 9.25 versus 1.62*, 0.55* and 0.58* l/min; the pressure values were -9.36, -33.57 and -44.18 versus -30.6*, -120.27* and -228* mmHg, respectivly. Our experimental evaluation demonstrates that the redesigned, virtually wall-less cannulas, allowing for direct venous drainage at practically all intra-venous orifices, outperform the commercially available control cannula, with superior flow at reduced suction levels for all scenarios tested. PMID:25416743

  17. HEPATIC PORTAL VENOUS GAS FOLLOWING COLONOSCOPY IN A PATIENT WITH CROHN’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    UJIHARA, MASAKI; ANDO, TAKAFUMI; ISHIGURO, KAZUHIRO; MAEDA, OSAMU; WATANABE, OSAMU; HIRAYAMA, YUTAKA; MAEDA, KEIKO; MORISE, KAZUHIRO; MATSUSHITA, MASANOBU; FUNASAKA, KOHEI; NAKAMURA, MASANAO; MIYAHARA, RYOJI; OHMIYA, NAOKI; GOTO, HIDEMI

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatic portal venous gas is a rare condition that occurs when intraluminal gas or gas produced by intestinal bacteria enters the portal venous circulation. It has recently been recognized as a rare complication of colon procedures by endoscopy or barium enema. Given the frequency of these procedures in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, hepatic portal venous gas may occur more frequently in these patients than previously reported. Here, we report a woman with Crohn’s disease who developed hepatic portal venous gas following colonoscopy who was treated with conservative therapy. PMID:24640184

  18. Perforation by central venous catheters: a new testament to an old test.

    PubMed

    Malenka, D J; Ross, J M

    1989-01-01

    Perforation by central venous catheters into the extravascular space is a rare complication of central venous lines that may explain new onset shortness of breath in hospitalized patients. We found that lowering bottles containing infusate and looking for return of venous blood is a highly specific test for this problem. Using Bayes' Theorem we calculated that for prior probabilities of catheter perforation of 0.01 and 0.05, corresponding posterior probabilities ranged from 0.1 to 0.15 and 0.35 to 0.49 respectively. This test should be used in all patients with new shortness of breath who have central venous catheters. PMID:2761070

  19. [Evaluation of venotropic drugs by venous gas plethysmography. A study of procyanidolic oligomers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Royer, R J; Schmidt, C L

    Venous tone in the lower limbs can be measured by venous occlusion gas plethysmography before and after giving venotropic drugs. Four groups, each of which included ten patients with widespread varicose veins, were given different medications. Each patient was studied by plethysmography during the first five hours following drug ingestion. In untreated controls, venous tone decreased during rest. A reference drug was uneffective. Increase in venous tone induced by 150 mg of procyanidolic oligomers was comparable to that which followed ingestion of a high dose of hamamelis-hydrastis mixture. PMID:6276983

  20. Concomitant Deep Venous Thrombosis, Femoral Artery Thrombosis, and Pulmonary Embolism after Air Travel

    PubMed Central

    Clyde, Marshall; Brenes, Robert A.; Tripodi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The association between air travel and deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism “economy-class syndrome” is well described. However, this syndrome does not describe any association between long duration travel and arterial thrombosis or coexistence of venous and arterial thrombosis. We present a case of concomitant deep venous thrombosis, acute femoral artery thrombosis, and bilateral pulmonary embolisms in a patient following commercial air travel. Echocardiogram did not reveal an intracardiac shunt that may have contributed to the acute arterial occlusion from a paradoxical embolus. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature that associates air traveling with both arterial and venous thrombosis. PMID:25221684

  1. Venous gas embolism caused by fibrin sealant application to the prostate during greenlight laser photoselective vaporization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alexander; Vazquez, Rafael

    2015-04-15

    Venous gas embolism is a complication of fibrin sealant application and is a well-described event during various modes of prostate resection. We describe the case of a nitrogen venous gas embolism during Greenlight laser photovaporization of the prostate during the application of fibrin sealant to the operative site for hemostasis. Fibrin sealant application by a compressed gas applicator is a cause of venous air embolism, and this case highlights the need to keep venous gas embolism in mind when compressed gas applicators are used. PMID:25867193

  2. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava in Hematological Malignancy Requiring Central Venous Catheter Insertion for Intensive Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Imataki, Osamu; Kubo, Hiroyuki; Hamasaki, Yukiko; Oku, Maki; Kida, Jun-ichiro; Uemura, Makiko; Matsuka, Harumi

    2015-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava is a congenital vascular anomaly, which is possibly arrhythmogenic and thrombogenic, rarely complicated with coronary sinus atresia. We treated a 42-year-old male with Hodgkin's lymphoma requiring central venous catheter placement for intensive chemotherapy. Persistent left superior vena cava was revealed after the insertion of the central venous catheter by the radiological finding of the catheter tip cannulated into the vena cava cavity. The relationship between coronary sinus atresia and persistent left superior vena cava induced by central venous catheterization remains unclear; however, the hematologist should pay attention to the malpositioning of the central venous catheter.

  3. Percutaneous atrial septal defect closure by using jugular venous access in a case with interrupted inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Narin, Nazmi; Pamukcu, Ozge; Baykan, Ali; Argun, Mustafa; Ozyurt, Abdullah; Uzum, Kazim

    2014-01-01

    Femoral venous approach is the classical route of percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. But in certain circumstances alternative routes are used. In this report percutaneous ASD closure in a case with interrupted vena cava by jugular venous approach is discussed. Percutaneous closure through femoral venous route was planned in a 6-year-old girl with ASD. Because of interrupted vena cava the jugular venous route was used. Having knowledge of this anatomical variation is important for interventionalists before performing femoral venous approach. Percutaneous transjugular venous access is a feasible alternative route in paediatric population for ASD closure. PMID:25489321

  4. Central Venous Catheter Intravascular Malpositioning: Causes, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Correction

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Carlos J.; Paniagua, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Despite the level of skill of the operator and the use of ultrasound guidance, central venous catheter (CVC) placement can result in CVC malpositioning, an unintended placement of the catheter tip in an inadequate vessel. CVC malpositioning is not a complication of central line insertion; however, undiagnosed CVC malpositioning can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this review were to describe factors associated with intravascular malpositioning of CVCs inserted via the neck and chest and to offer ways of preventing, identifying, and correcting such malpositioning. A literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and MD Consult was performed in June 2014. By searching for “Central line malposition” and then for “Central venous catheters intravascular malposition,” we found 178 articles written in English. Of those, we found that 39 were relevant to our objectives and included them in our review. According to those articles, intravascular CVC malpositioning is associated with the presence of congenital and acquired anatomical variants, catheter insertion in left thoracic venous system, inappropriate bevel orientation upon needle insertion, and patient’s body habitus variants. Although plain chest radiography is the standard imaging modality for confirming catheter tip location, signs and symptoms of CVC malpositioning even in presence of normal or inconclusive conventional radiography findings should prompt the use of additional diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out CVC malpositioning. With very few exceptions, the recommendation in cases of intravascular CVC malpositioning is to remove and relocate the catheter. Knowing the mechanisms of CVC malpositioning and how to prevent, identify, and correct CVC malpositioning could decrease harm to patients with this condition. PMID:26587087

  5. [Estimation of efficiency reamberin in the correction of endogenous intoxication syndrome at the patients with the phlegmonous and gangrenous forms of erysipelas on background diabetes mellitus at their surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Zeleny?, I I; Frolov, V M; Peresadin, N A

    2011-01-01

    The influence of modern detoxic preparation reamberin on indicators of the of endogenous intoxication syndrome (EIS)--the level of average molecules, malon dialdehyde, cyrcukatiry immune complexes and its fractional composition in blood serum of the patients with destructive forms of erysipelas--phlegmonous and gangrenous on background diabetes mellitus (DM). It is established that the inclusion of reamberin in the complex surgical treatment of destructive forms of erysipelas on background DM accelerates the elimination of SEI. From this we can recommend the use of reamberin in the complex surgical treatment of complicated forms of erysipelas on background DM. PMID:22408807

  6. Risk Factors for Chronic Venous Disease: the San Diego Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Denenberg, Julie O.; Bergan, John; Langer, Robert D.; Fronek, Arnost

    2007-01-01

    Background The etiology of chronic venous disease in the lower limbs is unclear, and there are very limited data on potential risk factors from representative population studies. Methods Participants in the San Diego Population Study, a free-living adult population randomly selected from age, sex and ethnic strata, were systematically assessed for risk factors for venous disease. Categorization of normal, moderate disease and severe disease was determined hierarchically through clinical examination and ultrasound sonography by trained vascular technologists, who also performed anthropometric measures. An interviewer administered questionnaire and examination assessed potential risk factors for venous disease suggested by previous reports. Results In multivariable models, moderate venous disease was independently related to age, a family history of venous disease, previous hernia surgery, and normotension in both sexes. In men, current walking, the absence of cardiovascular disease, and not moving after sitting were also predictive, while in women, additional predictors were weight, number of births, oophorectomy, flat feet, and not sitting. For severe disease, age, family history of venous disease, waist circumference, and flat feet were predictive in both sexes. In men, occupation as a laborer, cigarette smoking, and normotension were also independently associated with severe venous disease, while in women additional significant and independent predictors were hours standing, history of leg injury, number of births, and cardiovascular disease, while African-American ethnicity was protective. Multiple other postulated risk factors for venous disease were not significant in multivariable analysis in this population. Conclusions Although some risk factors for venous disease such as age, family history of venous disease, and findings suggestive of ligamentous laxity (hernia surgery, flat feet) are immutable, others can be modified, such as weight, physical activity, and cigarette smoking. Overall, these data provide modest support for the potential of behavioral risk factor modification to prevent chronic venous disease. PMID:17600666

  7. Injection-Related Venous Disease and Walking Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Birk, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Injection users are at risk for vascular injuries resulting in chronic venous disease (CVD). We examined walking mobility in relation to CVD for 713 persons in methadone treatment. We used a cross-sectional, comparative design, stratified on age, sex, ethnicity, and drug use. CVD was present in 92.3% of participants. The structural equation model supported the causal link between leg injection and CVD (.40, P<.001). The worse the mobility, the greater was the CVD classification (-.21, P<.001). CVD had an indirect effect on mobility through pain. CVD and pain need to be considered when assessing mobility in illicit drug users. PMID:20924885

  8. Venous pattern of polymicrogyria detected by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Franca; Weisstanner, Christian; Strozzi, Susi; Lang, Matthias F

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 9-year-old boy presenting with spastic-dystonic movement disorder of the right arm. MRI showed vast unilateral left-sided polymicrogyria (PMG) with perisylvian, temporal, frontal, and parietal location. Corresponding to the distinctly reduced gyration, the focal pattern of cortical veins in susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) was absent due to missing sulcal depth. In contrast, adjacent regions with sufficient sulcal depth revealed a pattern with numerically increased and finer cortical veins. Therefore, with its atypical venous pattern SWI indicates an abnormal parenchymal anatomy and might be an additional helpful tool for diagnosing PMG. PMID:26668757

  9. Caring for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in children

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Mubashira; Wasay, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in children is increasingly recognized as diagnostic tools and clinical awareness has improved. It is a multifactorial disease where prothrombotic risk factors and predisposing clinical conditions usually in combination constitute the underlying etiology. Clinical features range from headache, seizures to comatose state. Although symptomatic treatment involving control of infections, seizures and intracranial hypertension is uniform, use of anticoagulation and local thrombolytic therapy is still controversial. Morbidity and mortality can be significant and long-term neurological sequelae include developmental delay, sensorimotor and visual deficits and epilepsy. PMID:21887032

  10. [Treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolic disease: what's new?].

    PubMed

    Rey, Marie-Antoinette; Bron, Cédric; Haesler, Erik; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2009-02-01

    Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease is frequent and questions regarding its treatment or prevention are numerous. This review is aimed at summarizing and pointing out the novelties on VTE treatment and prevention recently published in the Chest journal earlier this year (8th edition of ACCP guidelines). Generally, the aim of guidelines and of this review as well, is to offer guidance to practictioners in making the most appropriate choice for treating or preventing VTE. They are not intended for strict application and doctors will always have to decide individually case by case taking into account patients preference and the risk-benefit balance. PMID:19271649

  11. [Post-thrombotic syndrome: the forgotten complication of venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Guanella, R

    2013-02-01

    The post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is the most common chronic complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), with a cumulative incidence of 20-50%. PTS is characterized by the occurrence of various signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency in a limb previously affected by DVT. This condition significantly impairs quality of life and results in substantial burden to society. So far, treatment options are limited and strategies that prevent PTS occurrence are therefore of major importance. The present article critically reviews the definition, diagnosis, incidence, risk factors of PTS occurrence and treatment strategies for PTS. PMID:23469400

  12. Incidence of varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency and venous reflux in the general population and associated risk factors: the Edinburgh Vein Study follow up 

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Lindsay Anne

    2013-07-06

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common problem in the western world, causes considerable morbidity and has a substantial impact on the health care system in terms of cost of treatment. Most epidemiological research has ...

  13. Radiographic and Intravascular (IVUS) Evaluation of Venous Morphology During CCSVI Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-06

    To Determine the Safety and Validity of Venous Angioplasty and; Valvuloplasty in the Treatment of CCSVI. In Addition, it Will; Allow Researchers to Sub-classify Valve Morphology in Relation; to Treatment Success. This Will be Evidenced by Venous Patency; Forty-eight Hours by Doppler Ultrasound as Well as Clinical; Symptom Improvement.

  14. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in HIV-infected patients: report of 2 cases

    PubMed Central

    Mwita, Julius Chacha; Baliki, Kgomotso; Tema, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular disease; however Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST) is rarely associated with HIV-related cerebrovascular events. We describe two cases of HIV-positive patients who, at the same time, presented to our hospital with deep cerebral venous thrombosis and stroke. PMID:24570775

  15. Venous hemodynamics in neurological disorders: an analytical review with hydrodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Clive B

    2013-01-01

    Venous abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of several neurological conditions. This paper reviews the literature regarding venous abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS), leukoaraiosis, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The review is supplemented with hydrodynamic analysis to assess the effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and cerebral blood flow (CBF) of venous hypertension in general, and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in particular.CCSVI-like venous anomalies seem unlikely to account for reduced CBF in patients with MS, thus other mechanisms must be at work, which increase the hydraulic resistance of the cerebral vascular bed in MS. Similarly, hydrodynamic changes appear to be responsible for reduced CBF in leukoaraiosis. The hydrodynamic properties of the periventricular veins make these vessels particularly vulnerable to ischemia and plaque formation.Venous hypertension in the dural sinuses can alter intracranial compliance. Consequently, venous hypertension may change the CSF dynamics, affecting the intracranial windkessel mechanism. MS and NPH appear to share some similar characteristics, with both conditions exhibiting increased CSF pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius.CCSVI appears to be a real phenomenon associated with MS, which causes venous hypertension in the dural sinuses. However, the role of CCSVI in the pathophysiology of MS remains unclear. PMID:23724917

  16. Hemodynamics of the Hepatic Venous Three-Vessel Confluences Using Particle Image Velocimetry

    E-print Network

    Pekkan, Kerem

    Hemodynamics of the Hepatic Venous Three-Vessel Confluences Using Particle Image Velocimetry-prototype replicas of two pediatric hepatic venous confluence anatomies and two-component particle image velocimetry confluences with multiple inlets and outlets. Keywords--Particle image velocimetry, Patient-specific surgical

  17. Transhepatic Embolization of Congenital Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunts with Associated Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Kalyan; Hoffer, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic shunts between the portal and systemic venous systems with associated aneurysms are extremely rare. A middle aged woman presented with hepatic encephalopathy and was found to have two intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts with associated aneurysms. Diagnosis was made by duplex ultrasound and was confirmed with contrast enhanced MRI. Treatment was performed percutaneously with an Amplatzer vascular plug. PMID:26257785

  18. Venous compliance and fluid shift measurements on Spacelab IML-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiski, D.; Thirsk, R. B.; Charles, J. B.; Bennett, B.

    1992-01-01

    During the first few hours of a human spaceflight mission, a headward fluid shift out of the abdomen, pelvis, and legs initiates a number of adaptive cardiovascular responses, including a loss of intravascular and extravascular fluid volume. On return to earth, these cardiovascular changes may lead to debilitating symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in an unprotected astronaut. To test the hypothesis that an inflight increase in compliance of the leg veins may contribute to this condition, measurements of lower leg fluid shift and bulk venous compliance were collected from crew members during the eight-day First International Microgravity Laboratory shuttle mission. An ultrasonic limb plethysmograph, in conjunction with two compression cuffs encircling the calf and thigh, was used to determine bulk compliance of the underlying veins over a range of negative and positive transmural pressures. The data from inflight experiment sessions were compared to preflight and postflight sessions. The preliminary results indicate that the volume of the lower leg decreased by over 10 percent by the sixth day of flight, but there was no apparent change in venous compliance.

  19. Interventional Radiological Management of Prehepatic Obstruction the Splanchnic Venous System

    SciTech Connect

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan Keussen, Inger; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate interventional radiological management of patients with symptomatic portal hypertension secondary to obstruction of splanchnic veins. Material and Methods. Twenty-four patients, 15 males and 9 females, 0.75 to 79 years old (mean, 36.4 years), with symptomatic portal hypertension, secondary to splanchnic venous obstruction, were treated by percutaneous methods. Causes and extent of splanchnic venous obstruction and methods are summarized following a retrospective evaluation. Results. Obstructions were localized to the main portal vein (n = 22), intrahepatic portal veins (n = 8), splenic vein (n = 4), and/or mesenteric veins (n = 4). Interventional treatment of 22 (92%) patients included recanalization (n = 19), pharmacological thrombolysis (n = 1), and mechanical thrombectomy (n = 5). Partial embolization of the spleen was done in five patients, in two of them as the only possible treatment. TIPS placement was necessary in 10 patients, while an existing occluded TIPS was revised in two patients. Transhepatic embolization of varices was performed in one patient, and transfemoral embolization of splenorenal shunt was performed in another. Thirty-day mortality was 13.6% (n=3). During the follow-up, ranging between 2 days and 58 months, revision was necessary in five patients. An immediate improvement of presenting symptoms was achieved in 20 patients (83%). Conclusion. We conclude that interventional procedures can be successfully performed in the majority of patients with obstruction of splanchnic veins, with subsequent improvement of symptoms. Treatment should be customized according to the site and nature of obstruction.

  20. Sharp Central Venous Recanalization by Means of a TIPS Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Honnef, Dagmar Wingen, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.; Haage, Patrick

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform an alternative technique for recanalization of a chronic occlusion of the left brachiocephalic vein that could not be traversed with a guidewire. Restoration of a completely thrombosed left brachiocephalic vein was attempted in a 76-year-old male hemodialysis patient with massive upper inflow obstruction, massive edema of the face, neck, shoulder, and arm, and occlusion of the stented right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava. Vessel negotiation with several guidewires and multipurpose catheters proved unsuccessful. The procedure was also non-viable using a long, 21G puncture needle. Puncture of the superior vena cava (SVC) at the distal circumference of the stent in the right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava, however, was feasible with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) set under biplanar fluoroscopy using the distal end of the right brachiocephalic vein as a target, followed by balloon dilatation and partial extraction of thrombotic material of the left brachiocephalic vein with a wire basket. Finally, two overlapping stents were deployed to avoid early re-occlusion. Venography demonstrated complete vessel patency with free contrast media flow via the stents into the SVC, which was reconfirmed in follow-up examinations. Immediate clinical improvement was observed. Venous vascular recanalization of chronic venous occlusion by means of a TIPS needle is feasible as a last resort under certain precautions.

  1. Distended Bladder Presenting with Altered Mental Status and Venous Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Washco, Vaughan; Engel, Lee; Smith, David L.; McCarron, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Background New onset or acute worsening of bilateral lower extremity swelling is commonly caused by venous congestion from decompensated heart failure, pulmonary disease, liver dysfunction, or kidney insufficiency. A thromboembolic event, lymphatic obstruction, or even external compression of venous flow can also be the culprit. Case Report We report the case of an 83-year-old male with a history of myelodysplastic syndrome that progressed to acute myeloid leukemia, bipolar disorder, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. He presented with altered mental status and new onset lower extremity edema caused by acute bladder outflow obstruction. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed the patient's distended bladder compressing bilateral external iliac veins. Conclusion Insertion of a Foley catheter resulted in several liters of urine output and marked improvement in his lower extremity edema and mental status a few hours later. Our extensive workup failed to reveal a cause of the patient's acute change in mental status, and we attributed it to a concept known as cystocerebral syndrome. PMID:25829883

  2. Ethnic diversity in the genetics of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Hu, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Genetic susceptibility is considered as a crucial factor for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Epidemiologic and genetic studies have revealed clear disparities in the incidence of VTE and the distribution of genetic factors for VTE in populations stratified by ethnicity worldwide. While gain-of-function polymorphisms in the procoagulant genes are common inherited factors in European-origin populations, the most prevalent molecular basis for venous thrombosis in Asians is confirmed to be dysfunctional variants in the anticoagulant genes. With the breakthrough of genomic technologies, a set of novel common alleles and rare mutations associated with VTE have also been identified, in different ethnic groups. Several putative pathways contributing to the pathogenesis of thrombophilia in populations of African-ancestry are largely unknown, as current knowledge of hereditary and acquired risk factors do not fully explain the highest risk of VTE in Black groups. In-depth studies across diverse ethnic populations are needed to unravel the whole genetics of VTE, which will help developing individual risk prediction models and strategies to minimise VTE in all populations. PMID:26156046

  3. Treatment of venous thromboembolism: guidelines translated for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Houman Fekrazad, M; Lopes, Renato D; Stashenko, Gregg J; Alexander, John H; Garcia, David

    2009-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting over 2 million people in the United States each year. The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) published their first consensus statement on antithrombotic therapy in 1986, and the most recent guidelines from the ACCP on this topic were released in 2008. We aim to summarize the most recent ACCP guidelines on therapy for venous thromboembolism with practical application and interpretation for the practicing physician. We will briefly review the rating system used in the guidelines for the level of evidence and the strength of the recommendation. We will then discuss the recommendations for initial anticoagulant therapies including low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and fondaparinux for patients with both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A discussion of the guidelines on duration of anticoagulant therapy with a vitamin K antagonist is also included. In addition, we will address the use of thrombolytic therapy and inferior vena cava filter placement for DVT and PE. Prevention of postphlebitic syndrome is discussed as well. We will conclude with a brief discussion of future directions including several novel therapeutic anticoagulants. PMID:19579012

  4. Complications associated with central venous catheters in a haematology unit.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, P. C.; Morris, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters in patients suffering from haematological disorders has brought enormous benefits, but has been associated with an increase in septicaemia. We have reviewed septic and other complications in 43 patients who received one of three different forms of central venous catheters (type A-Hickman, type B-Portacath, type C-Pasport) during 1991. All complications were reviewed up to 18 months following insertion. The total complication rate was 31% (0.97 per 100 catheter days), and the total sepsis complication rate was 18.8% (0.49 per 100 catheter days). Type A catheters had the greatest sepsis complication rate of 29.5% (0.84 per 100 catheter days), with type B 15% (0.39 per 100 catheter days) and type C 9.9% (0.32 per 100 catheter days). Prophylactic antibiotics on the day of catheter insertion did not reduce the sepsis rate or prolong catheter survival. PMID:8650826

  5. Complications associated with central venous catheters in a haematology unit.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, P C; Morris, T C

    1994-10-01

    The use of central venous catheters in patients suffering from haematological disorders has brought enormous benefits, but has been associated with an increase in septicaemia. We have reviewed septic and other complications in 43 patients who received one of three different forms of central venous catheters (type A-Hickman, type B-Portacath, type C-Pasport) during 1991. All complications were reviewed up to 18 months following insertion. The total complication rate was 31% (0.97 per 100 catheter days), and the total sepsis complication rate was 18.8% (0.49 per 100 catheter days). Type A catheters had the greatest sepsis complication rate of 29.5% (0.84 per 100 catheter days), with type B 15% (0.39 per 100 catheter days) and type C 9.9% (0.32 per 100 catheter days). Prophylactic antibiotics on the day of catheter insertion did not reduce the sepsis rate or prolong catheter survival. PMID:8650826

  6. Placement of a Port Catheter Through Collateral Veins in a Patient with Central Venous Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl-Martin Streitparth, Florian; Gebauer, Bernhard; Benter, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  7. Association of foot and ankle characteristics with progression of venous disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tanner I; Forbang, Nketi I; Criqui, Michael H; Allison, Matthew A

    2015-04-01

    Although risk factors have been identified for the cross-sectional prevalence of venous disease, few studies have investigated risk factors for venous disease progression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between foot and ankle characteristics and the progression of venous disease. A total of 1025 participants from the San Diego Population Study were assessed at baseline and at follow-up 11 years later. Risk factors were assessed by questionnaire and physical measurements, while venous disease was determined by physical examination and Duplex ultrasound. Change in venous disease from baseline to 11-year follow-up was characterized as stable or progression. Those with venous disease progression were less likely to spend increased time lying per day, more likely to have a history of hypertension, lie supine for a surgical procedure greater than an hour, and report an occupation that was professional, technical, administrative, or management. Those with a normal arch reported the greatest degree of plantar flexion. In multivariable logistic regression, including adjustment for weight-bearing arch characteristics, greater dorsiflexion (per 5 degrees) was significantly associated with progression of venous disease (OR = 1.11, p = 0.01). A weight-bearing flat arch compared to a weight-bearing normal arch was of borderline significance as a protective factor against progression of venous disease with adjustment for dorsiflexion (OR = 0.56, p = 0.07). Our results indicate that the ability to have higher levels of dorsiflexion is a risk factor for the progression of venous disease, and suggest a role for connective tissue laxity in the pathogenesis of venous disease. PMID:25832598

  8. Thermal lagging in living biological tissue based on nonequilibrium heat transfer between tissue, arterial and venous bloods

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yuwen

    , arterial and venous bloods Nazia Afrin, Yuwen Zhang , J.K. Chen Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Protein denaturation a b s t r a c t Arterial, venous blood and solid tissue are the three energy carriers biological tissues based on nonequi- librium heat transfer between tissue, arterial and venous bloods

  9. Hepatic portal venous gas and portal venous thrombosis following colonoscopy in a patient with terminal ileal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Adler Shing Chak; Ewing, Iain; Murray, Charles Daniel; Hamilton, Mark Ian

    2015-01-01

    A 27-year-old man developed extensive hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) shortly after staging colonoscopy for active, ulcerating, terminal ileal Crohn's disease. Non-operative management was instigated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and thromboprophylaxis. Radiology at 72?h demonstrated resolution of HPVG but revealed fresh non-occlusive left portal vein thrombus. Anticoagulation with warfarin was continued for 1?year, during which the thrombus initially progressed and then organised with recanalisation of the portal vein. There were no long-term clinical consequences. HPVG has previously been documented as a rare complication of inflammatory bowel disease and endoscopic intervention. We hypothesise that the barotrauma sustained during endoscopy, in association with active ulceration and mucosal friability, predisposes to the influx of gas and bacteria into the portal system. We describe successful non-operative management of HPVG in this setting and draw attention to an additional complication of portal venous thrombosis, highlighting the importance of thromboprophylaxis and serial radiological examination. PMID:25939971

  10. Correlation between central venous pressure and peripheral venous pressure with passive leg raise in patients on mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Ahmed, Syed Moied; Ali, Shahna; Ray, Utpal; Varshney, Ankur; Doley, Kashmiri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central venous pressure (CVP) assesses the volume status of patients. However, this technique is not without complications. We, therefore, measured peripheral venous pressure (PVP) to see whether it can replace CVP. Aims: To evaluate the correlation and agreement between CVP and PVP after passive leg raise (PLR) in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study in Intensive Care Unit. Methods: Fifty critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation were included in the study. CVP and PVP measurements were taken using a water column manometer. Measurements were taken in the supine position and subsequently after a PLR of 45°. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation and Bland–Altman's analysis. Results: This study showed a fair correlation between CVP and PVP after a PLR of 45° (correlation coefficient, r = 0.479; P = 0.0004) when the CVP was <10 cmH2O. However, the correlation was good when the CVP was >10 cmH2O. Bland–Altman analysis showed 95% limits of agreement to be ?2.912–9.472. Conclusion: PVP can replace CVP for guiding fluid therapy in critically ill patients.

  11. Advances in venous access devices and nursing management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wickham, R S

    1990-06-01

    VADs are indicated for many persons who require reliable long-term venous access. Nontunneled, tunneled, and venous access ports are constructed of silicone or polyurethane, the most biocompatible materials identified thus far. These devices are inserted in a similar fashion and are extremely versatile. Although VADs represent a major advance in catheter technology, they are not without problems. The most serious and frequently reported complications include infection, thrombosis, and extravasation. Catheter occlusions are another frequent problem, and may be caused by clotted blood or precipitated drug within the catheter. Nursing care centers on prevention and intervention to remove the occlusion. Catheter-related infections may occur at one or more points along the catheter. The most serious are those occurring in the tunnel or as a result of a mural or catheter-tip thrombus. Normal skin flora are most commonly cultured with catheter-related infections. These organisms may be introduced into the body through the catheter hub or less often by migrating along the external catheter. Infections differ in their severity, prognosis, and treatment. Actions to minimize risk (scrupulous care and patient teaching), prompt recognition, and appropriate interventions are crucial. Thrombotic events include fibrin sheaths, patchy thrombotic plaques on the cannulated venous intima, and totally occlusive mural thromboses. Problems associated with these can range from withdrawal occlusion to obstruction of the great vessels and symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome. Mural thrombosis, which probably occurs more frequently than previously suspected, is the most significant risk factor for infection and may also potentiate extravasation. Prompt initiation of therapy will resolve symptoms and maintain the functioning of the catheter. Extravasation can result in transient discomfort or major tissue damage, pain, and functional loss. Needle dislodgment from ports is the most frequent cause. Adequate stabilization of needles and use of nonsiliconized needles are recommended to decrease this risk. Thrombosis at the catheter tip with back tracking of infusate out of the vein to subcutaneous tissues is the second most frequent cause of extravasation and has been reported with tunneled catheters as well as ports. It should be noted that catheter-tip displacement and catheter damage infrequently lead to extravasation. When extravasation is suspected, the infusion is stopped, and the nurse notifies the physician so diagnostic procedures and treatment can be initiated. Other complications occur infrequently but may contribute to patient discomfort, morbidity, and mortality. These include phlebitis, which resolves with conservative management in most instances, and pneumothorax, which occurs in a small percentage of patients within a short period after catheter placement.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2110664

  12. Deep Venous Thrombosis in Teen With Crouzon Syndrome Post-Le Fort III Osteotomy With Rigid External Distraction.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Lauren O; Myers, Rene P; Girotto, John A

    2015-11-01

    Venous thromboembolic events are rare in pediatric patients. Risk factors associated with the development of venous thromboembolic events in pediatric patients include the use of central venous catheters, hospitalization, cancer, sepsis, trauma, surgery, and congenital prothrombotic disorders.The authors present the case of a 14-year-old man with Crouzon syndrome who required Le Fort III osteotomy with rigid external distraction for significant midface hypoplasia who presented postoperatively with an extensive deep venous thrombosis. This is the first reported case of symptomatic venous thrombosis post-Le Fort III osteotomy and rigid external distraction. Although rare, surgeons should be aware of this potential complication. PMID:26595005

  13. Persistent primitive hepatic venous plexus with Scimitar syndrome: description of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, M Santiago; Aldoss, Osamah; Ng, Benton

    2015-06-01

    Persistent primitive hepatic venous plexus is an anomaly of the systemic venous return characterised by postnatal persistence of the foetal intrahepatic venous drainage. Scimitar syndrome is a condition that consists of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return of the right pulmonary venous drainage into the systemic veins, associated with pulmonary artery hypoplasia with the underdeveloped right lung, pulmonary sequestration, and cardiac malposition. Both conditions are rare and together have been rarely described in the literature. We report the first case of this combination of lesions imaged by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with a three-dimensional reconstruction and reviewed the literature to characterise this uncommon combination. PMID:25249237

  14. Post-hepatectomy liver failure: Should we consider venous outflow?

    PubMed Central

    Lhuaire, Martin; Piardi, Tullio; Bruno, Onorina; Sibert, Annie; Kianmanesh, Reza; Sommacale, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is one of the most serious complications of liver resection and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Presentation of case We report a case of PHLF involving clinical presentation of posthepatectomy-related ‘small-for-size’ syndrome (SFSS) secondary to obstructed venous outflow in the liver remnant, following extended right hepatectomy. Discussion PHLF is similar to SFSS in liver transplantation (LT) in terms of pathogenesis, clinical presentation and outcomes. Although inflow hypertension is clearly implicated in the pathogenesis of SFSS some authors have suggested that outflow obstruction is a potential pathogenic factor. Conclusion The present case support the hypothesis that outflow obstruction could lead symptoms similar to SFSS. PMID:26476052

  15. Smart medical stocking using memory polymer for chronic venous disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bipin; Hu, Jinlian; Pan, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Proper level of pressure or compression generated by medical stocking or hosiery is the key element for successful treatment or management of chronic venous disorders such as oedema, leg ulcers, etc. However achieving the recommended compression level and, more importantly, sustaining it using stockings has been a major challenge to the health practitioners supervising the treatment. This work aims to investigate and design a smart compression stocking using shape-memory polymer that allows externally controlling the pressure level in the wrapped position on the leg. Based on thermodynamical rubber theories, we first derived several criteria that have to be satisfied simultaneously in order to achieve the controlled pressure adjustment using external heat stimuli. We then presented a case where such a stocking is developed using a blend yarn consists of selected shape-memory polyurethane and nylon filaments. Extensive experimental work has also been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and explore the influencing factors involved. PMID:26513411

  16. Radioimmunoimaging of venous thrombi using iodine-131 monoclonal antibody. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosebrough, S.F.; Kudryk, B.; Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.; Subramanian, G.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.A.; Witanowski, L.S.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.

    1985-08-01

    Murine monoclonal antibody (Mab) specific for the NH/sub 2/-terminal region of human fibrin, but not cross-reactive with fibrinogen, was used in radioimmuno-imaging of fresh, induced venous thrombi in three dogs. Iodine-131-labeled Mab was injected intravenously, with iodine 125-labeled polyclonal murine gamma-G globulin (IgG) simultaneously injected as a control. Images were strongly positive at 24 and 48 hours in all three animals, with thrombus-to-blood and thrombus-to-muscle ratios of 8.4 and 228.0, respectively, for I-131-labeled Mab; these ratios for control IgG were 1.2 and 13.0. Radioimmunodetection of thrombi in vivo is feasible in dogs and may have clinical application since Mab is specific to human fibrin.

  17. Dynamics of central venous catheter-related sepsis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Paston, M J; Meguid, R A; Muscaritoli, M; Forbes, B; Yang, Z J; Meguid, M M

    1993-01-01

    To determine when catheter-related sepsis clears after removal of an infected central venous catheter (CVC) and when a new sterile CVC can be inserted without risk of recolonization, a catheter infected with 10(5) CFU of Staphylococcus epidermidis per ml was inserted into 40 Fischer 344 rats. Five control rats had sterile catheters. Insertion of an infected CVC was followed by a significant rise in leukocytes after 4 days and the presence of S. epidermidis in lungs, livers, spleens, kidneys, and the catheter tip, as examined by bacteriological assay. After the infected catheter was removed, the rat recovered from the induced catheter-related sepsis within 12 h. When a new sterile CVC was inserted into the femoral vein, the leukocyte count remained normal, and all catheter tips and tissue cultures were sterile 4 days later. PMID:8315012

  18. Cerebral venous air embolism during epidural injection in adult

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sharmili; Ray, Banambar

    2015-01-01

    A bolus of 0.125% bupivacaine (8ml) was given for post-operative analgesia with considerable resistance. It was immediately followed by hemodynamic deterioration along with fall in sensorium. After resuscitation, CT brain revealed pneumoencephalus around the brainstem. The higher force generated during injection could have injured epidural venous plexus and air inadvertently entered the veins. The source of air could have been from the epidural catheter or injection syringe. Hence it is suggested that position and patency of the epidural catheter must be checked each time before administration of injections especially after position changes. On presence of slightest resistance, injections should be withheld till the cause is ascertained by a trained personnel. PMID:25722555

  19. Look away: arterial and venous intravascular embolisation following shotgun injury.

    PubMed

    Vedelago, John; Dick, Elizabeth; Thomas, Robert; Jones, Brynmor; Kirmi, Olga; Becker, Jennifer; Alavi, Afshin; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw

    2014-01-01

    We describe two cases of intravascular embolization of shotgun pellets found distant to the entry site of penetrating firearm injury. The cases demonstrate antegrade embolization of a shotgun pellet from neck to right middle cerebral artery, and antegrade followed by retrograde venous embolization through the left lower limb to pelvis. Radiologists and Trauma Physicians should be aware that post shotgun injury, the likelihood of an embolised shot pellet is increased compared to other types of firearm missile injury, and should therefore search away from the site of injury to find such missiles. Shotgun pellets may travel in an antegrade or a retrograde intravascular direction - both were seen in these cases - and may not be clinically obvious. This underscores the importance of a meticuluous search through all images, including CT scout images, for evidence of their presence. PMID:25926869

  20. Single Superficial versus Dual Systems Venous Anastomoses in Radial Forearm Free Flap: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shuang; Xu, Zhong-Fei; Duan, Wei-Yi; Liu, Fa-Yu; Huang, Dong-Hui; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Background The radial forearm free flap (RFFF) has been widely used with increasing frequency in head and neck reconstruction following extirpative surgery. The controversy of the venous anastomoses patterns still exists. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between the venous anastomoses patterns and venous compromise. Methods MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases were searched for studies reporting the different venous anastomoses patterns of the RFFF. A meta-analysis was conducted using the random effects models. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also assessed. Results 6 studies with 992 cases were included in this meta-analysis. The dual anastomosis group tended to have a lower incidence of venous compromise (RR = 1.39). However, the difference was not statistically significant (95%CI: 0.59, 3.24). Conclusions This meta-analysis indicated that performing dual venous anatomoses consisting of superficial and deep systems conferred a tendency of the reduction with regard to venous compromise. PMID:26270854

  1. Guidance value of intracranial venous circulation evaluation to parasagittal meningioma operation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shousen; Ying, Jianbin; Wei, Liangfeng; Li, Shiqing; Jing, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to investigate the value of intracranial venous circulation evaluation in guiding the surgery for parasagittal meningioma. Methods: A total of 44 parasagittal meningioma (PSM) patients received 3D CE-MRV scanning. The obtained images were reconstructed by virtual reality (VR) technology. Venous collateral circulation was evaluated. Postoperative follow-up was carried out. Results: Among 44 PSM patients, 41 cases were with resection of Simpson grade I/II (93.18%) and 6 cases were with permanent neurological dysfunction (13.64%). Venous sinus thrombosis occurred in the remaining 3 patients (6.82%), with 2 cases cured and 1 case died. The mortality rate was 2.27%. Recurrence occurred in one case (2.27%) after discharge. In 9 cases, tumor adjacent SSS was transected and the poor prognosis rate was 33.33%. SSS was opened in 3 cases and after removal of the tumor the broken end was sutured directly. The poor prognosis occurred in one case (33.33%). Electrocoagulation was carried out to the SSS wall in 32 cases without opening venous sinus and 2 cases were with poor prognosis (6.25%). The three different venous sinus treatment methods had no significantly difference on the prognosis of patients (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Preoperative evaluation of intracranial venous circulation with VR technology and 3D CE-MRV may help making individual surgical plans, reduce venous injury and improve the prognosis of PSM patients. PMID:26550288

  2. Venous Thromboembolism After Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Tanaka, Osamu; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of new or recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) after retrieval of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters and risk factors associated with such recurrence. Between March 2001 and September 2008, at our institution, implanted retrievable vena cava filters were retrieved in 76 patients. The incidence of new or recurrent VTE after retrieval was reviewed and numerous variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for redevelopment of VTE after filter retrieval. In 5 (6.6%) of the 76 patients, redevelopment or worsening of VTE was seen after retrieval of the filter. Three patients (4.0%) had recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities and 2 (2.6%) had development of pulmonary embolism, resulting in death. Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of new or recurrent VTE related to any risk factor investigated, a tendency for development of VTE after filter retrieval was higher in patients in whom DVT in the lower extremities had been so severe during filter implantation that interventional radiological therapies in addition to traditional anticoagulation therapies were required (40% in patients with recurrent VTE vs. 23% in those without VTE; p = 0.5866 according to Fisher's exact probability test) and in patients in whom DVT remained at the time of filter retrieval (60% in patients with recurrent VTE vs. 37% in those without VTE; p = 0.3637). In conclusion, new or recurrent VTE was rare after retrieval of IVC filters but was most likely to occur in patients who had severe DVT during filter implantation and/or in patients with a DVT that remained at the time of filter retrieval. We must point out that the fatality rate from PE after filter removal was high (2.6%).

  3. [Treatment of venous thrombosis in cancer patients: practical aspects].

    PubMed

    Laza-Achille, Mihaela; Desruennes, Eric; Di Palma, Mario

    2006-03-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased in association with malignancy, and has a potential to produce significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of such patients with anticoagulants is associated with both benefit and a high rate of complications. In the early phase, the treatment is usually achieved with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), which has a number of advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH): once or twice daily administration, no necessary laboratory monitoring, lesser risk of bleeding and no drugs interactions. Nevertheless, the UFH is the anticoagulant of choice when a rapid anticoagulant effect or stop of anticoagulant effect is required, in the treatment of massive pulmonary embolism or severe renal insufficiency. Prolonged anticoagulation with LMWH (over 3 or 6 months) appears to be beneficial on survival for such patients. The subject of anticoagulation in patients with primary or secondary brain tumours is controversial. The long-term anticoagulation mainly use LMWH or vitamin K antagonist. The last ones are more difficult to use because of an unpredictable response with higher rate of recurrence and bleeding. The optimal duration of treatment is not known but the patients should be treated for at least 6 months, even at least 12 months after a second episode of venous thromboembolism. On the primary prevention in high-risk surgical oncology, the LMWH are at least as effective and safer as UFH when the optimal dose was administered. For the medical patients, the use of prophylactic anticoagulant treatment is less clear except the patients who are bedridden for prolonged periods of time. For the secondary prevention, the LMWH seems to be more effective over vitamin K antagonists. For these patients, the anticoagulant therapy is recommended indefinitely or until cancer is resolved. PMID:16567314

  4. Neonatal central venous catheter thrombosis: diagnosis, management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Park, Christina K; Paes, Bosco A; Nagel, Kim; Chan, Anthony K; Murthy, Prashanth

    2014-03-01

    Thrombotic occlusion of central venous catheters (CVCs) is a common problem in newborns. There is no guideline that systematically addresses the diagnosis, management, and prevention of this complication. The objective of this review is to establish evidence-based guidance for the management of CVC-related thrombosis. A comprehensive search of the scientific literature was conducted from 1948 to 2012. Twenty-six articles fulfilling four criteria - humans, neonates aged below 28 days, CVC insertion, and English language - were included for analysis. The incidence of thrombosis was 9.2% (308/3332). Singly inserted umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) and peripherally inserted central catheters accounted for over 80% of all CVCs. Frequently reported thrombotic sites were the hepatic vein, right atrium, and inferior vena cava. Symptoms included distal swelling of affected areas and thrombocytopenia. Increased length of catheter stay, infusion of blood products and malpositioned UVCs were identified as risk factors. The commonest diagnostic investigations to confirm thrombosis were echocardiography and ultrasonography. Spontaneous resolution may occur in UVC-related thrombosis, but this warrants close monitoring. Thrombolysis with urokinase alone or combined with low-molecular-weight heparin might be effective and well tolerated as treatment strategies. Prophylactic heparin increases the duration of catheter usability (P?

  5. Autoimmune diseases and venous thromboembolism: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zöller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is major health problem and is sometimes complicated by lethal pulmonary embolism (PE). Disturbances of the coagulation and anticoagulation systems are important risk factors for VTE. Comparative studies suggest that coagulation and innate immunity have a shared evolutionary origin. It is therefore unsurprising that the immune and coagulation systems are linked, with many molecular components being important for both systems. Systemic inflammation modulates thrombotic responses by suppressing fibrinolysis, upregulating procoagulant, and downregulating anticoagulants, and autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and Behçet’s syndrome have been linked to an increased risk of VTE. Recent reports have further shown that a majority of autoimmune and immune-mediated disorders are linked to an increased risk of venous thrombosis, PE, or VTE. For instance, a Swedish nationwide study found that the risk of PE was increased in the first year after hospitalization for 33 different autoimmune disorders. Especially high risks were noted for several autoimmune diseases such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, polyarteritis nodosa, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, ulcerative colitis, and SLE. Another study from England, also based on hospitalization data, found that immune-mediated disorders were associated with an increased risk of VTE compared with other medical causes of hospitalization. Multiple mechanisms may operate and disease-specific factors, such as cardiolipin antibodies, have been identified. However, inflammation by itself appears to change the hemostatic balance in a thrombogenic direction. Recent epidemiological studies, together with previous experimental and clinical studies, indicate that autoimmune disorders should not only be viewed as inflammatory disorders, but also hypercoagulable disorders. Research to identify thrombotic risk factors, elucidate the mechanisms involved, and investigate prophylactic regiments is needed. The present review describes the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence for the connection between VTE and autoimmune and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:22937487

  6. Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism After Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Takao; Tanabe, Fumito; Kawamura, Ichiro; Tsuneyoshi, Yasuhiro; Kawabata, Naoya; Nagano, Satoshi; Abematsu, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Takuya; Yone, Kazunori; Komiya, Setsuro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The efficacy and safety of chemical prophylaxis to prevent the development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) following spine surgery are controversial because of the possibility of epidural hematoma formation. Postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after spine surgery occurs at a frequency similar to that seen after joint operations, so it is important to identify the risk factors for VTE formation following spine surgery. We therefore retrospectively studied data from patients who had undergone spinal surgery and developed postoperative VTE to identify those risk factors. We conducted a retrospective clinical study with logistic regression analysis of a group of 80 patients who had undergone spine surgery at our institution from June 2012 to August 2013. All patients had been screened by ultrasonography for DVT in the lower extremities. Parameters of the patients with VTE were compared with those without VTE using the Mann–Whitney U-test and Fisher exact probability test. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors associated with VTE. A value of P?

  7. The hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram in alcoholic hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.; Sakimura, I.; Siegel, M.E.; Harley, H.; Lee, K.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to identify abnormalities in the hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram (SA) in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SA's were performed in 35 patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), 8; acute alcoholic hepatitis superimposed on cirrhosis (A/C), 14; and cirrhosis (C), 13. Posterior flows were done with a bolus of 10 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid with computer time-activity curves over the liver and left kidney. Curves were analyzed for per cent of hepatic arterial (HA) and portal venous contribution using the slope ratio method. Hepatic arterialization was estimated from the angle of the HA component of the curve. Reversal of the relative contribution of the hepatic and portal components of total flow were seen in all groups. Although quite severe in AH, the degree of reversal could not be used to differentiate among the groups. The average HA angle in AAH was 48.3 +- 8.1, in A/C 41.5 +- 10.6, and in C 30.4 +- 12.1. In reviewing the data of only those in the acute clinical phase of AH and not the recovery phase (1 AAH, 3 A/C) and those without other causes of alteration in hepatic arterialization (1 hepatoma, 1 portalcaval shunt, 6 renal failure), the average HA angle in AAH was 50.1 +- 6.6, 45.4 +- 8.2 in A/C, and 23.2 +- 4.2 in C. In 6 with renal failure (2 C, 2AAH, 2 A/C) the HA angle ws 52.7 +- 5.7. In all cases cirrhosis could be differentiated from both A/C (P=.05) and AAH (P<.01) using the HA angle. In absence of renal failure, portal shunt, or hepatoma, P was <.01 in both comparisons.

  8. Queckenstedt's Test Affects More than Jugular Venous Congestion in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chi-Hsiang; Doong, Ming-Luen; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2013-01-01

    Jugular venous compression by the Queckenstedt's test (Q-test) increases the intracranial pressure, but the effects of isolated jugular venous congestion are not well known. Intraventricular pressure (IVP) was compared during direct obstruction of the common jugular veins (bilateral CJV clipping) and during external compression of bilateral CJV flows (Q-test) in a rat model. Intracerebroventricular catheters were inserted into the right lateral ventricle of nine male Sprague-Dawley rats (371.1±44.8 g, 82.2±12.0 days old). The initial mean IVP, arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse rate were 2.8±1.3 mmHg, 88.8±12.7 mmHg, and 348.3±69.1 beats/min, respectively. The mean IVP increment and MAP decrement were 6.5±2.5 and 13.5±5.7 mmHg, respectively, during the Q-test, compared to 2.3±1.5 and 7.3±3.8 mmHg, respectively, during bilateral CJV clipping (all p?=?0.008). The IVP increment and MAP decrement were greater during the Q-test than during bilateral CJV clipping (p?=?0.008 and p?=?0.038). Although the Q-test and bilateral CJV clipping showed similar effects, the response with the Q-test was greater. Thus, the Q-test appears to obstruct other collateral cerebral veins in addition to bilateral CJV flows. Since this model revealed significant differences between the manual Q-test and bilateral CJV clipping, the finding should be taken into account in future studies on the Q-test in SD rats. PMID:23516633

  9. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: update on diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Canhão, Patrícia

    2014-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is less frequent than ischemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage. Its incidence is comparable to that of acute bacterial meningitis in adults. Because of the increased use of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) for investigating patients with acute and subacute headaches and new onset seizures, CVT are now being diagnosed with increasing frequency. CVT have a more varied clinical presentation than other stroke types as they rarely present as a stroke syndrome. Their most frequent presentations are isolated headache, intracranial hypertension syndrome, seizures, a focal lobar syndrome and encephalopathy. The confirmation of the diagnosis of CVT relies on the demonstration of thrombi in the cerebral veins and/or sinuses by MR/MR venography or veno CT. The more frequent risk factors for CVT are prothrombotic conditions, either genetic or acquired, oral contraceptives, puerperium and pregnancy, infection and malignancy. The prognosis of CVT is in general favourable, as only around 15% of the patients remain dependent or die. The main intervention in the acute is anticoagulation with either low molecular weight or unfractionated heparin. In patients in severe condition on admission or who deteriorate despite anticoagulation, local thrombolysis or thrombectomy is an option. Decompressive surgery is life-saving in patients with large venous infarcts or haemorrhage. After the acute phase patients remain anticoagulated for a variable period of time, depending on their inherent thrombotic risk. CVT patients may experience recurrent seizures. Prophylaxis with antiepileptics is recommended after the first seizures, in particular in those with hemispheric lesions. There are several ongoing multicentre registries sand trials which will improve evidence-based management of CVT in the near future. PMID:25073867

  10. Dynamic behavior of venous collapsibility and central venous pressure during standardized crystalloid bolus: A prospective, observational, pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Kent, Alistair; Patil, Prabhav; Jones, Christian; Stoltzfus, Jill C.; Vira, Amar; Kelly, Nicholas; Springer, Andrew N.; Vazquez, Daniel; Evans, David C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Bahner, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Measurement of intravascular volume status is an ongoing challenge for physicians in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Most surrogates for volume status, including central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary artery wedge pressure, require invasive lines associated with a number of potential complications. Sonographic assessment of the collapsibility of the inferior vena cava (IVC) has been described as a noninvasive method for determining volume status. The purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamic response in IVC collapsibility index (IVC-CI) to changes in CVP in SICU patients receiving fluid boluses for volume resuscitation. Materials and Methods: A prospective pilot study was conducted on a sample of SICU patients who met clinical indications for intravenous (IV) fluid bolus and who had preexisting central venous access. Boluses were standardized to crystalloid administration of either 500 mL over 30 min or 1,000 mL over 60 min, as clinically indicated. Concurrent measurements of venous CI (VCI) and CVP were conducted right before initiation of IV bolus (i.e. time 0) and then at 30 and 60 min (as applicable) after bolus initiation. Patient demographics, ventilatory parameters, and vital sign assessments were recorded, with descriptive outcomes reported due to the limited sample size. Results: Twenty patients received a total of 24 IV fluid boluses. There were five recorded 500 mL boluses given over 30 min and 19 recorded 1,000 mL boluses given over 60 min. Mean (median) CVP measured at 0, 30, and 60 minutes post-bolus were 6.04 ± 3.32 (6.5), 9.00 ± 3.41 (8.0), and 11.1 ± 3.91 (12.0) mmHg, respectively. Mean (median) IVC-CI values at 0, 30, and 60 min were 44.4 ± 25.2 (36.5), 26.5 ± 22.8 (15.6), and 25.2 ± 21.2 (14.8), respectively. Conclusions: Observable changes in both VCI and CVP are apparent during an infusion of a standardized fluid bolus. Dynamic changes in VCI as a measurement of responsiveness to fluid bolus are inversely related to changes seen in CVP. Moreover, an IV bolus tends to produce an early response in VCI, while the CVP response is more gradual. Given the noninvasive nature of the measurement technique, VCI shows promise as a method of dynamically measuring patient response to fluid resuscitation. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted. PMID:26157649

  11. Daptomycin antibiotic lock therapy in a rat model of staphylococcal central venous catheter biofilm infections.

    PubMed

    Van Praagh, Andrew D G; Li, Tongchuan; Zhang, Shuxin; Arya, Anu; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Xi-Xian; Bertolami, Shellie; Mortin, Lawrence I

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) is an adjunctive procedure to prevent or treat central venous catheter infections, ensuing catheter-related bacteremia, and catheter-related metastatic infections. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is rapidly bactericidal against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The efficacies of daptomycin against central venous catheter biofilms, catheter-related bacteremia, and catheter-related metastatic infections were evaluated by adapting a previously reported central venous catheter biofilm model in rats. Combined daptomycin ALT and systemic dosing resulted in the clearance of an established in vivo S. aureus central venous catheter biofilm after just two daily ALT treatments (30 min with daptomycin at 5 mg/ml) with concurrent systemic daptomycin dosing (40 mg/kg of body weight/day subcutaneously [s.c.]; equivalent exposure of 6 mg/kg/day in people). Daptomycin ALT solutions formulated in either saline or lactated Ringer's solution were equally fast in eradicating established in vivo methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) central venous catheter biofilms. However, the lactated Ringer's formulation was superior to that of saline in sustaining the bacterial clearance of treated central venous catheters (83% versus 50%). In MRSE-infected central venous catheter studies, 3 days of daptomycin or vancomycin ALT (18 h at 5 mg/ml) with systemic s.c. dosing (40 mg/kg/day daptomycin or 100 mg/kg/day vancomycin) was equally effective 1 week posttherapy in maintaining cleared central venous catheters (90% [n = 10] versus 100% [n = 8]). These results suggest that daptomycin ALT, along with systemic dosing, could be an effective treatment option for the prevention or eradication of staphylococcal central venous catheter biofilm infections, thereby reducing the occurrence of catheter-related bacteremia or catheter-related metastatic infections. PMID:21709082

  12. Cerebral Venous Congestion as Indication for Thrombolytic Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Fong Y. Kostanian, Varoujan; Rivera, Monica; Lee, Kwo-Whie; Chen, Clayton C.; Nguyen, Thong H.

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To carry out a retrospective analysis of patients with acute dural sinus thrombosis, and the role of cerebral venous congestion in patient management. Methods. Twenty-five patients were identified with the clinical and imaging diagnosis of acute dural sinus thrombosis. The imaging diagnosis was by magnetic resonance (MR) and/or computed tomography (CT) venography. There was a female predominance with a female to male ratio of 1.5 to 1 (16 women, 9 men). The age range was from 19 to 64 years old with an average age of 37 years. The first 10 patients, who ranged in age from 21 to 64 years old (average 37 years), received only anticoagulation therapy with heparin and warfarin for periods ranging from 5 days to 2 months. The remaining 15 patients ranged in age from 19 to 57 years old (average 38 years). They either underwent subsequent thrombectomy after a trial of anticoagulation therapy, or went straight to thrombectomy. These latter 15 patients had initial evidence of cerebral venous congestion, either clinically by severe or worsening symptoms despite anticoagulation therapy, or on initial or subsequent CT or MR imaging. In our experience, the cerebral venous congestion imaging findings included intracranial hemorrhage, a hematoma, or edema. The thrombolytic treatment technique consisted of the advancement of a 6 Fr guiding catheter to the jugular bulb or sigmoid sinus from a transfemoral approach. A microcatheter was then advanced to the proximal portion of the thrombus and then either tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or urokinase was injected to prevent clot propagation. A balloon catheter was used to perform thrombectomy since the thrombolytic agents can be injected via the inner lumen with an inflated balloon. The inflated balloon helped to keep the venous flow from washing out the thrombolytic agent, thus facilitating the agent's effect. Results. The first 10 patients received only anticoagulation therapy with heparin and warfarin for periods ranging from 5 days to 2 months. Eight of these were diagnosed with dural sinus thrombosis only, and had a stable hospital course without worsening of symptoms. These patients also did not have imaging evidence of cerebral venous congestion. The remaining 2 patients had cerebral edema on the CT scan. One had only a small amount of edema in the right cerebellum, but the other had severe edema in the bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic areas. Nine of these patients had a stable hospitalization course and experienced a symptom-free recovery, but 1 died with severe cerebral edema and hemorrhage. Seven of the remaining 15 patients were initially treated with anticoagulation therapy for periods ranging from 2 days to 2 months (average 11 days). These 7 patients were considered to have failed anticoagulation therapy since they had worsening symptoms, and 5 of these had developed hemorrhage on subsequent CT or MR imaging scans. Five of the 7 then underwent thrombectomy with the administration of tPA. Of the remaining 2, 1 underwent thrombectomy alone without the administration of tPA, and the other was given 1 million units of urokinase instead of tPA. Three of these patients had a symptom-free recovery, but 2 had residual left-sided weakness, 1 patient had a minimal gait disturbance, and another patient developed a transverse sinus arteriovenous fistula 7 months after thrombolytic therapy. The remaining 8 patients did not receive anticoagulation therapy, and went straight to treatment with thrombectomy and administration of tPA. All of these presented with worsening clinical symptoms. Six had hemorrhage on their imaging studies, 1 had new edema on a subsequent CT scan, and 1 had edema along with the dural sinus thrombosis, but experienced worsening clinical symptoms consisting of headache and atypical dystonia. Five of these 8 patients experienced a symptom-free recovery, and 3 patients had mild residual weakness. Conclusion. In patients with acute dural sinus thrombosis, an indication for thrombectomy or thrombolytic therapy may be the development of cerebral venous conge

  13. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of the venous tone in humans in the clinical pharmacology of venotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Modin, A Iu; Shashkov, V S

    2004-01-01

    A new ultrasonographic method of evaluation of the venous tone in humans is described and experimentally justified. The method is based on the principles of venous occlusion plethysmograhy and ultrasonographic two-dimensional imaging of the cross section of cubital veins. It is found that an increment of the cross-sectional area of the vein is correlated with a change in the volume of distal segment of the upper extremity according to the data of aqueous plethysmography. The tests with nitroglycerin and dihydroergotamine (vasoactive drugs producing opposite effects upon the venous tone) confirmed the possibility of using this technique in the clinical pharmacology of venotropic drugs. PMID:15500053

  14. Cerebral Venous Air Embolism due to a Hidden Skull Fracture Secondary to Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hosaka, Ai; Yamaguchi, Tetsuto; Yamamoto, Fumiko; Shibagaki, Yasuro

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous air embolism is sometimes caused by head trauma. One of the paths of air entry is considered a skull fracture. We report a case of cerebral venous air embolism following head trauma. The patient was a 55-year-old man who fell and hit his head. A head computed tomography (CT) scan showed the air in the superior sagittal sinus; however, no skull fractures were detected. Follow-up CT revealed a fracture line in the right temporal bone. Cerebral venous air embolism following head trauma might have occult skull fractures even if CT could not show the skull fractures. PMID:26693366

  15. Abnormalities in embryological development in total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. A case report.

    PubMed

    B?lgr?dean, Mihaela; Cintez?, Eliza; Cîrstoveanu, C; Enculescu, Augustina; Ple?ca, Doina

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary venous system development starts early in embryonic life. Abnormalities in the development of pulmonary venous system occur either by the absence of common pulmonary vein communication to the splanchnic plexus or by the absence of its incorporation into the dorsal wall of the left atrium. We present the case of a 10-day-old male newborn, diagnosed with TAPVC, operated, with long recovery and, who died by pneumonia, heart failure, and obstructive pulmonary disease (one pulmonary vein obstructed and another one with severe stenosis). Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) reflects one of the most severe forms of congenital heart disease, with important clinical consequences. PMID:24068416

  16. Acute Portomesenteric Venous Thrombosis following Laparoscopic Small Bowel Resection and Ventral Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sivasambu, Bhradeev; Yogarajah, Meera; Wilson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but life-threatening complication of laparoscopic surgery that has been described in literature. Prompt diagnosis and early initiation of treatment are vital to prevent life-threatening complications such as mesenteric ischemia and infarction. A 51-year-old lady had laparoscopic small bowel resection and primary anastomosis with ventral hernia repair 4 weeks earlier for partial small bowel obstruction. Her postoperative period was uneventful and she was discharged home. Four weeks after surgery she developed watery diarrhea and generalized abdominal pain for four-day duration. A computed tomography of the abdomen revealed portomesenteric venous thrombosis although a computed tomography of abdomen before surgery 4 weeks back did not show any portomesenteric venous thrombosis. We are reporting a case of acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis as a complication of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:26294984

  17. Influence of central venous pressure upon sinus node responses to arterial baroreflex stimulation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, A. L.; Takeshita, A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Abboud, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements were made of sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation with phenylephrine injection or neck suction, before and during changes of central venous pressure provoked by lower body negative pressure or leg and lower truck elevation. Variations of central venous pressure between 1.1 and 9.0 mm Hg did not influence arterial baroreflex mediated bradycardia. Baroreflex sinus node responses were augmented by intravenous propranolol, but the level of responses after propranolol was comparable during the control state, lower body negative pressure, and leg and trunk elevation. Sinus node responses to very brief baroreceptor stimuli applied during the transitions of central venous pressure also were comparable in the three states. The authors conclude that physiological variations of central venous pressure do not influence sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation in man.

  18. Incidental Finding of Inferior Vena Cava Atresia Presenting with Deep Venous Thrombosis following Physical Exertion

    PubMed Central

    Koppisetty, Shalini; Smith, Alton G.; Dhillon, Ravneet K.

    2015-01-01

    Inferior vena cava atresia (IVCA) is a rare but well described vascular anomaly. It is a rare risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT), found in approximately 5% of cases of unprovoked lower extremity (LE) DVT in patients <30 years of age. Affected population is in the early thirties, predominantly male, often with a history of major physical exertion and presents with extensive or bilateral DVTs. Patients with IVC anomalies usually develop compensatory circulation through the collateral veins with enlarged azygous/hemizygous veins. Despite the compensatory circulation, the venous drainage of the lower limbs is often insufficient leading to venous stasis and thrombosis. We describe a case of extensive and bilateral deep venous thrombosis following physical exertion in a thirty-six-year-old male patient with incidental finding of IVCA on imaging.

  19. Substitution of Fingertip Blood for Venous Blood in the Measurement of Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Following Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Thomas D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results from comparative testing indicate that fingertip blood is a valid indicator of antecubital venous hematocrit (hct) and hemoglobin (hgb), and that hct ratios determined on the Coulter counter are comparable to those found by the microhematocrit method. (MB)

  20. Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Sarfraz Ahmed Ganeshan, Arul; Nazir, Sheraz; Uberoi, Raman

    2009-09-15

    Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

  1. Early Venous Occlusion Detection in a Free Flap Using Real-time Laser Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Alkhashnam, Héba; Sarfati, Benjamin; Kolb, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Early detection of venous occlusion in free flaps is particularly difficult to identify, and its duration is known to be directly proportional to flap mortality. Here, we report a case of deep inferior epigastric perforator based breast reconstruction in which the intraoperative use of a perfusion camera enabled identifying a venous occlusion based on microcirculatory pulsation dynamics in real time. The sensitivity of our proposed method suggests that in certain cases in which the onset of venous occlusion begins in the operating room we can detect and treat occlusion before sending the patient to recovery. Further development of this technique will allow for earlier and more objective decision making with regard to venous occlusion detection in free tissue transfer. PMID:25289200

  2. Use of a Novel Two-layer Bandage in the Treatment of Chronic Venous Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lullove, Eric J.; Newton, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of Unna boot therapies, there has been development in newer technologies for venous compression syndromes and chronic venous hypertension. Chronic lower extremity venous insufficiency results in venous stasis, edema and hypercongestion of the lower extremities. Given the breadth of potential uses, the goal of this study was to retrospectively compile and analyze the clinical application and effectiveness of a 2-layer zinc-impregnated foam Unna boot bandage (Andover Healthcare, Salisbury, MA) in patients with lower extremity swelling with or without wounds treated by a single physician and monitored for 12 weeks post-application in the outpatient setting. In patients with complex comorbidities, the use of this new foam-impregnated multi-layer compression Unna boot shows efficacy in reduction of edema and wound size within 12 weeks. This newer therapy shows extensive promise in the ability to keep patients adherent to treatment regimens with higher rates of success. PMID:26199883

  3. Ultrasound of the fetal veins part 1: the intrahepatic venous system.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, R; Heling, K S; Karl, K

    2014-06-01

    Advances in high-resolution ultrasound combined with color Doppler and three-dimensional (3 D) rendering have contributed to an increasing understanding of the fetal venous circulation in recent years. Still the sonographic evaluation of the venous system in the fetus remains difficult. This article reviews the normal and abnormal intrahepatic venous system. Normal anatomy and abnormal findings of the umbilical vein (UV), the ductus venosus (DV), portal veins, hepatic veins and the inferior vena cava are demonstrated by grayscale, color Doppler and 3D ultrasound and explained by numerous schemes. Typical variants and abnormalities such as agenesis of the DV and portal venous system, persistence of the right UV, UV varix are explained and the clinical value of normal and abnormal Doppler findings in the DV is discussed. Many of these abnormal findings can be detected by a targeted examination of the intrahepatic vasculature with means of color Doppler. PMID:24871613

  4. A novel systematic approach to the evaluation of the fetal venous system.

    PubMed

    Sinkovskaya, Elena; Klassen, Anna; Abuhamad, Alfred

    2013-10-01

    Sonographic evaluation of the fetal venous system in normal and abnormal conditions has drawn increasing interest in recent years. Whereas the assessment of the fetal heart and the related arteries is standardized using well-defined planes, the fetal venous system is still lacking a systematic approach. In this article we present a novel sonographic algorithm for a systematic examination of the fetal venous system using six planes of transverse and oblique views of the fetal abdomen and chest. These planes, using two-dimensional and color Doppler, enable a targeted demonstration of the typical veins to include the umbilical vein, ductus venosus, portal veins, hepatic veins, inferior vena cava, azygos vein, pulmonary veins, coronary sinus, superior vena cava and brachiocephalic vein. We postulate that integrating such a sequential stepwise algorithm for the evaluation of the venous system into targeted fetal cardiac imaging may improve the detection of isolated and combined anomalies of the fetal systemic and pulmonary veins. PMID:23800449

  5. Microbubble Generation and Transmission of Medtronic’s Affinity Hardshell Venous Reservoir and Collapsible Venous Reservoir Bag: An In-Vitro Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Potger, Kieron C.; McMillan, Darryl; Ambrose, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Microemboli are implicated in neurological injury; therefore, the extracorporeal circuit (ECC) should not generate microbubbles or transmit introduced air. The venous reservoir is the first component in the ECC designed to remove introduced air. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative safety of two kinds of adult venous reservoirs—the closed soft-shell venous reservoir (SSVR [Medtronic CBMVR 1600]) and the open hard-shell venous reservoir (HSVR [Affinity NT CVR])—in terms of microbubble generation and introduced air transmission. A recirculating in-vitro circuit was used to compare the two reservoirs with the SSVR further assessed in a fully closed or partially open state. Microbubbles were counted using a Hatteland CMD10 Doppler in the outflow of the reservoirs before (microbubble generation) and after infusing 20 mL/min of air into the venous line (microbubble transmission) while altering pump flow rates (3 L/min; 5 L/min) and reservoir prime (200 mL; 700 mL). Negligible bubble generation was noted in the SSVRs at both flow rates and either reservoir volume. However, microbubble generation was significant in the HSVR at the higher flow rate of 5 L/min and lower reservoir volume of 200 mL. When infusing air, a flow of 3 L/min was associated with insignificant to small increases in microbubble transmission for all reservoirs. Conversely, infusing air while flowing at 5 L/min was associated with significantly more microbubble transmission for all reservoirs at both low and high reservoir volumes. The SSVR is as safe as the HSVR in microbubble handling as the generation and transmission of microbubbles by the SSVR is not more than the HSVR over a range of prime volumes and flow rates. As both reservoirs transmitted microbubbles at higher pump flow rates regardless of reservoir volumes, it is important to eliminate venous air entrainment during cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:22164449

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Potential Targets in the Venous Dilation Associated with Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Kucukguven, Arda; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Varicose veins (VVs) are a common venous disease of the lower extremity characterized by incompetent valves, venous reflux, and dilated and tortuous veins. If untreated, VVs could lead to venous thrombosis, thrombophlebitis and chronic venous leg ulcers. Various genetic, hormonal and environmental factors may lead to structural changes in the vein valves and make them incompetent, leading to venous reflux, increased venous pressure and vein wall dilation. Prolonged increases in venous pressure and vein wall tension are thought to increase the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Members of the MMPs family include collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type MMPs and others. MMPs are known to degrade various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). MMPs may also affect the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, causing changes in the vein relaxation and contraction mechanisms. ECs injury also triggers leukocyte infiltration, activation and inflammation, which lead to further vein wall damage. The vein wall dilation and valve dysfunction, and the MMP activation and superimposed inflammation and fibrosis would lead to progressive venous dilation and VVs formation. Surgical ablation is an effective treatment for VVs, but may be associated with high recurrence rate, and other less invasive approaches that target the cause of the disease are needed. MMP inhibitors including endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) and pharmacological inhibitors such as zinc chelators, doxycycline, batimastat and marimastat, have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular disease. However, MMP inhibitors may have side effects especially on the musculoskeletal system. With the advent of new genetic and pharmacological tools, specific MMP inhibitors with fewer undesirable effects could be useful to retard the progression and prevent the recurrence of VVs. PMID:23316963

  7. Modified transseptal repair for total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair in all age groups.

    PubMed

    Kalangos, Afksendiyos; Cherian, Sanjay; Tissot, Cécile; Myers, Patrick O

    2014-01-01

    Little data are available in late-presenting children with unobstructed totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Eleven patients underwent repair at a median age of 6.5 months using a modified transseptal approach to improve access and avoid circulatory arrest. There were no early or late deaths, and none of the patients presented pulmonary venous stenosis at a median follow-up of 8.7 years. PMID:24403372

  8. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis as an Extrahepatic Manifestation of Acute Anicteric Hepatitis A Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zis, Panagiotis; Kontogeorgi, Elli; Karakalos, Dimitrios; Pavlopoulou, Despoina; Sevastianos, Vassilios A.

    2012-01-01

    Among the many infective causes of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), viral hepatitis has been regarded as a rare associated condition. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with CVT associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, outlining probable pathogenic mechanisms. We suggest that hepatitis A serological markers should be routinely included in the investigation of cerebral venous thrombosis of unknown etiology, in nonvaccinated patients with risk factors of a recent HAV exposure. PMID:22934203

  9. Preoperative localization of pancreatic insulinoma by super selective arterial stimulation with venous sampling.

    PubMed

    Morita, Satoru; Machida, Haruhiko; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Saito, Naoko; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Iihara, Masatoshi; Obara, Takao; Mitsuhashi, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Although most insulinomas are small, they have been successfully detected by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging recently. However, preoperative localization of the insulinomas by arterial stimulation with venous sampling is crucial when they show atypical findings on these imaging modalities. We report a case of a large benign insulinoma located at the pancreatic tail; this tumor was diagnosed correctly by super selective arterial stimulation with venous sampling. PMID:16932851

  10. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Yue; Wang Hesheng; Johnson, Timothy D.; Pan, Charlie; Hussain, Hero; Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results: There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions: This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which could aid in individualizing therapy, particularly for patients at risk for liver injury after RT.

  11. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yue; Wang, Hesheng; Johnson, Timothy D.; Pan, Charlie; Hussain, Hero; Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which could aid in individualizing therapy, particularly for patients at risk for liver injury after RT. PMID:22520476

  12. Right Renal Vein Aplasia Associated With Diverted Renal Venous Drainage Through Lower Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Bozlar, Ugur; Ugurel, Mehmet Sahin; Bedir, Selahattin; Ors, Fatih; Coskun, Unsal; Aydur, Emin

    2008-07-15

    We report a unique anomalous renal venous drainage on a 25-year-old man who had congenital absence of the right renal vein and an aberrant venous drainage through the lower pole of the kidney into the inferior vena cava. To our knowledge, this anomaly has not been previously reported in the peer-reviewed literature. State-of-the-art imaging findings are presented.

  13. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return associated with vascular anomalies of the aorta: multidetector computed tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Bayraktutan, U; Kantarci, M; Olgun, H; Kizrak, Y; Pirimoglu, B

    2012-05-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is a congenital anomaly that involves drainage of one to three pulmonary veins directly into the right heart or systemic venous system, creating a partial left-to-right shunt. This drainage is associated with cardiac abnormalities such as mitral stenosis and pulmonary stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, and atrial septal defects. We report a case of PAPVR associated with vascular anomalies of the aorta by multidetector computed tomography in an adult female patient. PMID:22648591

  14. Palmar arch reconstruction using dorsal venous arch of foot for revascularisation of multiple digits

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, K. S.; Petkar, Kiran; Lateef, Sameer; Rasalkar, Jyoti; Arun, T. J.; Suresh, V.

    2014-01-01

    A case of trauma causing total loss of superficial and deep palmar arches of hand with ischemia of all the digits was managed using dorsal venous arch of the foot to reconstruct the palmar arch. The ends of the venous arch were anastomosed to radial and ulnar arteries and the tributaries to the arch were coapted to the cut ends of the common digital vessels and princeps pollicis. The surgery yielded gratifying results, successfully revascularising all the digits. PMID:24987216

  15. Neonatal repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and lung agenesis.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yuji; Nagashima, Mitsugi; Matsumura, Goki; Yamazaki, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Here we report a neonatal case of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with left lung agenesis. Diagnostic imaging demonstrated that the left pulmonary veins were totally absent and the right pulmonary veins connected with the common pulmonary chamber. Drainage from the common pulmonary venous chamber entered the persistent left suerior vena cava. In addition, it revealed complete absence of the left main bronchus and left lung vessels. The neonate successfully underwent surgical repair 18 days after birth. PMID:24585319

  16. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Semchuk, William M.; Sperlich, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many patients who experience a venous thromboembolic event have cancer, and thrombosis is much more prevalent in patients with cancer than in those without it. Thrombosis is the second most common cause of death in cancer patients and cancer is associated with a high rate of recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), bleeding, requirement for long-term anticoagulation and poorer quality of life. Methods: A literature review was conducted to identify guidelines and evidence pertaining to anticoagulation prophylaxis and treatment for patients with cancer, with the goal of identifying opportunities for pharmacists to advocate for and become more involved in the care of this population. Results: Many clinical trials and several guidelines providing guidance to clinicians in the treatment and prevention of VTE in patients with cancer were identified. Current clinical evidence and guidelines suggest that cancer patients receiving care in hospital with no contraindications should receive VTE prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin (UFH), a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux. Patients who require surgery for their cancer should receive prophylaxis with UFH, LMWH or fondaparinux. Cancer patients who have experienced a VTE event should receive prolonged anticoagulant therapy with LMWH (at least 3 months to 6 months). No routine prophylaxis is required for the majority of ambulatory patients with cancer who have not experienced a VTE event. Most publicly funded drug plans in Canada have developed criteria for funding of LMWH therapy for patients with cancer. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that LMWH for 3 to 6 months is the preferred strategy for most cancer patients who have experienced a thromboembolic event and for hospital inpatients, but this is often not implemented in practice. Concerns about adherence with injectable therapy should not prevent use of these agents. Pharmacists should assess cancer patients for their risk of VTE and should advocate for optimal VTE pharmacotherapy as appropriate. If LMWH is the preferred agent, on the basis of the evidence, the pharmacist should educate the patients appropriately and work with the prescriber to ensure best care. PMID:23509484

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Fundus-Image Sequences Reveals Phase of Spontaneous Venous Pulsations

    PubMed Central

    Moret, Fabrice; Reiff, Charlotte M.; Lagrèze, Wolf A.; Bach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Spontaneous venous pulsation correlates negatively with elevated intracranial pressure and papilledema, and it relates to glaucoma. Yet, its etiology remains unclear. A key element to elucidate its underlying mechanism is the time at which collapse occurs with respect to the heart cycle, but previous reports are contradictory. We assessed this question in healthy subjects using quantitative measurements of both vein diameters and artery lateral displacements; the latter being used as the marker of the ocular systole time. Methods We recorded 5-second fundus sequences with a near-infrared scanning laser ophthalmoscope in 12 young healthy subjects. The image sequences were coregistered, cleaned from microsaccades, and filtered via a principal component analysis to remove nonpulsatile dynamic features. Time courses of arterial lateral displacement and of diameter at sites of spontaneous venous pulsation or proximal to the disk were retrieved from those image sequences and compared. Results Four subjects displayed both arterial and venous pulsatile waveforms. On those, we observed venous diameter waveforms differing markedly among the subjects, ranging from a waveform matching the typical intraocular pressure waveform to a close replica of the arterial waveform. Conclusions The heterogeneity in waveforms and arteriovenous phases suggests that the mechanism governing the venous outflow resistance differs among healthy subjects. Translational relevance Further characterizations are necessary to understand the heterogeneous mechanisms governing the venous outflow resistance as this resistance is altered in glaucoma and is instrumental when monitoring intracranial hypertension based on fundus observations. PMID:26396929

  18. A novel solution for venous congestion following digital replantation: a proximally based cross-finger flap.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianyong; Abdullah, Shalimar; Li, Wen-Jun; Appukuttan, Aswin; Tien, Huey Y

    2011-07-01

    Digital replantations are often complicated by problems of venous congestion. Conservative management is not always successful. Furthermore, the skin edge around the replanted digit is frequently inflamed and necrotic, leading to difficulties in restoring venous flow by direct venous anastomosis or interpositional vein grafts. We introduce a novel solution using the proximally based cross-finger flap. We used this flap in 10 patients who had venous congestion with inflamed, necrotic skin at their digital replant site. Their initial injuries were amputation injuries. The flap had an average length of 3.98 cm and width of 2.59 cm and was harvested from the dorsum of the adjacent, uninjured digit. There was only 1 failure, due to massive crush injury. Of the remaining 9 cases, 7 met or exceeded the sensory threshold (Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test). The 2-point discrimination test was less than 6 mm in 8 cases. Three patients complained of residual pain (based on the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire), and only 1 was unsatisfied with the appearance. The proximally based cross-finger flap is pedicled and requires only a single level of venous anastomosis distally, leading to a higher success rate. It offers a simple yet effective solution for venous congestion. PMID:21636222

  19. Measurement of T1 of human arterial and venous blood at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Rane, S.; Gore, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for measuring cerebral perfusion require accurate longitudinal relaxation (T1) of blood, a MRI parameter that is field dependent. T1 of arterial and venous human blood was measured at 7T using three different sources – pathology laboratory, blood bank and in vivo. The T1 of venous blood was measured from sealed samples from a pathology lab and in vivo. Samples from a blood bank were oxygenated and mixed to obtain different physiological concentrations of hematocrit and oxygenation. T1 relaxation times were estimated using a three-point fit to a simple inversion recovery equation. At 37° C, the T1 of blood at arterial pO2was 2.29 ± 0.1 s and 2.07 ± 0.12 at venous pO2. The in vivo T1 of venous blood, in three subjects, was slightly longer at 2.45 ± 0.11s. T1 of arterial and venous blood at 7T was measured and found to be significantly different. The T1 values were longer in vivo than in vitro. While the exact cause for the discrepancy is unknown, the additives in the blood samples, degradation during experiment, oxygenation differences, and the non-stagnant nature of blood in vivo could be potential contributors to the lower values of T1 in the venous samples. PMID:23102945

  20. Is there resetting of central venous pressure in microgravity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Elliott, J. J.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    In the early phase of the Space Shuttle program, NASA flight surgeons implemented a fluid-loading countermeasure in which astronauts were instructed to ingest eight 1-g salt tablets with 960 ml of water approximately 2 hours prior to reentry from space. This fluid loading regimen was intended to enhance orthostatic tolerance by replacing circulating plasma volume reduced during the space mission. Unfortunately, fluid loading failed to replace plasma volume in groundbased experiments and has proven minimally effective as a countermeasure against post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In addition to the reduction of plasma volume, central venous pressure (CVP) is reduced during exposure to actual and groundbased analogs of microgravity. In the present study, we hypothesized that the reduction in CVP due to exposure to microgravity represents a resetting of the CVP operating point to a lower threshold. A lower CVP 'setpoint' might explain the failure of fluid loading to restore plasma volume. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted an investigation in which we administered an acute volume load (stimulus) and measured responses in CVP, plasma volume and renal functions. If our hypothesis is true, we would expect the elevation in CVP induced by saline infusion to return to its pre-infusion levels in both HDT and upright control conditions despite lower vascular volume during HDT. In contrast to previous experiments, our approach is novel in that it provides information on alterations in CVP and vascular volume during HDT that are necessary for interpretation of the proposed CVP operating point resetting hypothesis.

  1. Radiological Interventions for Correction of Central Venous Port Catheter Migrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gebauer, Bernhard Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl; Podrabsky, Petr; Werk, Michael; Haenninen, Enrique Lopez; Felix, Roland

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiological-interventional central venous port catheter corrections in migrated/malpositioned catheter tips. Materials and Methods. Thirty patients with migrated/malpositioned port catheter tips were included in this retrospective analysis. To visualize the catheter patency a contrast-enhanced port catheter series was performed, followed by transfemoral port catheter correction with various 5-F angiographic catheters (pigtail; Sos Omni), gooseneck snares, or combinations thereof. Results. One patient showed spontaneous reposition of the catheter tip. In 27 of 29 patients (93%), radiological-interventional port catheter correction was successful. In two patients port catheter malposition correction was not possible, because of the inability to catch either the catheter tip or the catheter in its course, possibly due to fibrin sheath formation with attachment of the catheter to the vessel wall. No disconnection or port catheter dysfunction was observed after correction. Conclusions. We conclude that in migrated catheter tips radiological-interventional port catheter correction is a minimally invasive alternative to port extraction and reimplantation. In patients with a fibrin sheath and/or thrombosis port catheter correction is often more challenging.

  2. Unprotected anal Intercourse among Iranian Intra-Venous Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Mirabi, Parvaneh; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Moazen, Babak; Sehat, Mahmoud; Rezazadeh, Majid; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected anal intercourse among Iranian male heterosexual Intra-Venous Drug Users (IDUs). Methods: In a cross-sectional study 360 male heterosexual IDUs were sampled from streets of eight different geographical parts of Iran. Variables such as socio-demographics, HIV knowledge (10 items), and HIV attitude (16 items) were entered to a logistic regression to determine the predictors of unprotected anal intercourse during the past month. Results: From all, 20.8% reported unprotected anal intercourse during the past month. HIV knowledge was not significantly different among IDUs with and without unprotected anal intercourse. High age [odds ratio (OR)?=?0.954, 95% confidence intervals (CI)?=?0.916–0.992] was associated with a lower likelihood of unprotected anal intercourse, while being not married (OR?=?2.301, 95% CI?=?1.151–4.601), and high perceived HIV risk (OR?=?1.776, 95% CI?=?1.376–2.290) were associated with a higher likelihood of unprotected anal intercourse. Conclusion: Although the results might not be generalizable to all Iranian IDUs, this study findings may still be helpful for design and implementation of public health programs in Iran to prevent sexual transmission of HIV through IDUs. PMID:24350203

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Ischemic Stroke and Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Daniel A; Dehkharghani, Seena

    2015-12-01

    Imaging is indispensable in the evaluation of patients presenting with central nervous system emergencies. Although computed tomography (CT) is the mainstay of initial assessment and triage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become vital in expanding diagnostic capabilities, refining management strategies, and developing our understanding of disease processes. Ischemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis are 2 areas wherein MRI is actively revolutionizing patient care. Familiarity with the imaging manifestations of these 2 disease processes is crucial for any radiologist reading brain MR studies. In this review, the fundamentals of image interpretation will be addressed in-depth. Furthermore, advanced imaging techniques which are redefining the role of emergency MRI will be outlined, with a focus on the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie image interpretation. In particular, emerging data surrounding the use of MR perfusion imaging in acute stroke management portend dramatic shifts in neurointerventional management. To this end, a review of the recent stroke literature will hopefully enhance the radiologist's role in both meaningful reporting and multidisciplinary teamwork. PMID:26636639

  4. Oxygenated mixed venous PCO2 in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Sealey, K. G.; Rubuck, A. S.; Campbell, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    Despite the large number of blood gas measurements made over the years, precise information is lacking on intrasubject and intersubject variability of carbon dioxide tension. Accordingly, the oxygenated mixed venous CO2 tension was measured in 202 healthy volunteers and the influence of potentially disturbing factors such as intake of coffee and food, exercise and menstruation on the stability of this tension was studied in selected subjects. In the 102 men the mean value was 5.1 mm Hg (SD, 2.9 mm Hg), significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than that of the 100 women, 46.03 mm Hg (SD, 2.48 mm Hg). Among the women the value was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) in those taking oral contraceptives (mean, 44.9 mm Hg; SD, 2.3 mm Hg) than in those not taking these agents (mean, 46.5 mm Hg; SD, 2.4 mm Hg). Intrasubject variability of values was greatest in women taking oral contraceptives, mean day-to-day variation over two mentrual cycles being +/- 3.26 mm Hg. After moderate exercise the tension usually returned to +/- 1 mm Hg of resting values within 5 minutes. Intake of food and coffee had negligible effects on the tension. PMID:1238164

  5. Venous thrombosis supervised image indexing and fuzzy retrieval.

    PubMed

    Dahabiah, A; Puentes, J; Solaiman, B

    2007-01-01

    Clinical assessment of venous thrombosis (VT) is essential to evaluate the risk of size increase or embolism. Analyses like echogenecity and echostructure characterization, examine ancillary evidence to improve diagnosis. However, such analyses are inherently uncertain and operator dependent, adding enormous complexity to the task of indexing diagnosed images for medical practice support, by retrieving similar images, or to exploit electronic patient record repositories for data mining. This paper proposes a VT ultrasound image indexing and retrieval approach, which shows the suitability of neural network VT characterization, combined with a fuzzy similarity. Three types of image descriptors (sliding window, wavelet coefficients energy and co-occurrence matrix), are processed by three different neural networks, producing equivalent VT characterizations. Resulting values are projected on fuzzy membership functions and then compared with the fuzzy similarity. Compared to nominal and Euclidean distances, an experimental validation indicates that the fuzzy similarity increases image retrieval precision beyond the identification of images that belong to the same diagnostic class, taking into account the characterization result uncertainty, and allowing the user to privilege any particular feature. PMID:18003012

  6. Healing rate and bacterial necrotizing vasculitis in venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Paquet, P; Arrese, J E; Piérard, G E

    1997-01-01

    Morbidity associated with venous leg ulcers is important in the elderly. The biological processes involved during attempts at healing are much more complex than in most models of experimental wounds. In addition, there is still controversy on deleterious effects elicited by both microorganisms and antiseptics on cells involved in the healing process. Using histology, immunohistochemistry and iterative computerized planimetry, we evaluated the bacterial load, the inflammatory aspects and the healing rate of leg ulcers present in 15 eligible women aged from 57 to 73 years. Each patient had at least 2 chronic ulcers treated with hydrocolloid dressing alone or in combination with daily applications of povidone-iodine solution (PVP-I). The weekly reduction in wound area was superior for hydrocolloid+PVP-I treatment than in hydrocolloid-treated ulcers. After a 4-week treatment, hydrocolloid-treated ulcers contained clumps of microorganisms and showed massive infiltration by phagocytes including Mac 387+ and factor XIIIa+ cells. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis was present as well. These features were less pronounced in ulcers treated with hydrocolloid+PVP-I. In sum, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial such as PVP-I may be beneficial in reducing deleterious bacteria-related inflammation. As a result, the healing rate leg ulcers is enhanced. PMID:9252771

  7. Insertion of Totally Implantable Central Venous Access Devices by Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    An, Hyeonjun; Ryu, Chun-Geun; Jung, Eun-Joo; Kang, Hyun Jong; Paik, Jin Hee; Yang, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the results for the insertion of totally implantable central venous access devices (TICVADs) by surgeons. Methods Total 397 patients, in whom TICVADs had been inserted for intravenous chemotherapy between September 2008 and June 2014, were pooled. This procedure was performed under local anesthesia in an operation room. The insertion site for the TICVAD was mainly in the right-side subclavian vein. In the case of breast cancer patients, the subclavian vein opposite the surgical site was used for insertion. Results The 397 patients included 73 males and 324 females. Primary malignant tumors were mainly colorectal and breast cancer. The mean operation time was 54 minutes (18-276 minutes). Operation-related complications occurred in 33 cases (8.3%). Early complications developed in 15 cases with catheter malposition and puncture failure. Late complications, which developed after 24 hours, included inflammation in 6 cases, skin necrosis in 6 cases, hematoma in 3 cases, port malfunction in 1 case, port migration in 1 case, and intractable pain at the port site in 1 case. Conclusion Insertion of a TICVAD under local anesthesia by a surgeon is a relatively safe procedure. Meticulous undermining of the skin and carefully managing the TICVAD could minimize complications. PMID:25960974

  8. Medical rota changes and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in orthopaedic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bohler, Iain; George Mackenzie Jardine, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of clinical guidelines to improve patient care is highly dependent on the ability of hospital teams to interpret and implement advised standards of care. Trimester and bi-annual rotation changes often see transference and loss of acquired experience and knowledge from wards with ensuing shortfalls in patient safety and care quality. Such shortfalls were noticed in the ability of our unit to adhere to national venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis measures. A prospective quality improvement audit was embarked upon to address this. An initial audit of VTE prophylaxis in 112 patients demonstrated just 71% compliance with suggested measures. Errors were predominantly medical in origin and secondary to poor understanding, interpretation, and knowledge of VTE guidelines. Errors were also noted in nursing and patient compliance to measures. Repeated re-auditing demonstrated increased error (following initial improvement post audit) after periods of medical staff rotation. Through education of junior medical and nursing staff, and of patients, the unit was able to achieve 100% compliance. Rota changes often induce conflict of interest between maintaining adequate services and high levels of patient care or providing suitable and informed induction programmes for new medical staff. Emphasised education of VTE prophylaxis guidelines has now become part of induction of junior medical staff, whilst ward based measures ensure daily compliance. The success of the audit strategy has led to its use throughout other surgical units within the hospital.

  9. The prevention of pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Guimicheva, Boriana; Czuprynska, Julia; Arya, Roopen

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in the developed world. There is a lack of high-level data surrounding the use of thromboprophylaxis in pregnancy. In the UK, following the publication of the first Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) guideline for VTE prophylaxis during pregnancy and the puerperium in 2004, a fall in maternal deaths secondary to VTE was observed during the subsequent triennium (2006-2008). For the first time since 1985, VTE was no longer the most common cause of maternal death. Low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) is generally the agent of choice for thromboprophylaxis in this setting, and is considered safe and efficacious. The accurate risk stratification of women in order to allow the targeted provision of thromboprophylaxis is challenging. A number of international guidelines support risk assessment for pregnancy-related VTE and the provision of LMWH for those who are deemed at sufficiently high risk. This review describes the importance of VTE in pregnancy and the puerperium, the part played by different risk factors and the role of thromboprophylaxis in this group of patients. PMID:25312482

  10. Cerebral venous thrombosis: a Moroccan retrospective study of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Messouak, Ouafae; Belahsen, Faouzi

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare origin of stroke, the clinical presentation and etiologies vary. The prognosis is shown to be better than arterial thrombosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and MR Venograpgy (MRV) are currently important tools for the diagnosis. We studied 30 cases of CVT diagnosed in the department of neurology at the University Hospital of Fez (Morocco). Patients diagnosed with CVT signs between January 2003 and October 2007 were included in the study. Cerebral CT-scan was performed in 27 cases (90%) while the MRI examination was done in 18 patients (67%); and most patients (90%) received anticoagulant therapy. The mean age of our patients was of 29 years (age range between 18 days and 65 years). A female predominance was observed (70%). The clinical presentation of patients was dominated by: headache in 24 cases (80%), motor and sensory disability in 15 cases (50%), seizures in 10 cases (33%), consciousness disorder in 10 cases (33%). CVT was associated to post-partum in 10 cases (33%), infectious origin in 8 cases (26%), Behçet disease in 2 cases (7%), pulmonary carcinoma in 1 case, thrombocytemia in 1 case and idiopathic in 7 cases (23%). The evolution was good in 20 cases (67%), minor squelaes were observed in 6 patients (20%), while major squelaes were observed in 2 cases. Two cases of death were registered. The CVT is a pathology of good prognosis once the diagnosis is promptly established and early heparin treatment initiated. PMID:25317229

  11. Venous air embolism and selective denervation for torticollis.

    PubMed

    Lobato, E B; Black, S; De Soto, H

    1997-03-01

    Selective denervation to relieve severe torticollis requires surgery with the patient in the sitting position. Nerve stimulation is used to guide the procedure; therefore, patients undergo general anesthesia without muscle relaxation. Because of the risk of venous air embolism (VAE), monitoring with precordial Doppler and a multiorifice right atrial catheter has been recommended. To document the incidence of VAE and, thus, the effectiveness of monitors to detect it, consecutive patients who underwent selective peripheral denervation for torticollis between June 1993 and July 1994 were studied retrospectively, and those who underwent the procedure between August 1994 and February 1996 were studied prospectively. No VAE was documented in the retrospective group (n = 31). In the prospective group (n = 69), precordial Doppler detected one episode of VAE that lasted < 20 s and had no clinical sequelae. The incidence of complications from right atrial catheter insertion was 8% (carotid puncture, hematoma, inability to cannulate) but with no permanent sequelae. We conclude that VAE is infrequent and self-limited in association with selective denervation for torticollis. While monitoring with precordial Doppler for patients undergoing denervation for torticollis is indicated, the use of a right atrial catheter is of limited value because of associated complications and increased operating room time and cost. PMID:9052299

  12. Clavicular fracture and upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Peivandi, Mohammad Taghi; Nazemian, Zohreh

    2011-03-01

    Upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is considered an uncommon clinical event with considerable potential for morbidity. This article presents a case of upper-extremity DVT following a clavicular fracture. A 25-year-old man presented with pain and distortion of the left midclavicular area after falling on his left shoulder during martial arts practice. Following physical examination and radiography, he was diagnosed with a simple displaced clavicle fracture at the middle third. The patient had no previous surgery or medical problem, and did not smoke. No family history of blood clotting disorders were present and neurovascular examination appeared normal on the symmetric contralateral side. A figure-of-8 bandage was applied to support the arm and the patient was discharged. One week later, he returned with swelling and severe pain in his left arm. On examination, a DVT was suspected and the figure-of-8 brace was removed. A Doppler ultrasonography was performed and the presence of a thrombus extending from the brachial axillary veins to the distal subclavian vein with no flow in that segment was revealed. The patient was placed in a sling instead of a figure-of-8 bandage to immobilize the arm, while anticoagulation therapy with enoxaparin was started (1 mg/kg every 12 hours, 80 mg subcutaneous daily for 3 months). The swelling was reduced after 5 days. At 2-week follow-up, the patient had no pain and the swelling had completely disappeared. PMID:21410116

  13. Mechanocardiographic effects of an elevated central venous pressure.

    PubMed

    Mortarino, G; Trudu, A; Corda, G; Lepori, G; Ghiringhelli, S

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985 we demonstrated that the increase of left ventricular mean diastolic pressure shortens the interval existing between the onset of the electrocardiographic P-wave and the onset of the left apexcardiographic "a"-wave (Aubert et al., 1981; Mortarino et al., 1985). In particular we showed that left P-"a" time interval shortens below 100 msec when left ventricular mean diastolic pressure rises above 12 mmHg. Our results thus substantiated the previous reports related to the P-4th heart sound shortening and 4th heart sound--1st heart sound increase occurring in patients with left ventricular failure (Shapira et al., 1982). In that same period, Kesteloot and collaborators showed a direct relationship between the velocity of appearance of the right internal jugular pulse (JVP) waves and the value of central venous pressure (CVP) (Minten et al., 1985). Moreover the range of variability of the right P-"a" interval (which is the time elapsing between the onset of the electrocardiographic P-wave and the onset of the "a"-wave on the JVP tracing) is, in adult subjects, of similar magnitude of the left P-"a" interval (respectively 60-140 msec (Fishleder, 1968) and 80-160 msec (Mortarino et al., 1985) suggesting a symmetric effect of an elevation of diastolic pressure on left and right P-"a" intervals. We therefore decided to test this hypothesis in a group of patients. PMID:1632132

  14. Chronic Stress Facilitates the Development of Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Tao; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Yang, Fei; Sun, Pei-Wen; Zhu, Chen-Jie; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Guo-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The increasing pressure of modern social life intensifies the impact of stress on the development of cardiovascular diseases, which include deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Renal sympathetic denervation has been applied as one of the clinical approaches for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. In addition, the close relationship between oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases has been well documented. The present study is designed to explore the mechanism by which the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress affect the blood coagulation system in the development of DVT. Chronic foot shock model in rats was applied to mimic a state of physiological stress similar to humans. Our results showed that chronic foot shock procedure could promote DVT which may be through the activation of platelets aggregation. The aggravation of DVT and activation of platelets were alleviated by renal sympathetic denervation or antioxidant (Tempol) treatment. Concurrently, the denervation treatment could also reduce the levels of circulating oxidation factors in rats. These results demonstrate that both the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress contribute to the development of DVT in response to chronic stress, which may provide novel strategy for treatment of clinic DVT patients. PMID:26576222

  15. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented. PMID:26316771

  16. Comparison of three risk assessment methods for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Bikdeli, Behnood; Sharif-Kashani, Babak; Shahabi, Payman; Raeissi, Sasan; Shahrivari, Mahan; Shoraka, Ali R; Behzadnia, Neda; Saliminejad, Leila

    2013-03-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major problem for hospitalized patients. Nevertheless, adherence to VTE prophylaxis guidelines is suboptimal, partly because of physicians' neglect due to excessive workload. Simplified risk assessment methods (RAMs) facilitate timely risk stratification and thromboprophylaxis. However, the accuracy of such RAMs has not been extensively studied. Using the prospectively collected data from hospitalized patients of Masih-Daneshvari Hospital, we tested the accuracy of the Goldhaber RAM and the Harinath and St. John RAM for VTE prophylaxis, compared with the eighth edition of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommendations. We evaluated 1091 patients. With reference to the ACCP recommendations, both RAMs had high specificities for detection of patients at risk of VTE (97.33 and 99.11%, respectively); however, we found significant interdepartment differences. The Goldhaber RAM had superior accuracy in medical oncology patients (P?=?0.03), whereas the Harinath and St. John method was superior among surgical patients (P?

  17. Early discharge of patients with venous thromboembolism: implications regarding therapy.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Hull, Russell D; Matta, Fadi; Yaekoub, Abdo Y

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to show trends in the duration of hospitalization of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The number of patients discharged from short-stay non-Federal hospitals throughout the United States with a primary diagnostic code for PE or DVT from 1979 through 2005 was obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Survey. By 2005, 13% of patients with PE were discharged in 1 to 2 days, 30% in 3 to 4 days, 26% in 5 to 6 days, and 31% in > or =7 days. Regarding DVT, by 2005, 26% of patients with DVT were discharged in 1 to 2 days, 34% were discharged in 3 to 4 days, 20% were discharged in 5 to 6 days, and 19% were discharged in > or =7 days. The data indicate that large proportions of patients with a primary diagnosis of PE and of DVT are being discharged before adequate heparin can be administered and before warfarin can become antithrombotic. Others have reported an increased mortality among patients with PE discharged in < or =4 days. If patients are to be discharged before adequate heparin can be administered, outpatient treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for at least 5 days and until the international normalized ratio (INR) is > or =2.0 for 24 hours is recommended or extended outpatient treatment with LMWH may be considered. PMID:19833629

  18. Somatic Activating PIK3CA Mutations Cause Venous Malformation.

    PubMed

    Limaye, Nisha; Kangas, Jaakko; Mendola, Antonella; Godfraind, Catherine; Schlögel, Matthieu J; Helaers, Raphael; Eklund, Lauri; Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2015-12-01

    Somatic mutations in TEK, the gene encoding endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2, cause more than half of sporadically occurring unifocal venous malformations (VMs). Here, we report that somatic mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the catalytic p110? subunit of PI3K, cause 54% (27 out of 50) of VMs with no detected TEK mutation. The hotspot mutations c.1624G>A, c.1633G>A, and c.3140A>G (p.Glu542Lys, p.Glu545Lys, and p.His1047Arg), frequent in PIK3CA-associated cancers, overgrowth syndromes, and lymphatic malformation (LM), account for >92% of individuals who carry mutations. Like VM-causative mutations in TEK, the PIK3CA mutations cause chronic activation of AKT, dysregulation of certain important angiogenic factors, and abnormal endothelial cell morphology when expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The p110?-specific inhibitor BYL719 restores all abnormal phenotypes tested, in PIK3CA- as well as TEK-mutant HUVECs, demonstrating that they operate via the same pathogenic pathways. Nevertheless, significant genotype-phenotype correlations in lesion localization and histology are observed between individuals with mutations in PIK3CA versus TEK, pointing to gene-specific effects. PMID:26637981

  19. Guideline on aspects of cancer-related venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Watson, Henry G; Keeling, David M; Laffan, Mike; Tait, Robert Campbell; Makris, Mike

    2015-09-01

    The guideline was drafted by a writing group identified by the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). All the authors are consultants in haematology in the UK. A search was performed of PubMed and Embase using the term 'cancer' combined with 'thrombosis', 'treatment', 'prophylaxis' and 'clinical presentation'. The search covered articles published up until December 2014. Only human studies were included and articles not written in English were excluded. References in recent reviews were also examined. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force of the BCSH and the BCSH executive. The guideline was then reviewed by the sounding board of the British Society for Haematology (BSH). This comprises 50 or more members of the BSH who have reviewed the guidance and commented on the content and application to the UK setting. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found at: http://www.bcshguidelines.com/BCSH_PROCESS/EVIDENCE_LEVELS_AND_GRADES_OF_RECOMMENDATION/43_GRADE.html. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the prevention and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer and to advise on an approach to screening for cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE in whom cancer was not initially suspected based on clinical grounds. PMID:26114207

  20. Hemodynamics of Central Venous Catheters: experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Michael; McGah, Patrick; Clark, Alicia; Ng, Chin Hei; Gow, Kenneth; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide vascular access during hemodialysis in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Despite several advantages and widespread use, CVCs have a high incidence rate of clot formation during the interdialytic phase (48 hrs). In an attempt the prevent clot formation, hospitals routinely administer heparin, an anticoagulant, into the catheter after a dialysis session. It has been reported, however, that up to 40% of the heparin solution will leak into the blood stream during the interdialytic phase, placing the patient at risk for systemic bleeding incidences. The aim of this study is to determine the role that advective-diffusive transport plays in the heparin leaking process. Numerical simulations of heparin convective mass transfer have been conducted, showing that while advective losses may be significant at the tip, previous studies may be overestimating the total amount of heparin leakage. To validate the quantitative prediction from the simulations, P.L.I.F. is used to experimentally measure heparin transport from CVCs placed in an idealized Superior Vena Cava with physically accurate pulsatile flow conditions. Improved understanding of flow near the catheter tip is applied to improve catheter design and heparin locking procedures.

  1. Advanced management of acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis: emergency department and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Charles V

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to the increasing incidence of venous thromboembolism has included a call to action from the surgeon general and new guidelines from various specialty organizations. The standard of care for treatment of deep venous thrombosis in the emergency department (ED), supported by the 2008 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines, involves initiation of anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin, pentasaccharide, or unfractionated heparin. For selected appropriate patients with extensive acute proximal deep venous thrombosis, the ACCP guidelines now recommend thrombolysis in addition to anticoagulation to reduce not only the risk of pulmonary embolism but also the risk of subsequent postthrombotic syndrome and recurrent deep venous thrombosis. Postthrombotic syndrome is a potentially debilitating chronic cluster of lower-extremity symptoms occurring in 20% to 50% of deep venous thrombosis patients subsequent to the acute insult, sometimes not until years later. A strategy of early thrombus burden reduction or frank removal might reduce the incidence of postthrombotic syndrome, as per natural history studies, venous thrombectomy data, observations after systemic and catheter-directed thrombolysis, and the still-limited number of randomized trials of catheter-directed thrombolysis (with anticoagulation) versus anticoagulation alone. Contemporary invasive (endovascular) treatments mitigate the drawbacks historically associated with thrombolytic approaches by means of intrathrombus delivery of drugs with greater fibrin specificity and lower allergenicity, followed by mechanical dispersion to accelerate lysis and then aspiration of remaining drug and clot debris. With a 2016 target completion date, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute--sponsored Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal With Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis trial is comparing the safety and efficacy, in terms of both deep venous thrombosis and postthrombotic syndrome parameters, of the most evolved pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis devices versus standard anticoagulation therapy alone. This article reviews the grounds for use of adjunctive thrombolysis in patients with acute proximal deep venous thrombosis and begins to identify types of deep venous thrombosis patients encountered in the ED who might benefit most from multidisciplinary consideration of early referral for possible endovascular therapy. PMID:21306786

  2. [Therapeutic potential of micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) of diosmin and hesperidin in treatment chronic venous disorder].

    PubMed

    Hnátek, Lukáš

    2015-09-01

    Chronic venous disorder (CVD) is a common illness with high incidence existing especially in Europe and North America. The main goal of micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) of diosmin and hesperidin is to eliminate the symptoms of CVD (venous pain, fatigue, etc). But MPFF of diosmin and hesperidin has good effectiveness for treatment of venous oedema and venous ulcer too. There are many papers that prove its effectiveness in the experiment and in the microcirculation too. The other indications for MPFF of diosmin hesperidin is hemorrhoidal disease and the accessory treatment of lymphedema. It is proved that this substance could be used as an effective supplementary treatment of symptoms after venous intervention. Only MPFF diosmin and hesperidin received the best recommendation - 1B in the last guidelines for VAD therapy.Key words: chronic venous disorder - micronized purified flavonoid fraction of diosmin and hesperidin. PMID:26465280

  3. Cardiovascular Deconditioning and Venous Air Embolism in Simulated Microgravity in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. R.; Doursout, M.-F.; Chelly, J. E.; Powell, M. R.; Little, T. M.; Butler,B. D.

    1996-01-01

    Astronauts conducting extravehicular activities undergo decompression to a lower ambient pressure, potentially resulting in gas bubble formation within the tissues and venous circulation. Additionally, exposure to microgravity produces fluid shifts within the body leading to cardiovascular deconditioning. A lower incidence of decompression illness in actual spaceflight compared with that in ground-based altitude chamber flights suggests that there is a possible interaction between microgravity exposure and decompression illness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of simulated hypobaric decompression stress using a tail suspension (head-down tilt) model of microgravity to produce the fluid shifts associated with weightlessness in conscious, chronically instrumented rats. Venous bubble formation resulting from altitude decompression illness was simulated by a 3-h intravenous air infusion. Cardiovascular deconditioning was simulated by 96 h of head-down tilt. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular wall thickening and cardiac output were continuously recorded. Lung studies were performed to evaluate edema formation and compliance measurement. Blood and pleural fluid were examined for changes in white cell counts and protein concentration. Our data demonstrated that in tail-suspended rats subjected to venous air infusions, there was a reduction in pulmonary edema formation and less of a decrease in cardiac output than occurred following venous air infusion alone. Mean arterial blood pressure and myocardial wall thickening fractions were unchanged with either tail-suspension or venous air infusion. Heart rate decreased in both conditions while systemic vascular resistance increased. These differences may be due in part to a change or redistribution of pulmonary blood flow or to a diminished cellular response to the microvascular insult of the venous air embolization.

  4. [The concentration of free lidocaine in arterial, central venous and peripheral vein plasma following intravenous injection].

    PubMed

    Nolte, H; al Saydali, B; Weissenberg, W

    1990-03-01

    Ten intensive care patients and five healthy volunteers each received a bolus injection of lidocaine HCl (100 mg, 2%) over an injection period of 5 s. After 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 25 min arterial, central venous and peripheral venous blood samples were collected. In four of the volunteers, arterial and central venous samples were also taken about 10 s after the end of injection. The fluorescence polarization method by means of the Abbott-TDx system was used, and plasma concentrations of lidocaine were determined. The measurements showed that lidocaine levels in central venous plasma 10 s after the end of administration were higher than those in arterial plasma. By 30 s after administration the opposite situation had developed, so that arterial concentrations were higher than those in central venous plasma. This relation did not change throughout the study, though the two levels became closer, as is shown by the ratios (Table 3, Fig. 2). Concentrations in peripheral venous plasma increased more slowly but remained far below those in arterial and central venous plasma, at least for the first 8 min. After 15 min lidocaine levels were almost the same in all three samples. During the entire study there were no ECG changes, and neither heart rate nor blood pressure showed any significant deviation from the values obtained at the beginning. The volunteers had minor toxic manifestations, such as dizziness, tinnitus and a metallic taste in the mouth; one person had a sensation of pressure in his chest, which improved following oxygen administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2330429

  5. Radionuclide plethysmography and Tc-99m red blood cell venography in venous thrombosis: comparison with contrast venography

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, I.; Royal, H.D.; Uren, R.F.; Waugh, R.C.; McLaughlin, A.F.; Bautovich, G.J.; Dyer, I.A.; Fulton, R.R.; Morris, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide plethysmography (RPG) is a new technique that uses Tc-99m labelled red blood cells to ascertain changes in venous volumes by detecting the change in counts in response to the inflation and deflation of proximal thigh cuffs. Diagnosis of ileofemoral venous occlusion is possible using this technique, which also provides kinetic data of venous outflow. A range of normal values was defined in 19 subjects for per cent change in venous capacitance and venous outflow. Twenty-one patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis were studied prospectively using RPG, radionuclide venography (RV), and contrast venography (CV) to establish the usefulness of RPG alone and in combination with RV in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. RPG proved to be a reliable technique for the diagnosis of ileofemoral venous thrombosis (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 100%). RV was less sensitive (73%) and less specific (93%) in diagnosing that condition. When RPG is used as the criterion for the detection of ileofemoral vein thrombosis and RV is used as the criterion for the detection of calf vein thrombosis, the combined techniques show improved sensitivity (92%) and specificity (93%) for the detection of all deep venous thromboses.

  6. [Fifth EVF HOW: Hands-on Workshop on Venous Disease (Limassol, Cyprus) 30 October - 1 November 2014].

    PubMed

    Shaidakov, E V; Porembskaya, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    The fifth Hands-on Workshop on Venous Diseases of the European Venous Forum was held from October 30 to November 1, 2014 in Limassol, Cyprus. Leading specialists from European countries for three days delivered reports concerning modern trends in diagnosis and treatment of venous diseases. The participants of the hands-on workshop had a unique possibility to learn first-hand the latest recommendations concerning diagnosis and treatment of varicose disease, acute venous thromboses, post-thrombotic disease, to know about advanced technologies being just introduced into clinical practice. PMID:26035572

  7. Venous thromboembolism: identifying patients at risk and establishing prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shirvanian, Shant; Tapson, Victor F

    2015-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with substantial healthcare costs. Identification of patients at risk of developing VTE enables appropriate thromboprophylaxis to be implemented. Although no predisposing risk factors can be identified in many patients in whom VTE develops, most have at least one underlying risk factor which can be categorized according to whether it confers low, moderate, or high risk. Clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis, both non-pharmacological and pharmacological, in a host of medical settings and there is sufficient evidence to support routine prophylaxis in many groups of patients. The implementation of decision making tools based on risk factor assessment improves the prescription of appropriate VTE prophylaxis. Nonetheless, thromboprophylaxis is often inadequate, with haphazard risk assessment and application of guidelines, leading to easily preventable instances of VTE. The most commonly used agents for pharmacological thromboprophylaxis of VTE are low dose unfractionated heparin; a low molecular weight heparin such as dalteparin, enoxaparin or tinzaparin; fondaparinux; warfarin; or aspirin. However, these have a number of drawbacks, principally the need for parenteral administration (with heparins) and frequent coagulation monitoring (with warfarin). The optimal anticoagulant would be orally administered, with a wide therapeutic window, rapid onset of action, predictable pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, minimal interactions with food and other drugs, an ability to inhibit free and clot-bound coagulation factors, low, non-specific binding, and no requirement for routine coagulation monitoring or dose adjustment. A number of novel, single-target oral anticoagulants have been developed that appear to fulfill many of these requirements. This narrative review discusses the use of guidelines and risk assessment tools to identify patients at risk of VTE; it provides an overview of appropriate prophylaxis strategies in these patients with a summary of clinical trial results with novel oral anticoagulants. PMID:26414590

  8. Imaging of deep venous thrombosis using radioactive-labeled tirofiban.

    PubMed

    Serafimovska, M Darkovska; Janevik-Ivanovska, E; Ugresic, M; Djorgoski, I

    2015-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled small peptide or peptidomimetic ligands can bind platelets and their specific expressed receptor have been suggested as a new approach to detect the clot location and, more essentially, to determine the age and morphology of the evolving thrombus. This new approach is focused on the use of a series of radiolabeled platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonists. Tirofiban N-(butylsulfonyl)- 4-O-(4-(4-piperidyl)-L-tyrosine is a non-peptide tyrosine derivate. The aim of the study was to introduce radioactive-labeled tirofiban as a specific imaging agent for acute DVT. The labeling was performed with technetium-99 in the presence of a stannous reducing agent. The labeled preparation showed fast blood clearance in a normal rat model (without induced thrombosis). More than 80 % of the injected dose was eliminated from the circulation in the first hour after injection. Biodistribution and visualization of the labeled molecule was carried out using an experimental model of thrombosis in a male Wistar rat. Planar images were obtained 30 and 60 min after application of 2 × 106 imp/min 99m-technetium-tirofiban in the rat's tail vein. Sensitivity and specificity were determined using the ratio of 'left leg positive for DVT' to 'right leg negative for DVT'. The obtained ratio was 1.54 after 30 min and 5.04 after 60 min. These values were considered positive in the detection of acute DVT. The high DVT uptake shows that radiolabeled tirofiban in the introduced rat model can be a promising agent for imaging the deep venous thrombosis (Fig. 7, Ref. 25). PMID:26531874

  9. Saphenous Venous Ablation with Hot Contrast in a Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Amit Qian Zhong; Kirsch, David; Eissa, Marna; Narra, Pavan; Lopera, Jorge; Espinoza, Carmen G.; Castaneda, Wifrido

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To determine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of thermal ablation of the saphenous vein with hot contrast medium. Methods. Twelve saphenous veins of 6 dogs were percutaneously ablated with hot contrast medium. In all animals, ablation was performed in the vein of one leg, followed by ablation in the contralateral side 1 month later. An occlusion balloon catheter was placed in the infragenicular segment of the saphenous vein via a jugular access to prevent unwanted thermal effects on the non-target segment of the saphenous vein. After inflation of the balloon, 10 ml of hot contrast medium was injected under fluoroscopic control through a sheath placed in the saphenous vein above the ankle. A second 10 ml injection of hot contrast medium was made after 5 min in each vessel. Venographic follow-up of the ablated veins was performed at 1 month (n = 12) and 2 months (n = 6). Results. Follow-up venograms showed that all ablated venous segments were occluded at 1 month. In 6 veins which were followed up to 2 months, 4 (66%) remained occluded, 1 (16%) was partially patent, and the remaining vein (16%) was completely patent. In these latter 2 cases, an inadequate amount of hot contrast was delivered to the lumen due to a closed balloon catheter downstream which did not allow contrast to displace blood within the vessel. Discussion. Hot contrast medium thermal ablation of the saphenous vein appears feasible, safe, and effective in the canine model, provided an adequate amount of embolization agent is used.

  10. Epidemiology of hormonal contraceptives-related venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Hugon-Rodin, Justine; Gompel, Anne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève

    2014-12-01

    For many years, it has been well documented that combined hormonal contraceptives increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The third-generation pill use (desogestrel or gestodene (GSD)) is associated with an increased VTE risk as compared with second-generation (levonorgestrel) pill use. Other progestins such as drospirenone or cyproterone acetate combined with ethinyl-estradiol (EE) have been investigated. Most studies have reported a significant increased VTE risk among users of these combined oral contraceptives (COCs) when compared with users of second-generation pills. Non-oral combined hormonal contraception, such as the transdermal patch and the vaginal ring, is also available. Current data support that these routes of administration are more thrombogenic than second-generation pills. These results are consistent with the biological evidence of coagulation activation. Overall, the estrogenic potency of each hormonal contraceptive depending on both EE doses and progestin molecule explains the level of thrombotic risk. Some studies have shown a similar increased VTE risk among users of COCs containing norgestimate (NGM) as compared with users of second-generation pill. However, for this combination, biological data, based on quantitative assessment of sex hormone-binding globulin or haemostasis parameters, are not in agreement with these epidemiological results. Similarly, the VTE risk associated with low doses of EE and GSD is not biologically plausible. In conclusion, newer generation formulations of hormonal contraceptives as well as non-oral hormonal contraceptives seem to be more thrombogenic than second-generation hormonal contraceptives. Further studies are needed to conclude on the combinations containing NGM or low doses of EE associated with GSD. PMID:25012200

  11. A new device for continuous ambulatory central venous pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Buckey, J C; Goble, R L; Blomqvist, C G

    1987-08-01

    We have developed a device for continuous direct measurement of human central venous pressure (CVP) during space flight. Normal resting CVP is typically in the range of 5-10 mmHg; in zero gravity, the expected changes are +/- 5 mmHg or less. A 1-mm Hg change in CVP can represent a substantial intravascular fluid shift. The device is small, battery powered, and designed to run for at least 24 hr. Pressure is measured in a saline solution-filled catheter inserted into a central vein. The transducer is placed in the axilla at the level of the catheter tip to offset hydrostatic gradients. A pump and an electronic system mount on the leg. This assembly provides a slow, continuous infusion of heparinized saline solution to maintain the patency of the catheter. The electronic system generates a digital display in mm Hg, an analog output, and a visible and audible alarm for excessive pressure. An air-filled syringe allows for a two-point calibration (zero and a positive pressure generated by measured compression of a known gas volume). A two-failure tolerant system minimizes electric shock hazards. Two latex diaphragms separate the saline solution from the transducer surface, and the electronic system and pump chamber are in separate enclosures. A clear polycarbonate case allows bubbles to be seen. The unit has been tested for pump function, temperature stability, drift, and accuracy. We conclude that this approach provides a unit with sufficient stability, accuracy, and temperature insensitivity for measuring ambulatory CVP for up to 28 hr. The design may be suitable for ambulatory measurement of other intravascular and intracardiac pressures. PMID:3452746

  12. Sex differences in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Molina, Angeles; Enea, Iolanda; Gadelha, Telma; Tufano, Antonella; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Bounameaux, Henri; González, José; Villalta, Jaume; Monreal, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    In patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), the outcome during the course of anticoagulant therapy may differ according to the patient's sex. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) database to compare the rate of VTE recurrences, major bleeding, and mortality due to these events according to sex.As of August 2013, 47,499 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 24,280 (51%) were women. Women were older, more likely presented with pulmonary embolism (PE), and were more likely to have recent immobilization but less likely to have cancer than men. During the course of anticoagulation (mean duration: 253 d), 659 patients developed recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 576 recurrent PE, 1368 bled, and 4506 died. Compared with men, women had a lower rate of DVT recurrences (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-0.91), a similar rate of PE recurrences (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.83-1.15), a higher rate of major bleeding (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35), and higher mortality due to PE (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.04-1.47). On multivariable analysis, any influence of sex on the risk for recurrent DVT (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.75-1.03), major bleeding (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.98-1.24), or fatal PE (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.84-1.22) was no longer statistically significant.In conclusion, women had fewer DVT recurrences and more bleeds than men during the course of anticoagulation. These differences were not due to sex, but very likely to other patient characteristics more common in female patients and differences in treatment choice. PMID:25398066

  13. Predicting of Venous Thromboembolism for Patients Undergoing Gynecological Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hong; Li, Zhan; Zhai, Zhenguo; Liu, Chongdong; Wang, Shuzhen; Guo, Shuli; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the risk stratification of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing gynecological surgery. A retrospective study was conducted with a cohort of 739 consecutive female patients undergoing gynecological surgery between May 2008 and July 2013 in Beijing Chao-yang hospital. DVT of the leg was detected using complete compression and color Doppler ultrasound. Pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed by computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). The overall incidence of DVT was 9.20% (68/739) in this patient population, including 16 (2.17%) symptomatic DVT and 52 (7.04%) silent DVT. A total of 66 (97.06%) DVT events were found within 7 days of surgery and 2 (2.94%) after 1 week. 94.82% thrombi were located in distal vein, and the rest 5.18% located in proximal and distal veins. Among the 68 patients with DVT, 46 patients with suspected PE received CTPA and 21 (45.65%) were confirmed with PE. Six independent factors including varicose vein, bed rest time ?48?h, length of operation ?3?h, laparotomy surgery, hypertension, and age ?50 years significantly increased the incidence of postoperative DVT on multivariate analysis. Patients with none risk factor are at low risk, with 1 or 2 risk factors are at moderate risk, and with ?3 factors are at high risk of DVT. The incidence of postoperative DVT and PE after gynecological surgery is high in patients with moderate or high-risk level. Noninvasive detection of DVT in 7 days after surgery is necessary because most patients showed no typical symptoms. Appropriate prophylaxis could be performed in patients at moderate or high risk of DVT. PMID:26426660

  14. Venous thrombosis and prothrombotic factors in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Magro, Fernando; Soares, João-Bruno; Fernandes, Dália

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may have an increased risk of venous thrombosis (VTE). PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus were searched to identify studies investigating the risk of VTE and the prevalence of acquired and genetic VTE risk factors and prothrombotic abnormalities in IBD. Overall, IBD patients have a two- to fourfold increased risk of VTE compared with healthy controls, with an overall incidence rate of 1%-8%. The majority of studies did not show significant differences in the risk of VTE between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Several acquired factors are responsible for the increased risk of VTE in IBD: inflammatory activity, hospitalisation, surgery, pregnancy, disease phenotype (e.g., fistulising disease, colonic involvement and extensive involvement) and drug therapy (mainly steroids). There is also convincing evidence from basic science and from clinical and epidemiological studies that IBD is associated with several prothrombotic abnormalities, including initiation of the coagulation system, downregulation of natural anticoagulant mechanisms, impairment of fibrinolysis, increased platelet count and reactivity and dysfunction of the endothelium. Classical genetic alterations are not generally found more often in IBD patients than in non-IBD patients, suggesting that genetics does not explain the greater risk of VTE in these patients. IBD VTE may have clinical specificities, namely an earlier first episode of VTE in life, high recurrence rate, decreased efficacy of some drugs in preventing further episodes and poor prognosis. Clinicians should be aware of these risks, and adequate prophylactic actions should be taken in patients who have disease activity, are hospitalised, are submitted to surgery or are undergoing treatment. PMID:24803797

  15. Venous thrombosis and cancer: from mouse models to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Y; Geddings, J E; Ay, C; Mackman, N

    2015-08-01

    Cancer patients have a ~4 fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with the general population and this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes our current knowledge of VTE and cancer, from mouse models to clinical studies. Notably, the risk of VTE varies depending on the type and stage of cancer. For instance, pancreatic and brain cancer patients have a higher risk of VTE than breast and prostate cancer patients. Moreover, patients with metastatic disease have a higher risk than those with localized tumors. Tumor-derived procoagulant factors and growth factors may directly and indirectly enhance VTE. For example, increased levels of circulating tumor-derived, tissue factor-positive microvesicles may trigger VTE. In a mouse model of ovarian cancer, tumor-derived IL-6 and hepatic thrombopoietin have been linked to increased platelet production and thrombosis. In addition, mouse models of mammary and lung cancer showed that tumor-derived granulocyte colony-stimulating factor causes neutrophilia and activation of neutrophils. Activated neutrophils can release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that enhance thrombosis. Cell-free DNA in the blood derived from cancer cells, NETs and treatment with cytotoxic drugs can activate the clotting cascade. These studies suggest that there are multiple mechanisms for VTE in patients with different types of cancer. Preventing and treating VTE in cancer patients is challenging; the current recommendations are to use low-molecular-weight heparin. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may allow the development of new therapies to safely prevent VTE in cancer patients. PMID:25988873

  16. Venous Recanalization by Metallic Stents After Failure of Balloon Angioplasty or Surgery: Four-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarian, Gwen K.; Austin, William R.; Wegryn, Scott A.; Bjarnason, Haraldur; Stackhouse, Daniel J.; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido R.; Hunter, David W.

    1996-04-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study describes our updated experience in treating venous stenoses and occlusions with metallic endovascular stents. Methods: Gianturco, Palmaz, and Wallstent stents were placed in 55 patients over a 4-year period. Stent sites included the subclavian veins (9), innominate veins (3), superior vena cava (4), inferior vena cava (3), iliac veins (29), femoral veins (5), and portal veins (6). The most common indications for stent placement were malignant stenoses and chronic pelvic venous occlusions. Venoplasty and/or urokinase were used as ancillary therapy. Patients were anticoagulated for 3-6 months. Follow-up included clinical assessment and duplex ultrasound. Results: Lifetable analysis shows 59%, 63%, and 72% primary, primary assisted, and secondary 1-year patency rates, respectively. The 4-year primary patency rates were the same. Duration of patency depended on the venous site. Death was a complication of stent placement in 2 patients and 12 patients died within 6 months after stent placement from primary disease progression. Although early failures were more common in stents placed across occlusions than stenoses, 1-year secondary patency rates were comparable. Primary patency rates were only slightly lower in patients with malignant obstruction than in patients with benign disease. Conclusion: Endovascular stent placement provides a nonsurgical alternative for reestablishment of venous flow and symptomatic relief in patients with benign as well as malignant venous obstruction.

  17. Endoscopic Ho laser interstitial therapy for pharyngolaryngeal venous malformations in adults.

    PubMed

    Xiuwen, Jiang; Jianguo, Tang

    2015-04-01

    Many methods have been used to treat venous malformations, including sclerotherapy, laser therapy, and surgery. Nowadays, endoscopic laser surgery has become a popular therapeutic modality for most of pharyngolaryngeal venous malformations. There are various kinds of lasers that have been applied, but Holmium:YAG laser (Ho laser) has not been reported yet. Ho laser is produced by a kind of iraser which is made of yttrium aluminum garnet mixed with holmium, chromium and thulium. Aim of the current work is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ho laser interstitial therapy in pharyngolaryngeal venous malformations in adults. The clinical data of 42 patients with pharyngolaryngeal venous malformation treated with endoscopic Ho laser interstitial therapy over a 12-year period were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The wave length of Ho laser was 2.1 µm and the diameter of optical fiber was 550 µm. The pulse energy was 0.5 J and the time of duration was 600 µs. The highest output power was 100 W. Outcomes were graded as cure (complete resolution), considerable reduction (>60-80 % reduction), and no obvious change (<50 % reduction). The lesions were well controlled without severe complications. Complete resolution of the lesion was observed in 95.1 % of the patients, while 4.9 % patients showed considerable reduction of the swelling. Complications occurred in 4.8 % of patients. No respiratory troubles or other severe complications occurred. Endoscopic Ho laser interstitial therapy is an effective and safe treatment modality for pharyngolaryngeal venous malformations in adults. PMID:25534288

  18. Patterning mechanisms of the sub-intestinal venous plexus in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Goi, Michela; Childs, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in angiogenesis, organ-specific angiogenesis remains less well characterized. The vessels that absorb nutrients from the yolk and later provide blood supply to the developing digestive system are primarily venous in origin. In zebrafish, these are the vessels of the Sub-intestinal venous plexus (SIVP) and they represent a new candidate model to gain an insight into the mechanisms of venous angiogenesis. Unlike other vessel beds in zebrafish, the SIVP is not stereotypically patterned and lacks obvious sources of patterning information. However, by examining the area of vessel coverage, number of compartments, proliferation and migration speed we have identified common developmental steps in SIVP formation. We applied our analysis of SIVP development to obd mutants that have a mutation in the guidance receptor PlexinD1. obd mutants show dysregulation of nearly all parameters of SIVP formation. We show that the SIVP responds to a unique combination of pathways that control both arterial and venous growth in other systems. Blocking Shh, Notch and Pdgf signaling has no effect on SIVP growth. However Vegf promotes sprouting of the predominantly venous plexus and Bmp promotes outgrowth of the structure. We propose that the SIVP is a unique model to understand novel mechanisms utilized in organ-specific angiogenesis. PMID:26477558

  19. Imaging of the Coronary Venous System: Validation of Three-Dimensional Rotational Venous Angiography Against Dual-Source Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Knackstedt, Christian; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Mischke, Karl; Bruners, Philipp; Schimpf, Thomas; Frechen, Dirk; Schummers, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Kelm, Malte; Schauerte, Patrick

    2008-11-15

    Information on the anatomy of the cardiac venous system (CVS) is increasingly important for cardiac resynchronization therapy or percutaneous transvenous mitral valve annuloplasty. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging can further improve the understanding of the relationship of cardiac structures. This study was performed to validate the accuracy of rotational coronary sinus angiography (CSA) displaying the 3D anatomy of the CVS compared to ECG-gated, contrast-enhanced, cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). Five domestic pigs (60 kg) underwent DSCT using a standardized examination protocol. Using a standard C-arm for fluoroscopy, a rotational CSA was obtained and 3D-image reconstructions performed. Side branches were identified using both methods and enumerated. Vessel visibility was estimated for each side branch and great cardiac vein/anterior interventricular vein. Also, vessel diameters were measured at distinct landmarks, i.e., side branching. The amount of contrast medium was determined and the effective radiation exposure of both methods was calculated. There was no significant difference regarding the vessel diameter of the great cardiac vein/anterior interventricular vein or its side branches. Also, estimation of vessel visibility was not different between the two imaging modalities. Estimated radiation exposure and amount of contrast medium were lower for rotational CSA. In conclusion, a 3D reconstruction of rotational CSA images is possible. All parts of the CVS are well depicted, allowing a 3D overview of the CVS anatomy. On-site 3D visualization might improve decision making during cardiac interventions. In contrast to DSCT, rotational CSA does not demonstrate the anatomy of the mitral annulus or the course of the left circumflex artery.

  20. Microbubble Transmission during Cardiotomy Infusion of a Hardshell Venous Reservoir with Integrated Cardiotomy versus a Softshell Venous Reservoir with Separated Cardiotomy: An In Vitro Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Potger, Kieron C.; McMillan, Darryl; Ambrose, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: An important mechanism for postoperative cognitive impairment after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is microemboli. One component of the CPB circuit—the cardiotomy—is a major source of gaseous microemboli because it aspirates significant volumes of air with blood from the operative field and intracardiac chambers. Cardiotomies are either integrated within an open hardshell venous reservoir (IC-HSVR) or are a separate canister attached to a softshell collapsible venous reservoir bag (SC-SSVR). The purpose of this study was to compare the Medtronic IC-HSVR (Affinity NT CVR) with Medtronic’s SC-SSVR (CB 1351, CBMVR 1600) in terms of relative microbubble transmission during cardiotomy infusion. A recirculating in vitro circuit primed with blood was used to compare the two cardiotomy-reservoir systems with the venous reservoir in the SC-SSVR further assessed in a fully closed or partially open state (SC-SSVR-closed; SC-SSVR-open). Microbubbles were detected using a GAMPT BC100 Doppler system in the outflow line of the venous reservoir. Measurements were taken before (baseline) and after aerated prime was pumped into the cardiotomy while altering pump flow rates (3 L/min; 5 L/min) and reservoir prime volumes (400 mL; 900 mL). Infusing cardiotomy blood into the venous reservoir was associated with an increase in microbubbles and bubble volume transmitted by both cardiotomy-reservoir systems with the magnitude rising with reduced prime volumes. The effect was markedly greater with the IC-HSVR. The IC-HSVR also transmitted larger bubbles, particularly with reduced prime volumes. There was no significant difference in microbubble transmission seen between the SC-SSVR-closed and SC-SSVR-open. The SC-SSVR transmits fewer microbubbles than the IC-HSVR during cardiotomy infusion and should be considered as the preferential system. Because both cardiotomy-reservoir systems transmitted microbubbles during cardiotomy infusion, particularly at the lower venous reservoir volume, it is important to use strategies to minimize cardiotomy microbubble infusion. PMID:23930376

  1. Microbubble transmission during cardiotomy infusion of a hardshell venous reservoir with integrated cardiotomy versus a softshell venous reservoir with separated cardiotomy: an in vitro comparison.

    PubMed

    Potger, Kieron C; McMillan, Darryl; Ambrose, Mark

    2013-06-01

    An important mechanism for postoperative cognitive impairment after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is microemboli. One component of the CPB circuit-the cardiotomy-is a major source of gaseous microemboli because it aspirates significant volumes of air with blood from the operative field and intracardiac chambers. Cardiotomies are either integrated within an open hardshell venous reservoir (IC-HSVR) or are a separate canister attached to a softshell collapsible venous reservoir bag (SC-SSVR). The purpose of this study was to compare the Medtronic IC-HSVR (Affinity NT CVR) with Medtronic's SC-SSVR (CB 1351, CBMVR 1600) in terms of relative microbubble transmission during cardiotomy infusion. A recirculating in vitro circuit primed with blood was used to compare the two cardiotomy-reservoir systems with the venous reservoir in the SC-SSVR further assessed in a fully closed or partially open state (SC-SSVR-closed; SC-SSVR-open). Microbubbles were detected using a GAMPT BC100 Doppler system in the outflow line of the venous reservoir. Measurements were taken before (baseline) and after aerated prime was pumped into the cardiotomy while altering pump flow rates (3 L/min; 5 L/min) and reservoir prime volumes (400 mL; 900 mL). Infusing cardiotomy blood into the venous reservoir was associated with an increase in microbubbles and bubble volume transmitted by both cardiotomy-reservoir systems with the magnitude rising with reduced prime volumes. The effect was markedly greater with the IC-HSVR. The IC-HSVR also transmitted larger bubbles, particularly with reduced prime volumes. There was no significant difference in microbubble transmission seen between the SC-SSVR-closed and SC-SSVR-open. The SC-SSVR transmits fewer microbubbles than the IC-HSVR during cardiotomy infusion and should be considered as the preferential system. Because both cardiotomy-reservoir systems transmitted microbubbles during cardiotomy infusion, particularly at the lower venous reservoir volume, it is important to use strategies to minimize cardiotomy microbubble infusion. PMID:23930376

  2. Treatment of High-Flow Vascular Malformations by Venous Embolization Aided by Flow Occlusion Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, James E.; Mansfield, Averil O.; Allison, David J.

    1996-09-15

    Purpose: Transvenous embolization techniques may be helpful as alternatives to the arterial route when treating high-flow vascular malformations. We present our experience using these techniques in four patients. Methods: In one patient the venous portion of the arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was punctured directly; in the other three patients it was catheterized via a retrograde venous approach. Flow occlusion techniques were utilized in all patients during embolization, which was performed with absolute alcohol or N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.Results: Excellent clinical and angiographic results were obtained, with obliteration of arteriovenous shunting in all patients. There were no complications.Conclusion: The embolization of certain AVMs using a venous approach is a safe and effective treatment.

  3. Determining the clinical probability of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Dan

    2007-10-01

    Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are potentially life-threatening problems that present diagnostic challenges. To employ objective diagnostic tests in an efficient, safe, and cost-effective manner, the clinical probability of these disorders should be estimated before testing. A number of clinical prediction rules are available for suspected deep venous thrombosis, while there are three major prediction rules available for estimating the probability of pulmonary embolism. Recent modifications of the Wells score for deep venous thrombosis simplify its use. Although the Wells score for pulmonary embolism is commonly used, two other rules are useful for this disorder as well. This review summarizes the clinical prediction rules and gives recommendations about their application. PMID:17943048

  4. A reflectance model for non-contact mapping of venous oxygen saturation using a CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Dunmire, Barbrina; Beach, Kirk W.; Leotta, Daniel F.

    2013-11-01

    A method of non-contact mapping of venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) is presented. A CCD camera is used to image skin tissue illuminated alternately by a red (660 nm) and an infrared (800 nm) LED light source. Low cuff pressures of 30-40 mmHg are applied to induce a venous blood volume change with negligible change in the arterial blood volume. A hybrid model combining the Beer-Lambert law and the light diffusion model is developed and used to convert the change in the light intensity to the change in skin tissue absorption coefficient. A simulation study incorporating the full light diffusion model is used to verify the hybrid model and to correct a calculation bias. SvO2 in the fingers, palm, and forearm for five volunteers are presented and compared with results in the published literature. Two-dimensional maps of venous oxygen saturation are given for the three anatomical regions.

  5. Reductions in tissue plasminogen activator and thrombomodulin in blood draining veins damaged by venous access devices.

    PubMed

    Horne, M K; Merryman, P K; Mayo, D J; Gralnick, H R; Chang, R C; Alexander, H R

    1995-08-15

    A frequent complication of venous access devices (VADs) is axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis. To study this problem we have compared blood drawn through VADs with peripheral blood samples in a group of oncology patients with venographically demonstrated venous damage (N = 14) and a group with normal venograms (N = 21). The samples were assayed for a battery of proteins believed to be involved in thrombogenesis. After approximately six weeks of catheterization the venographically abnormal patients had significantly less thrombomodulin (P = 0.0055) and significantly higher PAI:tPA (P = 0.022) in catheter-drawn samples as compared with the venographically normal group. Although the data are inconclusive, it is hypothesized that these changes resulted from local endothelial injury. PMID:7482440

  6. Effectiveness of papain gel in venous ulcer treatment: randomized clinical trial1

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Luiza Soares; de Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista; Futuro, Débora Omena; Secoli, Silvia Regina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the effectiveness of 2% papain gel compared to 2% carboxymethyl cellulose in the treatment of chronic venous ulcer patients. METHOD: randomized controlled clinical trial with 12-week follow-up. The sample consisted of 18 volunteers and 28 venous ulcers. In the trial group, 2% papain gel was used and, in the control group, 2% carboxymethyl cellulose gel. RESULTS: the trial group showed a significant reduction in the lesion area, especially between the fifth and twelfth week of treatment, with two healed ulcers and a considerable increase in the amount of epithelial tissue in the wound bed. CONCLUSION: 2% papain gel demonstrated greater effectiveness in the reduction of the lesion area, but was similar to 2% carboxymethyl cellulose gel regarding the reduction in the amount of exudate and devitalized tissue. Multicenter research is suggested to evidence the effectiveness of 2% papain gel in the healing of venous ulcers. UTN number: U1111-1157-2998 PMID:26155004

  7. Low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hauer, K E

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is treated with intravenous heparin followed by oral anticoagulants. With the advent of the low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), this strategy is changing dramatically. LMWHs are compounds derived from standard unfractionated heparin that offer distinct clinical advantages over unfractionated heparin, including better bioavailability, longer half-life, and a more predictable anticoagulant response that obviates the need for laboratory monitoring. The common side effects of unfractionated heparin, including bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and osteoporosis, may be less common with LMWH. For the treatment of established venous thromboembolism, LMWH is at least as safe and effective as unfractionated heparin. Recent studies demonstrate that home therapy of DVT with LMWH, compared with inpatient therapy with unfractionated heparin, produces comparable clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction, with dramatic cost savings. With careful patient selection, home therapy of venous thromboembolism is quickly becoming the new standard of care. PMID:9795594

  8. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in patients with chronic venous catheters: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sy, John; Nast, Cynthia C; Pham, Phuong-Thu T; Pham, Phuong-Chi T

    2014-01-01

    Chronic indwelling catheters have been reported to be associated with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) via the activation of the classical complement pathway in association with bacterial infections such as coagulase negative staphylococcus. We herein provide supporting evidence for the direct causal relationship between chronic catheter infections and MPGN via a case of recurrent MPGN associated with recurrent catheter infections used for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in a man with short gut syndrome. We also present a literature review of similar cases and identify common clinical manifestations that may serve to aid clinicians in the early identification of MPGN associated with infected central venous catheterization or vice versa. The importance of routine monitoring of kidney function and urinalysis among patients with chronic central venous catheterization is highlighted as kidney injury may herald or coincide with overtly infected chronic indwelling central venous catheters. PMID:24592339

  9. Venous saturation and blood flow behavior during laser-induced photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamilov, S. A.; Yesman, S. S.; Asimov, M. M.; Gisbrecht, A. I.

    2013-03-01

    The value of relative oxyhemoglobin concentration (saturation) in arterial (S?O2) and venous blood (SvO2) plays a significant role in the oxygen exchange in tissue and is used as criterion of delivery of oxygen adequate to the needs of tissue cells. Reduction of the volume of blood flows as well as reduction of oxygen concentration in arterial blood causes hypoxia - deficit of oxygen in tissue. One of the main mechanisms of elimination of hypoxia is based on compensation of the oxygen deficit by increasing the oxygen extraction from arterial blood, which leads to reduction of oxygen in the venous blood 1. In this report two optical techniques for measurement of venous blood saturation are presented. The first one is based on the pulseoximetry with artificial mechanical modulation of the tissue volume and the second one on the spectrophotometry of human respiratory rhythm. Good correlation between the results obtained with both techniques is observed.

  10. Variability of venous anatomy of rat testis: application to experimental testicular surgery.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J A; Lemmi, C; Rajfer, J

    1992-01-01

    The venous drainage of the testis of the laboratory rat was observed in 31 animals. The right testicular (internal spermatic) vein drained directly into the right common iliac vein in 77.4%, and into the inferior vena cava in 22.6% of the animals. The left testicular vein drained into the left common iliac vein in all animals, but in 90.3% there was also an accessory branch of the testicular vein draining into the left renal vein. These observations suggest that in the rat the exact anatomy of the venous drainage of each testis should be identified prior to undertaking any surgical procedure on the testis where the venous vasculature plays a major role such as testicular transplantation or the creation of an experimental varicocele. PMID:1453936

  11. Limits and possibilities experienced by nurses in the treatment of women with chronic venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcelo Henrique da; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Oliveira, Deíse Moura de

    2014-08-01

    Objective To understand the experiences and expectations of nurses in the treatment of women with chronic venous ulcers. Method Phenomenological research was based on Alfred Schütz, whose statements were obtained in January, 2012, through semi-structured interviews with seven nurses. Results The nurse reveals the difficulties presented by the woman in performing self-care, the perceived limitations in the treatment anchored in motivation, and the values and beliefs of women. It showed professional frustration because venous leg ulcer recurrence, lack of inputs, interdisciplinary work and training of nursing staff. There was an expected adherence to the treatment of women, and it emphasized the need for ongoing care, supported self-care and standard practices in treatment. Conclusion That treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers constitutes a challenge that requires collective investment, involving women, professionals, managers and health institutions. PMID:25517835

  12. Nasopharyngeal venous malformation: A rare condition managed with Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Lee, David R; Richter, Gresham T

    2015-10-01

    Venous malformations are benign but symptomatic vascular lesions of the head and neck that undergo soft tissue infiltration and relentless growth. Here we present a 31-year-old female referred for an obstructing and painful right posterior nasal mass. Flexible nasopharyngoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 3 cm × 4 cm enhancing mucosal and submucosal venous malformation of the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Three staged episodes of transnasal endoscopically guided Nd:YAG laser therapy were performed with dramatic and sustained reduction in size and symptoms. No bleeding or complications occurred. Nd:YAG laser treatment of nasopharyngeal venous malformations is a safe and effective alternative to open surgical excision and sclerotherapy. PMID:25684672

  13. Effects of aspirin and dextran on patency of bovine heterografts in the venous system.

    PubMed Central

    Ricotta, J J; Collins, G J; Rich, N M

    1979-01-01

    The effect of short-term treatment with aspirin or dextran on the patency of bovine heterografts in the venous system was investigated. Animals treated preoperatively and for three days postoperatively with either aspirin (600 mgm BID) or low molecular weight dextran (500 cc/day) had statistically significant increased graft patency as compared to controls during the treatment interval. Significance was lost, however, after cessation of therapy. These results suggest that either aspirin or low molecular weight dextran would be useful adjuvants to venous reconstruction. If used in the venous system, bovine heterografts might be expected to yield better short term patency with adjuvant therapy employing either dextran or aspirin. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 1c. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:758857

  14. Platelet count and outcome in patients with acute venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Ruiz-Giménez, Nuria; Nieto, José Antonio; Aujesky, Drahomir; del Molino, Fátima; Valle, Reina; Barrón, Manuel; Maestre, Ana; Monreal, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between platelet count and outcome in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been consistently explored. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute VTE. We categorised patients as having very low- (<80,000/µl), low- (80,000/µl to 150,000/µl), normal- (150,000/µl to 300,000/µl), high- (300,000/µl to 450,000/µl), or very high (>450,000/µl) platelet count at baseline, and compared their three-month outcome. As of October 2012, 43,078 patients had been enrolled in RIETE: 21,319 presenting with pulmonary embolism and 21,759 with deep-vein thrombosis. In all, 502 patients (1.2%) had very low-; 5,472 (13%) low-; 28,386 (66%) normal-; 7,157 (17%) high-; and 1,561 (3.6%) very high platelet count. During the three-month study period, the recurrence rate was: 2.8%, 2.2%, 1.8%, 2.1% and 2.2%, respectively; the rate of major bleeding: 5.8%, 2.6%, 1.7%, 2.3% and 4.6%, respectively; the rate of fatal bleeding: 2.0%, 0.9%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 1.2%, respectively; and the mortality rate: 29%, 11%, 6.5%, 8.8% and 14%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, patients with very low-, low-, high- or very high platelet count had an increased risk for major bleeding (odds ratio [OR]: 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.85-3.95; 1.43 [1.18-1.72]; 1.23 [1.03-1.47]; and 2.13 [1.65-2.75]) and fatal bleeding (OR: 3.70 [1.92-7.16], 2.10 [1.48-2.97], 1.29 [0.88-1.90] and 2.49 [1.49-4.15]) compared with those with normal count. In conclusion, we found a U-shaped relationship between platelet count and the three-month rate of major bleeding and fatal bleeding in patients with VTE. PMID:23925476

  15. Bicuspid evolution of the arterial and venous atrioventricular valves.

    PubMed

    Victor, S; Nayak, V M; Raveen, R; Gladstone, M

    1995-01-01

    Atrioventricular valves were studied in pisces (shark), amphibians (frog), reptiles (turtle, snake and crocodile) and aves (duck, chicken and quail). Dog shark, Tiger shark and Hammerhead shark have a contractile common atrioventricular orifice with anterior and posterior bridging leaflets. Angel shark resembles the frog in having a contractile oval common atrioventricular orifice guarded by two lateral (right and left) and two central bridging (anterior and posterior) leaflets. In turtles and snakes the interatrial septation is complete. The common oval atrioventricular orifice is divided into two D-shaped orifices by the lower edge of the interatrial septum. Each orifice is guarded by a flap valve hanging down from the interatrial septum with rudimentary chordae tendinae, functionally corresponding to the septal leaflet of the human venous atrioventricular valve (VAVV) and the aortic leaflet of the human arterial atrioventricular valve (AAVV). There is no curved mural leaflet on either side related to curved contractile segments of the annuli. In crocodiles, the interventricular septation is complete. The VAVV is bicuspid with a prominent septal and diminutive mural component with no chordopapillary support. The AAVV is bicuspid with direct attachment of the fused commissural lines between the two leaflets to the ventricular musculature. In the aves, with four chambered hearts the VAVV has a curved mussular mural leaflet with a primitive muscular chorda and no septal leaflet. The AAVV resembles closely the human mitral valve. This study lends support to the view that VAVV and AAVV in man are similar in design and function with a D-shaped annulus and a skirt of leaflet tissue divisible into two functional units. The relatively straight part of the annuli suspend the straight leaflets; septal leafleft of the VAVV and aortic leaflet of the AAV. The curved annular components suspend the curved mural leaflets in both valves. Since this segment is contractile, the related mural leaflets of both valves need to have slits which split them into varying number of scallops to enable them to adapt themselves to the reduced systolic orifice and open widely during diastole. These scallops are best numbered as subsegments of the curved mural leaflet and not considered as separate leaflets. The curved leaflet of the VAVV needs to negotiate the acute border of the heart. Hence a major slit is usually present at this region which artificially divides it into an 'anterior' and 'posterior' portion resulting in assumption of a 'tricuspid' configuration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7742994

  16. Pancreas Transplant Venous Thrombosis: Role of Endovascular Interventions for Graft Salvage

    SciTech Connect

    Stockland, Andrew H.; Willingham, Darrin L.; Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo; Grewal, Hani P.; McKinney, J. Mark; Hughes, Christopher B.; Walser, Eric M.

    2009-03-15

    Venous thrombosis of pancreas transplant allografts often leads to graft loss. We evaluated the efficacy of emergent endovascular techniques to salvage thrombosed pancreatic allografts in a series of six patients. Of the 76 pancreas transplants performed between 2002 and 2006, six patients were diagnosed with venous thrombosis on MRI between 2 and 28 days posttransplant (mean, 9 days). Five patients were systemic-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient iliac vein) and one patient was portal-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient superior mesenteric vein). Conventional venography confirmed the diagnosis of venous thrombosis in all patients. One patient was treated with catheter-directed venous thrombolysis and balloon thrombectomy. Another patient was treated with rheolytic thrombectomy alone. The remaining four patients were treated with a combination of these mechanical and thrombolytic techniques. Completion venography revealed >50% clot reduction and resumption of venous drainage in all patients. One patient required additional intervention 16 days later for recurrent thrombosis. Two patients required metal stent placement for anastomotic stenoses or kinks. One patient required pancreatectomy 36 h after attempted salvage secondary to a major hemorrhage and graft necrosis. Two patients recovered pancreatic function initially but lost graft function at 8 and 14 months, respectively, from severe chronic rejection. Patient survival was 100%, long-term graft survival was 50%, rethrombosis rate was 16.6%, and graft loss from rejection was 33%. In conclusion, early recognition and treatment of venous thrombosis after pancreas transplantation has acceptable morbidity and no mortality using short-term endovascular pharmacomechanical therapy.

  17. Implementation of a children’s hospital-wide central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation requires changes in the hospital system as well as in healthcare professionals’ behaviour. The aim of the study is to evaluate process and outcome of implementation of a state-of-the-art central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle in a large university children’s hospital. Methods/design An interrupted time series design will be used; the study will encompass all children who need a central venous catheter. New state-of-the-art central venous catheter bundles will be developed. The Pronovost-model will guide the implementation process. We developed a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy consisting of reminders, feedback, management support, local opinion leaders, and education. Primary outcome measure is the number of catheter-associated infections per 1000 line-days. The process outcome is degree of adherence to use of these central venous catheter bundles is the secondary outcome. A cost-effectiveness analysis is part of the study. Outcomes will be monitored during three periods: baseline, pre-intervention, and post-intervention for over 48 months. Discussion This model-based implementation strategy will reveal the challenges of implementing a hospital-wide safety program. This work will add to the body of knowledge in the field of implementation. We postulate that healthcare workers’ willingness to shift from providing habitual care to state-of-the-art care may reflect the need for consistent care improvement. Trial registration: Dutch trials registry, trial # 3635. Trial registration Dutch trials registry (http://www.trialregister.nl), trial # 3635 PMID:24125520

  18. Gaseous Microemboli in a Pediatric Bypass Circuit with an Unprimed Venous Line: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Hudacko, Andrea; Sievert, Alicia; Sistino, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Miniaturizing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuits to reduce hemodilution and allogenic blood product administration is common in cardiac surgery. One major concern associated with smaller CPB circuits is a possible increase in gaseous micro-emboli (GME) sent to the cerebral vasculature, which is exacerbated by vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD). The use of VAVD has increased with smaller venous line diameter and venous cannulae. This study examines the effects of CPB initiation with an unprimed venous line and VAVD in a pediatric circuit. A CPB circuit was set up with reservoir, oxygenator, and arterial filter with a bag reservoir to simulate the patient. All trials were done in vitro, and GME were measured using the EDAC Quantifier by Luna Innovations. EDAC sensors were placed proximal and distal to the oxygenator and distal to the arterial filter. Group 1 was the control group with no VAVD and a primed venous line. Groups 2, 3, and 4 used an unprimed venous line and VAVD of ?40, ?20, and ?10 mmHg, respectively. Total microemboli counts and total embolic load in micrometers were measured at each sensor. Groups 2 (12,379.00 ± 3180.37) and 3 (8296.67 ± 2818.76) had significantly more microemboli than group 1 (923.33 ± 796.08, p < .05) at the pre-oxygenator sensor. Group 2 (57.33 ± 25.01, p < .05) had significantly more microemboli than group 1 (5.33 ± 3.21) at the post-oxygenator sensor. No other findings were statistically significant. The results suggest that, if an oxygenator and arterial filter with sufficient air handling capabilities are used, this method to reduce prime volume may not increase GME in the arterial line distal to the arterial filter. PMID:19806800

  19. Comparison of venous digital subtraction angiography and aortography in patients with peripheral vascular disease of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Hall, J R; Hacking, P M; Layzell, T

    1985-05-01

    Twenty-eight patients referred for peripheral vascular imaging were investigated by both venous digital subtraction angiography and conventional aortography. A comparison of the two techniques revealed that, in the femoral region, venous digital subtraction angiography demonstrated all the abnormalities shown by aortography but missed three major and eight minor stenoses in the iliac region, due largely to bowel artefacts. PMID:3905199

  20. Life-threatening anaphylactic shock due to chlorhexidine on the central venous catheter: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Meilin; Zhu, Minmin; Chen, Wankun; Miao, Changhong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report two life-threatening anaphylactic shocks by an antiseptic coated central venous catheter (CVC) within a 6-month period in our cancer center. Anaphylactic shock was preceded immediately after insertion of a central venous catheter (CVC) coated with silver sulphadiazine and chlorhexidine acetate (Blue FlexTip® ARROWg+ard Blue®, 14Ga, Arrow International, Inc. USA). Though antiseptic coated CVC anaphylaxis has been reported in Japan, Europe and America, to our knowledge, this is first reported in China. We present these rare cases to remind clinicians about hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine that could potentially be life-threatening. PMID:25664137

  1. Overview of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers: a US perspective

    PubMed Central

    White-Chu, E Foy; Conner-Kerr, Teresa A

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive care of chronic venous insufficiency and associated ulcers requires a multipronged and interprofessional approach to care. A comprehensive treatment approach includes exercise, nutritional assessment, compression therapy, vascular reconstruction, and advanced treatment modalities. National guidelines, meta-analyses, and original research studies provide evidence for the inclusion of these approaches in the patient plan of care. The purpose of this paper is to review present guidelines for prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers as followed in the US. The paper further explores evidence-based yet pragmatic tools for the interprofessional team to use in the management of this complex disorder. PMID:24596466

  2. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria presenting as cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare type of acquired hemolytic anemia that is frequently associated with thrombophilia. It may rarely present with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, which manifests clinically with signs of raised intracranial pressure and requires lifelong anticoagulation therapy. One such rare presentation was seen in a 28 years old male who had history of recurrent episodes of passing red colored urine and this time presented with severe headache. He was diagnosed to have cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and on further workup was found to be suffering from PNH. PMID:25143784

  3. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria presenting as cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Memon, Abdul Rauf; Khan, Rizwan; Rauf, Mohammad Uzair Abdul; Shafique, Kashif

    2014-01-01

    Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare type of acquired hemolytic anemia that is frequently associated with thrombophilia. It may rarely present with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, which manifests clinically with signs of raised intracranial pressure and requires lifelong anticoagulation therapy. One such rare presentation was seen in a 28 years old male who had history of recurrent episodes of passing red colored urine and this time presented with severe headache. He was diagnosed to have cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and on further workup was found to be suffering from PNH. PMID:25143784

  4. Coil Protruding into the Common Femoral Vein Following Pelvic Venous Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Petra Holdstock, Judith M.; Bacon, Jennifer L.; Lopez, Anthony J.; Whiteley, Mark S.; Price, Barrie A.

    2008-03-15

    Pelvic venous embolization is performed for pelvic congestion syndrome and prior to lower limb varicose vein surgery in females with associated pelvic venous insufficiency. The procedure is analogous to varicocele embolization in males, although refluxing internal iliac vein tributaries may also be embolized. We report a case of inadvertent coil placement in the common femoral vein while embolizing the obturator vein, during pelvic vein embolization for recurrent lower limb varicose veins. There were no clinical consequences and the coil was left in situ. We advise caution when embolizing internal iliac vein tributaries where there is clinically significant communication with veins of the lower limb.

  5. Calcified central venous catheter fibrin sheath: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Keehn, Aryeh; Rabinowitz, Dan; Williams, Steve K; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-01-01

    We present a 6-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who demonstrated on chest X-ray a radiopacity in the superior vena cava after removal of an implanted venous access device. This radiopacity was initially thought to be a retained catheter fragment. On review of previous imaging, we were able to document the temporal development of a calcified catheter cast as distinct from the catheter. This case represents a rare consequence of central venous catheterization in children. Knowledge of this finding as a possible complication may help avoid performance of unnecessary follow-up imaging or invasive procedures. PMID:26259863

  6. Endovascular Technique for Revision of Excess Catheter Length in Subcutaneous Implanted Venous Access Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, Ravi; Arbabzadeh, Massoud; Richard III, Howard; Levitin, Abraham; Lund, Gunnar; Stainken, Brian

    2004-06-15

    To describe the implementation of a technique to trim the excess length of a central venous catheter via a process of endovascular snaring without exposing or changing the device. We report on the outcome of this technique in 3 patients. The technique was successful in two cases and successful with a modification in the remaining case. The technique is useful to salvage an implanted venous access device. It appears to be less invasive with reduced procedure time and less patient discomfort than other techniques.

  7. Is a red umbilical cord a sign of umbilical venous congestion?: a case report.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hidehiko; Igarashi, Miwa; Inde, Yusuke; Nakai, Akihito; Suzuki, Shunji; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Postnatal examination of fetal appendages is important because this information may help predict perinatal outcome. We present a case of a red streak along the entire umbilical vein after a cesarean section due to non-reassuring fetal status. The pathological findings revealed an umbilical cord with dilated vascular changes and mild funisitis. Because the dilated change was intense in the umbilical vein, the red streak of the umbilical cord was caused by venous congestion. Moreover, we considered that the umbilical venous congestion was due to increased resistance in the fetal intra-abdominal umbilical vein, which was associated with the non-reassuring fetal status. PMID:21389648

  8. Retrograde leptomeningeal venous approach for dural arteriovenous fistulas at foramen magnum.

    PubMed

    Mendes, George Ac; Caire, François; Saleme, Suzana; Ponomarjova, Sanita; Mounayer, Charbel

    2015-04-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with sudden right homonymous hemianopsia. Work-up imaging revealed a left occipital haematoma and an arteriovenous fistula supplied by the meningeal branches to the clivus from the left vertebral artery (VA) with a rostral venous reflux into cortical veins. A microcatheter was advanced through brainstem veins into the venous collector. A compliant balloon was placed in the left VA facing the origin of feeders. The balloon was inflated to protect the vertebrobasilar circulation from embolic migration. Onyx was injected by the transvenous catheter. Control angiogram revealed exclusion of the lesion. Informed consent was obtained from the patient. PMID:25964442

  9. Sickle cell disease and venous thromboembolism in pregnancy and the puerperium.

    PubMed

    Noubouossie, Denis; Key, Nigel S

    2015-02-01

    Recent data strongly suggest an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in subjects with sickle cell disease and to a lesser extent, sickle cell trait. However, most studies have been retrospective, case-control or cross-sectional based on data obtained from administrative databases. More data from adequately powered prospective studies that include matched controls are needed to definitely establish the link between venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and sickle hemoglobin disorders. Similarly, there remains a need for properly designed randomized control trials to establish the safety of various hormonal contraceptive methods in women with sickle cell disorders. PMID:25903535

  10. Endovascular recanalization of symptomatic portomesenteric venous obstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy and radiation.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Eric K; Krohmer, Steven; Gemery, John; Zaki, Bassem; Pipas, J Marc

    2009-12-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (RT) may improve outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary cancer; however, there is a 20% risk of late portomesenteric venous obstruction. This retrospective study evaluated the percutaneous treatment of portomesenteric venous obstruction that occurred a mean of 10 months after pancreaticoduodenectomy and intraoperative RT. Five patients with medically refractory ascites and portomesenteric obstruction on computed tomographic angiography had successful recanalization with elimination of the pressure gradient and no procedural complications. One patient showed no improvement clinically. Recurrent ascites after stent occlusion was successfully treated in two patients. Percutaneous transhepatic recanalization appears to be a safe and effective therapy in this population. PMID:19854066

  11. Prophylactic venous cannulation of the pedicled TRAM flap in breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Johal, K S; Highton, L; Oudit, D; Laitung, J K G

    2015-02-01

    Since its inception nearly 30 years ago, the pedicled TRAM flap has remained a reliable technique of breast reconstruction. However, venous congestion of the flap in the early postoperative period is well recognised and may lead to partial or total flap loss. This study describes a simple technique routinely employed by the senior author over 15 years involving intraoperative cannulation of the deep inferior epigastric vein and externalisation into an ileostomy bag, in order to facilitate drainage and reduce the likelihood of venous congestion. In addition to its role in breast reconstruction, this technique may be a useful adjunct to any form of free or pedicled tissue transfer. PMID:25272191

  12. Gastrin in portal and peripheral venous blood after feeding in man

    PubMed Central

    Dencker, H.; Håkanson, R.; Liedberg, G.; Norryd, C.; Oscarson, J.; Rehfeld, J. F.; Stadil, F.

    1973-01-01

    The concentrations of immunoreactive gastrin in serum from portal and peripheral venous blood were determined in 10 patients with indwelling portal catheters before and after feeding. No significant differences were found between the gastrin concentrations in portal and peripheral serum. Gel filtration studies of serum did not reveal any differences between the gastrin components of portal and peripheral venous serum. Since neither the concentrations of immunoreactive gastrin nor the four gastrin components differed between portal and peripheral serum it is suggested that the liver is without effect on gastrin metabolism. PMID:4761604

  13. [Disorders and correction of lymph outflow in chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs].

    PubMed

    Zhukov, B N; Borisov, V K

    1976-02-01

    An analysis of 176 lymphograms, made in 102 patients with venous pathology of the lower extremities, is presented. In 14 of them varicosity in a decompensation stage, an uncomplicated form, in 32--varicosity in a decompensation stage, a complicated form, in 20--postthrombotic disease of an edematous and algesic form, in 36--an edematous-ulcerous form. The duration of the disease was from 3 to 25 years. It was found that the depth of changes in the lymphatic system was dependent on the rate of decompensation in the venous one. PMID:960473

  14. Radionuclide plethysmography and Tc-99m red blood cell venography in venous thrombosis: comparison with contrast venography

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, I.; Royal, H.D.; Uren, R.F.; Waugh, R.C.; McLaughlin, A.F.; Bautoviovich, G.J.; Dyer, I.A.; Fulton, R.R.; Morris, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide plethysmography (RPG) is a new technique that uses Tc-99m labelled red blood cells to ascertain changes in venous volumes by detecting the change in counts in response to the inflation and deflation of proximal thigh cuffs. Diagnosis of ileofemoral venous occlusion is possible using this technique, which also provides kinetic data of venous outflow. Twenty-one patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis were studied prospectively using RPG, radionuclide venography (RV), and contrast venography (CV) to establish the usefulness of RPG alone and in combination wth RV in the diagnosis of ileofemoral venous thrombosis (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 100%). RV was less sensitive (73%) and less specific (93%) in diagnosing that condition.

  15. Prognostic Outcomes and Risk Factors for Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma and Venous Tumor Thrombus after Radical Nephrectomy and Thrombectomy: The Prognostic Significance of Venous Tumor Thrombus Level

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qi; Song, Yi; Li, Xuesong; Meng, Maxwell; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jin; He, Zhisong; Zhou, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. To evaluate the prognostic outcomes and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with venous tumor thrombus in China. Materials and Methods. We reviewed the clinical information of 169 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy. Overall and cancer-specific survival rates were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the potential prognostic factors. Results. The median survival time was 63 months. The five-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rate were 53.6% and 54.4% for all patients. For all patients, significant survival difference was only observed between early (below hepatic vein) and advanced (above hepatic vein) tumor thrombus. However, significant differences existed between both RV/IVC and early/advanced tumor thrombus groups in N0M0 patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher tumor thrombus level (p = 0.016, RR = 1.58), N (p = 0.013, RR = 2.60), and M (p < 0.001, RR = 4.14) stages and adrenal gland invasion (p = 0.001, RR = 4.91) were the most significant negative prognostic predictors. Conclusions. In this study, we reported most cases of RCC patients with venous extension in China. We proved that patients with RCC and venous tumor thrombus may have relative promising long-term survival rate, especially those with early tumor thrombus. PMID:26421277

  16. Effects of Long Duration Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Stenger, M. B.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    The visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is a newly described space flight-associated medical condition made up of a constellation of symptoms affecting at least 34% of American astronauts who have flown International Space Station (ISS) missions. VIIP is defined primarily by visual acuity deficits and anatomical changes to eye structures, and is thought to be related to elevated intracranial pressure secondary to space flightinduced cephalad fluid shifts. Loss of visual acuity could be a significant threat to crew health and performance and may be suggestive of other adaptations with implications for years post-flight. Our primary objective is to determine whether vascular compliance is altered by space flight and whether such adaptations are related to the incidence of VIIP. In particular, we will measure ocular parameters and vascular compliance in vessels of the head and neck in astronauts who have no space flight experience, in astronauts before, during, and after space flight, and in bed rest subjects with conditions similar to space flight. Additionally, we will analyze astronaut data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) archive to determine which factors might be predictive of the development of VIIP. The project will be conducted in four separate but related parts. To understand the baseline condition of astronauts without any prior space flight experience, we will study 10 astronauts who have never flown in space by performing a comprehensive evaluation of the vasculature of the head, neck and eyes. Hemodynamic data (stroke volume and blood pressure), ocular (tonometry and ocular ultrasound), venous and arterial parameters will be acquired across a range of tilt angles (20, 10, 0, -10, -20 degrees). Vessels to be studied include the temporal, jugular, and vertebral veins and the cerebral, carotid and vertebral arteries. Ophthalmic data from the annual physical will be obtained through data sharing. To examine the relation between vascular compliance in the head and neck and the development of VIIP after a long duration space flight, we will study 10 astronauts before, during, and after long-duration ISS missions. Pre- and post-flight testing will be identical to that described above. During flight, images of the same vessels of interest will be obtained for later analysis. Ophthalmic data including VIIP scores will be obtained through data sharing from medically-required tests. To investigate the effects of age and elevated sodium intake, two potential contributors to VIIP, we will study 24 men (in two age groups: 25-35 and 45-55) during a 14 day 6deg head-down bed rest, a well-accepted analog of space flight. Standard NASA bed rest conditions will be maintained except for dietary sodium. Sodium intake will be similar to that of ISS astronauts, which is higher than consumed in previous bed rest studies. Pre- and post-bed rest testing procedures will be identical to the testing protocol described above for astronauts. Ophthalmic testing (optical coherence tomography, fundoscopy, and tonometry) will be conducted on the same day that vascular compliance measures are obtained. To identify parameters that may relate to an increase in an astronaut's susceptibility to developing VIIP, we will use data mining techniques to evaluate astronaut data obtained from the LSAH. Medical history, family history, space flight history and its related exposures, and history of high performance jet aircraft exposure will be examined for their potential relationship to ocular data. We hypothesize that the cephalad fluid shift induced by space flight will result in structural and functional adaptations in head and neck vessels leading to decreased vascular compliance and related to the development of VIIP symptoms. Further, although VIIP has not been observed in previous bed rest studies, we hypothesize that an elevated sodium intake will increase the incidence of VIIP symptoms in this space flight analog. Finally, we hypothesize that data mining analyses will reveal relationships between he

  17. Combined Adrenal and Ovarian Venous Sampling to Localize an Androgen Producing Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Monica D.; Trerotola, Scott O.

    2010-12-15

    A postmenopausal woman presented with hirsutism and elevated serum testosterone levels. A 1-cm adrenal adenoma was noted on computed tomography. Combined adrenal and ovarian venous sampling was performed to localize an androgen producing tumor to the left ovary. The patient underwent a bilateral salpingo-oophrectomy and was spared an unnecessary adrenalectomy.

  18. Protocol for detection of biofilms on needleless connectors attached to central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Donlan, R M; Murga, R; Bell, M; Toscano, C M; Carr, J H; Novicki, T J; Zuckerman, C; Corey, L C; Miller, J M

    2001-02-01

    Central venous catheter needleless connectors (NCs) have been shown to develop microbial contamination. A protocol was developed for the collection, processing, and examination of NCs to detect and measure biofilms on these devices. Sixty-three percent of 24 NCs collected from a bone marrow transplant center contained biofilms comprised primarily of coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:11158143

  19. Protocol for Detection of Biofilms on Needleless Connectors Attached to Central Venous Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Donlan, R. M.; Murga, R.; Bell, M.; Toscano, C. M.; Carr, J. H.; Novicki, T. J.; Zuckerman, C.; Corey, L. C.; Miller, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Central venous catheter needleless connectors (NCs) have been shown to develop microbial contamination. A protocol was developed for the collection, processing, and examination of NCs to detect and measure biofilms on these devices. Sixty-three percent of 24 NCs collected from a bone marrow transplant center contained biofilms comprised primarily of coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:11158143

  20. Venous Access Ports: Indications, Implantation Technique, Follow-Up, and Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Walser, Eric M.

    2012-08-15

    The subcutaneous venous access device (SVAD or 'port') is a critical component in the care of patients with chronic disease. The modern SVAD provides reliable access for blood withdrawal and medication administration with minimal disruption to a patient's lifestyle. Because of improved materials and catheter technology, today's ports are lighter and stronger and capable of high-pressure injections of contrast for cross-sectional imaging. The majority of SVAD placement occurs in interventional radiology departments due to their ability to provide this service at lower costs, lower, complication rates, and greater volumes. Port-insertion techniques vary depending on the operator, but all consist of catheter placement in the central venous circulation followed by subcutaneous pocket creation and port attachment to the catheter with fixation and closure of the pocket. Venous access challenges occasionally occur in patients with central vein occlusions, necessitating catheterization of collateral veins or port placement in alternate locations. Complications of SVADs include those associated with the procedure as well as short- (<30 days) and long-term problems. Procedural and early complications are quite rare due to the near-universal use of real-time ultrasound guidance for vein puncture, but they can include hematoma, catheter malposition, arrhythmias, and pneumothorax. Late problems include both thrombotic complications (native venous or port-catheter thrombosis) and infections (tunnel or pocket infections or catheter-associated bloodstream infections). Most guidelines suggest that 0.3 infections/1000 catheter days is an appropriate upper threshold for the insertion of SVADs.

  1. Cost/benefit analysis of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated venous catheters for femoral access.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Lecuona, María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Lisset; Diosdado, Sara; Marca, Lucía; Mora, María L

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-four patients with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters had a lower rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection and lower central venous catheter-related costs per catheter day than 190 patients with a standard catheter. PMID:25278411

  2. Venous versus arterial iron administration in haemodialysis. Influence on erythrocytes antioxidant parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dogaru, CB; Capusa, C; Gaman, L; Torac, E; Lixandru, D; Gilca, M; Iosif, L; Muscurel, C; Stoian, I; Mircescu, G; Atanasiu, V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intravenous iron administration in patients treated by haemodialysis for end stage renal disease can exacerbate oxidative stress by increasing the level of free redox active iron. A way to reduce the impact of iron on oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients may be the administration of iron through arterial extracorporeal circuit. Objective The aim of our study was to compare the influence of iron route of administration (venous versus arterial extracorporeal circuit infusion) on antioxidant parameters in red blood cells of haemodialysis patients in order to clarify if arterial iron administration can have positive impacts related to iron induced oxidative stress. Method Twenty stable patients on regular haemodialysis treatment were selected for the study. They were investigated in a cross-over design at 3 mid-week HD sessions, one week apart, without iron [HD basal] and with either IV infusion of 100mg iron sucrose over the first 20 minutes of HD session, via venous line [HDvenous], or the same solution infused on the arterial extracorporeal circulation [HDarterial]. Blood samples were drawn at 0 min, 40 min and 270 min. Erythrocytes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, non-protein thiol levels and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were analysed. Conclusion Haemodialysis significantly decreases the total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes. Iron supplementation, through venous or arterial extracorporeal route has no impact on the total antioxidant activity in red blood cells. Venous iron administration increases GPx activity in erythrocytes suggesting increased lipid peroxidation compared with arterial extracorporeal administration. PMID:26361515

  3. Venous versus arterial iron administration in haemodialysis. Influence on erythrocytes antioxidant parameters.

    PubMed

    Dogaru, C B; Capusa, C; Gaman, L; Torac, E; Lixandru, D; Gilca, M; Iosif, L; Muscurel, C; Stoian, I; Mircescu, G; Atanasiu, V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intravenous iron administration in patients treated by haemodialysis for end stage renal disease can exacerbate oxidative stress by increasing the level of free redox active iron. A way to reduce the impact of iron on oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients may be the administration of iron through arterial extracorporeal circuit. Objective The aim of our study was to compare the influence of iron route of administration (venous versus arterial extracorporeal circuit infusion) on antioxidant parameters in red blood cells of haemodialysis patients in order to clarify if arterial iron administration can have positive impacts related to iron induced oxidative stress. Method Twenty stable patients on regular haemodialysis treatment were selected for the study. They were investigated in a cross-over design at 3 mid-week HD sessions, one week apart, without iron [HD basal] and with either IV infusion of 100mg iron sucrose over the first 20 minutes of HD session, via venous line [HDvenous], or the same solution infused on the arterial extracorporeal circulation [HDarterial]. Blood samples were drawn at 0 min, 40 min and 270 min. Erythrocytes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, non-protein thiol levels and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were analysed. Conclusion Haemodialysis significantly decreases the total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes. Iron supplementation, through venous or arterial extracorporeal route has no impact on the total antioxidant activity in red blood cells. Venous iron administration increases GPx activity in erythrocytes suggesting increased lipid peroxidation compared with arterial extracorporeal administration. PMID:26361515

  4. Percutaneous Mural Fenestration and Angioplasty for the Treatment of a Refractory Hemodialysis-Related Venous Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, Gregory L. Funaki, Brian

    2006-12-15

    Venous stenoses are the leading cause of dialysis graft and mature dialysis fistula malfunction. We report a simple, inexpensive technique for treating stenoses that are refractory to conventional balloon angioplasty and present a case in which this technique was successfully applied.

  5. A rare case of anomalous venous drainage of the right upper lobe

    PubMed Central

    van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Schreurs, Wilhelmina H.

    2015-01-01

    We present an unusual case of partial anomalous venous drainage in which the vein of the right upper lobe drains into the superior vena cava, together with the azygos vein. This was discovered during surgery for a lung tumor of the right upper lobe. We present the embryological background, functional consequences and literature on this rare anatomical anomaly. PMID:26623130

  6. THE EFFECTS OF VENOUS OBSTRUCTION UPON INTERSTITIAL PRESSURE IN ANIMAL AND HUMAN SKIN

    PubMed Central

    McMaster, Philip D.

    1946-01-01

    The changes of intracutaneous pressure in the limbs of mice and human beings have been followed during and after periods of venous obstruction with almost unhindered arterial flow. During the first 30 minutes of obstruction the interstitial pressure in the tense skin of the lower legs of mice, a pressure which is slightly higher than that in the loose skin of the ears, backs, and thighs (21), rose from 2.6 to 4.6 cm. of water to about 32 cm., thereafter remaining constant. It would appear that the escape of fluid from the capillaries is checked at this pressure. In the skin of the arm and leg of man the interstitial pressure rose from 2.5–3.7 cm. of water to 15.0–23.0, within 15 to 27 minutes after venous obstruction had been produced, mounting no higher during the period of observation. When venous obstruction had existed for about 20 minutes or more the subjects sometimes experienced sensations of relief from congestion as if some tissue adjustment or the opening of some venous by-pass in the marrow had occurred, preventing a further rise of pressure. However this may be, the pressures still appeared to be great enough to prevent further escape of fluid from the capillaries, at least for the time being. PMID:19871583

  7. EFFECT OF 2 PERCENT VENOUS CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN ON EXERCISE-INDUCED ANGINA PECTORIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, 14 patients with angina pectoris who breathed carbon monoxide 50 ppm for 1 hour to raise the mean venous carboxyhemoglobin from 1.09 to 2.02% had a reduction in mean exercise time until angina pectoris from 321.7 to 289.2 seconds, P...

  8. Development of the pulmonary vein and the systemic venous sinus: an interactive 3D overview.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Gert; Moorman, Antoon F M

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the normal formation of the heart is crucial for the understanding of cardiac pathologies and congenital malformations. The understanding of early cardiac development, however, is complicated because it is inseparably associated with other developmental processes such as embryonic folding, formation of the coelomic cavity, and vascular development. Because of this, it is necessary to integrate morphological and experimental analyses. Morphological insights, however, are limited by the difficulty in communication of complex 3D-processes. Most controversies, in consequence, result from differences in interpretation, rather than observation. An example of such a continuing debate is the development of the pulmonary vein and the systemic venous sinus, or "sinus venosus". To facilitate understanding, we present a 3D study of the developing venous pole in the chicken embryo, showing our results in a novel interactive fashion, which permits the reader to form an independent opinion. We clarify how the pulmonary vein separates from a greater vascular plexus within the splanchnic mesoderm. The systemic venous sinus, in contrast, develops at the junction between the splanchnic and somatic mesoderm. We discuss our model with respect to normal formation of the heart, congenital cardiac malformations, and the phylogeny of the venous tributaries. PMID:21779373

  9. Influence of healing on the disturbed blood flow regulation in venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jünger, M; Hahn, M; Klyscz, T; Rassner, G

    1996-01-01

    Cutaneous blood flow regulation is disturbed in severe chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The feedback system between the transmural pressure in the postcapillary venules and the precapillary resistance regulating arterioles has gone awry. The upregulated control system causes "luxus"-hyperperfusion. In this study laser Doppler fluxmetry was performed in 6 patients' florid venous ulcers (U) and later in the former ulcer area after healing (H) and in the inner ankle area of 12 healthy volunteers (C). Laser Doppler flux (LDF) changes were measured with the leg elevated and lowered as well as after arterial and during venous occlusion. The results proved a diminished (p < 0.01) flux increase with the leg elevated (U: LDF = -9%, H: LDF = 3.1%, C: LDF = 80%) and after arterial occlusion (U: LDF = 1.3%, H: LDF = 0%; C: 189.6%) in severe CVI both in florid ulcers and after healing. The ability to reduce flux when transmural pressures were increased remained. Leg lowering reduced flux by 46.4% in ulcers and by 36.8% after healing. This postural response to high transmural pressures, however, seemed weakened compared to controls, where LDF decreased by 65.8%. Our findings suggest that the postural feedback system remains disturbed and upregulated even after a venous ulcer has healed. PMID:8956551

  10. Part versus Whole: A Randomized Trial of Central Venous Catheterization Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Angela; Singh, Sunita; Dubrowski, Adam; Pratt, Daniel D.; Zalunardo, Nadia; Nair, Parvarthy; McLaughlin, Kevin; Ma, Irene W. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a complex but commonly performed procedure. How best to teach this complex skill has not been clearly delineated. We conducted a randomized trial of the effects of two types of teaching of CVC on skill acquisition and retention. We randomly assigned novice internal medicine residents to learning CVC in-part…

  11. Editors' note regarding Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Davies, Alun H; Zimmet, Steven E

    2015-05-01

    10.1177/(0268355515575882) Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty, by Zohara Sternberg, Prabhjot Grewal, Steven Cen, Frances DeBarge-Igoe, Jinhee Yu, and Michael Arata, Phlebology 0268355513512824, first published on 19 November 2013 as Epub, DOI: 10.1177/0268355513512824. PMID:25900669

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of the customized Unna boot when treating patients with venous ulcers*

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Bruna Suelen Raymundo; Araujo, Cristina Souza; Atzingen, Dênia Amélia Novato Castelli Von; Mendonça, Adriana Rodrigues dos Anjos; Mesquita Filho, Marcos; de Medeiros, Mauricéia Lins

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lower limb ulcers are a serious medical and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. One type of chronic wound of the lower extremities is the venous ulcer. Therapeutic methods for treating venous ulcer include the use of the Unna boot. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of the customized Unna boot in the treatment of venous ulcers and to monitor the subsequent development and healing of the lesions. METHODS Prospective exploratory and quantitative longitudinal study, conducted at the "Outpatients Department (Wound Care) of the Grupo da Fraternidade Espírita Irmão Alexandre" in the city of Pouso Alegre (MG), Brazil, in 2008. The sample consisted of 32 patients with venous ulcers who underwent treatment with the Unna boot and 11 patients (control group), who used a simple bandage application. The patients'lesions were monitored over a three month period. RESULTS The average age of the predominently female (65.1%) patients was 61.88. From observing the differences in healing times at the three evaluation stages, it was clear that after the initial evaluation the wound area decreased in Groups 1 and 2 (p>0.05). CONCLUSION The use of the customized Unna boot contributes to quicker healing. However, over a period of three months the simple bandage applications were seen to be just as effective as the Unna boot method. PMID:23539002

  13. Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery and Venous Hypertension in Early Hemodialysis Patients without Amyloid Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Kocyigit, Ismail; Unal, Aydin; Guney, Ahmet; Mavili, Ertugrul; Deniz, Kemal; Kocyigit, Merva; Sipahioglu, Murat; Eroglu, Eray; Tokgoz, Bulent; Gunal, Ali Ihsan; Oymak, Oktay

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the frequent problems of the patients who underwent hemodialysis (HD). The role of venous hypertension due to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has not been clarified completely; therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of venous hypertension due to AVF in hemodialysis patients who had CTS. Patients and Methods. We included 12 patients who had been receiving HD treatment for less than 8 years and the newly diagnosed CTS patients with the same arm of AVF. All patients were diagnosed clinically and the results were confirmed by both nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Open carpal tunnel release surgery was performed on all of them. Venous pressure was measured in all patients before and after two weeks of surgery. Results. There were significant differences before and after the surgery with regard to pressures (P > 0.05). After the surgery, all carpal ligament specimens of the patients were not stained with Congo red for the presence of amyloid deposition. Conclusion. Increased venous pressure on the same arm with AVF could be responsible for CTS in hemodialysis patients. Carpal tunnel release surgery is the main treatment of this disease by reducing the compression on the nerve. PMID:24307871

  14. Venous pooling and drainage affects photoplethysmographic signals at different vertical hand positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Michelle; Phillips, Justin P.; Kyriacou, Panayiotis

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the current work is to investigate the possibility of augmenting pulse oximetry algorithms to enable the estimation of venous parameters in peripheral tissues. In order to further understand the contribution of venous blood to the photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal, recordings were made from six healthy volunteer subjects during an exercise in which the right hand was placed in various positions above and below heart level. The left hand was kept at heart level as a control while the right hand was moved. A custom-made two-channel dual wavelength PPG instrumentation system was used to obtain the red and infrared plethysmographic signals from both the right and left index fingers simultaneously using identical sensors. Laser Doppler flowmetry signals were also recorded from an adjacent fingertip on the right hand. Analysis of all acquired PPG signals indicated changes in both ac and dc amplitude of the right hand when the position was changed, while those obtained from the left (control) hand remained relatively constant. Most clearly, in the change from heart level to 50cm below heart level there is a substantial decrease in both dc and ac amplitudes. This decrease in dc amplitude most likely corresponds to increased venous pooling, and hence increased absorption of light. It is speculated that the decrease in ac PPG amplitude is due to reduced arterial emptying during diastole due to increased downstream resistance due to venous pooling.

  15. An Evaluation of the Venous Equilibrium Model for Hepatic Clearance using Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Livers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The venous equilibrium model is widely used to describe hepatic clearance (CLH) of chemicals metabolized by the liver. If chemical delivery to the tissue does not limit CLH, this model predicts that CLH will approximately equal the product of intrinsic metabolic clearance and a t...

  16. Genetic Regulation of Sinoatrial Node Development and Pacemaker Program in the Venous Pole

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wenduo; Song, Yingnan; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    The definitive sinoatrial node (SAN), the primary pacemaker of the mammalian heart, develops from part of pro-pacemaking embryonic venous pole that expresses both Hcn4 and the transcriptional factor Shox2. It is noted that ectopic pacemaking activities originated from the myocardial sleeves of the pulmonary vein and systemic venous return, both derived from the Shox2+ pro-pacemaking cells in the venous pole, cause atrial fibrillation. However, the developmental link between the pacemaker properties in the embryonic venous pole cells and the SAN remains largely uncharacterized. Furthermore, the genetic program for the development of heterogeneous populations of the SAN is also under-appreciated. Here, we review the literature for a better understanding of the heterogeneous development of the SAN in relation to that of the sinus venosus myocardium and pulmonary vein myocardium. We also attempt to revisit genetic models pertinent to the development of pacemaker activities in the perspective of a Shox2-Nkx2-5 epistatic antagonism. Finally, we describe recent efforts in deciphering the regulatory networks for pacemaker development by genome-wide approaches. PMID:26682210

  17. The prevention, diagnosis and management of central venous line infections in children.

    PubMed

    Chesshyre, Emily; Goff, Zoy; Bowen, Asha; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    With advancing paediatric healthcare, the use of central venous lines has become a fundamental part of management of neonates and children. Uses include haemodynamic monitoring and the delivery of lifesaving treatments such as intravenous fluids, blood products, antibiotics, chemotherapy, haemodialysis and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Despite preventative measures, central venous catheter-related infections are common, with rates of 0.5-2.8/1000 catheter days in children and 0.6-2.5/1000 catheter days in neonates. Central line infections in children are associated with increased mortality, increased length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, treatment interruptions, and increased complications. Prevention is paramount, using a variety of measures including tunnelling of long-term devices, chlorhexidine antisepsis, maximum sterile barriers, aseptic non-touch technique, minimal line accessing, and evidence-based care bundles. Diagnosis of central line infections in children is challenging. Available samples are often limited to a single central line blood culture, as clinicians are reluctant to perform painful venepuncture on children with a central, pain-free, access device. With the advancing evidence basis for antibiotic lock therapy for treatment, paediatricians are pushing the boundaries of line retention if safe to do so, due to among other reasons, often limited venous access sites. This review evaluates the available paediatric studies on management of central venous line infections and refers to consensus guidelines such as those of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). PMID:25934326

  18. A case report of abdominal compartment syndrome caused by malposition of a femoral venous catheter

    PubMed Central

    Pafitanis, Georgios; Spyridon, Koulas; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Mason, Katrina; Ygropoulou, Olga; Mousafiri, Ourania

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous catheter malposition is a rare event with potential catastrophic consequences. To our knowledge we describe one of the first case reports of an adult presenting with a rare late complication of femoral venous catheter malposition: abdominal compartment syndrome. Presentation of case A 39 year-old female sustained severe cerebral injury in a road traffic accident. During initial resuscitation a femoral venous catheter was inserted without ultrasound guidance with no immediate concerns. After 48 h whilst in intensive care unit the patient developed progressive abdominal distension. Bedside investigations revealed raised intra-abdominal pressures associated with new organ failure. Subsequent an emergency laparotomy and on-table intravenous contrast radiographs revealed extravasation of contrast into the peritoneal space from the malposition of the catheter into the abdominal cavity. Discussion Complications of central venous catheterization are associated with adverse events with significant morbidity to the patient as well as having cost implications. Mechanical complications are underreported but are potentially preventable through ultrasound-guided insertion, in accordance with international guidelines. Conclusion This case report highlights the importance of safe methods of catheter insertion, the need for increased awareness of late femoral catheter malposition and its potential catastrophic consequences. PMID:26036458

  19. Popliteal Venous Aneurysm: A Rare Cause of Recurrent Pulmonary Emboli and Limb Swelling

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, David A. Robinson, Graham J.; Johnson, Brian F.

    2008-09-15

    Popliteal venous aneurysm is a rare cause of recurrent pulmonary embolism, although the true incidence of aneurysm is probably underestimated. One-third of patients suffer further embolic events despite therapeutic anticoagulation. We report the case of a 59-year-old male who presented with recurrent PEs over a period of 12 years despite anticoagulation therapy. A thrombophilia screen and abdominal ultrasound were normal at that time. He reattended with recurrent pulmonary emboli, left calf swelling, and a mass in his left popliteal fossa causing limitation of knee movement. Venous duplex and MRI of his popliteal fossa demonstrated a thrombosed true popliteal venous aneurysm with popliteal and superficial femoral vein occlusion. In view of the mass effect we proceeded to surgical excision of his aneurysm after prophylactic placement of an IVC filter. The patient regained normal knee function with intensive inpatient physiotherapy. He has been recommenced on lifelong anticoagulant. The presentation, investigation, and management of the condition are briefly discussed. We suggest that a bilateral lower limb duplex is performed to exclude venous aneurysm in all patients presenting with pulmonary embolism in which an underlying source cannot otherwise be identified and no thrombophilic tendency is detected.

  20. Portomesenteric venous gas in a 2-week-old Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Gaelle; Silva, Goncalo; zur Linden, Alex; Needham, Hank; Arroyo, Luis G.

    2013-01-01

    A 2-week-old Holstein Friesian female calf was presented with profuse diarrhea and abdominal distension. Clinicopathological findings included marked hypoproteinemia, hypoglycemia and leucopenia, mild hyperlactatemia, and hyperfibrinogenemia. On abdominal ultrasonography, features were consistent with portomesenteric venous gas (PVG), a rare condition reported in the medical literature. The PVG in this calf was associated with severe gastrointestinal illness and sepsis. PMID:24155417

  1. [Detection of lymph vessel changes in venous diseases of the leg using imaging procedures].

    PubMed

    Tiedjen, K U

    1989-12-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency reveals both functional correlations with the lymphatic system of the limbs as well as pathological-anatomical. The functional correlation initially consists in an enhancement of function as a manifestation of a compensation mechanism of lymphatic drainage in relation to the insufficient venous system. Finally, if the lymphatics are themselves damaged in their further course, a safety valve insufficiency occurs with resulting lymphostasis. Apart from this participation, regional damages to the lymphatic fascicles play a role in chronic venous insufficiency in trophic disorders, as for example leg ulcer and atrophy. However, these are far less significant for the overall function of lymphatic drainage. As a role, they show a pronounced collateralization, and thus good possibilities of functional compensation. In particular indirect lymphography with water-soluble contrast medium is suitable as imaging technique in diagnostics with regard to the morphology. Isotope lymphography is suitable with regard to investigating the function of lymphatic drainage and for circumscribed local disorders. As native techniques, xeroradiography and computed tomography are very suitable to analyse tissue damage of the cutis and subcutis resulting from chronic venous insufficiency and from lymphostasis and to make indirect inferences from this with regard to the chronicity of this disease process. PMID:2699137

  2. [Life threatening embolism caused by central venous catheter fragments in psychiatric patients].

    PubMed

    Nau, R; Thiel, A; Prange, H W

    1994-05-01

    Central venous catheters are sometimes the cause of life-threatening complications. In two patients with underlying psychiatric disorders we observed an embolism as a result of catheter fragments. The first patient was a 30-year-old woman with a borderline personality disorder and several previous episodes of self-mutilation, psychogenic seizures and disturbances of consciousness. She cut her central venous line positioned in the external jugular vein when she was unattended. The intravasal fragment dislocated into the right ventricle and had to be removed by a forceps used for myocardial biopsies. The second patients was a 34-year-old mentally retarded male with a history of psychomotoric and grand mal seizures who suffered from a prolonged disturbance of consciousness with uncontrolled motor activity after four grand mal seizures. Despite physical restraint, the tip of his central venous catheter inserted through the subclavian vein broke and embolized in the right atrium. The embolus was removed by thoracotomy. To avoid these complications central venous lines should be used only when critically needed in uncooperative patients or those who display disturbance of consciousness and uncontrolled motor activity. PMID:8052339

  3. Microvascular anastomosis using fibrin glue and venous cuff in rat carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Sacak, Bulent; Tosun, Ugur; Egemen, Onur; Sakiz, Damlanur; Ugurlu, Kemal

    2015-04-01

    Conventional anastomosis with interrupted sutures can be time-consuming, can cause vessel narrowing, and can lead to thrombosis at the site of repair. The amount of suture material inside the lumen can impair the endothelium of the vessel, triggering thrombosis. In microsurgery, fibrin sealants have the potential beneficial effects of reducing anastomosis time and promoting accurate haemostasis at the anastomotic site. However, there has been a general reluctance to use fibrin glue for microvascular anastomoses because the fibrin polymer is highly thrombogenic and may not provide adequate strength. To overcome these problems, a novel technique was defined for microvascular anastomosis with fibrin glue and a venous cuff. Sixty-four rats in two groups are included in the study. In the experimental group (n = 32), end-to-end arterial anastomosis was performed with two stay sutures, fibrin glue, and a venous cuff. In the control group (n = 32), conventional end-to-end arterial anastomosis was performed. Fibrin glue assisted anastomosis with a venous cuff took less time, caused less bleeding at the anastomotic site, and achieved a patency rate comparable to that provided by the conventional technique. Fibrin sealant assisted microvascular anastomosis with venous cuff is a rapid, easy, and reliable technique compared to the end-to-end arterial anastomosis. PMID:25529101

  4. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Central Venous Catheter Sutured to the Wall of the Right Atrium

    SciTech Connect

    Neuerburg, Joerg-M.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Chalabi, Khaled; Hunter, David

    1999-01-15

    A transjugular central venous catheter was inadvertently sutured to the wall of the right atrium in a 63-year-old female during coronary bypass surgery. Using two nitinol Goose Neck snares via a transfemoral and a transjugular approach the catheter was severed into two pieces and retrieved percutaneously.

  5. ["Simulated walking" in the duplex evaluation of the venous system. The clinical and instrumental correlations].

    PubMed

    Vettorello, G F; Gasbarro, V; Mascoli, F; Navarra, G; Occhionorelli, S; Rubbini, M; Cerreta, G; Pozza, E; Donini, I

    1994-12-01

    The goals of non-invasive duplex vascular diagnosis of the venous system of the lower limbs are: 1) To make evaluation of the venous system during deambulation feasible under physiological, pathological and post-surgical or elastocompressive conditions. Moreover, any such evaluation must be achieved using a standardized, easy, highly reproducibly method which is inexpensive and utilizes the diagnostic instruments available. 2) To achieve detailed, selective localization of the valvular and parietal dysfunctions at the basis of any reflux pathology. 3) To identify and quantify venous flux and reflux during deambulation. The present work gives the results achieved over the period of one year after a new method simulating deambulation (Walk System 1 patented) was set up for several utilizations, principally correlated to the use of conventional duplex scanning in studying the venous system. The main purpose of the Walk System 1 is step simulation to uncover the location and extent of venous disease. This application test of: a pneumatic pump which compresses the calf to 100-120 mmHg in 0.3 sec thus simulating muscolar pumping during deambulation; standard 40 mmHg compression of the foot in order to rule out any hemodynamic involvement of the foot pump venous system. We can use this pump in the hemodynamic component, a part, during the step simulation, with synchronism with calf pump in TVP prophylaxis or in vascular therapy; an easy-to-use application software able to quickly pulsed Doppler data of flux and reflux by means of the flux and reflux orthodynamic indices or with measures in ml/sec. The study was performed on 80 lower limbs in normal subjects in order to define the normality range and in 380 lower pathologic limbs. The study has yielded a clinical-instrumental correlation between the hemodynamic data observed during inflation-deflation of the calf cuff, positioning the pulsed Doppler sample volume in the saphenous vein in the saphenous-femoral ostium zone and the underlying venous morphology. The results have made it possible to determine physiological S-F reflux and to establish 4 pathological classes of orthodynamic S-F reflux, each class corresponding to a specific range in the orthodynamic reflux index (class 0 = 0 < RI < 0.25; class 1 = 0.25 < RI < 2; class 2 = 2 < RI < 3.5; class 3 = 3.5 < RI < 6; class 4 = RI > 5) and to a particular morphological conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7753424

  6. [Venous thromboembolism's risk assessment: rationale, objectives, and methodology--the ARTE study].

    PubMed

    França, Ana; De Sousa, Joaquim Abreu; Felicíssimo, Paulo; Ferreira, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent clinical condition with high impact on both morbidity and mortality. Venous thromboembolism risk is particularly high in hospitalized patients as well as in oncologic patients, being a factor of poor prognosis for the oncologic disease. Several clinical studies have shown the need to develop effective hospital strategies using a systematic and individualized assessment of venous thromboembolism risk, and additionally to optimize the institution of prophylaxis treatment and its proper use in the context of in-hospital and outpatient management. The ARTE national study is a non-interventional, multicentre, prospective study which is divided in two phases. In the first phase patients are followed in the hospital; in the second phase patients are followed in ambulatory context for a period of 6 months after discharge. Four thousand patients will be included, equally distributed over medical, surgical, oncologic and orthopaedic patients. Data will be collected from the patient's clinical files and through direct clinical evaluation of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, in the departments of medicine, oncology, surgery, and orthopaedics of the participating centres. The main objectives of the study are to assess the risk profile of venous thromboembolism of the study population using a risk assessment model adapted from the Caprini and Khorana et al models, and the validation of the score for the Portuguese population. Simultaneously, the secondary objectives are as follows: to determine the proportion of patients with venous thromboembolism risk, according to the risk assessment model, that are doing prophylaxis; to determine the duration of prophylaxis during the hospitalization; to determine the proportion of patients doing long-term prophylaxis, at the moment of the discharge; to determine the incidence of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis; stroke; pulmonary thromboembolism; transient ischemic attack), haemorrhagic events (major and minor haemorrhages) and death at 6 months after discharge. Each patient will be contacted by telephone at 3 and 6 months after discharge, in order to assess the occurrence of thromboembolic and haemorrhagic events, as well as any readmission. This article describes the ARTE study's rationale, objectives, and methodology. PMID:22849949

  7. Detection of emetic activity in the cat by monitoring venous pressure and audio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagahara, A.; Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Elfar, S.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the use of audio signals as a simple, noninvasive measure of emetic activity, the relationship between the somatic events and sounds associated with retching and vomiting was studied. Thoracic venous pressure obtained from an implanted external jugular catheter was shown to provide a precise measure of the somatic events associated with retching and vomiting. Changes in thoracic venous pressure monitored through an indwelling external jugular catheter with audio signals, obtained from a microphone located above the animal in a test chamber, were compared. In addition, two independent observers visually monitored emetic episodes. Retching and vomiting were induced by injection of xylazine (0.66mg/kg s.c.), or by motion. A unique audio signal at a frequency of approximately 250 Hz is produced at the time of the negative thoracic venous pressure change associated with retching. Sounds with higher frequencies (around 2500 Hz) occur in conjunction with the positive pressure changes associated with vomiting. These specific signals could be discriminated reliably by individuals reviewing the audio recordings of the sessions. Retching and those emetic episodes associated with positive venous pressure changes were detected accurately by audio monitoring, with 90 percent of retches and 100 percent of emetic episodes correctly identified. Retching was detected more accurately (p is less than .05) by audio monitoring than by direct visual observation. However, with visual observation a few incidents in which stomach contents were expelled in the absence of positive pressure changes or detectable sounds were identified. These data suggest that in emetic situations, the expulsion of stomach contents may be accomplished by more than one neuromuscular system and that audio signals can be used to detect emetic episodes associated with thoracic venous pressure changes.

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Vein Structure and Function: Implications in Chronic Venous Disease.

    PubMed

    MacColl, Elisabeth; Khalil, Raouf A

    2015-12-01

    Lower-extremity veins have efficient wall structure and function and competent valves that permit upward movement of deoxygenated blood toward the heart against hydrostatic venous pressure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in maintaining vein wall structure and function. MMPs are zinc-binding endopeptidases secreted as inactive pro-MMPs by fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and leukocytes. Pro-MMPs are activated by various activators including other MMPs and proteinases. MMPs cause degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and elastin, and could have additional effects on the endothelium, as well as VSM cell migration, proliferation, Ca(2+) signaling, and contraction. Increased lower-extremity hydrostatic venous pressure is thought to induce hypoxia-inducible factors and other MMP inducers/activators such as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, prostanoids, chymase, and hormones, leading to increased MMP expression/activity, ECM degradation, VSM relaxation, and venous dilation. Leukocyte infiltration and inflammation of the vein wall cause further increases in MMPs, vein wall dilation, valve degradation, and different clinical stages of chronic venous disease (CVD), including varicose veins (VVs). VVs are characterized by ECM imbalance, incompetent valves, venous reflux, wall dilation, and tortuosity. VVs often show increased MMP levels, but may show no change or decreased levels, depending on the VV region (atrophic regions with little ECM versus hypertrophic regions with abundant ECM) and MMP form (inactive pro-MMP versus active MMP). Management of VVs includes compression stockings, venotonics, and surgical obliteration or removal. Because these approaches do not treat the causes of VVs, alternative methods are being developed. In addition to endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs, synthetic MMP inhibitors have been developed, and their effects in the treatment of VVs need to be examined. PMID:26319699

  9. Ultrasound assessment of thrombotic complications in pediatric patients with tunneled central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Kosiak, Wojciech; Irga, Ninela; Po?czy?ska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Central venous access consists in inserting a vascular catheter to the vena cava and placing its tip in the vicinity of the opening to the right atrium. In the patients of the Clinic of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology at the Academic Clinical Centre of the Medical University in Gda?sk, such implantation procedures are conducted 40–50 times in a year using Broviac/Hickman catheters that are placed in the subclavian vein. In the Ultrasound and Biopsy Laboratory at the clinic mentioned above, approximately 200–250 examinations have been conducted since 2005 to assess the central venous access. Implantation of a catheter considerably increases the comfort of patients who require a long-term venous access. Nevertheless, it is an invasive procedure, burdened with a risk of numerous, early and late complications. The late complications are associated with implanted catheters and include catheter-related thrombosis. The aim of this paper was to present three patients of the Clinic of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology at the Academic Clinical Centre of the Medical University in Gda?sk, in whom thrombotic complications occurred as a result of long-term central venous catheters. The paper also discusses the possibilities of using sonography in the assessment of such complications. In the presented patients, it was possible to determine the size and localization of a thrombus which enabled effective treatment in two cases. The pathomechanism of catheter-related thrombosis was explained and the risk factors of such complications were discussed. The attention was paid to the necessity of conducting ultrasound examinations in pediatric patients with inserted catheters as soon as the first symptoms of thrombosis appear. Based on own observations and despite the lack of validation of ultrasound imaging in the assessment of central catheters, we believe that this method is highly promising and can be recommended for the assessment of thrombotic complications in pediatric patients with central venous catheters. PMID:26673005

  10. A new option for endovascular treatment of leg ulcers caused by venous insufficiency with fluoroscopically guided sclerotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Garcarek, Jerzy; Falkowski, Aleksander; Rybak, Zbigniew; Jargiello, Tomasz; ?okaj, Marek; Czapla, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ulcers of lower legs are the most bothersome complication of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Aim To assess the effectiveness of endovascular fluoroscopically guided sclerotherapy for the treatment of venous ulcers. Material and methods Thirty-eight limbs in 35 patients with crural venous ulcers were treated with guided sclerotherapy under the control of fluoroscopy. Patients with non-healing ulcers in the course of chronic venous insufficiency, with and without features of past deep vein thrombosis, were qualified for the study. Doppler ultrasound and dynamic venography with mapping of venous flow were performed. Ambulatory venous pressure measurements, leg circumference and varicography were performed just before and following the procedure. Results In 84% of cases, ulcers were treated successfully and healed. Patients with post-thrombotic syndrome (n = 17) healed in 13 (76.5%) cases, whereas patients without post-thrombotic syndrome (n = 21) healed in 19 (90.5%) cases. The mean time of healing of an ulcer for all patients was 83 days (in the first group it was 121 days and in the second group 67 days). Recurrence of an ulcer was observed in 10 limbs: 6 cases in the first group and 4 cases in the second group. Occurrence of deep vein thrombosis associated with the procedure was not observed. Temporary complications were reported but none giving a serious clinical outcome. Conclusions Endovascular fluoroscopically guided sclerotherapy can be an alternative method of treatment of venous ulcers, especially in situations when surgical procedures or other options of treatment are impossible. PMID:26649090

  11. Association study of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation with cerebral venous thrombosis in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaznavi, Habib; Soheili, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Soltanpour, Mohammad S

    2015-12-01

    There are limited data on the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia as risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis in Iranian population. We examined a possible association between fasting plasma homocysteine levels, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism, and cerebral venous thrombosis in 50 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis (20-63 years old) and 75 healthy controls (18-65 years old). Genotyping of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and homocysteine levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in cerebral venous thrombosis patients than in controls (P?=?0.015). Moreover, plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype compared to 677CT and 677CC genotypes in both cerebral venous thrombosis patients (P?=?0.01) and controls (P?=?0.03). Neither 677CT heterozygote genotype [odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-2.84, P?=?0.556] nor 677TT homozygote genotype (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.32-9.21, P?=?0.833) was significantly associated with cerebral venous thrombosis. Additionally, no significant differences in the frequency of 677T allele between cerebral venous thrombosis patients and controls were identified (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.69-2.50, P?=?0.512). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are significant risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis. Also, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype is not linked with cerebral venous thrombosis, but is a determinant of elevated plasma homocysteine levels. PMID:26083986

  12. Placement of a Retrievable Guenther Tulip Filter in the Superior Vena Cava for Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nadkarni, Sanjay; Macdonald, Sumaira; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A.

    2002-12-15

    A retrievable Guenther Tulip caval filter(William Cook, Europe) was successfully placed and retrieved in the superior vena cava for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman. Bilateral subclavian and internal jugular venous thromboses thought secondary to placement of multiple central venous catheters were present. There have been reports of the use of permanent Greenfield filters and a single case report of a temporary filter in the superior vena cava. As far as we are aware this is the first reported placement and successful retrieval of a filter in these circumstances.

  13. Use of a Trellis Device for Endovascular Treatment of Venous Thrombosis Involving a Duplicated Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Saettele, Megan R.; Morelli, John N.; Chesis, Paul; Wible, Brandt C.

    2013-12-15

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are increasingly recognized with CT and venography techniques. Although many patients with IVC anomalies are asymptomatic, recent studies have suggested an association with venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a duplicated left IVC who underwent pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and tissue plasminogen activator catheter-directed thrombolysis with complete deep venous thrombosis resolution. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the English literature of the use of a Trellis thrombectomy catheter in the setting of duplicated IVC.

  14. Phase I Study of H5.020CMV.PDGF-? to Treat Venous Leg Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, David J; Morris, Lee M; Papadopoulos, Maryte; Weinberg, Linda; Filip, Jennifer C; Lang, Stephanie A; Vaikunth, Sachin S; Crombleholme, Timothy M

    2009-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers are a prevalent nonhealing wound of the lower extremity. Although topically applied growth factors successfully improve wound repair in animal studies, similar studies on humans with venous leg ulcers have not been successful. This study was designed to evaluate the acute safety and biologic feasibility of peri-ulcer injection of a replication-incompetent adenoviral construct expressing platelet-derived growth factor-? (PDGF-?). In this phase I study, we demonstrate the initial safety, feasibility, and biologic plausibility of using H5.020CMV.PDGF-? to treat venous leg ulcer disease. PMID:19638959

  15. Lifestyle and clinical factors related to the deterioration of trunk varicose veins, telangiectasia, chronic venous insufficiency and venous reflux in the general population: Edinburgh Vein Study follow-up 

    E-print Network

    Boghossian, Sheila

    2014-07-05

    Venous disease is a common vascular condition affecting the lower limbs and causes considerable morbidity in affected patients. National Health Service (NHS) treatment costs are substantial and there is a large demand ...

  16. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Cerebral Arterial and Venous Haemodynamics in Multiple Sclerosis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Marchione, Pasquale; Morreale, Manuela; Giacomini, Patrizia; Izzo, Chiara; Pontecorvo, Simona; Altieri, Marta; Bernardi, Silvia; Frontoni, Marco; Francia, Ada

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although recent studies excluded an association between Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Multiple Sclerosis (MS), controversial results account for some cerebrovascular haemodynamic impairment suggesting a dysfunction of cerebral autoregulation mechanisms. The aim of this cross-sectional, case-control study is to evaluate cerebral arterial inflow and venous outflow by means of a non-invasive ultrasound procedure in Relapsing Remitting (RR), Primary Progressive (PP) Multiple Sclerosis and age and sex-matched controls subjects. Material and Methods All subjects underwent a complete extra-intracranial arterial and venous ultrasound assessment with a color-coded duplex sonography scanner and a transcranial doppler equipment, in both supine and sitting position by means of a tilting chair. Basal arterial and venous morphology and flow velocities, postural changes in mean flow velocities (MFV) of middle cerebral arteries (MCA), differences between cerebral venous outflow (CVF) in clinostatism and in the seated position (?CVF) and non-invasive cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were evaluated. Results 85 RR-MS, 83 PP-MS and 82 healthy controls were included. ?CVF was negative in 45/85 (52.9%) RR-MS, 63/83 (75.9%) PP-MS (p?=?0.01) and 11/82 (13.4%) controls (p<0.001), while MFVs on both MCAs in sitting position were significantly reduced in RR-MS and PP-MS patients than in control, particularly in EDSS?5 subgroup (respectively, 42/50, 84% vs. 66/131, 50.3%, p<0.01 and 48.3±2 cm/s vs. 54.6±3 cm/s, p?=?0.01). No significant differences in CPP were observed within and between groups. Conclusions The quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CVF and their postural dependency may be related to a dysfunction of autonomic nervous system that seems to characterize more disabled MS patients. It's not clear whether the altered postural control of arterial inflow and venous outflow is a specific MS condition or simply an “epiphenomenon” of neurodegenerative events. PMID:25360597

  17. Portal Hypertension Secondary to Spontaneous Arterio-Portal Venous Fistulas: Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Microcoils

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2000-09-15

    We report a 73-year-old man with recurrent variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension caused by multiple intrahepatic arterio-portal venous fistulas, which were successfully occluded by embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and micro-coils.

  18. Renal transplantation with venous drainage through the superior mesenteric vein in cases of thrombosis of the inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Aguirrezabalaga, Javier; Novas, Serafín; Veiga, Francisco; Chantada, Venancio; Rey, Ignacio; Gonzalez, Marcelino; Gomez, Manuel

    2002-08-15

    Renal transplantation usually is performed by placing the graft in the iliac fossa, anastomosing the renal vein to the iliac vein or, when this is not possible, to the vena cava. When vascular complications occur, particularly on the venous side, the position of the graft may have to be changed. This report describes orthotopic renal grafts and positioning of the organ with anastomosis to the splenic vessels. Venous drainage was established directly into the mesenteric-portal territory, with two cases to the portal vein and one to the inferior mesenteric vein. A new technique for the venous drainage of the renal graft is shown. We have used this model in two cases of infrarenal inferior vena cava thrombosis. The kidney was located in a retroperitoneal position, with venous drainage to the superior mesenteric vein through an orifice in the posterior peritoneum. PMID:12177625

  19. Virtually same oxidizability of LDL but higher Lp(a) levels in arterial compared to venous plasma.

    PubMed

    Hoerl, Gerd; Ledinski, Gerhard; Kager, Gerd; Thalhammer, Michael; Koestenberger, Martin; Juergens, Guenther; Gary, Thomas; Cvirn, Gerhard

    2014-12-01

    Plaque formation is confined to the arterial trunk. We assumed that due to the higher aeration of arterial compared to venous blood, higher levels of the atherogenic agent oxidized LDL might be present in arteries, contributing to plaque formation. We aimed to compare (i) the basal oxidative status of LDL in arterial and venous blood and (ii) the susceptibility of arterial and venous LDL to oxidation. The basal oxidative status of LDL was determined by measuring lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) concentrations, plasma levels of auto-antibodies against oxidized LDL, and by measuring oxidation-specific epitopes on LDL particles. The oxidizability of arterial vs. venous LDL (catalyzed by copper) was estimated by monitoring the time-course of conjugated dienes formation. Interestingly, we found the same basal oxidative status of LDL in arterial and venous plasma. LPO concentrations and levels of auto-antibodies against oxidized LDL were similar in arterial and venous plasma and amounts of oxidation-specific epitopes were similar on the respective LDL particles. Moreover, we found similar susceptibilities of arterial and venous LDL to (copper-mediated) oxidation. Lag-times until the onset of conjugated diene formation were slightly shorter in arterial compared to venous LDL in the presence of 5 ?M, but not in the presence of 1 ?M CuCl2. Additionally, we found significantly higher levels of the atherogenic lipoprotein(a) in arterial plasma. We conclude that not higher oxidizability of arterial LDL but higher arterial lipoprotein(a) levels might help to explain why sclerosis is confined to the arterial trunk. PMID:25240239

  20. The Application of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Venous Leg Ulceration: Authors Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mieszcza?ski, Pawe?; Wilemska-Kucharzewska, Katarzyna; Taradaj, Jakub; Kuropatnicki, Andrzej; ?liwi?ski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to use negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with chronic venous leg ulceration. The authors present their experience in treatment of 15 patients whose average ulceration surface area was 62.6?cm2. In 10 patients, the ulcers healed within 6 weeks and in the remaining patients within 20 weeks. Based on the results obtained, the authors imply that NPWT is an effective method in the treatment of chronic venous leg. PMID:24696847

  1. Venous Thoracic Outlet Compression and the Paget-Schroetter Syndrome: A Review and Recommendations for Management

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J. F. Winterborn, R. J.; Bays, S.; White, H.; Kinsella, D. C.; Watkinson, A. F.

    2011-10-15

    Paget Schroetter syndrome, or effort thrombosis of the axillosubclavian venous system, is distinct from other forms of upper limb deep vein thrombosis. It occurs in younger patients and often is secondary to competitive sport, music, or strenuous occupation. If untreated, there is a higher incidence of disabling venous hypertension than was previously appreciated. Anticoagulation alone or in combination with thrombolysis leads to a high rate of rethrombosis. We have established a multidisciplinary protocol over 15 years, based on careful patient selection and a combination of lysis, decompressive surgery, and postoperative percutaneous venoplasty. During the past 10 years, a total of 232 decompression procedures have been performed. This article reviews the literature and presents the Exeter Protocol along with practical recommendations for management.

  2. Atresia of right pulmonary veins and anomalous left pulmonary venous drainage into portal circulation

    PubMed Central

    Šamánek, M.; T?ma, S.; Benešová, D.; Povýšilová, V.; Pražský, F.; ?ápová, E.

    1974-01-01

    Šamánek, M., T?ma, S., Benešová, D., Povýšilová, V., Pražský, F., and ?ápová, E. (1974).Thorax, 29, 446-450. Atresia of right pulmonary veins and anomalous left pulmonary venous drainage into portal circulation. An anomaly of pulmonary venous drainage in a male newborn infant is described whereby the left pulmonary veins entered the portal vein and the right pulmonary veins were atretic. A correct diagnosis was made by detecting high-oxygen saturation in the hepatic veins, right-to-left shunt at atrial level, and increased pulmonary artery wedge pressure in comparison with the left atrial pressure, and was confirmed by angiography. Images PMID:4850684

  3. Venous stagnation induced by 7 days in HDT, in the cerebral, ophthalmic, renal and splanchnic territories.

    PubMed

    Besnard, S; Roumy, J; Tobal, N; Herault, S; Porcher, M; Boulay, J; Arbeille, Ph

    2002-07-01

    The scientific objectives was to quantify the vascular changes in the brain, eye fundus, renal parenchyma, and splanchnic network. Heart, portal, jugular, femoral veins were investigate by Echography. The cerebral mesenteric, renal and ophthalmic arteries were investigated by Doppler. Eye fundus vein an papilla were investigated by optical video eye fundus. The left ventricle volume decreased as usual in HDT. The cerebral and ophthalmic vascular resistances didn't change whereas the eye fundus papilla and vein, and the jugular vein increased. These arterial and venous data confirm the existence of cephalic venous blood stasis without sign of intracranial hypertension. On the other hand the kidney volume increased which is in agreement with blood flow stagnation at this level. At last the mesenteric vascular resistance decreased and the portal vein section increased in HDT which is in favor of an increase in flow and flow volume through the splanchnic area. PMID:14977000

  4. [Successful treatment of extreme hypernatremia by continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration].

    PubMed

    Giabicani, Mikhael; Guitard, Pierre-Gildas; Guerrot, Dominique; Grangé, Steven; Teule, Lauranne; Dureuil, Bertrand; Veber, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Extreme hypernatremia in intensive care unit are frequently associated with a poor prognosis and their treatment, when associated with acute renal failure, is not consensual. We report the case of a 39-year-old man admitted in our intensive care unit for coma who presented extreme hyperosmolar hypernatremia (sodium 180 mmol/L, osmolarity 507 mOsm/L) associated with acute renal failure (urea 139.3 mmol/L, creatinine 748 ?mol/L) and many other metabolic abnormalities. He was treated with hypotonic fluid administration and continuous renal replacement therapy (veno-venous hemodiafiltration) using an industrial dialysate fluid. Natremia was controlled by modulating intravenous water and sodium intake according to biological data. After 10 days, continuous renal replacement therapy was stopped and neurological exam was normal. Continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration may be useful for treatment of extreme hypernatremia by allowing gradual correction of fluid and electrolyte disorders. PMID:26169976

  5. Deep venous thrombosis was not detected after total knee arthroplasty in Japanese patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Takedani, H; Ohnuma, K; Hirose, J

    2015-09-01

    Combined thrombo-prophylaxis with mechanical and pharmacological methods is recommended in patients undergoing total knee or hip arthroplasty. As patients with 'untreated inherited bleeding disorders such as haemophilia' are at risk of bleeding, no prophylaxis has been prescribed for these patients. However, a retrospective study reported subclinical deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in 10% of patients with haemophilia undergoing major orthopaedic surgery. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk of DVT after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We examined 38 TKA in 33 Japanese patients with haemophilia using ultrasonography. We did not detect DVT. The risk of DVT in patients with haemophilia after TKA may be lower than that in the general population. However, as patients with haemophilia progress in age, venous thromboembolism should be considered as a potential problem. PMID:25708424

  6. Corrigendum to Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty,: by Zohara Sternberg, Prabhjot Grewal, Steven Cen, Frances DeBarge-Igoe, Jinhee Yu and Michael Arata, Phlebology 0268355513512824, first published on November 19, 2013 as Epub, DOI:10.1177/0268355513512824. The article also appears in this issue, Phlebology 2015; 30(4): 280-287. The authors would like to note the following corrections to their article: The article type for this paper is 'Retrospective Review' as opposed to 'Original Article'. Zohara Sternberg's affiliation was incorrectly listed. The correct affiliation is 'Synergy Health Concepts, Newport Beach, CA, USA'. The IRB protocol number for this retrospective review was omitted: Study name: Venous Obstruction in Neurodegenerative Disorders Research Registry Protocol Number: RESEARCH_REGISTRY. PMID:25716897

  7. Risk of recurrence of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis during subsequent pregnancy and puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Mehraein, S; Ortwein, H; Busch, M; Weih, M; Einhaupl, K; Masuhr, F

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The authors retrospectively studied the relapse rate of CVST and the incidence of extracerebral venous thrombosis during subsequent pregnancies in 39 women (from 125 patients with CVST) who suffered a CVST at childbearing age. Results: Mean follow up was 10.25 years (range 1 to 20). Twenty two pregnancies and 19 births were observed in 14 women without evidence of either recurrence of CVST or extracerebral venous thrombosis. One pregnancy occurred during oral anticoagulation and was interrupted and two pregnancies ended with spontaneous abortions. Low dose heparin had been given during five pregnancies. Conclusions: The risk of recurrence for CVST during pregnancy seems to be low and these data do not justify a negative advice on pregnancy in women with previous CVST. Further studies are needed to evaluate the need for a prophylactic anticoagulation during pregnancy and puerperium. PMID:12754362

  8. Paralytic Ileus due to Superior Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis after Transarterial Injection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kanno, Yukiko; Gunji, Naohiko; Imaizumi, Hiromichi; Hayashi, Manabu; Okai, Ken; Abe, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to hospital with abdominal pain. In the four years prior to his presentation, he had undergone repeated transarterial chemoembolizations and injections for hepatocellular carcinoma. He underwent his 8th transcatheter arterial therapy one month prior to admission. Abdominal X-rays and contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed large amounts of small intestinal gas and venous thrombosis from the portal vein to the superior mesenteric vein, respectively. The thrombosis was reduced after anticoagulation therapy (heparin, antithrombin III, danaparoid sodium and warfarin). This is the first case report of paralytic ileus due to superior mesenteric venous thrombosis after transcatheter arterial therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with an arterioportal shunt. PMID:26726083

  9. Complications related to deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in trauma: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis is essential to the appropriate management of multisystem trauma patients. Without thromboprophylaxis, the rate of venous thrombosis and subsequent pulmonary embolism is substantial. Three prophylactic modalities are common: pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical compression devices, and inferior vena cava filtration. A systematic review was completed using PRISMA guidelines to evaluate the potential complications of DVT prophylactic options. Level one evidence currently supports the use of low molecular weight heparins for thromboprophylaxis in the trauma patient. Unfortunately, multiple techniques are not infrequently required for complex multisystem trauma patients. Each modality has potential complications. The risks of heparin include bleeding and heparin induced thrombocytopenia. Mechanical compression devices can result in local soft tissue injury, bleeding and patient non-compliance. Inferior vena cava filters migrate, cause inferior vena cava occlusion, and penetrate the vessel wall. While the use of these techniques can be life saving, they must be appropriately utilized. PMID:20205800

  10. Effect of resection of an orbital arteriovenous malformation on central venous pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Grant; Hise, Joseph; Thacker, Ike; Layton, Kennith F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first utilization of intraoperative central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring in the resection of an orbital arteriovenous malformation. A 24-year-old woman with a history of a left orbital mass who had previously undergone resection of a cranio-orbital arteriovenous malformation presented with gradual recurrence in the left orbit. She visited the emergency department with sudden vision loss, which resolved over several hours. This transient vision loss was thought to be due to a steal phenomenon from the ophthalmic artery due to the residual vascular malformation. Further surgical resection was undertaken. A preoperative angiogram identified residual feeding vessels, and the larger vessels were embolized. At the start of the procedure, her CVP was elevated (29 mm Hg), as measured by a central venous line. The remaining feeding vessels were surgically ligated, and an intraoperative arteriogram confirmed their successful ablation. At the conclusion of the procedure, the CVP had decreased to 9 mm Hg. PMID:25829648

  11. Effect of resection of an orbital arteriovenous malformation on central venous pressure.

    PubMed

    Starks, Victoria S; Gilliland, Grant; Hise, Joseph; Thacker, Ike; Layton, Kennith F

    2015-04-01

    We report the first utilization of intraoperative central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring in the resection of an orbital arteriovenous malformation. A 24-year-old woman with a history of a left orbital mass who had previously undergone resection of a cranio-orbital arteriovenous malformation presented with gradual recurrence in the left orbit. She visited the emergency department with sudden vision loss, which resolved over several hours. This transient vision loss was thought to be due to a steal phenomenon from the ophthalmic artery due to the residual vascular malformation. Further surgical resection was undertaken. A preoperative angiogram identified residual feeding vessels, and the larger vessels were embolized. At the start of the procedure, her CVP was elevated (29 mm Hg), as measured by a central venous line. The remaining feeding vessels were surgically ligated, and an intraoperative arteriogram confirmed their successful ablation. At the conclusion of the procedure, the CVP had decreased to 9 mm Hg. PMID:25829648

  12. Venous thoracic outlet compression and the Paget-Schroetter syndrome: a review and recommendations for management.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J F; Winterborn, R J; Bays, S; White, H; Kinsella, D C; Watkinson, A F

    2011-10-01

    Paget Schroetter syndrome, or effort thrombosis of the axillosubclavian venous system, is distinct from other forms of upper limb deep vein thrombosis. It occurs in younger patients and often is secondary to competitive sport, music, or strenuous occupation. If untreated, there is a higher incidence of disabling venous hypertension than was previously appreciated. Anticoagulation alone or in combination with thrombolysis leads to a high rate of rethrombosis. We have established a multidisciplinary protocol over 15 years, based on careful patient selection and a combination of lysis, decompressive surgery, and postoperative percutaneous venoplasty. During the past 10 years, a total of 232 decompression procedures have been performed. This article reviews the literature and presents the Exeter Protocol along with practical recommendations for management. PMID:21448772

  13. Venous ulceration contaminated by multi-resistant organisms: larval therapy and debridement.

    PubMed

    McInnes, W; Ruzehaji, N; Wright, N; Cowin, A J; Fitridge, R

    2013-10-01

    A 72-year-old female with venous insufficiency presented to a hospital-based multidisciplinary wound clinic after 20 years of recurrent episodes of venous leg ulcers. Examination showed bilateral leg ulcers with no evidence of arterial insufficiency, but complicated by considerable devitalised tissue, abnormally high bacterial load and the presence of multi-resistant organisms. The ulcers were initially treated with larvae to aid debridement and reduce the bacterial load, prior to skin grafting. Although ulcer free for a period of 4 months, further debridement was required when the skin condition deteriorated. Surgical intervention was chosen as the preferred method by the surgeons for a second acute care admission using hydrosugery, along with supplementary skin grafts and compression. Ongoing management, consisting of regular debridement, skin care and compression therapy, continues. PMID:24142139

  14. Extensive portal venous gas in a post-operative patient with no identifiable cause

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Adam; Makhija, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Gas within the portal venous system is often considered a pre-morbid radiological sign. We present a case of extensive portal venous gas (PVG) identified in a patient 6 days following emergency Hartmann's procedure for large bowel obstruction. The patient underwent re-laparotomy on the basis of these radiological findings, but no clear cause was identified. She went on to have an uneventful recovery. Of interest is the discrepancy between the extent of PVG on the preoperative imaging in comparison with the lack of positive findings on direct visualization at laparotomy. We discuss the causes of PVG, its clinical significance, strategies for its management and, in particular, whether surgical management is always indicated in such patients. PMID:26515340

  15. Venous Thromboembolism—Incidence of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Tertiary Care Experience in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Naeem Sultan; Nawaz, Ahmad; Junaid, Montasir; Kazi, Maliha; Akhtar, Shabbir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is seen with morbidity and mortality in various surgical specialties, scarce data are available in the head and neck surgery domain. Objective?We aim to determine the incidence of VTE in patients receiving surgery for head and neck cancer. Methods?Four hundred thirteen patients who underwent head and neck surgery procedures between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients with head and neck surgery had received thromboprophylaxis (i.e., compression stockings and subcutaneous heparin). Patient demographics, operating time, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. The incidence of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) during the initial postoperative hospitalization was assessed. Results?Twelve patients were identified who developed VTE. Three patients developed DVT, and nine developed PE. The incidence of DVT and PE was 0.72 and 2.17%, respectively. Interestingly, all of these patients had undergone excision of extensive head and neck cancers accompanied by a reconstructive procedure. Patients who developed PE had a longer hospital stay compared with those who only had DVT. There were overall three mortalities in the nine patients who developed PE. Conclusion?Although VTE has a low incidence, it is a known complication of extensive head and neck surgeries with life-threatening outcomes. We recommend early mobilization and physiotherapy with the possible aid from appropriate mechanical and pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. PMID:26157492

  16. The accelerated atherogenesis of venous grafts might be attributed to aggravated concentration polarization of low density lipoproteins: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhenmin; Sun, Anqiang; Liu, Xiao; Fan, Yubo; Zhao, Ping; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2013-09-27

    We hypothesize that after implantation the much elevated water filtration rate of venous grafts may cause aggravated concentration polarization of low density lipoproteins (LDLs), in turn lead to the accelerated atherogenesis of the grafts. To verify the hypothesis, we numerically simulated the transport of LDLs in various models of arterial bypasses with different grafts (veins or arteries) and geometrical configurations. The results showed that the venous grafts might endure abnormally high lipid infiltration/accumulation within the vessel wall due to severely elevated luminal surface LDL concentration. When compared to the conventional bypass models, the S-type bypass had the lowest luminal surface LDL concentration along its host artery floor, but the highest degree of risk to develop atherosclerotic lesions in its venous graft. Among the three conventional bypass models, the one with 30° anastomosis had the lowest risk to develop atherosclerosis in the venous graft. In conclusion, when compared with the bypass models with arterial grafts, the venous bypass models had rather high levels of LDL concentration polarization (cw) in the vein grafts, especially at the early stages of implantation. This might result in high infiltration/accumulation of LDLs within the walls of the venous grafts, leading to a fast genesis/development of atherosclerosis there. PMID:23972425

  17. Experimental investigation of the effects of inserting a bovine venous valve in the inferior vena cava of Fontan circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Johnson, Jacob; Kotz, Monica; Tang, Elaine; Khiabani, Reza; Yoganathan, Ajit; Maher, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    The Fontan procedure is a palliative surgery performed on patients with single ventricle (SV) congenital heart defects. The SV is used for systemic circulation and the venous return from the inferior vena cava (IVC) and superior vena cava (SVC) is routed to the pulmonary arteries (PA), resulting in a total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). Hepatic venous hypertension is commonly manifested in the Fontan circulation, leading to long-term complications including liver congestion and cirrhosis. Respiratory intrathoracic pressure changes affect the venous return from the IVC to the PA. Using a physical model of an idealized TCPC, we examine placement of a unidirectional bovine venous valve within the IVC as a method of alleviating hepatic venous hypertension. A piston pump is used to provide pulsatility in the internal flow through the TCPC, while intrathoracic pressure fluctuations are imposed on the external walls of the model using a pair of linear actuators. When implanted in the extrathoracic position, the hepatic venous pressure is lowered from baseline condition. The effects of changing caval flow distribution and intrathoracic pressure on TCPC hemodynamics will be examined.

  18. Three-dimensional modelling of the venous system by direct multislice helical computed tomography venography: technique, indications and results.

    PubMed

    Uhl, J F

    2012-09-01

    The aim of multislice helical computed tomography venography (CTV) is to provide a precise, global and three-dimensional (3D) anatomical depiction of the venous network of the lower limbs. A multislice and multidetector spiral CT acquisition of the lower limbs with contrast injection of the dorsal foot produces about 1000 slices in 30 seconds. Dedicated volume-rendering software can compute a realistic and interactive 3D model of the venous system in realtime. This new tool furnishes an accurate 3D representation of the whole venous system of the lower limb with a realistic 3D model of the limbs, providing a road map of the varicose networks complementary to the duplex ultrasound (DUS). CTV allows a complete morphological study of the deep veins, including the detection of anatomical variations and proximal venous obstruction, not easily detectable by DUS. In the case of deep vein thrombosis, it has been shown to be a good diagnostic tool, well correlated with sonography. It also demonstrates, in some cases, haemodynamic patterns which are not available by DUS, particularly for perforator veins and congenital vascular malformations. The use of virtual reality techniques enables a complete anatomical study of both deep and superficial veins including a virtual dissection of the limbs. CTV is also a great educational tool to learn anatomy of the venous system and a powerful research tool to improve our knowledge of venous anatomy. PMID:23155152

  19. Adult Mouse Venous Hypertension Model: Common Carotid Artery to External Jugular Vein Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shun-Tai; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Ana; Walker, Espen J.; Young, William L.; Su, Hua; Lawton, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the pathophysiology of brain arteriovenous malformations and arteriovenous fistulas has improved thanks to animal models. A rat model creating an artificial fistula between the common carotid artery (CCA) and the external jugular vein (EJV) has been widely described and proved technically feasible. This construct provokes a consistent cerebral venous hypertension (CVH), and therefore has helped studying the contribution of venous hypertension to formation, clinical symptoms, and prognosis of brain AVMs and dural AVFs. Equivalent mice models have been only scarcely described and have shown trouble with stenosis of the fistula. An established murine model would allow the study of not only pathophysiology but also potential genetic therapies for these cerebrovascular diseases. We present a model of arteriovenous fistula that produces a durable intracranial venous hypertension in the mouse. Microsurgical anastomosis of the murine CCA and EJV can be difficult due to diminutive anatomy and frequently result in a non-patent fistula. In this step-by-step protocol we address all the important challenges encountered during this procedure. Avoiding excessive retraction of the vein during the exposure, using 11-0 sutures instead of 10-0, and making a carefully planned end-to-side anastomosis are some of the critical steps. Although this method requires advanced microsurgical skills and a longer learning curve that the equivalent in the rat, it can be consistently developed. This novel model has been designed to integrate transgenic mouse techniques with a previously well-established experimental system that has proved useful to study brain AVMs and dural AVFs. By opening the possibility of using transgenic mice, a broader spectrum of valid models can be achieved and genetic treatments can also be tested. The experimental construct could also be further adapted to the study of other cerebrovascular diseases related with venous hypertension such as migraine, transient global amnesia, transient monocular blindness, etc. PMID:25650793

  20. Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, Coagulation and Tissue Fibrosis Independently Predict Venous Thromboembolism in HIV

    PubMed Central

    MUSSELWHITE, Laura W.; SHEIKH, Virginia; NORTON, Thomas D.; RUPERT, Adam; PORTER, Brian O.; PENZAK, Scott R.; SKINNER, Jeff; MICAN, JoAnn M.; HADIGAN, Colleen; SERETI, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV infection is associated with coagulation abnormalities and significantly increased risk of venous thrombosis. It has been shown that higher plasma levels of coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers predicted mortality in HIV. We investigated the relationship between venous thrombosis and HIV-related characteristics, traditional risk factors of hypercoagulability and pre-event levels of biomarkers. Design A retrospective case-control study of 23 HIV-infected individuals who experienced an incident venous thromboembolic (VTE) event while enrolled in National Institutes of Health studies from 1995–2010 and 69 age and sex-matched HIV-infected individuals without known VTE. Methods Biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, coagulation, tissue fibrosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation were assessed by ELISA-based assays and PCR using plasma obtained prior to the event. Results VTE events were related to nadir CD4 count, lifetime history of multiple opportunistic infections, CMV disease, CMV viremia, immunological AIDS, active infection and provocation (i.e. recent hospitalization, surgery or trauma). VTE events were independently associated with increased plasma levels of P-selectin, P=0.002; D-dimer, P=0.01; and hyaluronic acid, P=0.009 in a multivariate analysis. No significant differences in antiretroviral or interleukin 2 exposures, plasma HIV viremia, or other traditional risk factors were observed. Conclusion Severe immunodeficiency, active infection and provocation are associated with venous thromboembolic disease in HIV. Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, coagulation and tissue fibrosis may help identify HIV-infected patients at elevated risk of VTE. PMID:21412059

  1. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return presenting with adult-onset pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Edmund H.; Aliotta, Jason M.; Klinger, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is a rare cause of adult onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that can present with a wide spectrum of severity from early childhood throughout adult life. We present two patients with PAH secondary to PAPVR who reflect this range of disease. The diagnosis and treatment of PAPVR and its role in pulmonary vascular disease is discussed. Cardiac and pulmonary physicians should be aware of this entity and its diagnosis and management options. PMID:22837866

  2. A rare presentation of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with tubercular meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Lalla, Rakesh; Patil, Tushar B; Tiwari, Navin

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis may manifest as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, tuberculoma, tubercular abscess, stroke due to tuberculous vasculitis and tuberculous encephalopathy. Occasionally, tubercular meningitis (TBM) can predispose to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). We report a young man, who developed CVST as a complication of TBM. Worsening of pre-existing headache, impairment of consciousness and seizures should raise suspicion of CVST in any patient with CNS infection. Early diagnosis and appropriate clinical management are important for good outcome. PMID:23917359

  3. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation bridging to pharmacotherapy in pulmonary arterial hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mukta C; Ramani, Gautam V; Garcia, Jose P; Griffith, Bartley P; Uber, Patricia A; Park, Myung H

    2010-07-01

    We report the case of a treatment-naive patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension who presented with decompensated right ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock. Unstable hemodynamics, hypoxia and end-organ hypoperfusion limited up-titration of pharmacotherapy. Mechanical circulatory support with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) was initiated to permit dose titration of pulmonary vasodilator therapy. VV-ECMO was weaned after 10 days of support, with successful transition to intravenous epoprostenol and oral sildenafil. PMID:20417127

  4. Radiofrequency Guide Wire Recanalization of Venous Occlusions in Patients with Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert M.; David, Elizabeth; Pugash, Robyn A.; Annamalai, Ganesan

    2012-06-15

    Fibrotic central venous occlusions in patients with thoracic malignancy and prior radiotherapy can be impassable with standard catheters and wires, including the trailing or stiff end of a hydrophilic wire. We report two patients with superior vena cava syndrome in whom we successfully utilized a radiofrequency guide wire (PowerWire, Baylis Medical, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) to perforate through the occlusion and recanalize the occluded segment to alleviate symptoms.

  5. Embolization of percutaneous transhepatic portal venous access tract with N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Park, S Y; Kim, J; Kim, B W; Wang, H J; Kim, S S; Cheong, J Y; Cho, S W

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (N-BCA) embolization of percutaneous transhepatic portal venous access tract and to establish an appropriate technique. Methods: 40 consecutive patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic portal venous intervention for various reasons. Embolization of percutaneous transhepatic portal venous access tract was performed after the procedure in all of the patients using N-BCA and Lipiodol® (Lipiodol Ultra Fluide; Laboratoire Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France) mixture. Immediate ultrasonography and fluoroscopy were performed to evaluate perihepatic haematoma formation and unintended embolization of more than one segmental portal vein. Follow-up CT was performed, and haemoglobin and haematocrit levels were checked to evaluate the presence of bleeding. Results: Immediate haemostasis was achieved in all of the patients, without development of perihepatic haematoma or unintended embolization of more than one segmental portal vein. Complete embolization of percutaneous access tract was confirmed in 39 out of 40 patients by CT. Seven patients showed decreased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. Other complications included mild pain at the site of embolization and mild fever, which resolved after conservative management. 16 patients died during the follow-up period owing to progression of the underlying disease. Conclusion: Embolization of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein access tract with N-BCA is feasible and technically safe. With the appropriate technique, N-BCA can be safely used as an alternate embolic material since it is easy to use and inexpensive compared with other embolic materials. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to investigate the efficacy of N-BCA for percutaneous transhepatic portal venous access tract embolization. PMID:25027034

  6. [Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in a 64-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Aboukhoudir, F; Aboukhoudir, I; Pansieri, M; Khennine, B; Hirsch, J L; Rekik, S

    2015-11-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) represents 3 % of the congenital cardiopathies. Diagnosis in adults is challenging as clinical symptomatology is non-specific and echocardiographic signs are discrete and misleading potentially confusing with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. We report the case of a 64-year-old woman in whom we diagnosed PAPVR associated with sinus venosus atrial septal defect. We describe medical history, clinical signs, investigations and postoperative evolution. PMID:26482625

  7. A new method for the assessment of tissue hemoglobin oxygenation in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Thum, J; Caspary, L; Creutzig, A; Alexander, K

    1996-05-01

    Venous incompetence often leads to ulceration of the skin of the lower limb due to a disturbance of skin microcirculation. We investigated 10 healthy subjects and 18 patients with chronic venous insufficiency by means of a fast scanning reflection photometer and determined noninvasively the hemoglobin oxygen saturation (S(HB)) and the relative concentration of hemoglobin (C(HB)) in the skin of the forefoot and at the calf, 10 cm proximal of the inner malleolus during positional changes. In supine position no significant differences were found. During sitting and standing S(HB) dropped and was significantly lower in patients at both locations (calf, standing, patients 22.2 +/- 10.6% vs controls 48.2 +/- 13.5%, P < 0.001). C(HB) increased in patients during standing from 0.71 to 2.13 +/- 0.33 aU (in controls from 0.69 to 1.49 +/- 0.28 aU, P < 0.001). Activation of the muscle pump decreased C(HB) and increased S(HB) in patients and in controls. After the movements were stopped, S(HB) decreased again and fell to the initial low values eight times faster in patients (7.4 +/- 5.3 vs 57.5 +/- 19.6 sec, P < 0.001). C(HB) increased four times faster in patients (7.2 +/- 6.1 vs 29.9 +/- 13.6 sec). In sitting and standing positions hemoglobin oxygenation in the skin of the lower limb was markedly reduced in patients, but normal perfusion conditions were restored in supine position, indicating reversibility of the changes. Reflection oxymetry seems a valuable tool for the assessment of chronic venous insufficiency. The substantially reduced oxygenation of dermal hemoglobin in standing patients may contribute to the development of venous ulcers. PMID:8992231

  8. Severe aortic regurgitation and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a Turner syndrome patient

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kanhua; Li, Jun; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is one of the most common sex chromosome diseases. Short stature (if untreated) and ovarian dysgenesis (streak ovary) are two typical clinical manifestations of these patients. A variety of cardiovascular abnormalities has been found associated with TS. We report a 29-year-old TS patient with severe aortic regurgitation, bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC). We discuss the diagnostic and surgical management of cardiovascular complications in TS patients. PMID:26716053

  9. Exacerbated venous thromboembolism in mice carrying a protein S K196E mutation.

    PubMed

    Banno, Fumiaki; Kita, Toshiyuki; Fernández, José A; Yanamoto, Hiroji; Tashima, Yuko; Kokame, Koichi; Griffin, John H; Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Protein S (PS) acts as an anticoagulant cofactor for activated protein C in regulation of blood coagulation. The K196E mutation in PS is a race-specific genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism with a prevalence of ?2% within the Japanese population. To evaluate the thrombosis risk of the PS-K196E mutation, we generated PS-K196E knockin mice and heterozygous PS-deficient mice. We analyzed their thrombotic states, comparing with mice carrying the factor V Leiden mutation (FV-R504Q), a race-specific genetic risk for venous thrombosis in whites. PS-K196E mice grew normally but had decreased activated protein C cofactor activity in plasma. Purified recombinant murine PS-K196E showed the same decreased activated protein C cofactor activity. A deep vein thrombosis model of electrolytic inferior vena cava injury and pulmonary embolism models induced by infusion of tissue factor or polyphosphates revealed that PS-K196E mice, heterozygous PS-deficient mice, and FV-R504Q mice were much more susceptible to venous thrombosis compared with wild-type mice. Transient middle cerebral artery ischemia-reperfusion injury model studies demonstrated that both PS-K196E mice and heterozygous PS-deficient mice had cerebral infarction similar to wild-type mice, consistent with human observations. Our in vitro and in vivo results support a causal relationship between the PS-K196E mutation and venous thrombosis and indicate that PS-K196E mice can provide an in vivo evaluation system to help uncovering racial differences in thrombotic diseases. PMID:26251307

  10. Mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis for acute symptomatic portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jun, Kang Woong; Kim, Mi Hyeong; Park, Keun Myoung; Chun, Ho Jong; Hong, Kee Chun; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Jang Yong

    2014-06-01

    Acute portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis (PVMVT) can cause acute mesenteric ischemia and be fatal with mortality rate of 37%-76%. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt venous revascularization are warranted in patients with acute symptomatic PVMVT. Due to advances in catheter-directed treatment, endovascular treatment has been used for revascularization of affected vessels in PVMVT. We report two cases of symptomatic PVMVT treated successfully by transhepatic percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis. PMID:24949327

  11. Automated artery-venous classification of retinal blood vessels based on structural mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vinayak S.; Garvin, Mona K.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2012-03-01

    Retinal blood vessels show morphologic modifications in response to various retinopathies. However, the specific responses exhibited by arteries and veins may provide a precise diagnostic information, i.e., a diabetic retinopathy may be detected more accurately with the venous dilatation instead of average vessel dilatation. In order to analyze the vessel type specific morphologic modifications, the classification of a vessel network into arteries and veins is required. We previously described a method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees; i.e. structural mapping. Therefore, we propose the artery-venous classification based on structural mapping and identification of color properties prominent to the vessel types. The mean and standard deviation of each of green channel intensity and hue channel intensity are analyzed in a region of interest around each centerline pixel of a vessel. Using the vector of color properties extracted from each centerline pixel, it is classified into one of the two clusters (artery and vein), obtained by the fuzzy-C-means clustering. According to the proportion of clustered centerline pixels in a particular vessel, and utilizing the artery-venous crossing property of retinal vessels, each vessel is assigned a label of an artery or a vein. The classification results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth (gold standard). We applied the proposed method to a dataset of 15 retinal color fundus images resulting in an accuracy of 88.28% correctly classified vessel pixels. The automated classification results match well with the gold standard suggesting its potential in artery-venous classification and the respective morphology analysis.

  12. Surgical management of glaucoma secondary to idiopathic elevated episcleral venous pressure

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Zia Sultan; Kuruvilla, Ashish; Jacob, Pushpa

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic elevated episcleral venous pressure is characterized by dilated episcleral veins and open angle glaucoma. Trabeculectomies in these eyes are often complicated by uveal effusions (intraoperative or postoperative) at nonhypotonous pressures. We highlight the ability to avoid the need for sclerostomies by preventing intraoperative shallowing of the anterior chamber and the use of tight scleral sutures which should be adjusted postsurgery to gradually reach the target intraocular pressure in a step-wise manner.

  13. Effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on venous vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Franco, O.S.; Paulitsch, F.S.; Pereira, A.P.C.; Teixeira, A.O.; Martins, C.N.; Silva, A.M.V.; Plentz, R.D.M.; Irigoyen, M.C.; Signori, L.U.

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a type of therapy used primarily for analgesia, but also presents changes in the cardiovascular system responses; its effects are dependent upon application parameters. Alterations to the cardiovascular system suggest that TENS may modify venous vascular response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS at different frequencies (10 and 100 Hz) on venous vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomized into three groups: placebo (n=10), low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, n=9) and high-frequency TENS (100 Hz, n=10). TENS was applied for 30 min in the nervous plexus trajectory from the superior member (from cervical to dorsal region of the fist) at low (10 Hz/200 ?s) and high frequency (100 Hz/200 ?s) with its intensity adjusted below the motor threshold and intensified every 5 min, intending to avoid accommodation. Venous vascular reactivity in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent) was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique. The phenylephrine effective dose to achieve 70% vasoconstriction was reduced 53% (P<0.01) using low-frequency TENS (10 Hz), while in high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz), a 47% increased dose was needed (P<0.01). The endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and independent (sodium nitroprusside) responses were not modified by TENS, which modifies venous responsiveness, and increases the low-frequency sensitivity of ?1-adrenergic receptors and shows high-frequency opposite effects. These changes represent an important vascular effect caused by TENS with implications for hemodynamics, inflammation and analgesia. PMID:24820225

  14. Cerebral venous dynamics in newborn mice with intracranial hemorrhage studied using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Sindeeva, O. A.; Pavlova, O. N.; Shuvalova, E. P.; Huang, Q.; Zhu, D.; Li, P.; Tuchin, V. V.; Luo, Q.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the stress-induced development of the intracranial hemorrhage in newborn mice with the main attention to its latent stage. Our study is based on the laser speckle contrast imaging of the cerebral venous blood flow and the wavelet-based analysis of experimental data. We study responses of the sagittal sinus in different frequency ranges associated with distinct regulatory mechanisms and discuss significant changes of the spectral power in the frequency area associated with the NO-related endothelial function.

  15. Inhibition of indium-111 platelet accretion onto venous thrombi in dogs by prostacyclin

    SciTech Connect

    Czer, G.; Moser, K.M.; Konopka, R.; Hartman, M.T.

    1983-12-01

    The known platelet anti-aggregant effects of prostacyclin (epoprostenol) suggest that it may have therapeutic potential in conditions in which the platelet plays a pathophysiological role. The growth of venous thrombi is one such condition. We have attempted to determine, in a canine model of fresh venous thrombosis, whether prostacyclin infusion inhibits platelet accretion in vivo and how this in vivo event related to hemodynamic and in vitro platelet anti-aggregant effects. Gamma camera imaging over thrombi for accretion of indium-111-labeled platelets disclosed that prostacyclin, at an infusion rate of 50 ng/kg per min, inhibited platelet accretion in vivo and resulted in a 95 +/- 4% decrease in in vitro adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation, and a decrease in mean arterial pressure to 86 +/- 4% of pre-infusion values. Step-wise decrements of prostacyclin infusion demonstrated that platelet accretion occurred in vivo at infusion rates of approximately 10-20 ng/kg per min and correlated with an in vitro adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation of 54 +/- 13% of control values. Thus, prostacyclin, in a dose that causes only a mild decrease in systemic pressure, can completely inhibit platelet uptake onto fresh venous thrombi in the dog, and this inhibition correlates closely with in vitro adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation. The potential therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Rapamycin improves TIE2-mutated venous malformation in murine model and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, Elisa; Limaye, Nisha; Huang, Lan; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Soblet, Julie; Uebelhoer, Melanie; Mendola, Antonella; Natynki, Marjut; Seront, Emmanuel; Dupont, Sophie; Hammer, Jennifer; Legrand, Catherine; Brugnara, Carlo; Eklund, Lauri; Vikkula, Miikka; Bischoff, Joyce; Boon, Laurence M

    2015-09-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are composed of ectatic veins with scarce smooth muscle cell coverage. Activating mutations in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 are a common cause of these lesions. VMs cause deformity, pain, and local intravascular coagulopathy, and they expand with time. Targeted pharmacological therapies are not available for this condition. Here, we generated a model of VMs by injecting HUVECs expressing the most frequent VM-causing TIE2 mutation, TIE2-L914F, into immune-deficient mice. TIE2-L914F-expressing HUVECs formed VMs with ectatic blood-filled channels that enlarged over time. We tested both rapamycin and a TIE2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TIE2-TKI) for their effects on murine VM expansion and for their ability to inhibit mutant TIE2 signaling. Rapamycin prevented VM growth, while TIE2-TKI had no effect. In cultured TIE2-L914F-expressing HUVECs, rapamycin effectively reduced mutant TIE2-induced AKT signaling and, though TIE2-TKI did target the WT receptor, it only weakly suppressed mutant-induced AKT signaling. In a prospective clinical pilot study, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin in 6 patients with difficult-to-treat venous anomalies. Rapamycin reduced pain, bleeding, lesion size, functional and esthetic impairment, and intravascular coagulopathy. This study provides a VM model that allows evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies and demonstrates that rapamycin provides clinical improvement in patients with venous malformation. PMID:26258417

  17. Gene microarray analyses for potential biomarkers of single and recurrent venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wugang; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Dongrui; Gao, Pingjin; Wang, Qiao

    2015-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. The present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms and potential biomarkers of single venous thromboembolism (SVTE) and recurrent venous thromboembolism (RVTE). The microarray dataset GSE19151 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, which contained data from whole blood samples from 63 healthy controls, 32 SVTE and 38 RVTE patients. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the SVTE and RVTE groups compared with those in the controls were identified using the t?test, followed by clustering analysis of DEGs and samples. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for DEGs in patients with RVTE and SVTE, as well as specific DEGs in patients with RVTE. The identified 42 DEGs in RVTE were mainly enriched in biological processes of cellular protein metabolism, gene expression and translational elongation as well as in pathways associated with ribosomes, Parkinson's disease and oxidative phosphorylation. In SVTE, 20 DEGs were identified, which were mainly involved in biological processes of biopolymer biosynthesis, translational elongation and cellular protein metabolism as well as pathways associated with ribosomes and cardiac muscle contraction. In RVTE, 22 specific DEGs were mainly involved in translational elongation, negative regulation of the force of heart contraction by chemical signals, cell proliferation, ribosomal pathways and protein export. The identified DEGs of SVTE, including COX7C and UQCRQ, may be potential biomarkers for SVTE, and the specific DEGs of RVTE, including ADRBK1, NDUFA5 and ATP5O, may be potential biomarkers for RVTE. PMID:26397997

  18. Fragment E/sub 1/ labeled with I-123 in the detection of venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.C.; Maurer, A.H.; Robbins, P.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Budzynski, A.Z.

    1985-08-01

    Fragment E/sub 1/, which has been shown to have specific binding affinity for thrombi in an animal model, was investigated in humans for its safety and ability to bind to venous thrombi. Human fragment E/sub 1/ was labeled with I-123 and administered intravenously to patients with proved or suspected deep vein thrombosis. The vascular distribution of radioactivity was documented by obtaining gamma camera images of the patients' legs for 30 minutes following administration of I-123-Fragment E/sub 1/. All patients (n = 5) with documented venous thrombi had rapid localization of labeled Fragment E/sub 1/ in the area of thrombus. Analysis of blood samples in four patients indicated that disappearance of Fragment E/sub 1/ from the circulation was more rapid in individuals with thrombosis than in individuals without thrombosis. These early results suggest that radiolabeled Fragment E/sub 1/ is a safe and potentially valuable agent for the rapid detection of venous thrombosis.

  19. Optoacoustic monitoring of central and peripheral venous oxygenation during simulated hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Andrey; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Khan, Muzna N.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Circulatory shock may be fatal unless promptly recognized and treated. The most commonly used indicators of shock (hypotension and tachycardia) lack sensitivity and specificity. In the initial stages of shock, the body compensates by reducing blood flow to the peripheral (skin, muscle, etc.) circulation in order to preserve vital organ (brain, heart, liver) perfusion. Characteristically, this can be observed by a greater reduction in peripheral venous oxygenation (for instance, the axillary vein) compared to central venous oxygenation (the internal jugular vein). While invasive measurements of oxygenation are accurate, they lack practicality and are not without complications. We have developed a novel optoacoustic system that noninvasively determines oxygenation in specific veins. In order to test this application, we used lower body negative pressure (LBNP) system, which simulates hemorrhage by exerting a variable amount of suction on the lower body, thereby reducing the volume of blood available for central circulation. Restoration of normal blood flow occurs promptly upon cessation of LBNP. Using two optoacoustic probes, guided by ultrasound imaging, we simultaneously monitored oxygenation in the axillary and internal jugular veins (IJV). LBNP began at -20 mmHg, thereafter was reduced in a step-wise fashion (up to 30 min). The optoacoustically measured axillary oxygenation decreased with LBNP, whereas IJV oxygenation remained relatively constant. These results indicate that our optoacoustic system may provide safe and rapid measurement of peripheral and central venous oxygenation and diagnosis of shock with high specificity and sensitivity.

  20. Transluminally Placed Endovascular Grafts for Venous Lesions in Patients on Hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, S.F. Kim, J.; Sheley, R.C.

    2003-08-15

    This report summarizes a feasibility study of transluminally placed endovascular grafts (TPEG) using pre-expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to treat venous abnormalities inpatients on hemodialysis. Seventeen patients with peripheral(n = 11) or central (n = 6) venous lesions were treated with TPEG devices. Covered Gianturco stents were used for the peripheral lesions and covered Palmaz stents were used for central lesions. Venous abnormalities included vascular rupture after balloon angioplasty or surgical thrombectomy (n = 4),stenosis associated with an aneurysm (n = 2) and occlusive disease and central stenoses not responsive to balloon angioplasty (n = 11). The mean primary patency period was 37 days. The mean secondary patency period was 215 days. At 60,180, and 360 days the primary and secondary patency rates were 40%,32%, and 32%, and 70%, 55%, and 39%, respectively. Follow-up studies have shown various outcomes of the implanted TPEG devices,which have included stenoses within the TPEG (n = 2),stenoses central to the TPEG (n = 1), stenoses peripheral to the TPEG (n = 3), acute thrombosis extending to the TPEG without a stenosis (n = 1), graft abandoned with patent TPEG (n = 6), and TPEG patent within primary patency period at last follow-up (n =4). The TPEG devices, made with pre-expanded PTFE, appear safe in the short term, do not prevent progressive dialysis access site failure, and need to be compared to PTA and endovascular stenting in a randomized prospective trial.