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Sample records for implanted metal nanoparticles

  1. Surface modification by metal ion implantation forming metallic nanoparticles in an insulating matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I. G.

    2014-08-01

    There is special interest in the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles in a surrounding dielectric matrix for obtaining composites with desirable characteristics such as for surface plasmon resonance, which can be used in photonics and sensing, and controlled surface electrical conductivity. We have investigated nanocomposites produced by metal ion implantation into insulating substrates, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile (projected range), which can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN code. TRIDYN is a Monte Carlo simulation program based on the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter) code that takes into account compositional changes in the substrate due to two factors: previously implanted dopant atoms, and sputtering of the substrate surface. Our study show that the nanoparticles form a bidimentional array buried a few nanometers below the substrate surface. We have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted samples show that metallic nanoparticles form in the insulating matrix. These nanocomposites have been characterized by measuring the resistivity of the composite layer as a function of the implantation dose. The experimental results are compared with a model based on percolation theory, in which electron transport through the composite is explained by conduction through a random resistor network formed by the metallic nanoparticles. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental results and the predictions of the theory. We conclude in that the conductivity process is due only to percolation (when the conducting elements are in geometric contact) and that the contribution from tunneling conduction is negligible.

  2. The formation of silver metal nanoparticles by ion implantation in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vytykacova, S.; Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Spirkova, J.; Mackova, A.; Miksova, R.; Böttger, R.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that glasses containing silver metal nanoparticles are promising photonics materials for the fabrication of all-optical components. The resulting optical properties of the nanocomposite glasses depend on the composition and structure of the glass, as well as on the type of metal ion implanted and the experimental procedures involved. The main aim of this article was to study the influence of the conditions of the ion implantation and the composition of the glass on the formation of metal nanoparticles in such glasses. Four various types of silicate glasses were implanted with Ag+ ions with different energy (330 keV, 1.2 MeV and 1.7 MeV), with the fluence being kept constant (1 × 1016 ions cm-2). The as-implanted samples were annealed at 600 °C for 1 h. The samples were characterised in terms of: the nucleation of metal nanoparticles (linear optical absorption), the migration of silver through the glass matrix during the implantation and post-implantation annealing (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy), and the oxidation state of silver (photoluminescence in the visible region).

  3. Preparation of bone-implants by coating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on self-formed titanium dioxide thin-layers on titanium metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, W P S L; Mantilaka, M M M G P G; Chathuranga Senarathna, K G; Herath, H M T U; Premachandra, T N; Ranasinghe, C S K; Rajapakse, R P V J; Rajapakse, R M G; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, S; Bandara, I M C C D; Singh, Sanjleena

    2016-06-01

    Preparation of hydroxyapatite coated custom-made metallic bone-implants is very important for the replacement of injured bones of the body. Furthermore, these bone-implants are more stable under the corrosive environment of the body and biocompatible than bone-implants made up of pure metals and metal alloys. Herein, we describe a novel, simple and low-cost technique to prepare biocompatible hydroxyapatite coated titanium metal (TiM) implants through growth of self-formed TiO2 thin-layer (SFTL) on TiM via a heat treatment process. SFTL acts as a surface binder of HA nanoparticles in order to produce HA coated implants. Colloidal HA nanorods prepared by a novel surfactant-assisted synthesis method, have been coated on SFTL via atomized spray pyrolysis (ASP) technique. The corrosion behavior of the bare and surface-modified TiM (SMTiM) in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium is also studied. The highest corrosion rate is found to be for the bare TiM plate, but the corrosion rate has been reduced with the heat-treatment of TiM due to the formation of SFTL. The lowest corrosion rate is recorded for the implant prepared by heat treatment of TiM at 700 °C. The HA-coating further assists in the passivation of the TiM in the SBF medium. Both SMTiM and HA coated SMTiM are noncytotoxic against osteoblast-like (HOS) cells and are in high-bioactivity. The overall production process of bone-implant described in this paper is in high economic value. PMID:27040209

  4. Porous metal for orthopedics implants

    PubMed Central

    Matassi, Fabrizio; Botti, Alessandra; Sirleo, Luigi; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Porous metal has been introduced to obtain biological fixation and improve longevity of orthopedic implants. The new generation of porous metal has intriguing characteristics that allows bone healing and high osteointegration of the metallic implants. This article gives an overview about biomaterials properties of the contemporary class of highly porous metals and about the clinical use in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24133527

  5. In situ fabrication of silver nanoparticle-filled hydrogen titanate nanotube layer on metallic titanium surface for bacteriostatic and biocompatible implantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Sun, Yan; Wang, Dongzhou; Liu, Hong; Boughton, Robert I

    2013-01-01

    A silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-filled hydrogen titanate nanotube layer was synthesized in situ on a metallic titanium substrate. In the synthesis approach, a layer of sodium titanate nanotubes is first prepared on the titanium surface by using a hydrothermal method. Silver nitrate solution is absorbed into the nanotube channels by immersing a dried nanotube layer in silver nitrate solution. Finally, silver ions are reduced by glucose, leading to the in situ growth of AgNPs in the hydrogen titanate nanotube channels. Long-term silver release and bactericidal experiments demonstrated that the effective silver release and effective antibacterial period of the titanium foil with a AgNP-filled hydrogen titanate nanotube layer on the surface can extend to more than 15 days. This steady and prolonged release characteristic is helpful to promote a long-lasting antibacterial capability for the prevention of severe infection after surgery. A series of antimicrobial and biocompatible tests have shown that the sandwich nanostructure with a low level of silver loading exhibits a bacteriostatic rate as high as 99.99%, while retaining low toxicity for cells and possessing high osteogenic potential. Titanium foil with a AgNP-filled hydrogen titanate nanotube layer on the surface that is fabricated with low-cost surface modification methods is a promising implantable material that will find applications in artificial bones, joints, and dental implants. PMID:23966780

  6. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  7. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Aljabali, Alaa A A; Barclay, J Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P; Evans, David J

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. ≤35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. PMID:20877898

  8. [Metal implant sensitivity: clinical and histological presentation].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, D; Letulé, V; Schneider, J J; Flaig, M J

    2016-05-01

    Metal implant sensitivity (intolerance) can cause pain, reduced mobility, loosening of the implant and skin rashes. Knowledge of differential diagnoses, histology and appropriate diagnostics are essential for proper diagnosis. To outline typical clinical signs and histology in metal-implant-associated skin lesions we present three exemplary patients from our implant allergy outpatient department and give an overview of the current literature regarding metal implant sensitivity. In patients with a negative patch test the lymphocyte transformation test may reveal metal sensitization. Even "pure" titanium alloys may contain traces of nickel. The histology of implant-associated skin reactions goes from teleangiectatic postimplantation erythema to eczema and vasculitis. Based on the synopsis of history, clinical picture, allergological testing and histology, metal implant sensitivity can be diagnosed more precisely. PMID:27090521

  9. Introduction to metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mody, Vicky V; Siwale, Rodney; Singh, Ajay; Mody, Hardik R

    2010-10-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have fascinated scientist for over a century and are now heavily utilized in biomedical sciences and engineering. They are a focus of interest because of their huge potential in nanotechnology. Today these materials can be synthesized and modified with various chemical functional groups which allow them to be conjugated with antibodies, ligands, and drugs of interest and thus opening a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology, magnetic separation, and preconcentration of target analytes, targeted drug delivery, and vehicles for gene and drug delivery and more importantly diagnostic imaging. Moreover, various imaging modalities have been developed over the period of time such as MRI, CT, PET, ultrasound, SERS, and optical imaging as an aid to image various disease states. These imaging modalities differ in both techniques and instrumentation and more importantly require a contrast agent with unique physiochemical properties. This led to the invention of various nanoparticulated contrast agent such as magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)), gold, and silver nanoparticles for their application in these imaging modalities. In addition, to use various imaging techniques in tandem newer multifunctional nanoshells and nanocages have been developed. Thus in this review article, we aim to provide an introduction to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)), gold nanoparticles, nanoshells and nanocages, and silver nanoparticles followed by their synthesis, physiochemical properties, and citing some recent applications in the diagnostic imaging and therapy of cancer. PMID:21180459

  10. Introduction to metallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Vicky V.; Siwale, Rodney; Singh, Ajay; Mody, Hardik R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have fascinated scientist for over a century and are now heavily utilized in biomedical sciences and engineering. They are a focus of interest because of their huge potential in nanotechnology. Today these materials can be synthesized and modified with various chemical functional groups which allow them to be conjugated with antibodies, ligands, and drugs of interest and thus opening a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology, magnetic separation, and preconcentration of target analytes, targeted drug delivery, and vehicles for gene and drug delivery and more importantly diagnostic imaging. Moreover, various imaging modalities have been developed over the period of time such as MRI, CT, PET, ultrasound, SERS, and optical imaging as an aid to image various disease states. These imaging modalities differ in both techniques and instrumentation and more importantly require a contrast agent with unique physiochemical properties. This led to the invention of various nanoparticulated contrast agent such as magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4), gold, and silver nanoparticles for their application in these imaging modalities. In addition, to use various imaging techniques in tandem newer multifunctional nanoshells and nanocages have been developed. Thus in this review article, we aim to provide an introduction to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4), gold nanoparticles, nanoshells and nanocages, and silver nanoparticles followed by their synthesis, physiochemical properties, and citing some recent applications in the diagnostic imaging and therapy of cancer. PMID:21180459

  11. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  12. Structure analysis of bimetallic Co-Au nanoparticles formed by sequential ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-jian; Wang, Yu-hua; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Song, Shu-peng; chen, Hong; Zhang, Ke; Xiong, Zu-zhao; Ji, Ling-ling; Dai, Hou-mei; Wang, Deng-jing; Lu, Jian-duo; Wang, Ru-wu; Zheng, Li-rong

    2016-08-01

    Co-Au alloy Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are formed by sequential ion implantation of Co and Au into silica glass at room temperature. The ion ranges of Au ions implantation process have been displayed to show the ion distribution. We have used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to study the local structural information of bimetallic nanoparticles. With the increase of Au ion implantation, the local environments of Co ions are changed enormously. Hence, three oscillations, respectively, Co-O, Co-Co and Co-Au coordination are determined.

  13. Metallic nanoparticles meet metadynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, L.; Rossi, K.; Baletto, F.

    2015-11-01

    Metadynamics coupled with classical molecular dynamics has been successfully applied to sample the configuration space of metallic and bimetallic nanoclusters. We implement a new set of collective variables related to the pair distance distribution function of the nanoparticle to achieve an exhaustive isomer sampling. As paradigmatic examples, we apply our methodology to Ag147, Pt147, and their alloy AgshellPtcore at 2:1 and 1:1 chemical compositions. The proposed scheme is able to reproduce the known solid-solid structural transformation pathways, based on the Lipscomb's diamond-square-diamond mechanisms, both in mono and bimetallic nanoparticles. A discussion of the free energy barriers involved in these processes is provided.

  14. Prosthetic metal implants and airport metal detectors

    PubMed Central

    Dancey, A; Titley, OG

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Metal detectors have been present in airports and points of departure for some time. With the introduction of heightened security measures in response to fears of an increased threat of terrorism, they may become more prevalent in other public locations. The aim of this study was to ascertain which prosthetic devices activated metal detector devices used for security purposes. Methods A range of prosthetic devices used commonly in orthopaedic and plastic surgery procedures were passed through an arch metal detector at Birmingham Airport in the UK. Additionally, each item was passed under a wand detector. Items tested included expandable breast prostheses, plates used in wrist and hand surgery, screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ ligation clips and staples. Results No prostheses were detected by the arch detector. The expandable implants and wrist plates were the only devices detected by passing the wand directly over them. No device was detected by the wand when it was under cover of the axillary soft tissue. Screws, K-wires, Autosuture™ clips and staples were not detected under any of the study conditions. Conclusions Although unlikely to trigger a detector, it is possible that an expandable breast prosthesis or larger plate may do so. It is therefore best to warn patients of this so they can anticipate detection and further examination. PMID:23827294

  15. Metal ion implantation in inert polymers for strain gauge applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, Giovanni; Massaro, Marcello; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Tapfer, Leander

    2010-10-01

    Metal ion implantation in inert polymers may produce ultra-thin conducting films below the polymer surface. These subsurface films are promising structures for strain gauge applications. To this purpose, polycarbonate substrates were irradiated at room temperature with low-energy metal ions (Cu + and Ni +) and with fluences in the range between 1 × 10 16 and 1 × 10 17 ions/cm 2, in order to promote the precipitation of dispersed metal nanoparticles or the formation of a continuous thin film. The nanoparticle morphology and the microstructural properties of polymer nanocomposites were investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. At lower fluences (<5 × 10 16 ions/cm 2) a spontaneous precipitation of spherical-shaped metal nanoparticles occurred below the polymer top-surface (˜50 nm), whereas at higher fluences the aggregation of metal nanoparticles produced the formation of a continuous polycrystalline nanofilm. Furthermore, a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak was observed for nanocomposites produced at lower ion fluences, due to the presence of Cu nanoparticles. A reduced electrical resistance of the near-surface metal-polymer nanocomposite was measured. The variation of electrical conductivity as a function of the applied surface load was measured: we found a linear relationship and a very small hysteresis.

  16. Metal Ion Sources for Ion Beam Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Ren, X. T.

    2008-11-03

    In this paper a theme touched upon the progress of metal ion sources devoted to metal ion beam implantation (MIBI) will be reviewed. A special emphasis will be given to some kinds of ion sources such as ECR, MEVVA and Cluster ion sources. A novel dual hollow cathode metal ion source named DUHOCAMIS will be introduced and discussed.

  17. Metal Nanoparticle Aerogel Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Ignont, Erica; Snow, Lanee; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have fabricated sol-gels containing gold and silver nanoparticles. Formation of an aerogel produces a blue shift in the surface plasmon resonance as a result of the decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix upon supercritical extraction of the solvent. However, as a result of chemical interface damping this blue shift does not obey effective medium theories. Annealing the samples in a reducing atmosphere at 400 C eliminates this discrepancy and results in narrowing and further blue shifting of the plasmon resonance. Metal particle aggregation also results in a deviation from the predictions of effective medium theories, but can be controlled through careful handling and by avoiding the use of alcohol. By applying effective medium theories to the heterogeneous interlayer surrounding each metal particle, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to inhomogeneous materials characterized by spatially dependent dielectric constants, such as aerogels. We demonstrate that the shift in the surface plasmon wavelength provides the average fractional composition of each component (air and silica) in this inhomogeneous layer, i.e. the porosity of the aerogel or equivalently, for these materials, the catalytic dispersion. Additionally, the kinetics suggest that collective particle interactions in coagulated metal clusters are perturbed during silica gelation resulting in a change in the aggregate geometry.

  18. Particle migration and gap healing around trabecular metal implants

    PubMed Central

    Kold, S.; Zippor, B.; Overgaard, S.; Søballe, K.

    2005-01-01

    Bone on-growth and peri-implant migration of polyethylene particles were studied in an experimental setting using trabecular metal and solid metal implants. Cylindrical implants of trabecular tantalum metal and solid titanium alloy implants with a glass bead blasted surface were inserted either in an exact surgical fit or with a peri-implant gap into a canine knee joint. We used a randomised paired design. Polyethylene particles were injected into the knee joint. In both types of surgical fit we found that the trabecular metal implants had superior bone ongrowth in comparison with solid metal implants (exact fit: 23% vs. 7% [p=0.02], peri-implant gap: 13% vs. 0% [p=0.02]. The number of peri-implant polyethylene particles was significantly reduced around the trabecular metal implants with a peri-implant gap compared with solid implants. PMID:16132987

  19. Microfocus study of metal distribution and speciation in tissue extracted from revised metal on metal hip implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Alister J.; Sandison, Ann; Quinn, Paul; Sampson, Barry; Atkinson, Kirk D.; Skinner, John A.; Goode, Angela; Powell, Jonathan J.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.

    2009-11-01

    Unexplained tissue inflammation in metal-on-metal hip replacements is suspected to be caused by implant-derived nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of the metal particles in tissue surrounding metal-on-metal (MOM) hips that has been extracted during revision. Mapping of tissue surrounding the failed MOM hips was performed using microfocus X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). This revealed mainly Cr which was localized to the cellular regions. There was co-localisation of Co, were present, to areas of high Cr abundance. XANES of the tissue and appropriate standards revealed that the most common species were Cr(III) and Co(II). EXAFS analysis of the tissue and various metal standards revealed that the most abundant implant-related species was Cr(III) phosphate. Different tissue preparation methods, including frozen sectioning, were examined but were found not to affect the distribution or speciation of the metals in the tissue.

  20. Versatile high current metal ion implantation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1991-06-01

    A metal ion implantation facility has been developed with which high current beams of practically all the solid metals of the periodic table can be produced. A multi-cathode, broad beam, metal vapor vacuum arc ion source is used to produce repetitively pulsed metal ion beams at an extraction voltage of up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred keV because of the ion-charge state multiplicity, and with a beam current of up to several amperes peak pulsed and several tens of mA time averaged delivered onto a downstream target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line-of-sight from ion source to target. Here we summarize some of the features of the ion source and the implantation facility that has been built up around it. 28 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Broadband luminescence of Cu nanoparticles fabricated in SiO2 by ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Truong Khang; Le, Khai Q; Canimoglu, Adil; Can, Nurdogan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate optical properties of metal nanoparticle crystals fabricated by implanting copper (Cu) ions into single silica (SiO2) crystals with 400keV at various ion doses. The Cu implanted SiO2 (SiO2:Cu) crystal produces a broadband luminescence emission, ranging from blue to yellow, and having a blue luminescence peak at 546nm. Such anomalous luminescence emission bands suggest that the ion implantation may give rise to aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in the host matrix. The boundary element method-based modelling of a given Cu nanoparticle aggregation was employed to justify the broadband luminescence emission. Formation of Cu nanoparticles in SiO2 is predicted through their optical absorption data. The experimental results are compared with results of Mie calculations and we observe that the higher ion dose produces the larger particle size. PMID:27344525

  2. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    DOEpatents

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..

  3. Metal levels in corrosion of spinal implants

    PubMed Central

    Beguiristain, Jose; Duart, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion affects spinal instrumentations and may cause local and systemic complications. Diagnosis of corrosion is difficult, and nowadays it is performed almost exclusively by the examination of retrieved instrumentations. We conducted this study to determine whether it is possible to detect corrosion by measuring metal levels on patients with posterior instrumented spinal fusion. Eleven asymptomatic patients, with radiological signs of corrosion of their stainless steel spinal instrumentations, were studied by performing determinations of nickel and chromium in serum and urine. Those levels were compared with the levels of 22 patients with the same kind of instrumentation but without evidence of corrosion and to a control group of 22 volunteers without any metallic implants. Statistical analysis of our results revealed that the patients with spinal implants without radiological signs of corrosion have increased levels of chromium in serum and urine (P < 0.001) compared to volunteers without implants. Corrosion significantly raised metal levels, including nickel and chromium in serum and urine when compared to patients with no radiological signs of corrosion and to volunteers without metallic implants (P < 0.001). Metal levels measured in serum have high sensibility and specificity (area under the ROC curve of 0.981). By combining the levels of nickel and chromium in serum we were able to identify all the cases of corrosion in our series of patients. The results of our study confirm that metal levels in serum and urine are useful in the diagnosis of corrosion of spinal implants and may be helpful in defining the role of corrosion in recently described clinical entities such as late operative site pain or late infection of spinal implants. PMID:17256156

  4. Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Palza, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms. PMID:25607734

  5. Conducting shrinkable nanocomposite based on au-nanoparticle implanted plastic sheet: tunable thermally induced surface wrinkling.

    PubMed

    Greco, Francesco; Bellacicca, Andrea; Gemmi, Mauro; Cappello, Valentina; Mattoli, Virgilio; Milani, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    A thermally shrinkable and conductive nanocomposite material is prepared by supersonic cluster beam implantation (SCBI) of neutral Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) into a commercially available thermo-retractable polystyrene (PS) sheet. Micronanowrinkling is obtained during shrinking, which is studied by means of SEM, TEM and AFM imaging. Characteristic periodicity is determined and correlated with nanoparticle implantation dose, which permits us to tune the topographic pattern. Remarkable differences emerged with respect to the well-known case of wrinkling of bilayer metal-polymer. Wrinkled composite surfaces are characterized by a peculiar multiscale structuring that promises potential technological applications in the field of catalytic surfaces, sensors, biointerfaces, and optics, among others. PMID:25811100

  6. Nanostructures from hydrogen implantation of metals.

    SciTech Connect

    McWatters, Bruce Ray; Causey, Rion A.; DePuit, Ryan J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Ong, Markus D.

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates a pathway to nanoporous structures created by hydrogen implantation in aluminum. Previous experiments for fusion applications have indicated that hydrogen and helium ion implantations are capable of producing bicontinuous nanoporous structures in a variety of metals. This study focuses specifically on hydrogen and helium implantations of aluminum, including complementary experimental results and computational modeling of this system. Experimental results show the evolution of the surface morphology as the hydrogen ion fluence increases from 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} to 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. Implantations of helium at a fluence of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} produce porosity on the order of 10 nm. Computational modeling demonstrates the formation of alanes, their desorption, and the resulting etching of aluminum surfaces that likely drives the nanostructures that form in the presence of hydrogen.

  7. Comparative study of metal and non-metal ion implantation in polymers: Optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resta, V.; Quarta, G.; Farella, I.; Maruccio, L.; Cola, A.; Calcagnile, L.

    2014-07-01

    The implantation of 1 MeV metal (63Cu+, 107Ag+, 197Au+) and non-metal (4He+, 12C+) ions in a polycarbonate (PC) matrix has been studied in order to evaluate the role of ion species in the modification of optical and electrical properties of the polymer. When the ion fluence is above ∼1 × 1013 ions cm-2, the threshold for latent tracks overlapping is overcome and π-bonded carbon clusters grow and aggregate forming a network of conjugated Cdbnd C bonds. For fluences around 1 × 1017 ions cm-2, the aggregation phenomena induce the formation of amorphous carbon and/or graphite like structures. At the same time, nucleation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) from implanted species can take place when the supersaturation threshold is overcome. The optical absorption of the samples increases in the visible range and the optical band gap redshifts from 3.40 eV up to 0.70 eV mostly due to the carbonization process and the formation of C0x clusters and cluster aggregates. Specific structures in the extinction spectra are observed when metal ions are selected in contrast to the non-metal ion implanted PC, thus revealing the possible presence of noble metal based NPs interstitial to the C0x cluster network. The corresponding electrical resistance decreases much more when metal ions are implanted with at least a factor of 2 orders of magnitude difference than the non-metal ions based samples. An absolute value of ∼107 Ω/sq has been measured for implantation with metals at doses higher than 5 × 1016 ions cm-2, being 1017 Ω/sq the corresponding sheet resistance for pristine PC.

  8. ZnO nanoparticles embedded in sapphire fabricated by ion implantation and annealing.

    PubMed

    Xiang, X; Zu, X T; Zhu, S; Wei, Q M; Zhang, C F; Sun, K; Wang, L M

    2006-05-28

    ZnO nanoparticles were fabricated in sapphire (α-Al(2)O(3) single crystal) by Zn ion implantation (48 keV) at an ion fluence of 1 × 10(17) cm(-2) and subsequent thermal annealing in a flowing oxygen atmosphere. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that metallic Zn nanoparticles of 3-10 nm in dimensions formed in the as-implanted sample and that ZnO nanoparticles of 10-12 nm in dimensions formed after annealing at 600 °C. A broad absorption band, peaked at 280 nm, appeared in the as-implanted crystal, due to surface plasma resonance (SPR) absorption of metallic Zn nanoparticles. After annealing at 600 °C, ZnO nanoparticles resulted in an exciton absorption peak at 360 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) of the as-implanted sample was very weak when using a He-Cd 325 nm line as the excitation source. However, two emission peaks appeared in the PL spectrum of ZnO nanopraticles, i.e., one ultraviolet (UV) peak at 370 nm and the other a green peak at 500 nm. The emission at 500 nm is stronger and has potential applications in green/blue light-emitting devices. PMID:21727517

  9. Optical Properties of Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, F.

    The bright and changing colours obtained by dispersing metallic compounds in a glass matrix have been known empirically for centuries. Indeed, glasses have been coloured in the bulk by inclusion of metallic powders since ancient times to make jewellery and ornaments (see Chap. 25). Then in the Middle Ages, they were used for stained glass windows and later on for coloured glass artefacts, e.g., ruby red glass objects. However, the role played by nanoparticles in this colouring effect, i.e., the effects of nanoparticles on optical properties, were only first studied scientifically in the nineteenth century, by Michael Faraday [1].

  10. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  11. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadory, Mozhgan

    Improved methods were developed for the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles. Laboratory experiments were designed for introducing of nanotechnology into the undergraduate curriculum. An optimal set of conditions for the synthesis of clear yellow colloidal silver was investigated. Silver nanoparticles were obtained by borohydride reduction of silver nitrate, a method which produces particles with average size of 12+/-2 nm, determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The plasmon absorbance is at 397 nm and the peak width at half maximum (PWHM) is 70-75 nm. The relationship between aggregation and optical properties was determined along with a method to protect the particles using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). A laboratory experiment was designed in which students synthesize yellow colloidal silver, estimate particle size using visible spectroscopy, and study aggregation effects. The synthesis of the less stable copper nanoparticles is more difficult because copper nanopaticles are easily oxidized. Four methods were used for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles, including chemical reduction with sodium borohydride, sodium borohydride with potassium iodide, isopropyl alcohol with cetyltrimethylammonium bormide (CTAB) and reducing sugars. The latter method was also the basis for an undergraduate laboratory experiment. For each reaction, the dependence of stability of the copper nanoparticles on reagent concentrations, additives, relative amounts of reactants, and temperature is explored. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM and UV-Visible Spectroscopy were used to characterize the copper nanoparticles. A laboratory experiment to produce copper nanoparticles from household chemicals was developed.

  12. Tantalum—A bioactive metal for implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Davies, Neal M.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2010-07-01

    Metallic biomaterials currently in use for load-bearing orthopedic applications are mostly bioinert and therefore lack sufficient osseointegration. Although bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) can spontaneously bond to living bone tissue, low fracture toughness of HA limits their use as a bone substitute for load-bearing applications. Surface modification techniques such as HA coating on metals are current options to improve osseointegration in load-bearing metal implants. Over the last few decades researchers have attempted to find a bioactive metal with high mechanical strength and excellent fatigue resistance that can bond chemically with surrounding bone for orthopedic applications. Recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies demonstrated that tantalum is a promising metal that is bioactive. However, tantalum applications in biomedical devices have been limited by processing challenges rather than biological performances. In this article, we provide an overview of processing aspects and biological properties of tantalum for load-bearing orthopedic applications.

  13. The effect of metallic implants on radiation therapy in spinal tumor patients with metallic spinal implants

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Seok Hyun; Kang, Young Nam; Ryu, Mi-Ryeong

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metallic implants on the dose calculation for radiation therapy in patients with metallic implants and to find a way to reduce the error of dose calculation. We made a phantom in which titanium implants were inserted into positions similar to the implant positions in spinal posterior/posterolateral fusion. We compared the calculated dose of the treatment planning systems with the measured dose in the treatment equipment. We used 3 kinds of computed tomography (CT) (kilovoltage CT, extended-scaled kilovoltage CT, and megavoltage CT) and 3 kinds of treatment equipment (ARTISTE, TomoTherapy Hi-Art, and Cyberknife). For measurement of doses, we used an ionization chamber and Gafchromic external beam therapy film. The absolute doses that were measured using an ionization chamber at the isocenter in the titanium phantom were on average 1.9% lower than those in the reference phantom (p = 0.002). There was no statistically significant difference according to the kinds of CT images, the treatment equipment, and the size of the targets. As the distance from the surface of the titanium implants became closer, the measured doses tended to decrease (p < 0.001), and this showed a statistically significant difference among the kinds of CT images: the effect of metallic implants was less in the megavoltage CT than in the kilovoltage CT or the extended-scaled kilovoltage CT. The error caused by the titanium implants was beyond a clinically acceptable range. To reduce the error of dose calculation, we suggest that the megavoltage CT be used for planning. In addition, it is necessary to consider the distance between the titanium implants and the targets or the organs at risk to prescribe the dose for the target and the dose constraint for the organs at risk.

  14. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  15. Metal nanoparticle inks

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Jennifer A.; Ahn, Bok Yeop; Duoss, Eric B.

    2011-04-12

    Stabilized silver particles comprise particles comprising silver, a short-chain capping agent adsorbed on the particles, and a long-chain capping agent adsorbed on the particles. The short-chain capping agent is a first anionic polyelectrolyte having a molecular weight (Mw) of at most 10,000, and the long-chain capping agent is a second anionic polyelectrolyte having a molecular weight (Mw) of at least 25,000. The stabilized silver particles have a solid loading of metallic silver of at least 50 wt %.

  16. On the inflammatory response in metal-on-metal implants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metal-on-metal implants are a special form of hip endoprostheses that despite many advantages can entail serious complications due to release of wear particles from the implanted material. Metal wear particles presumably activate local host defence mechanisms, which causes a persistent inflammatory response with destruction of bone followed by a loosening of the implant. To better characterize this inflammatory response and to link inflammation to bone degradation, the local generation of proinflammatory and osteoclast-inducing cytokines was analysed, as was systemic T cell activation. Methods By quantitative RT-PCR, gene expression of cytokines and markers for T lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and osteoclasts, respectively, was analysed in tissue samples obtained intraoperatively during exchange surgery of the loosened implant. Peripheral T cells were characterized by cytofluorometry before surgery and 7 to 10 days thereafter. Results At sites of osteolysis, gene expression of cathepsin K, CD14 and CD3 was seen, indicating the generation of osteoclasts, and the presence of monocytes and of T cells, respectively. Also cytokines were highly expressed, including CXCL8, IL-1ß, CXCL2, MRP-14 and CXCL-10. The latter suggest T cell activation, a notion that could be confirmed by detecting a small, though conspicuous population of activated CD4+ cells in the peripheral blood T cells prior to surgery. Conclusion Our data support the concept that metallosis is the result of a local inflammatory response, which according to histomorphology and the composition of the cellular infiltrate classifies as an acute phase of a chronic inflammatory disease. The proinflammatory environment, particularly the generation of the osteoclast-inducing cytokines CXCL8 and IL1-ß, promotes bone resorption. Loss of bone results in implant loosening, which then causes the major symptoms of metallosis, pain and reduced range of motion. PMID:24650243

  17. Metallic nano-particles for trapping light

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We study metallic nano-particles for light trapping by investigating the optical absorption efficiency of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film with and without metallic nano-particles on its top. The size and shape of these nano-particles are investigated as to their roles of light trapping: scattering light to the absorption medium and converting light to surface plasmons. The optical absorption enhancement in the red light region (e.g., 650nm) due to the light trapping of the metallic nano-particles is observed when a layer of metallic nano-particle array has certain structures. The investigation of the light with incident angles shows the importance of the coupling efficiency of light to surface plasmons in the metallic nano-particle light trapping. PACS 73.20.Mf, 42.25.s, 88.40.hj PMID:23391493

  18. Spin Electronics in Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Felipe Tijiwa

    2011-12-01

    The work described in this thesis reflects a through investigation of spin-dependent transport through metallic nanoparticles, via tunnel junctions. Our devices consist of metallic nanoparticles embedded in an insulating matrix tunnel coupled to two metallic electrodes. At low temperatures, the small dimensions of the particles provide the necessary conditions to study the role played by discrete energy levels in the transport properties of these devices. In Chapter 1, a brief introduction to some of the relevant background topics related to this work, will be presented. Chapter 2 gives a detailed description of measurement procedures used on the experiments, and the adopted techniques for sample fabrication. In some of the devices presented here, the electrodes are made of ferromagnetic materials, which are used as source of spin-polarized current. The case where both electrodes are ferromagnetic, in a spin-valve configuration, will be discussed in Chapter 3, showing that spin accumulation mechanisms are responsible for the observed spin-polarized current. It will also be shown that the effect of an applied perpendicular magnetic field, relative to the magnetization orientation of the electrodes, indicates the suppression of spin precession in such small particles. Moreover, in the presence of an external non-collinear magnetic field, it is the local field "felt" by the particle that determines the character of the tunnel current. Even in samples where only one of the electrodes is ferromagnetic, spin-polarization of the tunnel current due to spin accumulation in the particle is observed. Asymmetries in the current-voltage (IV) characteristics as well as in the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of these devices will be presented in Chapter 4. Another type of device, which will be addressed in Chapter 5, consists of ferromagnetic nanoparticles coupled to normal-metal electrodes. The rich electronic structure as well as a complex set of relaxation mechanisms in these

  19. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Local Drug Delivery Using Magnetic Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Pacheco, Rodrigo; Valdivia, J. Gabriel; Ibarra, M. Ricardo

    This chapter is a brief description of the state of the art of the field of targeted drug delivery using magnetic implants. It describes the advantages and drawbacks of the use of internal magnets to concentrate magnetic nanoparticles near tumor locations, and the different approaches to this task performed in vitro and in vivo reviewed in literature are presented.

  20. Environmentally friendly preparation of metal nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter summarizes the “state of the art” in the exploitation of various environmentally-friendly synthesis approaches, reaction precursors and conditions to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for a vast variety of purposes.

  1. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Mendoza, Daniel; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Nanotubular surface modification of metallic implants via electrochemical anodization technique

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Ning; Jin, Ming; Zheng, Yudong; Guan, Yueping; Lu, Xin; Luo, Jing-Li

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased awareness and interest in the biomedical implant field as a result of an aging population, research in the field of implantable devices has grown rapidly in the last few decades. Among the biomedical implants, metallic implant materials have been widely used to replace disordered bony tissues in orthopedic and orthodontic surgeries. The clinical success of implants is closely related to their early osseointegration (ie, the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing artificial implant), which relies heavily on the surface condition of the implant. Electrochemical techniques for modifying biomedical implants are relatively simple, cost-effective, and appropriate for implants with complex shapes. Recently, metal oxide nanotubular arrays via electrochemical anodization have become an attractive technique to build up on metallic implants to enhance the biocompatibility and bioactivity. This article will thoroughly review the relevance of electrochemical anodization techniques for the modification of metallic implant surfaces in nanoscale, and cover the electrochemical anodization techniques used in the development of the types of nanotubular/nanoporous modification achievable via electrochemical approaches, which hold tremendous potential for bio-implant applications. In vitro and in vivo studies using metallic oxide nanotubes are also presented, revealing the potential of nanotubes in biomedical applications. Finally, an outlook of future growth of research in metallic oxide nanotubular arrays is provided. This article will therefore provide researchers with an in-depth understanding of electrochemical anodization modification and provide guidance regarding the design and tuning of new materials to achieve a desired performance and reliable biocompatibility. PMID:25258532

  3. Plasma-implantation-based surface modification of metals with single-implantation mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X. B.; Cui, J. T.; Yang, S. Q.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma ion implantation has proven to be an effective surface modification technique. Its biggest advantage is the capability to treat the objects with irregular shapes without complex manipulation of target holder. Many metal materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, magnesium etc, has been treated using this technique to improve their wear-resistance, corrosion-resistance, fatigue-resistance, oxidation-resistance, bio-compatiblity etc. However in order to achieve thicker modified layers, hybrid processes combining plasma ion implantation with other techniques have been frequently employed. In this paper plasma implantation based surface modification of metals using single-implantation mode is reviewed.

  4. Physiologically important metal nanoparticles and their toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Jayeeta; Ghosh, Sourav; Datta, Poulami; Gomes, Aparna; Gomes, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been setting benchmarks for the last two decades, but the origins of this technology reach back to ancient history. Today, nanoparticles of both metallic and non-metallic origin are under research and development for applications in various fields of biology/therapeutics. Physiologically important metals are of concern because they are compatible with the human system in terms of absorption, assimilation, excretion, and side effects. There are several physiologically inorganic metals that are present in the human body with a wide range of biological activities. Some of these metals are magnesium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum. These metals are synthesized in the form of nanoparticles by different physical and chemical methods. Physiologically important nanoparticles are currently under investigation for their bio-medical applications as well as for therapeutics. Along with the applicative aspects of nanoparticles, another domain that is of great concern is the risk assessment of these nanoparticles to avoid unnecessary hazards. It has been seen that these nanoparticles have been shown to possess toxicity in biological systems. Conventional physical and chemical methods of metal nanoparticle synthesis may be one possible reason for nanoparticle toxicity that can be overcome by synthesis of nanoparticles from biological sources. This review is an attempt to establish metal nanoparticles of physiological importance to be the best candidates for future nanotechnological tools and medicines, owing to the acceptability and safety in the human body. This can only be successful if these particles are synthesized with a better biocompatibility and low or no toxicity. PMID:24730316

  5. Metal-metal bonding using silver/copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Maeda, T.; Yasuda, Y.; Morita, T.

    2016-08-01

    A method for producing nanoparticles composed of silver and copper and a metal-metal bonding technique using the silver/copper nanoparticles are proposed. The method consists of three steps. First, copper oxide nanoparticles are produced by mixing Cu(NO3)2 aqueous solution and NaOH aqueous solution. Second, copper metal nanoparticles are fabricated by reducing the copper oxide nanoparticles with hydrazine in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Third, silver/copper nanoparticles are synthesized by reducing Ag+ ions with hydrazine in the presence of the copper metal nanoparticles. Initial concentrations in the final silver/copper particle colloid, composed of 0.0075 M Cu2+, 0.0025 M Ag+, 1.0 g/L PVP, and 0.6 M hydrazine, produced silver/copper nanoparticles with an average size of 49 nm and a crystal size of 16.8 nm. Discs of copper metal were successfully bonded by the silver/copper nanoparticles under annealing at 400 °C and pressurizing at 1.2 MPa for 5 min in not only hydrogen gas but also nitrogen gas. The shear force required to separate the bonded discs was 22.3 MPa for the hydrogen gas annealing and 14.9 MPa for the nitrogen gas annealing (namely, 66.8 % of that for hydrogen gas annealing).

  6. Metal-metal bonding using silver/copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Maeda, T.; Yasuda, Y.; Morita, T.

    2015-08-01

    A method for producing nanoparticles composed of silver and copper and a metal-metal bonding technique using the silver/copper nanoparticles are proposed. The method consists of three steps. First, copper oxide nanoparticles are produced by mixing Cu(NO3)2 aqueous solution and NaOH aqueous solution. Second, copper metal nanoparticles are fabricated by reducing the copper oxide nanoparticles with hydrazine in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Third, silver/copper nanoparticles are synthesized by reducing Ag+ ions with hydrazine in the presence of the copper metal nanoparticles. Initial concentrations in the final silver/copper particle colloid, composed of 0.0075 M Cu2+, 0.0025 M Ag+, 1.0 g/L PVP, and 0.6 M hydrazine, produced silver/copper nanoparticles with an average size of 49 nm and a crystal size of 16.8 nm. Discs of copper metal were successfully bonded by the silver/copper nanoparticles under annealing at 400 °C and pressurizing at 1.2 MPa for 5 min in not only hydrogen gas but also nitrogen gas. The shear force required to separate the bonded discs was 22.3 MPa for the hydrogen gas annealing and 14.9 MPa for the nitrogen gas annealing (namely, 66.8 % of that for hydrogen gas annealing).

  7. Enhanced potentiometry by metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Noyhouzer, T; Valdinger, I; Mandler, D

    2013-09-01

    Measuring the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) requires an interface that is not selective toward specific species but exchanges electrons with all redox couples in the solution. Sluggish electron transfer (ET) kinetics with the species will not reflect the "true" Eh of the solution. Here, we present a novel approach by which adsorbed metal nanoparticles (NPs) are used for enhancing ET exchange rates between redox species and electrode surface and therefore affect significantly the measurement of the open circuit potential (OCP) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The OCP and CV of various organic and inorganic species such as l-dopa, dopac, iron(II), and iodide are measured by bare stainless steel and by stainless steel modified by either Pt or Au NPs. We study the effect of the surface coverage of the stainless steel surface by NPs on the electrochemical response. Moreover, the stainless steel electrode was modified simultaneously by Au and Pt nanoparticles. This improved concurrently the stainless steel response (CV and potentiometry) toward two different species; l-dopa, which shows fast electron transfer on Pt, and catechol, which exhibits fast electron transfer on Au. We believe that this approach could be a first step toward developing a superior electrode for measuring the "true" Eh of complex aquatic systems. PMID:23947748

  8. The appearance and effects of metallic implants in CT images.

    PubMed

    Kairn, T; Crowe, S B; Fogg, P; Trapp, J V

    2013-06-01

    The computed tomography (CT) imaging artefacts that metallic medical implants produce in surrounding tissues are usually contoured and over-ridden during radiotherapy treatment planning. In cases where radiotherapy treatment beams unavoidably pass though implants, it is especially important to understand the imaging artefacts that may occur within the implants themselves. This study examines CT images of a set of simple metallic objects, immersed in water, in order to evaluate reliability and variability of CT numbers (Hounsfield units, HUs) within medical implants. Model implants with a range of sizes (heights from 2.2 to 49.6 mm), electron densities (from 2.3 to 7.7 times the electron density of water) and effective atomic numbers (from 3.9 to 9.0 times the effective atomic number of water in a CT X-ray beam) were created by stacking metal coins from several currencies. These 'implants' were CT scanned within a large (31.0 cm across) and a small (12.8 cm across) water phantom. Resulting HU values are as much as 50 % lower than the result of extrapolating standard electron density calibration data (obtained for tissue and bone densities) up to the metal densities and there is a 6 % difference between the results obtained by scanning with 120 and 140 kVp tube potentials. Profiles through the implants show localised cupping artefacts, within the implants, as well as a gradual decline in HU outside the implants that can cause the implants' sizes to be over estimated by 1.3-9.0 mm. These effects are exacerbated when the implants are scanned in the small phantom or at the side of the large phantom, due to reduced pre-hardening of the X-ray beam in these configurations. These results demonstrate the necessity of over-riding the densities of metallic implants, as well as their artefacts in tissue, in order to obtain accurate radiotherapy dose calculations. PMID:23760920

  9. Chemoelectronic circuits based on metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Warren, Scott C.; Fuller, Patrick; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2016-07-01

    To develop electronic devices with novel functionalities and applications, various non-silicon-based materials are currently being explored. Nanoparticles have unique characteristics due to their small size, which can impart functions that are distinct from those of their bulk counterparts. The use of semiconductor nanoparticles has already led to improvements in the efficiency of solar cells, the processability of transistors and the sensitivity of photodetectors, and the optical and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles have led to similar advances in plasmonics and energy conversion. However, metals screen electric fields and this has, so far, prevented their use in the design of all-metal nanoparticle circuitry. Here, we show that simple electronic circuits can be made exclusively from metal nanoparticles functionalized with charged organic ligands. In these materials, electronic currents are controlled by the ionic gradients of mobile counterions surrounding the ‘jammed’ nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-based electronic elements of the circuitry can be interfaced with metal nanoparticles capable of sensing various environmental changes (humidity, gas, the presence of various cations), creating electronic devices in which metal nanoparticles sense, process and ultimately report chemical signals. Because the constituent nanoparticles combine electronic and chemical sensing functions, we term these systems ‘chemoelectronic’. The circuits have switching times comparable to those of polymer electronics, selectively transduce parts-per-trillion chemical changes into electrical signals, perform logic operations, consume little power (on the scale of microwatts), and are mechanically flexible. They are also ‘green’, in the sense that they comprise non-toxic nanoparticles cast at room temperature from alcohol solutions.

  10. Chemoelectronic circuits based on metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong; Warren, Scott C; Fuller, Patrick; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2016-07-01

    To develop electronic devices with novel functionalities and applications, various non-silicon-based materials are currently being explored. Nanoparticles have unique characteristics due to their small size, which can impart functions that are distinct from those of their bulk counterparts. The use of semiconductor nanoparticles has already led to improvements in the efficiency of solar cells, the processability of transistors and the sensitivity of photodetectors, and the optical and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles have led to similar advances in plasmonics and energy conversion. However, metals screen electric fields and this has, so far, prevented their use in the design of all-metal nanoparticle circuitry. Here, we show that simple electronic circuits can be made exclusively from metal nanoparticles functionalized with charged organic ligands. In these materials, electronic currents are controlled by the ionic gradients of mobile counterions surrounding the 'jammed' nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-based electronic elements of the circuitry can be interfaced with metal nanoparticles capable of sensing various environmental changes (humidity, gas, the presence of various cations), creating electronic devices in which metal nanoparticles sense, process and ultimately report chemical signals. Because the constituent nanoparticles combine electronic and chemical sensing functions, we term these systems 'chemoelectronic'. The circuits have switching times comparable to those of polymer electronics, selectively transduce parts-per-trillion chemical changes into electrical signals, perform logic operations, consume little power (on the scale of microwatts), and are mechanically flexible. They are also 'green', in the sense that they comprise non-toxic nanoparticles cast at room temperature from alcohol solutions. PMID:26974958

  11. Assembly of metals and nanoparticles into novel nanocomposite superstructures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiaquan; Chen, Lianyi; Choi, Hongseok; Konish, Hiromi; Li, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Controlled assembly of nanoscale objects into superstructures is of tremendous interests. Many approaches have been developed to fabricate organic-nanoparticle superstructures. However, effective fabrication of inorganic-nanoparticle superstructures (such as nanoparticles linked by metals) remains a difficult challenge. Here we show a novel, general method to assemble metals and nanoparticles rationally into nanocomposite superstructures. Novel metal-nanoparticle superstructures are achieved by self-assembly of liquid metals and nanoparticles in immiscible liquids driven by reduction of free energy. Superstructures with various architectures, such as metal-core/nanoparticle-shell, nanocomposite-core/nanoparticle-shell, network of metal-linked core/shell nanostructures, and network of metal-linked nanoparticles, were successfully fabricated by simply tuning the volume ratio between nanoparticles and liquid metals. Our approach provides a simple, general way for fabrication of numerous metal-nanoparticle superstructures and enables a rational design of these novel superstructures with desired architectures for exciting applications.

  12. Metals for bone implants. Part 1. Powder metallurgy and implant rendering.

    PubMed

    Andani, Mohsen Taheri; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael J; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    New metal alloys and metal fabrication strategies are likely to benefit future skeletal implant strategies. These metals and fabrication strategies were looked at from the point of view of standard-of-care implants for the mandible. These implants are used as part of the treatment for segmental resection due to oropharyngeal cancer, injury or correction of deformity due to pathology or congenital defect. The focus of this two-part review is the issues associated with the failure of existing mandibular implants that are due to mismatched material properties. Potential directions for future research are also studied. To mitigate these issues, the use of low-stiffness metallic alloys has been highlighted. To this end, the development, processing and biocompatibility of superelastic NiTi as well as resorbable magnesium-based alloys are discussed. Additionally, engineered porosity is reviewed as it can be an effective way of matching the stiffness of an implant with the surrounding tissue. These porosities and the overall geometry of the implant can be optimized for strain transduction and with a tailored stiffness profile. Rendering patient-specific, site-specific, morphology-specific and function-specific implants can now be achieved using these and other metals with bone-like material properties by additive manufacturing. The biocompatibility of implants prepared from superelastic and resorbable alloys is also reviewed. PMID:24956564

  13. Mesoporous titanium dioxide coating for metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Hoess, Andreas; Ballo, Ahmed; Cai, Yanling; Engqvist, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    A bioactive mesoporous titanium dioxide (MT) coating for surface drug delivery has been investigated to develop a multifunctional implant coating, offering quick bone bonding and biological stability. An evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method was used to prepare a mesoporous titanium dioxide coating of the anatase phase with BET surface area of 172 m(2)/g and average pore diameter of 4.3 nm. Adhesion tests using the scratch method and an in situ screw-in/screw-out technique confirm that the MT coating bonds tightly with the metallic substrate, even after removal from bone. Because of its high surface area, the bioactivity of the MT coating is much better than that of a dense TiO(2) coating of the same composition. Quick formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro can be related to enhance bonding with bone. The uptake of antibiotics by the MT coating reached 13.4 mg/cm(3) within a 24 h loading process. A sustained release behavior has been obtained with a weak initial burst. By using Cephalothin as a model drug, drug loaded MT coating exhibits a sufficient antibacterial effect on the material surface, and within millimeters from material surface, against E.coli. Additionally, the coated and drug loaded surfaces showed no cytotoxic effect on cell cultures of the osteoblastic cell line MG-63. In conclusion, this study describes a novel, biocompatiblemesoporous implant coating, which has the ability to induce HA formation and could be used as a surface drug-delivery system. PMID:21954047

  14. Metal nanoparticles functionalized with metal-ligand covalent bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiongwu

    Metal-organic contact has been recognized to play important roles in regulation of optical and electronic properties of nanoparticles. In this thesis, significant efforts have been devoted into synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles with various metal-ligand interfacial linkages and investigation of their electronic and optical properties. Ruthenium nanoparticles were prepared by the self-assembly of functional group onto bare Ru colloid surface. As to Ru-alkyne nanoparticles, the formation of a Ru-vinylidene (Ru=C=CH--R) interfacial bonding linkage was confirmed by the specific reactivity of the nanoparticles with imine derivatives and olefin at the metal-ligand interface, as manifested in NMR, photoluminescence, and electrochemical measurements. Interestingly, it was found the electronic coupling coefficient (beta)for strongly depend upon such metal-ligand interfacial bonding. Next, such metal-ligand interfacial bonding was extended to ruthenium-nitrene pi bonds on ruthenium colloids, which were investigated by XPS. The nanoparticles exhibited a 1:1 atomic ratio of nitrogen to sulfur, consistent with that of sulfonyl nitrene fragments. In addition, the nanoparticle-bound nitrene moieties behaved analogously to azo derivatives, as manifested in UV-vis and fluorescence measurements. Further testimony of the formation of Ru=N interfacial linkages was highlighted in the unique reactivity of the nanoparticles with alkenes by imido transfer. Extensive conjugation between metal-ligand interfacial bond results in remarkable intraparticle charge delocalization on Ru-alkynide nanoparticles, which was manipulated by simple chemical reduction or oxidation. Charging of extra electrons into the nanoparticle cores led to an electron-rich metal core and hence red-shift of the triple bond stretching mode, lower binding energy of sp hybridized C 1s and dimmed fluorescence of nanoparticles. Instead, chemical oxidation resulted in the opposite impacts on these properties. By taking

  15. Antimicrobial activity of the metals and metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Zarrintan, Mohammad Hossein; Adibkia, Khosro

    2014-11-01

    The ever increasing resistance of pathogens towards antibiotics has caused serious health problems in the recent years. It has been shown that by combining modern technologies such as nanotechnology and material science with intrinsic antimicrobial activity of the metals, novel applications for these substances could be identified. According to the reports, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles represent a group of materials which were investigated in respect to their antimicrobial effects. In the present review, we focused on the recent research works concerning antimicrobial activity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature indicated that the particle size was the essential parameter which determined the antimicrobial effectiveness of the metal nanoparticles. Combination therapy with the metal nanoparticles might be one of the possible strategies to overcome the current bacterial resistance to the antibacterial agents. However, further studies should be performed to minimize the toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to apply as proper alternatives for antibiotics and disinfectants especially in biomedical applications. PMID:25280707

  16. Bulk photoemission from metal films and nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ikhsanov, R Sh; Babicheva, V E; Protsenko, I E; Uskov, A V; Guzhva, M E

    2015-01-31

    Internal emission of photoelectrons from metal films and nanoparticles (nanowires and nanospheres) into a semiconductor matrix is studied theoretically by taking into account the jump of the effective electron mass at the metal – semiconductor interface and the cooling effect of hot electrons due to electron – electron collisions in the metal. The internal quantum efficiency of photoemission for the film and nanoparticles of two types (nanospheres and nanowires) is calculated. It is shown that the reduction of the effective mass of the electron during its transition from metal to semiconductor may lead to a significant (orders of magnitude and higher) decrease in the internal quantum efficiency of bulk photoemission. (nanostructures)

  17. Implantation and Stability of Metallic Fiducials Within Pulmonary Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Kupelian, Patrick A. Forbes, Alan; Willoughby, Twyla R. M.S.; Wallace, Karen; Manon, Rafael R.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Herrera, Luis; Johnston, Alan; Herran, Juan J.

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To report and describe implantation techniques and stability of metallic fiducials in lung lesions to be treated with external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing radiation therapy for small early-stage lung cancer underwent implantation with small metallic markers. Implantation was either transcutaneous under computed tomographic (CT) or fluoroscopic guidance or transbronchial with the superDimension/Bronchus system (radiofrequency signal-based bronchoscopy guidance related to CT images). Results: Implantation was performed transcutaneously in 15 patients and transbronchially in 8 patients. Pneumothorax occurred with eight of the 15 transcutaneous implants, six of which required chest tube placement. None of the patients who underwent transbronchial implantation developed pneumothorax. Successfully inserted markers were all usable during gated image-guided radiotherapy. Marker stability was determined by observing the variation in gross target volume (GTV) centroid relative to the marker on repeated CT scans. Average three-dimensional variation in the GTV center relative to the marker was 2.6 {+-} 1.3 (SD) mm, and the largest variation along any anatomic axis for any patient was <5 mm. Average GTV volume decrease during the observation period was 34% {+-} 23%. Gross tumor volumes do not appear to shrink uniformly about the center of the tumor, but rather the tumor shapes deform substantially throughout treatment. Conclusions: Transbronchial marker placement is less invasive than transcutaneous placement, which is associated with high pneumothorax rates. Although marker geometry can be affected by tumor shrinkage, implanted markers are stable within tumors throughout the treatment duration regardless of implantation method.

  18. Implantation of nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus ions into metals

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, M.I.; Gordeeva, G.V.

    1987-01-01

    The application of ion implantation for alloying offers a unique opportunity to modify the chemical composition, phase constitution, and microstructure of the surface layers of metals. The authors studied ion implantation of nitrogen and carbon into the surface layers of metallic targets. The phase composition of the implanted layers obtained on the Kh18N10T stainless steel, the refractory molybdenum alloy TsM-6, niobium, and nickel was determined according to the conventional method of recording the x-ray diffraction pattern of the specimens using monochromatic FeK/sub alpha/-radiation on a DRON-2,0 diffractometer. The targets were bombarded at room temperature in an ILU-3 ion accelerator. The implantation of metalloid ions was also conducted with the targets being bombarded with 100-keV phosphorus ions and 40-keV carbon ions.

  19. Neurotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles from metals.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari Shanker; Sharma, Aruna

    2012-02-01

    Human exposure to metal nanoparticles such as silver (Ag), copper (Cu) or aluminum (Al) is very common at work places involving automobile, aerospace industry, gun factories or defense related explosives making. Additional sources of exposure to engineered nanoparticles affecting human health are chemical, electronics and communication industries. The nanoparticles (ca. 20 to 120 nm) easily enter the body through inhalation and are deposited into various tissues and organs including brain, where they could stay there for long periods of time. However, the pathophysiological reactions of nanoparticles in vivo on brain function are still not well known. Previous observations from our laboratory showed that engineered nanoparticles from Ag, Cu or Al (50-60 nm) when administered through systemic or intracerebral routes in rats or mice induce neurotoxicity depending on their type, dose and duration of the exposure. These nanoparticles also altered sensory, motor and cognitive functions at the time of development of brain pathologies. Thus, neuronal, glial, axonal and endothelial cell damages are most pronounced following Ag and Cu intoxication as compared to Al in identical doses that are more pronounced in mice as compared to rats of similar age group. The functional significance of these findings and the probable mechanisms of metal nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity are discussed in this review largely based on our own investigations. PMID:22229317

  20. Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Doria, Gonçalo; Conde, João; Veigas, Bruno; Giestas, Leticia; Almeida, Carina; Assunção, Maria; Rosa, João; Baptista, Pedro V.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade the use of nanomaterials has been having a great impact in biosensing. In particular, the unique properties of noble metal nanoparticles have allowed for the development of new biosensing platforms with enhanced capabilities in the specific detection of bioanalytes. Noble metal nanoparticles show unique physicochemical properties (such as ease of functionalization via simple chemistry and high surface-to-volume ratios) that allied with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted the development of a plethora of biosensing platforms. Additionally, they also provide an additional or enhanced layer of application for commonly used techniques, such as fluorescence, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Herein we review the use of noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing strategies—from synthesis and functionalization to integration in molecular diagnostics platforms, with special focus on those that have made their way into the diagnostics laboratory. PMID:22438731

  1. Susceptibility of metallic magnesium implants to bacterial biofilm infections.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Rohde, Manfred; Rais, Bushra; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Mueller, Peter P

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium alloys have promising mechanical and biological properties as biodegradable medical implant materials for temporary applications during bone healing or as vascular stents. Whereas conventional implants are prone to colonization by treatment resistant microbial biofilms in which bacteria are embedded in a protective matrix, magnesium alloys have been reported to act antibacterial in vitro. To permit a basic assessment of antibacterial properties of implant materials in vivo an economic but robust animal model was established. Subcutaneous magnesium implants were inoculated with bacteria in a mouse model. Contrary to the expectations, bacterial activity was enhanced and prolonged in the presence of magnesium implants. Systemic antibiotic treatments were remarkably ineffective, which is a typical property of bacterial biofilms. Biofilm formation was further supported by electron microscopic analyses that revealed highly dense bacterial populations and evidence for the presence of extracellular matrix material. Bacterial agglomerates could be detected not only on the implant surface but also at a limited distance in the peri-implant tissue. Therefore, precautions may be necessary to minimize risks of metallic magnesium-containing implants in prospective clinical applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1489-1499, 2016. PMID:26860452

  2. Phagocytic and metabolic reactions to chronically implanted metal brain electrodes.

    PubMed

    Babb, T L; Kupfer, W

    1984-11-01

    In order to study the biocompatibility of metal electrodes and insulations in the rat brain, eight different metal electrode types and two different insulations were implanted for 11, 35, 36, 37, or 63 days. Stainless steel and Nichrome were nontoxic metals, silver was toxic, and copper extremely toxic with phagocytosis active to 37 days of implantation. Active phagocytosis was easily detected by high glucose demand using 2-deoxy[14C]glucose (2-DG) autoradiography contrasted with normal 2-DG autoradiographs where phagocytes were present but not ingesting. Epoxylite, an epoxy-polyester varnish, was slightly more reactive in brain than polyimide but not statistically significant. In general, larger electrodes created more tissue reaction per se for as long as 37 days. These results suggested that a thin stainless-steel bipolar electrode will provide safe recording electrodes in either animal or human brain. The importance of these findings is that certain metals (silver, copper) cannot be used in the brain without producing necrosis and phagocytosis, whereas other metals (stainless steel, Nichrome) with varnish insulators (Epoxylite, polyimide) can be implanted without producing any detectable damage beyond that of the initial trauma and brief phagocytosis limited to the edge of the electrode track. Finally, the glucose metabolism autoradiographs differentiated active phagocytosis (copper) from inactive phagocytes (silver) when using long implants (37 days) of toxic metals. PMID:6489492

  3. Alloy metal nanoparticles for multicolor cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Pedro V.; Doria, Gonçalo; Conde, João

    2011-03-01

    Cancer is a multigenic complex disease where multiple gene loci contribute to the phenotype. The ability to simultaneously monitor differential expression originating from each locus results in a more accurate indicator of degree of cancerous activity than either locus alone. Metal nanoparticles have been thoroughly used as labels for in vitro identification and quantification of target sequences. We have synthesized nanoparticles with assorted noble metal compositions in an alloy format and functionalized them with thiol-modified ssDNA (nanoprobes). These nanoprobes were then used for the simultaneous specific identification of several mRNA targets involved in cancer development - one pot multicolor detection of cancer expression. The different metal composition in the alloy yield different "colors" that can be used as tags for identification of a given target. Following a non-cross-linking hybridization procedure previously developed in our group for gold nanoprobes, these multicolor nanoprobes were used for the molecular recognition of several different targets including differently spliced variants of relevant genes (e.g. gene products involved in chronic myeloid leukemia BCR, ABL, BCR-ABL fusion product). Based on the spectral signature of mixtures, before and after induced aggregation of metal nanoparticles, the correct identification could be made. Further application to differentially quantify expression of each locus in relation to another will be presented. The differences in nanoparticle stability and labeling efficiency for each metal combination composing the colloids, as well as detection capability for each nanoprobe will be discussed. Additional studies will be conducted towards allele specific expression studies.

  4. Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Thyssen, Jacob P; Schalock, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous reactions to metal implants, orthopedic or otherwise, are well documented in the literature. The first case of a dermatitis reaction over a stainless steel fracture plate was described in 1966. Most skin reactions are eczematous and allergic in nature, although urticarial, bullous, and vasculitic eruptions may occur. Also, more complex immune reactions may develop around the implants, resulting in pain, inflammation, and loosening. Nickel, cobalt, and chromium are the three most common metals that elicit both cutaneous and extracutaneous allergic reactions from chronic internal exposure. However, other metal ions as well as bone cement components can cause such hypersensitivity reactions. To complicate things, patients may also develop delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to metals (ie, in-stent restenosis, prosthesis loosening, inflammation, pain, or allergic contact dermatitis) following the insertion of intravascular stents, dental implants, cardiac pacemakers, or implanted gynecologic devices. Despite repeated attempts by researchers and clinicians to further understand this difficult area of medicine, the association between metal sensitivity and cutaneous allergic reactions remains to be fully understood. This review provides an update of the current knowledge in this field and should be valuable to health care providers who manage patients with conditions related to this field. PMID:21504692

  5. [Should metal alloy discs be used for patch testing in suspected metal implant intolerance reaction?].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Geier, J; Dickel, H; Diepgen, T; Hillen, U; Kreft, B; Schnuch, A; Szliska, C; Mahler, V

    2015-11-01

    Intolerance reactions to metal implants may be caused by metal allergy. However, prior to implantation, patch testing should not be done in a prophylactic-prophetic approach. Pre-implant patch testing should only be performed to verify or exclude metal allergy in patients with a reported respective history. In the case of implant-in particular arthroplasty-related complications like, for example, pain, effusion, skin changes, reduced range of motion, or loosening, orthopedic-surgical differential diagnostics should be performed first. Allergological workup of suspected metal implant allergy should be done with the DKG baseline series which contains nickel-, cobalt- and chromium-preparations. Various studies assessing the usefulness of metal alloy discs for patch testing proved that this approach does not give reliable information about metal allergy. Positive patch test reactions to the discs cannot be assigned to a specific metal within the disc alloy components. Furthermore, availability of such metal discs might be an invitation to uncritical testing. Accordingly, due to lack of benefit in comparison to patch testing with standardized metal salt preparations, we do not recommend patch testing with metal alloy discs. PMID:26438196

  6. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J.

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  7. Synthesis of Graphite Encapsulated Metal Nanoparticles and Metal Catalyzed Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWal, R. L.; Dravid, V. P.

    1999-01-01

    This work focuses on the growth and inception of graphite encapsulated metal nanoparticles and metal catalyzed nanotubes using combustion chemistry. Deciphering the inception and growth mechanism(s) for these unique nanostructures is essential for purposeful synthesis. Detailed knowledge of these mechanism(s) may yield insights into alternative synthesis pathways or provide data on unfavorable conditions. Production of these materials is highly desirable given many promising technological applications.

  8. Dissolution of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Odzak, Niksa; Kistler, David; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura

    2014-08-01

    The dissolution of Ag (citrate, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidone and chitosan coated), ZnO, CuO and carbon coated Cu nanoparticles (with two nominal sizes each) has been studied in artificial aqueous media, similar in chemistry to environmental waters, for up to 19 days. The dissolved fraction was determined using DGT (Diffusion Gradients in Thin films), dialysis membrane (DM) and ultrafiltration (UF). Relatively small fractions of Ag nanoparticles dissolved, whereas ZnO dissolved nearly completely within few hours. Cu and CuO dissolved as a function of pH. Using DGT, less dissolved Ag was measured compared to UF and DM, likely due to differences in diffusion of organic complexes. Similar dissolved metal concentrations of ZnO, Cu and CuO nanoparticles were determined using DGT and UF, but lower using DM. The results indicate that there is a need to apply complementary techniques to precisely determine dissolution of nanoparticles in aqueous media. PMID:24832924

  9. Dynamic depolarization in plasmonic metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apell, S. Peter; Zorić, Igor; Langhammer, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    At very low photon energies most metals have a very large and negative dielectric function. For the response of a metal nanoparticle to an external field in this limit, this means that the particular choice of metal does not matter and the localized surface plasmon energy mainly depends on the shape and size of the particle. Here, we present a theoretical framework to describe this situation and unearth the interplay between the depolarization factor of the problem at hand and the dielectric function of the particle. Available experimental results compare favorably with our theoretical framework.

  10. Odyssey in Polyphasic Catalysis by Metal Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Denicourt-Nowicki, Audrey; Roucoux, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Nanometer-sized metal particles constitute an unavoidable family of catalysts, combining the advantages of molecular complexes in regards to their catalytic performances and the ones of heterogeneous systems in terms of easy recycling. As part of this research, our group aims at designing well-defined metal nanoparticles based-catalysts, in non-conventional media (ionic liquids or water), for various catalytic applications (hydrogenation, dehalogenation, carbon-carbon coupling, asymmetric catalysis) in mild reaction conditions. In the drive towards a more eco-responsible chemistry, the main focuses rely on the search of highly active and selective nanocatalysts, in association with an efficient recycling mainly under pure biphasic liquid-liquid conditions. In this Personal Account, we proposed our almost fifteen-years odyssey in the world of metal nanoparticles for a sustainable catalysis. PMID:27427501

  11. Metal nanoparticles in DBS card materials modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelkin, A.; Frolov, G.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years the method of collecting and storing Dried Blood Spots (DBS) on special cellulose membrane (paper) has gained wide popularity. But possible damage of biosamples caused by microorganisms in case of their incomplete drying is a disadvantage of the method. It can be overcome by treating sample-collection membranes with colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles, having antibacterial effect. The team studied antibacterial properties of nonwoven material samples with various coatings (alcohol sols of copper, aluminium, iron, titanium, silver and vanadium nanoparticles). Colloidal solutions of nanoparticles were obtained by means of electroerosion method with further low-temperature plasma condensation. Antibacterial activity of fiberglass and cellulose membrane samples with nanoparticle coatings was studied using B. cereus and plaque bacteria cultures. It was revealed that nanostructured coatings can suppress bacterial activity; in addition they can diffuse from the membrane surface into medium which leads to widening the areas of inhibiting testing cultures’ growth. Thus, membrane materials treatment with alcohol-sols of metal nanoparticles can be seen as promising for conferring antibacterial properties to DBS carriers.

  12. Metal Nanoparticles as Optical Nano-Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Jochen

    2003-03-01

    When molecules approach metal nanoparticles their fluorescent properties are drastically changed [1]. In addition, the optical scattering spectra of individual nanoparticles [2] are shifted in energy. Potential biophotonic applications for resonant energy transfer (RET) studies and for molecular recognition are discussed. [1] E. Dulkeith, A.C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T.A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. Levi, F.C. van Veggel, D.N. Reinhoudt, and M. Moeller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002). [2] C. Soennichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).

  13. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Huang, Yuhong; Butz, Frank; Ogawa, Takahiro; Lin, Audrey; Wang, Chiachien Jake

    2007-06-01

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO2. The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths.

  14. Silicon nanocrystal-noble metal hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, H; Fujii, M; Imakita, K

    2016-06-01

    We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion. PMID:27121127

  15. Modification of medical metals by ion implantation of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Y. Z.; Xiong, G. Y.; Liang, H.; Raman, S.; He, F.; Huang, Y.

    2007-10-01

    The effect of copper ion implantation on the antibacterial activity, wear performance and corrosion resistance of medical metals including 317 L of stainless steels, pure titanium, and Ti-Al-Nb alloy was studied in this work. The specimens were implanted with copper ions using a MEVVA source ion implanter with ion doses ranging from 0.5 × 10 17 to 4 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 at an energy of 80 keV. The antibacterial effect, wear rate, and inflexion potential were measured as a function of ion dose. The results obtained indicate that copper ion implantation improves the antibacterial effect and wear behaviour for all the three medical materials studied. However, corrosion resistance decreases after ion implantation of copper. Experimental results indicate that the antibacterial property and corrosion resistance should be balanced for medical titanium materials. The marked deteriorated corrosion resistance of 317 L suggests that copper implantation may not be an effective method of improving its antibacterial activity.

  16. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Poudel, Bed (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Wang, Wenzhong (Inventor); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  17. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang; Poudel, Bed; Kumar, Shankar; Wang, Wenzhong; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2009-09-08

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  18. Nanoscale size dependence on pulsed laser sintering of hydroxyapatite/titanium particles on metal implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Martin Yi; Cheng, Gary J.

    2010-12-01

    Nanoscale size effects on pulsed laser coating of hydroxyapatite/titanium nanoparticles (nanoTi) on metal substrate is discussed in this article. Laser coating method has recently been developed to coat bioceramics material on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Laser-coated bioceramics implants have several advantages due to the use of nanosized materials: strong interfacial bonding strength, good biocompatibility and potentially longer lifetime cycle. These advantages benefit from intrinsic properties of nanoparticles. Size effects on melting point, heat capacity, thermal, and electrical conductivities have been discussed. Multiphysics model is built to reveal the mechanism of laser coating process. Two submodules are included in the model: electromagnetic module to represent the laser-nanoparticle interactions and heat transfer module to simulate the heat conduction. Both simulation and experimental results showed that nanoTi, functioning as nanoheaters, effectively enhances the laser coating sinterability. For large nanoTi (>100 nm), sinterability enhancement mainly attributes to the stronger laser-particle interactions due to higher plasmon resonance; for small nanoparticles (<100 nm), not only stronger laser-nanoparticle interactions, reduction on melting point also contributes to sinterability enhancement.

  19. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Płaza, Grażyna A.; Chojniak, Joanna; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance. PMID:25110864

  20. Noble Metal Nanoparticles Applications in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Conde, João; Doria, Gonçalo; Baptista, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has prompted new and improved materials for biomedical applications with particular emphasis in therapy and diagnostics. Special interest has been directed at providing enhanced molecular therapeutics for cancer, where conventional approaches do not effectively differentiate between cancerous and normal cells; that is, they lack specificity. This normally causes systemic toxicity and severe and adverse side effects with concomitant loss of quality of life. Because of their small size, nanoparticles can readily interact with biomolecules both at surface and inside cells, yielding better signals and target specificity for diagnostics and therapeutics. This way, a variety of nanoparticles with the possibility of diversified modification with biomolecules have been investigated for biomedical applications including their use in highly sensitive imaging assays, thermal ablation, and radiotherapy enhancement as well as drug and gene delivery and silencing. Here, we review the available noble metal nanoparticles for cancer therapy, with particular focus on those already being translated into clinical settings. PMID:22007307

  1. In vitro study of magnetic nanoparticles as the implant for implant assisted magnetic drug targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangual, Jan O.; Avilés, Misael O.; Ebner, Armin D.; Ritter, James A.

    2011-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) seeds were studied in vitro for use as an implant in implant assisted-magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT). The magnetite seeds were captured in a porous polymer, mimicking capillary tissue, with an external magnetic field (70 mT) and then used subsequently to capture magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs) (0.87 μm diameter) with the same magnetic field. The effects of the MNP seed diameter (10, 50 and 100 nm), MNP seed concentration (0.25-2.0 mg/mL), and fluid velocity (0.03-0.15 cm/s) on the capture efficiency (CE) of both the MNP seeds and the MDCPs were studied. The CE of the 10 nm MNP seeds was never more than 30%, while those of the 50 and 100 nm MNP seeds was always greater than 80% and in many cases exceeded 90%. Only the MNP seed concentration affected its CE. The 10 nm MNP seeds did not increase the MDCP CE over that obtained in the absence of the MNP seeds, while the 50 and 100 nm MNP seeds increased significantly, typically by more than a factor of two. The 50 and 100 nm MNP seeds also exhibited similar abilities to capture the MDCPs, with the MDCP CE always increasing with decreasing fluid velocity and generally increasing with increasing MNP seed concentration. The MNP seed size, magnetic properties, and capacity to self-agglomerate and form clusters were key properties that make them a viable implant in IA-MDT.

  2. N-TiO2 nanoparticles embedded in silica prepared by Ti ion implantation and annealing in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Xia; Chen, Meng; Ju, Yongfeng; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Wang, Lumin M.; Zhang, Yanwen

    2010-05-01

    Room temperature Ti ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing in N2 ambience have been used to fabricate the anatase and rutile structured N-doped TiO2 particles embedded in the surface region of fused silica. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code simulation indicates a Gaussian distribution of implanted Ti, with a projected range of 74.4 nm and straggling of 16.5 nm. However, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy results show a much shallower distribution peaked at ~ 30 nm. Significant sputtering loss of silica substrates has occurred during implantation. Nanoparticles with size of 10-20 nm in diameter have formed after implantation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the coexistence of TiO2 and metallic Ti in the as-implanted samples. Metallic Ti is oxidized to anatase TiO2 after annealing at 600ºC, while rutile TiO2 forms by phase transformation after annealing at 900ºC. At the same time, N-Ti-O, Ti-O-N and/or Ti-N-O linkages have formed in the lattice of TiO2. A red shift of 0.34 eV in the absorption edge is obtained for N-doped anatase TiO2 after annealing at 600 ºC for 6 h. The absorbance increases in the ultraviolet and visible waveband.

  3. Anderson localization in metallic nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Zhijie; Lin, Fang; Pang, Wei; Xu, Haitao; Tan, Suiyan; Fu, Shenhe; Li, Yongyao

    2016-06-01

    Anderson localization has been observed in various types of waves, such as matter waves, optical waves and acoustic waves. Here we reveal that the effect of Anderson localization can be also induced in metallic nonlinear nanoparticle arrays excited by a random electrically driving field. We find that the dipole-induced nonlinearity results in ballistic expansion of dipole intensity during evolution; while the randomness of the external driving field can suppress such an expansion. Increasing the strength of randomness above the threshold value, a localized pattern of dipole intensity can be generated in the metallic nanoparticle arrays. By means of statistics, the mean intensity distribution of the dipoles reveals the formation of Anderson localization. We further show that the generated Anderson localization is highly confined, with its size down to the scale of incident wavelength. The reported results might facilitate the manipulations of electromagnetic fields in the scale of wavelength.

  4. Anderson localization in metallic nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Mai, Zhijie; Lin, Fang; Pang, Wei; Xu, Haitao; Tan, Suiyan; Fu, Shenhe; Li, Yongyao

    2016-06-13

    Anderson localization has been observed in various types of waves, such as matter waves, optical waves and acoustic waves. Here we reveal that the effect of Anderson localization can be also induced in metallic nonlinear nanoparticle arrays excited by a random electrically driving field. We find that the dipole-induced nonlinearity results in ballistic expansion of dipole intensity during evolution; while the randomness of the external driving field can suppress such an expansion. Increasing the strength of randomness above the threshold value, a localized pattern of dipole intensity can be generated in the metallic nanoparticle arrays. By means of statistics, the mean intensity distribution of the dipoles reveals the formation of Anderson localization. We further show that the generated Anderson localization is highly confined, with its size down to the scale of incident wavelength. The reported results might facilitate the manipulations of electromagnetic fields in the scale of wavelength. PMID:27410338

  5. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation

    SciTech Connect

    Rondinone, Adam J.; Moon, Ji Won; Love, Lonnie J.; Yeary, Lucas W.; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2015-09-08

    The invention is directed to a method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles, the method comprising: (i) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbial-mediated formation of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprise: metal-reducing microbes, a culture medium suitable for sustaining said metal-reducing microbes, an effective concentration of one or more surfactants, a reducible metal oxide component containing one or more reducible metal species, and one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said metal-reducing microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said metal-reducing microbes; and (ii) isolating said metal oxide nanoparticles, which contain a reduced form of said reducible metal oxide component. The invention is also directed to metal oxide nanoparticle compositions produced by the inventive method.

  6. Interaction of mobile phones with superficial passive metallic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, H.; Huttunen, J.; Toropainen, A.; Lappalainen, R.

    2005-06-01

    The dosimetry of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields of mobile phones is generally based on the specific absorption rate (SAR, W kg-1), which is the electromagnetic energy absorbed in the tissues per unit mass and time. In this study, numerical methods and modelling were used to estimate the effect of a passive, metallic (conducting) superficial implant on a mobile phone EM field and especially its absorption in tissues in the near field. Two basic implant models were studied: metallic pins and rings in the surface layers of the human body near the mobile phone. The aim was to find out 'the worst case scenario' with respect to energy absorption by varying different parameters such as implant location, orientation, size and adjacent tissues. Modelling and electromagnetic field calculations were carried out using commercial SEMCAD software based on the FDTD (finite difference time domain) method. The mobile phone was a 900 MHz or 1800 MHz generic phone with a quarter wave monopole antenna. A cylindrical tissue phantom models different curved sections of the human body such as limbs or a head. All the parameters studied (implant size, orientation, location, adjacent tissues and signal frequency) had a major effect on the SAR distribution and in certain cases high local EM fields arose near the implant. The SAR values increased most when the implant was on the skin and had a resonance length or diameter, i.e. about a third of the wavelength in tissues. The local peak SAR values increased even by a factor of 400-700 due to a pin or a ring. These highest values were reached in a limited volume close to the implant surface in almost all the studied cases. In contrast, without the implant the highest SAR values were generally reached on the skin surface. Mass averaged SAR1 g and SAR10 g values increased due to the implant even by a factor of 3 and 2, respectively. However, at typical power levels of mobile phones the enhancement is unlikely to be

  7. Interaction of mobile phones with superficial passive metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, H; Huttunen, J; Toropainen, A; Lappalainen, R

    2005-06-01

    The dosimetry of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields of mobile phones is generally based on the specific absorption rate (SAR, W kg(-1)), which is the electromagnetic energy absorbed in the tissues per unit mass and time. In this study, numerical methods and modelling were used to estimate the effect of a passive, metallic (conducting) superficial implant on a mobile phone EM field and especially its absorption in tissues in the near field. Two basic implant models were studied: metallic pins and rings in the surface layers of the human body near the mobile phone. The aim was to find out 'the worst case scenario' with respect to energy absorption by varying different parameters such as implant location, orientation, size and adjacent tissues. Modelling and electromagnetic field calculations were carried out using commercial SEMCAD software based on the FDTD (finite difference time domain) method. The mobile phone was a 900 MHz or 1800 MHz generic phone with a quarter wave monopole antenna. A cylindrical tissue phantom models different curved sections of the human body such as limbs or a head. All the parameters studied (implant size, orientation, location, adjacent tissues and signal frequency) had a major effect on the SAR distribution and in certain cases high local EM fields arose near the implant. The SAR values increased most when the implant was on the skin and had a resonance length or diameter, i.e. about a third of the wavelength in tissues. The local peak SAR values increased even by a factor of 400-700 due to a pin or a ring. These highest values were reached in a limited volume close to the implant surface in almost all the studied cases. In contrast, without the implant the highest SAR values were generally reached on the skin surface. Mass averaged SAR(1 g) and SAR(10 g) values increased due to the implant even by a factor of 3 and 2, respectively. However, at typical power levels of mobile phones the enhancement is unlikely to

  8. Coating of metal implant materials with strontium.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias J; Walter, Martin S; Tiainen, Hanna; Rubert, Marina; Monjo, Marta; Lyngstadaas, S Petter; Haugen, Håvard J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to show that cathodic polarization can be used for coating commercial implant surfaces with an immobilized but functional and bioavailable surface layer of strontium (Sr). Moreover, this study assessed the effect of fluorine on Sr-attachment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that addition of fluorine (F) to the buffer during coating increased surface Sr-amounts but also changed the chemical surface composition by adding SrF2 alongside of SrO whereas pre-treatment of the surface by pickling in hydrofluoric acid appeared to hinder Sr-attachment. Assessment of the bio-availability hinted at a positive effect of Sr on cell differentiation given that the surface reactivity of the original surface remained unchanged. Additional SrF2 on the surface appeared to reduce undesired surface contamination while maintaining the surface micro-topography and micro-morphology. Anyhow, this surface modification revealed to create nano-nodules on the surface. PMID:23888353

  9. Hybrid nanocomposite coatings from metal (Mg alloy)-drug deposited onto medical implant by laser adaptive ablation deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbezov, Valery; Sotirov, Sotir; Serbezov, Svetlin

    2013-03-01

    Drug-eluting medical implants are active implants whose function is to create healing effects. The current requirements for active medical coatings for Drug-eluting medical implants are to be biocompatible, biodegradable, polymer free, mechanically stable and enable a controlled release of one or more drugs and defined degradation. This brings hybrid nanocomposite coatings into focus especially in the field of cardiovascular implants. We studied the properties of Metal (Mg alloy)-Paclitaxel coatings obtained by novel Laser Adaptive Ablation Deposition Technique (LAAD) onto cardiovascular stents from 316 LVM stainless steel material. The morphology and topology of coatings were studied by Bright field / Fluorescence optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Comparative measurements were made of the morphology and topology of hybrid, polymer free nanocomposite coatings deposited by LAAD and polymerdrug coatings deposited by classical spray technique. The coatings obtained by LAAD are homogeneous without damages and cracks. Metal nanoparticles with sizes from 40 nm to 230 nm were obtained in drug matrixes. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) was used for identification of metal nanoparticles presence in hybrid nanocomposites coatings. The new technology opens up possibilities to obtain new hybrid nanocomposite coatings with applications in medicine, pharmacy and biochemistry.

  10. Metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.

    1996-09-01

    Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (MePIIID) is a hybrid process combining cathodic arc deposition and plasma immersion ion implantation. The properties of metal plasma produced by vacuum arcs are reviewed and the consequences for MePIIID are discussed. Different version of MePIIID are described and compared with traditional methods of surface modification such as ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). MePIIID is a very versatile approach because of the wide range of ion species and energies used. In one extreme case, films are deposited with ions in the energy range 20--50 eV, and at the other extreme, ions can be implanted with high energy (100 keV or more) without film deposition. Novel features of the technique include the use of improved macroparticle filters; the implementation of several plasma sources for multi-element surface modification; tuning of ion energy during implantation and deposition to tailor the substrate-film intermixed layer and structure of the growing film; simultaneous pulsing of the plasma potential (positive) and substrate bias (negative) with a modified Marx generator; and the use of high ion charge states.

  11. Screening Methods for Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening-level analysis of water for metal-containing nanoparticles is achieved with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS). This method measures both the concentration of nanoparticles containing an analyte metal and the mass of the metal in eac...

  12. The Effect of Metal Oxide on Nanoparticles from Thermite Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lewis Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how metal oxide used in a thermite reaction can impact the production of nanoparticles. The results showed the presence of nanoparticles (less than 1 micron in diameter) of at least one type produced by each metal oxide. The typical particles were metallic spheres, which ranged from 300 nanometers in…

  13. Bulk Metallic Glasses for Implantable Medical Devices and Surgical Tools.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Philip; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D; Byrne, James H; Browne, David J

    2016-07-01

    With increasing knowledge of the materials science of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and improvements in their properties and processing, they have started to become candidate materials for biomedical devices. A dichotomy in the types of medical applications has also emerged, in which some families of BMGs are being developed for permanent devices whilst another family - of Mg-based alloys - is showing promise in bioabsorbable implants. The current status of these metallurgical and technological developments is summarized. PMID:27031058

  14. Dynamics of Faceted Nanoparticles Formation in a Crystalline Matrix During Ion Implantation Processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Dar

    2016-02-01

    The faceted nanoparticle synthesized by ion implantation, such as Zn, Cu or Ag nanoparticles, is one of the promising materials for the next generation of optical devices. To understand and better control the manufacturing processes of ion implantation, a theoretical model is applied to investigate the formation and evolution of faceted nanoparticles under various experimental conditions of implantation processing. In this study, the mechanisms of the anisotropic interfacial energy and kinetics with different ion distributions are taken into consideration to demonstrate the role of the crystallographic symmetry, ion energy and temperature on the faceted nanoparticles formation in a crystalline matrix. As presented in the numerical results, the morphological shape of the nanoparticles is mainly affected by the crystallographic symmetry, while the distribution of the precipitates is principally determined by the ion energy. For the condition of high-temperature implantation, a high mobility of ions causes the characteristic length of nanostructures to increase and creates a coarsening morphology of nanoparticles. It is attributed to a longer diffusion distance during the nucleation and growth processes. This model can be widely used for the predictions of the nanostructures formation with various ion implantation processes. PMID:27433726

  15. Silicon nanocrystal-noble metal hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, H.; Fujii, M.; Imakita, K.

    2016-05-01

    We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion.We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM images and extinction spectra of Si-metal hybrid NPs are shown in Fig. S1

  16. “Green” Nanotechnologies: Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using Plants

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, V. V.; Love, A. J.; Sinitsyna, O. V.; Makarova, S. S.; Yaminsky, I. V.; Taliansky, M. E.; Kalinina, N. O.

    2014-01-01

    While metal nanoparticles are being increasingly used in many sectors of the economy, there is growing interest in the biological and environmental safety of their production. The main methods for nanoparticle production are chemical and physical approaches that are often costly and potentially harmful to the environment. The present review is devoted to the possibility of metal nanoparticle synthesis using plant extracts. This approach has been actively pursued in recent years as an alternative, efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally safe method for producing nanoparticles with specified properties. This review provides a detailed analysis of the various factors affecting the morphology, size, and yield of metal nanoparticles. The main focus is on the role of the natural plant biomolecules involved in the bioreduction of metal salts during the nanoparticle synthesis. Examples of effective use of exogenous biomatrices (peptides, proteins, and viral particles) to obtain nanoparticles in plant extracts are discussed. PMID:24772325

  17. Biodegradable/biocompatible coated metal implants for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohamed M; Touny, A H; Al-Omair, Mohammed A; Saleh, M M

    2016-05-12

    Biocompatible metals have been suggested as revolutionary biomaterials for bone-grafting therapies. Although metals and their alloys are widely and successfully used in producing biomedical implants due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, they have a lack in bioactivity. Therefore coating of the metal surface with calcium phosphates (CaP) is a benign way to achieve well bioactivity and get controlled corrosion properties. The biocompatibility and bioactivity calcium phosphates (CaP) in bone growth were guided them to biomedical treatment of bone defects and fractures. Many techniques have been used for fabrication of CaP coatings on metal substrates such as magnesium and titanium. The present review will focus on the synthesis of CaP and their relative forms using different techniques especially electrochemical techniques. The latter has always been known of its unique way of optimizing the process parameters that led to a control in the structure and characteristics of the produced materials. PMID:27175470

  18. Metal oxide nanoparticles with low toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alan Man Ching; Guo, Mu Yao; Leung, Yu Hang; Chan, Charis M N; Wong, Stella W Y; Yung, Mana M N; Ma, Angel P Y; Djurišić, Aleksandra B; Leung, Frederick C C; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Chan, Wai Kin; Lee, Hung Kay

    2015-10-01

    A number of different nanomaterials produced and incorporated into various products are rising. However, their environmental hazards are frequently unknown. Here we consider three different metal oxide compounds (SnO2, In2O3, and Al2O3), which have not been extensively studied and are expected to have low toxicity. This study aimed to comprehensively characterize the physicochemical properties of these nanomaterials and investigate their toxicity on bacteria (Escherichia coli) under UV illumination and in the dark, as well as on a marine diatom (Skeletonema costatum) under ambient illumination/dark (16-8h) cycles. The material properties responsible for their low toxicity have been identified based on comprehensive experimental characterizations and comparison to a metal oxide exhibiting significant toxicity under illumination (anatase TiO2). The metal oxide materials investigated exhibited significant difference in surface properties and interaction with the living organisms. In order for a material to exhibit significant toxicity, it needs to be able to both form a stable suspension in the culture medium and to interact with the cell walls of the test organism. Our results indicated that the observed low toxicities of the three nanomaterials could be attributed to the limited interaction between the nanoparticles and cell walls of the test organisms. This could occur either due to the lack of significant attachment between nanoparticles and cell walls, or due to their tendency to aggregate in solution. PMID:26143160

  19. Apoferritin-Templated Synthesis of Encoded Metallic Phosphate Nanoparticle Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wu, Hong; Dohnalkova, Alice; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-07-31

    Encoded metallic-phosphate nanoparticle tags, with distinct encoding patterns, have been prepared using an apoferritin template. A center-cavity structure as well as the disassociation and reconstructive characteristics of apoferritin at different pH environments provide a facile route for preparing such encoded nanoparticle tags. Encapsulation and diffusion approaches have been investigated during the preparation. The encapsulation approach, which is based on the dissociation and reconstruction of apoferritin at different pHs, exhibits an effective route to prepare such encoded metallic-phosphate nanoparticle tags. The compositionally encoded nanoparticle tag leads to a high coding capacity with a large number of distinguishable voltammetric signals, reflecting the predetermined composition of the metal mixture solution (and hence the nanoparticle composition). Releasing the metal components from the nanoparticle tags at pH 4.6 acetate buffer avoids harsh dissolution conditions, such as strong acids. Such a synthesis of encoded nanoparticle tags, including single-component and compositionally encoded nanoparticle tags, is substantially simple, fast, and convenient compared to that of encoded metal nanowires and semiconductor nanoparticle (CdS, PbS, and ZnS) incorporated polystyrene beads. The encoded metallic-phosphate nanoparticle tags thus show great promise for bioanalytical or product-tracking/identification/protection applications.

  20. Cell Surface-based Sensing with Metallic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ziwen; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles provide versatile scaffolds for biosensing applications. In this review, we focus on the use of metallic nanoparticles for cell surface sensings. Examples of the use of both specific recognition and array-based “chemical nose” approaches to cell surface sensing will be discussed. PMID:25853985

  1. Ultrafast spectroscopic studies of metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Min

    An important aim of nanoparticle research is to understand how the properties of materials depend on their size and shape. In this thesis, time-resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the physical properties of nanometer sized objects, such as the characteristic time scale for heat dissipation and their elastic moduli. In our experiments, metal nanoparticles are excited with a sub-picosecond laser pulse, which causes a rapid increase in the lattice temperature. In the first project, the rate of heat dissipation from Au nanoparticles to their surroundings was examined for different size gold nanospheres in aqueous solution. Laser induced lattice heating can also impulsively excite the phonon modes of the particle that correlate with the expansion co-ordinates. For spherical Au particles the symmetric breathing mode is excited. Experimental results for ˜50 nm diameter Au particles were compared to a model calculation where the expansion coordinate is treated as a damped harmonic oscillator. This gives information about the excitation mechanism. In the second project, the extensional and breathing modes of cylindrical gold nanorods were studied by time-resolved spectroscopy. These experiments yield values for the elastic constants for the rods. Both the extensional mode and the breathing mode results show that gold nanorods produced by wet chemical techniques have a smaller elastic moduli than bulk gold. HR-TEM and SAED studies show that the rods have a 5-fold twinned structure with growth along the [110] crystal direction. However, neither the growth direction nor the twinning provide a simple explanation for the reduced elastic moduli measured in the experiments. In a final project, polydisperse silver nanoparticle samples were investigated. A signal due to coherently excited vibrational motion was observed. The analysis shows that the observed signal arises from the triangular-shaped particles, rather than the rods or spheres that are present in the sample

  2. Strategic role of selected noble metal nanoparticles in medicine.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash P; Birla, Sonal; Yadav, Alka; Santos, Carolina Alves Dos

    2016-09-01

    Noble metals and their compounds have been used as therapeutic agents from the ancient time in medicine for the treatment of various infections. Recently, much progress has been made in the field of nanobiotechnology towards the development of different kinds of nanomaterials with a wide range of applications. Among the metal nanoparticles, noble metal nanoparticles have demonstrated potential biomedical applications. Due to the small size, nanoparticles can easily interact with biomolecules both at surface and inside cells, yielding better signals and target specificity for diagnostics and therapeutics. Noble metal nanoparticles inspired the researchers due to their remarkable role in detection and treatment of dreadful diseases. In this review, we have attempted to focus on the biomedical applications of noble metal nanoparticles particularly, silver, gold, and platinum in diagnosis and treatment of dreaded diseases such as cancer, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), and Parkinson disease. In addition, the role of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) such as novel antimicrobials, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) such as efficient drug carrier, uses of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) in bone allograft, dentistry, etc. have been critically reviewed. Moreover, the toxicity due to the use of metal nanoparticles and some unsolved challenges in the field have been discussed with their possible solutions. PMID:26089024

  3. Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Carbon Nanotube Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Benjamin F.

    2003-01-01

    Work this summer involved and new and unique process for producing the metal nanoparticle catalysts needed for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth. There are many applications attributed to CNT's, and their properties have deemed them to be a hot spot in research today. Many groups have demonstrated the versatility in CNT's by exploring a wide spectrum of roles that these nanotubes are able to fill. A short list of such promising applications are: nanoscaled electronic circuitry, storage media, chemical sensors, microscope enhancement, and coating reinforcement. Different methods have been used to grow these CNT's. Some examples are laser ablation, flame synthesis, or furnace synthesis. Every single approach requires the presence of a metal catalyst (Fe, Co, and Ni are among the best) that is small enough to produce a CNT. Herein lies the uniqueness of this work. Microemulsions (containing inverse micelles) were used to generate these metal particles for subsequent CNT growth. The goal of this summer work was basically to accomplish as much preliminary work as possible. I strived to pinpoint which variable (experimental process, metal product, substrate, method of application, CVD conditions, etc.) was the determining factor in the results. The resulting SEM images were sufficient for the appropriate comparisons to be made. The future work of this project consists of the optimization of the more promising experimental procedures and further exploration onto what exactly dictated the results.

  4. Ion beam synthesis and investigation of nanocomposite multiferroics based on barium titanate with 3 d metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalitov, N. I.; Lyadov, N. M.; Valeev, V. F.; Khaibullin, R. I.; Faizrakhmanov, I. A.; Dulov, E. N.; Tagirov, L. R.; Ibragimov, Sh. Z.; Prikhodko, K. E.; Roddatis, V. V.; Maksutoglu, M.; Kazan, S.; Mikailzade, F. A.

    2013-06-01

    Samples of nanocomposite multiferroics have been synthesized by implantation of Co+, Fe+, and Ni+ ions with an energy of 40 keV into ferroelectric barium titanate plates to doses in the range (0.5-1.5) × 1017 ions/cm2. It has been found that nanoparticles of metallic iron, cobalt, or nickel are formed in the barium titanate layer subjected to ion bombardment. With an increase in the implantation dose, the implanted samples sequentially exhibit superparamagnetic, soft magnetic, and, finally, strong ferromagnetic properties at room temperature. The average sizes of ion-synthesized 3 d-metal nanoparticles vary in the range from 5 to 10 nm depending on the implantation dose. Investigation of the orientation dependence of the magnetic hysteresis loops has demonstrated that the samples show a uniaxial ("easy plane") magnetic anisotropy typical of thin granular magnetic films. Ferromagnetic BaTiO3: 3 d metal samples are characterized by a significant shift of the ferromagnetic resonance signal in an external electric field, as well as by a large (in magnitude) magnetodielectric effect at room temperature. These results indicate that there is a strong magnetoelectric coupling between the ferroelectric barium titanate matrix and ion-synthesized nanoparticles of magnetic metals.

  5. Development and Applications of Porous Tantalum Trabecular Metal Enhanced Titanium Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bencharit, Sompop; Byrd, Warren C.; Altarawneh, Sandra; Hosseini, Bashir; Leong, Austin; Reside, Glenn; Morelli, Thiago; Offenbacher, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem Porous tantalum trabecular metal has recently been incorporated in titanium dental implants as a new form of implant surface enhancement. However, there is little information on the applications of this material in implant dentistry. Methods We, therefore review the current literature on the basic science and clinical uses of this material. Results Porous tantalum metal is used to improve the contact between osseous structure and dental implants; and therefore presumably facilitate osseointegration. Success of porous tantalum metal in orthopedic implants led to the incorporation of porous tantalum metal in the design of root-from endosseous titanium implants. The porous tantalum three-dimensional enhancement of titanium dental implant surface allows for combining bone ongrowth together with bone ingrowth, or osseoincorporation. While little is known about the biological aspect of the porous tantalum in the oral cavity, there seems to be several possible advantages of this implant design. This article reviews the biological aspects of porous tantalum enhanced titanium dental implants, in particular the effects of anatomical consideration and oral environment to implant designs. Conclusions We propose here possible clinical situations and applications for this type of dental implant. Advantages and disadvantages of the implants as well as needed future clinical studies are discussed. PMID:23527899

  6. Popping of graphite oxide: application in preparing metal nanoparticle catalysts.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongjun; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Jiaguang; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tsunehiro; Teramura, Kentaro; Ma, Ding; Yan, Ning

    2015-08-26

    A popcorn-like transformation of graphite oxide (GO) is reported and used to synthesize metal nanoparticle catalysts. The popping step is unique and essential, not only generating a high-surface-area support but also partially decomposing the metal precursors to form well-separated metal oxide nuclei, which would further evolve into highly dispersed and uniform-sized nanoparticles in the subsequent reduction. PMID:26179983

  7. Marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Nam, Seung Yun; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-11-01

    The use of marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is a relatively new field of research with considerable prospects. This method is eco-friendly, time saving, and inexpensive and can be easily scaled up for large-scale synthesis. The increasing need to develop simple, nontoxic, clean, and environmentally safe production methods for nanoparticles and to decrease environmental impact, minimize waste, and increase energy productivity has become important in this field. Marine microorganisms are tiny organisms that live in marine ecosystems and account for >98% of biomass of the world's ocean. Marine microorganisms synthesize metallic nanoparticles either intracellularly or extracellularly. Marine microbially-produced metallic nanoparticles have received considerable attention in recent years because of their expected impact on various applications such as medicine, energy, electronic, and space industries. The present review discusses marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and their potential applications. PMID:26920850

  8. Evaluation of metallic osseous implants with nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, H.N.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Capello, W.N.

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear medicine has proven to have a valuable role in the evaluation of osseous metallic implants, particularly with joint prostheses, but can assist with evaluation of other appliances as well. The nuclear arthrogram has become an invaluable adjunct to simultaneously performed radiographic contrast arthrography. This application has been best evaluated in what is one of the most common of orthopedic prosthesis problems, namely, loosening of total hip prostheses. Experience indicates that both sensitivity and specificity of loosening of the femoral component can be increased to over 90% through combined use of nuclear with radiographic contrast arthrography. Furthermore the combination of routine skeletal scintimaging with the nuclear arthrogram adds a significant dimension to precise localizing of the nuclear arthrographics agent In-111 chloride. Nuclear medicine also plays an important role in further evaluating the presence of infection associated with metallic implants with In-111 WBC preparations being superior to Ga-67 as the radiopharmaceutical tracer. Infection has been detected with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in our series using combined In-111 WBC and simultaneous skeletal imaging with conventional Tc-99m MDP. Acute infections are more readily identifiable than chronic in association with prostheses. 29 references.

  9. Designing biocompatible Ti-based metallic glasses for implant applications.

    PubMed

    Calin, Mariana; Gebert, Annett; Ghinea, Andreea Cosmina; Gostin, Petre Flaviu; Abdi, Somayeh; Mickel, Christine; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    Ti-based metallic glasses show high potential for implant applications; they overcome in several crucial respects their well-established biocompatible crystalline counterparts, e.g. improved corrosion properties, higher fracture strength and wear resistance, increased elastic strain range and lower Young's modulus. However, some of the elements required for glass formation (e.g. Cu, Ni) are harmful for the human body. We critically reviewed the biological safety and glass forming tendency in Ti of 27 elements. This can be used as a basis for the future designing of novel amorphous Ti-based implant alloys entirely free of harmful additions. In this paper, two first alloys were developed: Ti(75)Zr(10)Si(15) and Ti(60)Nb(15)Zr(10)Si(15). The overheating temperature of the melt before casting can be used as the controlling parameter to produce fully amorphous materials or bcc-Ti-phase reinforced metallic glass nano-composites. The beneficial effect of Nb addition on the glass-formation and amorphous phase stability was assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallization and mechanical behavior of ribbons are influenced by the amount and distribution of the nano-scaled bcc phase existing in the as-cast state. Their electrochemical stability in Ringer's solution at 310 K was found to be significantly better than that of commercial Ti-based biomaterials; no indication for pitting corrosion was recorded. PMID:25427501

  10. Structural and vibrational properties of Co nanoparticles formed by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprouster, D. J.; Giulian, R.; Araujo, L. L.; Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Cookson, D. J.; Foran, G. J.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the structural and vibrational properties of Co nanoparticles formed by ion implantation and thermal annealing in amorphous silica. The evolution of the nanoparticle size, phase, and structural parameters were determined as a function of the formation conditions using transmission electron microscopy, small-angle x-ray scattering, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The implantation fluence and annealing temperature governed the spherical nanoparticle size and phase. To determine the latter, x-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis was used to quantify the hexagonal close packed, face-centered cubic and oxide fractions. The structural properties were characterized by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and finite-size effects were readily apparent. With a decrease in nanoparticle size, an increase in structural disorder and a decrease in both coordination number and bondlength were observed as consistent with the non-negligible surface-area-to-volume ratio characteristic of nanoparticles. The surface tension of Co nanoparticles calculated using a liquid drop model was more than twice that of bulk material. The size-dependent vibrational properties were probed with temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements. Using a correlated anharmonic Einstein model and thermodynamic perturbation theory, Einstein temperatures for both nanoparticles and bulk material were determined. Compared to bulk Co, the mean vibrational frequency of the smallest nanoparticles was reduced as attributed to a greater influence of loosely bonded, undercoordinated surface atoms relative to the effect of capillary pressure generated by surface curvature.

  11. Paper surfaces for metal nanoparticle inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhlund, Thomas; Örtegren, Jonas; Forsberg, Sven; Nilsson, Hans-Erik

    2012-10-01

    The widespread usage of paper and board offer largely unexploited possibilities for printed electronics applications. Reliability and performance of printed devices on comparatively rough and inhomogenous surfaces of paper does however pose challenges. Silver nanoparticle ink has been deposited on ten various paper substrates by inkjet printing. The papers are commercially available, and selected over a range of different types and construction. A smooth nonporous polyimide film was included as a nonporous reference substrate. The substrates have been characterized in terms of porosity, absorption rate, apparent surface energy, surface roughness and material content. The electrical conductivity of the resulting printed films have been measured after drying at 60 °C and again after additional curing at 110 °C. A qualitative analysis of the conductivity differences on the different substrates based on surface characterization and SEM examination is presented. Measurable parameters of importance to the final conductivity are pointed out, some of which are crucial to achieve conductivity. When certain criteria of the surfaces are met, paper media can be used as low cost, but comparably high performance substrates for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

  12. Misfit stabilized embedded nanoparticles in metallic alloys.

    PubMed

    Gornostyrev, Yu N; Katsnelson, M I

    2015-11-01

    Nanoscale inhomogeneities are typical for numerous metallic alloys and crucially important for their practical applications. At the same time, stabilization mechanisms of such a state are poorly understood. We present a general overview of the problem, together with a more detailed discussion of the prototype example, namely, Guinier-Preston zones in Al-based alloys. It is shown that coherent strain due to a misfit between inclusion and host crystal lattices plays a decisive role in the emergence of the inhomogeneous state. We suggest a model explaining the formation of ultrathin plates (with the thickness of a few lattice constants) typical for Al-Cu alloys. Discreteness of the array of misfit dislocations and long-ranged elastic interactions between them are the key ingredients of the model. This opens a way for a general understanding of the nature of (meta)stable embedded nanoparticles in practically important systems. PMID:26431075

  13. Interference between nanoparticles and metal homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, A. N.; Aude Garcia, C.; Candéias, S.; Casanova, A.; Catty, P.; Charbonnier, P.; Chevallet, M.; Collin-Faure, V.; Cuillel, M.; Douki, T.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Lelong, C.; Luche, S.; Mintz, E.; Moulis, J. M.; Nivière, V.; Ollagnier de Choudens, S.; Rabilloud, T.; Ravanat, J. L.; Sauvaigo, S.; Carrière, M.; Michaud-Soret, I.

    2011-07-01

    The TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are now produced abundantly and widely used in a variety of consumer products. Due to the important increase in the production of TiO2-NPs, potential widespread exposure of humans and environment may occur during both the manufacturing process and final use. Therefore, the potential toxicity of TiO2-NPs on human health and environment has attracted particular attention. Unfortunately, the results of the large number of studies on the toxicity of TiO2-NPs differ significantly, mainly due to an incomplete characterization of the used nanomaterials in terms of size, shape and crystalline structure and to their unknown state of agglomeration/aggregation. The purpose of our project entitled NanoBioMet is to investigate if interferences between nanoparticles and metal homeostasis could be observed and to study the toxicity mechanisms of TiO2-NPs with well-characterized physicochemical parameters, using proteomic and molecular approaches. A perturbation of metal homeostasis will be evaluated upon TiO2-NPs exposure which could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, oxidative stress consequences such as DNA damage and lipid peroxidation will be studied. The toxicity of TiO2-NPs of different sizes and crystalline structures will be evaluated both in prokaryotic (E. coli) and eukaryotic cells (A549 human pneumocytes, macrophages, and hepatocytes). First results of the project will be presented concerning the dispersion of TiO2-NPs in bacterial medium, proteomic studies on total extracts of macrophages and genotoxicity on pneumocytes.

  14. Asymmetric light reflectance from metal nanoparticle arrays on dielectric surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Huang, K.; Pan, W.; Zhu, J. F.; Li, J. C.; Gao, N.; Liu, C.; Ji, L.; Yu, E. T.; Kang, J.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric light reflectance associated with localized surface plasmons excited in metal nanoparticles on a quartz substrate is observed and analyzed. This phenomenon is explained by the superposition of two waves, the wave reflected by the air/quartz interface and that reflected by the metal nanoparticles, and the resulting interference effects. Far field behavior investigation suggests that zero reflection can be achieved by optimizing the density of metal nanoparticles. Near field behavior investigation suggests that the coupling efficiency of localized surface plasmon can be additionally enhanced by separating the metal NPs from substrates using a thin film with refractive index smaller than the substrate. The latter behavior is confirmed via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies using metal nanoparticles on Si/SiO2 substrates. PMID:26679353

  15. Materials design considerations involved in the fabrication of implantable bionics by metallization of ceramic substrates.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunil; Guenther, Thomas; Dodds, Christopher W D; Kolke, Sergej; Privat, Karen L; Matteucci, Paul B; Suaning, Gregg J

    2013-01-01

    The Pt metallization of co-fired Al2O3/SiO2 substrates containing Pt feedthroughs was shown to be a suitable means to construct implantable bionics. The use of forge welding to join an electrode to such a metallized feedthrough was demonstrated and subsequently evaluated through the use of metallography and electron microscopy. Metallurgical phenomena involved in forge welding relevant to the fabrication of all types of biomedical implants are discussed within this paper. The affect of thermal profiles used in brazing or welding to build implantable devices from metal components is analysed and the case for considered selection of alloys in implant design is put forward. PMID:24109798

  16. Surface free energy of alkali and transition metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses an interesting issue on the surface free energy of metallic nanoparticles as compared to the bulk material. Starting from a previously reported equation, a theoretical model, that involves a specific term for calculating the cohesive energy of nanoparticle, is established in a view to describe the behavior of surface free energy of metallic nanoparticles (using different shapes of particle: sphere, cube and disc). The results indicate that the behavior of surface energy is very appropriate for spherical nanoparticle, and thus, it is the most realistic shape of a nanoparticle. The surface energy of copper, silver, gold, platinum, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, paladium and alkali metallic nanoparticles is only prominent in the nanoscale size, and it decreases with the decrease of nanoparticle size. Thus, the surface free energy plays a more important role in determining the properties of nanoparticles than in bulk materials. It differs from shape to another, and falls down as the number of atoms (nanoparticle size) decreases. In the case of spherical nanoparticles, the onset of the sharp decrease in surface energy is observed at about 110 atom. A decrease of 16% and 45% in surface energy is found by moving from bulk to 110 atom and from bulk to 5 atom, respectively. The predictions are consistent with the reported data.

  17. Metal ion implantation for large scale surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1992-10-01

    Intense energetic beams of metal ions can be produced by using a metal vapor vacuum arc as the plasma discharge from which the ion beam is formed. We have developed a number of ion sources of this kind and have built a metal ion implantation facility which can produce repetitively pulsed ion beams with mean ion energy up to several hundred key, pulsed beam current of more than an ampere, and time averaged current of several tens of milliamperes delivered onto a downstream target. We've also done some preliminary work on scaling up this technology to very large size. For example, a 50-cm diameter (2000 cm[sup 2]) set of beam formation electrodes was used to produce a pulsed titanium beam with ion current over 7 amperes at a mean ion energy of 100 key. Separately, a dc embodiment has been used to produce a dc titanium ion beam with current over 600 mA, power supply limited in this work, and up to 6 amperes of dc plasma ion current was maintained for over an hour. In a related program we've developed a plasma immersion method for applying thin metallic and compound films in which the added species is atomically mixed to the substrate. By adding a gas flow to the process, well-bonded compound films can also be formed; metallic films and multilayers as well as oxides and nitrides with mixed transition zones some hundreds of angstroms thick have been synthesized. Here we outline these parallel metal-plasma-based research programs and describe the hardware that we've developed and some of the surface modification research that we've done with it.

  18. Lubrication and friction prediction in metal-on-metal hip implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. C.; Brockett, C.; Williams, S.; Udofia, I.; Fisher, J.; Jin, Z. M.

    2008-03-01

    A general methodology of mixed lubrication analysis and friction prediction for a conforming spherical bearing in hip implants was developed, with particular reference to a typical metal-on-metal hip replacement. Experimental measurement of frictional torque for a similar implant was carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. A ball-in-socket configuration was adopted to represent the articulation between the femoral head and the acetabular cup under cyclic operating conditions of representative load and motion. The mixed lubrication model presented in this study was first applied to identify the contact characteristics on the bearing surfaces, consisting of both fluid-film and boundary lubricated regions. The boundary lubricated contact was assumed to occur when the predicted fluid film thickness was less than a typical boundary protein layer absorbed on the bearing surfaces. Subsequently, the friction was predicted from the fluid-film lubricated region with viscous shearing due to both Couette and Poiseuille flows and the boundary protein layer contact region with a constant coefficient of friction. The predicted frictional torque of the typical metal-on-metal hip joint implant was compared with the experimental measurement conducted in a functional hip simulator and a reasonably good agreement was found. The mixed lubrication regime was found to be dominant for the conditions considered. Although the percentage of the boundary lubricated region was quite small, the corresponding contribution to friction was quite large and the resultant friction factor was quite high.

  19. Electrochemical fabrication of nanocomposite films containing magnetic metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Hashi, Shuichiro; Kura, Hiroaki; Yanai, Takeshi; Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2015-07-01

    Controlling the structure composed of soft and hard magnetic phases at the nanoscale is the key to fabricating nanocomposite magnets with efficient exchange coupling. In our previous study, nanocomposite films containing ferrite nanoparticles were fabricated by a combination of electrophoretic deposition and electroplating to show one possibility of controlling the structure of nanocomposite magnets three-dimensionally by applying self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles. To expand this combination method to the fabrication of nanocomposite magnets, the use of magnetic metal nanoparticles is desired. In this paper, we attempted to fabricate nanocomposite films composed of Fe-Co nanoparticles in a Fe-Pt matrix by this combination method. Through cross-sectional observation and XRD analysis, a nanostructure composed of Fe-Co nanoparticles embedded in a L10 Fe-Pt matrix was confirmed. These results indicate that this method is capable of producing composite materials containing metal magnetic nanoparticles.

  20. Destructive Clustering of Metal Nanoparticles in Chalcogenide and Oxide Glassy Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpotyuk, M. V.; Shpotyuk, O. I.; Cebulski, J.; Kozyukhin, S.

    2016-01-01

    The energetic χ-criterion is developed to parameterize difference in the origin of high-order optical non-linearity associated with metallic atoms (Cu, Ag, Au) embedded destructively in oxide- and chalcogenide glasses. Within this approach, it is unambiguously proved that covalent-bonded networks of soft semiconductor chalcogenides exemplified by binary As(Ge)-S(Se) glasses differ essentially from those typical for hard dielectric oxides like vitreous silica by impossibility to accommodate pure agglomerates of metallic nanoparticles. In an excellence according to known experimental data, it is suggested that destructive clustering of nanoparticles is possible in Cu-, Ag-, and Au-ion-implanted dielectric oxide glass media, possessing a strongly negative χ-criterion. Some recent speculations trying to ascribe equally this ability to soft chalcogenide glasses despite an obvious difference in the corresponding bond dissociation energies have been disclosed and criticized as inconclusive.

  1. Destructive Clustering of Metal Nanoparticles in Chalcogenide and Oxide Glassy Matrices.

    PubMed

    Shpotyuk, M V; Shpotyuk, O I; Cebulski, J; Kozyukhin, S

    2016-12-01

    The energetic χ-criterion is developed to parameterize difference in the origin of high-order optical non-linearity associated with metallic atoms (Cu, Ag, Au) embedded destructively in oxide- and chalcogenide glasses. Within this approach, it is unambiguously proved that covalent-bonded networks of soft semiconductor chalcogenides exemplified by binary As(Ge)-S(Se) glasses differ essentially from those typical for hard dielectric oxides like vitreous silica by impossibility to accommodate pure agglomerates of metallic nanoparticles. In an excellence according to known experimental data, it is suggested that destructive clustering of nanoparticles is possible in Cu-, Ag-, and Au-ion-implanted dielectric oxide glass media, possessing a strongly negative χ-criterion. Some recent speculations trying to ascribe equally this ability to soft chalcogenide glasses despite an obvious difference in the corresponding bond dissociation energies have been disclosed and criticized as inconclusive. PMID:26787053

  2. Temperature and size-dependent Hamaker constants for metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, K; Pinchuk, P

    2016-08-26

    Theoretical values of the Hamaker constant have been calculated for metal nanoparticles using Lifshitz theory. The theory describes the Hamaker constant in terms of the permittivity of the interacting bodies. Metal nanoparticles exhibit an internal size effect that alters the dielectric permittivity of the particle when its size falls below the mean free path of the conducting electrons. This size dependence of the permittivity leads to size-dependence of the Hamaker constant for metal nanoparticles. Additionally, the electron damping and the plasma frequency used to model the permittivity of the particle exhibit temperature-dependence, which lead to temperature dependence of the Hamaker constant. In this work, both the size and temperature dependence for gold, silver, copper, and aluminum nanoparticles is demonstrated. The results of this study might be of interest for studying the colloidal stability of nanoparticles in solution. PMID:27454147

  3. Temperature and size-dependent Hamaker constants for metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, K.; Pinchuk, P.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical values of the Hamaker constant have been calculated for metal nanoparticles using Lifshitz theory. The theory describes the Hamaker constant in terms of the permittivity of the interacting bodies. Metal nanoparticles exhibit an internal size effect that alters the dielectric permittivity of the particle when its size falls below the mean free path of the conducting electrons. This size dependence of the permittivity leads to size-dependence of the Hamaker constant for metal nanoparticles. Additionally, the electron damping and the plasma frequency used to model the permittivity of the particle exhibit temperature-dependence, which lead to temperature dependence of the Hamaker constant. In this work, both the size and temperature dependence for gold, silver, copper, and aluminum nanoparticles is demonstrated. The results of this study might be of interest for studying the colloidal stability of nanoparticles in solution.

  4. Future prospects of antibacterial metal nanoparticles as enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Raman, Thiagarajan; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles are being widely used as antibacterial agents with metal nanoparticles emerging as the most efficient antibacterial agents. There have been many studies which have reported the mechanism of antibacterial activity of nanoparticles on bacteria. In this review we aim to emphasize on all the possible mechanisms which are involved in the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles and also to understand their mode of action and role as bacterial enzyme inhibitor by comparing their antibacterial mechanism to that of antibiotics with enzyme inhibition as a major mechanism. With the emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance, nanoparticles offer a better alternative to our conventional arsenal of antibiotics. Once the biological safety of these nanoparticles is addressed, these nanoparticles can be of great medical importance in our fight against bacterial infections. PMID:27524096

  5. DKG statement on the use of metal alloy discs for patch testing in suspected intolerance to metal implants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Geier, Johannes; Dickel, Heinrich; Diepgen, Thomas; Hillen, Uwe; Kreft, Burkhard; Schnuch, Axel; Szliska, Christiane; Mahler, Vera

    2015-10-01

    Intolerance reactions to metal implants may be caused by metal allergy. However, prior to implantation, 'prophetic'/prophylactic patch testing should not be performed. Pre-implant patch testing should only be done to verify or exclude metal allergy in patients with a corresponding history. In case of implant-related complications - in particular following replacement arthroplasty - such as pain, effusion, skin lesions, reduced range of motion or implant loosening, orthopedic causes should be ruled out first. Workup of suspected metal implant allergy should then be done using the DKG standard series, which includes nickel, cobalt, and chromium preparations. Various studies assessing the usefulness of metal alloy discs for patch testing have shown this particular approach to be ineffective with respect to providing reliable information on metal allergy. Any positive reaction in such tests cannot be assigned to a specific metal contained within the alloy. Furthermore, there is a risk of broad and indiscriminate use of these readily available discs. Accordingly, given the lack of additional benefit compared to patch testing with standardized metal salt preparations, we do not recommend patch testing with metal alloy discs. PMID:26408461

  6. Synthesis and deposition of metal nanoparticles by gas condensation process

    SciTech Connect

    Maicu, Marina Glöß, Daniel; Frach, Peter; Schmittgens, Ralph; Gerlach, Gerald; Hecker, Dominic

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the synthesis of Pt and Ag nanoparticles by means of the inert gas phase condensation of sputtered atomic vapor is presented. The process parameters (power, sputtering time, and gas flow) were varied in order to study the relationship between deposition conditions and properties of the nanoparticles such as their quantity, size, and size distribution. Moreover, the gas phase condensation process can be combined with a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition procedure in order to deposit nanocomposite coatings consisting of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a thin film matrix material. Selected examples of application of the generated nanoparticles and nanocomposites are discussed.

  7. Biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and prospects toward green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Adil, Syed Farooq; Assal, Mohamed E; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    The immense importance of nanoparticles and their applications is a strong motivation for exploring new synthetic techniques. However, due to strict regulations that manage the potential environmental impacts greener alternatives for conventional synthesis are the focus of intense research. In the scope of this perspective, a concise discussion about the use of green reducing and stabilizing agents toward the preparation of metal nanoparticles is presented. Reports on the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using plant extracts, ascorbic acid and sodium citrate as green reagents are summarized and discussed, pointing toward an urgent need of understanding the mechanistic aspects of the involved reactions. PMID:25633046

  8. Stabilization of electrocatalytic metal nanoparticles at metal-metal oxide-graphene triple junction points.

    PubMed

    Kou, Rong; Shao, Yuyan; Mei, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Chongmin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Park, Sehkyu; Aksay, Ilhan A; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2011-03-01

    Carbon-supported precious metal catalysts are widely used in heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis, and enhancement of catalyst dispersion and stability by controlling the interfacial structure is highly desired. Here we report a new method to deposit metal oxides and metal nanoparticles on graphene and form stable metal-metal oxide-graphene triple junctions for electrocatalysis applications. We first synthesize indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals directly on functionalized graphene sheets, forming an ITO-graphene hybrid. Platinum nanoparticles are then deposited, forming a unique triple-junction structure (Pt-ITO-graphene). Our experimental work and periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the supported Pt nanoparticles are more stable at the Pt-ITO-graphene triple junctions. Furthermore, DFT calculations suggest that the defects and functional groups on graphene also play an important role in stabilizing the catalysts. These new catalyst materials were tested for oxygen reduction for potential applications in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and they exhibited greatly enhanced stability and activity. PMID:21302925

  9. Connecting Metallic Nanoparticles by Optical Printing.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Julián; Cerrota, Santiago; Cortés, Emiliano; Violi, Ianina L; Stefani, Fernando D

    2016-02-10

    Optical printing is a simple and flexible method to bring colloidal nanoparticles from suspension to specific locations of a substrate. However, its application has been limited to the fabrication of arrays of isolated nanoparticles because, until now, it was never possible to bring nanoparticles closer together than approximately 300 nm. Here, we propose this limitation is due to thermophoretic repulsive forces generated by plasmonic heating of the NPs. We show how to overcome this obstacle and demonstrate the optical printing of connected nanoparticles with well-defined orientation. These experiments constitute a key step toward the fabrication by optical printing of functional nanostructures and microcircuits based on colloidal nanoparticles. PMID:26745330

  10. Shape effects on nanoparticle engulfment for metal matrix nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsoy, Istemi Baris; Li, Gang; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Huijuan

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining a uniform dispersion of the nanoparticles and their structural integrity in metal matrix is a prominent obstacle to use the intrinsic properties of metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) to the full extent. In this study, a potential way to overcome the scientific and technical barrier of nanoparticle dispersion in high performance lightweight MMNCs is presented. The goal is to identify the shape and size of Al2O3 nanoparticle for its optimal dispersion in Al matrix. Critical velocity of solidification is calculated numerically for spherical, cylindrical and disk-shaped nanoparticles using an analytical model which incorporates drag force, intermolecular force and inertia effect. The results show that it is possible to reduce the critical solidification velocity for nanoparticle capture by 6 times with proper shape modification.

  11. Substrate lattice relaxations, spectral distortions, and nanoparticle inclusions of ion implanted zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Ma, B.; Zhang, W.; Li, D.; Zhao, Y.; Finch, A. A.; Townsend, P. D.

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature radioluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra of ZnO track numerous changes produced by copper ion implantation into the surface layer. A significant, but unexpected, feature is that the bulk crystal becomes modified by the stress generated in the surface layer. This is reflected by the energy of intrinsic band gap emission. There are also differences in the spectra and peak temperatures of the thermoluminescence components, consistent with such a structural relaxation. The copper implant layer is both absorbing and reflective, so this introduces major distortions on the radioluminescence component from the bulk region, since the bulk luminescence signals are transmitted through, or reflected from, the implant layer. The temperature dependence of the spectra includes anomalies that are typical of changes driven by phase transitions of nanoparticle inclusions. Overall, the features of bulk relaxation, spectral distortion, and detection of nanoparticle inclusions are rarely considered for ion implanted luminescence studies, but the data suggest they are almost inevitable in a wide range of implanted materials.

  12. Assessment of metal artefact reduction around dental titanium implants in cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, N; Hassan, B; Syriopoulos, K; van der Stelt, P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate if the metal artefact reduction (MAR) tool used in the software of the ORTHOPANTOMOGRAPH® OP300 (Instrumentarium Dental, Tuusula, Finland) can improve the gray value levels in post-operative implant scans. Methods: 20 potential implant sites were selected from 5 edentulous human dry mandibles. Each mandible was scanned by a CBCT scanner, and images were produced under three different conditions: implant sites drilled but no implants inserted, implants inserted without application of MAR and implants inserted with application of MAR. Using Geomagic® Studio 2012 (Geomagic, Morrisville, NC) and 3Diagnosys® v. 5.3.1 (3Diemme® SRL, Cantù, Italy) software, three scans of each mandible were superimposed. The mean gray value of identical regions of bone around the implants was derived for each condition. The differences between gray value measurements at implant sites derived from different conditions were assessed. Results: A significant difference was found between mean gray values from the scans with no implants inserted and with implants inserted (with and without MAR) (p = 0.012). No significant difference was revealed for gray values measured from scans with and without MAR (p = 0.975). Conclusions: The MAR tool in the software of the ORTHOPANTOMOGRAPH OP300 CBCT scanner does not significantly correct the voxel gray values affected by the metal artefact in the vicinity of an implant in human dry mandibles. PMID:25135316

  13. Transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Berndt, Christopher C; Wen, Cuie; Wang, James

    2013-03-01

    Transition metals of copper, zinc, chromium and nickel were substituted into cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a sol-gel route using citric acid as a chelating agent. The microstructure and elemental composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase analysis of transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was performed via X-ray diffraction. Surface wettability was measured using the water contact angle technique. The surface roughness of all nanoparticles was measured using profilometry. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to determine the temperature at which the decomposition and oxidation of the chelating agents took place. Results indicated that the substitution of transition metals influences strongly the microstructure, crystal structure and antibacterial property of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. PMID:23137676

  14. Ultrafast Control of a Surface Plasmon Resonance via the Insulator to Metal Transition in V02 Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rini, Matteo; Cavalleri, Andrea; Lopez, R.; Boatner, Lynn A; Haglund, Jr, Richard F; Haynes, Tony E; Feldman, Leonard C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the study of the ultrafast insulator-to-metal transition in nanoparticles of strongly correlated VO2. The particles are grown by ion-implantation and self-assembly in a Silica matrix and can be switched between the insulating and metallic phase within less than 100 fs. The prompt formation of the metallic state results in the appearance of a surface-plasmon resonance that is absent in the bulk and can be further tailored by controlling the particle shape.

  15. Voltage effects on cells cultured on metallic biomedical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerihosseini, Seyed Morteza

    Electrochemical voltage shifts in metallic biomedical implants occur in-vivo due to a number of processes including mechanically assisted corrosion. Surface potential of biomedical implants and excursions from resting open circuit potential (OCP), which is the voltage they attain while in contact with an electrolyte, can significantly change the interfacial properties of the metallic surfaces and alter the behavior of the surrounding cells, compromising the biocompatibility of metallic implants. Voltages can also be controlled to modulate cell function and fate. To date, the details of the physico-chemical phenomena and the role of different biomaterial parameters involved in the interaction between cells and metallic surfaces under cathodic bias have not been fully elucidated. In this work, changes in the interfacial properties of a CoCrMo biomedical alloy (ASTM F-1537) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (pH 7.4) at different voltages was studied. Step polarization impedance spectroscopy technique was used to apply 50 mV voltage steps to samples, and the time-based current transients were recorded. A new equation was derived based on capacitive discharge through a Tafel element and generalized to deal with non-ideal impedance behavior. The new function compared to the KWW-Randles function, better matched the time-transient response. The results also showed a voltage dependent oxide resistance and capacitance behavior. Additionally, the in-vitro effect of static voltages on the behavior of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts cultured on CoCrMo alloy (ASTM-1537) was studied to determine the range of cell viability and mode of cell death beyond the viable range. Cell viability and morphology, changes in actin cytoskeleton, adhesion complexes and nucleus, and mode of cell death (necrosis, or intrinsic or extrinsic apoptosis) were characterized at different voltages ranging from -1000 to +500 mV (Ag/AgCl). Moreover, electrochemical currents and metal ion concentrations at each

  16. Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticles from Fungi and Metal Salts: Scope and Application.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-12-01

    Fungi secrete enzymes and proteins as reducing agents which can be used for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles from metal salts. Large-scale production of nanoparticles from diverse fungal strains has great potential since they can be grown even in vitro. In recent years, various approaches have been made to maximize the yield of nanoparticles of varying shape, size, and stability. They have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, SEM/TEM, zeta potential measurements, UV-vis, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In this review, we focus on the biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles by fungi to explore the chemistry of their formation extracellularly and intracellularly. Emphasis has been given to the potential of metal nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi, and on other potential applications. PMID:26909778

  17. Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticles from Fungi and Metal Salts: Scope and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-02-01

    Fungi secrete enzymes and proteins as reducing agents which can be used for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles from metal salts. Large-scale production of nanoparticles from diverse fungal strains has great potential since they can be grown even in vitro. In recent years, various approaches have been made to maximize the yield of nanoparticles of varying shape, size, and stability. They have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, SEM/TEM, zeta potential measurements, UV-vis, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In this review, we focus on the biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles by fungi to explore the chemistry of their formation extracellularly and intracellularly. Emphasis has been given to the potential of metal nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi, and on other potential applications.

  18. Management of metal-on-metal hip implant patients: Who, when and how to revise?

    PubMed

    Berber, Reshid; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2016-05-18

    The debate on how best to manage patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants continues. With over 1 million patients affected worldwide, the impact is far reaching. The majority of the aggressive failures of MOM hip implants have been dealt with by revision hip surgery, leaving patients with a much more indolent pattern of failure of devices that have been in situ for more than 10 years. The longer-term outcome for such patients remains unknown, and much debate exists on how best to manage these patients. Regulatory guidance is available but remains open to interpretation due to the lack of current evidence and long-term studies. Metal ion thresholds for concern have been suggested at 7 ppb for hip resurfacing arthroplasty and below this level for large diameter total hip arthroplasties. Soft tissue changes including pseudotumours and muscle atrophy have been shown to progress, but this is not consistent. New advanced imaging techniques are helping to diagnose complications with metal hips and the reasons for failure, however these are not widely available. This has led to some centres to tackle difficult cases through multidisciplinary collaboration, for both surgical management decisions and also follow-up decisions. We summarise current evidence and consider who is at risk, when revision should be undertaken and how patients should be managed. PMID:27190754

  19. Management of metal-on-metal hip implant patients: Who, when and how to revise?

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Reshid; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2016-01-01

    The debate on how best to manage patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants continues. With over 1 million patients affected worldwide, the impact is far reaching. The majority of the aggressive failures of MOM hip implants have been dealt with by revision hip surgery, leaving patients with a much more indolent pattern of failure of devices that have been in situ for more than 10 years. The longer-term outcome for such patients remains unknown, and much debate exists on how best to manage these patients. Regulatory guidance is available but remains open to interpretation due to the lack of current evidence and long-term studies. Metal ion thresholds for concern have been suggested at 7 ppb for hip resurfacing arthroplasty and below this level for large diameter total hip arthroplasties. Soft tissue changes including pseudotumours and muscle atrophy have been shown to progress, but this is not consistent. New advanced imaging techniques are helping to diagnose complications with metal hips and the reasons for failure, however these are not widely available. This has led to some centres to tackle difficult cases through multidisciplinary collaboration, for both surgical management decisions and also follow-up decisions. We summarise current evidence and consider who is at risk, when revision should be undertaken and how patients should be managed. PMID:27190754

  20. PIXE microbeam analysis of the metallic debris release around endosseous implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buso, G. P.; Galassini, S.; Moschini, G.; Passi, P.; Zadro, A.; Uzunov, N. M.; Doyle, B. L.; Rossi, P.; Provencio, P.

    2005-10-01

    The mechanical friction that occurs during the surgical insertion of endosseous implants, both in dentistry and orthopaedics, may cause the detachment of metal debris which are dislodged into the peri-implant tissues and can lead to adverse clinical effects. This phenomenon more likely happens with coated or roughened implants that are the most widely employed. In the present study were studied dental implants screws made of commercially pure titanium and coated using titanium plasma-spray (TPS) technique. The implants were inserted in the tibia of rabbits, and removed "en bloc" with the surrounding bone after one month. After proper processing and mounting on plastic holders, samples from bones were analysed by EDXRF setup at of National Laboratories of Legnaro, INFN, Italy, and consequently at 3 MeV proton microbeam setup at Sandia National Laboratories. Elemental maps were drawn, showing some occasional presence of metal particles in the peri-implant bone.

  1. Sensing with multipolar second harmonic generation from spherical metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Butet, Jérémy; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Jonin, Christian; Lascoux, Noëlle; Benichou, Emmanuel; Brevet, Pierre-François

    2012-03-14

    We show that sensing in the nonlinear optical regime using multipolar surface plasmon resonances is more sensitive in comparison to sensing in the linear optical regime. Mie theory, and its extension to the second harmonic generation from a metallic nanosphere, is used to describe multipolar second harmonic generation from silver metallic nanoparticles. The standard figure of merit of a potential plasmonic sensor based on this principle is then calculated. We finally demonstrate that such a sensor is more sensitive to optical refraction index changes occurring in the vicinity of the metallic nanoparticle than its linear counterpart. PMID:22375818

  2. Optical properties of metal nanoparticles used in biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopyeva, Elena; Kaspar, Pavel; Tománek, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír.

    2015-01-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanoparticles have excellent optical and electrochemical properties that strongly depend on their size and shape. Local biosensors are advanced devices, whose basic working principle is to analyze spectra of noble metal nanoparticles. Here a model of a local biosensor is described. It takes into account the interaction of the particle with a glass prism and the viewing angle of lens. The results for the layered particle made of a polystyrene latex core with a golden outer shell and for nanorods are presented. The influence of the metal shell thickness, particle diameter and the nanoscale rod form on the location of dissipation spectrum maximum is analyzed.

  3. Synthesis of supported metal oxide nanoparticles with narrow size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Diana; Smolyakov, Georgiy; Schosseler, François; Petit, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    We report a versatile synthetic route allowing the formation of transition metal oxide nanoparticles supported on solid surfaces. Basically, the method lies on the complexation of metal cations with both anionic surfactant and hydroxilated surfaces, which results in the formation of small aggregates onto the surface. At thermodynamical equilibrium, the resulting balance between the loss of entropy due to the aggregation and the gain in enthalpy due to hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains of the surfactant governs the size of these aggregates. After calcination in air, metal oxide nanoparticles with very narrow size distribution are obtained.

  4. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26940747

  5. Plasmonic nanocomposites: polymer-guided strategies for assembling metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bo; Rozin, Matthew J.; Tao, Andrea R.

    2013-06-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles that support localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) have the unique ability to manipulate and confine light at subwavelength dimensions. Utilizing these capabilities in devices and coatings requires the controlled organization of metal nanoparticles into ordered or hierarchical structures. Polymer grafts can be used as assembly-regulating molecules that bind to the nanoparticle surface and guide nanoparticle organization in solution, at interfaces, and within condensed phases. Here, we present an overview of polymer-directed assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles. We discuss how polymer grafts can be used to control short-range nanoparticle interactions that dictate interparticle gap distance and orientation. We also discuss how condensed polymer grafts can be used to control long-range order within condensed nanoparticle-polymer blends. The assembly of shaped plasmonic nanoparticles that have potential applications in enhanced spectroscopy and optical metamaterials is highlighted. We end with a summary of promising new directions toward the fabrication of plasmonic nanocomposites that are responsive and possess three-dimensional order.

  6. Fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles in SiO{sub 2} by ion implantation combined with thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Amekura, H.; Umeda, N.; Sakuma, Y.; Kishimoto, N.; Buchal, Ch.

    2005-07-04

    Zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are fabricated in silica glasses (SiO{sub 2}) by implantation of Zn{sup +} ions of 60 keV up to 1.0x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} and following thermal oxidation. After the oxidation at 700 deg. C for 1 h, the absorption in the visible region due to Zn metallic NPs disappears and a new absorption edge due to ZnO appears at {approx}3.25 eV. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy confirms the formation of ZnO NPs of 5-10 nm in diameter within the near-surface region of {approx}80 nm thick and larger ZnO NPs on the surface. Under He-Cd laser excitation at {lambda}=325 nm, an exciton luminescence peak centered at 375 nm with FWHM of 113 meV was observed at room temperature.

  7. Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity Of Antibiotics Mixed With Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Neeraj; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Thakur, Rajesh; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2011-12-01

    Current producers of antimicrobial technology have a long lasting, environmentally safe, non-leaching, water soluble solution that will eventually replace all poisons and heavy metals. The transition metal ions inevitably exist as metal complexes in biological systems by interaction with the numerous molecules possessing groupings capable of complexation or chelation. Nanoparticles of metal oxides offer a wide variety of potential applications in medicine due to the unprecedented advances in nanobiotechnology research. the bacterial action of antibiotics like penicillin, erythryomycin, ampicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin etc. and that of a mixture of antibiotics and metal and metal oxide nanoparticles like zinc oxide, zirconium, silver and gold on microbes was examined by the agar-well-diffusion method, enumeration of colony-forming units (CFU) and turbidimetry.

  8. Biomimetic metal oxides for the extraction of nanoparticles from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallampati, Ramakrishna; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2013-03-01

    Contamination of nanomaterials in the environment will pose significant health risks in the future. A viable purification method is necessary to address this problem. Here we report the synthesis and application of a series of metal oxides prepared using a biological template for the removal of nanoparticles from the aqueous environment. A simple synthesis of metal oxides such as ZnO, NiO, CuO, Co3O4 and CeO2 employing eggshell membrane (ESM) as a biotemplate is reported. The morphology of the metal oxide powders was characterized using electron microscopes and the lattice structure was established using X-ray diffraction methods. Extraction of nanoparticles from water was carried out to compare the efficiency of metal oxides. NiO showed good extraction efficiency in removing gold and silver nanoparticles from spiked water samples within an hour. Easy access and enhanced stability of metal oxides makes them interesting candidates for applications in industrial effluent treatments and water purifications.Contamination of nanomaterials in the environment will pose significant health risks in the future. A viable purification method is necessary to address this problem. Here we report the synthesis and application of a series of metal oxides prepared using a biological template for the removal of nanoparticles from the aqueous environment. A simple synthesis of metal oxides such as ZnO, NiO, CuO, Co3O4 and CeO2 employing eggshell membrane (ESM) as a biotemplate is reported. The morphology of the metal oxide powders was characterized using electron microscopes and the lattice structure was established using X-ray diffraction methods. Extraction of nanoparticles from water was carried out to compare the efficiency of metal oxides. NiO showed good extraction efficiency in removing gold and silver nanoparticles from spiked water samples within an hour. Easy access and enhanced stability of metal oxides makes them interesting candidates for applications in industrial

  9. Engineered metal based nanoparticles and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Claudia; Clemente, Emanuela; Amato, Valentina; Pedata, Paola; Sabbioni, Enrico; Bernardini, Giovanni; Iavicoli, Ivo; Cortese, Sara; Niu, Qiao; Otsuki, Takemi; Paganelli, Roberto; Di Gioacchino, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Almost all people in developed countries are exposed to metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) that are used in a large number of applications including medical (for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes). Once inside the body, absorbed by inhalation, contact, ingestion and injection, MeNPs can translocate to tissues and, as any foreign substance, are likely to encounter the innate immunity system that represent a non-specific first line of defense against potential threats to the host. In this review, we will discuss the possible effects of MeNPs on various components of the innate immunity (both specific cells and barriers). Most important is that there are no reports of immune diseases induced by MeNPs exposure: we are operating in a safe area. However, in vitro assays show that MeNPs have some effects on innate immunity, the main being toxicity (both cyto- and genotoxicity) and interference with the activity of various cells through modification of membrane receptors, gene expression and cytokine production. Such effects can have both negative and positive relevant impacts on humans. On the one hand, people exposed to high levels of MeNPs, as workers of industries producing or applying MeNPs, should be monitored for possible health effects. On the other hand, understanding the modality of the effects on immune responses is essential to develop medical applications for MeNPs. Indeed, those MeNPs that are able to stimulate immune cells could be used to develop of new vaccines, promote immunity against tumors and suppress autoimmunity. PMID:26180517

  10. Simulation of laser ablation of metals for nanoparticles production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, R. V.; Antonov, V. I.; Davydova, T. I.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a mathematical model for femtosecond laser ablation of metals is proposed, based on standard two-temperature model connected with 1D hydrodynamic equations. Wide-range equation of state has been developed. The simulation results are compared with experimental data for aluminium and copper. A good agreement for both metals with numerical results and experiment shows that this model can be employed for choosing laser parameters to better accuracy in nanoparticles production by ablation of metals.

  11. Metallic nanoparticle synthesis within reverse micellar microemulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchens, Christopher Lawrence

    The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is integral for the advancement of the field of nanotechnology. Solution based nanomaterial synthesis is an effective method for the production of nanomaterials, particularly with the use of surfactants and other materials for directed assembly allowing control over the nanomaterials' physical properties. This dissertation presents research performed to study the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles within reverse micelle systems. A fundamental approach has been taken to carefully examine the role of each component of the reverse micelle system, specifically the surfactant, bulk solvent, and the aqueous micelle core. The role of the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) surfactant is two fold. Initially, the surfactant forms reverse micelles, nano-sized water pools dispersed within the bulk organic solvent which act as nano-reactors for the chemical reduction of the metallic precursors and metallic nanoparticle synthesis. The surfactant also acts as a stabilizing agent, effectively dispersing synthesized particles in solution, preventing agglomeration. Previously it was thought that spherical reverse micelles acted as templates for nanoparticle synthesis despite the negligible effect of the initial micelle diameter on the on the diameter of nanoparticles synthesized. Rather the initial micelle diameter influences the nanoparticle growth rate. In contrast, the properties of the bulk organic solvent do influence the nanoparticle diameter. The nature of solvent interactions with the AOT surfactant tails in various liquid alkane solvents, compressed propane, and supercritical ethane demonstrates that steric stabilization of the metallic nanoparticles by the AOT surfactant determines the particle sizes synthesized, rather than the previously accepted templating effect. Time resolved UV-vis spectroscopy was used to study the kinetics of particle synthesis, Neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering

  12. Release of Implanted Noble Gases from Metallic Glass Vitreloy During Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshik, A. P.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    Vitreloy, a metallic vitreous glass, was examined as a potential target material for the Genesis Mission solar wind collector. Stepped pyrolysis revealed that He and Ne implanted in Vitreloy were efficiently re-trapped during phase transitions.

  13. HRTEM and XPS study of nanoparticle formation in Zn{sup +} ion implanted Si

    SciTech Connect

    Privezentsev, Vladimir V.; Tabachkova, Natalya Yu.; Lebedinskii, Yurii Yu.

    2014-02-21

    The results of investigations of nanoparticles (NPs) formation in a near surface layer of Si substrate after {sup 64}Zn{sup +} ion implantation and thermal annealing are presented. The implantation energy and dose were correspondently E=100keV and D = 2×10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. Than the samples were subsequently isochronously subjected to furnace annealing during 1h in neutral atmosphere at 400°C and in oxygen atmosphere at 600, 700 and 800°C. The visualization of near surface layer was carried out by transmission electron microscopy with addition of electron diffraction. The energy dispersive spectroscopy was used for value of impurity concentration. The charge state of implanted zinc, silicon matrix atom and oxygen and were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy.

  14. HRTEM and XPS study of nanoparticle formation in Zn+ ion implanted Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privezentsev, Vladimir V.; Tabachkova, Natalya Yu.; Lebedinskii, Yurii Yu.

    2014-02-01

    The results of investigations of nanoparticles (NPs) formation in a near surface layer of Si substrate after 64Zn+ ion implantation and thermal annealing are presented. The implantation energy and dose were correspondently E=100keV and D = 2×1016 cm-2. Than the samples were subsequently isochronously subjected to furnace annealing during 1h in neutral atmosphere at 400°C and in oxygen atmosphere at 600, 700 and 800°C. The visualization of near surface layer was carried out by transmission electron microscopy with addition of electron diffraction. The energy dispersive spectroscopy was used for value of impurity concentration. The charge state of implanted zinc, silicon matrix atom and oxygen and were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy.

  15. Metal hybrid nanoparticles for catalytic organic and photochemical transformations.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunjoon

    2015-03-17

    In order to understand heterogeneous catalytic reactions, model catalysts such as a single crystalline surface have been widely studied for many decades. However, catalytic systems that actually advance the reactions are three-dimensional and commonly have multiple components including active metal nanoparticles and metal oxide supports. On the other hand, as nanochemistry has rapidly been developed and been applied to various fields, many researchers have begun to discuss the impact of nanochemistry on heterogeneous catalysis. Metal hybrid nanoparticles bearing multiple components are structurally very close to the actual catalysts, and their uniform and controllable morphology is suitable for investigating the relationship between the structure and the catalytic properties in detail. In this Account, we introduce four typical structures of metal hybrid nanoparticles that can be used to conduct catalytic organic and photochemical reactions. Metal@silica (or metal oxide) yolk-shell nanoparticles, in which metal cores exist in internal voids surrounded by thin silica (or metal oxide) shells, exhibited extremely high thermal and chemical stability due to the geometrical protection of the silica layers against the metal cores. The morphology of the metal cores and the pore density of the hollow shells were precisely adjusted to optimize the reaction activity and diffusion rates of the reactants. Metal@metal oxide core-shell nanoparticles and inverted structures, where the cores supported the shells serving an active surface, exhibited high activity with no diffusion barriers for the reactants and products. These nanostructures were used as effective catalysts for various organic and gas-phase reactions, including hydrogen transfer, Suzuki coupling, and steam methane reforming. In contrast to the yolk- and core-shell structures, an asymmetric arrangement of distinct domains generated acentric dumbbells and tipped rods. A large domain of each component added multiple

  16. Novel metallic implantation technique for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Christiaan J A

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose A metallic inlay implant (HemiCAP) with 15 offset sizes has been developed for the treatment of localized osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome. The aim of this study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) a matching offset size is available for each talus, (2) the prosthetic device can be reproducibly implanted slightly recessed in relation to the talar cartilage level, and (3) with this implantation level, excessive contact pressures on the opposite tibial cartilage are avoided. Methods The prosthetic device was implanted in 11 intact fresh-frozen human cadaver ankles, aiming its surface 0.5 mm below cartilage level. The implantation level was measured at 4 margins of each implant. Intraarticular contact pressures were measured before and after implantation, with compressive forces of 1,000–2,000 N and the ankle joint in plantigrade position, 10° dorsiflexion, and 14° plantar flexion. Results There was a matching offset size available for each specimen. The mean implantation level was 0.45 (SD 0.18) mm below the cartilage surface. The defect area accounted for a median of 3% (0.02–18) of the total ankle contact pressure before implantation. This was reduced to 0.1% (0.02–13) after prosthetic implantation. Interpretation These results suggest that the implant can be applied clinically in a safe way, with appropriate offset sizes for various talar domes and without excessive pressure on the opposite cartilage. PMID:20515434

  17. Spectral dependence of fluorescence near plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yeechi

    The optical properties of fluorophores are significantly modified when placed within the near field (0--100 nm) of plasmon resonant metal nanostructures, due to the competition between increased decay rates and "hotspots" of concentrated electric fields. The decay rates and effective electric field intensities are highly dependent on the relative position of dye and metal and the overlap between plasmon resonance and dye absorption and emission. Understanding these dependencies can greatly improve the performance of biosensing and nanophotonic devices. In this dissertation, the fluorescence intensity of organic dyes and CdSe quantum dots near single metal nanoparticles is studied as a function of the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the nanoparticle. Single metal nanoparticles have narrow, well-defined, intense local surface plasmon resonances that are tunable across the visible spectrum by changes in size and shape. First, we show that organic dyes can be self-assembled on single silver nanoprisms into known configurations by the hybridization of thiolated DNA oligomers. We correlate the fluorescence intensity of the dyes to the LSPR of the individual nanoprism to which they are attached. For each of three different organic dyes, we observe a strong correlation between the fluorescence intensity of the dye and the degree of spectral overlap with the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle. On average, we observe the brightest fluorescence from dyes attached to metal nanoparticles that have a LSPR scattering peak 40--120 meV higher in energy than the emission peak of the fluorophore. Second, the plasmon-enhanced fluorescence from CdSe/CdS/CdZnS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots is studied near a variety of silver and gold nanoparticles. With single-particle scattering spectroscopy, the localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of single metal nanoparticles is correlated with the photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra of the nearby quantum dots. The PLE

  18. Nonlinear optical properties of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Aine M.; Benrezzak, Sakina; Brennan, Margaret E.; Kelly, John M.; Blau, Werner J.

    2003-03-01

    The synthesis of metal (Au,Ag) and semiconductor (PbS) nanoparticles of specific morphology and shape is reported. The shape of PbS nanoparticles has been varied from spherical to oval to cubic, by use of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), DNA and ethylene glycol as stabilisers respectively. For the first time, a seeding method has been used to successfully prepare PVA stabilised gold and silver nanoparticles. Characterisation of the third order optical nonlinearity of the nanoparticles has been carried out using the Z-scan technique with values of Im ÷ (3) as large as 10-10. Modulation of the magnitude of the nonlinear optical response with morphology in the case of the PbS nanoparticles is presented.

  19. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into wood substrate and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, Kirk D; Lucas, Marcel

    2015-11-04

    Metal nanoparticles were incorporated into wood. Ionic liquids were used to expand the wood cell wall structure for nanoparticle incorporation into the cell wall structure. Nanoparticles of elemental gold or silver were found to be effective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging contrast or sensing agents. Nanoparticles of elemental iron were found to be efficient microwave absorbers and caused localized heating for disrupting the integrity of the lignocellulosic matrix. Controls suggest that the localized heating around the iron nanoparticles reduces losses of cellulose in the form of water, volatiles and CO.sub.2. The ionic liquid is needed during the incorporation process at room temperature. The use of small amounts of ionic liquid combined with the absence of an ionic liquid purification step and a lower energy and water use are expected to reduce costs in an up-scaled pretreatment process.

  20. Ultrafast dynamics in unaligned MWCNTs decorated with metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, G; Ponzoni, S; Galimberti, G; Scarselli, M; Pulci, O; Camilli, L; Matthes, L; Castrucci, P; Pagliara, S

    2016-06-10

    The relaxation dynamics of unaligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with metallic nanoparticles have been studied by using transient optical measurements. The fast dynamics due to the short-lived free-charge carriers excited by the pump are not affected by the presence of nanoparticles. Conversely, a second long dynamics, absent in bare carbon nanotubes, appears only in the decorated samples. A combination of experiment and theory allows us to ascribe this long dynamics to relaxation channels involving electronic states localized at the tube-nanoparticle interface. PMID:27146216

  1. Ultrafast dynamics in unaligned MWCNTs decorated with metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, G.; Ponzoni, S.; Galimberti, G.; Scarselli, M.; Pulci, O.; Camilli, L.; Matthes, L.; Castrucci, P.; Pagliara, S.

    2016-06-01

    The relaxation dynamics of unaligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with metallic nanoparticles have been studied by using transient optical measurements. The fast dynamics due to the short-lived free-charge carriers excited by the pump are not affected by the presence of nanoparticles. Conversely, a second long dynamics, absent in bare carbon nanotubes, appears only in the decorated samples. A combination of experiment and theory allows us to ascribe this long dynamics to relaxation channels involving electronic states localized at the tube-nanoparticle interface.

  2. Optical bistability in a nonlinear-shell-coated metallic nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongli; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    We provide a self-consistent mean field approximation in the framework of Mie scattering theory to study the optical bistability of a metallic nanoparticle coated with a nonlinear shell. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coated with a weakly nonlinear shell exhibits optical bistability in a broad range of incident optical intensity. This optical bistability critically relies on the geometry of the shell-coated nanoparticle, especially the fractional volume of the metallic core. The incident wavelength can also affect the optical bistability. Through an optimization-like process, we find a design with broader bistable region and lower threshold field by adjusting the size of the nonlinear shell, the fractional volume of the metallic core, and the incident wavelength. These results may find potential applications in optical bistable devices such as all-optical switches, optical transistors and optical memories. PMID:26907967

  3. Optical bistability in a nonlinear-shell-coated metallic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongli; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    We provide a self-consistent mean field approximation in the framework of Mie scattering theory to study the optical bistability of a metallic nanoparticle coated with a nonlinear shell. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coated with a weakly nonlinear shell exhibits optical bistability in a broad range of incident optical intensity. This optical bistability critically relies on the geometry of the shell-coated nanoparticle, especially the fractional volume of the metallic core. The incident wavelength can also affect the optical bistability. Through an optimization-like process, we find a design with broader bistable region and lower threshold field by adjusting the size of the nonlinear shell, the fractional volume of the metallic core, and the incident wavelength. These results may find potential applications in optical bistable devices such as all-optical switches, optical transistors and optical memories.

  4. Optical bistability in a nonlinear-shell-coated metallic nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongli; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    We provide a self-consistent mean field approximation in the framework of Mie scattering theory to study the optical bistability of a metallic nanoparticle coated with a nonlinear shell. We demonstrate that the nanoparticle coated with a weakly nonlinear shell exhibits optical bistability in a broad range of incident optical intensity. This optical bistability critically relies on the geometry of the shell-coated nanoparticle, especially the fractional volume of the metallic core. The incident wavelength can also affect the optical bistability. Through an optimization-like process, we find a design with broader bistable region and lower threshold field by adjusting the size of the nonlinear shell, the fractional volume of the metallic core, and the incident wavelength. These results may find potential applications in optical bistable devices such as all-optical switches, optical transistors and optical memories. PMID:26907967

  5. Precipitation of heterogeneous nanostructures: Metal nanoparticles and dielectric nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Masai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi; Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2010-07-15

    Heterogeneous precipitation of nanocrystallites of metallic Bi and anatase was observed in CaO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} glass-ceramics. Addition of AlN reduced the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Bi metal nanoparticles, which were uniformly dispersed in the glass. After heat-treatment of the Bi-precipitated glass around the glass transition temperature, nanocrystalline anatase precipitated out without aggregation of the Bi metal particles. It was found that the anatase nanocrystal size was affected by the distance between a nanocrystal and a precipitated Bi nanoparticle. The glass-ceramic produced is a functional material containing a random dispersion of different types of nanoparticles with different dielectric constants.

  6. Manipulation of metallic nanoparticle with evanescent vortex Bessel beam.

    PubMed

    Rui, Guanghao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we propose a novel strategy to optically trap and manipulate metallic nanoparticles using evanescent vortex Bessel beam (EVBB). A versatile method is presented to generate evanescent Bessel beam with tunable optical angular momentum by focusing a radially polarized vortex beam onto a one-dimensional photonics band gap structure. The behavior of a metallic nanoparticle in the EVBB is numerically studied. We show that such particle can be stably trapped near the surface. The orbital angular momentum drives the metallic nanoparticle to orbit around the beam axis, and the direction of the orbital motion is controlled by the handedness of the helical phase front. The technique demonstrated in this work may open up new avenues for optical manipulation, and the non-contact tunable orbiting dynamics of the trapped particle may find important applications in higher resolution imaging techniques. PMID:26480086

  7. Removal of trabecular metal osteonecrosis intervention implant and conversion to primary total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Owens, Joshua B; Ely, Erin E; Guilliani, Nathania M Figueroa; Suarez, Juan C; Patel, Preetesh D

    2012-06-01

    Core decompression and placement of the Trabecular Metal Osteonecrosis Intervention Implant have shown to be initially successful in treating early osteonecrosis. When treatment fails, however, patients often undergo primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) requiring removal of a previously inserted trabecular metal implant. We describe a technical tip for removal of a well-ingrown trabecular metal screw. A metal-cutting trephine placed over the screw allows for removal in an efficient manner while minimizing additional dissection and bone loss during conversion to THA. PMID:22425306

  8. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Coker, Eric N.

    2010-08-03

    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.

  9. In vitro studies on silver implanted pure iron by metal vapor vacuum arc technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Yufeng

    2016-06-01

    Pure iron has been verified as a promising biodegradable metal for absorbable cardiovascular stent usage. However, the degradation rate of pure iron is too slow. To accelerate the degradation of the surface of pure iron, silver ions were implanted into pure iron by metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source at an extracted voltage of 40keV. The implanted influence was up to 2×10(17)ions/cm(2). The composition and depth profiles, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of Ag ion implanted pure iron were investigated. The implantation depths of Ag was around 60nm. The element Ag existed as Ag2O in the outermost layer, then gradually transited to metal atoms in zero valent state with depth increase. The implantation of Ag ions accelerated the corrosion rate of pure iron matrix, and exhibited much more uniform corrosion behavior. For cytotoxicity assessment, the implantation of Ag ions slightly decreased the viability of all kinds of cell lines used in these tests. The hemolysis rate of Ag ion implanted pure iron was lower than 2%, which was acceptable, whereas the platelet adhesion tests indicated the implantation of Ag ions might increase the risk of thrombosis. PMID:26925722

  10. The effects on bone cells of metal ions released from orthopaedic implants. A review

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Valerio; Pagani, Davide; Melato, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Summary The increasing use of orthopedic implants and, in particular, of hip and knee joint replacements for young and active patients, has stimulated interest and concern regarding the chronic, long-term effects of the materials used. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the adverse biologic reactions to metal particles released from orthopaedic implants in vivo and in vitro. More specifically, the purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current literature about the adverse effects of metal particles on bone cells and peri-implant bone. PMID:23858309

  11. Metal enhanced fluorescence with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattingly, Shaina LaRissa Strating

    A novel hybrid nanocomposite of Au nanoparticle-modified silicon nanowire was developed for surface enhanced fluorescence applications. The designed nanocomposite contained a silicon nanowire, gold nanoparticles and a silica layer doped with dye molecules. The hybrid nanomaterial was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), fluorescence measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the gold nanoparticles were uniformly adhered on the silicon nanowires and covered by a thin silica layer. The nanostructure exhibited strong capacity for surface enhanced fluorescence. Different enhancement factors were obtained by changing synthetic conditions. The second goal of the project was to determine if the shape of gold nanoparticles affects the extent of its fluorescence enhancement under constant external factors. Two shapes of gold nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by SEM, STEM, zeta potential and absorbance measurements. Then they were coated with fluorescent dye-doped silica and the fluorescence intensity was measured and compared to the pure fluorescent dye. Gold nanorods enhanced fluorescence more than gold nanostars and that the fluorescent dye Alexafluor 700 showed a greater fluorescence intensity change in the presence of nanoparticles than methylene blue.

  12. Insights on Metal Based Dental Implants and their Interaction with the Surrounding Tissues.

    PubMed

    Popa, Marcela; Hussien, Mohamed D; Cirstea, Alexandra; Grigore, Raluca; Lazar, Veronica; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Sakizlian, Monica; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bertesteanu, Serban

    2015-01-01

    At present, the use of dental implants is a very common practice as tooth loss is a frequent problem and can occur as a result of disease or trauma. An implant is usually made of biocompatible materials that do not cause rejection reactions and allow the implant union with the respective bone. To achieve this goal, the implant surface may have different structures and coatings, generally used to increase the adherence of the implant to the bone and to decrease the risk of the periimplantar inflammatory reactions. This review gives some insights of the metal based materials used for dental implants, their limits, improvement strategies as well as the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of periimplantary diseases. PMID:25877088

  13. The electrochemisty of surface modified <10 nm metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Joseph J. P.

    Chapter One provides a general introduction of the research on metal oxide nanoparticles (MOx), highlighting their synthesis, surface modification, and functionalization. Emphasis is given to the different synthetic route for producing small (<10 nm) MOx nanoparticles with narrow size distributions. Different methods for modifying their surface with small organic molecules are discussed with focus given to silanes and phosphates. Furthermore, functionalizing surface modified nanoparticles for specific functions is addressed, with markers for analytically relevant nanoscale quantification being the primary focus. Chapter Two describes in detail the thermal degradation synthesis used for the generation of small MOx nanoparticles. It demonstrates the versatile of the synthesis by successfully synthesizing ZrO 2 and IrO2 nanoparticles. Preliminary work involving the formation of Bi2S3, Bi2O3, and RuO2 nanomaterials is also addressed. The solvothermal synthesis of indium tin oxide (ITO) is also shown for comparison to ITO produced by thermal degradation. Chapter Three details the surface modification of ITO nanoparticles and subsequent electrochemical tagging with a ferrocene moiety. ITO nanoparticles were synthesized via thermal degradation. These nanoparticles underwent a ligand exchange with a covalently binding mondentate silane terminated with a primary amine. Acyl chloride coupling between the amine and chlorocarbonylferrocene provided an electrochemical tag to quantify the level of surface modification. Electrochemisty of the quasi-diffusing nanoparticles was evaluated via cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and mircodisk electrode (microE) experiments. Chapter Four investigates spectroscopic tagging of ITO and ZrO2 nanoparticles as well as electrochemical tagging of ZrO 2 and IrO2 nanoparticles. An unbound azo-dye was synthesized and attempts were made to attach the dye to the surface of ITO nanoparticles. Imine couple between a spectroscopic tag

  14. Photoinduced electron transfer from phycoerythrin to colloidal metal semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, A.; Chandramohan, M.; Renganathan, R.; Sekar, S.

    2009-04-01

    Phycoerythrin is a water soluble pigment which absorbs in the visible region at 563 nm. The interaction of phycoerythrin with colloidal metal semiconductors was studied by absorption, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Phycoerythrin adsorbed strongly on the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles, the apparent association constant for the association between colloidal metal-TiO 2 nanoparticles and phycoerythrin was determined from fluorescence quenching data. The free energy change (Δ Get) for electron transfer process has been calculated by applying Rehm-Weller equation.

  15. Laser fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A I; Kiyan, R; Chichkov, B N

    2010-09-27

    A novel method for fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays is proposed. This technique is based on laser-induced transfer of molten metal nanodroplets from thin metal films. Metal nanoparticles are produced by solidification of these nanodroplets. The size of the transferred nanoparticles can be controllably changed in the range from 180 nm to 1500 nm. Several examples of complex 2D and 3D microstructures generated form gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. PMID:20941016

  16. Atomic layer deposition to prevent metal transfer from implants: An X-ray fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilo, Fabjola; Borgese, Laura; Prost, Josef; Rauwolf, Mirjam; Turyanskaya, Anna; Wobrauschek, Peter; Kregsamer, Peter; Streli, Christina; Pazzaglia, Ugo; Depero, Laura E.

    2015-12-01

    We show that Atomic Layer Deposition is a suitable coating technique to prevent metal diffusion from medical implants. The metal distribution in animal bone tissue with inserted bare and coated Co-Cr alloys was evaluated by means of micro X-ray fluorescence mapping. In the uncoated implant, the migration of Co and Cr particles from the bare alloy in the biological tissues is observed just after one month and the number of particles significantly increases after two months. In contrast, no metal diffusion was detected in the implant coated with TiO2. Instead, a gradient distribution of the metals was found, from the alloy surface going into the tissue. No significant change was detected after two months of aging. As expected, the thicker is the TiO2 layer, the lower is the metal migration.

  17. Analysis of Accumulating Ability of Heavy Metals in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Improved by Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Naiyan; Zhang, Fengshou

    2012-05-01

    Heavy metals have seriously contaminated soil and water, and done harm to public health. Academician WANG Naiyan proposed that ion-implantation technique should be exploited for environmental bioremediation by mutating and breeding plants or microbes. By implanting N+ into Taikonglian No.1, we have selected and bred two lotus cultivars, Jingguang No.1 and Jingguang No.2. The present study aims at analyzing the feasibility that irradiation can be used for remediation of soil and water from heavy metals. Compared with parent Taikonglian No.1, the uptaking and accumulating ability of heavy metals in two mutated cultivars was obviously improved. So ion implantation technique can indeed be used in bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water, but it is hard to select and breed a cultivar which can remedy the soil and water from all the heavy metals.

  18. Characterization, detection, and counting of metal nanoparticles using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Robert M; Ortenzio, Jayna N R; Boyes, William K

    2016-02-01

    There is a need to accurately detect, characterize, and quantify nanoparticles in suspensions. This study helps to understand the complex interactions between similar types of nanoparticles. Before initiating a study of metal nanoparticles, five submicron PS beads with sizes between 200 nm and 1 µm were used to derive a reference scale that was useful in evaluating the flow cytometer for functionality, sensitivity, resolution, and reproducibility. Side scatter intensity (SSC) from metal nanoparticles was obtained simultaneously from 405 nm and 488 nm lasers. The 405 nm laser generally yielded histogram distributions with smaller CVs, less side scatter intensity, better separation indices between beads and decreased scatter differences between different sized particles compared with the 488 nm laser. Submicron particles must be diluted to 10(6) and 10(7) particles/mL before flow cytometer analysis to avoid coincidence counting artifacts. When particles were too concentrated the following occurred: swarm, electronic overload, coincidence counting, activation of doublet discrimination and rejection circuitry, increase of mean SSC histogram distributions, alterations of SSC and pulse width histogram shape, decrease and fluctuations in counting rate and decrease or elimination of particulate water noise and 1 µm reference bead. To insure that the concentrations were in the proper counting range, the nanoparticle samples were mixed with a known concentration of 1µm counting beads. Sequential dilutions of metal nanoparticles in a 1 µm counting bead suspension helped determine the diluted concentration needed for flow cytometer analysis. It was found that the original concentrated nanoparticle samples had to be diluted, between 1:10,000 and 1:100,000, before characterization by flow cytometry. The concentration of silver or gold nanoparticles in the undiluted sample were determined by comparing them with a known concentration (1.9 × 10(6) beads/mL) of 1 µm

  19. Modification of the optical spectra of glass by metal ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, X. Y.; Fojas, P. B.; Brown, I. G.; Rubin, M. D.

    1993-06-01

    We have carried out some exploratory investigations of the effect of metal ion implantation on the optical transmission characteristics of glass. The implants were done using the vacuum-arc-based high current metal ion implantation facility developed at Berkeley. The implanted doses were from 3 × 10 16 to 1 × 10 17 cm -2 and the energy was mostly 60 keV. A range of different metal ion species was used, including C, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Y, Ag, Pt and Au. We used soda lime-silica glass (window glass), boron-silica glass (microscope slides), and tin oxide coated glass. The transmission of the glass samples to optical radiation in the wavelength range 300 to 2400 nm was measured. Here we outline the procedure and describe the results of the optical transmission measurements.

  20. Depth concentrations of deuterium ions implanted into some pure metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.; Kitowski, K.; Kulikauskas, V.; Wilczynska, T.; Hofman, A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    Pure metals (Cu, Ti, Zr, V, Pd) and diluted Pd alloys (Pd-Ag, Pd-Pt, Pd-Ru, Pd-Rh) were implanted by 25-keV deuterium ions at fluences in the range (1.2-2.3) × 1022 m-2. The post-treatment depth distributions of deuterium ions were measured 10 days and three months after the implantation by using Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). Comparison of the obtained results allowed us to make conclusions about relative stability of deuterium and hydrogen gases in pure metals and diluted Pd alloys. Very high diffusion rates of implanted deuterium ions in V and Pd pure metals and Pd alloys were observed. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed formation of nanosized defects in implanted corundum and titanium.

  1. Optical Properties and Biological Applications of Electromagnetically Coupled Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan Nathan

    The optical properties of metallic particles change dramatically as the size shrinks to the nanoscale. The familiar mirror-like sheen of bulk metals is replaced by the bright, sharp, colorful plasmonic resonances of nanoparticles. The resonances of plasmonic metal nanoparticles are highly tunable throughout the visible spectrum, depending on the size, shape, local dielectric environment, and proximity to other optical resonances. Fundamental and applied research in the nanoscience community in the past few decades has sought to understand and exploit these phenomena for biological applications. In this work, discrete nanoparticle assemblies were produced through biomolecular interactions and studied at the single particle level with darkfield spectroscopy. Pairs of gold nanoparticles tethered by DNA were utilized as molecular rulers to study the dynamics of DNA bending by the restriction enzyme EcoRV. These results substantiated that nanoparticle rulers, deemed "plasmon rulers", could measure the dynamics of single biomolecules with high throughput, long lifetime, and high temporal resolution. To extend these concepts for live cell studies, a plasmon ruler comprised of peptide-linked gold nanoparticle satellites around a core particle was synthesized and utilized to optically follow cell signaling pathways in vivo at the single molecule level. The signal provided by these plasmon rulers allowed continuous observation of caspase-3 activation at the single molecule level in living cells for over 2 hours, unambiguously identifying early stage activation of caspase-3 in apoptotic cells. In the last section of this dissertation, an experimental and theoretical study of electomagnetic coupling in asymmetric metal nanoparticle dimers is presented. A "heterodimer" composed of a silver particle and a gold particle is observed to have a novel coupling between a plasmon mode (free electron oscillations) and an inter-band absorption process (bound electron transitions). The

  2. The Magnetic Properties of Metal-Alloy Glass Composites Prepared by Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Julian Fernandez, Cesar de; Mattei, Giovanni; Sada, Cinzia; Maurizio, Chiara; Padovani, Sara; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Sangregorio, Claudio; Gatteschi, Dante

    2003-08-26

    The structural and magnetic properties of Co-Ni, Co-Fe and Ni-Cu alloy nanoparticles formed in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation are presented. These nanoparticles show crystal structure similar to the corresponding bulk alloys. In the Co-Ni and Co-Fe, magnetization saturation and coercive field depend on the the alloy composition, crystal structure and size effects. Ferromagnetic resonance studies show that collective magnetic processes are present and these are determined by the film-like morphology of the implanted region. The temperature dependence of the magnetization of the NixCu100-x samples indicates that their Curie Temperatures are larger than the corresponding bulk ones. This feature is discussed considering the composition of the nanoparticles and the size effects.

  3. Noble Metal Nanoparticle-loaded Mesoporous Oxide Microspheres for Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhao

    Noble metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals have attracted much attention as catalysts due to their unique characteristics, including high surface areas and well-controlled facets, which are not often possessed by their bulk counterparts. To avoid the loss of their catalytic activities brought about by their size and shape changes during catalytic reactions, noble metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals are usually dispersed and supported finely on solid oxide supports to prevent agglomeration, nanoparticle growth, and therefore the decrease in the total surface area. Moreover, metal oxide supports can also play important roles in catalytic reactions through the synergistic interactions with loaded metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals. In this thesis, I use ultrasonic aerosol spray to produce hybrid microspheres that are composed of noble metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals embedded in mesoporous metal oxide matrices. The mesoporous metal oxide structure allows for the fast diffusion of reactants and products as well as confining and supporting noble metal nanoparticles. I will first describe my studies on noble metal-loaded mesoporous oxide microspheres as catalysts. Three types of noble metals (Au, Pt, Pd) and three types of metal oxide substrates (TiO2, ZrO2, Al 2O3) were selected, because they are widely used for practical catalytic applications involved in environmental cleaning, pollution control, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical syntheses. By considering every possible combination of the noble metals and oxide substrates, nine types of catalyst samples were produced. I characterized the structures of these catalysts, including their sizes, morphologies, crystallinity, and porosities, and their catalytic performances by using a representative reduction reaction from nitrobenzene to aminobenzene. Comparison of the catalytic results reveals the effects of the different noble metals, their incorporation amounts, and oxide substrates on the catalytic abilities. For this particular

  4. Resonances of nanoparticles with poor plasmonic metal tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringe, Emilie; Desantis, Christopher J.; Collins, Sean M.; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Skrabalak, Sara E.; Midgley, Paul A.

    2015-11-01

    The catalytic and optical properties of metal nanoparticles can be combined to create platforms for light-driven chemical energy storage and enhanced in-situ reaction monitoring. However, the heavily damped plasmon resonances of many catalytically active metals (e.g. Pt, Pd) prevent this dual functionality in pure nanostructures. The addition of catalytic metals at the surface of efficient plasmonic particles thus presents a unique opportunity if the resonances can be conserved after coating. Here, nanometer resolution electron-based techniques (electron energy loss, cathodoluminescence, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) are used to show that Au particles incorporating a catalytically active but heavily damped metal, Pd, sustain multiple size-dependent localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) that are narrow and strongly localized at the Pd-rich tips. The resonances also couple with a dielectric substrate and other nanoparticles, establishing that the full range of plasmonic behavior is observed in these multifunctional nanostructures despite the presence of Pd.

  5. Metal nanoparticles: The protective nanoshield against virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Deshmukh, Shivaji D; Ingle, Avinash P; Gupta, Indarchand R; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Galdiero, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Re-emergence of resistance in different pathogens including viruses are the major cause of human disease and death, which is posing a serious challenge to the medical, pharmaceutical and biotechnological sectors. Though many efforts have been made to develop drug and vaccines against re-emerging viruses, researchers are continuously engaged in the development of novel, cheap and broad-spectrum antiviral agents, not only to fight against viruses but also to act as a protective shield against pathogens attack. Current advancement in nanotechnology provides a novel platform for the development of potential and effective agents by modifying the materials at nanolevel with remarkable physicochemical properties, high surface area to volume ratio and increased reactivity. Among metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have strong antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential to boost the host immunity against pathogen attack. Nevertheless, the interaction of silver nanoparticles with viruses is a largely unexplored field. The present review discusses antiviral activity of the metal nanoparticles, especially the mechanism of action of silver nanoparticles, against different viruses such HSV, HIV, HBV, MPV, RSV, etc. It is also focused on how silver nanoparticles can be used in therapeutics by considering their cytotoxic level, to avoid human and environmental risks. PMID:24754250

  6. Oscillatory characteristics of metallic nanoparticles inside lipid nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Ansari, Reza; Darvizeh, Mansour

    2015-12-01

    This study is concerned with the oscillatory behavior of metallic nanoparticles, and in particular silver and gold nanoparticles, inside lipid nanotubes (LNTs) using the continuum approximation along with the 6-12 Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential function. The nanoparticle is modeled as a dense sphere and the LNT is assumed to be comprised of six layers including two head groups, two intermediate layers and two tail groups. To evaluate van der Waals (vdW) interactions, analytical expressions are first derived through undertaking surface and volume integrals which are then validated by a fully numerical scheme based on the differential quadrature (DQ) technique. Using the actual force distribution between the two interacting molecules, the equation of motion is directly solved utilizing the Runge-Kutta numerical integration scheme to arrive at the time history of displacement and velocity of the inner core. Also, a semi-analytical expression incorporating both geometrical parameters and initial conditions is introduced for the precise evaluation of oscillation frequency. A comprehensive study is conducted to gain an insight into the influences of nanoparticle radius, LNT length, head and tail group thicknesses and initial conditions on the oscillatory behavior of the metallic nanoparticles inside LNTs. It is found that the escape velocity and oscillation frequency of silver nanoparticles are higher than those of gold ones. It is further shown that the oscillation frequency is less affected by the tail group thickness when compared to the head group thickness.

  7. Improving proton therapy by metal-containing nanoparticles: nanoscale insights

    PubMed Central

    Schlathölter, Thomas; Eustache, Pierre; Porcel, Erika; Salado, Daniela; Stefancikova, Lenka; Tillement, Olivier; Lux, Francois; Mowat, Pierre; Biegun, Aleksandra K; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Remita, Hynd; Lacombe, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles to enhance the effect of radiation-based cancer treatments is a growing field of study and recently, even nanoparticle-induced improvement of proton therapy performance has been investigated. Aiming at a clinical implementation of this approach, it is essential to characterize the mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects of nanoparticles combined with proton irradiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of platinum- and gadolinium-based nanoparticles on the nanoscale damage induced by a proton beam of therapeutically relevant energy (150 MeV) using plasmid DNA molecular probe. Two conditions of irradiation (0.44 and 3.6 keV/μm) were considered to mimic the beam properties at the entrance and at the end of the proton track. We demonstrate that the two metal-containing nanoparticles amplify, in particular, the induction of nanosize damages (>2 nm) which are most lethal for cells. More importantly, this effect is even more pronounced at the end of the proton track. This work gives a new insight into the underlying mechanisms on the nanoscale and indicates that the addition of metal-based nanoparticles is a promising strategy not only to increase the cell killing action of fast protons, but also to improve tumor targeting. PMID:27143877

  8. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  9. Imaging metal oxide nanoparticles in biological structures with CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Moger, Julian; Johnston, Blair D; Tyler, Charles R

    2008-03-01

    Metal oxide nanomaterials are being used for an increasing number of commercial applications, such as fillers, opacifiers, catalysts, semiconductors, cosmetics, microelectronics, and as drug delivery vehicles. The effects of these nanoparticles on the physiology of animals and in the environment are largely unknown and their potential associated health risks are currently a topic of hot debate. Information regarding the entry route of nanoparticles into exposed organisms and their subsequent localization within tissues and cells in the body are essential for understanding their biological impact. However, there is currently no imaging modality available that can simultaneously image these nanoparticles and the surrounding tissues without disturbing the biological structure. Due to their large nonlinear optical susceptibilities, which are enhanced by two-photon electronic resonance, metal oxides are efficient sources of coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS). We show that CARS microscopy can provide localization of metal oxide nanoparticles within biological structures at the cellular level. Nanoparticles of 20 - 70 nm in size were imaged within the fish gill; a structure that is a primary site of pollutant uptake into fish from the aquatic environment. PMID:18542432

  10. Resonance energy transfer: Dye to metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wari, M. N.; Pujar, G. H.; Inamdar, S. R.

    2015-06-24

    In the present study, surface energy transfer (SET) from Coumarin 540A (C540 A) to Gold nanoparticle (Au) is demonstrated. The observed results show pronounced effect on the photoluminescence intensity and shortening of the lifetime of Coumarin 540A upon interaction with the spherical gold nanoparticle, also there are measured effects on radiative rate of the dye. Experimental results are analyzed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SET theories. The results obtained from distance-dependent quenching provide experimental evidence that the efficiency curve slope and distance of quenching is best modeled by surface energy transfer process.

  11. Resonance energy transfer: Dye to metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wari, M. N.; Pujar, G. H.; Inamdar, S. R.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, surface energy transfer (SET) from Coumarin 540A (C540 A) to Gold nanoparticle (Au) is demonstrated. The observed results show pronounced effect on the photoluminescence intensity and shortening of the lifetime of Coumarin 540A upon interaction with the spherical gold nanoparticle, also there are measured effects on radiative rate of the dye. Experimental results are analyzed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SET theories. The results obtained from distance-dependent quenching provide experimental evidence that the efficiency curve slope and distance of quenching is best modeled by surface energy transfer process.

  12. Ultrahigh-current-density metal-ion implantation and diamondlike-hydrocarbon films for tribological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1993-09-01

    The metal-ion-implantation system used to implant metals into substrates are described. The metal vapor required for operation is supplied by drawing sufficient electron current from the plasma discharge to an anode-potential crucible so a solid, pure metal placed in the crucible will be heated to the point of vaporization. The ion-producing, plasma discharge is initiated within a graphite-ion-source body, which operates at high temperature, by using an argon flow that is turned off once the metal vapor is present. Extraction of ion beams several cm in diameter at current densities ranging to several hundred micro-A/sq cm on a target 50 cm downstream of the ion source were demonstrated using Mg, Ag, Cr, Cu, Si, Ti, V, B, and Zr. These metals were implanted into over 100 substrates (discs, pins, flats, wires). A model describing thermal stresses induced in materials (e.g. ceramic plates) during high-current-density implantation is presented. Tribological and microstructural characteristics of iron and 304-stainless-steel samples implanted with Ti or B are examined. Diamondlike-hydrocarbon coatings were applied to steel surfaces and found to exhibit good tribological performance.

  13. Retention of Implant Supported Metal Crowns Cemented with Different Luting Agents: A Comparative Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavipal; Kaur, Simrat; Arora, Aman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To overcome limitations of screw-retained prostheses, cement-retained prostheses have become the restoration of choice now a days. Selection of the cement hence becomes very critical to maintain retrievability of the prostheses. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of base metal crowns cemented to implant abutments with five different luting cements. Materials and Methods Ten implant analogs were secured in five epoxy resin casts perpendicular to the plane of cast in right first molar and left first molar region and implant abutments were screwed. Total of 100 metal copings were fabricated and cemented. The cements used were zinc phosphate, resin modified glass ionomer cement, resin cement, non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement & non-eugenol temporary resin cement implant cement. Samples were subjected to a pull-out test using an Instron universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. The load required to de-cement each coping was recorded and mean values for each group calculated and put to statistical analysis. Results The results showed that resin cement has the highest retention value 581.075N followed by zinc phosphate luting cement 529.48N, resin modified glass ionomer cement 338.095 N, non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement 249.045 N and non-eugenol temporary resin implant cement 140.49N. Conclusion Within the limitations of study, it was concluded that non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement and non-eugenol temporary resin implant cement allow for easy retrievability of the prosthesis in case of any failure in future. These are suitable for cement retained implant restorations. The results provide a possible preliminary ranking of luting agents based on their ability to retain an implant-supported prosthesis and facilitate easy retrieval. PMID:27190954

  14. No association between serum metal ions and implant fixation in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Søballe, Kjeld; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Lorenzen, Nina Dyrberg; Mechlenburg, Inger; Stilling, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanism of failure of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been related to a high rate of metal wear debris, which is partly generated from the head-trunnion interface. However, it is not known whether implant fixation is affected by metal wear debris. Patients and methods 49 cases of MoM THA in 41 patients (10 women) with a mean age of 52 (28–68) years were followed with stereoradiographs after surgery and at 1, 2, and 5 years to analyze implant migration by radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Patients also participated in a 5- to 7-year follow-up with measurement of serum metal ions, questionnaires (Oxford hip score (OHS) and Harris hip score (HHS)), and measurement of cup and stem positions and systemic bone mineral density. Results At 1–2 years, mean total translation (TT) was 0.04 mm (95% CI: –0.07 to 0.14; p = 0.5) for the stems; at 2–5 years, mean TT was 0.13 mm (95% CI: –0.25 to –0.01; p = 0.03), but within the precision limit of the method. For the cups, there was no statistically significant TT or total rotation (TR) at 1–2 and 2–5 years. At 2–5 years, we found 4 cups and 5 stems with TT migrations exceeding the precision limit of the method. There was an association between cup migration and total OHS < 40 (4 patients, 4 hips; p = 0.04), but there were no statistically significant associations between cup or stem migration and T-scores < –1 (n = 10), cup and stem positions, or elevated serum metal ion levels (> 7µg/L (4 patients, 6 hips)). Interpretation Most cups and stems were well-fixed at 1–5 years. However, at 2–5 years, 4 cups and 5 stems had TT migrations above the precision limits, but these patients had serum metal ion levels similar to those of patients without measurable migrations, and they were pain-free. Patients with serum metal ion levels > 7 µg/L had migrations similar to those in patients with serum metal ion levels < 7 µg/L. Metal wear debris does not appear to influence the

  15. Structure of reverse microemulsion-templated metal hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The droplet phase of a reverse microemulsion formed by the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium ferrocyanide was used as a matrix to synthesize nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate by adding just a solution of NiCl2 to the microemulsion media. Dynamic light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering measurements show that the reverse microemulsion droplets employed have a globular structure, with sizes that depend on water content. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction are used to obtain information about the structure of the synthesized nanoparticles. The results show that the size and shape of the coordination compound nanoparticles correspond with the size and shape of the droplets, suggesting that the presented system constitutes an alternative method of the synthesis of metal hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles. PMID:22264404

  16. Phytochemicals and Biogenic Metallic Nanoparticles as Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Nallappan, Devi; Madhavi, Kondeti; Rahman, Shafiqur; Jun Wei, Lim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Several classes of drugs are available to treat different types of cancer. Currently, researchers are paying significant attention to the development of drugs at the nanoscale level to increase their target specificity and to reduce their concentrations. Nanotechnology is a promising and growing field with multiple subdisciplines, such as nanostructures, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles. These materials have gained prominence in science due to their size, shape, and potential efficacy. Nanomedicine is an important field involving the use of various types of nanoparticles to treat cancer and cancerous cells. Synthesis of nanoparticles targeting biological pathways has become tremendously prominent due to the higher efficacy and fewer side effects of nanodrugs compared to other commercial cancer drugs. In this review, different medicinal plants and their active compounds, as well as green-synthesized metallic nanoparticles from medicinal plants, are discussed in relation to their anticancer activities. PMID:27057273

  17. Phytochemicals and Biogenic Metallic Nanoparticles as Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Nallappan, Devi; Madhavi, Kondeti; Rahman, Shafiqur; Jun Wei, Lim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Several classes of drugs are available to treat different types of cancer. Currently, researchers are paying significant attention to the development of drugs at the nanoscale level to increase their target specificity and to reduce their concentrations. Nanotechnology is a promising and growing field with multiple subdisciplines, such as nanostructures, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles. These materials have gained prominence in science due to their size, shape, and potential efficacy. Nanomedicine is an important field involving the use of various types of nanoparticles to treat cancer and cancerous cells. Synthesis of nanoparticles targeting biological pathways has become tremendously prominent due to the higher efficacy and fewer side effects of nanodrugs compared to other commercial cancer drugs. In this review, different medicinal plants and their active compounds, as well as green-synthesized metallic nanoparticles from medicinal plants, are discussed in relation to their anticancer activities. PMID:27057273

  18. Synthesis of high purity metal oxide nanoparticles for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C.; Kim, W.; Friebele, E. J.; Villalobos, G.; Frantz, J.; Shaw, L. B.; Sadowski, B.; Fontana, J.; Dubinskii, M.; Zhang, J.; Sanghera, J.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we present our recent research results in synthesizing various metal oxide nanoparticles for use as laser gain media (solid state as well as fiber lasers) and transparent ceramic windows via two separate techniques, co-precipitation and flame spray pyrolysis. The nanoparticles were pressed into ceramic discs that exhibited optical transmission approaching the theoretical limit and showed very high optical-to-optical lasing slope efficiency. We have also synthesized sesquioxide nanoparticles using a Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) technique that leads to the synthesis of a metastable phase of sesquioxide which allows fabricating excellent optical quality transparent windows with very fine grain sizes. Finally, we present our research in the synthesis of rare earth doped boehmite nanoparticles where the rareearth ion is encased in a cage of aluminum and oxygen to prevent ion-ion proximity and energy transfer. The preforms have been drawn into fibers exhibiting long lifetimes and high laser efficiencies.

  19. Industrial applications of ion implantation into metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    The modern materials processing technique, ion implantation, has intriguing and attractive features that stimulate the imaginations of scientists and technologists. Success of the technique for introducing dopants into semiconductors has resulted in a stable and growing infrastructure of capital equipment and skills for use of the technique in the economy. Attention has turned to possible use of ion implantation for modification of nearly all surface related properties of materials - optical, chemical and corrosive, tribological, and several others. This presentation provides an introduction to fundamental aspects of equipment, technique, and materials science of ion implantation. Practical and economic factors pertaining to the technology are discussed. Applications and potential applications are surveyed. There are already available a number of ion-implanted products, including ball-and-roller bearings and races, punches-and-dies, injection screws for plastics molding, etc., of potential interest to the machine tool industry.

  20. Lipidic nanovesicles stabilize suspensions of metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rojo, Noemi; Lete, Marta G; Rojas, Elena; Gil, David; Valle, Mikel; Alonso, Alicia; Moya, Sergio E; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effect of adding lipid nanovesicles (liposomes) on the aggregation of commercial titanium oxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), or cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) suspensions in Hepes buffer. Liposomes were prepared with pure phospholipids or mixtures of phospholipids and/or cholesterol. Changes in turbidity were recorded as a function of time, either of metal nanoparticles alone, or for a mixture of nanoparticles and lipidic nanovesicles. Lipid nanovesicles markedly decrease the NPs tendency to sediment irrespective of size or lipid compositions, thus keeping the metal oxide NPs in suspension. Cryo-electron microscopy, fluorescence anisotropy of TMA-DPH and general polarization of laurdan failed to reveal any major effect of the NPs on the lipid bilayer structure or phase state of the lipids. The above data may help in developing studies of the interaction of inhaled particles with lung surfactant lipids and alveolar macrophages. PMID:26301898

  1. Applications of metal nanoparticles in environmental cleanup

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron nanoparticles (INPs) are one of the fastest-developing fields. INPs have a number of key physicochemical properties, such as high surface area, reactivity, optical and magnetic properties, and oxidation and reduction capacities, that make them attractive for water purificati...

  2. An innovative, easily fabricated, silver nanoparticle-based titanium implant coating: development and analytical characterization.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, E; Cafagna, D; Cometa, S; Allegretta, A; Pedico, A; Giannossa, L C; Sabbatini, L; Mattioli-Belmonte, M; Iatta, R

    2013-01-01

    Microbial colonization and biofilm formation on implanted devices represent an important complication in orthopaedic and dental surgery and may result in implant failure. Controlled release of antibacterial agents directly at the implant site may represent an effective approach to treat these chronic complications. Resistance to conventional antibiotics by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in recent years as a major problem of public health. In order to overcome this problem, non-conventional antimicrobial agents have been under investigation. In this study, polyacrylate-based hydrogel thin coatings have been electrosynthesised on titanium substrates starting from poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate)-co-acrylic acid. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a narrow size distribution have been synthesized using a "green" procedure and immobilized on Ti implant surfaces exploiting hydrogel coatings' swelling capabilities. The coatings have been characterized by XPS and SEM/EDX, while their silver release performances have been monitored by ICP-MS. The antibacterial activity of these AgNP-modified hydrogel coatings was tested evaluating in vitro inhibition growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, among the most common pathogens in orthopaedic infections. Moreover, a preliminary investigation of the biocompatibility of silver-loaded coatings versus MG63 human osteoblast-like cells has been performed. An important point of strength of this paper, in fact, is the concern about the effect of silver species on the surrounding cell system in implanted medical devices. Silver ion release has been properly tuned in order to assure antibacterial activity while preserving osteoblasts' response at the implant interface. PMID:22926126

  3. Fabrication of metallic microstructures by micromolding nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Winter, Michael R.; Domeier, Linda A.; Allan, Shawn M.; Skala, Dawn M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for fabricating metallic microstructures, i.e., microcomponents of micron or submicron dimensions. A molding composition is prepared containing an optional binder and nanometer size (1 to 1000 nm in diameter) metallic particles. A mold, such as a lithographically patterned mold, preferably a LIGA or a negative photoresist mold, is filled with the molding composition and compressed. The resulting microstructures are then removed from the mold and the resulting metallic microstructures so provided are then sintered.

  4. Chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate nanoparticles as a novel antimicrobial coating for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Wood, Natalie J; Jenkinson, Howard F; Davis, Sean A; Mann, Stephen; O'Sullivan, Dominic J; Barbour, Michele E

    2015-06-01

    Dental implants are an increasingly popular solution to missing teeth. Implants are prone to colonisation by pathogenic oral bacteria which can lead to inflammation, destruction of bone and ultimately implant failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of chlorhexidine (CHX) hexametaphosphate (HMP) nanoparticles (NPs) with a total CHX concentration equivalent to 5 mM as a coating for dental implants. The CHX HMP NPs had mean diameter 49 nm and composition was confirmed showing presence of both chlorine and phosphorus. The NPs formed micrometer-sized aggregated surface deposits on commercially pure grade II titanium substrates following immersion-coating for 30 s. When CHX HMP NP-coated titanium specimens were immersed in deionised water, sustained release of soluble CHX was observed, both in the absence and presence of a salivary pellicle, for the duration of the study (99 days) without reaching a plateau. Control specimens exposed to a solution of aqueous 25 µM CHX (equivalent to the residual aqueous CHX present with the NPs) did not exhibit CHX release. CHX HMP NP-coated surfaces exhibited antimicrobial efficacy against oral primary colonising bacterium Streptococcus gordonii within 8 h. The antimicrobial efficacy was greater in the presence of an acquired pellicle which is postulated to be due to retention of soluble CHX by the pellicle. PMID:26123234

  5. Metallic nanoparticle deposition techniques for enhanced organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacha, Brian Joseph Gonda

    Energy generation via organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells provide many advantages over alternative processes including flexibility and price. However, more efficient OPVs are required in order to be competitive for applications. One way to enhance efficiency is through manipulation of exciton mechanisms within the OPV, for example by inserting a thin film of bathocuproine (BCP) and gold nanoparticles between the C60/Al and ZnPc/ITO interfaces, respectively. We find that BCP increases efficiencies by 330% due to gains of open circuit voltage (Voc) by 160% and short circuit current (Jsc) by 130%. However, these gains are complicated by the anomalous photovoltaic effect and an internal chemical potential. Exploration in the tuning of metallic nanoparticle deposition on ITO was done through four techniques. Drop casting Ag nanoparticle solution showed arduous control on deposited morphology. Spin-coating deposited very low densities of nanoparticles. Drop casting and spin-coating methods showed arduous control on Ag nanoparticle morphology due to clustering and low deposition density, respectively. Sputtered gold on glass was initially created to aid the adherence of Ag nanoparticles but instead showed a quick way to deposit aggregated gold nanoparticles. Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) proved a quick method to tune nanoparticle morphology on ITO substrates. Control of deposition parameters affected AuNP size and distribution. AFM images of electrodeposited AuNPs showed sizes ranging from 39 to 58 nm. UV-Vis spectroscopy showed the presence of localized plasmon resonance through absorption peaks ranging from 503 to 614 nm. A linear correlation between electrodeposited AuNP size and peak absorbance was seen with a slope of 3.26 wavelength(nm)/diameter(nm).

  6. Characterization, sorption, and exhaustion of metal oxide nanoparticles as metal adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engates, Karen Elizabeth

    Safe drinking water is paramount to human survival. Current treatments do not adequately remove all metals from solution, are expensive, and use many resources. Metal oxide nanoparticles are ideal sorbents for metals due to their smaller size and increased surface area in comparison to bulk media. With increasing demand for fresh drinking water and recent environmental catastrophes to show how fragile water supplies are, new approaches to water conservation incorporating new technologies like metal oxide nanoparticles should be considered as an alternative method for metal contaminant adsorbents from typical treatment methods. This research evaluated the potential of manufactured iron, anatase, and aluminum nanoparticles (Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3) to remove metal contaminants (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) in lab-controlled and natural waters in comparison to their bulk counterparts by focusing on pH, contaminant and adsorbent concentrations, particle size, and exhaustive capabilities. Microscopy techniques (SEM, BET, EDX) were used to characterize the adsorbents. Adsorption experiments were performed using 0.01, 0.1, or 0.5 g/L nanoparticles in pH 8 solution. When results were normalized by mass, nanoparticles adsorbed more than bulk particles but when surface area normalized the opposite was observed. Adsorption was pH-dependent and increased with time and solid concentration. Aluminum oxide was found to be the least acceptable adsorbent for the metals tested, while titanium dioxide anatase (TiO2) and hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) showed great ability to remove individual and multiple metals from pH 8 and natural waters. Intraparticle diffusion was likely part of the complex kinetic process for all metals using Fe2O3 but not TiO 2 nanoparticles within the first hour of adsorption. Adsorption kinetics for all metals tested were described by a modified first order rate equation used to consider the diminishing equilibrium metal concentrations with increasing metal oxides, showing faster

  7. Biomimetic metal oxides for the extraction of nanoparticles from water.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Ramakrishna; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2013-04-21

    Contamination of nanomaterials in the environment will pose significant health risks in the future. A viable purification method is necessary to address this problem. Here we report the synthesis and application of a series of metal oxides prepared using a biological template for the removal of nanoparticles from the aqueous environment. A simple synthesis of metal oxides such as ZnO, NiO, CuO, Co3O4 and CeO2 employing eggshell membrane (ESM) as a biotemplate is reported. The morphology of the metal oxide powders was characterized using electron microscopes and the lattice structure was established using X-ray diffraction methods. Extraction of nanoparticles from water was carried out to compare the efficiency of metal oxides. NiO showed good extraction efficiency in removing gold and silver nanoparticles from spiked water samples within an hour. Easy access and enhanced stability of metal oxides makes them interesting candidates for applications in industrial effluent treatments and water purifications. PMID:23471156

  8. Bismuth nanoparticles integration into heavy metal electrochemical stripping sensor.

    PubMed

    Cadevall, Miquel; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-08-01

    Between their many applications bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) are showing interest as pre-concentrators in heavy metals detection while being applied as working electrode modifiers used in electrochemical stripping analysis. From the different reported methods to synthesize BiNPs we are focused on the typical polyol method, largely used in these types of metallic and semi-metallic nanoparticles. This study presents the strategy for an easy control of the shape and size of BiNPs including nanocubes, nanosferes and triangular nanostructures. To improve the BiNP size and shape, different reducing agents (ethylene glycol or sodium hypophosphite) and stabilizers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, in different amounts) have been studied. The efficiency of BiNPs for heavy metals analysis in terms of detection sensitivity while being used as modifiers of screen-printed carbon electrodes including the applicability of the developed device in real sea water samples is shown. A parallel study between the obtained nanoparticles and their performance in heavy metal sensing has been described in this communication. PMID:25994368

  9. Clinical usefulness of blood metal measurements to assess the failure of metal-on-metal hip implants

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Barry; Hart, Alister

    2012-01-01

    In April 2010, a Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency safety alert concerning all metal-on-metal (MOM) hip replacements recommended measuring chromium and cobalt concentrations when managing patients with painful prostheses. The need for this review is illustrated by the recent surge in requests for these blood tests from orthopaedic surgeons following this alert. The aim is to provide guidance to laboratories in assessing these requests and advising clinicians on interpretation. First, we summarize the basic terminology regarding the types of hip replacements, with emphasis on the MOM type. Second, we describe the clinical concerns over implant-derived wear debris in the local tissues and distant sites. Analytical aspects of the measurement of the relevant metal ions and what factors affect the levels measured are discussed. The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques to the measurement of these metals is considered in detail. The biological effects of metal wear products are summarized with local toxicity and systemic biological effects considered, including carcinogenicity, genotoxicity and systemic toxicity. Clinical cases are used to illustrate pertinent points. PMID:22155921

  10. Studying the interaction between silica nanoparticles and metals by spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revina, A. A.; Potapov, V. V.; Baranova, E. K.; Smirnov, Yu. V.

    2013-02-01

    The optical absorption spectra of water silica sols containing nanoparticles (NPs) of metals (Ag, Pd, Fe, and Pt) are investigated. Silica sols are obtained from natural hydrothermal solutions via membrane concentration (ultrafiltration). Water sols of silica with specific sizes, pH values, ζ potentials of SiO2 NP surfaces, and low concentrations of SiO2 NPs are used. Plasmon resonance in optical absorption spectra is used to study the interaction between silica and metal NPs. Parameters of plasmon resonance (position, height, and half-width of optical absorption bands), from which the degree of interaction is assessed, are determined. Relationships between the optical properties of the surfaces of nanoparticle-size silica particles, the method of their production, and the effect of adsorbed metal particles on these properties are established.

  11. Tailoring the Catalytic Properties of Metal Nanoparticles via Support Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, M; Mistry, H; Roldan Cuenya, B

    2016-09-01

    The development of new catalysts for energy technology and environmental remediation requires a thorough knowledge of how the physical and chemical properties of a catalyst affect its reactivity. For supported metal nanoparticles (NPs), such properties can include the particle size, shape, composition, and chemical state, but a critical parameter which must not be overlooked is the role of the NP support. Here, we highlight the key mechanisms behind support-induced enhancement in the catalytic properties of metal NPs. These include support-induced changes in the NP morphology, stability, electronic structure, and chemical state, as well as changes in the support due to the NPs. Utilizing the support-dependent phenomena described in this Perspective may allow significant breakthroughs in the design and tailoring of the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal nanoparticles. PMID:27530730

  12. Ostwald ripening of charged supported metal nanoparticles: Schottky model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-07-01

    Due to high surface area, supported metal nanoparticles are thermodynamically prone to sintering. The experimental studies of this process exhibit sometimes transient bimodal particle size distributions. Such observations may result from the support heterogeneity. Looking retrospectively, one can also find the prediction that in the case of Ostwald ripening this feature can be related to charge of metal nanoparticles. In real systems, this charge is often associated with the metal-support interaction and can be interpreted in the framework of the Schottky model. Using this model, the author shows that the charge redistribution cannot be behind bimodal particle size distributions. Moreover, the corresponding contribution to the driving force for Ostwald ripening is typically much smaller than the conventional one.

  13. Fundamental Limits to Extinction by Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, O. D.; Hsu, C. W.; Reid, M. T. H.; Qiu, W.; DeLacy, B. G.; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Soljačić, M.; Johnson, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    We show that there are shape-independent upper bounds to the extinction cross section per unit volume of dilute, randomly arranged nanoparticles, given only material permittivity. Underlying the limits are restrictive sum rules that constrain the distribution of quasistatic eigenvalues. Surprisingly, optimally designed spheroids, with only a single quasistatic degree of freedom, reach the upper bounds for four permittivity values. Away from these permittivities, we demonstrate computationally optimized structures that surpass spheroids and approach the fundamental limits.

  14. Metal nanoparticles triggered persistent negative photoconductivity in silk protein hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogurla, Narendar; Sinha, Arun K.; Naskar, Deboki; Kundu, Subhas C.; Ray, Samit K.

    2016-03-01

    Silk protein is a natural biopolymer with intriguing properties, which are attractive for next generation bio-integrated electronic and photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate the negative photoconductive response of Bombyx mori silk protein fibroin hydrogels, triggered by Au nanoparticles. The room temperature electrical conductivity of Au-silk hydrogels is found to be enhanced with the incorporation of Au nanoparticles over the control sample, due to the increased charge transporting networks within the hydrogel. Au-silk lateral photoconductor devices show a unique negative photoconductive response under an illumination of 325 nm, with excitation energy higher than the characteristic metal plasmon resonance band. The enhanced photoconductance yield in the hydrogels over the silk protein is attributed to the photo-oxidation of amino groups in the β-pleated sheets of the silk around the Au nanoparticles followed by the breaking of charge transport networks. The Au-silk nanocomposite does not show any photoresponse under visible illumination because of the localization of excited charges in Au nanoparticles. The negative photoconductive response of hybrid Au-silk under UV illumination may pave the way towards the utilization of silk for future bio-photonic devices using metal nanoparticle platforms.

  15. Transition metal swift heavy ion implantation on 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. Ashraf; Kumar, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Asokan, K.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the realization of Quantum Ring (QR) and Quantum Dot (QD) like structures on 4H-SiC through SHI implantation and on their Raman studies. 4H-SiC is SHI implanted with Transition Metal (TM) Ni ion at different fluences. It is observed that a vibrational mode emerges as the result of Ni ion implantation. The E2 (TO) and the A1 (LO) are suppressed as the fluence increases. In this paper Raman and AFM studies have been performed at room temperature and the queer anomalies are addressed so new devices can be fabricated.

  16. Bulk Metallic Glass-like Scattering Signal in Small Metallic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Doan-Nguyen, VVT; Kimber, SAJ; Pontoni, D; Hickey, DR; Diroll, BT; Yang, XH; Miglierini, M; Murray, CB; Billinge, SJL

    2014-06-01

    The atomic structure of Ni-Pd nanoparticles has been studied using atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray total scattering data and with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Larger nanoparticles have PDFs corresponding to the bulk face-centered cubic packing. However, the smallest nanoparticles have PDFs that strongly resemble those obtained from bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In fact, by simply scaling the distance axis by the mean metallic radius, the curves may be collapsed onto each other and onto the PDF from a metallic glass sample. In common with a wide range of BMG materials, the intermediate range order may be fit with a damped single-frequency sine wave. When viewed in high-resolution TEM, these nanoparticles exhibit atomic fringes typical of those seen in small metallic clusters with icosahedral or decahedral order. These two seemingly contradictory results are reconciled by calculating the PDFs of models of icosahedra that would be consistent with the fringes seen in TEM. These model PDFs resemble the measured ones when significant atom-position disorder is introduced, drawing together the two diverse fields of metallic nanoparticles and BMGs and supporting the view that BMGs may contain significant icosahedral or decahedral order.

  17. Effect of Metals, Metalloids and Metallic Nanoparticles on Microalgae Growth and Industrial Product Biosynthesis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Miazek, Krystian; Iwanek, Waldemar; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a source of numerous compounds that can be used in many branches of industry. Synthesis of such compounds in microalgal cells can be amplified under stress conditions. Exposure to various metals can be one of methods applied to induce cell stress and synthesis of target products in microalgae cultures. In this review, the potential of producing diverse biocompounds (pigments, lipids, exopolymers, peptides, phytohormones, arsenoorganics, nanoparticles) from microalgae cultures upon exposure to various metals, is evaluated. Additionally, different methods to alter microalgae response towards metals and metal stress are described. Finally, possibilities to sustain high growth rates and productivity of microalgal cultures in the presence of metals are discussed. PMID:26473834

  18. Mechanistic analysis of Zein nanoparticles/PLGA triblock in situ forming implants for glimepiride

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Osama Abdelhakim Aly; Zidan, Ahmed Samir; Khayat, Maan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study aims at applying pharmaceutical nanotechnology and D-optimal fractional factorial design to screen and optimize the high-risk variables affecting the performance of a complex drug delivery system consisting of glimepiride–Zein nanoparticles and inclusion of the optimized formula with thermoresponsive triblock copolymers in in situ gel. Methods Sixteen nanoparticle formulations were prepared by liquid–liquid phase separation method according to the D-optimal fractional factorial design encompassing five variables at two levels. The responses investigated were glimepiride entrapment capacity (EC), particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release from the prepared nanoparticles. Furthermore, the feasibility of embedding the optimized Zein-based glimepiride nanoparticles within thermoresponsive triblock copolymers poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) in in situ gel was evaluated for controlling glimepiride release rate. Results Through the systematic optimization phase, improvement of glimepiride EC of 33.6%, nanoparticle size of 120.9 nm with a skewness value of 0.2, zeta potential of 11.1 mV, and sustained release features of 3.3% and 17.3% drug released after 2 and 24 hours, respectively, were obtained. These desirability functions were obtained at Zein and glimepiride loadings of 50 and 75 mg, respectively, utilizing didodecyldimethylammonium bromide as a stabilizer at 0.1% and 90% ethanol as a common solvent. Moreover, incorporating this optimized formulation in triblock copolymers-based in situ gel demonstrated pseudoplastic behavior with reduction of drug release rate as the concentration of polymer increased. Conclusion This approach to control the release of glimepiride using Zein nanoparticles/triblock copolymers-based in situ gel forming intramuscular implants could be useful for improving diabetes treatment effectiveness. PMID:26893561

  19. Mesoscopic stoner instability in metallic nanoparticles revealed by shot noise.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, Björn; König, Jürgen; Gefen, Yuval

    2012-04-20

    We study sequential tunneling through a metallic nanoparticle close to the Stoner instability coupled to parallel magnetized electrodes. Increasing the bias voltage successively opens transport channels associated with excitations of the nanoparticle's total spin. For the current this leads just to a steplike increase. The Fano factor, in contrast, shows oscillations between large super-Poissonian and sub-Poissonian values as a function of bias voltage. We explain the enhanced Fano factor in terms of generalized random-telegraph noise and propose the shot noise as a convenient tool to probe the mesoscopic Stoner instability. PMID:22680743

  20. Spectral variation of fluorescence lifetime near single metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Webster, Linden; Segovia, Paulina; Zayats, Anatoly V.; Richards, David

    2016-02-01

    We explore the spectral dependence of fluorescence enhancement and the associated lifetime modification of fluorescent molecules coupled to single metal nanoparticles. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and single-particle dark-field spectroscopy are combined to correlate the dependence of fluorescence lifetime reduction on the spectral overlap between the fluorescence emission and the localised surface plasmon (LSP) spectra of individual gold nanoparticles. A maximum lifetime reduction is observed when the fluorescence and LSP resonances coincide, with good agreement provided by numerical simulations. The explicit comparison between experiment and simulation, that we obtain, offers an insight into the spectral engineering of LSP mediated fluorescence and may lead to optimized application in sensing and biomedicine.

  1. A 3D metal artifact correction method in cone-beam CT bone imaging by using an implant image library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Ning, Ruola; Conover, David

    2008-03-01

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) technique has been used by orthopedists to monitor bone graft growth after orthopedic surgery. In order to correct severe metal artifacts in reconstructed images caused by metal implants used in bone grafting, a three-dimensional metal artifact correction method has been previously proposed. The implants' mathematic boundaries were generated to help to segment metal from reconstructed images. The segmented metal implants were forward-projected onto the detector to create metal-only projections to compensate for beam-hardening effect. This method was proved effective with the metal implants of regular shape which can be simulated by simple 3D primitives, such as cuboid, cylinder and cone. But for metal implants of arbitrary shape, their boundaries are difficult to define mathematically. To solve this problem, this paper proposed a method by setting up an implant image library and using the implants' a priori shape information from the library during the artifact correction. The implants were acquired and scanned before the surgery and their a priori information were stored in a library. During the artifact correction, the library was called to provide the shape information of the implants to help to do the implant segmentation. The segmented implants were forward-projected onto the detector to generate implant-only projections by a cone-beam forward-projection technique. Beam-hardening effect in the original projections was then compensated by high polynomial orders of implant projections. Finally, the corrected projections were back-projected to produce artifacts-reduced images. Both phantom studies and patient studies were conducted to test this correction method. Results from both studies show the artifacts have been greatly reduced and the accuracy of bone volume measurement has been increased.

  2. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-03-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently.

  3. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently. PMID:26955791

  4. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-01-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently. PMID:26955791

  5. Chemical sensing with nanoparticles as optical reporters: from noble metal nanoparticles to quantum dots and upconverting nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Goldys, Ewa M

    2014-11-01

    A wide variety of biological and medical analyses are based on the use of optical signals to report specific molecular events. Thanks to advances in nanotechnology, various nanostructures have been extensively used as optical reporters in bio- and chemical assays. This review describes recent progress in chemical sensing using noble metal nanoparticles (gold and silver), quantum dots and upconverting nanoparticles. It provides insights into various nanoparticle-based sensing strategies including fluorescence/luminescence resonance energy transfer nanoprobes as well as activatable probes sensitive to specific changes in the biological environment. Finally we list some research challenges to be overcome in order to accelerate the development of applications of nanoparticle bio- and chemical sensors. PMID:25170528

  6. Antimicrobial properties of metal and metal-halide nanoparticles and their potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrey, Jason Robert

    Heavy metals, including silver and copper, have been known to possess antimicrobial properties against bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Metal nanoparticles (aggregations of metal atoms 1-200 nm in size) have recently become the subject of intensive study for their increased antimicrobial properties. In the current studies, metal and metal-halide nanoparticles were evaluated for their antibacterial efficacy. Silver (Ag), silver bromide (AgBr), silver iodide (AgI), and copper iodide (CuI) nanoparticles significantly reduced bacterial numbers of the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus within 24 hours and were more effective against P. aeruginosa. CuI nanoparticles were found to be highly effective, reducing both organisms by >4.43 log 10 within 15 minutes at 60 ppm Cu. CuI nanoparticles formulated with different stabilizers (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS; polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP) were further tested against representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Mycobacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans ), and a non-enveloped virus (poliovirus). Both nanoparticles caused significant reductions in most of the Gram-negative bacteria within five minutes (>5.09-log10). The Gram-positive bacterial species and C. albicans were more sensitive to the CuI-SDS than the CuI-PVP nanoparticles. In contrast, the acid-fast Mycobacterium smegmatis was more resistant to CuI-SDS than CuI-PVP nanoparticles. Poliovirus was more resistant than the other organisms tested except for Mycobacterium fortuitum, which displayed the greatest resistance to CuI nanoparticles. As an example of a real world antimicrobial application, polymer coatings embedded with various concentrations of CuI nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Polyester-epoxy powder coatings were found to display superior uniformity, stability and antimicrobial properties against both organisms (>4.92 log 10 after six hours at

  7. Trace metal determination as it relates to metallosis of orthopaedic implants: Evolution and current status.

    PubMed

    Ring, Gavin; O'Mullane, John; O'Riordan, Alan; Furey, Ambrose

    2016-05-01

    In utilising metal surfaces that are in constant contact with each other, metal-on-metal (MoM) surgical implants present a unique challenge, in the sense that their necessity is accompanied by the potential risk of wear particle generation, metal ion release and subsequent patient toxicity. This is especially true of orthopaedic devices that are faulty and subject to failure, where the metal surfaces undergo atypical degradation and release even more unwanted byproducts, as was highlighted by the recent recall of orthopaedic surgical implants. The aim of this review is to examine the area of metallosis arising from the wear of MoM articulations in orthopaedic devices, including how the surgical procedures and detection methods have advanced to meet growing performance and analytical needs, respectively. PMID:26794632

  8. Formation of Metal Selenide and Metal-Selenium Nanoparticles using Distinct Reactivity between Selenium and Noble Metals.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Ho; Choi, Ji Yong; Lee, Young Hwan; Park, Joon T; Song, Hyunjoon

    2015-07-01

    Small Se nanoparticles with a diameter of ≈20 nm were generated by the reduction of selenium chloride with NaBH4 at -10 °C. The reaction with Ag at 60 °C yielded stable Ag2 Se nanoparticles, which subsequently were transformed into M-Se nanoparticles (M=Cd, Zn, Pb) through cation exchange reactions with corresponding ions. The reaction with Pt formed Pt layers that were evenly coated on the surface of the Se nanoparticles, and the dissolution of the Se cores with hydrazine generated uniform Pt hollow nanoparticles. The reaction with Au generated tiny Au clusters on the Se surface, and eventually formed acorn-shaped Au-Se nanoparticles through heat treatment. These results indicate that small Se nanoparticles with diameters of ≈20 nm can be used as a versatile platform for the synthesis of metal selenide and metal-selenium hybrid nanoparticles with complex structures. PMID:25883010

  9. Is Neurotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles the Cascades of Oxidative Stress?

    PubMed

    Song, Bin; Zhang, YanLi; Liu, Jia; Feng, XiaoLi; Zhou, Ting; Shao, LongQuan

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, metallic (metal or metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in many fields such as cosmetics, the food and building industries, and bio-medical instruments. Widespread applications of metallic NP-based products increase the health risk associated with human exposures. Studies revealed that the brain, a critical organ that consumes substantial amounts of oxygen, is a primary target of metallic NPs once they are absorbed into the body. Oxidative stress (OS), apoptosis, and the inflammatory response are believed to be the main mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs. Other studies have disclosed that antioxidant pretreatment or co-treatment can reverse the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species, up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the proportion of apoptotic cells, and suppressing the inflammatory response. These findings suggest that the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs might involve a cascade of events following NP-induced OS. However, additional research is needed to determine whether NP-induced OS plays a central role in the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the correlations among neurotoxic mechanisms and to improve the bio-safety of metallic NP-based products. PMID:27295259

  10. Is Neurotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles the Cascades of Oxidative Stress?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bin; Zhang, YanLi; Liu, Jia; Feng, XiaoLi; Zhou, Ting; Shao, LongQuan

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, metallic (metal or metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in many fields such as cosmetics, the food and building industries, and bio-medical instruments. Widespread applications of metallic NP-based products increase the health risk associated with human exposures. Studies revealed that the brain, a critical organ that consumes substantial amounts of oxygen, is a primary target of metallic NPs once they are absorbed into the body. Oxidative stress (OS), apoptosis, and the inflammatory response are believed to be the main mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs. Other studies have disclosed that antioxidant pretreatment or co-treatment can reverse the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species, up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the proportion of apoptotic cells, and suppressing the inflammatory response. These findings suggest that the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs might involve a cascade of events following NP-induced OS. However, additional research is needed to determine whether NP-induced OS plays a central role in the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the correlations among neurotoxic mechanisms and to improve the bio-safety of metallic NP-based products.

  11. Simplified Technique for Incorporating a Metal Mesh into Record Bases for Mandibular Implant Overdentures.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Antonio; Siegel, Sharon C

    2015-12-01

    Mandibular implant-retained overdentures have become the standard of care for patients with mandibular complete edentulism. As part of the treatment, the mandibular implant-retained overdenture may require a metal mesh framework to be incorporated to strengthen the denture and avoid fracture of the prosthesis. Integrating the metal mesh framework as part of the acrylic record base and wax occlusion rim before the jaw relation procedure will avoid the distortion of the record base and will minimize the chances of processing errors. A simplified method to incorporate the mesh into the record base and occlusion rim is presented in this technique article. PMID:25659988

  12. Note: An ion source for alkali metal implantation beneath graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers on transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, L. H.; Cun, H. Y.; Hemmi, A.; Kälin, T.; Greber, T.

    2013-12-01

    The construction of an alkali-metal ion source is presented. It allows the acceleration of rubidium ions to an energy that enables the penetration through monolayers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. Rb atoms are sublimated from an alkali-metal dispenser. The ionization is obtained by surface ionization and desorption from a hot high work function surface. The ion current is easily controlled by the temperature of ionizer. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy measurements confirm ion implantation.

  13. Note: An ion source for alkali metal implantation beneath graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers on transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, L. H. de; Cun, H. Y.; Hemmi, A.; Kälin, T.; Greber, T.

    2013-12-15

    The construction of an alkali-metal ion source is presented. It allows the acceleration of rubidium ions to an energy that enables the penetration through monolayers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. Rb atoms are sublimated from an alkali-metal dispenser. The ionization is obtained by surface ionization and desorption from a hot high work function surface. The ion current is easily controlled by the temperature of ionizer. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy measurements confirm ion implantation.

  14. Physicochemical Factors that Affect Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Passage Across Epithelial Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Alison; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; DeLouise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of nanomaterials in terms of size, shape, and surface chemistry poses a challenge to those who are trying to characterize the human health and environmental risks associated with incidental and unintentional exposures. There are numerous products that are already commercially available that contain solid metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, either embedded in a matrix or in solution. Exposure assessments for these products are often incomplete or difficult due to technological challenges associated with detection and quantitation of nanoparticles in gaseous or liquid carriers. The main focus of recent research has been on hazard identification. However, risk is a product of hazard and exposure, and one significant knowledge gap is that of the target organ dose following in vivo exposures. In order to reach target organs, nanoparticles must first breech the protective barriers of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or skin. The fate of those nanoparticles that reach physiological barriers is in large part determined by the properties of the particles and the barriers themselves. This article reviews the physiological properties of the lung, gut, and skin epithelia, the physicochemical properties of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles that are likely to affect their ability to breech epithelial barriers, and what is known about their fate following in vivo exposures. PMID:20049809

  15. Hyperspectral imaging of plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zopf, David; Jatschka, Jacqueline; Dathe, André; Jahr, Norbert; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Stranik, Ondrej

    2016-07-15

    The spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles shows great potential for label-free sensing. In this article we present a hyper-spectral imaging system combined with a microfluidic system, which allows full spectroscopic characterization of many individual nanoparticles simultaneously (>50 particles). With such a system we were able overcome several limitations that are present in LSPR sensing with nanoparticle ensemble. We experimentally quantified (incorporating atomic force microscopy as well) the correlation between geometry, position of plasmon resonance (λPeak) and sensitivity of the particles (Sb=1.63λPeak-812.47[nm/RIU]). We were able to follow the adsorption of protein layers and determined their spatial inhomogeneity with the help of the hyperspectral imaging. PMID:26974477

  16. Supported metal nanoparticles on porous materials. Methods and applications.

    PubMed

    White, Robin J; Luque, Rafael; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Clark, James H; Macquarrie, Duncan J

    2009-02-01

    Nanoparticles are regarded as a major step forward to achieving the miniaturisation and nanoscaling effects and properties that have been utilised by nature for millions of years. The chemist is no longer observing and describing the behaviour of matter but is now able to manipulate and produce new types of materials with specific desired physicochemical characteristics. Such materials are receiving extensive attention across a broad range of research disciplines. The fusion between nanoparticle and nanoporous materials technology represents one of the most interesting of these rapidly expanding areas. The harnessing of nanoscale activity and selectivity, potentially provides extremely efficient catalytic materials for the production of commodity chemicals, and energy needed for a future sustainable society. In this tutorial review, we present an introduction to the field of supported metal nanoparticles (SMNPs) on porous materials, focusing on their preparation and applications in different areas. PMID:19169462

  17. Maxillary Overdentures Supported by Four Splinted Direct Metal Laser Sintering Implants: A 3-Year Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Nowadays, the advancements in direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technology allow the fabrication of titanium dental implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate implant survival, complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss of DMLS implants used to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures. Materials and Methods. Over a 2-year period, 120 implants were placed in the maxilla of 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures (ODs). Each OD was supported by 4 implants splinted by a rigid cobalt-chrome bar. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed. The outcome measures were implant failure, biological and prosthetic complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss (distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact, DIB). Results. The 3-year implant survival rate was 97.4% (implant-based) and 92.9% (patient-based). Three implants failed. The incidence of biological complication was 3.5% (implant-based) and 7.1% (patient-based). The incidence of prosthetic complication was 17.8% (patient-based). No detrimental effects on marginal bone level were evidenced. Conclusions. The use of 4 DMLS titanium implants to support bar-retained maxillary ODs seems to represent a safe and successful procedure. Long-term clinical studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25580124

  18. Uncovering the design rules for peptide synthesis of metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yen Nee; Lee, Jim Yang; Wang, Daniel I C

    2010-04-28

    Peptides are multifunctional reagents (reducing and capping agents) that can be used for the synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles under relatively mild conditions. However, the progress in peptide synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been slow due to the lack of peptide design rules. It is difficult to establish sequence-reactivity relationships from peptides isolated from biological sources (e.g., biomineralizing organisms) or selected by combinatorial display libraries because of their widely varying compositions and structures. The abundance of random and inactive amino acid sequences in the peptides also increases the difficulty in knowledge extraction. In this study, a "bottom-up" approach was used to formulate a set of rudimentary rules for the size- and shape-controlled peptide synthesis of gold nanoparticles from the properties of the 20 natural alpha-amino acids for AuCl(4)(-) reduction and binding to Au(0). It was discovered that the reduction capability of a peptide depends on the presence of certain reducing amino acid residues, whose activity may be regulated by neighboring residues with different Au(0) binding strengths. Another finding is the effect of peptide net charge on the nucleation and growth of the Au nanoparticles. On the basis of these understandings, several multifunctional peptides were designed to synthesize gold nanoparticles in different morphologies (nanospheres and nanoplates) and with sizes tunable by the strategic placement of selected amino acid residues in the peptide sequence. The methodology presented here and the findings are useful for establishing the scientific basis for the rational design of peptides for the synthesis of metal nanostructures. PMID:20355728

  19. Correction of misfit in a maxillary immediate metal-resin implant-fixed complete prosthesis placed with flapless surgery on four implants.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; Suarez, Carlos; McGlumphy, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Immediate placement of a definitive metal-resin implant-fixed complete prosthesis on four implants after flapless computed tomographic (CT)-guided surgery was compromised because of misfit due to a discrepancy in the position of an implant. However, the definitive prosthesis could be delivered on the day of surgery with the help of laser-welding procedures. Immediate loading of four maxillary implants with a definitive prosthesis might be a viable option using the laser-welding technique in case of misfit of the prosthesis. PMID:22010097

  20. Biological Strategies for Improved Osseointegration and Osteoinduction of Porous Metal Orthopedic Implants

    PubMed Central

    Riester, Scott M.; Bonin, Carolina A.; Kremers, Hilal Maradit; Dudakovic, Amel; Kakar, Sanjeev; Cohen, Robert C.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    The biological interface between an orthopedic implant and the surrounding host tissue may have a dramatic effect upon clinical outcome. Desired effects include bony ingrowth (osseointegration), stimulation of osteogenesis (osteoinduction), increased vascularization, and improved mechanical stability. Implant loosening, fibrous encapsulation, corrosion, infection, and inflammation, as well as physical mismatch may have deleterious clinical effects. This is particularly true of implants used in the reconstruction of load-bearing synovial joints such as the knee, hip, and the shoulder. The surfaces of orthopedic implants have evolved from solid-smooth to roughened-coarse and most recently, to porous in an effort to create a three-dimensional architecture for bone apposition and osseointegration. Total joint surgeries are increasingly performed in younger individuals with a longer life expectancy, and therefore, the postimplantation lifespan of devices must increase commensurately. This review discusses advancements in biomaterials science and cell-based therapies that may further improve orthopedic success rates. We focus on material and biological properties of orthopedic implants fabricated from porous metal and highlight some relevant developments in stem-cell research. We posit that the ideal primary and revision orthopedic load-bearing metal implants are highly porous and may be chemically modified to induce stem cell growth and osteogenic differentiation, while minimizing inflammation and infection. We conclude that integration of new biological, chemical, and mechanical methods is likely to yield more effective strategies to control and modify the implant–bone interface and thereby improve long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:25348836

  1. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging platform for quantifying in vivo nanoparticle diffusion from drug loaded implants.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Stacey; Belz, Jodi; Kumar, Rajiv; Cormack, Robert A; Sridhar, Srinivas; Niedre, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Drug loaded implants are a new, versatile technology platform to deliver a localized payload of drugs for various disease models. One example is the implantable nanoplatform for chemo-radiation therapy where inert brachytherapy spacers are replaced by spacers doped with nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with chemotherapeutics and placed directly at the disease site for long-term localized drug delivery. However, it is difficult to directly validate and optimize the diffusion of these doped NPs in in vivo systems. To better study this drug release and diffusion, we developed a custom macroscopic fluorescence imaging system to visualize and quantify fluorescent NP diffusion from spacers in vivo. To validate the platform, we studied the release of free fluorophores, and 30 nm and 200 nm NPs conjugated with the same fluorophores as a model drug, in agar gel phantoms in vitro and in mice in vivo. Our data verified that the diffusion volume was NP size-dependent in all cases. Our near-infrared imaging system provides a method by which NP diffusion from implantable nanoplatform for chemo-radiation therapy spacers can be systematically optimized (eg, particle size or charge) thereby improving treatment efficacy of the platform. PMID:27069363

  2. Utilizing dynamic annealing during ion implantation: synthesis of silver nanoparticles in crystalline lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Stöcker, Hartmut; Abendroth, Barbara; Wesch, Werner; Ronning, Carsten

    2014-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in lithium niobate were fabricated via ion beam synthesis and are suitable for various plasmonic applications, e.g. enhancement of optical nonlinear effects. After room temperature silver implantation, annealing in the temperature range of 400-600 °C was performed in order to recrystallize the damaged lithium niobate surface layer. The shape of the silver NPs, their optical properties as well as the structural properties of their surrounding matrix have been analyzed for various annealing steps. TEM investigations show that annealing at 400 °C does not lead to recrystallization of the damaged lithium niobate. A recrystallization occurs upon increasing the annealing temperature to 500 or 600 °C, but simultaneously a second phase consisting of lithium triniobate forms. This is additionally supported by XRD measurements. By utilizing dynamic annealing, i.e. implanting silver at elevated temperatures of 400 °C, it is shown that the LiNbO3 matrix stays single crystalline during ion implantation and no LiNb3O8 is formed. This is additionally verified by comparing the positions of the surface plasmon resonances with calculations based on Mie's scattering theory. PMID:24598310

  3. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging platform for quantifying in vivo nanoparticle diffusion from drug loaded implants

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Stacey; Belz, Jodi; Kumar, Rajiv; Cormack, Robert A; Sridhar, Srinivas; Niedre, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Drug loaded implants are a new, versatile technology platform to deliver a localized payload of drugs for various disease models. One example is the implantable nanoplatform for chemo-radiation therapy where inert brachytherapy spacers are replaced by spacers doped with nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with chemotherapeutics and placed directly at the disease site for long-term localized drug delivery. However, it is difficult to directly validate and optimize the diffusion of these doped NPs in in vivo systems. To better study this drug release and diffusion, we developed a custom macroscopic fluorescence imaging system to visualize and quantify fluorescent NP diffusion from spacers in vivo. To validate the platform, we studied the release of free fluorophores, and 30 nm and 200 nm NPs conjugated with the same fluorophores as a model drug, in agar gel phantoms in vitro and in mice in vivo. Our data verified that the diffusion volume was NP size-dependent in all cases. Our near-infrared imaging system provides a method by which NP diffusion from implantable nanoplatform for chemo-radiation therapy spacers can be systematically optimized (eg, particle size or charge) thereby improving treatment efficacy of the platform. PMID:27069363

  4. Carbon composites with metal nanoparticles for Alcohol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrapragada, Lakshman; Siddhardha, R. S.; Podilla, Ramakrishna; Muthukumar, V. S.; Creager, Stephen; Rao, A. M.; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2015-03-01

    Graphene due to its high surface area and superior conductivity has attracted wide attention from both industrial and scientific communities. We chose graphene as a substrate for metal nanoparticle deposition for fuel cell applications. There are many chemical routes for fabrication of metal-graphene composites, but they have an inherent disadvantage of low performance due to the usage of surfactants, that adsorb on their surface. Here we present a design for one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles and simultaneous deposition on graphene with laser ablation of gold strip and functionalized graphene. In this process there are two natural advantages, the nanoparticles are synthesized without any surfactants, therefore they are pristine and subsequent impregnation on graphene is linker free. These materials are well characterized with electron microscopy to find their morphology and spectroscopic techniques like Raman, UV-Vis. for functionality. This gold nanoparticle decorated graphene composite has been tested for its electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols for alkaline fuel cell applications. An electrode made of this composite showed good stability for more than 200 cycles of operation and reported a low onset potential of 100 mV more negative, an important factor for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  5. Tunable Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticle Sol-Gel Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Snow, Lanee A.; Sibille, Laurent; Ignont, Erica

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that the linear and non-linear optical properties of sol-gels containing metal nanoparticles are highly tunable with porosity. Moreover, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to inhomogeneous hosts, such as aerogels, and determine rigorous bounds for the average fractional composition of each component, i.e., the porosity of the aerogel, or equivalently, for these materials, the catalytic dispersion. Sol-gels containing noble metal nanoparticles were fabricated and a significant blue-shift in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was observed upon formation of an aerogel, as a result of the decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix upon supercritical extraction of the solvent. However, as a result of chemical interface damping and aggregation this blue-shift does not strictly obey standard effective medium theories. Mitigation of these complications is achieved by avoiding the use of alcohol and by annealing the samples in a reducing atmosphere.

  6. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP)-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS) diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano-neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. PMID:26170667

  7. Radio-frequency capacitance spectroscopy of metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frake, James C.; Kano, Shinya; Ciccarelli, Chiara; Griffiths, Jonathan; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka; Smith, Charles G.; Buitelaar, Mark R.

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have seen great progress in our understanding of the electronic properties of nanomaterials in which at least one dimension measures less than 100 nm. However, contacting true nanometer scale materials such as individual molecules or nanoparticles remains a challenge as even state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques such as electron-beam lithography have a resolution of a few nm at best. Here we present a fabrication and measurement technique that allows high sensitivity and high bandwidth readout of discrete quantum states of metallic nanoparticles which does not require nm resolution or precision. This is achieved by coupling the nanoparticles to resonant electrical circuits and measurement of the phase of a reflected radio-frequency signal. This requires only a single tunnel contact to the nanoparticles thus simplifying device fabrication and improving yield and reliability. The technique is demonstrated by measurements on 2.7 nm thiol coated gold nanoparticles which are shown to be in excellent quantitative agreement with theory.

  8. Radio-frequency capacitance spectroscopy of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Frake, James C; Kano, Shinya; Ciccarelli, Chiara; Griffiths, Jonathan; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka; Smith, Charles G; Buitelaar, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen great progress in our understanding of the electronic properties of nanomaterials in which at least one dimension measures less than 100 nm. However, contacting true nanometer scale materials such as individual molecules or nanoparticles remains a challenge as even state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques such as electron-beam lithography have a resolution of a few nm at best. Here we present a fabrication and measurement technique that allows high sensitivity and high bandwidth readout of discrete quantum states of metallic nanoparticles which does not require nm resolution or precision. This is achieved by coupling the nanoparticles to resonant electrical circuits and measurement of the phase of a reflected radio-frequency signal. This requires only a single tunnel contact to the nanoparticles thus simplifying device fabrication and improving yield and reliability. The technique is demonstrated by measurements on 2.7 nm thiol coated gold nanoparticles which are shown to be in excellent quantitative agreement with theory. PMID:26042729

  9. Radio-frequency capacitance spectroscopy of metallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Frake, James C.; Kano, Shinya; Ciccarelli, Chiara; Griffiths, Jonathan; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka; Smith, Charles G.; Buitelaar, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen great progress in our understanding of the electronic properties of nanomaterials in which at least one dimension measures less than 100 nm. However, contacting true nanometer scale materials such as individual molecules or nanoparticles remains a challenge as even state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques such as electron-beam lithography have a resolution of a few nm at best. Here we present a fabrication and measurement technique that allows high sensitivity and high bandwidth readout of discrete quantum states of metallic nanoparticles which does not require nm resolution or precision. This is achieved by coupling the nanoparticles to resonant electrical circuits and measurement of the phase of a reflected radio-frequency signal. This requires only a single tunnel contact to the nanoparticles thus simplifying device fabrication and improving yield and reliability. The technique is demonstrated by measurements on 2.7 nm thiol coated gold nanoparticles which are shown to be in excellent quantitative agreement with theory. PMID:26042729

  10. Functional Application of Noble Metal Nanoparticles In Situ Synthesized on Ramie Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Yao, Ya; Li, Jingliang; Qin, Si; Zhu, Haijin; Kaur, Jasjeet; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2015-09-01

    Different functions were imparted to ramie fibers through treatment with noble metal nanoparticles including silver and gold nanoparticles. The in situ synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles was achieved by heating in the presence of ramie fibers in the corresponding solutions of precursors. The unique optical property of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles, i.e., localized surface plasmon resonance, endowed ramie fibers with bright colors. Color strength (K/S) of fibers increased with heating temperature. Silver nanoparticles were obtained in alkaline solution, while acidic condition was conducive to gold nanoparticles. The optical properties of treated ramie fibers were investigated using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the morphologies of silver and gold nanoparticles in situ synthesized on fibers. The ramie fibers treated with noble metal nanoparticles showed remarkable catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride. Moreover, the silver nanoparticle treatment showed significant antibacterial property on ramie fibers.

  11. Interrogating Circulating Microsomes and Exosomes Using Metal Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Ge; Mohamadi, Reza M; Poudineh, Mahla; Kermanshah, Leyla; Ahmed, Sharif; Safaei, Tina Saberi; Stojcic, Jessica; Nam, Robert K; Sargent, Edward H; Kelley, Shana O

    2016-02-10

    A chip-based approach for electrochemical characterization and detection of microsomes and exosomes based on direct electro-oxidation of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) that specifically recognize surface markers of these vesicles is reported. It is found that exosomes and microsomes derived from prostate cancer cells can be identified by their surface proteins EpCAM and PSMA, suggesting the potential of exosomes and microsomes for use as diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:26707703

  12. Light-scattering Characteristics of Metal Nanoparticles on a Single Bacterial Cell.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takamasa; Kiso, Keita; LE, Dung Q; Shiigi, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles express unique light-scattering characteristics based on the localized surface plasmon resonance, which depends on the metal species, particle size, and aggregation state of the nanoparticles. Therefore, we focused on the light-scattering characteristics of metal nanoparticles, such as silver, gold, and copper oxide, adsorbed on a bacterium. Monodisperse silver nanoparticles expressed the strongest scattered light among them, and showed various colors of scattered light. Although a monodisperse gold nanoparticle produced monochromatic light (green color), the color of the scattered light strongly depended on the aggregation state of the nanoparticles on a bacterium. On the other hand, copper oxide nanoparticles expressed monochromatic light (blue color), regardless of their aggregation states on a bacterium. We examined details concerning the light-scattering characteristics of metal nanoparticles, and discussed the possibility of their applications to bacterial cell imaging. PMID:26960609

  13. Direct Metal Laser Sintering Titanium Dental Implants: A Review of the Current Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, F.; Chambrone, L.; van Noort, R.; Miller, C.; Hatton, P.; Mangano, C.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technology that allows fabrication of complex-shaped objects from powder-based materials, according to a three-dimensional (3D) computer model. With DMLS, it is possible to fabricate titanium dental implants with an inherently porous surface, a key property required of implantation devices. Objective. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the reliability of DMLS titanium dental implants and their clinical and histologic/histomorphometric outcomes, as well as their mechanical properties. Materials and Methods. Electronic database searches were performed. Inclusion criteria were clinical and radiographic studies, histologic/histomorphometric studies in humans and animals, mechanical evaluations, and in vitro cell culture studies on DMLS titanium implants. Meta-analysis could be performed only for randomized controlled trials (RCTs); to evaluate the methodological quality of observational human studies, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used. Results. Twenty-seven studies were included in this review. No RCTs were found, and meta-analysis could not be performed. The outcomes of observational human studies were assessed using the NOS: these studies showed medium methodological quality. Conclusions. Several studies have demonstrated the potential for the use of DMLS titanium implants. However, further studies that demonstrate the benefits of DMLS implants over conventional implants are needed. PMID:25525434

  14. Direct metal laser sintering titanium dental implants: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Mangano, F; Chambrone, L; van Noort, R; Miller, C; Hatton, P; Mangano, C

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technology that allows fabrication of complex-shaped objects from powder-based materials, according to a three-dimensional (3D) computer model. With DMLS, it is possible to fabricate titanium dental implants with an inherently porous surface, a key property required of implantation devices. Objective. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the reliability of DMLS titanium dental implants and their clinical and histologic/histomorphometric outcomes, as well as their mechanical properties. Materials and Methods. Electronic database searches were performed. Inclusion criteria were clinical and radiographic studies, histologic/histomorphometric studies in humans and animals, mechanical evaluations, and in vitro cell culture studies on DMLS titanium implants. Meta-analysis could be performed only for randomized controlled trials (RCTs); to evaluate the methodological quality of observational human studies, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used. Results. Twenty-seven studies were included in this review. No RCTs were found, and meta-analysis could not be performed. The outcomes of observational human studies were assessed using the NOS: these studies showed medium methodological quality. Conclusions. Several studies have demonstrated the potential for the use of DMLS titanium implants. However, further studies that demonstrate the benefits of DMLS implants over conventional implants are needed. PMID:25525434

  15. Osteogenecity of octacalcium phosphate coatings applied on porous metal implants.

    PubMed

    Barrère, Florence; van der Valk, Chantal M; Dalmeijer, Remco A J; Meijer, Gert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Groot, Klaas; Layrolle, Pierre

    2003-09-15

    The biomimetic route allows the homogeneous deposition of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coatings on porous implants by immersion in simulated physiologic solution. In addition, various Ca-P phases, such as octacalcium phosphate (OCP) or bone-like carbonated apatite (BCA), which are stable only at low temperatures, can be deposited. In this pilot study, experiments were designed with a twofold-purpose: (1) to investigate the osteoinduction of OCP-coated and noncoated porous tantalum cylinders and of dense titanium alloy cylinders (5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length) in the back muscle of goats at 12 and 24 weeks (n = 4); and (2) to compare the osteogenic potentials of BCA-coated, OCP-coated, and bare porous tantalum cylinders in a gap of 1 mm created in the femoral condyle of a goat at 12 weeks (n = 2). In the goat muscle, after 12 weeks the OCP-coated porous cylinder had induced ectopic bone as well as bone within the cavity of the OCP-coated dense titanium cylinder. In the femoral condyle, bone did not fill the gap in any of the porous implants. In contrast with the two other groups, OCP-coated porous cylinders exhibited bone formation in the center of the implant. The nature of the Ca-P coating, via its microstructure, its dissolution rate, and its specific interactions with body fluids, may influence the osteogenecity of the Ca-P biomaterial. PMID:12926029

  16. Efficient antitumor effect of co-drug-loaded nanoparticles with gelatin hydrogel by local implantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Tian, Yong; Zhu, Zhenshu; Xu, Huae; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Donghui; Sun, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet) could enhance the antitumor effect of Paclitaxel (Ptx) by increasing intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, which leads to the possibility of co-delivery of both drugs for synergistic antitumor effect. In the current study, we reported an efficient, local therapeutic strategy employing effective Tet and Ptx delivery with a nanoparticle-loaded gelatin system. Tet- and Ptx co-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles (P/T-NPs) were encapsulated into the physically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel and then implanted on the tumor site for continuous drug release. The drug-loaded gelatin hydrogel underwent a phase change when the temperature slowly increased. In vitro study showed that Tet/Ptx-loaded PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles encapsulated within a gelatin hydrogel (P/T-NPs-Gelatin) inhibited the growth and invasive ability of BGC-823 cells more effectively than the combination of free drugs or P/T-NPs. In vivo study validated the therapeutic potential of P/T-NPs-Gelatin. P/T-NPs-Gelatin significantly inhibited the activation of p-Akt and the downstream anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and also inducing the activation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Moreover, the molecular-modulating effect of P/T-NPs-Gelatin on related proteins varied slightly under the influence of NAC, which was supported by the observations of the tumor volumes and weights. Based on these findings, local implantation of P/T-NPs-Gelatin may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27226240

  17. Efficient antitumor effect of co-drug-loaded nanoparticles with gelatin hydrogel by local implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Tian, Yong; Zhu, Zhenshu; Xu, Huae; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Donghui; Sun, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet) could enhance the antitumor effect of Paclitaxel (Ptx) by increasing intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, which leads to the possibility of co-delivery of both drugs for synergistic antitumor effect. In the current study, we reported an efficient, local therapeutic strategy employing effective Tet and Ptx delivery with a nanoparticle-loaded gelatin system. Tet- and Ptx co-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles (P/T-NPs) were encapsulated into the physically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel and then implanted on the tumor site for continuous drug release. The drug-loaded gelatin hydrogel underwent a phase change when the temperature slowly increased. In vitro study showed that Tet/Ptx-loaded PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles encapsulated within a gelatin hydrogel (P/T-NPs-Gelatin) inhibited the growth and invasive ability of BGC-823 cells more effectively than the combination of free drugs or P/T-NPs. In vivo study validated the therapeutic potential of P/T-NPs-Gelatin. P/T-NPs-Gelatin significantly inhibited the activation of p-Akt and the downstream anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and also inducing the activation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Moreover, the molecular-modulating effect of P/T-NPs-Gelatin on related proteins varied slightly under the influence of NAC, which was supported by the observations of the tumor volumes and weights. Based on these findings, local implantation of P/T-NPs-Gelatin may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27226240

  18. Investigation of metal hydride nanoparticles templated in metal organic frameworks.

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Herberg, Julie L.; Highley, Aaron M.; Grossman, Jeffrey; Wagner, Lucas; Bhakta, Raghu; Peaslee, D.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Liu, X.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2010-11-01

    Hydrogen is proposed as an ideal carrier for storage, transport, and conversion of energy. However, its storage is a key problem in the development of hydrogen economy. Metal hydrides hold promise in effectively storing hydrogen. For this reason, metal hydrides have been the focus of intensive research. The chemical bonds in light metal hydrides are predominantly covalent, polar covalent or ionic. These bonds are often strong, resulting in high thermodynamic stability and low equilibrium hydrogen pressures. In addition, the directionality of the covalent/ionic bonds in these systems leads to large activation barriers for atomic motion, resulting in slow hydrogen sorption kinetics and limited reversibility. One method for enhancing reaction kinetics is to reduce the size of the metal hydrides to nano scale. This method exploits the short diffusion distances and constrained environment that exist in nanoscale hydride materials. In order to reduce the particle size of metal hydrides, mechanical ball milling is widely used. However, microscopic mechanisms responsible for the changes in kinetics resulting from ball milling are still being investigated. The objective of this work is to use metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as templates for the synthesis of nano-scale NaAlH4 particles, to measure the H2 desorption kinetics and thermodynamics, and to determine quantitative differences from corresponding bulk properties. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offer an attractive alternative to traditional scaffolds because their ordered crystalline lattice provides a highly controlled and understandable environment. The present work demonstrates that MOFs are stable hosts for metal hydrides and their reactive precursors and that they can be used as templates to form metal hydride nanoclusters on the scale of their pores (1-2 nm). We find that using the MOF HKUST-1 as template, NaAlH4 nanoclusters as small as 8 formula units can be synthesized inside the pores. A detailed picture of

  19. Hydride formation in core-shell alloyed metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2016-07-01

    The model and analysis presented are focused on hydride formation in nanoparticles with a Pd shell and a core formed by another metal. The arrangement of metal atoms is assumed to be coherent (no dislocations). The lattice strain distribution, elastic energy, and chemical potential of hydrogen atoms are scrutinized. The slope of the chemical potential (as a function of hydrogen uptake) is demonstrated to decrease with increasing the core volume, and accordingly the critical temperature for hydride formation and the corresponding hysteresis loops are predicted to decrease as well.

  20. Rapid laser sintering of metal nano-particles inks.

    PubMed

    Ermak, Oleg; Zenou, Michael; Toker, Gil Bernstein; Ankri, Jonathan; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Kotler, Zvi

    2016-09-23

    Fast sintering is of importance in additive metallization processes and especially on sensitive substrates. This work explores the mechanisms which set limits to the laser sintering rate of metal nano-particle inks. A comparison of sintering behavior of three different ink compositions with laser exposure times from micro-seconds to seconds reveals the dominant factor to be the organic content (OC) in the ink. With a low OC silver ink, of 2% only, sintering time falls below 100 μs with resistivity <×4 bulk silver. Still shorter exposure times result in line delamination and deformation with a similar outcome when the OC is increased. PMID:27514079

  1. Rapid laser sintering of metal nano-particles inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermak, Oleg; Zenou, Michael; Bernstein Toker, Gil; Ankri, Jonathan; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Kotler, Zvi

    2016-09-01

    Fast sintering is of importance in additive metallization processes and especially on sensitive substrates. This work explores the mechanisms which set limits to the laser sintering rate of metal nano-particle inks. A comparison of sintering behavior of three different ink compositions with laser exposure times from micro-seconds to seconds reveals the dominant factor to be the organic content (OC) in the ink. With a low OC silver ink, of 2% only, sintering time falls below 100 μs with resistivity <×4 bulk silver. Still shorter exposure times result in line delamination and deformation with a similar outcome when the OC is increased.

  2. Electronic temperature effects on the optical response of metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, Sh.

    2006-09-01

    At the present work we study the optical properties of spherical nanometals by Lindhard's quantum theory for the electron gas and then there is a theoretical study aiming at understanding the role of the electronic temperature on the optical response of simple metal clusters as the nanoparticles. The electronic temperature dependence of the optical response of simple metal clusters is investigated by many different quantum mechanical theories. The longitudinal and transverse dielectric functions are the most important quantities of a quantum many- electron system which are calculated at the present work.

  3. Unveiling the chemistry behind the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sónia A O; Pinto, Ricardo J B; Rocha, Sílvia M; Marques, Paula A A P; Pascoal Neto, Carlos; Silvestre, Armando J D; Freire, Carmen S R

    2014-09-01

    Nanobiotechnology has emerged as a fundamental domain in modern science, and metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the largest classes of NPs studied because of their wide spectrum of possible applications in several fields. The use of plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents in their synthesis is an interesting and reliable alternative to conventional methodologies. However, the role of the different components of such extracts in the reduction/stabilization of metal ions has not yet been understood clearly. Here we studied the behavior of the main components of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bark aqueous extract during metal-ion reduction followed by advanced chromatographic techniques, which allowed us to establish their specific role in the process. The obtained results showed that phenolic compounds, particularly galloyl derivatives, are mainly responsible for the metal-ion reduction, whereas sugars are essentially involved in the stabilization of the NPs. PMID:25088383

  4. Optical studies of ion-beam synthesized metal alloy nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Magudapathy, P. Srivatsava, S. K.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Amirthapandian, S.; Sairam, T. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2015-06-24

    Au{sub x}Ag{sub 1-x} alloy nanoparticles with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been synthesized on a silica glass substrate. A small Au foil on an Ag foil is irradiated as target substrates such that ion beam falls on both Ag foil and Au foils. Silica slides are kept at an angle ∼45° with respect to the metallic foils. While irradiating the metallic foils with 100 keV Ar{sup +} ions, sputtered Au and Ag atoms get deposited on the silica-glass. In this configuration the foils have been irradiated by Ar{sup +} ions to various fluences at room temperature and the sputtered species are collected on silica slides. Formation of Au{sub x}Ag{sub 1-x} nanoparticles has been confirmed from the optical absorption measurements. With respect to the exposure area of Au and Ag foils to the ion beam, the SPR peak position varies from 450 to 500 nm. Green photoluminescence has been observed from these alloy metal nanoparticles.

  5. Formation of oriented nanostructures in diamond using metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mehedi, H-A; Hebert, C; Ruffinatto, S; Eon, D; Omnes, F; Gheeraert, E

    2012-11-16

    A simple, fast and cost-effective etching technique to create oriented nanostructures such as pyramidal and cylindrical shaped nanopores in diamond membranes by self-assembled metallic nanoparticles is proposed. In this process, a diamond film is annealed with thin metallic layers in a hydrogen atmosphere. Carbon from the diamond surface is dissolved into nanoparticles generated from the metal film, then evacuated in the form of hydrocarbons and, consequently, the nanoparticles enter the crystal volume. In order to understand and optimize the etching process, the role of different parameters such as type of catalyst (Ni, Co, Pt, and Au), hydrogen gas, temperature and time of annealing, and microstructure of diamond (polycrystalline and nanocrystalline) were investigated. With this technique, nanopores with lateral sizes in the range of 10-100 nm, and as deep as about 600 nm, in diamond membranes were produced without any need for a lithography process, which opens the opportunities for fabricating porous diamond membranes for chemical sensing applications. PMID:23090452

  6. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  7. Metal redox processes for the controlled synthesis of metal alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kirkeminde, Alec; Spurlin, Stan; Draxler-Sixta, Laura; Cooper, Jamie; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-03-27

    Nanocrystalline metals have received widespread interest and found various applications owing to their magnetic and catalytic properties and in energy-related fields. A flexible approach for the growth of nanoalloys with controlled properties and well-defined structures on the atomic scale is thus greatly desired. A new synthetic method that avoids incompatible reduction potentials and rates would be critical to grow metal nanostructures with high purities and the desired stoichiometries. A metal-redox strategy that employs spontaneous oxidation/reduction reactions to grow nanocrystalline alloys using molecular-scale zerovalent metal precursors is now described. The selection of suitable zerovalent metal species allows for thermodynamic control of the compositional stoichiometry during the temperature-dependent formation of the metal alloy nanoparticles. A practical and scalable strategy for nanoalloy growth that can potentially produce key metal components of superior metallurgical quality for catalytic and magnetic systems has thus been developed. PMID:25651105

  8. Metal and Metal Carbide Nanoparticle Synthesis Using Electrical Explosion of Wires Coupled with Epoxide Polymerization Capping.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Elseddik M; Jelliss, Paul A; Buckner, Steven W

    2015-06-15

    In this study, metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs) were produced using electrical explosion of wires (EEW) in organic solvents. The explosion chamber was constructed from Teflon to withstand the shockwave, allow growth and reaction of the incipient NPs in various organic solvents containing dissolved ligands, and allow a constant flow of argon to maintain an inert environment. A survey of different transition d-block metals was conducted with metals from groups 4-8, affording metal carbide NPs, while metals from groups 9-12 gave elemental metallic NPs. Tungsten carbide phase WC1-x, which has not been previously isolated as a single-phase material, was exclusively formed during EEW. We used polymerization initiation by electron-rich metallic nanoparticles (PIERMEN) as a capping technique for the nascent NPs with an alkyl epoxide employed as the monomers. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical particles with the metallic core embedded in a polymer matrix with predominantly smaller particles (<50 nm), but also a broad size distribution with some larger particles (>100 nm). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) was used to confirm the identity of the metallic NPs. The capping agents were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. No evidence is observed for the formation of crystalline oxides during EEW for any metals used. Differential scanning calorimetry/thermal gravimetric analysis was used to study the NP's behavior upon heating under an air flow up to 800 °C with the product oxides characterized by PXRD. The bifurcation between metal-carbide NPs and metal NPs correlates with the enthalpy of formation of the product carbides. We observed PIERMEN capping of elemental metal NPs only when the metal has negative standard electrode potentials (relative to a bis(biphenyl) chromium(I)/(0) reference electrode). PMID:26011064

  9. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  10. Topological design and additive manufacturing of porous metals for bone scaffolds and orthopaedic implants: A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojian; Xu, Shanqing; Zhou, Shiwei; Xu, Wei; Leary, Martin; Choong, Peter; Qian, M; Brandt, Milan; Xie, Yi Min

    2016-03-01

    One of the critical issues in orthopaedic regenerative medicine is the design of bone scaffolds and implants that replicate the biomechanical properties of the host bones. Porous metals have found themselves to be suitable candidates for repairing or replacing the damaged bones since their stiffness and porosity can be adjusted on demands. Another advantage of porous metals lies in their open space for the in-growth of bone tissue, hence accelerating the osseointegration process. The fabrication of porous metals has been extensively explored over decades, however only limited controls over the internal architecture can be achieved by the conventional processes. Recent advances in additive manufacturing have provided unprecedented opportunities for producing complex structures to meet the increasing demands for implants with customized mechanical performance. At the same time, topology optimization techniques have been developed to enable the internal architecture of porous metals to be designed to achieve specified mechanical properties at will. Thus implants designed via the topology optimization approach and produced by additive manufacturing are of great interest. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of topological design and manufacturing processes of various types of porous metals, in particular for titanium alloys, biodegradable metals and shape memory alloys. This review also identifies the limitations of current techniques and addresses the directions for future investigations. PMID:26773669

  11. Osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants modified with a nanostructured coating based on ordered porous silica and bioactive glass nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covarrubias, Cristian; Mattmann, Matías; Von Marttens, Alfredo; Caviedes, Pablo; Arriagada, Cristián; Valenzuela, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Corral, Camila

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of a nanoporous silica coating loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG/NSC) on titanium dental implant surface and its in vitro and in vivo evaluation is presented. The coating was produced by a combined sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly process. In vitro bioactivity was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and investigating the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). A rat tibial model was employed to analyze the bone response to nBG/NSC-modified titanium implant surface in vivo. The nBG/NSC coating was confirmed at nano level to be constituted by a highly ordered nanoporous silica structure. The coating nanotopography in conjunction with the bioactivity of the BG particles accelerate the in vitro apatite formation and promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in absence of osteogenic supplements. These properties accelerate the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant after 3 weeks of implantation. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images revealed the presence of gaps and soft tissue in the unmodified implant after 6 weeks, whereas the nBG/NSC-modified implant showed mature bone in intimate contact with the implant surface. The nBG/NSC coating appears promising for accelerating the osseointegration of dental implants.

  12. Faceted metal and metal oxide nanoparticles: design, fabrication and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Jaya; Pal, Tarasankar

    2015-09-14

    The review addresses new advances in metal, bimetallic, metal oxide, and composite particles in their nanoregime for facet-selective catalytic applications. The synthesis and growth mechanisms of the particles have been summarized in brief in this review with a view to develop critical examination of the faceted morphology of the particles for catalysis. The size, shape and composition of the particles have been found to be largely irrelevant in comparison to the nature of facets in catalysis. Thus selective high- and low-index facets have been found to selectively promote adsorption, which eventually leads to an effective catalytic reaction. As a consequence, a high density of atoms rest at the corners, steps, stages, kinks etc on the catalyst surface in order to host the adsorbate efficiently and catalyze the reaction. Again, surface atomic arrangement and bond length have been found to play a dominant role in adsorption, leading to effective catalysis. PMID:26255749

  13. Faceted metal and metal oxide nanoparticles: design, fabrication and catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Jaya; Pal, Tarasankar

    2015-08-01

    The review addresses new advances in metal, bimetallic, metal oxide, and composite particles in their nanoregime for facet-selective catalytic applications. The synthesis and growth mechanisms of the particles have been summarized in brief in this review with a view to develop critical examination of the faceted morphology of the particles for catalysis. The size, shape and composition of the particles have been found to be largely irrelevant in comparison to the nature of facets in catalysis. Thus selective high- and low-index facets have been found to selectively promote adsorption, which eventually leads to an effective catalytic reaction. As a consequence, a high density of atoms rest at the corners, steps, stages, kinks etc on the catalyst surface in order to host the adsorbate efficiently and catalyze the reaction. Again, surface atomic arrangement and bond length have been found to play a dominant role in adsorption, leading to effective catalysis.

  14. Resonances of nanoparticles with poor plasmonic metal tips.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Emilie; DeSantis, Christopher J; Collins, Sean M; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Skrabalak, Sara E; Midgley, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic and optical properties of metal nanoparticles can be combined to create platforms for light-driven chemical energy storage and enhanced in-situ reaction monitoring. However, the heavily damped plasmon resonances of many catalytically active metals (e.g. Pt, Pd) prevent this dual functionality in pure nanostructures. The addition of catalytic metals at the surface of efficient plasmonic particles thus presents a unique opportunity if the resonances can be conserved after coating. Here, nanometer resolution electron-based techniques (electron energy loss, cathodoluminescence, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) are used to show that Au particles incorporating a catalytically active but heavily damped metal, Pd, sustain multiple size-dependent localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) that are narrow and strongly localized at the Pd-rich tips. The resonances also couple with a dielectric substrate and other nanoparticles, establishing that the full range of plasmonic behavior is observed in these multifunctional nanostructures despite the presence of Pd. PMID:26617270

  15. Resonances of nanoparticles with poor plasmonic metal tips

    PubMed Central

    Ringe, Emilie; DeSantis, Christopher J.; Collins, Sean M.; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Skrabalak, Sara E.; Midgley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic and optical properties of metal nanoparticles can be combined to create platforms for light-driven chemical energy storage and enhanced in-situ reaction monitoring. However, the heavily damped plasmon resonances of many catalytically active metals (e.g. Pt, Pd) prevent this dual functionality in pure nanostructures. The addition of catalytic metals at the surface of efficient plasmonic particles thus presents a unique opportunity if the resonances can be conserved after coating. Here, nanometer resolution electron-based techniques (electron energy loss, cathodoluminescence, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) are used to show that Au particles incorporating a catalytically active but heavily damped metal, Pd, sustain multiple size-dependent localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) that are narrow and strongly localized at the Pd-rich tips. The resonances also couple with a dielectric substrate and other nanoparticles, establishing that the full range of plasmonic behavior is observed in these multifunctional nanostructures despite the presence of Pd. PMID:26617270

  16. Removal of Trichloroethylene and Heavy Metals by Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boparai, H. K.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2009-05-01

    Heavy metals combined with chlorinated solvents are one class of mixed waste found at various hazardous waste sites in North America. Nano zerovalent iron (nZVI), an emerging technology, is being successfully used for treating chlorinated solvents and heavy metals independently, however comparatively little research has investigated the remediation of the wastes when they are present in the same mixture. The remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)/heavy metal waste mixtures via nZVI has been investigated in the present study. Results suggest that some metals are reduced by nZVI to their zerovalent state and thus precipitate on nZVI particles. This improves the contaminant removal performance of nZVI by forming bimetallic iron nanoparticles. Other metals are directly precipitated or adsorbed on the nZVI particles in their original oxidation state and are rendered immobile. In some cases the presence of the heavy metals in the waste mixture enhanced the dechlorination of TCE while in other cases it did not. This study suggests that nano zerovalent iron particles can be effectively used for the remediation of mixed contamination of heavy metals and chlorinated solvents. Results have been supported by a variety of techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis.

  17. Information for Patients Who Have Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... their implants. These problems included: General hypersensitivity reaction (skin rash) Cardiomyopathy Neurological changes including sensory changes (auditory, or visual impairments) Psychological status change ( ...

  18. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni; Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  19. Peculiarities and application perspectives of metal-ion implants in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzoldi, P.; Gonella, F.; Arnold, G.W.; Battaglin, G.; Bertoncello, R.

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation in insulators causes modifications in the refractive-index as a result of radiation damage, phase separation, or compound formation. As a consequence, light waveguides may be formed with interesting applications in the field of optoelectronics. Recently implantation of metals ions (e.g. silver, copper, gold, lead,...) showed the possibility of small radii colloidal particles formation, in a thin surface layer of the glass substrate. These particles exhibit an electron plasmon resonance which depends on the optical constants of the implanted metal and on the refractive-index of the glass host. The non-linear optical properties of such colloids, in particular the enhancement of optical Kerr susceptibility, suggest that the, ion implantation technique may play an important role for the production of all-optical switching devices. In this paper an analysis of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field will be presented in the framework of ion implantation in glass physics and chemistry.

  20. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  1. Metal nanoparticle direct inkjet printing for low-temperature 3D micro metal structure fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Seung Hwan; Chung, Jaewon; Hotz, Nico; Nam, Koo Hyun; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2010-12-01

    Inkjet printing of functional materials is a key technology toward ultra-low-cost, large-area electronics. We demonstrate low-temperature 3D micro metal structure fabrication by direct inkjet printing of metal nanoparticles (NPs) as a versatile, direct 3D metal structuring approach representing an alternative to conventional vacuum deposition and photolithographic methods. Metal NP ink was inkjet-printed to exploit the large melting temperature drop of the nanomaterial and the ease of the NP ink formulation. Parametric studies on the basic conditions for stable 3D inkjet printing of NP ink were carried out. Furthermore, diverse 3D metal microstructures, including micro metal pillar arrays, helices, zigzag and micro bridges were demonstrated and electrical characterization was performed. Since the process requires low temperature, it carries substantial potential for fabrication of electronics on a plastic substrate.

  2. In vivo bone response and mechanical evaluation of electrosprayed CaP nanoparticle coatings using the iliac crest of goats as an implantation model.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Corinne; Meijer, Gert J; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; de Jonge, Lise T; Wolke, Joop G C; Spauwen, Paul H M; Jansen, John A

    2010-06-01

    Recent trends in clinical implantology include the use of endosseous dental implant surfaces embellished with nano-sized modifications. The current study was initiated to evaluate the mechanical properties, as well as the potential beneficial effects, of electrosprayed CaP nanoparticle-coated (nano-CaP) implants on the in vivo osteogenic response, compared with grit-blasted, acid-etched (GAE) implant surfaces as controls. For this purpose nano-CaP coatings were deposited on cylindrical screw-type (St) implants and implanted bilaterally into the iliac crest of goats for 6weeks. In addition to histological and histomorphometrical analyses, insertion torque and removal torque values were measured on implant placement and retrieval, respectively. The present study showed similar insertion and removal torque values for nano-CaP-coated and GAE control implants, with no statistically significant increase in torque value during the implant period for either group. With regard to bone-implant contact and peri-implant bone volume, no significant differences were found between nano-CaP-coated and GAE implants after 6weeks implantation. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in situations in which implants are placed in a non-compromised situation using a standard press fit implantation strategy the performance of electrosprayed nano-CaP coatings is comparable with GAE implants, both with respect to implant fixation and bone healing response. PMID:19944782

  3. First order Raman scattering analysis of transition metal ions implanted GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Abdul; Rana, Usman Ali; Shakoor, Abdul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hassan, Najam al; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2016-03-01

    Transition Metal (TM) ions V, Cr, Mn and Co were implanted into GaN/sapphire films at fluences 5×1014, 5×1015 and 5×1016 cm-2. First order Raman Scattering (RS) measurements were carried out to study the effects of ion implantation on the microstructure of the materials, which revealed the appearance of disorder and new phonon modes in the lattice. The variations in characteristic modes 1GaN i.e. E2(high) and A1(LO), observed for different implanted samples is discussed in detail. The intensity of nitrogen vacancy related vibrational modes appearing at 363 and 665 cm-1 was observed for samples having different fluences. A gallium vacancy related mode observed at 277/281 cm-1 for TM ions implanted at 5×1014 cm-2 disappeared for all samples implanted with rest of fluences. The fluence dependent production of implantation induced disorder and substitution of TM ions on cationic sites is discussed, which is expected to provide necessary information for the potential use of these materials as diluted magnetic semiconductors in future spintronic devices.

  4. Non-alloyed, refractory metal contact optimization with shallow implantations of Zn and Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, M.L.; Zolper, J.C.; Sherwin, M.E.; Baca, A.G.; Shul, R.J.; Rieger, D.J.; Klem, J.F.

    1994-03-22

    Refractory metal contacts to GaAs show great promise for stability during high-temperature processing and for high-reliability. In this paper the authors report a study of sputtered tungsten and tungsten silicide contacts to ion implanted p-GaAs with both Zn and Mg implantations. This study focused on refractory contacts to shallow implanted contact layers that are suitable for devices such as JFETs and HBTs. The very different energy loss mechanisms of Zn and Mg ions result in different levels of implant damage which is studied by varying anneal temperatures and measuring the effects on contact and sheet resistances with the transmission line method. For the fabrication schemes investigated, specific contact resistivity versus anneal temperature with implant doses from 1 {times} 10{sup 14} to 5 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} are found to vary from non-ohmic to 10{sup {minus}7} {Omega}-cm{sup 2}. Low resistance contacts to shallow (<800 {angstrom}) implanted layers are achieved.

  5. High-temperature ferromagnetism in transition metal implanted wide-bandgap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raley, Jeremy A.

    The field of spin transport electronics (spintronics) is a viable candidate for advancing computing and communication technologies. Material with both semiconductor and magnetic properties, which is commonly called a dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS), will prove most useful in the fabrication of spintronic devices. In order to produce a DMS at above room temperature, transition metals (TMs) were implanted into host semiconductors of p-GaN, Al0.35Ga0.65N, or ZnO. Magnetic hysteresis measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer show that some of the material combinations clearly exhibit ferromagnetism above room temperature. The most promising materials for creating spintronic devices using ion implantation are p-GaN:Mn, Al0.35Ga0.65N:Cr, and Fe-implanted ZnO nanotips on Al2O3. Temperature-dependent magnetization measurements confirm that indications of ferromagnetism are due to DMS behavior. Photo- and cathodoluminescence measurements show that implantation damage is recovered and the implanted TMs are incorporated into the semiconductor. As progress is made toward realizing practical spintronic devices, the work reported here will be useful for determining material combinations and implantation conditions that will yield the needed materials.

  6. Spectral Analysis Related to Bare-Metal and Drug-Eluting Coronary Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa; Silva, Carlos Augusto Bueno; Greco, Otaviano José; Moreira, Maria da Consolação Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Background The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in cardiovascular regulation; sympathetic activation occurs during myocardial ischemia. Objective To assess the spectral analysis of heart rate variability during stent implantation, comparing the types of stent. Methods This study assessed 61 patients (mean age, 64.0 years; 35 men) with ischemic heart disease and indication for stenting. Stent implantation was performed under Holter monitoring to record the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (Fourier transform), measuring the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components, and the LF/HF ratio before and during the procedure. Results Bare-metal stent was implanted in 34 patients, while the others received drug-eluting stents. The right coronary artery was approached in 21 patients, the left anterior descending, in 28, and the circumflex, in 9. As compared with the pre-stenting period, all patients showed an increase in LF and HF during stent implantation (658 versus 185 ms2, p = 0.00; 322 versus 121, p = 0.00, respectively), with no change in LF/HF. During stent implantation, LF was 864 ms2 in patients with bare-metal stents, and 398 ms2 in those with drug-eluting stents (p = 0.00). The spectral analysis of heart rate variability showed no association with diabetes mellitus, family history, clinical presentation, beta-blockers, age, and vessel or its segment. Conclusions Stent implantation resulted in concomitant sympathetic and vagal activations. Diabetes mellitus, use of beta-blockers, and the vessel approached showed no influence on the spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Sympathetic activation was lower during the implantation of drug-eluting stents. PMID:25029473

  7. Nanoparticles reduce nickel allergy by capturing metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Anderson, R. Rox; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 10% of the population in the USA suffer from nickel allergy, and many are unable to wear jewellery or handle coins and other objects that contain nickel. Many agents have been developed to reduce the penetration of nickel through skin, but few formulations are safe and effective. Here, we show that applying a thin layer of glycerine emollient containing nanoparticles of either calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate on an isolated piece of pig skin (in vitro) and on the skin of mice (in vivo) prevents the penetration of nickel ions into the skin. The nanoparticles capture nickel ions by cation exchange, and remain on the surface of the skin, allowing them to be removed by simple washing with water. Approximately 11-fold fewer nanoparticles by mass are required to achieve the same efficacy as the chelating agent ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Using nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 500 nm in topical creams may be an effective way to limit the exposure to metal ions that can cause skin irritation.

  8. Nanoparticles reduce nickel allergy by capturing metal ions.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Anderson, R Rox; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 10% of the population in the USA suffer from nickel allergy, and many are unable to wear jewellery or handle coins and other objects that contain nickel. Many agents have been developed to reduce the penetration of nickel through skin, but few formulations are safe and effective. Here, we show that applying a thin layer of glycerine emollient containing nanoparticles of either calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate on an isolated piece of pig skin (in vitro) and on the skin of mice (in vivo) prevents the penetration of nickel ions into the skin. The nanoparticles capture nickel ions by cation exchange, and remain on the surface of the skin, allowing them to be removed by simple washing with water. Approximately 11-fold fewer nanoparticles by mass are required to achieve the same efficacy as the chelating agent ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Using nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 500 nm in topical creams may be an effective way to limit the exposure to metal ions that can cause skin irritation. PMID:21460828

  9. Mixed-valence metal oxide nanoparticles as electrochemical half-cells: substituting the Ag/AgCl of reference electrodes by CeO(2-x) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nagarale, Rajaram K; Hoss, Udo; Heller, Adam

    2012-12-26

    Cations of mixed valence at surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles constitute electrochemical half-cells, with potentials intermediate between those of the dissolved cations and those in the solid. When only cations at surfaces of the particles are electrochemically active, the ratio of electrochemically active/all cations is ~0.1 for 15 nm diameter CeO(2-x) particles. CeO(2-x) nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel films on printed carbon and on sputtered gold constitute reference electrodes having a redox potential similar to that of Ag/AgCl in physiological (0.14 M) saline solutions. In vitro the characteristics of potentially subcutaneously implantable glucose monitoring sensors made with CeO(2-x) nanoparticle reference electrodes are undistinguishable from those of sensors made with Ag/AgCl reference electrodes. Cerium is 900 times more abundant than silver, and commercially produced CeO(2-x) nanoparticle solutions are available at prices well below those of the Ag/AgCl pastes used in the annual manufacture of ~10(9) reference electrodes of glucose monitoring strips for diabetes management. PMID:23171288

  10. Ferroplasmons: Intense Localized Surface Plasmons in Metal-Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sachan, Ritesh; Malasi, Abhinav; Ge, Jingxuan; Yadavali, Sagar P; Gangopadhyay, Anup; Krishna, Dr. Hare; Garcia, Hernando; Duscher, Gerd J M; Kalyanaraman, Ramki

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of photons with matter at length scales far below their wavelengths has given rise to many novel phenomena, including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). However, LSPR with narrow bandwidth (BW) is observed only in a select few noble metals, and ferromagnets are not among them. Here, we report the discovery of LSPR in ferromagnetic Co and CoFe alloy (8% Fe) in contact with Ag in the form of bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser dewetting. These plasmons in metal-erromagnetic nanostructures, or ferroplasmons (FP) for short, are in the visible spectrum with comparable intensity and BW to those of the LSPRs from the Ag regions. This finding was enabled by electron energy-loss mapping across individual nanoparticles in a monochromated scanning transmission electron microscope. The appearance of the FP is likely due to plasmonic interaction between the contacting Ag and Co nanoparticles. Since there is no previous evidence for materials that simultaneously show ferromagnetism and such intense LSPRs, this discovery may lead to the design of improved plasmonic materials and applications. It also demonstrates that materials with interesting plasmonic properties can be synthesized using bimetallic nanostructures in contact with each other.

  11. Functionalized magnetite particles for adsorption of colloidal noble metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Joana L; Marques, Karine L; Girão, Ana V; Pereira, Eduarda; Trindade, Tito

    2016-08-01

    Magnetite (inverse spinel type) particles have been surface-modified with siliceous shells enriched in dithiocarbamate groups. The deposition of colloidal noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd) onto the modified magnetites can be performed by treating the respective hydrosols with the magnetic sorbents, thus allowing their uptake from water under a magnetic gradient. In particular, for Au colloids, these magnetic particles are very efficient sorbents that we ascribe to the strong affinity of sulfur-containing groups at the magnetite surfaces for this metal. Considering the extensive use of Au colloids in laboratorial and industrial contexts, the approach described here might have an impact on the development of nanotechnologies to recover this precious metal. En route to these findings, we varied several operational parameters in order to investigate this strategy as a new bottom-up assembly method for producing plasmonic-magnetic nanoassemblies. PMID:27156089

  12. Hybrid gas-metal co-implantation with a modified vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E.M.; Yushkov, G.Y.; Evans, P.J.; Oztarhan, A.; Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Liu, F.; MacGill, R.A.; Monteiro, O.R.; Wang, Z.

    1996-08-01

    Energetic beams of mixed metal and gaseous ion species can be generated with a vacuum arc ion source by adding gas to the arc discharge region. This could be an important tool for ion implantation research by providing a method for forming buried layers of mixed composition such as e.g. metal oxides and nitrides. In work to date, we have formed a number of mixed metal-gas ion beams including Ti+N, Pt+N, Al+O, and Zr+O. The particle current fractions of the metal-gas ion components in the beam ranged from 100% metallic to about 80% gaseous, depending on operational parameters. We have used this new variant of the vacuum arc ion source to carry out some exploratory studies of the effect of Al+O and Zr+O co-implantation on tribology of stainless steel. Here we describe the ion source modifications, species and charge state of the hybrid beams produced, and results of preliminary studies of surface modification of stainless steel by co-implantation of mixed Al/O or Zr/O ion beams. 5 figs, 21 refs.

  13. Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence: Ultrafast Energy Transfer from Dyes in a Polymer Film to Metal Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaebeom; Pang, Yoonsoo

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescence from dye molecules dispersed in thin polymer layers increases by 20-25 times when a silver island film exists beneath the layer. Polymer layers of <100 nm thick cover the silver island film to minimize emission quenching from direct contact and also keep the dye molecules in close proximity to the metal nanosurface for possible fluorescence enhancements by silver island film. We report an ultrafast radiation process of ~400 ps lifetime from the surface plasmons of silver nanoparticles observed in time-resolved fluorescence of rhodamine 6G and DCM in thin polymer films coated on silver island surface. The ultrafast energy transfer and fluorescence from metal nanoparticles might be strongly related to the efficiency of metal-enhanced fluorescence. PMID:27433635

  14. Polycaprolactone-based in situ implant containing curcumin-PLGA nanoparticles prepared using the multivariate technique.

    PubMed

    Kasinathan, Narayanan; Amirthalingam, Muthukumar; Reddy, Neetinkumar D; Vanthi, Meenashi B; Volety, Subrahmanyam M; Rao, Josyula Venkata

    2016-09-01

    Studies on the effect of curcumin/PLGA ratio (CPR), stabilizer (PVA) concentration, homogenization speed, homogenization time, and sonication time on mean particle size (MPS) and percentage drug encapsulation (PDE) were performed using the multivariate technique. MPS and PDE were found to be more dependent on the interaction of sonication time with the other variables. Curcumin was released in a sustained manner from curcumin-PLGA nanoparticles (CPN). CPN improved the survival rate of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice and controlled the EAC-induced change in hematological parameters. Histopathology of vital organs showed that the formulation was safe. Polycaprolactone was used in preparing an in situ implant containing CPN. PMID:26121330

  15. ERD studies of D-ion depth distributions after implantation into some pure metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.; Wilczynska, T.; Kitowski, K.; Hofman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a report on experimental results of depth distributions of deuterium ions implanted with 25 keV energy at a fluence interval of (1.2-2.3) × 1022 m-2 into samples of pure metals (Cu, Ti, Zr, V, Pd) and diluted Pd alloys (Pd-Ag, Pd-Pt, Pd-Ru, Pd-Rh). The post-treatment depth distributions of deuterium and hydrogen atoms were measured within a few hours after implantation with the use of elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis. After three months the measurements were repeated. The comparison of the obtained results in both series of studies allowed us to make an important observation of the desorption rates of implanted deuterium atoms from pure metals and diluted Pd alloys. The maximum measured concentrations of deuterium atoms in pure Zr and Ti foils with relatively small desorption rate of deuterium atoms within three months after implantation were observed. Also a very high spreading of deuterium atom distributions was observed in all the measured pure metals and alloys. It can be explained by the large diffusion coefficients of deuterium and extremely fast kinetics.

  16. Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticle films for optical sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ohodnicki, Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark

    2013-07-31

    The ability to monitor gas species selectively, sensitively, and reliably in extreme temperatures and harsh conditions is critically important for more efficient energy production using conventional fossil energy based production technologies, enabling advanced technologies for fossil based power plants of the future, and improving efficiency in domestic manufacturing industries. Optical waveguide based sensing platforms have become increasingly important but a need exists for materials that exhibit useful changes in optical properties in response to changing gas atmospheres at high temperatures. In this manuscript, the onset of a near-IR absorption associated with an increase in free carrier density in doped metal oxide nanoparticles to form so-called conducting metal oxides is discussed in the context of results obtained for undoped and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticle based films. Detailed film characterization results are presented along with measured changes in optical absorption resulting from various high temperature treatments in a range of gas atmospheres. Optical property changes are also discussed in the context of a simple model for optical absorption in conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and thin films. The combination of experimental results and theoretical modeling presented here suggests that such materials have potential for high temperature optical gas sensing applications. Simulated sensing experiments were performed at 500 °C and a useful, rapid, and reproducible near-IR optical sensing response to H{sub 2} confirms that this class of materials shows great promise for optical gas sensing.

  17. Formation of Ge nanoparticles in SiO{sub x}N{sub y} by ion implantation and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzaei, S. Kremer, F.; Feng, R.; Ridgway, M. C.; Sprouster, D. J.; Araujo, L. L.; Glover, C. J.

    2015-10-21

    Germanium nanoparticles embedded within dielectric matrices hold much promise for applications in optoelectronic and electronic devices. Here we investigate the formation of Ge nanoparticles in amorphous SiO{sub 1.67}N{sub 0.14} as a function of implanted atom concentration and thermal annealing temperature. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and other complementary techniques, we show Ge nanoparticles exhibit significant finite-size effects such that the coordination number decreases and structural disorder increases as the nanoparticle size decreases. While the composition of SiO{sub 1.67}N{sub 0.14} is close to that of SiO{sub 2}, we demonstrate that the addition of this small fraction of N yields a much reduced nanoparticle size relative to those formed in SiO{sub 2} under comparable implantation and annealing conditions. We attribute this difference to an increase in an atomic density and a much reduced diffusivity of Ge in the oxynitride matrix. These results demonstrate the potential for tailoring Ge nanoparticle sizes and structural properties in the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} matrices by controlling the oxynitride stoichiometry.

  18. Fabrication of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles by Algae and their Toxic Effects.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-12-01

    Of all the aquatic organisms, algae are a good source of biomolecules. Since algae contain pigments, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids and secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, some aromatic compounds, macrolides, peptides and terpenes, they act as reducing agents to produce nanoparticles from metal salts without producing any toxic by-product. Once the algal biomolecules are identified, the nanoparticles of desired shape or size may be fabricated. The metal and metal oxide nanoparticles thus synthesized have been investigated for their antimicrobial activity against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains and fungi. Their dimension is controlled by temperature, incubation time, pH and concentration of the solution. In this review, we have attempted to update the procedure of nanoparticle synthesis from algae, their characterization by UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and application in cutting-edge areas. PMID:27530743

  19. Few-cycle plasmon oscillations controlling photoemission from metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Földi, Péter; Márton, István; Német, Nikolett; Dombi, Péter; Ayadi, Viktor

    2015-01-05

    Few-cycle optical excitation of nanosystems holds promise of fundamental discoveries and applications in ultrafast nanoscience, the development of nanostructured photocathodes, and many more. For these, surface plasmon generation on unprecedented timescales needs to be controlled. For this, few-cycle plasmon oscillations on a metal nanoparticle can be generated by keeping considerable electric field enhancement factors. As an initial application of such a high spatiotemporal localization of an ultrashort laser pulse, we numerically demonstrate the control of photoelectrons on a true sub-fs timescale in nanometric spatial domains. We show that it is only off-resonant nanoparticles that can provide few-cycle plasmons and electron control on this timescale.

  20. Spectral variation of fluorescence lifetime near single metal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Webster, Linden; Segovia, Paulina; Zayats, Anatoly V.; Richards, David

    2016-01-01

    We explore the spectral dependence of fluorescence enhancement and the associated lifetime modification of fluorescent molecules coupled to single metal nanoparticles. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and single-particle dark-field spectroscopy are combined to correlate the dependence of fluorescence lifetime reduction on the spectral overlap between the fluorescence emission and the localised surface plasmon (LSP) spectra of individual gold nanoparticles. A maximum lifetime reduction is observed when the fluorescence and LSP resonances coincide, with good agreement provided by numerical simulations. The explicit comparison between experiment and simulation, that we obtain, offers an insight into the spectral engineering of LSP mediated fluorescence and may lead to optimized application in sensing and biomedicine. PMID:26876780

  1. Response of soil bacterial community to metal nanoparticles in biosolids.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vishal; Jones, Jamilee; Dickman, Jenifer; Greenman, Steven

    2014-06-15

    The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial and household applications will very likely lead to the increased release of such materials into the public sewer systems. During the wastewater treatment process, some fraction of NPs would always be concentrated in the biosolids. When biosolids is applied on the agricultural land, NPs are introduced into the soil matrix. In the current study we investigate the influence of five different metal nanoparticles present in biosolids on soil microbial community as a function of time. Results indicate that ZnO and Zero Valent Cu NPs were not toxic to soil bacterial community. Biosolids mixed with Ag NPs and TiO2 (both anatase and rutile phase) in contrast changed the bacterial richness and composition in wavering pattern as a function of time. Based on the observations made in the study, we suggest caution when interpreting the toxicity of NPs based on single time point study. PMID:24801897

  2. Organic nano-floating-gate transistor memory with metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tho, Luu; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-04-01

    Organic non-volatile memory is advanced topics for various soft electronics applications as lightweight, low-cost, flexible, and printable solid-state data storage media. As a key building block, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a nano-floating gate are widely used and promising structures to store digital information stably in a memory cell. Different types of nano-floating-gates and their various synthesis methods have been developed and applied to fabricate nanoparticle-based non-volatile memory devices. In this review, recent advances in the classes of nano-floating-gate OFET memory devices using metal nanoparticles as charge-trapping sites are briefly reviewed. Details of device fabrication, characterization, and operation mechanisms are reported based on recent research activities reported in the literature.

  3. Synthesis of supported metal nanoparticle catalysts using ligand assisted methods.

    PubMed

    Costa, Natalia J S; Rossi, Liane M

    2012-09-28

    The synthesis and characterization methods of metal nanoparticles (NPs) have advanced greatly in the last few decades, allowing an increasing understanding of structure-property-performance relationships. However, the role played by the ligands used as stabilizers for metal NPs synthesis or for NPs immobilization on solid supports has been underestimated. Here, we highlight some recent progress in the preparation of supported metal NPs with the assistance of ligands in solution or grafted on solid supports, a modified deposition-reduction method, with special attention to the effects on NPs size, metal-support interactions and, more importantly, catalytic activities. After presenting the general strategies in metal NP synthesis assisted by ligands grafted on solid supports, we highlight some recent progress in the deposition of pre-formed colloidal NPs on functionalized solids. Another important aspect that will be reviewed is related to the separation and recovery of NPs. Finally, we will outline our personal understanding and perspectives on the use of supported metal NPs prepared through ligand-assisted methods. PMID:22915064

  4. Titanium dental implants surface-immobilized with gold nanoparticles as osteoinductive agents for rapid osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Nyoung; Ko, Wan-Kyu; Lee, Hak Rae; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Donghyun; Um, Soong Ho; Lee, Jung Haeng; Woo, Yi-Hyung; Zhang, Lijie Grace; Lee, Deok-Won; Kwon, Il Keun

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are quite attractive materials for use as osteogenic agents due to their potential effects on the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation. In this study, an osseo-integrated titanium (Ti) implant surface coated with GNPs was used for promotion of bone regeneration. We prepared a silanized Ti surface by chemical treatment of (3-Mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and immobilized the GNP layer (Ti-GNP) on their surfaces via Au-S bonding. The GNP layer is uniformly immobilized on the surface and the layer covers the titanium oxide surface well, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Ti-GNP was used to investigate the effectiveness of this system both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro results showed that the Ti-GNP significantly enhances the osteogenic differentiation with increased mRNA expression of osteogenic differentiation specific genes in human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Furthermore, the in vivo results showed that Ti-GNP had a significant influence on the osseous interface formation. Through these in vitro and vivo tests, we found that Ti-GNP can be useful as osseo-integration inducing dental implants for formation of an osseous interface and maintenance of nascent bone formation. PMID:26874978

  5. Apoferritin Templated Synthesis of Metal Phosphate Nanoparticle Labels for Electrochemical Immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-08-29

    W have introduced template-synthesized metal phosphate nanoparticle labels for electrochemical immunoassay. Such use of an apoferritin template offers a simple and convenient route to prepare metallic nanoparticle labels for electrochemical immunoassays and avoid the complicated and time-consuming nanoparticle synthesis process (QD synthesis). Releasing metal ions from metal phosphate in an acetate buffer (pH 4.6) eliminates the harsh condition in the traditional metallic nanoparticle dissolution (e.g., strong acid dissolution of QDs and gold nanoparticles). This method is ultrasensitive and its DL is low to 77fM. The simultaneous detection of multiple protein targets is easily performed by using different metal phosphate nanoparticle labels (cadmium phosphate and lead phosphate). This approach can be extended to prepare multiple metal (such as zinc, lead, cadmium, copper, indium, gold, silver) phosphate nanoparticle labels or hybrid metal (bimetallic or trimetallic with predetermined ratios) phosphate nanoparticle labels for a multiplex electrochemical immunoassay. The new nanoparticle labels could be applicable to other electrochemical bioassays, such as DNA, and is thus expected to lead to wide applications for protein diagnostics and for bioanalysis in general.

  6. Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays.

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, G. A.; Im, J. S.; Gray, S. K.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Chemistry

    2003-12-25

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is used to explore the optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and arrays of MNPs. The optical excitation source is an evanescent wave created through total internal reflection of a continuous wave laser beam at the sample-air interface. For optical excitation of isolated Ag and Au MNPs, experimental results show that the scattered light propagates into the far field at an angle of 19{sup o} from the substrate. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations are used to study simpler but related metallic nanowire systems under evanescent wave excitation. The FDTD results are found to be similar to the experimental results, indicating the generality of the scattering phenomenon. NSOM characterization of plasmonic arrays that consist of closely spaced Ag MNPs are subsequently reported. Confined optical signals within the array are observed along with a reduction in the far-field scattered signal. Simultaneous collection of the atomic force microscopy signal and near-field signals also shows that the spatial distribution of the near-field is strongly modified in the arrays compared to isolated MNPs. FDTD studies on arrays of nanowires also show large differences from the isolated metal nanoparticle calculations, including a decrease in the forward scattered angle (with chain length) and diminished overall forward scattering.

  7. Anisotropic metal nanoparticles: Synthesis, assembly, and optical applications.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Catherine J; Sau, Tapan K; Gole, Anand M; Orendorff, Christopher J; Gao, Jinxin; Gou, Linfeng; Hunyadi, Simona E; Li, Tan

    2005-07-28

    This feature article highlights work from the authors' laboratories on the synthesis, assembly, reactivity, and optical applications of metallic nanoparticles of nonspherical shape, especially nanorods. The synthesis is a seed-mediated growth procedure, in which metal salts are reduced initially with a strong reducing agent, in water, to produce approximately 4 nm seed particles. Subsequent reduction of more metal salt with a weak reducing agent, in the presence of structure-directing additives, leads to the controlled formation of nanorods of specified aspect ratio and can also yield other shapes of nanoparticles (stars, tetrapods, blocks, cubes, etc.). Variations in reaction conditions and crystallographic analysis of gold nanorods have led to insight into the growth mechanism of these materials. Assembly of nanorods can be driven by simple evaporation from solution or by rational design with molecular-scale connectors. Short nanorods appear to be more chemically reactive than long nanorods. Finally, optical applications in sensing and imaging, which take advantage of the visible light absorption and scattering properties of the nanorods, are discussed. PMID:16852739

  8. Size saturation in low energy ion beam synthesized nanoparticles in silica glass: 50 keV Ag{sup -} ions implantation, a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiri, P. K.

    2010-09-15

    Fluence-dependent formation of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in silica glass by 50 keV Ag{sup -} ions implantation has been studied. Samples implanted with fluences of 2x10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} and above are found to show an absorption band at around 410 nm, corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Ag NPs in silica glass. An increase in SPR peak intensity with increase in fluence has been observed up to a fluence of 7x10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} (F7), after which the absorption intensity shows a saturation. Simulations of the optical absorption spectra also indicated an increase in the absorption intensity and hence the size of the NPs with increase in fluence up to F7, beyond which NP size is seen to saturate. The saturation of fluence and the SPR intensity (or NP size) have been explained as coming due to a break up of larger Ag NPs formed near the surface by displacement spikes induced by subsequently incident Ag ions against their regrowth from the movement of Ag atoms toward the surface and their sputtering loss. Further, we have compared our observations with the earlier data on saturation of fluence and size of NPs in cases of Au and Zn, and concluded that the saturation of both fluence and NP size are general phenomena for low energy high fluence metal ion implantation.

  9. Analysis of contact mechanics in McKee-farrar metal-on-metal hip implants.

    PubMed

    Yew, A; Jagatia, M; Ensaff, H; Jin, Z M

    2003-01-01

    Contact mechanics analysis for a typical McKee-Farrar metal-on-metal hip implant was carried out in this study. The finite element method was used to predict the contact area and the contact pressure distribution at the bearing surfaces. The study investigated the effects of the cement and underlying bone, the geometrical parameters such as the radial clearance between the acetabular cup and the femoral head, and the acetabular cup thickness, as well as other geometrical features on the acetabular cup such as lip and studs. For all the cases considered, the predicted contact pressure distribution was found to be significantly different from that based upon the classical Hertz contact theory, with the maximum value being away from the centre of the contact region. The lip on the cup was found to have a negligible effect on the predicted contact pressure distribution. The presence of the studs on the outside of the cup caused a significant increase in the local contact pressure distribution, and a slight decrease in the contact region. Reasonably good agreement of the predicted contact pressure distribution was found between a three-dimensional anatomical model and a simple two-dimensional axisymmetric model. The interfacial boundary condition between the acetabular cup and the underlying cement, modelled as perfectly fixed or perfectly unbonded, had a negligible effect on the predicted contact parameters. For a given radial clearance of 0.079 mm, the decrease in the thickness of the acetabular cup from 4.5 to 1.5 mm resulted in an increase in the contact half angle from 15 degrees to 26 degrees, and a decrease in the maximum contact pressure from 55 to 20 MPa. For a given acetabular cup thickness of 1.5 mm, a decrease in the radial clearance from 0.158 to 0.0395 mm led to an increase in the contact half-angle from 20 degrees to 30 degrees, and a decrease in the maximum contact pressure from 30 to 10 MPa. For zero clearance, although the contact pressure was

  10. Nanoparticles of noble metals in the supergene zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhmodik, S. M.; Kalinin, Yu. A.; Roslyakov, N. A.; Mironov, A. G.; Mikhlin, Yu. L.; Belyanin, D. K.; Nemirovskaya, N. A.; Spiridonov, A. M.; Nesterenko, G. V.; Airiyants, E. V.; Moroz, T. N.; Bul'bak, T. A.

    2012-04-01

    Formation of noble metal nanoparticles is related to various geological processes in the supergene zone. Dispersed mineral phases appear during weathering of rocks with active participation of microorganisms, formation of soil, in aqueous medium and atmosphere. Invisible gold and other noble metals are incorporated into oxides, hydroxides, and sulfides, as well as in dispersed organic and inorganic carbonic matter. Sulfide minerals that occur in bedrocks and ores unaltered by exogenic processes and in cementation zone are among the main concentrators of noble metal nanoparticles. The ability of gold particles to disaggregate is well-known and creates problems in technological and analytical practice. When Au and PGE nanoparticles and clusters occur, these problems are augmented because of their unusual reactions and physicochemical properties. The studied gold, magnetite, titanomagnetite and pyrite microspherules from cementation zone and clay minerals of laterites in Republic of Guinea widen the knowledge of their abundance and inferred formation conditions, in particular, in the contemporary supergene zone. Morphology and composition of micrometer-sized Au mineral spherules were studied with SEM and laser microprobe. The newly formed segregations of secondary gold on the surface of its residual grains were also an object of investigation. The character of such overgrowths is the most indicative for nanoparticles. The newly formed Au particles provide evidence for redistribution of ultradispersed gold during weathering. There are serious prerequisites to state that microorganisms substantially control unusual nano-sized microspherical morphology of gold particles in the supergene zone. This is supported by experiments indicating active absorption of gold by microorganisms and direct evidence for participation of Ralstonia metallidurans bacteria in the formation of peculiar corroded bacteriomorphic surface of gold grains. In addition, the areas enriched in carbon

  11. Bone Loss at Implant with Titanium Abutments Coated by Soda Lime Glass Containing Silver Nanoparticles: A Histological Study in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Arturo; Guitián, Francisco; López-Píriz, Roberto; Bartolomé, José F.; Cabal, Belén; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone loss at implants connected to abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles, subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Also the aging and erosion of the coating in mouth was studied. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments. Three implants were placed in each mandible quadrant: in 2 of them, Glass/n-Ag coated abutments were connected to implant platform, 1 was covered with a Ti-mechanized abutment. Experimental peri-implantitis was induced in all implants after the submarginal placement of cotton ligatures, and three months after animals were euthanatized. Thickness and morphology of coating was studied in abutment cross-sections by SEM. Histology and histo-morphometric studies were carried on in undecalfied ground slides. After the induced peri-implantitis: 1.The abutment coating shown losing of thickness and cracking. 2. The histometry showed a significant less bone loss in the implants with glass/n-Ag coated abutments. A more symmetric cone of bone resorption was observed in the coated group. There were no significant differences in the peri-implantitis histological characteristics between both groups of implants. Within the limits of this in-vivo study, it could be affirmed that abutments coated with biocide soda-lime-glass-silver nanoparticles can reduce bone loss in experimental peri-implantitis. This achievement makes this coating a suggestive material to control peri-implantitis development and progression. PMID:24466292

  12. Bone loss at implant with titanium abutments coated by soda lime glass containing silver nanoparticles: a histological study in the dog.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Arturo; Guitián, Francisco; López-Píriz, Roberto; Bartolomé, José F; Cabal, Belén; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone loss at implants connected to abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles, subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Also the aging and erosion of the coating in mouth was studied. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments. Three implants were placed in each mandible quadrant: in 2 of them, Glass/n-Ag coated abutments were connected to implant platform, 1 was covered with a Ti-mechanized abutment. Experimental peri-implantitis was induced in all implants after the submarginal placement of cotton ligatures, and three months after animals were euthanatized. Thickness and morphology of coating was studied in abutment cross-sections by SEM. Histology and histo-morphometric studies were carried on in undecalfied ground slides. After the induced peri-implantitis: 1.The abutment coating shown losing of thickness and cracking. 2. The histometry showed a significant less bone loss in the implants with glass/n-Ag coated abutments. A more symmetric cone of bone resorption was observed in the coated group. There were no significant differences in the peri-implantitis histological characteristics between both groups of implants. Within the limits of this in-vivo study, it could be affirmed that abutments coated with biocide soda-lime-glass-silver nanoparticles can reduce bone loss in experimental peri-implantitis. This achievement makes this coating a suggestive material to control peri-implantitis development and progression. PMID:24466292

  13. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

  14. Osseointegration and biocompatibility of different metal implants - a comparative experimental investigation in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the present study, 4 different metallic implant materials, either partly coated or polished, were tested for their osseointegration and biocompatibility in a pelvic implantation model in sheep. Methods Materials to be evaluated were: Cobalt-Chrome (CC), Cobalt-Chrome/Titanium coating (CCTC), Cobalt-Chrome/Zirconium/Titanium coating (CCZTC), Pure Titanium Standard (PTST), Steel, TAN Standard (TANST) and TAN new finish (TANNEW). Surgery was performed on 7 sheep, with 18 implants per sheep, for a total of 63 implants. After 8 weeks, the specimens were harvested and evaluated macroscopically, radiologically, biomechanically (removal torque), histomorphometrically and histologically. Results Cobalt-Chrome screws showed significantly (p = 0.031) lower removal torque values than pure titanium screws and also a tendency towards lower values compared to the other materials, except for steel. Steel screws showed no significant differences, in comparison to cobalt-chrome and TANST, however also a trend towards lower torque values than the remaining materials. The results of the fluorescence sections agreed with those of the biomechanical test. Histomorphometrically, there were no significant differences of bone area between the groups. The BIC (bone-to-implant-contact), used for the assessment of the osseointegration, was significantly lower for cobalt-chrome, compared to steel (p = 0.001). Steel again showed a lower ratio (p = 0.0001) compared to the other materials. Conclusion This study demonstrated that cobalt-chrome and steel show less osseointegration than the other metals and metal-alloys. However, osseointegration of cobalt-chrome was improved by zirconium and/or titanium based coatings (CCTC, TANST, TAN, TANNEW) being similar as pure titanium in their osseointegrative behavior. PMID:22400715

  15. Enhancement of bony in-growth to metal implants by combining controlled hydroxyapatite coating and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Oron, Amir; Agar, Gauriel; Oron, Uri; Stein, Anat

    2012-07-01

    The rate of bony in-growth to heat-treated and controlled hydroxyapatite metal implants made of either titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) or stainless steel (SS) 316L inserted to the medullar canal of the femur in rats was investigated. It was found that while partial coverage of hydroxyapatite (HA) did not cause a significant elevation of their bonding strength when compared with nonheated implants, HA, and heat treatment caused a significant (p < 0.01) elevation of 3.1-fold in the bonding strength of the implants to the host bone. A similar phenomenon to that found for the titanium alloy implants was found to be true for the SS implants as well. It is concluded that the novel approach presented in this article, that is, to heat treat implants as well as controlled partial coating of them by HA, prior to their insertion to host bone, produce an enhancement of bone growth to metal implants greater than utilization of each method alone. Our findings may be used to further enhance bony in-growth to metal implants in several clinical settings, producing avid implants with superior integration capabilities. PMID:22447664

  16. Wear Resistance of Mo-Implanted H13 Steel by a Metal Vapour Vacuum Arc Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Tong-He

    2003-10-01

    Pulsed molybdenum ion beams extracted from a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source at voltage of 25 kV or 48 kV were implanted into H13 steel with a high implantation dose of 5×1017 ions·cm-2 and a time-averaged ion beam current density of about 300 µA·cm-2. We have investigated the steel implanted for wear resistance by an optical interference microscope and a pin-on-disc apparatus. The Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy demonstrated that rather low-energy ions could penetrate quite deep into the substrates. It was observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission-electron microscopy that carbide of molybdenum appeared in the doped region. The results showed that dramatically improved wear resistance of H13 steel after molybdenum ion implantation at 48 kV was attributed to the development of Mo2C precipitates in the doped zone and to the formation of the implantation affected zone below the doped zone.

  17. Laser-driven ion sources for metal ion implantation for the reduction of dry friction

    SciTech Connect

    Boody, F. P.; Juha, L.; Kralikova, B.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Straka, P.; Perina, V.; Woryna, E.; Giersch, D.; Hoepfl, R.; Kelly, J. C.; Hora, H.

    1997-04-15

    The anomalously high ion currents and very high ionization levels of laser-produced plasmas give laser-driven ion sources significant advantages over conventional ion sources. In particular, laser-driven ion sources should provide higher currents of metal ions at lower cost, for implantation into solids in order to improve their material properties such as friction. The energy and charge distributions for Pb and Sn ions produced by ablation of solid targets with {approx}25 J, {approx}300 ps iodine laser pulses, resulting in up to 48-times ionized MeV ions, as well as the optimization of focus position, are presented. Implantation of these ions into Ck-45 steel, without electrostatic acceleration, produced profiles with two regions. Almost all of the ions were implanted in a near surface region a few nm deep. However, a small but significant number of ions were implanted as deep as could be measured with Rutherford backscattering (RBS), here 150 nm for Sn and 250 nm for Pb. For the implanted ion densities and profiles achieved, no change in the coefficient of friction was measured for either ion.

  18. The structural and optical properties of metal ion-implanted GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Sofer, Z.; Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Veselý, M.; Böttger, R.

    2016-03-01

    The practical development of novel optoelectronic materials with appropriate optical properties is strongly connected to the structural properties of the prepared doped structures. We present GaN layers oriented along the (0 0 0 1) crystallographic direction that have been grown by low-pressure metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on sapphire substrates implanted with 200 keV Co+, Fe+ and Ni+ ions. The structural properties of the ion-implanted layers have been characterised by RBS-channelling and Raman spectroscopy to obtain a comprehensive insight into the structural modification of implanted GaN layers and to study the subsequent influence of annealing on crystalline-matrix recovery. Photoluminescence was measured to control the desired optical properties. The post-implantation annealing induced the structural recovery of the modified GaN layer depending on the introduced disorder level, e.g. depending on the ion implantation fluence, which was followed by structural characterisation and by the study of the surface morphology by AFM.

  19. [The use of polymer gel dosimetry to measure dose distribution around metallic implants].

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Tomomasa; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Monzen, Hajime; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2014-10-01

    A semi-solid polymer dosimetry system using agar was developed to measure the dose distribution close to metallic implants. Dosimetry of heterogeneous fields where electron density markedly varies is often problematic. This prompted us to develop a polymer gel dosimetry technique using agar to measure the dose distribution near substance boundaries. Varying the concentration of an oxygen scavenger (tetra-hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride) showed the absorbed dose and transverse relaxation rate of the magnetic resonance signal to be linear between 3 and 12 Gy. Although a change in the dosimeter due to oxidization was observed in room air after 24 hours, no such effects were observed in the first 4 hours. The dose distribution around the metal implants was measured using agar dosimetry. The metals tested were a lead rod, a titanium hip joint, and a metallic stent. A maximum 30% dose increase was observed near the lead rod, but only a 3% increase in the absorbed dose was noted near the surface of the titanium hip joint and metallic stent. Semi-solid polymer dosimetry using agar thus appears to be a useful method for dosimetry around metallic substances. PMID:25327426

  20. Ballistic-diffusive approximation for the thermal dynamics of metallic nanoparticles in nanocomposite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel-Havar, A. H. Masoudian Saadabad, R.

    2015-03-21

    Based on ballistic-diffusive approximation, a method is presented to model heat transfer in nanocomposites containing metal nanoparticles. This method provides analytical expression for the temperature dynamics of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric medium. In this study, nanoparticles are considered as spherical shells, so that Boltzmann equation is solved using ballistic-diffusive approximation to calculate the electron and lattice thermal dynamics in gold nanoparticles, while thermal exchange between the particles is taken into account. The model was used to investigate the influence of particle size and metal concentration of the medium on the electron and lattice thermal dynamics. It is shown that these two parameters are crucial in determining the nanocomposite thermal behavior. Our results showed that the heat transfer rate from nanoparticles to the matrix decreases as the nanoparticle size increases. On the other hand, increasing the metal concentration of the medium can also decrease the heat transfer rate.

  1. Selective Catalysis in Nanoparticle Metal-Organic Framework Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Casey Justin

    The design of highly selective catalysts are becoming increasingly important, especially as chemical and pharmaceutical industries seek to improve atom economy and minimize energy intensive separations that are often required to separate side products from the desired product. Enzymes are among the most selective of all catalysts, generally operating through molecular recognition whereby an active site analogous to a lock and the substrate is analogous to a key. The assembly of a porous, crystalline material around a catalytically active metal particle could serve as an artificial enzyme. In this vein, we first synthesized the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated nanoparticles of interest and then encapsulated them within zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 or ZIF-8. 2.8 nm Pt-PVP nanoparticles, which were encapsulated within ZIF-8 to form Pt ZIF-8 composite. Pt ZIF-8 was inactive for the hydrogenation of cyclic olefins such as cis-cyclooctene and cis-cyclohexene while the composite proved to be a highly selective catalyst for the hydrogenation of terminal olefins, hydrogenating trans-1,3-hexadiene to 3-hexene in 95% selectivity after 24 hours under 1 bar H2. We extended our encapsulation method to sub-2 nm Au nanoparticles to form Au ZIF-8. Au ZIF-8 served as a highly chemoselective catalyst for the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, to crotyl alcohol an alpha,beta-unsaturated alcohol, in 90-95% selectivity. In order to investigate nanoparticle size effects on selectivity, 6-10 nm Au nanoparticles were encapsulated within ZIF-8 to form Au6 ZIF-8. Control catalysts with nanoparticles supported on the surface of ZIF-8 were synthesized as well, Au/ZIF-8 and Au6/ZIF-8. Au6 ZIF-8 hydrogenated crotonaldehyde in 85% selectivity towards the unsaturated alcohol. Catalysts with nanoparticles supported on the exterior of ZIF-8 were far less selective towards the unsaturated alcohol. Post-catalysis transmission electron microscopy analysis of Au ZIF

  2. The two faces of metal ions: From implants rejection to tissue repair/regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Santos, Susana G; Lamghari, Meriem; Barbosa, Mário A

    2016-04-01

    The paradigm of metallic ions as exclusive toxic agents is changing. During the last 60 years, knowledge about toxicological and immunological reactions to metal particles and ions has advanced considerably. Hip prostheses, namely metal-on-metal bearings, have prompted studies about excessive and prolonged exposure to prosthetic debris. In that context, the interactions of metal particles and ions with cells and tissues are mostly harmful, inducing immune responses that lead to osteolysis and implant failure. However, in the last decade, new strategies to promote immunomodulation and healing have emerged based on the unique properties of metallic ions. The atom-size and charge enable ions to interact with key macromolecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids) that affect cellular function. Moreover, these agents are inexpensive, stable and can be integrated in biomaterials, which may open new avenues for a novel generation of medical devices. Herein, orthopedic devices are discussed as models for adverse responses to metal ions, and debated together with the potential to use metal ions-based therapies, thus bridging the gap between unmet clinical needs and cutting-edge research. In summary, this review addresses the two "faces" of metallic ions, from pathological responses to innovative research strategies that use metal ions for regenerative medicine. PMID:26851391

  3. Coupling of Acoustic Vibrations to Plasmon Resonances in Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Aftab; Pelton, Matthew; Guest, Jeffrey

    Measurements of acoustic vibrations in nanoparticles provide a unique opportunity to study mechanical phenomena at nanometer length scales and picosecond time scales. Phonon vibrations of plasmonic nanoparticles are of particular interest, due to their large extinction efficiencies, and high sensitivity to surrounding medium. There are two mechanisms that transduce the mechanical oscillations into plasmon resonance shift: (1) changes in polarizability; and (2) changes in electron density. These mechanisms have been used to explain qualitatively the origin of the transient-absorption signals, however, a quantitative connection has not yet been made except for simple geometries. Here, we present a method to quantitatively determine the coupling between vibrational modes and plasmon modes in noble-metal nanoparticles including spheres, shells, rods and cubes. We separately determine the parts of the optical response that are due to shape changes and to changes in electron density, and we relate the optical signals to the symmetries of the vibrational and plasmon modes. These results clarify reported experimental results, and should help guide the optimization of future experiments.

  4. Plasmonic broadband absorber by stacking multiple metallic nanoparticle layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ting; Peng, Lining; Zhu, Yuntao; Yang, Fan; Cui, Yanxia; Wu, Xueyan; Liu, Liu; He, Sailing; Zhu, Furong; Hao, Yuying

    2015-04-01

    High efficiency, broadband plasmonic absorbers are constructed based on a stack of alternating metallic nanoparticle layers (MNLs) and SiO2 slabs on top of a reflective Ag substrate. Experimental results show that the stacks with thick MNLs absorb light better than those with thin MNLs when the number of MNL/SiO2 cells (N) is small (e.g., 1 or 2), but the situation gets reversed when N is greater than 3. When the nominal thickness of MNL is as thin as 5 nm, the acquired Ag nanoparticles are so small that light penetration through all of the stacked MNLs in the proposed design is possible. Thus, an increase in N leads to a growing number of light trapping elements. Our simulation reveals that the Ag nanoparticles at different layers are hybridized to excite rich localized plasmonic resonances, resulting in multiple absorption peaks at optical frequencies and thus a broader absorption band. The broadband absorbers with an integrated absorption efficiency of 96% over the 300-1100 nm wavelength range were achieved by stacking 18 MNL/SiO2 cells. The proposed absorbers can be used for applications in solar energy harvesting and thermal emission tailoring, due to their easy fabrication procedure and excellent optical properties.

  5. Toxicity of metallic oxides nanoparticle suspensions to a freshwater sludge worm Tubifex tubifex Müller.

    PubMed

    Verma, Surabhi; Das, Sangita; Khangarot, B S

    2011-02-01

    Toxic effects of selected metallic oxides nanoparticles were studied using the short-term static bioassays. Nanoparticles were more toxic than comparable bulk metallic oxides. Freshwater sludge worm Tubifex tubifex can be used as suitable test model for nanoecotoxicological studies in future studies. PMID:21485877

  6. Reduction of artifact of metallic implant in magnetic resonance imaging by combining paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yanhui; Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Kushibe, Atsumichi; Yamazaki, Keita; Chiba, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Toru

    2010-05-01

    The method of coating the metallic implant made of paramagnetic materials with diamagnetic materials has been proposed to reduce the magnetic disturbance of metallic implants which causes artifact in magnetic resonance imaging. The optimal thicknesses of the diamagnetic coatings have been obtained for a straight cylindrical hip joint and an aneurysm clip by using the magnetic field analysis of the finite element method (FEM). Whereas in the manufacturing, with respect to the mechanical force of the diamagnetic material, etc., the new structure of dual-material model with diamagnetic material inside and paramagnetic material outside is considered better. In this paper, first the effectiveness of the structure of the dual-material model with actual diamagnetic material inside and paramagnetic material outside is investigated by using the FEM. Then optimal thicknesses of paramagnetic coating of two models are obtained. Finally the effectiveness of the dual-material model is verified by the experiment.

  7. Metal corrosion in bones implanted with Zinalco--a SAXS and NMR study.

    PubMed

    Lima, E; Bosch, P; Lara, V; Villarreal, E; Piña, C; Torres, G; Martín, S; León, B

    2006-01-01

    The composition and morphology of bones implanted with stainless steel (316L-SS) and a metal alloy made of zinc, aluminum, and copper (Zinalco) are compared. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results show that with time Zinalco is corroded and zinc, aluminum, and copper diffuse into the osseous tissue, promoting nonhomogeneous bone. Instead, 316L-SS does not incorporate into bone, and the bone recovers homogeneously at a lower speed. PMID:16080201

  8. Ancient Metal Mirror Alloy Revisited: Quasicrystalline Nanoparticles Observed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, J. A.; Mantri, A. S.; Yamjala, S.; Saha, Sabyasachi; Balamuralikrishnan, R.; Rao, P. Rama

    2015-12-01

    This article presents, for the first time, evidence of nanocrystalline structure, through direct transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, in a Cu-32 wt.% Sn alloy that has been made by an age-old, uniquely crafted casting process. This alloy has been used as a metal mirror for centuries. The TEM images also reveal five-sided projections of nano-particles. The convergent beam nano-diffraction patterns obtained from the nano-particles point to the nano-phase being quasicrystalline, a feature that has never before been reported for a copper alloy, although there have been reports of the presence of icosahedral `clusters' within large unit cell intermetallic phases. This observation has been substantiated by x-ray diffraction, wherein the observed peaks could be indexed to an icosahedral quasi-crystalline phase. The mirror alloy casting has been valued for its high hardness and high reflectance properties, both of which result from its unique internal microstructure that include nano-grains as well as quasi-crystallinity. We further postulate that this microstructure is a consequence of the raw materials used and the manufacturing process, including the choice of mold material. While the alloy consists primarily of copper and tin, impurity elements such as zinc, iron, sulfur, aluminum and nickel are also present, in individual amounts not exceeding one wt.%. It is believed that these trace impurities could have influenced the microstructure and, consequently, the properties of the metal mirror alloy.

  9. Multiple percolation tunneling staircase in metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Rupam; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Nadgorny, Boris

    2014-10-27

    Multiple percolation transitions are observed in a binary system of RuO{sub 2}-CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites near percolation thresholds. Apart from a classical percolation transition, associated with the appearance of a continuous conductance path through RuO{sub 2} metal oxide nanoparticles, at least two additional tunneling percolation transitions are detected in this composite system. Such behavior is consistent with the recently emerged picture of a quantum conductivity staircase, which predicts several percolation tunneling thresholds in a system with a hierarchy of local tunneling conductance, due to various degrees of proximity of adjacent conducting particles distributed in an insulating matrix. Here, we investigate a different type of percolation tunneling staircase, associated with a more complex conductive and insulating particle microstructure of two types of non-spherical constituents. As tunneling is strongly temperature dependent, we use variable temperature measurements to emphasize the hierarchical nature of consecutive tunneling transitions. The critical exponents corresponding to specific tunneling percolation thresholds are found to be nonuniversal and temperature dependent.

  10. Doping of Metal-Organic Frameworks with Functional Guest Molecules and Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Felicitas; Fischer, Roland A.

    Nanoparticle synthesis within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is performed by the adsorption of suitable precursor molecules for the metal component and subsequent decomposition to the composite materials nanoparticles@MOF. This chapter will review different approaches of loading MOFs with more complex organic molecules and metal-organic precursor molecules. The related reactions inside MOFs are discussed with a focus on stabilizing reactive intermediates in the corresponding cavities. The syntheses of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles inside MOFs are reviewed, and different synthetic routes compared. Emphasis is placed on the micro structural characterization of the materials nanoparticles@MOF with a particular focus on the location of embedded nanoparticles using TEM methods. Some first examples of applications of the doped MOFs in heterogeneous catalysis and hydrogen storage are described.

  11. Alloyed Noble Metal Nanoparticles with Tunable Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessler, Garrett C.; Gong, Chen; Rebello de Sousa Dias, Mariama; Tailon, Joshua A.; Salamanca-Riba, Lourdes G.; Leite, Marina S.

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in sensing, optics, and catalysis applications by taking advantage of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This response is slightly tuned by varying the size and shape of the NPs; however, a method to obtain truly on-demand plasmonic responses is still lacking due to the intrinsic nature of a metal's dielectric function. Here, we fabricate size and composition controlled metal alloy NP arrays by deposit-and-anneal methods and through-template depositions. We control the composition of the metal NPs by co-sputtering and by alternating electron-beam evaporation of the Ag and Au targets. To characterize the NPs, macroscopic transmission measurements are combined with spectrally dependent near-field scanning optical microscopy to show the local optical properties around the NPs. By varying the atomic fraction of Ag and Au in the alloys, we modulate the optical properties of the NPs for different applications. For example, hot carrier plasmonic devices necessitate high absorption in the visible range, while photovoltaic applications require low absorption by the NPs.

  12. Formation and properties of metallic nanoparticles on compound semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myungkoo

    When electromagnetic radiation is incident upon metallic nanoparticles (NPs), a collective oscillation, termed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR), is generated. Recently, metallic NPs on semiconductor surfaces have enabled the generation of SPR, promising for enhanced light emission, efficient solar energy harvesting, biosensing, and metamaterials. Metallic NPs have been fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) which has an advantage of cost-effectiveness over conventional lithography process requiring multi-step processes. Here, we report formation and properties of FIB-induced metallic NPs on compound semiconductor surfaces. Results presented in this thesis study suggest that FIB-induced Ga NPs can be a promising alternative plasmonic material. In particular, using a combined experimental-computational approach, we discovered a universal mechanism for ion-induced NP formation, which is governed by the sputtering yield of semiconductor surfaces. We also discovered a governing mechanism for ion-induced NP motion, which is driven by thermal fluctuation and anisotropic mass transport. Furthermore, we demonstrated Ga NP arrays with plasmon resonances with performance comparable to those of traditionally-used silver and gold NPs. We then finally demonstrated the Ga NP plasmoninduced enhancement of light emission from GaAs, which is the first ever combination of a new plasmonic material (Ga) and a new fabrication method (FIB) for the plasmon-enhanced light emission.

  13. Laser induced mechanisms controlling the size distribution of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zeming; Vitrant, Guy; Lefkir, Yaya; Bakhti, Said; Destouches, Nathalie

    2016-09-21

    This paper describes a model to simulate changes in the size distribution of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in TiO2 films upon continuous wave light excitation. Interrelated laser induced physical and chemical processes initiated directly by photon absorption or by plasmon induced thermal heating are considered. Namely the model takes into account the NP coalescence, Ostwald ripening, the reduction of silver ions and the oxidation of metallic NPs, competitive mechanisms that can lead to counter-intuitive behaviors depending on the exposure conditions. Theoretical predictions are compared successfully to the experimental results deduced from a thorough analysis of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) pictures of Ag:TiO2 films processed with a scanning visible laser beam at different speeds. Ag:TiO2 systems are considered for many applications in solar energy conversion, photocatalysis or secured data printing. Numerical investigations of such a system provide a better understanding of light induced growth and shrinking processes and open up prospects for designing more efficient photocatalytic devices based on metal NP doped TiO2 or for improving the size homogeneity in self-organized metallic NP patterns, for instance. PMID:27539293

  14. Growth of metal oxide nanoparticles using pulsed laser ablation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Drmosh, Q. A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Yamani, Z. H.

    2011-02-01

    Nano particles exhibit physical and chemical properties distinctively different from that of bulk due to high number of surface atoms, surface energy and surface area to volume ratio. Laser is a unique source of radiation and has been applied in the synthesis of nano structured metal oxides. The pulsed laser ablation (PLA) technique in liquid medium has been proven an effective and simple technique for preparing nanoparticles of high purity. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is another way to fabricate nano structured single crystal thin films of metal oxides. PLA technique has been applied in our laboratory for the growth of metal oxides such as nano-ZnO, nano-ZnO2 nano- SnO2, nano-Bi2O3, nano-NiO and nano-MnO2. Different techniques such as AFM, UV, FT-IR, PL and XRD were applied to characterize these materials. We will present our latest development in the growth of nano metal oxides using PLA and PLD.

  15. Antibacterial properties of metal and metalloid ions in chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis therapy.

    PubMed

    Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-08-01

    Periodontal diseases like periodontitis and peri-implantitis have been linked with Gram-negative anaerobes. The incorporation of various chemotherapeutic agents, including metal ions, into several materials and devices has been extensively studied against periodontal bacteria, and materials doped with metal ions have been proposed for the treatment of periodontal and peri-implant diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss the effectiveness of materials doped with metal and metalloid ions already used in the treatment of periodontal diseases, as well as the potential use of alternative materials that are currently available for other applications but have been proved to be cytotoxic to the specific periodontal pathogens. The sources of this review included English articles using Google Scholar™, ScienceDirect, Scopus and PubMed. Search terms included the combinations of the descriptors "disease", "ionic species" and "bacterium". Articles that discuss the biocidal properties of materials doped with metal and metalloid ions against the specific periodontal bacteria were included. The articles were independently extracted by two authors using predefined data fields. The evaluation of resources was based on the quality of the content and the relevance to the topic, which was evaluated by the ionic species and the bacteria used in the study, while the final application was not considered as relevant. The present review summarizes the extensive previous and current research efforts concerning the use of metal ions in periodontal diseases therapy, while it points out the challenges and opportunities lying ahead. PMID:24704700

  16. Surface modification of implanted cardiovascular metal stents: from antithrombosis and antirestenosis to endothelialization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Liu, Tao; Li, Jing-An; Chen, Jun-Ying; Wang, Jian; Huang, Nan

    2014-02-01

    Driven by the complications occurring with bare metal stents and drug-eluting stents, concerns have been raised over strategies for long-term safety, with respect to preventing or inhibiting stent thrombosis, restenosis, and in-stent restenosis in particularly. Surface modification is very important in constructing a buffer layer at the interface of the organic and inorganic materials and in ultimately obtaining long-term biocompatibility. In this review, we summarize the developments in surface modification of implanted cardiovascular metal stents. This review focuses on the modification of metal stents via coating drugs or biomolecules to enhance antithrombosis, antirestenosis, and/or endothelialization. In addition, we indicate the probable future work involving the modification of the metallic blood-contacting surfaces of stents and other cardiovascular devices that are under development. PMID:23520056

  17. Greener syntheses of metallic nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Jacopo

    In recent years, nanotechnology and nanomaterials synthesis have attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific community. Nanomaterials display size and morphology-related optical properties that differ from their bulk counterparts and therefore can be used for many applications in different fields such as biomedicine, electronics, antibacterial agents, and energy. Attempts to fabricate different morphologies of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have successfully yielded attractive nanostructures such as particles, rods, helices, combs, tetra-pods, and flowers, all displaying properties mainly related to their enhanced surface area and/or aspect ratios. Most of the above mentioned nanomaterials productions have employed harsh synthetic routes such as high temperatures, low pressures, and the use of costly equipments. Here we show how a greener approach to nanomaterials synthesis is feasible with both minimization of aqueous precursors, energy and employment of a multi-block heater for temperature control. We present in this thesis several methods for the preparation of NPs of several materials that focus on minimizing the environmental impact of the synthesis itself. First, we describe the use of the toroidal form of plasmid DNA as a rigid narrowly dispersed bio-polymeric nanocavity, which mold the formation of disc-shaped nanoparticles of several types of metals. This approach exploits several properties of plasmid DNA: (a) DNA affinity for metal cations, (b) toroidal plasmid DNA structures which are favored by metal ionic binding, and (c) the ability to vary plasmid size. Herein, we present a complementary synthetic method based on a kinetic approach wherein the plasmid DNA acts as a template to initiate and control the formation of Au and other metallic NPs by incubation at elevated temperatures. Also reported herein is a simple, scalable hydrothermal method to make ZnO NPs that exploits temperature to precisely control the range of pH values

  18. Metallic Nickel Nanoparticles May Exhibit Higher Carcinogenic Potential than Fine Particles in JB6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Linda; Zou, Baobo; Mao, Guochuan; Xu, Jin; Castranova, Vincent; Zhao, Jinshun; Ding, Min

    2014-01-01

    While numerous studies have described the pathogenic and carcinogenic effects of nickel compounds, little has been done on the biological effects of metallic nickel. Moreover, the carcinogenetic potential of metallic nickel nanoparticles is unknown. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) have been shown to play pivotal roles in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is considered to be one of the steps leading to the neoplastic state. The present study examines effects of metallic nickel fine and nanoparticles on tumor promoter or suppressor gene expressions as well as on cell transformation in JB6 cells. Our results demonstrate that metallic nickel nanoparticles caused higher activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, and a greater decrease of p53 transcription activity than fine particles. Western blot indicates that metallic nickel nanoparticles induced a higher level of protein expressions for R-Ras, c-myc, C-Jun, p65, and p50 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, both metallic nickel nano- and fine particles increased anchorage-independent colony formation in JB6 P+ cells in the soft agar assay. These results imply that metallic nickel fine and nanoparticles are both carcinogenetic in vitro in JB6 cells. Moreover, metallic nickel nanoparticles may exhibit higher carcinogenic potential, which suggests that precautionary measures should be taken in the use of nickel nanoparticles or its compounds in nanomedicine. PMID:24691273

  19. Investigation of laser heating effect of metallic nanoparticles on cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, G. S.; Liu, X. M.; Chen, H. J.; Yu, J. S.; Chen, X. D.; Yao, Y.; Qi, L. M.; Chen, Z. J.

    2016-07-01

    Metallic nanoparticles can be applied for hyperthermia therapy of cancer treatment to enhance the efficacy because of their high absorption rate. The absorption of laser energy by metallic nanoparticles is strongly dependent on the concentration, shape, material of nanoparticles and the wavelength of the laser. However, there is no systematic investigation on the heating effect involving different material, concentration and laser wavelength. In this paper, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and sliver nanowires (AgNWs) with different concentrations are heated by 450nm and 532nm wavelength laser to investigate the heating effect. The result shows that the temperature distribution of heated metallic nanoparticles is non-uniform.

  20. Efficiency of Absorption of Solar Radiation By Liquids Containing Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, L. G.; Pustovalov, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of a comparative analysis of the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles that allows us to select their parameters for effective applications. The optical properties of several metallic (Ni, Ti, Pt, Zn, Mo, and Pd) monodisperse nanoparticles of radii 25 nm, 50 nm, and 75 nm were theoretically studied and analyzed in the spectral range 200-2500 nm. We studied the influence of the nanoparticle parameters (type of metal, radius and concentration of the nanoparticles, etc.) and the surrounding liquid (water) on the optical absorption cross section, scattering cross section, and extinction cross section for absorption, scattering, and extinction of radiation by the nanoparticles. We have established that titanium, nickel, and to a lesser extent molybdenum nanoparticles of radii ~75 nm can be used for efficient absorption and extinction of solar radiation by heterogeneous liquids.

  1. High-field-strength MR imaging and metallic biomedical implants: an ex vivo evaluation of deflection forces.

    PubMed

    Shellock, F G; Crues, J V

    1988-08-01

    Ferromagnetic biomedical implants are considered a contraindication for MR imaging primarily because of the potential hazards associated with their movement or dislodgment. Many metallic biomedical implants are composed of nonferromagnetic materials and do not present a danger to patients during MR imaging. Therefore, to evaluate the ferromagnetic qualities of 36 different metallic biomedical implants (four aneurysm clips, six hemostatic clips, four dental implants, seven prosthetic heart valves, eight orthopedic prostheses, one artificial urinary sphincter, three contraceptive diaphragms, and three cerebral ventricular shunt tube connectors) not previously evaluated with a high-field-strength MR system, we measured deflection forces at the portal of the magnet of a 1.5-T MR system. Fourteen of the 36 metallic biomedical implants were determined to be ferromagnetic as indicated by their deflection in the static magnetic field. However, only the four aneurysm clips (Drake, Mayfield, McFadden, and Sundt-Kees) had sufficient ferromagnetism to warrant exclusion of patients with these implants from imaging with a 1.5-T MR system because of the possibility of movement or displacement. The calculated deflection forces for these aneurysm clips were comparable with previously reported values of certain aneurysm clips that have been designated to present a risk for patients undergoing MR imaging. Patients with 32 of 36 metallic biomedical implants tested can be safely imaged with high-field-strength MR systems. PMID:3260731

  2. Charge Transfer Stabilization of Late Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on a Layered Niobate Support.

    PubMed

    Strayer, Megan E; Senftle, Thomas P; Winterstein, Jonathan P; Vargas-Barbosa, Nella M; Sharma, Renu; Rioux, Robert M; Janik, Michael J; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2015-12-30

    Interfacial interactions between late transition metal/metal oxide nanoparticles and oxide supports impact catalytic activity and stability. Here, we report the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), electron microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) to explore periodic trends in the heats of nanoparticle-support interactions for late transition metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on layered niobate and silicate supports. Data for Co(OH)2, hydroxyiridate-capped IrOx·nH2O, Ni(OH)2, CuO, and Ag2O nanoparticles were added to previously reported data for Rh(OH)3 grown on nanosheets of TBA0.24H0.76Ca2Nb3O10 and a layered silicate. ITC measurements showed stronger bonding energies in the order Ag < Cu ≈ Ni ≈ Co < Rh < Ir on the niobate support, as expected from trends in M-O bond energies. Nanoparticles with exothermic heats of interaction were stabilized against sintering. In contrast, ITC measurements showed endothermic interactions of Cu, Ni, and Rh oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles with the silicate and poor resistance to sintering. These trends in interfacial energies were corroborated by DFT calculations using single-atom and four-atom cluster models of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles. Density of states and charge density difference calculations reveal that strongly bonded metals (Rh, Ir) transfer d-electron density from the adsorbed cluster to niobium atoms in the support; this mixing is absent in weakly binding metals, such as Ag and Au, and in all metals on the layered silicate support. The large differences between the behavior of nanoparticles on niobate and silicate supports highlight the importance of d-orbital interactions between the nanoparticle and support in controlling the nanoparticles' stability. PMID:26651875

  3. Metal-Based Nanoparticles and the Immune System: Activation, Inflammation, and Potential Applications

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Louis W.; Lin, Pinpin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials, including metal-based nanoparticles, are used for various biological and medical applications. However, metals affect immune functions in many animal species including humans. Different physical and chemical properties induce different cellular responses, such as cellular uptake and intracellular biodistribution, leading to the different immune responses. The goals of this review are to summarize and discuss the innate and adaptive immune responses triggered by metal-based nanoparticles in a variety of immune system models. PMID:26125021

  4. Accuracy of a proposed implant impression technique using abutments and metal framework

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Lim, Young-Jun; Kim, Chang-Whe; Choi, Jung-Han

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE This study compared the accuracy of an abutment-framework (A-F) taken with open tray impression technique combining cementon crown abutments, a metal framework and resin cement to closed tray and resin-splinted open tray impression techniques for the 3-implant definitive casts. The effect of angulation on the accuracy of these 3 techniques was also evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three definitive casts, each with 3 linearly positioned implant analogs at relative angulations 0, 30, and 40 degrees, were fabricated with passively fitted corresponding reference frameworks. Ten impressions were made and poured, using each of the 3 techniques on each of the 3 definitive casts. To record the vertical gap between reference frameworks and analogs in duplicate casts, a light microscope with image processing was used. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test. RESULTS The open tray techniques showed significantly smaller vertical gaps compare to closed tray technique (P < .05). The closed tray and the resin-splinted open tray technique showed significantly different vertical gaps according to the angulation of implant (P < .05), but the A-F impression technique did not (P > .05). CONCLUSION The accuracy of the A-F impression technique was superior to that of conventional techniques, and was not affected by the angulation of the implants. PMID:21165184

  5. Dose perturbation in the presence of metallic implants: treatment planning system versus Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieslander, Elinore; Knöös, Tommy

    2003-10-01

    An increasing number of patients receiving radiation therapy have metallic implants such as hip prostheses. Therefore, beams are normally set up to avoid irradiation through the implant; however, this cannot always be accomplished. In such situations, knowledge of the accuracy of the used treatment planning system (TPS) is required. Two algorithms, the pencil beam (PB) and the collapsed cone (CC), are implemented in the studied TPS. Comparisons are made with Monte Carlo simulations for 6 and 18 MV. The studied materials are steel, CoCrMo, Orthinox® (a stainless steel alloy and registered trademark of Stryker Corporation), TiAlV and Ti. Monte Carlo simulated depth dose curves and dose profiles are compared to CC and PB calculated data. The CC algorithm shows overall a better agreement with Monte Carlo than the PB algorithm. Thus, it is recommended to use the CC algorithm to get the most accurate dose calculation both for the planning target volume and for tissues adjacent to the implants when beams are set up to pass through implants.

  6. Magneto-Optical Properties and Size Effect of Ferromagnetic Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaihara, Terunori; Mizuguchi, Masaki; Takanashi, Koki; Shimizu, Hiromasa

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the magneto-optical (MO) effect with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on ferromagnetic metal (Fe and Co) nanoparticles. We estimated the electric-field enhancement of the ferromagnetic metal nanoparticles caused by LSPR based on Mie scattering theory and compared it with that of Au nanoparticles. The electric-field enhancement of the ferromagnetic metal nanoparticles was 15-17, which is half of that of the Au nanoparticles. In order to explain the calculated results, we prepared ferromagnetic metal nanoparticles by a self-assembly process. We measured the optical transmission spectra and Faraday effect of the ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Although remarkable MO enhancement was not observed, we found characteristic MO spectra and a peak shift at wavelengths longer than 800 nm in samples whose thickness was less than 6 nm. We numerically investigated the size effect and reproduced the experimental results. We concluded that localized plasmons of ferromagnetic metal nanoparticles can produce electric-field enhancement, but the enhancement is not enough to increase the MO effect, and that the MO effect of nanosized ferromagnetic metals could be influenced by size effects rather than by LSPR.

  7. Improving accuracy of electron density measurement in the presence of metallic implants using orthovoltage computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Ming; Virshup, Gary; Mohan, Radhe; Shaw, Chris C.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Dong Lei

    2008-05-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the improvement in electron density measurement and metal artifact reduction using orthovoltage computed tomography (OVCT) imaging compared with conventional kilovoltage CT (KVCT). For this study, a bench-top system was constructed with adjustable x-ray tube voltage up to 320 kVp. A commercial tissue-characterization phantom loaded with inserts of various human tissue substitutes was imaged using 125 kVp (KVCT) and 320 kVp (OVCT) x rays. Stoichiometric calibration was performed for both KVCT and OVCT imaging using the Schneider method. The metal inserts--titanium rods and aluminum rods--were used to study the impact of metal artifacts on the electron-density measurements both inside and outside the metal inserts. It was found that the relationships between Hounsfield units and relative electron densities (to water) were more predictable for OVCT than KVCT. Unlike KVCT, the stoichiometric calibration for OVCT was insensitive to the use of tissue substitutes for direct electron density calibration. OVCT was found to significantly reduce metal streak artifacts. Errors in electron-density measurements within uniform tissue substitutes were reduced from 42% (maximum) and 18% (root-mean-square) in KVCT to 12% and 2% in OVCT, respectively. Improvements were also observed inside the metal implants. For the detectors optimized for KVCT, the imaging dose is almost doubled for OVCT for the image quality comparable to KVCT. OVCT may be a good option for high-precision radiotherapy treatment planning, especially for patients with metal implants and especially for charged particle therapy, such as proton therapy.

  8. Dynamics of laser induced metal nanoparticle and pattern formation

    SciTech Connect

    Peláez, R. J. Kuhn, T.; Rodríguez, C. E.; Afonso, C. N.

    2015-02-09

    Discontinuous metal films are converted into either almost round, isolated, and randomly distributed nanoparticles (NPs) or fringed patterns of alternate non transformed film and NPs by exposure to single pulses (20 ns pulse duration and 193 nm wavelength) of homogeneous or modulated laser beam intensity. The dynamics of NPs and pattern formation is studied by measuring in real time the transmission and reflectivity of the sample upon homogeneous beam exposure and the intensity of the diffraction orders 0 and 1 in transmission configuration upon modulated beam exposure. The results show that laser irradiation induces melting of the metal either completely or at regions around intensity maxima sites for homogeneous and modulated beam exposure, respectively, within ≤10 ns. The aggregation and/or coalescence of the initially irregular metal nanostructures is triggered upon melting and continues after solidification (estimated to occur at ≤80 ns) for more than 1 μs. The present results demonstrate that real time transmission rather than reflectivity measurements is a valuable and easy-to-use tool for following the dynamics of NPs and pattern formation. They provide insights on the heat-driven processes occurring both in liquid and solid phases and allow controlling in-situ the process through the fluence. They also evidence that there is negligible lateral heat release in discontinuous films upon laser irradiation.

  9. Biofilms Versus Activated Sludge: Considerations in Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Removal from Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Walden, Connie; Zhang, Wen

    2016-08-16

    The increasing application of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles [Me(O)NPs] in consumer products has led to a growth in concentration of these nanoparticles in wastewater as emerging contaminants. This may pose a threat to ecological communities (e.g., biological nutrient removal units) within treatment plants and those subject to wastewater effluents. Here, the toxicity, fate, and process implications of Me(O)NPs within wastewater treatment, specifically during activated sludge processing and biofilm systems are reviewed and compared. Research showed activated sludge achieves high removal rate of Me(O)NPs by the formation of aggregates through adsorption. However, recent literature reveals evidence that inhibition is likely for nutrient removal capabilities such as nitrification. Biofilm systems were much less studied, but show potential to resist Me(O)NP inhibition and achieve removal through possible retention by sorption. Implicating factors during bacteria-Me(O)NP interactions such as aggregation, surface functionalization, and the presence of organics are summarized. At current modeled levels, neither activated sludge nor biofilm systems can achieve complete removal of Me(O)NPs, thus allowing for long-term environmental exposure of diverse biological communities to Me(O)NPs in streams receiving wastewater effluents. Future research directions are identified throughout in order to minimize the impact of these nanoparticles released. PMID:27437755

  10. Role of metal nanoparticles on porosification of silicon by metal induced etching (MIE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Shailendra K.; Yogi, Priyanka; Yadav, Pooja; Mishra, Suryakant; Pandey, Haardik; Rai, Hari Mohan; Kumar, Vivek; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Porosification of silicon (Si) by metal induced etching (MIE) process has been studied here to understand the etching mechanism. The etching mechanism has been discussed on the basis of electron transfer from Si to metal ion (Ag+) and metal to H2O2. Role of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the etching process has been investigated by studying the effect of AgNPs coverage on surface porosity. A quantitative analysis of SEM images, done using Image J, shows a direct correlation between AgNPs coverage and surface porosity after the porosification. Density of Si nanowires (NWs) also varies as a function of AgNPs fractional coverage which reasserts the fact that AgNPs governs the porosification process during MIE. The Raman and PL spectrum show the presence of Si NSs in the samples.

  11. Engineered metal nanoparticles in the sub-nanomolar levels kill cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Daniels, Yasmine; Pustovyy, Oleg; MacCrehan, William A; Muramoto, Shin; Stan, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    Background Small metal nanoparticles obtained from animal blood were observed to be toxic to cultured cancer cells, whereas noncancerous cells were much less affected. In this work, engineered zinc and copper metal nanoparticles were produced from bulk metal rods by an underwater high-voltage discharge method. The metal nanoparticles were characterized by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The metal nanoparticles, with estimated diameters of 1 nm–2 nm, were determined to be more than 85% nonoxidized. A cell viability assay and high-resolution light microscopy showed that exposure of RG2, cultured rat brain glioma cancer cells, to the zinc and copper nanoparticles resulted in cell morphological changes, including decreased cell adherence, shrinking/rounding, nuclear condensation, and budding from cell bodies. The metal-induced cell injuries were similar to the effects of staurosporine, an active apoptotic reagent. The viability experiments conducted for zinc and copper yielded values of dissociation constants of 0.22±0.08 nmol/L (standard error [SE]) and 0.12±0.02 nmol/L (SE), respectively. The noncancerous astrocytes were not affected at the same conditions. Because metal nanoparticles were lethal to the cancer cells at sub-nanomolar concentrations, they are potentially important as nanomedicine. Purpose Lethal concentrations of synthetic metal nanoparticles reported in the literature are a few orders of magnitude higher than the natural, blood-isolated metal nanoparticles; therefore, in this work, engineered metal nanoparticles were examined to mimic the properties of endogenous metal nanoparticles. Materials and methods RG2, rat brain glioma cells CTX TNA2 brain rat astrocytes, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, high-voltage discharge, atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution light microscopy, zeta potential measurements, and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium

  12. Electrical, optical, photocatalytic, and bactericidal properties of polyethylene glycol-assisted sol-gel synthesized ZnTiO3-implanted ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai; Jayabharathi, Jayaraman

    2014-12-01

    ZnTiO3-implanted ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method employing polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 and 20 000. The high resolution transmission electron micrographs, selected area electron diffraction pattern, energy dispersive x-ray spectra and powder x-ray diffractograms show the prepared materials as core/shell nanoparticles. Increase of the molecular mass of PEG decreases the d-spacing in ZnO of ZnTiO3-implanted ZnO and pristine ZnO nanoparticles. The charge transfer resistances of ZnTiO3-implanted ZnO nanoparticles are larger than those of pristine ZnO and precursor ZnTiO3 nanoparticles. The optical properties of ZnTiO3/ZnO nanoparticles are similar to those of pristine ZnO nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO is enhanced by the presence of ZnTiO3 core in the ZnO lattice. The bactericidal activity of core/shell ZnTiO3/ZnO nanoparticles is not less than that of ZnO nanoparticles.

  13. Salt-Driven Deposition of Thermoresponsive Polymer-Coated Metal Nanoparticles on Solid Substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyue; Maji, Samarendra; da Fonseca Antunes, André B; De Rycke, Riet; Hoogenboom, Richard; De Geest, Bruno G

    2016-06-13

    Here we report on a simple, generally applicable method for depositing metal nanoparticles on a wide variety of solid surfaces under all aqueous conditions. Noble-metal nanoparticles obtained by citrate reduction followed by coating with thermoresponsive polymers spontaneously form a monolayer-like structure on a wide variety of substrates in presence of sodium chloride whereas this phenomenon does not occur in salt-free medium. Interestingly, this phenomenon occurs below the cloud point temperature of the polymers and we hypothesize that salt ion-induced screening of electrostatic charges on the nanoparticle surface entropically favors hydrophobic association between the polymer-coated nanoparticles and a hydrophobic substrate. PMID:27142455

  14. Electrospun titanium dioxide nanofibers containing hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles as future implant materials.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Faheem A; Barakat, Nasser A M; Kanjwal, Muzafar A; Nirmala, R; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Hern; Kim, Hak Yong

    2010-09-01

    In this study, a good combination consisting of electrospun titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanofibers incorporated with high purity hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (NPs) and antimicrobial silver NPs is introduced for hard tissue engineering applications. The synthesized nanofibers were characterized by various state of art techniques like; SEM, XRD, TEM, TEM EDS and XPS analyses. SEM results confirmed well oriented nanofibers and good dispersion of HAp and silver NPs, respectively. XRD results demonstrated well crystalline feature of three components used for electrospinning. Silver NPs were having a diameter in range of 5-8 nm indicated by TEM analysis. Moreover, TEM EDS analysis demonstrated the presence of each component with good dispersion over TiO(2) nanofiber. The surface analyses of nanofibers were investigated by XPS which indicated the presence of silver NPs on the surfaces of nanofibers. The obtained nanofibers were checked for antimicrobial activity by using two model organisms E. coli and S. aureus. Subsequently, antimicrobial tests have indicated that the prepared nanofibers do possess high bactericidal effect. Accordingly, these results strongly recommend the use of obtained nanofiber mats as future implant materials. PMID:20652376

  15. Tissue Reaction and Biocompatibility of Implanted Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with Silver Nanoparticles in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Vahid; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Aghbali, Amirala; Mesgariabbasi, Mehran; Janani, Maryam; Mokhtari, Hadi; Tehranchi, Pardis; Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of endodontic materials are of utmost importance. Considering the extensive applications of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in dentistry and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles, this study aimed to evaluate the subcutaneous inflammatory reaction of rat connective tissues to white MTA with and without nanosilver (NS) particles. Methods and Materials: Polyethylene tubes (1.1×8 mm) containing experimental materials (MTA and MTA+NS and empty control tubes) were implanted in subcutaneous tissues of seventy-five male rats. Animals were divided into five groups (n=15) according to the time of evaluation: group 1; after 7 days, group 2; after 15 days, group 3; after 30 days, group 4; after 60 days and group 5; after 90 days. The inflammatory reaction was graded and data was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Statistical significance was defined at 0.05. Results: Comparison of cumulative inflammatory reaction at all intervals revealed that the mean grade of inflammatory reaction to MTA, MTA+NS and control samples were 3, 2 and 2, respectively. According to the Mann-Whitney analysis there were no significant differences between MTA+NS and MTA (P=0.42). Conclusion: Incorporation of 1% nanosilver to MTA does not affect the inflammatory reaction of subcutaneous tissue in rat models. PMID:26843871

  16. Corrosion resistance of Ti modified by chitosan-gold nanoparticles for orthopedic implantation.

    PubMed

    Farghali, R A; Fekry, A M; Ahmed, Rasha A; Elhakim, H K A

    2015-08-01

    Highly uniform bionanocomposite film composed of chitosan (CS) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was synthesized successfully by electrodeposition method. The influence of AuNPs/CS bionanocomposite film on corrosion resistance of Ti was investigated. Surface morphology and compositional properties of the bionanocomposite were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, cyclic voltammetry (CV), open-circuit potential measurements (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (Rp) were used to examine the corrosion behavior in Hanks' solution. In comparison with Ti, Nyquist and Bode plots displayed higher impedance values and phase angles for AuNPs/CS biocomposite denoting a more protective passive film on Ti with inhibition efficiency (IE%) of 98%. An electric equivalent circuit with three time constants was modeled for the bionanocomposite. In addition, the antibacterial effect revealed the high efficiencies of the bionanocomposite film for inhibiting bacterial growth. The combination of the high biocompatibility of chitosan and strong adsorption ability of AuNPs make AuNPs/CS bionanocomposite promising candidate for modifying biomaterial surfaces for medical implantation applications. PMID:25989146

  17. Plasmon-induced hot carriers in metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manjavacas, Alejandro; Liu, Jun G; Kulkarni, Vikram; Nordlander, Peter

    2014-08-26

    Plasmon-induced hot carrier formation is attracting an increasing research interest due to its potential for applications in photocatalysis, photodetection and solar energy harvesting. However, despite very significant experimental effort, a comprehensive theoretical description of the hot carrier generation process is still missing. In this work we develop a theoretical model for the plasmon-induced hot carrier process and apply it to spherical silver nanoparticles and nanoshells. In this model, the conduction electrons of the metal are described as free particles in a finite spherical potential well, and the plasmon-induced hot carrier production is calculated using Fermi’s golden rule. We show that the inclusion of many-body interactions has only a minor influence on the results. Using the model we calculate the rate of hot carrier generation, finding that it closely follows the spectral profile of the plasmon. Our analysis reveals that particle size and hot carrier lifetime play a central role in determining both the production rate and the energy distribution of the hot carriers. Specifically, larger nanoparticle sizes and shorter lifetimes result in higher carrier production rates but smaller energies, and vice versa. We characterize the efficiency of the hot carrier generation process by introducing a figure of merit that measures the number of high energy carriers generated per plasmon. Furthermore, we analyze the spatial distribution and directionality of these excitations. The results presented here contribute to the basic understanding of plasmon-induced hot carrier generation and provide insight for optimization of the process. PMID:24960573

  18. Dirac plasmons in bipartite lattices of metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebb Sturges, Thomas; Woollacott, Claire; Weick, Guillaume; Mariani, Eros

    2015-03-01

    We study theoretically ‘graphene-like’ plasmonic metamaterials constituted by two-dimensional arrays of metallic nanoparticles, including perfect honeycomb structures with and without inversion symmetry, as well as generic bipartite lattices. The dipolar interactions between localized surface plasmons (LSPs) in different nanoparticles gives rise to collective plasmons (CPs) that extend over the whole lattice. We study the band structure of CPs and unveil its tunability with the orientation of the dipole moments associated with the LSPs. Depending on the dipole orientation, we identify a phase diagram of gapless or gapped phases in the CP dispersion. We show that the gapless phases in the phase diagram are characterized by CPs behaving as massless chiral Dirac particles, in analogy with electrons in graphene. When the inversion symmetry of the honeycomb structure is broken, CPs are described as gapped chiral Dirac modes with an energy-dependent Berry phase. We further relax the geometric symmetry of the honeycomb structure by analysing generic bipartite hexagonal lattices. In this case we study the evolution of the phase diagram and unveil the emergence of a sequence of topological phase transitions when one hexagonal sublattice is progressively shifted with respect to the other.

  19. Polymer waveguide couplers based on metal nanoparticle-polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Signoretto, M; Suárez, I; Chirvony, V S; Abargues, R; Rodríguez-Cantó, P J; Martínez-Pastor, J

    2015-11-27

    In this work Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) are incorporated into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) waveguides to develop optical couplers that are compatible with planar organic polymer photonics. A method for growing AuNPs (of 10 to 100 nm in size) inside the commercially available Novolak resist is proposed with the intention of tuning the plasmon resonance and the absorption/scattering efficiencies inside the patterned structures. The refractive index of the MNP-Novolak nanocomposite (MNPs: noble metal nanoparticles) is carefully analysed both experimentally and numerically in order to find the appropriate fabrication conditions (filling factor and growth time) to optimize the scattering cross section at a desired wavelength. Then the nanocomposite is patterned inside a PMMA waveguide to exploit its scattering properties to couple and guide a normal incident laser light beam along the polymer. In this way, light coupling is experimentally demonstrated in a broad wavelength range (404-780 nm). Due to the elliptical shape of the MNPs the nanocomposite demonstrates a birefringence, which enhances the coupling to the TE mode up to efficiencies of around 1%. PMID:26526708

  20. Observing single molecule chemical reactions on metal nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Emory, S. R.; Ambrose, W. Patrick; Goodwin, P. M.; Keller, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    We report the study of the photodecomposition of single Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye molecules adsorbed on silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were immobilized and spatially isolated on polylysine-derivatized glass coverslips, and confocal laser microspectroscopy was used to obtain surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra from individual R6G molecules. The photodecomposition of these molecules was observed with 150-ms temporal resolution. The photoproduct was identified as graphitic carbon based on the appearance of broad SERS vibrational bands at 1592 cm{sup -1} and 1340 cm{sup -1} observed in both bulk and averaged single-molecule photoproduct spectra. In contrast, when observed at the single-molecule level, the photoproduct yielded sharp SERS spectra. The inhomogeneous broadening of the bulk SERS spectra is due to a variety of photoproducts in different surface orientations and is a characteristic of ensemble-averaged measurements of disordered systems. These single-molecule studies indicate a photodecomposition pathway by which the R6G molecule desorbs from the metal surface, an excited-state photoreaction occurs, and the R6G photoproduct(s) readsorbs to the surface. A SERS spectrum is obtained when either the intact R6G or the R6G photoproduct(s) are adsorbed on a SERS-active site. This work further illustrates the power of single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS) to reveal unique behaviors of single molecules that are not discernable with bulk measurements.

  1. Synthesis and optical properties of anisotropic metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Encai; Schatz, George C; Hupp, Joseph T

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we overview our recent studies of anisotropic noble metal (e.g. gold and silver) nanoparticles, in which a combination of theory and experiment has been used to elucidate the extinction spectra of the particles, as well as information related to their surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. We used wet-chemical methods to generate several structurally well-defined nanostructures other than solid spheres, including silver nanodisks and triangular nanoprisms, and gold nanoshells and multipods. When solid spheres are transformed into one of these shapes, the surface plasmon resonances in these particles are strongly affected, typically red-shifting and even splitting into distinctive dipole and quadrupole plasmon modes. In parallel, we have developed computational electrodynamics methods based on the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method to determine the origins of these intriguing optical features. This has resulted in considerable insight concerning the variation of plasmon wavelength with nanoparticle size, shape and dielectric environment, as well as the use of these particles for optical sensing applications. PMID:15617376

  2. Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, O.; Kavas, H.; Baykal, A.; Toprak, M. S.; Çoruh, Ali; Aktaş, B.

    2013-02-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications.

  3. Inhomogeneous depletion of oxygen ions in metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykhodets, Vladimir B.; Jarvis, Emily A. A.; Kurennykh, Tatiana E.; Beketov, Igor V.; Obukhov, Sviatoslav I.; Samatov, Oleg M.; Medvedev, Anatoly I.; Davletshin, Andrey E.; Whyte, Travis H.

    2016-02-01

    Zirconia and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have multiple uses, including catalysis, fuel cells, dental applications, and thermal coatings. We employ nuclear reaction analysis to determine elemental composition of YSZ nanoparticles synthesized by laser evaporation including 18O studies to distinguish between oxide and adsorbed oxygen content as a function of surface area. We see dramatic deviation from stoichiometry that can be traced to loss of oxygen from the oxide near the surface of these nanopowders. Density functional calculations are coupled with these experimental studies to explore the electronic structure of nonstoichiometric surfaces achieved through depletion of oxygen. Our results show oxygen-depleted surfaces present under oxygen potentials where stoichiometric, oxygen-terminated surfaces would be favored thermodynamically for crystalline systems. Oxygen depletion at nanopowder surfaces can create effective two-dimensional surface metallic states while maintaining stoichiometry in the underlying nanoparticle core. This insight into nanopowder surfaces applies to dissimilar oxides of aluminum and zirconium indicating synthesis conditions may be more influential than the inherent oxide properties and displaying need for distinct models for nanopowders of these important engineering materials where surface chemistry dominates performance.

  4. Strong Metal-Support Interactions between Gold Nanoparticles and Nonoxides.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailian; Wei, Jiake; Liu, Fei; Qiao, Botao; Pan, Xiaoli; Li, Lin; Liu, Jingyue; Wang, Junhu; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-13

    The strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) is of great importance for supported catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis. We report the first example of SMSI between Au nanoparticles (NPs) and hydroxyapatite (HAP), a nonoxide. The reversible encapsulation of Au NPs by HAP support, electron transfer, and changes in CO adsorption are identical to the classic SMSI except that the SMSI of Au/HAP occurred under oxidative condition; the opposite condition for the classical SMSI. The SMSI of Au/HAP not only enhanced the sintering resistance of Au NPs upon calcination but also improved their selectivity and reusability in liquid-phase reaction. It was found that the SMSI between Au and HAP is general and could be extended to other phosphate-supported Au systems such as Au/LaPO4. This new discovery may open a new way to design and develop highly stable supported Au catalysts with controllable activity and selectivity. PMID:26669943

  5. Star-like copolymer stabilized noble-metal nanoparticle powders.

    PubMed

    Cao, Peng-Fei; Yan, Yun-Hui; Mangadlao, Joey Dacula; Rong, Li-Han; Advincula, Rigoberto

    2016-03-31

    The amphiphilic star-like copolymer polyethylenimine-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEI-b-PCL) was utilized to transfer the pre-synthesized citrate-capped noble metal nanoparticles (NMNPs) from an aqueous layer to an organic layer without any additional reagents. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to study the assembly of the polymers coated on the surface of the citrate-capped NMNPs. After removing the organic solvent, the polymer-coated NMNPs in powder form (PCP-NMNPs) were obtained. The excellent solubility of the PEI-b-PCL allows the PCP-NMNPs to be easily dispersed in most of the organic solvents without any significant aggregation. Moreover, the good thermal stability and long-term stability make PCP-NMNPs an excellent NMNP-containing hybrid system for different specific applications, such as surface coating, catalysis and thermoplastic processing of nanocomposite materials. PMID:26659728

  6. Engineering Metallic Nanoparticles for Enhancing and Probing Catalytic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gillian; Holmes, Justin D

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments in tailoring the structural and chemical properties of colloidal metal nanoparticles (NPs) have led to significant enhancements in catalyst performance. Controllable colloidal synthesis has also allowed tailor-made NPs to serve as mechanistic probes for catalytic processes. The innovative use of colloidal NPs to gain fundamental insights into catalytic function will be highlighted across a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic applications. The engineering of future heterogenous catalysts is also moving beyond size, shape and composition considerations. Advancements in understanding structure-property relationships have enabled incorporation of complex features such as tuning surface strain to influence the behavior of catalytic NPs. Exploiting plasmonic properties and altering colloidal surface chemistry through functionalization are also emerging as important areas for rational design of catalytic NPs. This news article will highlight the key developments and challenges to the future design of catalytic NPs. PMID:26823380

  7. Directed liquid phase assembly of highly ordered metallic nanoparticle arrays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Yueying; Dong, Nanyi; Fu, Shaofang; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Kondic, Lou; Vincenti, Maria A.; de Ceglia, Domenico; Rack, Philip D.

    2014-04-01

    Directed assembly of nanomaterials is a promising route for the synthesis of advanced materials and devices. We demonstrate the directed-assembly of highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of hierarchical nanostructures with tunable size, spacing and composition. The directed assembly is achieved on lithographically patterned metal films that are subsequently pulse-laser melted; during the brief liquid lifetime, the pattened nanostructures assemble into highly ordered primary and secondary nanoparticles, with sizes below that which was originally patterned. Complementary fluid-dynamics simulations emulate the resultant patterns and show how the competition of capillary forces and liquid metal–solid substrate interaction potential drives the directed assembly. Lastly, asmore » an example of the enhanced functionality, a full-wave electromagnetic analysis has been performed to identify the nature of the supported plasmonic resonances.« less

  8. Directed liquid phase assembly of highly ordered metallic nanoparticle arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yueying; Dong, Nanyi; Fu, Shaofang; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Kondic, Lou; Vincenti, Maria A.; de Ceglia, Domenico; Rack, Philip D.

    2014-04-01

    Directed assembly of nanomaterials is a promising route for the synthesis of advanced materials and devices. We demonstrate the directed-assembly of highly ordered two-dimensional arrays of hierarchical nanostructures with tunable size, spacing and composition. The directed assembly is achieved on lithographically patterned metal films that are subsequently pulse-laser melted; during the brief liquid lifetime, the pattened nanostructures assemble into highly ordered primary and secondary nanoparticles, with sizes below that which was originally patterned. Complementary fluid-dynamics simulations emulate the resultant patterns and show how the competition of capillary forces and liquid metal–solid substrate interaction potential drives the directed assembly. Lastly, as an example of the enhanced functionality, a full-wave electromagnetic analysis has been performed to identify the nature of the supported plasmonic resonances.

  9. Osteosarcoma associated with metallic implants. Report of two cases in dogs.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J W; McLain, D L; Hohn, R B; Wilson, G P; Chalman, J A; MacGowan, K N

    1976-05-01

    This is a report of two dogs in which osteosarcomas arose in association with metallic orthopedic implants. One neoplasm occurred in the distal humerus of a 12-year-old Doberman Pinscher. A stainless steel intramedullary pin had been implanted in the bone 11 years previously. Upon removal, corrosion of the pin was noted. The second neoplasm arose in the proximal tibia of a 12-year-old Irish Wolfhound. Six years previously, a fracture of the tibia had been repaired with a plate and screws made of the same type stainless steel, type 316L, by the same manufacturer. No corrosion appeared to have occured. Infection had not occured in either animal. PMID:1064496

  10. Secondary phase segregation in heavily transition metal implanted ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Schumm, Marcel; Koerdel, Martin; Geurts, Jean; Mueller, Sven; Ronning, Carsten; Dynowska, Elzbieta; Golacki, Zbigniew; Szuszkiewicz, Wojciech

    2009-04-15

    With micro-Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD), we studied ZnO crystals implanted with Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively, with implantation concentrations from 4 up to 16 at. %. Using thermal treatments in air up to 700 deg. C, we analyzed the annealing effect on the ZnO crystal lattice as well as the onset of secondary phases and their microstructure on the sample surface. While the 500 deg. C treatment induces a considerable annealing, secondary phases are observed for transition metal (TM) concentrations >=8 at. % after the treatment at 700 deg. C. Their microstructure strongly depends on the TM species. Various stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TM oxide precipitates as well as elemental TM clusters are identified by their Raman and XRD signatures and their possible magnetic impact is discussed.

  11. In vitro study of drug loading on polymer-free oxide films of metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ming; Shih, Chun-Che; Su, Yea-Yang; Chang, Nen-Chung; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2005-12-01

    Traditionally, a drug that is loaded onto a metallic surface has to use various polymer bondings as its platform. Unfortunately, polymer coatings on a metallic surface cause numerous problems after implantation, such as late thrombosis, inflammation, and restenosis. This research was conducted to investigate whether an oxide layer can be used as a polymer-free platform for drug loading, especially for cardiovascular stents. The interaction and loading of heparin onto different oxide films on 316LVM stainless steel wire was confirmed in vitro by experimental studies using linear voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. The eluting of heparin from heparinized surface was studied by using high-performance liquid chromatography, and activated clotting time in addition to linear voltammetry and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis analyses. Experimental results show that amorphous oxide could be a potential substitute for the polymer coating of drug-loaded stents for minimizing metallic corrosion, inflammation, late thrombosis, and restenosis. PMID:16082699

  12. Implantable polymer/metal thin film structures for the localized treatment of cancer by Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Theriault, Christian; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an implantable polymer/metal alloy thin film structure for localized post-operative treatment of breast cancer. A combination of experiments and models is used to study the temperature changes due to Joule heating by patterned metallic thin films embedded in poly-dimethylsiloxane. The heat conduction within the device and the surrounding normal/cancerous breast tissue is modeled with three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). The FEM simulations are used to explore the potential effects of device geometry and Joule heating on the temperature distribution and lesion (thermal dose). The FEM model is validated using a gel model that mimics biological media. The predictions are also compared to prior results from in vitro studies and relevant in vivo studies in the literature. The implications of the results are discussed for the potential application of polymer/metal thin film structures in hyperthermic treatment of cancer.

  13. Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticle-decorated Carbon Nanotubes under Ambient Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yi; Watson, Kent A.; Ghose, Sayata; Smith, Joseph G.; Connell, John W.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the production of Metal Nanoparticle-decorated carbon Nanotubes. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were efficiently decorated with metal nanoparticles (e.g. Ag, Pt, etc.) using the corresponding metal acetate in a simple mixing process without the need of chemical reagents or further processing. The conversion of acetate compounds to the corresponding metal reached over 90%, forming nanoparticles with average diameters less than 10 nm under certain conditions. The process was readily scalable allowing for the convenient preparation of multi-gram quantities of metal nanoparticle-decorated MWCNTs in a matter of a few minutes. These materials are under evaluation for a variety of electrical and catalytic applications. The preparation and characterization of these materials will be presented. The microscopic views of the processed MWCNTs are shown

  14. Development of structure-activity relationship for metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Zhang, Hai Yuan; Ji, Zhao Xia; Rallo, Robert; Xia, Tian; Chang, Chong Hyun; Nel, Andre; Cohen, Yoram

    2013-05-01

    Nanomaterial structure-activity relationships (nano-SARs) for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) toxicity were investigated using metrics based on dose-response analysis and consensus self-organizing map clustering. The NP cellular toxicity dataset included toxicity profiles consisting of seven different assays for human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) and murine myeloid (RAW 264.7) cells, over a concentration range of 0.39-100 mg L-1 and exposure time up to 24 h, for twenty-four different metal oxide NPs. Various nano-SAR building models were evaluated, based on an initial pool of thirty NP descriptors. The conduction band energy and ionic index (often correlated with the hydration enthalpy) were identified as suitable NP descriptors that are consistent with suggested toxicity mechanisms for metal oxide NPs and metal ions. The best performing nano-SAR with the above two descriptors, built with support vector machine (SVM) model and of validated robustness, had a balanced classification accuracy of ~94%. An applicability domain for the present data was established with a reasonable confidence level of 80%. Given the potential role of nano-SARs in decision making, regarding the environmental impact of NPs, the class probabilities provided by the SVM nano-SAR enabled the construction of decision boundaries with respect to toxicity classification under different acceptance levels of false negative relative to false positive predictions.Nanomaterial structure-activity relationships (nano-SARs) for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) toxicity were investigated using metrics based on dose-response analysis and consensus self-organizing map clustering. The NP cellular toxicity dataset included toxicity profiles consisting of seven different assays for human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) and murine myeloid (RAW 264.7) cells, over a concentration range of 0.39-100 mg L-1 and exposure time up to 24 h, for twenty-four different metal oxide NPs. Various nano-SAR building models were

  15. Ultrahigh-current-density metal-ion implantation and diamondlike-hydrocarbon films for tribological applications; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbur, P.J.

    1993-09-01

    The metal-ion-implantation system used to implant metals into substrates are described. The metal vapor required for operation is supplied by drawing sufficient electron current from the plasma discharge to an anode-potential crucible so a solid, pure metal placed in the crucible will be heated to the point of vaporization. The ion-producing, plasma discharge is initiated within a graphite-ion-source body, which operates at high temperature, by using an argon flow that is turned off once the metal vapor is present. Extraction of ion beams several cm in diameter at current densities ranging to several hundred {mu}A/cm{sup 2} on a target 50 cm downstream of the ion source have been demonstrated using Mg, Ag, Cr, Cu, Si, Ti, V, B and Zr. These metals were implanted into over 100 substrates (discs, pins, flats, wires). A model describing thermal stresses induced in materials (e.g. ceramic plates) during high-current-density implantation is presented. Tribological and microstructural characteristics of iron and 304-stainless-steel samples implanted with Ti or B are examined. Diamondlike-hydrocarbon coatings were applied to steel surfaces and found to exhibit good tribological performance.

  16. Sulfidation kinetics of silver nanoparticles reacted with metal sulfides.

    PubMed

    Thalmann, Basilius; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Kaegi, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have documented that the sulfidation of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP), possibly released to the environment from consumer products, occurs in anoxic zones of urban wastewater systems and that sulfidized Ag-NP exhibit dramatically reduced toxic effects. However, whether Ag-NP sulfidation also occurs under oxic conditions in the absence of bisulfide has not been addressed, yet. In this study we, therefore, investigated whether metal sulfides that are more resistant toward oxidation than free sulfide, could enable the sulfidation of Ag-NP under oxic conditions. We reacted citrate-stabilized Ag-NP of different sizes (10-100 nm) with freshly precipitated and crystalline CuS and ZnS in oxygenated aqueous suspensions at pH 7.5. The extent of Ag-NP sulfidation was derived from the increase in dissolved Cu(2+) or Zn(2+) over time and linked with results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of selected samples. The sulfidation of Ag-NP followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate coefficients increasing with decreasing Ag-NP diameter and increasing metal sulfide concentration and depending on the type (CuS and ZnS) and crystallinity of the reacting metal sulfide. Results from analytical electron microscopy revealed the formation of complex sulfidation patterns that seemed to follow preexisting subgrain boundaries in the pristine Ag-NP. The kinetics of Ag-NP sulfidation observed in this study in combination with reported ZnS and CuS concentrations and predicted Ag-NP concentrations in wastewater and urban surface waters indicate that even under oxic conditions and in the absence of free sulfide, Ag-NP can be transformed into Ag2S within a few hours to days by reaction with metal sulfides. PMID:24678586

  17. Advanced piezoresistance of extended metal-insulator core-shell nanoparticle assemblies.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, E K; Krumeich, F; Grass, R N; Stark, W J

    2008-10-17

    Assembled metal-insulator nanoparticles with a core-shell geometry provide access to materials containing a large number (>10(6)) of tunneling barriers. We demonstrate the production of ceramic coated metal nanoparticles exhibiting an exceptional pressure-sensitive conductivity. We further show that graphene bi- and trilayers on 20 nm copper nanoparticles are insulating in such a core-shell geometry and show a similar pressure-dependent conductivity. This demonstrates that core-shell metal-insulator assemblies offer a route to alternative sensing materials. PMID:18999701

  18. Photoresponse from noble metal nanoparticles-multi walled carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect

    Scarselli, M.; Camilli, L.; Castrucci, P.; De Crescenzi, M.; Matthes, L.; Pulci, O.; Gatto, E.; Venanzi, M.

    2012-12-10

    In this Letter, we investigated the photo-response of multi wall carbon nanotube-based composites obtained from in situ thermal evaporation of noble metals (Au, Ag, and Cu) on the nanotube films. The metal deposition process produced discrete nanoparticles on the nanotube outer walls. The nanoparticle-carbon nanotube films were characterized by photo-electrochemical measurements in a standard three electrode cell. The photocurrent from the decorated carbon nanotubes remarkably increased with respect to that of bare multiwall tubes. With the aid of first-principle calculations, these results are discussed in terms of metal nanoparticle-nanotube interactions and electronic charge transfer at the interface.

  19. Solution synthesis of mixed-metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and spray deposition of precursor films

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which is substantially free of impurities.

  20. Osteoclasts Lose Innate Inflammatory Reactivity to Metal and Polymer Implant Debris Compared to Monocytes/Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Jessica; Samelko, Lauryn; Gilvar, Phil; McAllister, Kyron; Hallab, Nadim James

    2013-01-01

    Long-term aseptic failures of joint replacements are generally attributed to implant debris-induced inflammation and osteolysis. This response is largely mediated by immune and bone cells (monocytes/macrophages and osteoclasts, respectively), that in the presence of implant debris (e.g. metal particles and ions), release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. The relative degree to which implant debris can illicit inflammatory response(s) from osteoclasts vs monocytes/macrophages is unknown, i.e. are osteoclasts a viable target for anti-inflammatory therapy for implant debris? We investigated relative monocyte versus osteoclast inflammatory responses in a side-by-side comparison using implant debris from the perspective of both danger signaling (IL-1β) and pathogenic recognition (TNF-α) reactivity (Challenge Agents: Cobalt-alloy, Titanium-alloy, and PMMA particles, 0.9-1.8um-dia ECD and Cobalt, and Nickel-ions 0.01-0.1mM, all with and without LPS priming). Human monocytes/macrophages reacted to implant debris with >100 fold greater production of cytokines compared to osteoclast-like cells. Particulate Co-alloy challenge induced >1000 pg/ml of IL-1β and TNF-α, in monocytes and <50pg/mL IL-1β and TNF-α in osteoclasts. Cobalt ions induced >3000pg/mL IL-1β and TNF-α in monocytes/macrophages and <50pg/mL IL-1β and TNF-α in osteoclasts. The paracrine effect of supernatants from debris-treated monocytes/macrophages was capable of inducing greater osteoclastogenesis (TRAP+, p<0.06) and inflammation than direct debris challenge on osteoclasts. Our results indicate that as monocytes/macrophages differentiate into osteoclasts, they largely lose their innate immune reactivity to implant debris and thus may not be as relevant a therapeutic target as monocytes/macrophages for mitigating debris-induced inflammation. PMID:24198853

  1. Mechanisms of formation of nonlinear optical light guide structures in metal cluster composites produced by ion beam implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkisov, S.S.; Williams, E.K.; Curley, M.; Smith, C.C.; Ila, D.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    1997-11-01

    Ion implantation has been shown to produce a high density of metal colloids in glasses and crystalline materials. The high-precipitate volume fraction and small size of metal nanoclusters formed leads to values for the third-order susceptibility much greater than those for metal doped solids. This has stimulated interest in use of ion implantation to make nonlinear optical materials. On the other side, LiNbO{sub 3} has proved to be a good material for optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation. Light confinement in these waveguides is produced by refractive index step difference between the implanted region and the bulk material. Implantation of LiNbO{sub 3} with MeV metal ions can therefore result into nonlinear optical waveguide structures with great potential in a variety of device applications. The authors describe linear and nonlinear optical properties of a waveguide structure in LiNbO{sub 3}-based composite material produced by silver ion implantation in connection with mechanisms of its formation.

  2. Studies on the surface modification of TiN coatings using MEVVA ion implantation with selected metallic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, L. P.; Purushotham, K. P.; Manory, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in the performance of TiN coatings can be achieved using surface modification techniques such as ion implantation. In the present study, physical vapor deposited (PVD) TiN coatings were implanted with Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and W using the metal evaporation vacuum arc (MEVVA) technique at a constant nominal dose of 4 × 1016 ions cm-2 for all species. The samples were characterized before and after implantation, using Rutherford backscattering (RBS), glancing incident angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. Friction and wear studies were performed under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc CSEM Tribometer at 1 N load and 450 m sliding distance. A reduction in the grain size and surface roughness was observed after implantation with all five species. Little variation was observed in the residual stress values for all implanted TiN coatings, except for W implanted TiN which showed a pronounced increase in compressive residual stress. Mo-implanted samples showed a lower coefficient of friction and higher resistance to breakdown during the initial stages of testing than as-received samples. Significant reduction in wear rate was observed after implanting with Zr and Mo ions compared with unimplanted TiN. The presence of the Ti2N phase was observed with Cr implantation.

  3. One-pot synthesized hierarchical zeolite supported metal nanoparticles for highly efficient biomass conversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Darui; Ma, Bing; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Chen; Wu, Peng

    2015-10-21

    Hierarchically porous zeolite supported metal nanoparticles are successfully prepared through a base-assisted chemoselective interaction between the silicon species on the zeolite crystal surface and metal salts, in which in situ construction of mesopores and high dispersion of metal species are realized simultaneously. PMID:26361087

  4. Are all metal-on-metal hip revision operations contributing to the National Joint Registry implant survival curves?

    PubMed Central

    Sabah, S. A.; Henckel, J.; Koutsouris, S.; Rajani, R.; Hothi, H.; Skinner, J. A.; Hart, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) has extended its scope to report on hospital, surgeon and implant performance. Data linkage of the NJR to the London Implant Retrieval Centre (LIRC) has previously evaluated data quality for hip primary procedures, but did not assess revision records. Methods We analysed metal-on-metal hip revision procedures performed between 2003 and 2013. A total of 69 929 revision procedures from the NJR and 929 revised pairs of components from the LIRC were included. Results We were able to link 716 (77.1%) revision procedures on the NJR to the LIRC. This meant that 213 (22.9%) revision procedures at the LIRC could not be identified on the NJR. We found that 349 (37.6%) explants at the LIRC completed the full linkage process to both NJR primary and revision databases. Data completion was excellent (> 99.9%) for revision procedures reported to the NJR. Discussion This study has shown that only approximately one third of retrieved components at the LIRC, contributed to survival curves on the NJR. We recommend prospective registry-retrieval linkage as a tool to feedback missing and erroneous data to the NJR and improve data quality. Take home message: Prospective Registry – retrieval linkage is a simple tool to evaluate and improve data quality on the NJR. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:33–9. PMID:26733513

  5. Effects of geometrical order on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Matthew David

    This dissertation describes experimental and computational studies of the effects of ordered arrangement on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles. The principal result is that second-harmonic light may be generated and observed from nanoparticle gratings having maximum in-plane symmetry, provided that one looks at non-normal observation angles. These measurements are made possible by a custom-built variable-angle microscope, and enable a variety of studies of the second-order nonlinear response of nanoparticles that were not previously feasible. In addition, the surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles is studied by linear spectroscopy. A comparison of experimental data with computational modeling shows that under normal ambient conditions, Ag nanoparticles tarnish by a sulfidation reaction more readily than bulk silver, and that even a very thin surface layer of corroded material (Ag2S) considerably redshifts and weakens the localized surface plasmon resonance of a nanoparticle.

  6. Modification of graphene chemistry for metal nanoparticle growth: the effect of substrate selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniewski, Anna; Nemanich, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Graphene and metal nanoparticle composites are a promising class of materials with unique electronic, optical, and chemical properties. In this work, graphene is used as a reducing surface to grow metal nanoparticles out of solution-based metal precursors. The nanoparticle formation is found to strongly depend upon the graphene substrate selection. The studied substrates include silicon oxide, silicon, lithium niobate, and copper. Our results indicate that the chemical properties of graphene depend upon this selection. For example, for the same reaction times and concentration, the reduction of gold chloride to gold nanoparticles on graphene/lithium niobate results in 3% nanoparticle coverage compared to 20% coverage on graphene/silicon and 60% on graphene/copper. This work is supported through the National Science Foundation under Grant # DMR-1206935 .

  7. Tailored Composite Polymer-Metal Nanoparticles by Miniemulsion Polymerization and Thiol-ene Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    van Berkel, Kim Y.

    2010-01-01

    A simple and modular synthetic approach, based on miniemulsion polymerization, has been developed for the fabrication of composite polymer-metal nanoparticle materials. The procedure produces well-defined composite structures consisting of gold, silver or MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (∼10 nm in diameter) encapsulated within larger spherical nanoparticles of poly(divinylbenzene) (∼100 nm in diameter). This methodology readily permits the incorporation of multiple metal domains into a single polymeric particle, while still preserving the useful optical and magnetic properties of the metal nanoparticles. The morphology of the composite particles is retained upon increasing the inorganic content, and also upon redispersion in organic solvents. Finally, the ability to tailor the surface chemistry of the composite nanoparticles and incorporate steric stabilizing groups using simple thiol-ene chemistry is demonstrated. PMID:20657708

  8. High-performance heterogeneous catalysis with surface-exposed stable metal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ning; Xu, Yanhong; Jiang, Donglin

    2014-01-01

    Protection of metal nanoparticles from agglomeration is critical for their functions and applications. The conventional method for enhancing their stability is to cover them with passivation layers to prevent direct contact. However, the presence of a protective shell blocks exposure of the metal species to reactants, thereby significantly impeding the nanoparticles' utility as catalysts. Here, we report that metal nanoparticles can be prepared and used in a surface-exposed state that renders them inherently catalytically active. This strategy is realised by spatial confinement and electronic stabilisation with a dual-module mesoporous and microporous three-dimensional π-network in which surface-exposed nanoparticles are crystallised upon in situ reduction. The uncovered palladium nanoparticles serve as heterogeneous catalysts that are exceptionally active in water, catalyse unreactive aryl chlorides for straightforward carbon–carbon bond formation and are stable for repeated use in various types of cross couplings. Therefore, our results open new perspectives in developing practical heterogeneous catalysts. PMID:25427425

  9. Extraordinary Light-Induced Local Angular Momentum near Metallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Alabastri, Alessandro; Yang, Xiao; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Everitt, Henry O; Nordlander, Peter

    2016-04-26

    The intense local field induced near metallic nanostructures provides strong enhancements for surface-enhanced spectroscopies, a major focus of plasmonics research over the past decade. Here we consider that plasmonic nanoparticles can also induce remarkably large electromagnetic field gradients near their surfaces. Sizeable field gradients can excite dipole-forbidden transitions in nearby atoms or molecules and provide unique spectroscopic fingerprinting for chemical and bimolecular sensing. Specifically, we investigate how the local field gradients near metallic nanostructures depend on geometry, polarization, and wavelength. We introduce the concept of the local angular momentum (LAM) vector as a useful figure of merit for the design of nanostructures that provide large field gradients. This quantity, based on integrated fields rather than field gradients, is particularly well-suited for optimization using numerical grid-based full wave electromagnetic simulations. The LAM vector has a more compact structure than the gradient matrix and can be straightforwardly associated with the angular momentum of the electromagnetic field incident on the plasmonic structures. PMID:27045994

  10. Condensation Dynamics on Mimicked Metal Matrix Hydrophobic Nanoparticle-Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, Viraj; Sun, Xiaoda; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    Use of hydrophobic surfaces promotes condensation in the dropwise mode, which is significantly more efficient than the common filmwise mode. However, limited longevity of hydrophobic surface modifiers has prevented their wide spread use in industry. Recently, metal matrix composites (MMCs) having microscale hydrophobic heterogeneities dispersed in hydrophilic metal matrix have been proposed as durable and self-healing alternative to hydrophobic surface coatings interacting with deposited water droplets. While dispersion of hydrophobic microparticles in MMC is likely to lead to surface flooding during condensation, the effect of dispersion of hydrophobic nanoparticles (HNPs) with size comparable to water nuclei critical radii and spacing is not obvious. To this end, we fabricated highly ordered arrays of Teflon nanospheres on silicon substrates that mimic the top surface of the MMCs with dispersed HNPs. We used light and electron microscopy to observe breath figures resulting from condensation on these surfaces at varied degrees of subcooling. Here, we discuss the relation between the droplet size distribution, Teflon nanosphere diameter and spacing, and condensation mode. KR acknowledges startup funding from ASU.

  11. Carbon nanomaterials combined with metal nanoparticles for theranostic applications

    PubMed Central

    Modugno, Gloria; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Among targeted delivery systems, platforms with nanosize dimensions, such as carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) and metal nanoparticles (NPs), have shown great potential in biomedical applications. They have received considerable interest in recent years, especially with respect to their potential utilization in the field of cancer diagnosis and therapy. The many functions of nanomaterials provide opportunities to use them as multimodal agents for theranostics, a combination of therapy and diagnosis. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are some of the most widely used CNMs because of their unique structural and physicochemical properties. Their high specific surface area allows for efficient drug loading and the possibility of functionalization with various bioactive molecules. In addition, CNMs are ideal platforms for the attachment of NPs. In the biomedical field, NPs have also shown tremendous potential for use in drug delivery, non-invasive tumour imaging and early detection due to their optical and magnetic properties. NP/CNM hybrids not only combine the unique properties of the NPs and CNMs but they also exhibit new properties arising from interactions between the two entities. In this review, the preparation of CNMs conjugated to different types of metal NPs and their applications in diagnosis, imaging, therapy and theranostics are presented. PMID:25323135

  12. Metal Nanoparticle/Block Copolymer Composite Assembly and Disassembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Zihui; Sai, Hiroaki; Warren, Scott C; Kamperman, Marleen; Arora, Hitesh; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Ligand-stabilized platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) were self-assembled with poly(isoprene-block-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PI-b-PDMAEMA) block copolymers to generate organic-inorganic hybrid materials. High loadings of NPs in hybrids were achieved through usage of N,N-di-(2-(allyloxy)ethyl)-N-3-mercaptopropyl-N-3-methylammonium chloride as the ligand, which provided high solubility of NPs in various solvents as well as high affinity to PDMAEMA. From NP synthesis, existence of sub-1 nm Pt NPs was confirmed by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. Estimations of the Pt NP ligand head group density based on HAADF-STEM images and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data yielded results comparable to what has been found for alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on flat Pt {111} surfaces. Changing the volume fraction of Pt NPs in block copolymer-NP composites yielded hybrids with spherical micellar, wormlike micellar, lamellar and inverse hexagonal morphologies. Disassembly of hybrids with spherical, wormlike micellar, and lamellar morphologies generated isolated metal-NP based nano-spheres, cylinders and sheets, respectively. Results suggest the existence of powerful design criteria for the formation of metal-based nanostructures from designer blocked macromolecules. PMID:21103025

  13. Self- versus directed- assembly of nanoparticles via pulsed laser induced dewetting of patterned metal films

    SciTech Connect

    Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Kondic, Lou; Wu, Yeuyeng; Rack, Philip D; Diez, Javier A

    2011-01-01

    A nanoscale, synthetic perturbation was all that was required to nudge a natural, self-assembly process toward significantly higher order. Metallic thin film strips were transformed into nanoparticle arrays by nanosecond, liquid-phase dewetting. Arrays formed according to an evolving Rayleigh-Plateau instability, yet nanoparticle diameter and pitch were poorly controlled. However, by patterning a nanoscale sinusoid onto the original strip edge, a precise nanoparticle diameter and pitch emerged superseding the naturally evolving Rayleigh-Plateau instability.

  14. Aqueous phase synthesis of copper nanoparticles: a link between heavy metal resistance and nanoparticle synthesis ability in bacterial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Field, Matthew R.; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Smooker, Peter M.; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Bansal, Vipul

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate aqueous phase biosynthesis of phase-pure metallic copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using a silver resistant bacterium Morganella morganii. This is particularly important considering that there has been no report that demonstrates biosynthesis and stabilization of pure copper nanoparticles in the aqueous phase. Electrochemical analysis of bacterial cells exposed to Cu2+ ions provides new insights into the mechanistic aspect of Cu2+ ion reduction within the bacterial cell and indicates a strong link between the silver and copper resistance machinery of bacteria in the context of metal ion reduction. The outcomes of this study take us a step closer towards designing rational strategies for biosynthesis of different metal nanoparticles using microorganisms.We demonstrate aqueous phase biosynthesis of phase-pure metallic copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using a silver resistant bacterium Morganella morganii. This is particularly important considering that there has been no report that demonstrates biosynthesis and stabilization of pure copper nanoparticles in the aqueous phase. Electrochemical analysis of bacterial cells exposed to Cu2+ ions provides new insights into the mechanistic aspect of Cu2+ ion reduction within the bacterial cell and indicates a strong link between the silver and copper resistance machinery of bacteria in the context of metal ion reduction. The outcomes of this study take us a step closer towards designing rational strategies for biosynthesis of different metal nanoparticles using microorganisms. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sequence similarity analysis of proteins involved in the silver and copper resistance machinery of bacteria. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32887a

  15. Nonaqueous synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles: Short review and doped titanium dioxide as case study for the preparation of transition metal-doped oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Djerdj, Igor Arcon, Denis; Jaglicic, Zvonko; Niederberger, Markus

    2008-07-15

    The liquid-phase synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles in organic solvents under exclusion of water is nowadays a well-established alternative to aqueous sol-gel chemistry. In this article, we highlight some of the advantages of these routes based on selected examples. The first part reviews some recent developments in the synthesis of ternary metal oxide nanoparticles by surfactant-free nonaqueous sol-gel routes, followed by the discussion of the morphology-controlled synthesis of lanthanum hydroxide nanoparticles, and the presentation of structural peculiarities of manganese oxide nanoparticles with an ordered Mn vacancy superstructure. These examples show that nonaqueous systems, on the one hand, allow the preparation of compositionally complex oxides, and, on the other hand, make use of the organic components (initially present or formed in situ) in the reaction mixture to tailor the morphology. Furthermore, obviously even the crystal structure can differ from the corresponding bulk material like in the case of MnO nanoparticles. In the second part of the paper we present original results regarding the synthesis of dilute magnetic semiconductor TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles doped with cobalt and iron. The structural characterization as well as the magnetic properties with special attention to the doping efficiency is discussed. - Graphical abstract: In the first part of this article, nonaqueous sol-gel routes to ternary metal oxide nanoparticles are briefly reviewed, followed by the discussion of the morphology-controlled synthesis of lanthanum hydroxide nanoparticles, and the appearance of an unprecedented superstructure in MnO nanoparticles. In the second part, doping experiments of TiO{sub 2} with Fe and Co are presented, along with their characterization including magnetic measurements.

  16. In vivo evaluation of an antibacterial coating containing halogenated furanone compound-loaded poly(l-lactic acid) nanoparticles on microarc-oxidized titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yicheng; Gao, Bo; Liu, Xianghui; Zhao, Xianghui; Sun, Weige; Ren, Huifang; Wu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    To prevent peri-implant infection, a new antibacterial coating containing a halogenated furanone compound, (Z-)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-2(5H)-furanone-loaded poly(l-lactic acid) nanoparticles, has been fabricated. The current study was designed to evaluate the preventive effect of the antibacterial coating under a simulated environment of peri-implant infection in vivo. Microarc-oxidized titanium implants treated with minocycline hydrochloride ointment were used as positive control group, and microarc-oxidized titanium implants without any treatment were used as blank control group. Three kinds of implants were implanted in dogs' mandibles, and the peri-implant infection was simulated by silk ligation and feeding high sugar diet. After 2-month implantation, the results showed that no significant differences were detected between the experimental and positive control groups (P>0.05), but the data of clinical measurements of the blank control group were significantly higher than those of the other two groups (P<0.05), and the bone-implant contact rate and ultimate interfacial strength were significantly lower than those of the other two groups (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscope observation and histological examination showed that more new bone was formed on the surface of the experimental and positive control groups. It can be concluded that the antibacterial coating fabricated on implants has remarkable preventive effect on peri-implant infection at the early stage. PMID:27099494

  17. In vivo evaluation of an antibacterial coating containing halogenated furanone compound-loaded poly(l-lactic acid) nanoparticles on microarc-oxidized titanium implants

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yicheng; Gao, Bo; Liu, Xianghui; Zhao, Xianghui; Sun, Weige; Ren, Huifang; Wu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    To prevent peri-implant infection, a new antibacterial coating containing a halogenated furanone compound, (Z-)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-2(5H)-furanone-loaded poly(l-lactic acid) nanoparticles, has been fabricated. The current study was designed to evaluate the preventive effect of the antibacterial coating under a simulated environment of peri-implant infection in vivo. Microarc-oxidized titanium implants treated with minocycline hydrochloride ointment were used as positive control group, and microarc-oxidized titanium implants without any treatment were used as blank control group. Three kinds of implants were implanted in dogs’ mandibles, and the peri-implant infection was simulated by silk ligation and feeding high sugar diet. After 2-month implantation, the results showed that no significant differences were detected between the experimental and positive control groups (P>0.05), but the data of clinical measurements of the blank control group were significantly higher than those of the other two groups (P<0.05), and the bone–implant contact rate and ultimate interfacial strength were significantly lower than those of the other two groups (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscope observation and histological examination showed that more new bone was formed on the surface of the experimental and positive control groups. It can be concluded that the antibacterial coating fabricated on implants has remarkable preventive effect on peri-implant infection at the early stage. PMID:27099494

  18. Effects of helium implantation on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ni₇₃P₂₇ metallic glass nanostructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liontas, Rachel; Gu, X. Wendy; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan; Greer, Julia R.

    2014-09-10

    We report fabrication and nanomechanical tension experiments on as-fabricated and helium-implanted ~130 nm diameter Ni₇₃P₂₇ metallic glass nano-cylinders. The nano-cylinders were fabricated by a templated electroplating process and implanted with He⁺ at energies of 50, 100, 150, and 200 keV to create a uniform helium concentration of ~3 at. % throughout the nano-cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and through-focus analysis reveal that the specimens contained ~2 nm helium bubbles distributed uniformly throughout the nano-cylinder volume. In-situ tensile experiments indicate that helium-implanted specimens exhibit enhanced ductility as evidenced by a 2-fold increase in plastic strain over as-fabricated specimens, with nomore » sacrifice in yield and ultimate tensile strengths. This improvement in mechanical properties suggests that metallic glasses may actually exhibit a favorable response to high levels of helium implantation.« less

  19. Effects of helium implantation on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ni₇₃P₂₇ metallic glass nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Liontas, Rachel; Gu, X. Wendy; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan; Greer, Julia R.

    2014-09-10

    We report fabrication and nanomechanical tension experiments on as-fabricated and helium-implanted ~130 nm diameter Ni₇₃P₂₇ metallic glass nano-cylinders. The nano-cylinders were fabricated by a templated electroplating process and implanted with He⁺ at energies of 50, 100, 150, and 200 keV to create a uniform helium concentration of ~3 at. % throughout the nano-cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and through-focus analysis reveal that the specimens contained ~2 nm helium bubbles distributed uniformly throughout the nano-cylinder volume. In-situ tensile experiments indicate that helium-implanted specimens exhibit enhanced ductility as evidenced by a 2-fold increase in plastic strain over as-fabricated specimens, with no sacrifice in yield and ultimate tensile strengths. This improvement in mechanical properties suggests that metallic glasses may actually exhibit a favorable response to high levels of helium implantation.

  20. Effects of helium implantation on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ni73P27 metallic glass nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Liontas, Rachel; Gu, X Wendy; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan; Greer, Julia R

    2014-09-10

    We report fabrication and nanomechanical tension experiments on as-fabricated and helium-implanted ∼130 nm diameter Ni73P27 metallic glass nanocylinders. The nanocylinders were fabricated by a templated electroplating process and implanted with He(+) at energies of 50, 100, 150, and 200 keV to create a uniform helium concentration of ∼3 atom % throughout the nanocylinders. Transmission electron microscopy imaging and through-focus analysis reveal that the specimens contained ∼2 nm helium bubbles distributed uniformly throughout the nanocylinder volume. In situ tensile experiments indicate that helium-implanted specimens exhibit enhanced ductility as evidenced by a 2-fold increase in plastic strain over as-fabricated specimens with no sacrifice in yield and ultimate tensile strengths. This improvement in mechanical properties suggests that metallic glasses may actually exhibit a favorable response to high levels of helium implantation. PMID:25084487

  1. Surface modification of traditional and bioresorbable metallic implant materials for improved biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Emily K.

    Due to their strength, elasticity, and durability, a variety of metal alloys are commonly used in medical implants. Traditionally, corrosion-resistant metals have been preferred. These permanent materials can cause negative systemic and local tissue effects in the long-term. Permanent stenting can lead to late-stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. Metallic pins and screws for fracture fixation can corrode and fail, cause loss of bone mass, and contribute to inflammation and pain at the implant site, requiring reintervention. Corrodible metallic implants have the potential to prevent many of these complications by providing transient support to the affected tissue, dissolving at a rate congruent with the healing of the tissue. Alloys of iron and manganese (FeMn) exhibit similar fatigue strength, toughness, and elasticity compared with 316L stainless steel, making them very attractive candidates for bioresorbable stents and temporary fracture fixation devices. Much attention in recent years has been given to creating alloys with ideal mechanical properties for various applications. Little work has been done on determining the blood compatibility of these materials or on examining how their surfaces can be improved to improve cell adhesion, however. We examined thethrombogenic response of blood exposed to various resorbable ferrous stent materials through contact with porcine blood. The resorbable materials induced comparable or lower levels of several coagulation factors compared with 316L stainless steel. Little platelet adhesion was observed on any of the tested materials. Endothelialization is an important process after the implantation of a vascular stent, as it prevents damage to the vessel wall that can accelerate neointimal hyperplasia. Micromotion can lead to the formation of fibrous tissue surrounding an orthopedic implant, loosening, and ultimately failure of the implant. Nanoscale features were created on the surfaces of noble metal coatings, silicon

  2. Synthesis of well dispersed polymer grafted metal-organic framework nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xie, K; Fu, Q; He, Y; Kim, J; Goh, S J; Nam, E; Qiao, G G; Webley, P A

    2015-11-01

    Novel polymer grafted metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles were synthesized. The formed core/shell nanoparticles exhibit outstanding water dispersity and pH sensitivity, and show their catalytic effect for the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol (NP) to 4-aminophenol (AP) when loaded with Pd(0) catalyst. PMID:26355917

  3. Metal nanoparticle deposited inorganic nanostructure hybrids, uses thereof and processes for their preparation

    DOEpatents

    Tenne, Reshef; Tsverin, Yulia; Burghaus, Uwe; Komarneni, Mallikharjuna Rao

    2016-01-26

    This invention relates to a hybrid component comprising at least one nanoparticle of inorganic layered compound (in the form of fullerene-like structure or nanotube), and at least one metal nanoparticle, uses thereof as a catalyst, (e.g. photocatalysis) and processes for its preparation.

  4. Self-healing metal wire using electric field trapping of metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshi, Tomoya; Iwase, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    We propose a self-healing metal wire using electric field trapping of gold nanoparticles by a dielectrophoresis force. A cracked gold wire can retrieve its conductivity through the self-healing function. In this paper, we examine the healing voltage causing the electric field trapping and determine the healing time, which is relevant to future device applications. First, the forces acting on a nanoparticle are analyzed and a theoretical healing voltage curve is calculated. Then, gold wires with 200- to 1,600-nm-wide cracks are fabricated on glass substrate and the self-healing function is verified through healing experiments. As a result, gold wires with cracks of up to 1,200 nm in width are successfully healed by applying less than ∼2.5 V (on average), and the experimental results correspond almost exactly with the calculated healing voltage curve. The average healing times are 10 to 285 s for 200- to 1,200-nm-wide cracks. Through scanning electron microscope analysis after the healing experiments, we confirm that the cracks are healed by assembled nanoparticles.

  5. 3-dimensional electrode patterning within a microfluidic channel using metal ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Woo; Rosset, Samuel; Niklaus, Muhamed; Adleman, James R; Shea, Herbert; Psaltis, Demetri

    2010-03-21

    The application of electrical fields within a microfluidic channel enables many forms of manipulation necessary for lab-on-a-chip devices. Patterning electrodes inside the microfluidic channel generally requires multi-step optical lithography. Here, we utilize an ion-implantation process to pattern 3D electrodes within a fluidic channel made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Electrode structuring within the channel is achieved by ion implantation at a 40 degrees angle with a metal shadow mask. The advantages of three-dimensional structuring of electrodes within a fluidic channel over traditional planar electrode designs are discussed. Two possible applications are presented: asymmetric particles can be aligned in any of the three axial dimensions with electro-orientation; colloidal focusing and concentration within a fluidic channel can be achieved through dielectrophoresis. Demonstrations are shown with E. coli, a rod shaped bacteria, and indicate the potential that ion-implanted microfluidic channels have for manipulations in the context of lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:20221568

  6. A polymer-metal two step sealing concept for hermetic neural implant packages.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Fabian; Kiele, Patrick; Ordonez, Juan S; Stieglitz, Thomas; Schuettler, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a technique for double-sealed ceramic packages for the long-term protection of implanted electronics against body fluids. A sequential sealing procedure consisting of a first step, during which the package is sealed with epoxy, protecting the implant electronics from aggressive flux fumes. These result from the application of the actual moisture barrier which is a metal seal applied in a second step by soft soldering. Epoxy sealing is carried out in helium atmosphere for later fine leak testing. The solder seal is applied on the laboratory bench. After the first sealing step, a satisfactory barrier for moisture is already achieved with values for helium leakage of usually LHe = 6·10(-8) mbar 1 s(-1). After solder sealing, a very low leakage rate of LHe ≤ 1·10(-12) mbar 1 s(-1) was found, which was the lower detection limit of the measurement setup, suggesting excellent hermeticity and hence moisture barrier. Presuming an implant package volume of V ≥ 0.5 cm(3), the time to reach a critical humidity of p = 5000 ppm H2O inside the package will be longer than any anticipated average life of human patients. PMID:25570864

  7. A Bioanalytical Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students: Biosensors Based on Metal Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niagi, John; Warner, John; Andreesco, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The study describes the development of new biosensors based on metal nanoparticles because of its high surface area and large binding ability. The adopted procedure is extremely simple and versatile and can be used in various applications of electrochemistry.

  8. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles: biodegradable polymers and enzymes in stabilization and surface functionalization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current breakthroughs in green nanotechnology are capable to transform many of the existing processes and products that enhance environmental quality, reduce pollution, and conserve natural and non-renewable resources. Noteworthy, successful use of metal nanoparticles and 10 nano...

  9. The Raman spectrum of graphene oxide decorated with different metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Irene Ling; Chen, Si Fan; Zhai, Jian Pang

    2015-10-01

    It is interesting to investigate the nature of interactions between metal nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO), which is the fundamental of the potential applications of the GO. Resonant Raman technique provides a useful way to explore the influence of metal nanoparticles on the electronic structure of GO. For this purpose, GO has been decorated by nanoparticles of metals such as silver (Ag), gold (Au) and palladium (Pd), and then measured using micro Raman spectroscopy. Several different laser lines are used in the experiment. There is a red shift in the D-band as well as the G-band in addition to the changes in the Raman bandwidth. Comparing the changes in the Raman spectra of the GO caused by the different metal nanoparticles, we find that the effect of Ag on GO is large. On the other hand, Au nanoparticles cause small changes. Such difference is related to the intrinsic properties of the metal nanoparticles which have different ionization energies. When the laser wavelength increases, the ratio between the intensities of the D-band and G-band (ID/IG) increases. And the Raman enhancement effects of Pd, Ag, and Au nanoparticles are different since they have different surface plasmon resonance frequencies.

  10. Biotests and Biosensors for Ecotoxicology of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: A Minireview

    PubMed Central

    Kahru, Anne; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Blinova, Irina; Ivask, Angela; Kasemets, Kaja

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnologies have become a significant priority worldwide. Several manufactured nanoparticles - particles with one dimension less than 100 nm - are increasingly used in consumer products. At nanosize range, the properties of materials differ substantially from bulk materials of the same composition, mostly due to the increased specific surface area and reactivity, which may lead to increased bioavailability and toxicity. Thus, for the assessment of sustainability of nanotechnologies, hazards of manufactured nanoparticles have to be studied. Despite all the above mentioned, the data on the potential environmental effects of nanoparticles are rare. This mini-review is summarizing the emerging information on different aspects of ecotoxicological hazard of metal oxide nanoparticles, focusing on TiO2, ZnO and CuO. Various biotests that have been successfully used for evaluation of ecotoxic properties of pollutants to invertebrates, algae and bacteria and now increasingly applied for evaluation of hazard of nanoparticles at different levels of the aquatic food-web are discussed. Knowing the benefits and potential drawbacks of these systems, a suite of tests for evaluation of environmental hazard of nanoparticles is proposed. Special attention is paid to the influence of particle solubility and to recombinant metal-sensing bacteria as powerful tools for quantification of metal bioavailability. Using recombinant metal-specific bacterial biosensors and multitrophic ecotoxicity assays in tandem will create new scientific knowledge on the respective role of ionic species and of particles in toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles.

  11. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide on post-transition metal and metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, James L.

    The electroreduction of carbon dioxide to liquid products is an important component in the utilization of CO2 and in the high-density storage of intermittent renewable energy in the form of chemical bonds. Materials based on indium and tin, which yield predominantly formic acid, have been investigated in order to gain a greater understanding of the electrochemically active species and the mechanism of CO2 reduction on these heavy post-transition metals, since prior studies on the bulk metals did not provide thermodynamically sensible reaction pathways. Nanoparticles of the oxides and hydroxides of tin and indium have been prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and various electrochemical methods in order to obtain structural information and analyze the role of various surface species on the CO2 reduction pathway. On both indium and tin, metastable surface-bound hydroxides bound CO2 and formed metal carbonates, which can then be reduced electrochemically. The relevant oxidation state of tin was suggested to be SnII rather than SnIV, necessitating a pre reduction to generate the CO2-binding species. Metallic indium nanoparticles partially oxidized in air and became highly efficient CO2 reduction electrocatalysts. Unit Faradaic efficiencies for formate, much higher than on bulk indium, were achieved with only 300 mV of overpotential on these particles, which possessed an oxyhydroxide shell surrounding a conductive metallic core. Alloys and mixed-metal oxide and hydroxide particles of tin and indium have also been studied for their carbon dioxide electrocatalytic capabilities, especially in comparison to the pure metal species. Additionally, a solar-driven indium-based CO2 electrolyzer was developed to investigate the overall efficiency for intermittent energy storage. The three flow cells were powered by a commercial photovoltaic array and had a maximum conversion efficiency of incident

  12. A model for the latent heat of melting in free standing metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jeong-Heon; Deinert, Mark R.

    2014-04-28

    Nanoparticles of many metals are known to exhibit scale dependent latent heats of melting. Analytical models for this phenomenon have so far failed to completely capture the observed phenomena. Here we present a thermodynamic analysis for the melting of metal nanoparticles in terms of their internal energy and a scale dependent surface tension proposed by Tolman. The resulting model predicts the scale dependence of the latent heat of melting and is confirmed using published data for tin and aluminum.

  13. An expeditious synthesis of early transition metal carbide nanoparticles on graphitic carbons.

    PubMed

    Ressnig, Debora; Moldovan, Simona; Ersen, Ovidiu; Beaunier, Patricia; Portehault, David; Sanchez, Clément; Carenco, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    An expeditious synthesis of metal carbide nanoparticles onto various carbon supports is demonstrated. The procedure is versatile and readily yields TiC, VC, Mo2C and W2C nanoparticles on different types of carbons. The reaction is initiated at room temperature and proceeds within seconds. This novel synthetic route paves the way for a large variety of metal carbide-carbon nanocomposites that may be implemented in emerging nanotechnology fields. PMID:27383864

  14. Formation of a periodic diffractive structure based on poly(methyl methacrylate) with ion-implanted silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galyautdinov, M. F.; Nuzhdin, V. I.; Fattakhov, Ya. V.; Farrakhov, B. F.; Valeev, V. F.; Osin, Yu. N.; Stepanov, A. L.

    2016-02-01

    We propose to form optical diffractive elements on the surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by implanting the polymer with silver ions ( E = 30 keV; D = 5.0 × 1014 to 1.5 × 1017 ion/cm2; I = 2 μA/cm2) through a nickel grid (mask). Ion implantation leads to the nucleation and growth of silver nanoparticles in unmasked regions of the polymer. The formation of periodic surface microstructures during local sputtering of the polymer by incident ions was monitored using an optical microscope. The diffraction efficiency of obtained gratings is demonstrated under conditions of their probing with semiconductor laser radiation in the visible spectral range.

  15. Accelerated Recovery of Endothelium Function after Stent Implantation with the Use of a Novel Systemic Nanoparticle Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qi; Ye, Fang; Yang, Xiangjun; Gu, Qingqing; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Jianhua; Shen, Li; Gong, Feirong

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin was reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities and significantly prevent smooth muscle cells migration. In the present study, a novel kind of curcumin loaded nanoparticles (Cur-NP) has been prepared and characterized with the aim of inhibiting inflammation formation and accelerating the healing process of the stented arteries. Cur-NP was administrated intravenously after stent implantation twice a week and detailed tissue responses were evaluated. The results demonstrated that intravenous administration of Cur-NP after stent implantation accelerated endothelial cells restoration and endothelium function recovery and may potentially be an effective therapeutic alternative to reduce adverse events for currently available drug eluting stents. PMID:26167481

  16. Countering drug resistance, infectious diseases, and sepsis using metal and metal oxides nanoparticles: Current status.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2016-10-01

    One fourth of the global mortalities is still caused by microbial infections largely due to the development of resistance against conventional antibiotics among pathogens, the resurgence of old infectious diseases and the emergence of hundreds of new infectious diseases. The lack of funds and resources for the discovery of new antibiotics necessitates the search for economic and effective alternative antimicrobial agents. Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles including silver and zinc oxide exhibit remarkable antimicrobial activities against pathogens and hence are one of the most propitious alternative antimicrobial agents. These engineered nanomaterials are approved by regulatory agencies such as USFDA and Korea's FITI, for use as antimicrobial agents, supplementary antimicrobials, food packaging, skin care products, oral hygiene, and for fortifying devices prone to microbial infections. Nevertheless, detailed studies, on molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying their antimicrobial activity are missing. To take the full advantage of this emerging technology selective antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles against pathogens should be studied. Optimization of these nanomaterials through functionalization to increase their efficacy and biocompatibility is also required. Urgent in vivo studies on the toxicity of nanomaterials at realistic doses are also needed before their clinical translation. PMID:27259161

  17. Adherent diamond like carbon coatings on metals via plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.; Munson, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Various techniques are currently used to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on various materials. Many of these techniques use metallic interlayers, such as Ti or Si, to improve the adhesion of a DLC coating to a ferrous substrate. An alternative processing route would be to use plasma source ion implantation (PSII) to create a carbon composition gradient in the surface of the ferrous material to serve as the interface for a DLC coating. The need for interlayer deposition is eliminated by using a such a graded interfaces PSII approach has been used to form adherent DLC coatings on magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, chromium, brass, nickel, and tungsten. A PSII process tailored to create a graded interface allows deposition of adherent DLC coatings even on metals that exhibit a positive heat of formation with carbon, such as magnesium, iron, brass and nickel.

  18. Feasibility of a nickel-metal hydride battery for totally implantable artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, E; Yoshida, T; Fujiyoshi, M; Shimanaka, M; Takeuchi, A; Mitamura, Y; Mikami, T

    1996-01-01

    An implantable rechargeable battery is one of the key technologies for totally implantable artificial hearts. The nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery is promising for its high energy density of 1.5-2.0 times that of a nickel-cadmium battery. In this study, the effects of pulsatile discharge loads on the operating time and cycle life of Ni-MH batteries at 39 degrees C were studied. Two battery cells (TH-3M, 1,200 mAh, phi 14.5 x 49 mm; Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan) in series were charge/discharge cycled at 39 degrees C using a charge current of 1CA (1,200 mA) and then were fully discharged to 1.0 V/cell under either pulsatile discharge loads, which mimicked a systole (1 A for 0.3 sec) and a diastole (0.4 A for 0.3 sec), or a non pulsatile discharge load equivalent to the average of the pulsatile loads (0.7 A). Each cycle life test was interrupted on the 482nd cycle under pulsatile load, and on the 423rd cycle under non pulsatile load, because of malfunction of each battery charger. The tests showed that the pulsatile discharge cells had significantly (p < 0.001) less operating time (74.0 +/- 7.15 min) throughout the test period (up to 482 days) compared to the cells under equivalent non pulsatile discharge loads (93.7 +/- 7.74 min). The pulsatile-discharged Ni-MH cells provide significantly less operating time than the constantly discharged cells; the Ni-MH battery has an operating time of over 78 min and a cycle life of almost 500 cycles at 39 degrees C. In conclusion, the Ni-MH battery is feasible as an implantable back-up battery for a totally implantable artificial heart system. PMID:8944901

  19. The Effects of Metallic Implants on Electroporation Therapies: Feasibility of Irreversible Electroporation for Brachytherapy Salvage

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, Robert E.; Smith, Ryan L.; Kavnoudias, Helen; Rosenfeldt, Franklin Ou, Ruchong; Mclean, Catriona A.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Thomson, Kenneth R.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Electroporation-based therapies deliver brief electric pulses into a targeted volume to destabilize cellular membranes. Nonthermal irreversible electroporation (IRE) provides focal ablation with effects dependent on the electric field distribution, which changes in heterogeneous environments. It should be determined if highly conductive metallic implants in targeted regions, such as radiotherapy brachytherapy seeds in prostate tissue, will alter treatment outcomes. Theoretical and experimental models determine the impact of prostate brachytherapy seeds on IRE treatments. Materials and Methods: This study delivered IRE pulses in nonanimal, as well as in ex vivo and in vivo tissue, with and in the absence of expired radiotherapy seeds. Electrical current was measured and lesion dimensions were examined macroscopically and with magnetic resonance imaging. Finite-element treatment simulations predicted the effects of brachytherapy seeds in the targeted region on electrical current, electric field, and temperature distributions. Results: There was no significant difference in electrical behavior in tissue containing a grid of expired radiotherapy seeds relative to those without seeds for nonanimal, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments (all p > 0.1). Numerical simulations predict no significant alteration of electric field or thermal effects (all p > 0.1). Histology showed cellular necrosis in the region near the electrodes and seeds within the ablation region; however, there were no seeds beyond the ablation margins. Conclusion: This study suggests that electroporation therapies can be implemented in regions containing small metallic implants without significant changes to electrical and thermal effects relative to use in tissue without the implants. This supports the ability to use IRE as a salvage therapy option for brachytherapy.

  20. Star-like copolymer stabilized noble-metal nanoparticle powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peng-Fei; Yan, Yun-Hui; Mangadlao, Joey Dacula; Rong, Li-Han; Advincula, Rigoberto

    2016-03-01

    The amphiphilic star-like copolymer polyethylenimine-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEI-b-PCL) was utilized to transfer the pre-synthesized citrate-capped noble metal nanoparticles (NMNPs) from an aqueous layer to an organic layer without any additional reagents. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to study the assembly of the polymers coated on the surface of the citrate-capped NMNPs. After removing the organic solvent, the polymer-coated NMNPs in powder form (PCP-NMNPs) were obtained. The excellent solubility of the PEI-b-PCL allows the PCP-NMNPs to be easily dispersed in most of the organic solvents without any significant aggregation. Moreover, the good thermal stability and long-term stability make PCP-NMNPs an excellent NMNP-containing hybrid system for different specific applications, such as surface coating, catalysis and thermoplastic processing of nanocomposite materials.The amphiphilic star-like copolymer polyethylenimine-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEI-b-PCL) was utilized to transfer the pre-synthesized citrate-capped noble metal nanoparticles (NMNPs) from an aqueous layer to an organic layer without any additional reagents. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to study the assembly of the polymers coated on the surface of the citrate-capped NMNPs. After removing the organic solvent, the polymer-coated NMNPs in powder form (PCP-NMNPs) were obtained. The excellent solubility of the PEI-b-PCL allows the PCP-NMNPs to be easily dispersed in most of the organic solvents without any significant aggregation. Moreover, the good thermal stability and long-term stability make PCP-NMNPs an excellent NMNP-containing hybrid system for different specific applications, such as surface coating, catalysis and thermoplastic processing of nanocomposite materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis scheme and the 1H NMR spectrum of PEI

  1. Similar Success Rates with Bivalirudin and Unfractionated Heparin in Bare-Metal Stent Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hallak, Omar; Shams, S. Ali; Broce, Mike; Lavigne, P. Scott; Lucas, B. Daniel; Elhabyan, Abdul-Karim; Reyes, Bernardo J.

    2007-09-15

    Background. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is the traditional agent utilized during percutaneous peripheral interventions (PPIs) despite its well-known limitations. Bivalirudin, a thrombin-specific anticoagulant, overcomes many of the limitations of UFH and has consistently demonstrated comparable efficacy with significantly fewer bleeding complications. The purpose of this study was to compare procedural success in patients undergoing bare-metal stent implantation for atherosclerotic blockage of the renal, iliac, and femoral arteries and receiving either bivalirudin (0.75 mg/kg bolus/1.75 mg/kg/hr infusion) or UFH (50-70 U/kg/hr bolus) as the primary anticoagulant. Methods. This study was an open-label, nonrandomized retrospective registry with the primary endpoint of procedural success. Secondary endpoints included incidence of: death, myocardial infarction (MI), urgent revascularization, amputation, and major and minor bleeding. Results. One hundred and five consecutive patients were enrolled (bivalirudin = 53; heparin = 52). Baseline demographics were comparable between groups. Patients were pretreated with clopidogrel (approx. 71%) and aspirin (approx. 79%). Procedural success was achieved in 97% and 96% of patients in the bivalirudin- and heparin-treated groups, respectively. Event rates were low and similar between groups. Conclusion. Bivalirudin maintained an equal rate of procedural success in this cohort without sacrificing patient safety. Results of this study add to the growing body of evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin as a possible substitute for UFH in anticoagulation during peripheral vascular bare-metal stent implantation.

  2. Mandibular remodeling measured on cephalograms. 1. Osseous changes relative to superimposition on metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Ben-Bassat, Y; Korn, E L; Bravo, L A; Curry, S

    1992-08-01

    We report the results of a study aimed at quantifying remodeling of mandibular surfaces in a sample of growing children who represent those usually treated by orthodontists in the mixed and early adult dentition. The sample, 31 patients with metallic implants of the Björk-type, was monitored at annual intervals between 8 1/2 and 15 1/2 years of age. (Maxillary remodeling changes for the sample have been reported earlier.) The present article reports findings concerning changes at condyle, gonion, menton, pogonion, and point B as identified on lateral cephalograms. Data are reported in the Frankfort plane frame of reference with the cephalograms from different time points superimposed on the metallic implants. Mean displacement at condyle was larger than that at any other landmark and was similar in magnitude and direction to the observations of Björk when the difference in orientation of the vertical axis in the two studies is taken into account. The mean displacement of gonion was in an upward and backward direction at an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the Frankfort plane. Mean displacements at menton and pogonion were in a downward and backward direction but were very small. Mean displacement at point B was somewhat greater than that of menton and gonion, oriented in an upward and backward direction. Individual variation for most of the parameters measured was sufficiently large to warrant the inference that caution should be used when mean values are applied to the analysis of individual cases. PMID:1636630

  3. Assessment of the genetic risks of a metallic alloy used in medical implants

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cristiano C.; Moreira, Leonardo M.; Santos, Vanessa J.S.V.; Ramos, Alfeu S.; Lyon, Juliana P.; Soares, Cristina P.; Santos, Fabio V.

    2011-01-01

    The use of artificial implants provides a palliative or permanent solution for individuals who have lost some bodily function through disease, an accident or natural wear. This functional loss can be compensated for by the use of medical devices produced from special biomaterials. Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) is a well-established primary metallic biomaterial for orthopedic implants, but the toxicity of the chemical components of this alloy has become an issue of concern. In this work, we used the MTT assay and micronucleus assay to examine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of an extract obtained from this alloy. The MTT assay indicated that the mitochondrial activity and cell viability of CHO-K1 cells were unaffected by exposure to the extract. However, the micronucleus assay revealed DNA damage and an increase in micronucleus frequency at all of the concentrations tested. These results show that ions released from Ti-6Al-4V alloy can cause DNA and nuclear damage and reinforce the importance of assessing the safety of metallic medical devices constructed from biomaterials. PMID:21637553

  4. Electrostatic method for the production of polymer nanofibers blended with metal-oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworek, A.; Krupa, A.; Lackowski, M.; Sobczyk, A. T.; Czech, T.; Ramakrishna, S.; Sundarrajan, S.; Pliszka, D.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents investigations of a method of the production of non-woven polymer fabrics with incorporated metal oxide nanoparticles based on electrospinning and electrospraying. Two main configurations of electrospraying/electrospinning systems have been tested: two-step process of electrospinning of polymer solution followed by electrospraying of nanoparticle suspension, and simultaneous electrospinning of polymer solution and electrospraying of nanoparticle suspension. By this method TiO2, MgO, or Al2O3 nanoparticles of the size from 20 to 100 nm were deposited onto electrospun PVC nanofibers.

  5. Production of metal nanoparticles from aqueous solutions in the arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, A. M.; Yavtushenko, I. O.; Bodnarskii, D. S.; Ufarkina, N. V.

    2013-09-01

    Three ways of nanoparticle production in the plasma of an arc initiated over aqueous salt solutions of metals (Ni, Cu) are discussed. It is found that the magnetic agglomeration of nanoparticles plays a key role in the ferromagnet. Jointed nanostructures measuring 50 × 50 × 200 nm, which are cemented by nickel being deposited during the nanoparticle growth, turn out to be single-domain. In contrast to nickel nanoparticles, copper ones (25-586 nm across) are sensitive to the electrolyte composition and parameters of the discharging capacitor.

  6. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (CO) polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, III, Charles L.; Lowe, Andrew B.; Sumerlin, Brent S.

    2006-10-25

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thiol-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surface modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the steps of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a collidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as fuctionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  7. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (co)polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, III, Charles L.; Lowe, Andrew B.; Sumerlin, Brent S.

    2011-12-27

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thiol-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the steps of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a colloidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as functionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  8. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (CO)polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, III., Charles L.; Lowe, Andrew B.; Sumerlin, Brent S.

    2006-11-21

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thio-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the stops of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a colloidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as functionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  9. Wavelength-band-tuning photodiodes by using various metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J D; Chan, Y D; Chou, T C

    2015-11-20

    Wavelength-band tuning was easily achieved in this work by depositing various metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on silicon p-n junction photodiodes (PDs). The normalization spectrum of the PDs deposited with gold (Au) NPs reveals a high-wavelength pass characteristic; the PDs with silver (Ag) NPs coating behave as a low-wavelength pass, and the PDs with Au/Ag bimetallic NPs appear as a band-wavelength pass PD with a full width at half maximum of 450 ∼ 630 nm. The issue of wavelength-band tuning is due to the different plasmonic resonance wavelengths associated with various metallic NPs. The extinction plot shows the Au NPs have a longer resonant wavelength of about 545 nm, leading to the incident light with a wavelength near or longer than 545 nm scattered by the Au NPs, hence a high-wavelength pass PD. The PDs with Ag NPs, due to the Ag NPs, exhibit a short resonant wavelength of 430 nm, and the short-wavelength incident light is absorbed near the silicon (Si) surface, where the Ag NPs is atop it. The shorter-wavelength incident light is enhanced by the plasmonic resonance of Ag NPs, making a low-wavelength PD. The Au/Ag NPs presents a resonant wavelength of 500 nm between the Au and Ag NPs. For the incident light with a wavelength close to 500 nm, a constructive interference causes a substantial increase in the local electromagnetic field, hence leading to a band-wavelength pass PD. PMID:26508114

  10. Copper status of exposed microorganisms influences susceptibility to metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Vincent C; Spitzmiller, Melissa R; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Kropat, Janette; Damoiseaux, Robert D; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Mahendra, Shaily

    2016-05-01

    Although interactions of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) with various microorganisms have been previously explored, few studies have examined how metal sensitivity impacts NP toxicity. The present study investigated the effects of copper NPs (Cu-NP) exposure on the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the presence and absence of the essential micronutrient copper. The toxic ranges for Cu-NPs and the ionic control, CuCl2 , were determined using a high-throughput adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based fluorescence assay. The Cu-NPs caused similar mortality in copper-replete and copper-deplete cells (median inhibitory concentration [IC50]: 14-16 mg/L) but were less toxic than the ionic control, CuCl2 (IC50: 7 mg/L). Using this concentration range, the Cu-NP impacts on cell morphology, copper accumulation, chlorophyll content, and expression of stress genes under both copper supply states were assessed. Osmotic swelling, membrane damage, and chloroplast and organelle disintegration were observed by transmission electron microscopy at both conditions. Despite these similarities, copper-deplete cells showed greater accumulation of loosely bound and tightly bound copper after exposure to Cu-NPs. Furthermore, copper-replete cells experienced greater loss of chlorophyll content, 19% for Cu-NPs, compared with only an 11% net decrease in copper-deplete cells. The tightly bound copper was bioavailable as assessed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of CYC6, a biomarker for Cu deficiency. The increased resistance of copper-deplete cells to Cu-NPs suggests that these cells potentially metabolize excess Cu-NPs or better manage sudden influxes of ions. The results suggest that toxicity assessments must account for the nutritional status of impacted organisms and use toxicity models based on estimations of the bioavailable fractions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1148-1158. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26387648

  11. Strong segregation gettering of transition metals by implantation-formed cavities and boron-silicide precipitates in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Petersen, G.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Headley, T.J.

    1996-06-01

    We have mechanistically and quantitatively characterized the binding of transition-metal impurities in Si to cavities formed by He implantation and to B-Si precipitates resulting from B implantation. Both sinks are inferred to act by the segregation of metal atoms to pre-existing low-energy sites, namely surface chemisorption sites in the case of cavities and bulk solution sites in the case of the B-Si phase. These gettering processes exhibit large binding energies, and they are predicted to remain active for arbitrarily small initial impurity concentrations as a result of the segregation mechanisms. Both appear promising for gettering in Si devices.

  12. Production of nanoparticles by laser-induced ablation of metals in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Bozon-Verduraz, F; Brayner, R; Voronov, Valerii V; Kirichenko, N A; Simakin, Aleksandr V; Shafeev, Georgii A

    2003-08-31

    The production of noble metal (Ag and Au) nanoparticles upon the ablation of metal targets in liquids (H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, etc.) caused by irradiation by a copper vapour laser is studied. The nanoparticles emerging in a liquid are investigated using X-ray diffractometry, optical absorption spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The colloidal nanoparticle solutions exhibits a distinct plasmon resonance at 520 and 400 nm for Au and Ag, respectively. It is shown that the proximity of laser wavelength to the resonance makes it possible to decrease the dimension of nanoparticles by irradiating the colloidal solution. The size distribution function of nanoparticles is simulated taking into account the production, coagulation, and splitting of nanopartiles in the laser beam. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  13. A review on radiation-induced nucleation and growth of colloidal metallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an introduction to the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by radiation-induced method, especially gamma irradiation. This method offers some benefits over the conventional methods because it provides fully reduced and highly pure nanoparticles free from by-products or chemical reducing agents, and is capable of controlling the particle size and structure. The nucleation and growth mechanism of metallic nanoparticles are also discussed. The competition between nucleation and growth process in the formation of nanoparticles can determine the size of nanoparticles which is influenced by certain parameters such as the choice of solvents and stabilizer, the precursor to stabilizer ratio, pH during synthesis, and absorbed dose. PMID:24225302

  14. Carbon Materials Embedded with Metal Nanoparticles as Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-cheh

    2002-01-01

    Carbon materials containing metal nanoparticles that can form an alloy with lithium were tested for their capacity and cycle life to store and release lithium electrochemically. Metal nanoparticles may provide the additional lithium storage capacity as well as additional channels to conduct lithium in carbon. The cycle life of this carbon-metal composite can be long because the solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) on the carbon surface may protect both lithium and the metal particles in the carbon interior. In addition, the voids in the carbon interior may accommodate the nanoparticle's volume change, and such volume change may not cause much internal stress due to small sizes of the nanoparticles. This concept of improving carbon's performance to store and release lithium was demonstrated using experimental cells of C(Pd)/0.5M Lil-50/50 (vol.%) EC and DMC/Li, where C(Pd) was graphitized carbon fibers containing palladium nanoparticles, EC was ethylene carbonate, and DMC was dimethyl carbonate. However, such improvement was not observed if the Pd nanoparticles are replaced by aluminum, possibly because the aluminum nanoparticles were oxidized in air during storage, resulting in an inert oxide of aluminum. Further studies are needed to use this concept for practical applications.

  15. Comparative Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity Using Embryonic Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wehmas, Leah C.; Anders, Catherine; Chess, Jordan; Punnoose, Alex; Pereira, Cliff B.; Greenwood, Juliet A.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (MO NPs) are finding increasing utility in the medical field as anticancer agents. Before validation of in vivo anticancer efficacy can occur, a better understanding of whole-animal toxicity is required. We compared the toxicity of seven widely used semiconductor MO NPs made from zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide and tin dioxide prepared in pure water and in synthetic seawater using a five-day embryonic zebrafish assay. We hypothesized that the toxicity of these engineered MO NPs would depend on physicochemical properties. Significant agglomeration of MO NPs in aqueous solutions is common making it challenging to associate NP characteristics such as size and charge with toxicity. However, data from our agglomerated MO NPs suggests that the elemental composition and dissolution potential are major drivers of toxicity. Only ZnO caused significant adverse effects of all MO particles tested, and only when prepared in pure water (point estimate median lethal concentration = 3.5–9.1 mg/L). This toxicity was life stage dependent. The 24 h toxicity increased greatly (~22.7 fold) when zebrafish exposures started at the larval life stage compared to the 24 hour toxicity following embryonic exposure. Investigation into whether dissolution could account for ZnO toxicity revealed high levels of zinc ion (40–89% of total sample) were generated. Exposure to zinc ion equivalents revealed dissolved Zn2+ may be a major contributor to ZnO toxicity. PMID:26029632

  16. Metallic nanoparticles functionalizing carbon nanotube networks for gas sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Abdelhalim, Ahmed; Abdellah, Alaa; Scarpa, Giuseppe; Lugli, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    We report the fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT) based gas sensors functionalized with different metallic nanoparticles (NPs) (Au, Pd, Ag) with exceptionally high responses towards four test gases (NH3, CO2, CO and ethanol). The CNT networks were fabricated through a low cost spray deposition process while the NPs were deposited by a thermal evaporation process. CNT based gas sensors functionalized with Au with a nominal thickness of 1.0 nm showed superior response towards NH3, CO and ethanol. The sensors' normalized responses reached 92%, 22% and 32% with concentrations of 100 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm for NH3, CO and ethanol respectively. CNT based gas sensors functionalized with Pd with a nominal thickness of 1.5 nm showed the best performance with CO2. The normalized response reached 3%, 6%, 12% and 17% with concentrations of 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2500 ppm and 5000 ppm of CO2 respectively. We also investigated the morphological and optical changes that occur to the NPs upon thermal treatment. Functionalization of CNT films deposited on glass with Au and Ag showed surface plasmon resonance effects that are dependent on the nominal thickness of the functionalization layer. PMID:24407105

  17. Nanostructured target fabrication with metal and semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberio, M.; Antici, P.

    2015-10-01

    The development of ultra-intense high-energy (≫1 J) short (<1 ps) laser pulses in the last decade has enabled the acceleration of high-energy short-pulse proton beams. A key parameter for enhancing the acceleration regime is the laser-to-target absorption, which heavily depends on the target structure and material. In this work, we present the realization of a nanostructured target with a sub-laser wavelength nano-layer in the front surface as a possible candidate for improving the absorption. The nanostructured film was realized by a simpler and cheaper method than using conventional lithographic techniques: A colloidal solution of metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) was produced by laser ablation and, after a heating and sonication process, was spray-dried on the front surface of an aluminum target. The obtained nanostructured film with a thickness of 1 μm appears, at morphological and chemical analysis, uniformly nanostructured and distributed on the target surface without the presence of oxides or external contaminants. Finally, the size of the NPs can be tuned from tens to hundreds of nanometers simply by varying the growth parameters (i.e., irradiation time, fluence, and laser beam energy).

  18. Comparison of Whole-Blood Metal Ion Levels Among Four Types of Large-Head, Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty Implants: A Concise Follow-up, at Five Years, of a Previous Report.

    PubMed

    Hutt, Jonathan; Lavigne, Martin; Lungu, Eugen; Belzile, Etienne; Morin, François; Vendittoli, Pascal-André

    2016-02-17

    Few studies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) implants with a large-diameter femoral head and metal-on-metal design have directly compared the progression of metal ion levels over time and the relationship to complications. As we previously reported, 144 patients received one of four types of large-diameter-head, metal-on-metal THA designs (Durom, Birmingham, ASR XL, or Magnum implants). Cobalt, chromium, and titanium ion levels were measured over five years. We compared ion levels and clinical results over time. The Durom group showed the highest levels of cobalt (p ≤ 0.002) and titanium ions (p ≤ 0.03). Both the Durom and Birmingham groups demonstrated significant ongoing cobalt increases up to five years. Eight patients (seven with a Durom implant and one with a Birmingham implant) developed adverse local tissue reaction. Six Durom implants and one Birmingham implant required revision, with one pseudotumor under surveillance at the time of the most recent follow-up. We found that ion generation and related complications varied among designs. More concerning was that, for some designs, ion levels continued to increase. Coupling a cobalt-chromium adapter sleeve to an unmodified titanium femoral trunnion along with a large metal-on-metal bearing may explain the poor performances of two of the designs in the current study. PMID:26888673

  19. Bioactivity of noble metal nanoparticles decorated with biopolymers and their application in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash P; Gupta, Indarchand; Brandelli, Adriano

    2015-12-30

    The unique properties of nanomaterials can be applied to solve different problems including new ways of drug delivery. Noble metal nanoparticles are most promising because they have been used for medicinal purposes since ancient time. It is evident from the past studies that the metallic nanoparticles are much more effective against various microorganisms when compared to their conventional counterparts. However, decoration of such nanoparticles with biomaterials add more advantages to their antimicrobial activity. Decoration of metal nanoparticles with biopolymers is a quite new area of research. Studies performed hitherto shown that nanoparticles of noble metals like silver, gold and platinum demonstrated better antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities when conjugated with biopolymers. The development of such technology has potential to develop materials that are more effective in the field of health science. Considering the importance and uniqueness of this concept, the present review aims to discuss the use of biopolymer-decorated metal nanoparticles for combating various diseases caused by microbial pathogens. Moreover, the nanotoxicity aspect has also been discussed. PMID:26520406

  20. Metal debris concentrations in soft tissues adjacent to loosened femoral stems is higher in uncemented than cemented implants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are still many questions related to aseptic femoral stem loosening. Systemic and local immune responses to the implanted “foreign body” is one of the reasons for loosening. The purpose of the study was to measure metal ion concentration (Ti, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Al) around loosened femoral stems and compare their levels around uncemented and cemented implants. Methods This paper reports 50 hips operated for isolated stem loosening, in 50 patients at the mean age of 57 years (from 21 to 87). There were 25 cemented (Co,Cr29,Mo,Ni) and 25 uncemented (Ti, Al) stems. The mean follow-up from primary hip replacement to revision was 10.1 years (from 0.5 to 17). During the procedure, scar tissue around the stem was taken for analysis of metal ions. Results The concentrations of titanium and aluminium in soft tissues around uncemented loosened stems were higher than cemented ones (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between both types of stems in terms of ions of the metal of which cemented implants had been made of (Co, Cr, Mo, Ni). Conclusions In soft tissue around a loosened stem, the concentrations of metal ions from implants are much higher in case of uncemented stems than of cemented ones. Metal ions from vitalium femoral heads were found around uncemented stems in similar values to cemented streams. PMID:25098913

  1. Measurement of small lesions near metallic implants with mega-voltage cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorescu, Violeta; Prevrhal, Sven; Pouliot, Jean

    2008-03-01

    Metallic objects severely limit diagnostic CT imaging because of their high X-ray attenuation in the diagnostic energy range. In contrast, radiation therapy linear accelerators now offer CT imaging with X-ray energies in the megavolt range, where the attenuation coefficients of metals are significantly lower. We hypothesized that Mega electron-Voltage Cone-Beam CT (MVCT) implemented on a radiation therapy linear accelerator can detect and quantify small features in the vicinity of metallic implants with accuracy comparable to clinical Kilo electron-Voltage CT (KVCT) for imaging. Our test application was detection of osteolytic lesions formed near the metallic stem of a hip prosthesis, a condition of severe concern in hip replacement surgery. Both MVCT and KVCT were used to image a phantom containing simulated osteolytic bone lesions centered around a Chrome-Cobalt hip prosthesis stem with hemispherical lesions with sizes and densities ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm radius and 0 to 500 mg•cm -3, respectively. Images for both modalities were visually graded to establish lower limits of lesion visibility as a function of their size. Lesion volumes and mean density were determined and compared to reference values. Volume determination errors were reduced from 34%, on KVCT, to 20% for all lesions on MVCT, and density determination errors were reduced from 71% on KVCT to 10% on MVCT. Localization and quantification of lesions was improved with MVCT imaging. MVCT offers a viable alternative to clinical CT in cases where accurate 3D imaging of small features near metallic hardware is critical. These results need to be extended to other metallic objects of different composition and geometry.

  2. An algorithm for efficient metal artifact reductions in permanent seed implants

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Chen; Verhaegen, Frank; Laurendeau, Denis; Enger, Shirin A.; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: In permanent seed implants, 60 to more than 100 small metal capsules are inserted in the prostate, creating artifacts in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic method for metal artifact reduction (MAR) from small objects such as brachytherapy seeds for clinical applications. Methods: The approach for MAR is based on the interpolation of missing projections by directly using raw helical CT data (sinogram). First, an initial image is reconstructed from the raw CT data. Then, the metal objects segmented from the reconstructed image are reprojected back into the sinogram space to produce a metal-only sinogram. The Steger method is used to determine precisely the position and edges of the seed traces in the raw CT data. By combining the use of Steger detection and reprojections, the missing projections are detected and replaced by interpolation of non-missing neighboring projections. Results: In both phantom experiments and patient studies, the missing projections have been detected successfully and the artifacts caused by metallic objects have been substantially reduced. The performance of the algorithm has been quantified by comparing the uniformity between the uncorrected and the corrected phantom images. The results of the artifact reduction algorithm are indistinguishable from the true background value. Conclusions: An efficient algorithm for MAR in seed brachytherapy was developed. The test results obtained using raw helical CT data for both phantom and clinical cases have demonstrated that the proposed MAR method is capable of accurately detecting and correcting artifacts caused by a large number of very small metal objects (seeds) in sinogram space. This should enable a more accurate use of advanced brachytherapy dose calculations, such as Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Surface chemistry : a non-negligible parameter in determining optical properties of small colloidal metal nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Gray, S. K.; Peng, S.

    2011-01-01

    Surface chemistry can become pronounced in determining the optical properties of colloidal metal nanoparticles as the nanoparticles become so small (diameters <20 nm) that the surface atoms, which can undergo chemical interactions with the environment, represent a significant fraction of the total number of atoms although this effect is often ignored. For instance, formation of chemical bonds between surface atoms of small metal nanoparticles and capping molecules that help stabilize the nanoparticles can reduce the density of conduction band electrons in the surface layer of metal atoms. This reduced electron density consequently influences the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the metal atoms in the surface layer and, for sufficiently high surface to volume ratios, the overall surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectrum. The important role of surface chemistry is highlighted here by carefully analyzing the classical Mie theory and a multi-layer model is presented to produce more accurate predictions by considering the chemically reduced density of conduction band electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms in nanoparticles. Calculated absorption spectra of small Ag nanoparticles quantitatively agree with the experimental results for our monodispersed Ag nanoparticles synthesized via a well-defined chemical reduction process, revealing an exceptional size-dependence of absorption peak positions: the peaks first blue-shift followed by a turnover and a dramatic red-shift as the particle size decreases. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between surface chemistry and optical properties is beneficial to exploit new applications of small colloidal metal nanoparticles, such as colorimetric sensing, electrochromic devices, and surface enhanced spectroscopies.

  4. N-Acetyl-Cysteine as Effective and Safe Chelating Agent in Metal-on-Metal Hip-Implanted Patients: Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lonati, Davide; Ragghianti, Benedetta; Ronchi, Anna; Vecchio, Sarah; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Systemic toxicity associated with cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) containing metal hip alloy may result in neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, and hypothyroidism. However clinical management concerning chelating therapy is still debated in literature. Here are described two metal-on-metal hip-implanted patients in which N-acetyl-cysteine decreased elevated blood metal levels. A 67-year-old male who underwent Co/Cr hip implant in September 2009 referred to our Poison Control Centre for persisting elevated Co/Cr blood levels (from March 2012 to November 2014). After receiving oral high-dose N-acetyl-cysteine, Co/Cr blood concentrations dropped by 86% and 87% of the prechelation levels, respectively, and persisted at these latter concentrations during the following 6 months of follow-up. An 81-year-old female who underwent Co/Cr hip implant in January 2007 referred to our Centre for detection of high Co and Cr blood levels in June 2012. No hip revision was indicated. After a therapy with oral high-dose N-acetyl-cysteine Co/Cr blood concentrations decreased of 45% and 24% of the prechelation levels. Chelating agents reported in hip-implanted patients (EDTA, DMPS, and BAL) are described in few cases. N-acetyl-cysteine may provide chelating sites for metals and in our cases reduced Co and Cr blood levels and resulted well tolerable. PMID:27148463

  5. Dialysis Patients with Implanted Drug-Eluting Stents Have Lower Major Cardiac Events and Mortality than Those with Implanted Bare-Metal Stents: A Taiwanese Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsin-Fu; Wu, Lung-Sheng; Chan, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Jia-Rou; Tu, Hui-Tzu; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Chen, Wei-Jan; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; See, Lai-Chu; Chang, Shang-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and long-term clinical benefits of DES for dialysis patients. Background It is unclear whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is associated with lower rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or mortality compared to bare-metal stents (BMS). Methods From a nationwide cohort selected from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we enrolled 2,835 dialysis patients who were hospitalized for PCI treatment with stent implantation from Dec 1, 2006. Follow-up was from the date of index hospitalization for PCI until the first MACE, date of death, or December 31, 2011, whichever came first. Results A total of 738 patients (26.0%) had DES implanted, and 2,097 (74%) had BMS implanted. The medium time to the first MACE was 0.53 years (interquartile range: 0.89 years; range: 0–4.62 years). At 1-year follow-up, patients treated with BMS had significantly, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause mortality, and composite MACE compared to those treated with DES. The overall repeat revascularization with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), non-fatal MI, all-cause mortality, and composite MACE were significantly lower in patients treated with DES than those treated with BMS. Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that older age, history of diabetes, history of heart failure, history of stroke, and DES vs. BMS were independent significant predictors of MACE. Conclusions DES implantation conferred survival benefits in dialysis patients compared with BMS implantation. PMID:26731408

  6. Design of radio frequency pulse waveforms for mitigating signal inhomogeneity in magnetic resonance imaging due to metallic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Taeseong; Kim, Dongmin; Someya, Takao; Sekino, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    Metallic implants can result in considerable inhomogeneity in the signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because the implant generates a shielding effect to the applied radio-frequency (RF) magnetic fields. In this study, we propose an acquisition method to mitigate the signal inhomogeneities using an adaptive RF pulse waveform. The effectiveness of the method was investigated using both numerical simulations and experiments. The RF pulse waveform was calculated based on inverse analyses of the Bloch equation incorporating the measured RF field distribution within the object. A simulation was carried out using a simplified numerical model of RF field inhomogeneity assumed at the center of model. An RF pulse waveform was designed to recover the attenuated signal region in the given model, and we show a significant improvement in the signal homogeneity compared with that obtained using a conventional pulse. We implemented the proposed method on a 7T-MRI system to show the efficacy experimentally. Test samples were fabricated from agarose gel with inserted copper or aluminum implants of different thicknesses. The RF pulse for selective excitation was calculated after mapping the RF field distribution of each imaging object. The acquired images exhibit an improvement in the homogeneity at the region of metallic implants. These results indicate that the proposed method is effective for MRI measurements of objects containing metallic implants.

  7. Plasma - enhanced dispersion of metal and ceramic nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, Paul; Liu, Yazi; Askari, Sadegh; Patel, Jenish; Macia-Montero, Manuel; Mitra, Somak; Zhang, Richao; Sun, Dan; Mariotti, Davide

    2015-09-01

    In this work we demonstrate a facile method to synthesize a nanoparticle/PEDOT:PSS hybrid nanocomposite material in aqueous solution through atmospheric pressure direct current (DC) plasma processing at room temperature. Both metal (Au) and ceramic (TiO2) nanoparticle composite films have been fabricated. Nanoparticle dispersion is enhanced considerable and remains stable. TiO2/polymer hybrid nanoparticles with a distinct core shell structure have been obtained. Increased nanoparticle/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite electrical conductivity has been observed. The improvement in nanocomposite properties is due to the enhanced dispersion and stability in liquid polymer of microplasma processed Au or TiO2 nanoparticles. Both plasma induced surface charge and nanoparticle surface termination with specific plasma chemical species are thought to provide an enhanced barrier to nanoparticle agglomeration and promote nanoparticle-polymer bonding. This is expected to have a significant benefit in materials processing with inorganic nanoparticles for applications in energy storage, photocatalysis and biomedical sensors. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC: EP/K006088/1, EP/K006142, Nos. EP/K022237/1).

  8. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    PubMed

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored. PMID:26488900

  9. SINGLE-PARTICLE ICPMS FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL-BASED NANOPARTICLES IN THE ENVIRONMENT - ADVANCES AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As engineered metal-based nanomaterials become widely used in consumer and industrial products, the amount of these materials introduced into the environment by a variety of paths will increase. The concentration of metal associated with these engineered nanoparticles will be s...

  10. The Ability of Dental Specialists to Distinguish Lateral Incisor Metal-Free From Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal Implant Supported Crowns.

    PubMed

    De Melo, Eduardo V; Kauling, Ana Elisa C; Freitas, Sérgio Fernando T; Cardoso, Antônio C; Ferreira, Cimara Fortes

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of dental specialists to distinguish lateral incisor metal-free from porcelain-fused-to-metal implant supported crowns in the anterior region. Five single-tooth implants in the maxillary lateral incisor region were restored with two types of implant-supported crowns (porcelain-fused-to-metal and metal-free). Photographs were presented to 20 evaluators. The evaluators had to answer whether the crown was: metal-free, porcelain-fused-to-metal or they could not tell the difference. The results showed that groups 1 (all participants), 3 (Restorative & Prosthodontic specialists), 4 (graduated 10 years) and 5 (graduated > 10 years) failed to respond correctly (P > 0.05) to which type of crown was presented to them. Group 2 (Periodontology & Implantology specialists) showed an accuracy rate of 35.6% (P = 0.009), in relation to metal-free crowns, 5.6 which is below the random index. The authors concluded that the evaluators from the 5 groups studied were unable to significantly distinguish which type of crown was used in the 10 presented situations. PMID:26466439

  11. [Implant allergies].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Thomsen, M

    2010-03-01

    An increasing number of patients receive and benefit from osteosynthesis materials or artificial joint replacement. The most common complications are mechanical problems or infection. Metals like nickel, chromium and cobalt as well as bone cement components like acrylates and gentamicin are potential contact allergens which can cause intolerance reactions to implants. Eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusions, pain and implant loosening all have been described as manifestation of implant allergy. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal allergy, allergies associated with implants are rare. Diagnosis of metal implant allergy is still difficult. Thus differential diagnoses--in particular infection--have to be excluded and a combined approach of allergologic diagnostics by patch test and histopathology of peri-implant tissue is recommended. It is still unknown which conditions induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger peri-implant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy. Despite the risk of developing complications being unclear, titanium based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients and the use of metal-metal couplings in arthroplasty is not recommended for such patients. If the regular CoCr-polyethylene articulation is employed, the patient should give informed written consent. PMID:20204719

  12. Floating AC-DEP (dielectrophoretic) manipulations of fluorescent nanoparticle at metal nanostructure for plasmonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Shin, H. J.; Hwang, K. S.; Park, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    We propose the fluorescent nanoparticle manipulations at nano-metal structures with floating AC-DEP force for plasmonic applications. The electrode gap was optimized to induce enough DEP force around the nano-structure for manipulation of the nanoparticles. 10um wide gap of electrode was acquired to apply the floating AC-DEP force at various designed metal nano-structure such as nanowire, y-branch and vortex. The all shape of nano-metal structures are formed at the gap of microelectrode and not connected with microelectrode. The gold nano-structures in the gap of microelectrode were fabricated with e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Before the formation of metal nanostructure, micro electrodes for applying the electric field around the metal nano-structures were fabricated with photolithography and lift-off process. Cadmium selenide (CdSe/ZnS) QDs (0.8 nM, emission wavelength of 605 nm) with a 25 nm zinc sulfide capping layer and 100nm polystyrene nano bead (1 nM, emission wavelength of 610nm) were used as fluorescent nanoparticles. We applied the 8 Vpp, 3 MHz sine wave for the positive DEP force, and it resulted in 108 V/m electric field and 1011 V/m electric field gradient around gold nanowire with floating AC. The fluorescent nanoparticle's attachment at the nanowire is confirmed by the fluorescent optical analysis. The fluorescent nanoparticles are located successfully at designed metal nano-structures for plasmonic applications.

  13. Peculiarities of metal oxide nanoparticles obtained in acoustoplasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulychev, N. A.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Nikiforov, V. N.; Shevchenko, S. N.; Yakunin, V. G.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Bychenko, A. B.; Sredin, V. G.

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticles of tungsten, copper, iron, and zinc oxides were synthesized in acoustoplasma discharge. Their size distribution was studied by electron microscopy and laser correlation spectroscopy. Ultrasound was found to narrow significantly the size distribution width of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Water suspensions of zinc oxide nanoparticles showed photoluminescence in red and near infrared spectral ranges, which makes them a promising material for luminescent diagnostics of biological systems.

  14. Changes in metal nanoparticle shape and size induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, M. C.; Kluth, P.; Giulian, R.; Sprouster, D. J.; Araujo, L. L.; Schnohr, C. S.; Llewellyn, D. J.; Byrne, A. P.; Foran, G. J.; Cookson, D. J.

    2009-03-01

    Changes in the shape and size of Co, Pt and Au nanoparticles induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation (SHII) have been characterized using a combination of transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption near-edge structure. Elemental nanoparticles of diameters 2-15 nm were first formed in amorphous SiO 2 by ion implantation and thermal annealing and then irradiated at room temperature with 27-185 MeV Au ions as a function of fluence. Spherical nanoparticles below a minimum diameter (4-7 nm) remained spherical under SHII but progressively decreased in size as a result of dissolution into the SiO 2 matrix. Spherical nanoparticles above the minimum diameter threshold were transformed to elongated rods aligned with the ion beamdirection. The nanorod width saturated at an electronic energy deposition dependent value, progressively increasing from 4-6 to 7-10 nm (at 5-18 keV/nm, respectively) while the nanorod length exhibited a broad distribution consistent with that of the unirradiated spherical nanoparticles. The threshold diameter for spherical nanoparticle elongation was comparable to the saturation value of nanorod width. We correlate this saturation value with the diameter of the molten track induced in amorphous SiO 2 by SHII. In summary, changes in nanoparticle shape and size are governed to a large extent by the ion irradiation parameters.

  15. A Genetically Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus that can Produce Gold Nanoparticles from a Metal Salt Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Love, Andrew J.; Makarov, Valentine V.; Sinitsyna, Olga V.; Shaw, Jane; Yaminsky, Igor V.; Kalinina, Natalia O.; Taliansky, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    We genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to surface display a characterized peptide with potent metal ion binding and reducing capacity (MBP TMV), and demonstrate that unlike wild type TMV, this construct can lead to the formation of discrete 10–40 nm gold nanoparticles when mixed with 3 mM potassium tetrachloroaurate. Using a variety of analytical physicochemical approaches it was found that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and stable. Given that the MBP TMV can produce metal nanomaterials in the absence of chemical reductants, it may have utility in the green production of metal nanomaterials. PMID:26617624

  16. Surface damage of metallic implants due to mechanical loading and chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jaejoong

    The present study investigates interfacial damage mechanism of modular implants due to synergetic action of mechanical contact loading and corrosion. Modular implants are manufactured such that surfaces have a characteristic degree of roughness determined by tool tip size and motion of tool path or feeding speed. The central hypothesis for this work is that during contact loading of metallic implants, mechanisms of damage and dissolution are determined by contact loads, plastic deformation, residual stresses and environmental conditions at the nanoscale surface asperities; while during subsequent rest periods, mechanism of metallic dissolution is determined by the environmental conditions and residual stress field induced due to long range elastic interactions of the plastically deformed asperities. First part of the thesis is focused on investigating the mechanisms underlying surface roughness evolution due to stress-assisted dissolution during the rest period. The latter part is focused on investigating material removal mechanisms during single asperity contact of implant surfaces. Experimental study was performed to elucidate the roughness evolution mechanism by combined effect of multi-asperity contact and environmental corrosion. Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum specimen was subjected to either contact loading alone or alternating contact loading and exposure to reactive environment. Roughness of the specimen surface was monitored by optical profilometry and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculation was used to characterize the evolving behavior of roughness modes. Finite element analysis (FEA) was employed to identify influences of surface morphological configurations and contact pressures on the residual stress development. Analytical model of multi-asperity contact has been developed for prediction of residual stress field for different roughness configurations during varying magnitude of contact loads based on elastic inclusion theory. Experimental results

  17. Super adsorption capability from amorphousization of metal oxide nanoparticles for dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. H.; Xiao, J.; Liu, P.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-03-01

    Transitional metal oxide nanoparticles as advanced environment and energy materials require very well absorption performance to apply in practice. Although most metal oxides are based on crystalline, high activities can also be achieved with amorphous phases. Here, we reported the adsorption behavior and mechanism of methyl blue (MB) on the amorphous transitional metal oxide (Fe, Co and Ni oxides) nanoparticles, and we demonstrated that the amorphousization of transitional metal oxide (Fe, Co and Ni oxides) nanoparticles driven by a novel process involving laser irradiation in liquid can create a super adsorption capability for MB, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the fabricated NiO amorphous nanostructure reaches up to 10584.6 mgg-1, the largest value reported to date for all MB adsorbents. The proof-of-principle investigation of NiO amorphous nanophase demonstrated the broad applicability of this methodology for obtaining new super dyes adsorbents.

  18. Assessing nanoparticle size effects on metal hydride thermodynamics using the Wulff construction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Chul; Dai, Bing; Karl Johnson, J; Sholl, David S

    2009-05-20

    The reaction thermodynamics of metal hydrides are crucial to the use of these materials for reversible hydrogen storage. In addition to altering the kinetics of metal hydride reactions, the use of nanoparticles can also change the overall reaction thermodynamics. We use density functional theory to predict the equilibrium crystal shapes of seven metals and their hydrides via the Wulff construction. These calculations allow the impact of nanoparticle size on the thermodynamics of hydrogen release from these metal hydrides to be predicted. Specifically, we study the temperature required for the hydride to generate a H(2) pressure of 1 bar as a function of the radius of the nanoparticle. In most, but not all, cases the hydrogen release temperature increases slightly as the particle size is reduced. PMID:19420649

  19. Super adsorption capability from amorphousization of metal oxide nanoparticles for dye removal

    PubMed Central

    Li, L. H.; Xiao, J.; Liu, P.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Transitional metal oxide nanoparticles as advanced environment and energy materials require very well absorption performance to apply in practice. Although most metal oxides are based on crystalline, high activities can also be achieved with amorphous phases. Here, we reported the adsorption behavior and mechanism of methyl blue (MB) on the amorphous transitional metal oxide (Fe, Co and Ni oxides) nanoparticles, and we demonstrated that the amorphousization of transitional metal oxide (Fe, Co and Ni oxides) nanoparticles driven by a novel process involving laser irradiation in liquid can create a super adsorption capability for MB, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the fabricated NiO amorphous nanostructure reaches up to 10584.6 mgg−1, the largest value reported to date for all MB adsorbents. The proof-of-principle investigation of NiO amorphous nanophase demonstrated the broad applicability of this methodology for obtaining new super dyes adsorbents. PMID:25761448

  20. The effect of platform switching on the levels of metal ion release from different implant-abutment couples.

    PubMed

    Alrabeah, Ghada O; Knowles, Jonathan C; Petridis, Haralampos

    2016-01-01

    The improved peri-implant bone response demonstrated by platform switching may be the result of reduced amounts of metal ions released to the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of metal ions released from platform-matched and platform-switched implant-abutment couples as a result of accelerated corrosion. Thirty-six titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt-chrome alloy abutments were coupled with titanium cylinders forming either platform-switched or platform-matched groups (n=6). In addition, 18 unconnected samples served as controls. The specimens were subjected to accelerated corrosion by static immersion in 1% lactic acid for 1 week. The amount of metal ions ion of each test tube was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray analyses were performed pre- and post-immersion to assess corrosion at the interface. The platform-matched groups demonstrated higher ion release for vanadium, aluminium, cobalt, chrome, and molybdenum compared with the platform-switched groups (P<0.05). Titanium was the highest element to be released regardless of abutment size or connection (P<0.05). SEM images showed pitting corrosion prominent on the outer borders of the implant and abutment platform surfaces. In conclusion, implant-abutment couples underwent an active corrosion process resulting in metal ions release into the surrounding environment. The highest amount of metal ions released was recorded for the platform-matched groups, suggesting that platform-switching concept has a positive effect in reducing the levels of metal ion release from the implant-abutment couples. PMID:27357323

  1. Potential application of metal nanoparticles for dosimetric systems: Concepts and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Guidelli, Eder José Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-11-07

    Metallic nanoparticles increase the delivered dose and consequently enhance tissue radio sensitization during radiation therapy of cancer. The Dose Enhancement Factor (DEF) corresponds to the ratio between the dose deposited on a tissue containing nanoparticles, and the dose deposited on a tissue without nanoparticles. In this sense, we have used electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to investigate how silver and gold nanoparticles affect the dose deposition in alanine dosimeters, which act as a surrogate of soft tissue. Besides optimizing radiation absorption by the dosimeter, the optical properties of these metal nanoparticles could also improve light emission from materials employed as radiation detectors. Therefore, we have also examined how the plasmonic properties of noble metal nanoparticles could enhance radiation detection using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry. This work will show results on how the use of gold and silver nanoparticles are beneficial for the ESR and OSL dosimetric techniques, and will describe the difficulties we have been facing, the challenges to overcome, and the perspectives.

  2. Potential application of metal nanoparticles for dosimetric systems: Concepts and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-11-01

    Metallic nanoparticles increase the delivered dose and consequently enhance tissue radio sensitization during radiation therapy of cancer. The Dose Enhancement Factor (DEF) corresponds to the ratio between the dose deposited on a tissue containing nanoparticles, and the dose deposited on a tissue without nanoparticles. In this sense, we have used electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to investigate how silver and gold nanoparticles affect the dose deposition in alanine dosimeters, which act as a surrogate of soft tissue. Besides optimizing radiation absorption by the dosimeter, the optical properties of these metal nanoparticles could also improve light emission from materials employed as radiation detectors. Therefore, we have also examined how the plasmonic properties of noble metal nanoparticles could enhance radiation detection using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry. This work will show results on how the use of gold and silver nanoparticles are beneficial for the ESR and OSL dosimetric techniques, and will describe the difficulties we have been facing, the challenges to overcome, and the perspectives.

  3. An electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics (ED-LD) approach to simulate metal nanoparticle interactions and motion.

    PubMed

    Sule, N; Rice, S A; Gray, S K; Scherer, N F

    2015-11-16

    Understanding the formation of electrodynamically interacting assemblies of metal nanoparticles requires accurate computational methods for determining the forces and propagating trajectories. However, since computation of electromagnetic forces occurs on attosecond to femtosecond timescales, simulating the motion of colloidal nanoparticles on milliseconds to seconds timescales is a challenging multi-scale computational problem. Here, we present a computational technique for performing accurate simulations of laser-illuminated metal nanoparticles. In the simulation, we self-consistently combine the finite-difference time-domain method for electrodynamics (ED) with Langevin dynamics (LD) for the particle motions. We demonstrate the ED-LD method by calculating the 3D trajectories of a single 100-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticle and optical trapping and optical binding of two and three 150-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticles in simulated optical tweezers. We show that surface charge on the colloidal metal nanoparticles plays an important role in their optically driven self-organization. In fact, these simulations provide a more complete understanding of the assembly of different structures of two and three Ag nanoparticles that have been observed experimentally, demonstrating that the ED-LD method will be a very useful tool for understanding the self-organization of optical matter. PMID:26698479

  4. Important considerations in measurement of attractive force on metallic implants in MR imagers.

    PubMed

    Kagetsu, N J; Litt, A W

    1991-05-01

    Almost all reported measurements of the attractive force exerted on metallic implants in magnetic fields of magnetic resonance imagers have been obtained at the portal. This study was done to determine whether the maximum force on an implant is at the portal. Horizontal attractive forces on needles were measured along the axis of the bore at various distances from the portal of a 0.3-T vertical-field magnet and 0.5- and 1.5-T solenoid magnets. Upward vertical forces along the top of the bore were also measured. The horizontal forces 40 cm in from the portals of the 0.5- and 1.5-T magnets were 70%-80% greater than the horizontal forces at the portal. The upward vertical force at the top of the 0.3-T magnet bore, 63 cm in from the portal, was 20 times the horizontal force at the portal and was twice the maximum force measured in the 0.5-T magnet. The maximum force was not at the portal. PMID:2014301

  5. An exploration of plastic deformation dependence of cell viability and adhesion in metallic implant materials.

    PubMed

    Uzer, B; Toker, S M; Cingoz, A; Bagci-Onder, T; Gerstein, G; Maier, H J; Canadinc, D

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between cell viability and adhesion behavior, and micro-deformation mechanisms was investigated on austenitic 316L stainless steel samples, which were subjected to different amounts of plastic strains (5%, 15%, 25%, 35% and 60%) to promote a variety in the slip and twin activities in the microstructure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed that cells most favored the samples with the largest plastic deformation, such that they spread more and formed significant filopodial extensions. Specifically, brain tumor cells seeded on the 35% deformed samples exhibited the best adhesion performance, where a significant slip activity was prevalent, accompanied by considerable slip-twin interactions. Furthermore, maximum viability was exhibited by the cells seeded on the 60% deformed samples, which were particularly designed in a specific geometry that could endure greater strain values. Overall, the current findings open a new venue for the production of metallic implants with enhanced biocompatibility, such that the adhesion and viability of the cells surrounding an implant can be optimized by tailoring the surface relief of the material, which is dictated by the micro-deformation mechanism activities facilitated by plastic deformation imposed by machining. PMID:26807771

  6. Supersaturating silicon with transition metals by ion implantation and pulsed laser melting

    SciTech Connect

    Recht, Daniel; Aziz, Michael J.; Smith, Matthew J.; Gradečak, Silvija; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Williams, James S.; Sullivan, Joseph T.; Winkler, Mark T.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Mathews, Jay; Warrender, Jeffrey M.

    2013-09-28

    We investigate the possibility of creating an intermediate band semiconductor by supersaturating Si with a range of transition metals (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pd, Pt, W, and Zn) using ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (PLM). Structural characterization shows evidence of either surface segregation or cellular breakdown in all transition metals investigated, preventing the formation of high supersaturations. However, concentration-depth profiling reveals that regions of Si supersaturated with Au and Zn are formed below the regions of cellular breakdown. Fits to the concentration-depth profile are used to estimate the diffusive speeds, v{sub D,} of Au and Zn, and put lower bounds on v{sub D} of the other metals ranging from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} m/s. Knowledge of v{sub D} is used to tailor the irradiation conditions and synthesize single-crystal Si supersaturated with 10{sup 19} Au/cm{sup 3} without cellular breakdown. Values of v{sub D} are compared to those for other elements in Si. Two independent thermophysical properties, the solute diffusivity at the melting temperature, D{sub s}(T{sub m}), and the equilibrium partition coefficient, k{sub e}, are shown to simultaneously affect v{sub D}. We demonstrate a correlation between v{sub D} and the ratio D{sub s}(T{sub m})/k{sub e}{sup 0.67}, which is exhibited for Group III, IV, and V solutes but not for the transition metals investigated. Nevertheless, comparison with experimental results suggests that D{sub s}(T{sub m})/k{sub e}{sup 0.67} might serve as a metric for evaluating the potential to supersaturate Si with transition metals by PLM.

  7. Supersaturating silicon with transition metals by ion implantation and pulsed laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recht, Daniel; Smith, Matthew J.; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Sullivan, Joseph T.; Winkler, Mark T.; Mathews, Jay; Warrender, Jeffrey M.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Williams, James S.; Gradečak, Silvija; Aziz, Michael J.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the possibility of creating an intermediate band semiconductor by supersaturating Si with a range of transition metals (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pd, Pt, W, and Zn) using ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (PLM). Structural characterization shows evidence of either surface segregation or cellular breakdown in all transition metals investigated, preventing the formation of high supersaturations. However, concentration-depth profiling reveals that regions of Si supersaturated with Au and Zn are formed below the regions of cellular breakdown. Fits to the concentration-depth profile are used to estimate the diffusive speeds, vD, of Au and Zn, and put lower bounds on vD of the other metals ranging from 102 to 104 m/s. Knowledge of vD is used to tailor the irradiation conditions and synthesize single-crystal Si supersaturated with 1019 Au/cm3 without cellular breakdown. Values of vD are compared to those for other elements in Si. Two independent thermophysical properties, the solute diffusivity at the melting temperature, Ds(Tm), and the equilibrium partition coefficient, ke, are shown to simultaneously affect vD. We demonstrate a correlation between vD and the ratio Ds(Tm)/ke0.67, which is exhibited for Group III, IV, and V solutes but not for the transition metals investigated. Nevertheless, comparison with experimental results suggests that Ds(Tm)/ke0.67 might serve as a metric for evaluating the potential to supersaturate Si with transition metals by PLM.

  8. Effect of Extreme Wettability on Platelet Adhesion on Metallic Implants: From Superhydrophilicity to Superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Sona; Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Toosi, Salma Fallah; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G

    2016-07-13

    In order to design antithrombotic implants, the effect of extreme wettability (superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity) on the biocompatibility of the metallic substrates (stainless steel and titanium) was investigated. The wettability of the surface was altered by chemical treatments and laser ablation methods. The chemical treatments generated different functionality groups and chemical composition as evident from XPS analysis. The micro/nanopatterning by laser ablation resulted in three different pattern geometry and different surface roughness and consequently wettability. The patterned surface were further modified with chemical treatments to generate a wide range of surface wettability. The influence of chemical functional groups, pattern geometry, and surface wettability on protein adsorption and platelet adhesion was studied. On chemically treated flat surfaces, the type of hydrophilic treatment was shown to be a contributing factor that determines the platelet adhesion, since the hydrophilic oxidized substrates exhibit less platelet adhesion in comparison to the control untreated or acid treated surfaces. Also, the surface morphology, surface roughness, and superhydrophobic character of the surfaces are contributing factors to platelet adhesion on the surface. Our results show that superhydrophobic cauliflower-like patterns are highly resistant to platelet adhesion possibly due to the stability of Cassie-Baxter state for this pattern compared to others. Our results also show that simple surface treatments on metals offer a novel way to improve the hemocompatibility of metallic substrates. PMID:27322889

  9. Catalytic role of traditional enzymes for biosynthesis of biogenic metallic nanoparticles: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Durán, Marcela; Silveira, Camila P; Durán, Nelson

    2015-10-01

    Although the formation mechanism of biogenically metallic nanoparticles is broadly associated to enzyme mediation, major attention has been given to the role of proteins and peptides in oxido-reduction of metallic ions leading to these nanostructures. Among the wide range of biomolecules that can act not only as capping agents but also as non-enzymatic agents to form nanoparticles, disulphide bridge-containing peptides and amino acids particularly stand out. The literature proposes that they actively participate in the process of nanoparticles' synthesis, with thiols groups and disulphide bridge moieties as the reaction catalytic sites. Similarly, denaturated enzymes containing exposed S-S or S-H moieties are also able to reduce metallic ions to form nanoparticles. This mini-review is focused on the biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles such as gold, silver, copper, platinum, palladium, lead and selenium, in which proteins, peptides, reductases and even oxido-reductases act as non-enzymatic catalysts of the reduction reaction, opening economically and ecologically favourable perspectives in the nanoparticles synthesis field. PMID:26435286

  10. Carbon Materials Metal/Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Composite and Battery Anode Composed of the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method of forming a composite material for use as an anode for a lithium-ion battery is disclosed. The steps include selecting a carbon material as a constituent part of the composite, chemically treating the selected carbon material to receive nanoparticles, incorporating nanoparticles into the chemically treated carbon material and removing surface nanoparticles from an outside surface of the carbon material with incorporated nanoparticles. A material making up the nanoparticles alloys with lithium.

  11. Metal artifact reduction for flat panel detector intravenous CT angiography in patients with intracranial metallic implants after endovascular and surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pjontek, Rastislav; Önenköprülü, Belgin; Scholz, Bernhard; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Schubert, Gerrit A; Othman, Ahmed; Wiesmann, Martin; Brockmann, Marc A

    2016-01-01

    Background Flat panel detector CT angiography with intravenous contrast agent injection (IV CTA) allows high-resolution imaging of cerebrovascular structures. Artifacts caused by metallic implants like platinum coils or clips lead to degradation of image quality and are a significant problem. Objective To evaluate the influence of a prototype metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm on image quality in patients with intracranial metallic implants. Methods Flat panel detector CT after intravenous application of 80 mL contrast agent was performed with an angiography system (Artis zee; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using a 20 s rotation protocol (200° rotation angle, 20 s acquisition time, 496 projections). The data before and after MAR of 26 patients with a total of 34 implants (coils, clips, stents) were independently evaluated by two blinded neuroradiologists. Results MAR improved the assessability of the brain parenchyma and small vessels (diameter <1 mm) in the neighborhood of metallic implants and at a distance of 6 cm (p<0.001 each, Wilcoxon test). Furthermore, MAR significantly improved the assessability of parent vessel patency and potential aneurysm remnants (p<0.005 each, McNemar test). MAR, however, did not improve assessability of stented vessels. Conclusions When an intravenous contrast protocol is used, MAR significantly ameliorates the assessability of brain parenchyma, vessels, and treated aneurysms in patients with intracranial coils or clips. PMID:26346458

  12. Potential for metal contamination by direct sonication of nanoparticle suspensions

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need to examine the potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to establish regulations protective of environmental health and safety. During a series of experiments to evaluate the toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on terrestrial pla...

  13. A simple urea-based route to ternary metal oxynitride nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gomathi, A.; Reshma, S.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2009-01-15

    Ternary metal oxynitrides are generally prepared by heating the corresponding metal oxides with ammonia for long durations at high temperatures. In order to find a simple route that avoids use of gaseous ammonia, we have employed urea as the nitriding agent. In this method, ternary metal oxynitrides are obtained by heating the corresponding metal carbonates and transition metal oxides with excess urea. By this route, ternary metal oxynitrides of the formulae MTaO{sub 2}N (M=Ca, Sr or Ba), MNbO{sub 2}N (M=Sr or Ba), LaTiO{sub 2}N and SrMoO{sub 3-x}N{sub x} have been prepared successfully. The oxynitrides so obtained were generally in the form of nanoparticles, and were characterized by various physical techniques. - Graphical abstract: Nanoparticles of ternary metal oxynitrides can be synthesized by means of urea route. Given is the TEM image of the nanoparticles of CaTaO{sub 2}N so obtained and the insets show the SAED pattern and HREM image of the nanoparticles.

  14. Robust Synthesis of Ciprofloxacin-Capped Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Urease Inhibitory Assay.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Qayum, Mughal; Khan, Ajmal; Farooq, Umar; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ali, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    The fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin (cip) has been used to cap metallic (silver and gold) nanoparticles by a robust one pot synthetic method under optimized conditions, using NaBH₄ as a mild reducing agent. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) showed constancy against variations in pH, table salt (NaCl) solution, and heat. Capping with metal ions (Ag/Au-cip) has significant implications for the solubility, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fluoroquinolone molecules. The metallic nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques such as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods. The nanoparticles synthesized using silver and gold were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray tests in order to show their metallic composition. The NH moiety of the piperazine group capped the Ag/Au surfaces, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. The synthesized nanoparticles were also assessed for urease inhibition potential. Fascinatingly, both Ag-cip and Au-cip NPs exhibited significant urease enzyme inhibitory potential, with IC50 = 1.181 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 52.55 ± 2.3 µg/mL, compared to ciprofloxacin (IC50 = 82.95 ± 1.62 µg/mL). MNPs also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against selected bacterial strains. PMID:27023506

  15. Dialkyldiselenophosphinato-metal complexes - a new class of single source precursors for deposition of metal selenide thin films and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sajid N.; Akhtar, Masood; Revaprasadu, Neerish; Qadeer Malik, Abdul; Azad Malik, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    We report here a new synthetic approach for convenient and high yield synthesis of dialkyldiselenophosphinato-metal complexes. A number of diphenyldiselenophosphinato-metal as well as diisopropyldiselenophosphinato-metal complexes have been synthesized and used as precursors for deposition of semiconductor thin films and nanoparticles. Cubic Cu2-xSe and tetragonal CuInSe2 thin films have been deposited by AACVD at 400, 450 and 500 °C whereas cubic PbSe and tetragonal CZTSe thin films have been deposited through doctor blade method followed by annealing. SEM investigations revealed significant differences in morphology of the films deposited at different temperatures. Preparation of Cu2-xSe and In2Se3 nanoparticles using diisopropyldiselenophosphinato-metal precursors has been carried out by colloidal method in HDA/TOP system. Cu2-xSe nanoparticles (grown at 250 °C) and In2Se3 nanoparticles (grown at 270 °C) have a mean diameter of 5.0 ± 1.2 nm and 13 ± 2.5 nm, respectively.

  16. Gold nanoparticle formation in diamond-like carbon using two different methods: Gold ion implantation and co-deposition of gold and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-10-01

    We describe work in which gold nanoparticles were formed in diamond-like carbon (DLC), thereby generating a Au-DLC nanocomposite. A high-quality, hydrogen-free DLC thin film was formed by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition, into which gold nanoparticles were introduced using two different methods. The first method was gold ion implantation into the DLC film at a number of decreasing ion energies, distributing the gold over a controllable depth range within the DLC. The second method was co-deposition of gold and carbon, using two separate vacuum arc plasma guns with suitably interleaved repetitive pulsing. Transmission electron microscope images show that the size of the gold nanoparticles obtained by ion implantation is 3-5 nm. For the Au-DLC composite obtained by co-deposition, there were two different nanoparticle sizes, most about 2 nm with some 6-7 nm. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the implanted sample contains a smaller fraction of sp{sup 3} bonding for the DLC, demonstrating that some sp{sup 3} bonds are destroyed by the gold implantation.

  17. Evolution of light-induced vapor generation at a liquid-immersed metallic nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Yu-Rong; Neumann, Oara; Polman, Albert; García de Abajo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    When an Au nanoparticle in a liquid medium is illuminated with resonant light of sufficient intensity, a nanometer scale envelope of vapor -a “nanobubble”- surrounding the particle, is formed. This is the nanoscale onset of the well-known process of liquid boiling, occurring at a single nanoparticle nucleation site, resulting from the photothermal response of the nanoparticle. Here we examine bubble formation at an individual metallic nanoparticle in detail. Incipient nanobubble formation is observed by monitoring the plasmon resonance shift of an individual, illuminated Au nanoparticle, when its local environment changes from liquid to vapor. The temperature on the nanoparticle surface is monitored during this process, where a dramatic temperature jump is observed as the nanoscale vapor layer thermally decouples the nanoparticle from the surrounding liquid. By increasing the intensity of the incident light or decreasing the interparticle separation, we observe the formation of micron sized bubbles resulting from the coalescence of nanoparticle-“bound” vapor envelopes. These studies provide the first direct and quantitative analysis of the evolution of light-induced steam generation by nanoparticles from the nanoscale to the macroscale, a process that is of fundamental interest for a growing number of applications. PMID:23517407

  18. Evolution of light-induced vapor generation at a liquid-immersed metallic nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheyu; Zhen, Yu-Rong; Neumann, Oara; Polman, Albert; García de Abajo, F Javier; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-04-10

    When an Au nanoparticle in a liquid medium is illuminated with resonant light of sufficient intensity, a nanometer scale envelope of vapor-a "nanobubble"-surrounding the particle, is formed. This is the nanoscale onset of the well-known process of liquid boiling, occurring at a single nanoparticle nucleation site, resulting from the photothermal response of the nanoparticle. Here we examine bubble formation at an individual metallic nanoparticle in detail. Incipient nanobubble formation is observed by monitoring the plasmon resonance shift of an individual, illuminated Au nanoparticle, when its local environment changes from liquid to vapor. The temperature on the nanoparticle surface is monitored during this process, where a dramatic temperature jump is observed as the nanoscale vapor layer thermally decouples the nanoparticle from the surrounding liquid. By increasing the intensity of the incident light or decreasing the interparticle separation, we observe the formation of micrometer-sized bubbles resulting from the coalescence of nanoparticle-"bound" vapor envelopes. These studies provide the first direct and quantitative analysis of the evolution of light-induced steam generation by nanoparticles from the nanoscale to the macroscale, a process that is of fundamental interest for a growing number of applications. PMID:23517407

  19. Comparison and Combination of Dual-Energy- and Iterative-Based Metal Artefact Reduction on Hip Prosthesis and Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Malte N.; Schabel, Christoph; Thomas, Christoph; Raupach, Rainer; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bamberg, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare and combine dual-energy based and iterative metal artefact reduction on hip prosthesis and dental implants in CT. Material and Methods A total of 46 patients (women:50%,mean age:63±15years) with dental implants or hip prostheses (n = 30/20) were included and examined with a second-generation Dual Source Scanner. 120kV equivalent mixed-images were derived from reconstructions of the 100/Sn140kV source images using no metal artefact reduction (NOMAR) and iterative metal artefact reduction (IMAR). We then generated monoenergetic extrapolations at 130keV from source images without IMAR (DEMAR) or from source images with IMAR, (IMAR+DEMAR). The degree of metal artefact was quantified for NOMAR, IMAR, DEMAR and IMAR+DEMAR using a Fourier-based method and subjectively rated on a five point Likert scale by two independent readers. Results In subjects with hip prosthesis, DEMAR and IMAR resulted in significantly reduced artefacts compared to standard reconstructions (33% vs. 56%; for DEMAR and IMAR; respectively, p<0.005), but the degree of artefact reduction was significantly higher for IMAR (all p<0.005). In contrast, in subjects with dental implants only IMAR showed a significant reduction of artefacts whereas DEMAR did not (71%, vs. 8% p<0.01 and p = 0.1; respectively). Furthermore, the combination of IMAR with DEMAR resulted in additionally reduced artefacts (Hip prosthesis: 47%, dental implants 18%; both p<0.0001). Conclusion IMAR allows for significantly higher reduction of metal artefacts caused by hip prostheses and dental implants, compared to a dual energy based method. The combination of DE-source images with IMAR and subsequent monoenergetic extrapolation provides an incremental benefit compared to both single methods. PMID:26600188

  20. Catechol Redox Induced Formation of Metal Core-Polymer Shell Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kvar C.L.; Liu, Zhongqiang; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2011-01-01

    A novel strategy was developed to synthesize polymer-coated metal nanoparticles (NPs) through reduction of metal cations with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers. Catechol redox chemistry was used to both synthesize metal NPs and simultaneously form a cross-linked shell of PEG polymers on their surfaces. DOPA reduced gold and silver cations into neutral metal atoms, producing reactive quinones that covalently cross-linked the PEG molecules around the surface of the NP. Importantly, these PEG-functionalized metal NPs were stable in physiological ionic strengths and under centrifugation, and hold broad appeal since they absorb and scatter light in aqueous solutions. PMID:21666825

  1. Continuous Polyol Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Using a Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR).

    PubMed

    Testino, Andrea; Pilger, Frank; Lucchini, Mattia Alberto; Quinsaat, Jose Enrico Q; Stähli, Christoph; Bowen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years a new type of tubular plug flow reactor, the segmented flow tubular reactor (SFTR), has proven its versatility and robustness through the water-based synthesis of precipitates as varied as CaCO3, BaTiO3, Mn(1-x)NixC2O4·2H2O, YBa oxalates, copper oxalate, ZnS, ZnO, iron oxides, and TiO2 produced with a high powder quality (phase composition, particle size, and shape) and high reproducibility. The SFTR has been developed to overcome the classical problems of powder production scale-up from batch processes, which are mainly linked with mass and heat transfer. Recently, the SFTR concept has been further developed and applied for the synthesis of metals, metal oxides, and salts in form of nano- or micro-particles in organic solvents. This has been done by increasing the working temperature and modifying the particle carrying solvent. In this paper we summarize the experimental results for four materials prepared according to the polyol synthesis route combined with the SFTR. CeO2, Ni, Ag, and Ca3(PO4)2 nanoparticles (NPs) can be obtained with a production rate of about 1-10 g per h. The production was carried out for several hours with constant product quality. These findings further corroborate the reliability and versatility of the SFTR for high throughput powder production. PMID:26060919

  2. Synthesis and characterization of metal-carbon core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, He

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been actively investigated as the contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) since the last decade owing to their relatively high magnetic susceptibility, longer retention in the blood stream and better toxicity profile compared to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Most research in this regard has been focused on iron oxides primarily because nanoparticles made of materials that have higher saturation magnetization are usually prone to degradation due to oxidation and are difficult to retain under ambient conditions. Attempts to preserve the high saturation magnetization phases have been made through passivating the surface of the nanoparticles with Au or oxides. However, these approaches are not very effective. In this work, the synthesis, structures, compositions, magnetic properties and potential applications of some metallic nanoparticles, stabilized with protective graphitic carbons, have been studied. Fe, Co, FexCo(1-x) and AuxFe (1-x) alloy nanoparticles encapsulated by graphitic carbon are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the nanoparticles are mostly about 10 nm in diameter and each nanoparticle is enclosed by at least one layer of graphitic carbon. Phase identification by high resolution TEM indicates the metallic phases were indeed obtained and preserved, even after three years of exposure to ambient conditions. The Fe-containing nanoparticles were found to be either BCC or FCC or Fe 3C, the Co nanoparticles being FCC, the FexCo(1-x) (0.1 < x < 0.6) nanoparticles being BCC alloys and AuxFe (1-x) (0.2 < x < 0.8) nanoparticles being FCC alloys. Energy dispersive spectrometry analysis of the Au0.67Fe0.33 nanoparticles indicates the composition of nanoparticles is consistent with the molar ratio of metal precursors, while quantitative EELS analysis suggest that the composition distribution of FexCo(1-x) rather wide. Preliminary Energy-Filtered TEM

  3. Selective sensing of volatile organic compounds using novel conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaddiraju, Sreeram; Gleason, Karen K.

    2010-03-01

    Conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids, fabricated by assembling metal nanoparticles on top of functionalized conducting polymer film surfaces using conjugated linker molecules, enable the selective sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In these conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids, selectivity is achieved by assembling different metals on the same conducting polymer film. This eliminates the need to develop either different polymers chemistries or device configurations for each specific analyte. In the hybrids, chemisorption of the analyte vapor induces charge redistribution in the metal nanoparticles and changes their work function. The conjugated linker molecule causes this change in the work function of the tethered nanoparticles to affect the electronic states in the underlying conducting polymer film. The result is an easily measurable change in the resistance of the hybrid structure. The fabrication of these sensing elements involved the covalent assembly of nickel (Ni) and palladium (Pd) metal nanoparticles on top of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-thiophene-3-acetic acid), poly(EDOT-co-TAA), films using 4-aminothiophenol linker molecules. The change in resistance of hybrid Pd/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) and Ni/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) hybrid films to acetone and toluene, respectively, is observed to be in proportion to their concentrations. The projected detection limits are 2 and 10 ppm for toluene and acetone, respectively. A negligible response (resistance change) of the Pd/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) films to toluene exposure confirmed its selectivity for detecting acetone. Similarly, lack of response to acetone confirmed the selectivity of the Ni/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) stacks for detecting toluene. It is anticipated that the assembly of other metals such as Ag, Au and Cu on top of poly(EDOT-co-TAA) would provide selectivity for detecting and discriminating other VOCs.

  4. Silver nanoparticles enhanced multichannel transition luminescence of Pr3+ in heavy metal germanium tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Y. Y.; Chen, B. J.; Pun, E. Y. B.; Wang, Z. Q.; Zhao, X.; Lin, H.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced luminescence of Pr3+ was observed in heavy metal germanium tellurite (NZPGT) glasses containing silver nanoparticles. Long-time annealing at 300 °C yield spherical and well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles with ~4 nm diameter as evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Multichannel transition luminescence intensity of Pr3+ in Ag nanoparticles embedded glasses grows by ~36% in comparison with the glasses without silver doping, which provides a new approach to improve energy conversion efficiency of GaAsAl solar cells. Hypersensitive probe Eu3+ reveals that electric field around rare-earth ions is remarkably enhanced due to the presence of Ag nanoparticles in the glass matrix, resulting in the luminescence intensification of Pr3+ in NZPGT glasses embedded with Ag nanoparticles.

  5. Formation of metal nanoparticles by short-distance sputter deposition in a reactive ion etching chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Nie Min; Meng, Dennis Desheng; Sun Kai

    2009-09-01

    A new method is reported to form metal nanoparticles by sputter deposition inside a reactive ion etching chamber with a very short target-substrate distance. The distribution and morphology of nanoparticles are found to be affected by the distance, the ion concentration, and the sputtering time. Densely distributed nanoparticles of various compositions were fabricated on the substrates that were kept at a distance of 130 mum or smaller from the target. When the distance was increased to 510 mum, island structures were formed, indicating the tendency to form continuous thin film with longer distance. The observed trend for nanoparticle formation is opposite to the previously reported mechanism for the formation of nanoparticles by sputtering. A new mechanism based on the seeding effect of the substrate is proposed to interpret the experimental results.

  6. Structure and optical properties of noble metal and oxide nanoparticles dispersed in various polysaccharide biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djoković, V.; Božanic, D. K.; Vodnik, V. V.; Krsmanović, R. M.; Trandafilovic, L. V.; Dimitrijević-Branković, S.

    2011-10-01

    We present the results on the structure and the optical properties of noble metal (Ag, Au) and oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized by various methods in different polysaccharide matrices such as chitosan, glycogen, alginate and starch. The structure of the obtained nanoparticles was studied in detail with microscopic techniques (TEM, SEM), while the XPS spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects at the nanoparticle-biomolecule interfaces. The antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposite films with Ag nanoparticles was tested against the Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans pathogens. In addition, we will present the results on the structure and optical properties of the tryptophan amino acid functionalized silver nanoparticles dispersed in water soluble polymer matrices.

  7. Terahertz-to-infrared converter based on metal nanoparticles: potentialities of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldosanov, Kamil A.; Lelevkin, Valery M.; Kozlov, Peter V.; Kaveev, Andrey K.

    2012-01-01

    In a new type of terahertz (THz)-to-infrared converter for the visualization of THz radiation sources, nanoparticles are embedded in a THz-transparent matrix material. The nanoparticles are made of a metal or an alloy having a partially filled peak of the electron density of states at the Fermi energy. The converter is designed to operate with the THz objective forming a source's image on the matrix, wherein the irradiated nanoparticles convert THz energy to thermal energy, whose spatial distribution is captured by an infrared camera. Nickel nanoparticles are very appropriate for high-frequency THz radiation and can find application in real-time passive imaging of biomedical objects at room temperature. Nanoparticles of compounds with heavy fermions are suitable for low-frequency THz radiation, which could be used to image concealed objects carried by a human being.

  8. Plasmonic and Catalytic Properties of Shape-Controlled Metal Nanoparticles and their Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkova, Anna

    This work explores the effect of the shape of metal nanoscale building blocks on the structural, optical, and plasmonic properties of their assemblies, as well as on the catalytic performance and hydrogen interactions of individual nanoparticles with specific shapes. In Chapter 3, I describe the linear self-assembly of bifunctional metal nanoparticles in the presence of monofunctional nanoscale chain stoppers. Chain stoppers with controlled reactivity were synthesized allowing control over the morphology of the self-assembled structures. Analysis of the degree of polymerization of linear nanostructures provided information about self-assembly kinetics, side reactions, and the distribution of species in the reaction. This work facilitated testing of theoretical models developed for molecular polymerization and fabrication of linear nanoparticle assemblies with controllable properties. In Chapter 4, I developed linear solution-based self-assembly of cubic metal nanoparticles, examined the morphology of the nanocube chains and their optical characteristics. In comparison with chains of nanospheres with similar dimensions, compositions, and surface chemistry, predominant face-to-face assembly of nanocubes leads to a larger volume of plasmonic hot spots, uniform electromagnetic field enhancement in the gaps between nanocubes, and a new coupling mode for nanocube chains, associated with Fabry-Perot structure. In Chapter 5, I investigated plasmon-mediated enhancement of the catalysis by palladium-based nanoparticles with different shapes and composition, bearing surface plasmon resonance in visible range. The photocatalytic activity of palladium-based nanoparticles depended more on their shape than internal structure. These findings pave the way for the design of palladium nanocatalysts with enhanced performance acting under visible light illumination. In Chapter 6, I developed a facile scaled-up synthesis of monodisperse palladium nanoparticles with various shapes

  9. Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium.

    PubMed

    Butet, Jérémy; Duboisset, Julien; Bachelier, Guillaume; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Benichou, Emmanuel; Jonin, Christian; Brevet, Pierre-François

    2010-05-12

    We report the optical second harmonic generation from individual 150 nm diameter gold nanoparticles dispersed in gelatin. The quadratic hyperpolarizability of the particles is determined and the input polarization dependence of the second harmonic intensity obtained. These results are found in excellent agreement with ensemble measurements and finite element simulations. These results open up new perspectives for the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles. PMID:20420409

  10. Decoration of diatom biosilica with noble metal and semiconductor nanoparticles (<10 nm): assembly, characterization, and applications.

    PubMed

    Jantschke, Anne; Herrmann, Anne-Kristin; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Eychmüller, Alexander; Brunner, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Diatom-templated noble metal (Ag, Pt, Au) and semiconductor (CdTe) nanoparticle arrays were synthesized by the attachment of prefabricated nanoparticles of defined size. Two different attachment techniques-layer-by-layer deposition and covalent linking-could successfully be applied. The synthesized arrays were shown to be useful for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of components, for catalysis, and for improved image quality in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:22102484

  11. A new approach for the facile preparation of metal-organic framework composites directly contacting with metal nanoparticles through arc plasma deposition.

    PubMed

    Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Yoshimaru, Shotaro; Kasai, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Yamauchi, Miho

    2016-06-28

    The arc plasma deposition (APD) method is first applied to prepare metal-organic framework (MOF) composites loading metal nanoparticles having a direct contact with the MOF. We demonstrate the detailed growth mechanism of metal particles on the MOFs and the applicability of the APD for various combinations of metals and MOFs. PMID:27298045

  12. Metallic nanoparticles arranged in a Helical geometry: route towards strong and broadband chiro-optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Greshma; Singh, Johnson Haobijam; Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Ghosh, Ambarish

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have paved ways to various techniques for designing and fabricating novel nanostructures incorporating noble metal nanoparticles, for a wide range of applications. The interaction of light with metal nanoparticles (NPs) can generate strongly localized electromagnetic fields (Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance, LSPR) at certain wavelengths of the incident beam. In assemblies or structures where the nanoparticles are placed in close proximity, the plasmons of individual metallic NPs can be strongly coupled to each other via Coulomb interactions. By arranging the metallic NPs in a chiral (e.g. helical) geometry, it is possible to induce collective excitations, which lead to differential optical response of the structures to right- and left circularly polarized light (e.g. Circular Dichroism - CD). Earlier reports in this field include novel techniques of synthesizing metallic nanoparticles on biological helical templates made from DNA, proteins etc. In the present work, we have developed new ways of fabricating chiral complexes made of metallic NPs, which demonstrate a very strong chiro-optical response in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Using DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation) simulations, we theoretically studied the conditions responsible for large and broadband chiro-optical response. This system may be used for various applications, for example those related to polarization control of visible light, sensing of proteins and other chiral bio-molecules, and many more.

  13. High-harmonic generation by nonlinear resonant excitation of surface plasmon modes in metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Jérôme; Haas, Fernando; Manfredi, Giovanni; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine

    2014-04-01

    The nonlinear electron dynamics in metallic nanoparticles is studied using a hydrodynamic model that incorporates most quantum many-body features, including spill-out and nonlocal effects as well as electron exchange and correlations. We show that, by irradiating the nanoparticle with a chirped laser pulse of modest intensity (autoresonance), it is possible to drive the electron dynamics far into the nonlinear regime, leading to enhanced energy absorption and complete ionization of the nanoparticle on a time scale of the order of 100 fs. The accompanying radiated power spectrum is rich in high-order harmonics.

  14. In-situ TEM imaging of the anisotropic etching of graphene by metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiake; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Hao; Tian, Xuezeng; Yang, Shize; Wang, Lifen; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong

    2014-11-21

    Few-layer graphene was successfully tailored with smooth edges along crystallographic directions by Joule heating-driven tungsten nanoparticles inside a transmission electron microscope. The dynamic process was monitored in real time at the atomic resolution level. These high-resolution in-situ observations show that the neighboring graphene layers joined together to form closed edges, which is in contrast to the supposed open edges formed with hydrogen passivation. The tungsten nanoparticles transformed to W₂C in the intermediate stage of etching and to WC after etching, suggesting that carbon dissolution helped the continuous action of the metal nanoparticles in the catalytic anisotropic etching reaction. PMID:25361213

  15. Revealing the nanoparticles aspect ratio in the glass-metal nanocomposites irradiated with femtosecond laser

    PubMed Central

    Chervinskii, S.; Drevinskas, R.; Karpov, D. V.; Beresna, M.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Svirko, Yu. P.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    We studied a femtosecond laser shaping of silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass. Comparing experimental absorption spectra with the modeling based on Maxwell Garnett approximation modified for spheroidal inclusions, we obtained the mean aspect ratio of the re-shaped silver nanoparticles as a function of the laser fluence. We demonstrated that under our experimental conditions the spherical shape of silver nanoparticles changed to a prolate spheroid with the aspect ratio as high as 3.5 at the laser fluence of 0.6 J/cm2. The developed approach can be employed to control the anisotropy of the glass-metal composites. PMID:26348691

  16. Revealing the nanoparticles aspect ratio in the glass-metal nanocomposites irradiated with femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervinskii, S.; Drevinskas, R.; Karpov, D. V.; Beresna, M.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Svirko, Yu. P.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2015-09-01

    We studied a femtosecond laser shaping of silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass. Comparing experimental absorption spectra with the modeling based on Maxwell Garnett approximation modified for spheroidal inclusions, we obtained the mean aspect ratio of the re-shaped silver nanoparticles as a function of the laser fluence. We demonstrated that under our experimental conditions the spherical shape of silver nanoparticles changed to a prolate spheroid with the aspect ratio as high as 3.5 at the laser fluence of 0.6 J/cm2. The developed approach can be employed to control the anisotropy of the glass-metal composites.

  17. Revealing the nanoparticles aspect ratio in the glass-metal nanocomposites irradiated with femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Chervinskii, S; Drevinskas, R; Karpov, D V; Beresna, M; Lipovskii, A A; Svirko, Yu P; Kazansky, P G

    2015-01-01

    We studied a femtosecond laser shaping of silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass. Comparing experimental absorption spectra with the modeling based on Maxwell Garnett approximation modified for spheroidal inclusions, we obtained the mean aspect ratio of the re-shaped silver nanoparticles as a function of the laser fluence. We demonstrated that under our experimental conditions the spherical shape of silver nanoparticles changed to a prolate spheroid with the aspect ratio as high as 3.5 at the laser fluence of 0.6 J/cm2. The developed approach can be employed to control the anisotropy of the glass-metal composites. PMID:26348691

  18. Potential to raise the efficiency of neutron and neutron-photon therapy using metal nonradioactive nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatov, M. L.

    2016-07-01

    The use of metal nonradioactive nanoparticles (specifically, gold ones) in neutron and neutron-photon cancer therapy is proposed. The minimum therapeutically effective average density of gold within a tumor subjected to neutron irradiation is estimated as a value on the order of 10-5-10-4 g/cm3. Potential benefits of the use of data obtained when using Peteosthor (a drug containing 224Ra and colloidal platinum) and Thorotrast (a radiopaque contrast agent containing thorium oxide nanoparticles) and its analogues in the analysis of safety and efficiency of application of nonradioactive nanoparticles in radiation therapy and diagnostics are discussed.

  19. A new bio-inspired route to metal-nanoparticle-based heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Debecker, Damien P; Faure, Chrystel; Meyre, Marie-Edith; Derré, Alain; Gaigneaux, Eric M

    2008-10-01

    Onion-type multilamellar vesicles are made of concentric bilayers of organic surfactant and are mainly known for their potential applications in biotechnology. They can be used as microreactors for the spontaneous and controlled production of metal nanoparticles. This process does not require any thermal treatment and, hence, it is also attractive for material sciences such as heterogeneous catalysis. In this paper, silver-nanoparticle-based catalysts are prepared by transferring onion-grown silver nanoparticles onto inorganic supports. The resulting materials are active in the total oxidation of benzene, attesting that this novel bio-inspired concept is promising in inorganic catalysis. PMID:18844300

  20. Comparative study on the uptake and bioimpact of metal nanoparticles released into environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andries, Maria; Pricop, Daniela; Grigoras, Marian; Lupu, Nicoleta; Sacarescu, Liviu; Creanga, Dorina; Iacomi, Felicia

    2015-12-01

    Metallic particles of very small size are ubiquitously released in the air, water and soil from various natural and artificial sources - the last ones with enhanced extent since nanotechnology development accelerated exponentially. In this study we focused on the impact of metal nanoparticles in vegetal species of agroindustrial interest namely the maize (Zea mais L.). Laboratory simulation of environmental pollution was carried out by using engineered nanoparticles of two types: iron oxides with magnetic properties and gold nanoparticles supplied in the form of dilutes stable suspensions in the culture medium of maize seedlings. Magnetic nanoparticle (MNPs) preparation was performed by applying chemical route from iron ferric and ferrous precursor salts in alkali reaction medium at relatively high temperature (over 80 °C). Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) synthesis was accomplished from auric hydrochloride acid in alkali reaction medium in similar temperature conditions. In both types of metallic nanoparticles citrate ions were used as coating shell with role of suspension stabilization. Plantlet response was assessed at the level of assimilatory pigment contents in green tissue of seedlings in early ontogenetic stages.