Science.gov

Sample records for implementation research selecting

  1. Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

  2. Selection and Implementation of the ISO9001 Standard to Support Biobanking Research Infrastructure Development.

    PubMed

    Davis, Emma; Hampson, Katie; Bray, Christopher; Dixon, Kate; Ollier, William; Yuille, Martin

    2012-04-01

    The UK DNA Banking Network (UDBN) undertakes biobanking for genetic epidemiology research projects. A task assigned to it is the addition of scientific value to the resources under its management. This task is implemented by enabling appropriate access to the resources. We reasoned that access requires not only a fair access policy but also a quality policy implemented via a Quality Management System (QMS). UDBN decided to achieve consistency in sample management by identifying and implementing a suitable QMS with external certification. UDBN selected ISO9001 as a QMS. It was soon recognized that the QMS needed to encompass not only UDBN but also the academic department in which UDBN sits. An external certification body was selected and a post was dedicated to the role of QMS-Management Representative. Specialized software was acquired. A Quality Manual, individual training files and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) were prepared. QMS training was provided. These actions led to the approval of the ISO9001:2000 standard. This is the first report of an academic genetic epidemiology research laboratory receiving approval of the ISO9001 standard to validate the consistency of its operations. ISO9001 was selected because of its greater breadth of scope compared with other QMSs. We found that while laboratory protocols are transferable between labs, QMS SOPs are not transferable. This has consequences for efforts to ensure consistency across a biobank network: joint adoption of one multiparty QMS is probably required. We found that it was not possible to implement a QMS for biobanking in isolation: its host university department needed to be included. We have found that ISO9001 helps enable longitudinal accrual of data on the use of biobanking methods. Thus ISO9001 is not only a management tool to improve access to a biobanking research infrastructure but also a research tool for research infrastructure development. PMID:24844905

  3. Challenges and Practices in Building and Implementing Biosafety and Biosecurity Programs to Enable Basic and Translational Research with Select Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Colleen B.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Roy, Chad J.; Perlin, David S.; Byrne, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Select agent research in the United States must meet federally-mandated biological surety guidelines and rules which are comprised of two main components: biosecurity and biosafety. Biosecurity is the process employed for ensuring biological agents are properly safeguarded against theft, loss, diversion, unauthorized access or use/release. Biosafety is those processes that ensure that operations with such agents are conducted in a safe, secure and reliable manner. As such, a biological surety program is generally concerned with biological agents that present high risk for adverse medical and/or agricultural consequences upon release outside of proper containment. The U.S. Regional and National Biocontainment Laboratories (RBL, NBL) represent expertise in this type of research, and are actively engaged in the development of programs to address these critical needs and federal requirements. While this comprises an ongoing activity for the RBLs, NBLs and other facilities that handle select agents as new guidelines and regulations are implemented, the present article is written with the goal of presenting a simplified yet comprehensive review of these requirements. Herein, we discuss the requirements and the various activities that the RBL/NBL programs have implemented to achieve these metrics set forth by various agencies within the U.S. Federal government. PMID:24900945

  4. Implementing Research Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Calvin

    2006-01-01

    Special education research has undergone one of the most significant developments in the history of education during the past two decades (Gersten, Vaughn, Deshler, & Schiller, 1997). These developments can be related to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 and the resulting knowledge about teaching individuals with…

  5. Life Review: Implementation, Theory, Research, and Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2006-01-01

    A selective literature review of publications on life review generated ideas on implementation, theory, research, and therapy. The review begins by differentiating life review from reminiscence, and summarizing ways to conduct a life review. A dozen theories that have been influenced by the life review technique are presented, with a focus placed…

  6. Analysis of Selected Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmick, Aileen

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes selected research articles published in 1993 that address issues affecting school library media centers. Highlights include collection of circulation statistics, staffing patterns, challenges to library materials, technology utilization, library automation, access to children's literature by Spanish-speaking children, library networks,…

  7. Action Research and ICT Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumsvik, Rune

    2012-01-01

    This emancipatory action research study investigates implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) in schools. The case study examined retrospectively was part of a Norwegian ICT project called PILOT, the focus of which concerns the impact on school development of a locally developed Internet subject portal and study periods.…

  8. Never the twain shall meet? - a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many of society’s health problems require research-based knowledge acted on by healthcare practitioners together with implementation of political measures from governmental agencies. However, there has been limited knowledge exchange between implementation science and policy implementation research, which has been conducted since the early 1970s. Based on a narrative review of selective literature on implementation science and policy implementation research, the aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of policy implementation research, analyze key similarities and differences between this field and implementation science, and discuss how knowledge assembled in policy implementation research could inform implementation science. Discussion Following a brief overview of policy implementation research, several aspects of the two fields were described and compared: the purpose and origins of the research; the characteristics of the research; the development and use of theory; determinants of change (independent variables); and the impact of implementation (dependent variables). The comparative analysis showed that there are many similarities between the two fields, yet there are also profound differences. Still, important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research, including issues related to the influence of the context of implementation and the values and norms of the implementers (the healthcare practitioners) on implementation processes. Relevant research on various associated policy topics, including The Advocacy Coalition Framework, Governance Theory, and Institutional Theory, may also contribute to improved understanding of the difficulties of implementing evidence in healthcare. Implementation science is at a relatively early stage of development, and advancement of the field would benefit from accounting for knowledge beyond the parameters of the immediate implementation science literature. Summary

  9. Research on Curriculum and Instruction Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Pomfret, Alan

    1977-01-01

    The definition of implementation, its potential determinants and evaluation methods are explained by reviewing research on the process of curriculum and organizational implementation in the schools. (Author/MV)

  10. Implementation Research and Wraparound Literature: Building a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Rosalyn M.; Suter, Jesse C.; Bruns, Eric J.; O'Rourke, Koren E.

    2011-01-01

    We used the framework identified by the National Implementation Research Network's (NIRN) analysis of 35 years of implementation outcomes literature from diverse fields of endeavor to review the current state of wraparound implementation research. Model definition, model fidelity and intervention outcomes were areas of relatively greater…

  11. Selected considerations of implementation of the GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cwiklak, Janusz; Fellner, Andrzej; Fellner, Radoslaw; Jafernik, Henryk; Sledzinski, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    The article describes analysis of the safety and risk for the implementation of precise approach procedures (Localizer Performance and Vertical Guidance - LPV) with GNSS sensor at airports in Warsaw and Katowice. There were used some techniques of the identification of threats (inducing controlled flight into terrain, landing accident, mid-air collision) and evaluations methods based on Fault Tree Analysis, probability of the risk, safety risk evaluation matrix and Functional Hazard Assesment. Also safety goals were determined. Research led to determine probabilities of appearing of threats, as well as allow compare them with regard to the ILS. As a result of conducting the Preliminary System Safety Assessment (PSSA), there were defined requirements essential to reach the required level of the safety. It is worth to underline, that quantitative requirements were defined using FTA.

  12. Design and Implementation of Collaborative Research Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venti, Mike W.; Berger, David E.

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the collarborative research approaches that NASA has been designing and implementing for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. The inputs for the technical plan are reviewed, the Research Test and Integration Plan (RTIP) WIKI, is used to create and propose a multi-themed and multi-partner research testing opportunities. The outputs are testing opportunities.

  13. Implementing the Astronomy Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucili, Leonarda

    My research and teaching are founded on the belief that the understanding and effective learning of astronomical concepts are strongly related to the perception of phenomena and to emotions that nature and sky bring out in us. Students must be guided to find in the sky the same fascination and wish of knowledge that has always led mankind to observe astronomical phenomena and organise space and time. The main points of my method are: 1. inducing students to take an interest in the content to see something meaningful and become engaged in the search for it 2. investigating students’ pre-knowledge making explicit the presence of misconceptions and conceptual gaps and turning them into a problem students want to work on 3. focusing in “concept maps” the essentials of the discipline and the connections between concepts goals and topics 4. spending long time in the outdoors observing measuring constructing instruments before developing models and theoretical explanations 5. improving an inquiring attitude giving preference to questions over answers 6. seeing connections between the scientific disciplines and the humanities 7. making students aware of the path they are following. My work will be supplied with documentary evidence during the presentation.

  14. Advanced aerodynamics. Selected NASA research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains selected NASA papers that were presented at the Fifth Annual Status Review of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Energy Efficient Transport (EET) Program held at Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California on September 14 to 15, 1981. These papers describe the status of several NASA in-house research activities in the areas of advanced turboprops, natural laminar flow, oscillating control surfaces, high-Reynolds-number airfoil tests, high-lift technology, and theoretical design techniques.

  15. Media Selection during the Implementation of Planned Organizational Change: A Predictive Framework Based on Implementation Approach and Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, C. Erik

    2003-01-01

    Integrates literature that addresses implementation approaches and phases with media selection research to provide a descriptive framework for understanding and predicting media use during planned change implementation. Concludes by synthesizing the findings that emerge from the integration of these bodies of literature and describing implications…

  16. Implementing STAR: Sensible Technology Assessment/Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; Herman, Joan L.

    A plan for evaluating the Apple Classroom of Tomorrow (ACOT) is presented, which implements the model for Sensible Technology Assessment/Research (STAR). STAR involves interactive participation in the evaluation study by ACOT participants, collateral university researchers, and University of California (Los Angeles) staff to develop a credible,…

  17. Selected Technology Lab Activities Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    These materials supplement state guides for junior high or middle school technology education programs. The materials show instructors how to implement 81 hours of new technology-related activities into existing programs. Introductory materials include a rationale, philosophy, and goals for technology education. Areas of instruction are as…

  18. Selecting and Implementing a Word Processor in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Sarah Hendrickson

    1983-01-01

    Relates experiences in selecting and implementing a word processor in Technical Information Services Office of Institute for Defense Analyses. Highlights include needs assessment; selecting the system (system functions, vendor reputation); recommendation and justification; implementation plan (training, developing procedures, catalog cards,…

  19. Research Implementation and Quality Assurance Project Plan: An Evaluation of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This project is a research collaboration between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General (OIG) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC), for the purpose of evaluating the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing technology for post-closure monitoring of residual contamination at delisted and closed hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act [CERCLA (also known as 'Superfund')] of 1980 and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986.

  20. Perioperative Research Fellowship: Planning, Implementation, Experience

    PubMed Central

    Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Mazumdar, Madhu; Stundner, Ottokar; Hargett, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative outcomes research has gained widespread interest and is viewed as increasingly important among different specialties, including anesthesiology. Outcome research studies serve to help in the adjustment of risk, allocation of resources, and formulation of hypotheses to guide future research. Pursuing high quality research projects requires familiarity with a wide range of research methodologies, and concepts are ideally learned in a dedicated setting. Skills associated with the use of these methodologies as well as with scientific publishing in general, however, are increasingly challenging to acquire. This article is intended to describe the curriculum and implementation of the Perioperative Medicine and Regional Anesthesia Research Fellowship at the Hospital for Special Surgery. We also propose a methodology to evaluate the success of a research fellowship curriculum. PMID:24942850

  1. Implementing Vision Research in Special Needs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor Birkeland; Aanstad, Monica L.; Leirvik, Eva Iren B.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents experiences from vision research implemented in education and argues for the need for teachers with visual competence and insight into suitable methods for stimulation and learning. A new type of continuing professional development (CPD) focuses on the role of vision in children's learning and development, the consequences of…

  2. Research without borders: fostering innovative clinical research and implementation.

    PubMed

    Xian, Ying; Peterson, Eric D

    2015-09-01

    Stroke remains one of the major killers worldwide. Addressing this epidemic will require combined efforts of researchers (bench, translational, clinical, epidemiologists, outcomes, and implementation scientists) as well as all forms of health care workers and policy experts. However, the translation of bench findings into bedside has been a challenge. Improved strategies for clinical research are needed to shorten the time required to translate bench findings into patient care. Large national or even globe stroke registries are uniquely positioned to advance the science by providing a rich data source for disease and post marketing surveillance, comparative effectiveness and safety research, and ultimately dissemination of clinical trials findings to routine clinical practice. Fostering innovative clinical research and implementation through international collaborations provides an unprecedented opportunity to tackle the globe of stroke. PMID:25973646

  3. Collaborative action research: implementation of cooperative learning.

    PubMed

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning. PMID:20210268

  4. Dryden Flight Research Center Critical Chain Project Management Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Dennis O.

    2012-01-01

    In Fiscal Year 2011 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) implemented a new project management system called Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM). Recent NASA audits have found that the Dryden workforce is strained under increasing project demand and that multi-tasking has been carried to a whole new level at Dryden. It is very common to have an individual work on 10 different projects during a single pay period. Employee surveys taken at Dryden have identified work/life balance as the number one issue concerning employees. Further feedback from the employees indicated that project planning is the area needing the most improvement. In addition, employees have been encouraged to become more innovative, improve job skills, and seek ways to improve overall job efficiency. In order to deal with these challenges, DFRC management decided to adopt the CCPM system that is specifically designed to operate in a resource constrained multi-project environment. This paper will discuss in detail the rationale behind the selection of CCPM and the goals that will be achieved through this implementation. The paper will show how DFRC is tailoring the CCPM system to the flight research environment as well as laying out the implementation strategy. Results of the ongoing implementation will be discussed as well as change management challenges and organizational cultural changes. Finally this paper will present some recommendations on how this system could be used by selected NASA projects or centers.

  5. Tool for evaluating research implementation challenges: A sense-making protocol for addressing implementation challenges in complex research settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many challenges arise in complex organizational interventions that threaten research integrity. This article describes a Tool for Evaluating Research Implementation Challenges (TECH), developed using a complexity science framework to assist research teams in assessing and managing these challenges. Methods During the implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of organizational interventions to reduce resident falls in eight nursing homes, we inductively developed, and later codified the TECH. The TECH was developed through processes that emerged from interactions among research team members and nursing home staff participants, including a purposive use of complexity science principles. Results The TECH provided a structure to assess challenges systematically, consider their potential impact on intervention feasibility and fidelity, and determine actions to take. We codified the process into an algorithm that can be adopted or adapted for other research projects. We present selected examples of the use of the TECH that are relevant to many complex interventions. Conclusions Complexity theory provides a useful lens through which research procedures can be developed to address implementation challenges that emerge from complex organizations and research designs. Sense-making is a group process in which diverse members interpret challenges when available information is ambiguous; the groups’ interpretations provide cues for taking action. Sense-making facilitates the creation of safe environments for generating innovative solutions that balance research integrity and practical issues. The challenges encountered during implementation of complex interventions are often unpredictable; however, adoption of a systematic process will allow investigators to address them in a consistent yet flexible manner, protecting fidelity. Research integrity is also protected by allowing for appropriate adaptations to intervention protocols that

  6. Implementation Practice and Implementation Research: A Report from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, John S.; Phillips, Elizabeth; Pancake, Laura; O, Anne; Lewis, Jenebah; Duke, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The Interventions and Practice Research Infrastructure Program (IPRISP) funding mechanism was introduced by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to bridge the gap between the worlds of services research and the usual care practice in the community. The goal was to build infrastructure that would provide a platform for research to…

  7. HSI in NASA: From Research to Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Plaga, John A.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA plans to send human explorers beyond low Earth orbit, onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system, there will be new challenges to address in terms of HSI. These exploration missions will be quite different from the current and past missions such as Apollo, Shuttle, and International Space Station. The exploration crew will be more autonomous from ground mission control with delayed, and at times, no communication. They will have limited to no resupply for much longer mission durations. Systems to deliver and support extended human habitation at these destinations are extremely complex and unique, presenting new opportunities to employ HSI practices. In order to have an effective and affordable HSI implementation, both research and programmatic efforts are required. Currently, the HSI-related research at NASA is primarily in the area of space human factors and habitability. The purpose is to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit, and update standards, requirements, and processes to verify and validate these requirements. In addition, HSI teams are actively engaged in technology development and demonstration efforts to influence the mission architecture and next-generation vehicle design. Finally, appropriate HSI references have been added to NASA' s systems engineering documentation, and an HSI Practitioner's Guide has been published to help design engineers consider HSI early and continuously in the acquisition process. These current and planned HSI-related activities at NASA will be discussed in this panel.

  8. Selecting Research Collections for Digitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Dan; Horrell, Jeffrey; Merrill-Oldham, Jan

    This document proposes a model of the decision making process required of research libraries when they embark on digital conversion projects. A series of questions are offered that focus on facilitating the decision making process for library managers. Questions of what and how to digitize are placed in the larger framework of collection building…

  9. SELECTED WATER DECONTAMINATION RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Federation (WEF), through funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD), will host the first of three regional water sector stakeholder workshops March 15-17, 2005 at the Phoenix Marriot...

  10. Implementing Authentic Astronomy Research in the Classroom: The TLRBSE Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Croft, S. K.; Walker, C. E.; Lockwood, J.; McCarthy, D.; Rector, T.; Howell, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) is an NSF-funded program which has as one of its primary goals the implementation of authentic research in the classroom. To achieve this goal, TLRBSE provides an in-depth professional development experience for teachers which includes a semester-long on-line course on research pedagogy, research tools (such as image processing), and astronomy content knowledge. Participants come to the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in Tucson in the summer for two weeks in order to hone their skills and interact with scientists. They also pursue research projects led by a TLRBSE leader in one of several astronomy areas including novae, active galactic nuclei, solar magnetic fields, and spectroscopy of variable stars using research telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The teachers have access to the data they have taken at the telescope as well as to extensive archival data sets taken by previous TLRBSE teachers. These ongoing research projects are then brought back to the classroom where teachers and students can continue their research in these areas. The student research results are then submitted for review and publication in NOAO's Research Based Science Education Journal. The TLRBSE model is being extended by providing a variety of additional research experiences for teachers and students during the school year, using the same telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory used in the summer program. Teachers and students from the program apply for additional research time during the school year and can come to the observatory to make observations for new or continuing projects. As remote telescopes become more widely available, the teachers and students will be able to observe from their home locations and access their observations directly over the internet. Some of the key issues in our program are teacher selection, organization and logistics of the distance learning course, workshop

  11. An Overview of Evaluation Research on Selected Educational Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resources Group, Inc.

    This paper reviews selected literature on education/business partnerships (EBPs), highlighting the status of partnership evaluations and current methodologies. Research by S. Otterbourg and D. Adams (1989), which surveyed about 24 EBPs to ascertain planning, implementation, and evaluation priorities, showed that only 25% of the programs used…

  12. Guidance for Schools Selecting Antibullying Approaches: Translating Evidence-Based Strategies to Contemporary Implementation Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansary, Nadia S.; Elias, Maurice J.; Greene, Michael B.; Green, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This article synthesizes the current research on bullying prevention and intervention in order to provide guidance to schools seeking to select and implement antibullying strategies. Evidence-based best practices that are shared across generally effective antibullying approaches are elucidated, and these strategies are grounded in examples…

  13. Optimizing Clinical Research Participant Selection with Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical research participants are often not reflective of the real-world patients due to overly restrictive eligibility criteria. Meanwhile, unselected participants introduce confounding factors and reduce research efficiency. Biomedical Informatics, especially Big Data increasingly made available from electronic health records, offers promising aids to optimize research participant selection through data-driven transparency. PMID:26549161

  14. Distributed models for operational river forecasting: research, development, and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.

    2003-04-01

    Model Intercomparison Project- DMIP) in order to identify which model or process algorithms would benefit the NWS mission. DMIP has also been designed to understand issues such as the use of operational data, the amount of calibration required, and methods of deriving initial parameter estimates. DMIP has garnered participation from 12 research institutions in the US and abroad, including China, Canada, and Denmark. Simultaneously, HL has developed a flexible modeling system that can be used to develop and evaluate various rainfall runoff models and modeling approaches (gridded distributed, semi distributed, and lumped). HL has successfully participated in DMIP with a gridded distributed model consisting of the SAC-SMA and kinematic routing in each computational element. As a result of DMIP, the NWS has decided to move ahead with the implementation of the HL distributed model. As with the research effort, a specific implementation plan is being followed. First, a prototype version of the research distributed model is being run at the one RFC for real time operations. Short term software development is being conducted to make this research version more user friendly. Long term software development is planned to derive a system to efficiently support operational distributed modeling. Long term research will also continue into new rainfall/runoff/routing models and well as parameter estimation, calibration and state updating issues. Formal implementation includes a transition phase in which the new distributed model will be run parallel to the current lumped model in selected basins, providing the forecaster with two simulations for decision making. Moreover, such a transition period will provide much needed exposure and training. Problems identified to date with the deployment of distributed models include the addition of a snow model, issues relating to the quality of the NEXRAD data, methods of parameterizing and calibrating a distributed model, methods of state

  15. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Implementation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article introduces implementation science, which focuses on research methods that promote the systematic application of research findings to practice. Method: The narrative defines implementation science and highlights the importance of moving research along the pipeline from basic science to practice as one way to facilitate…

  16. Clinical governance implementation in a selected teaching emergency department: a systems approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical governance (CG) is among the different frameworks proposed to improve the quality of healthcare. Iran, like many other countries, has put healthcare quality improvement in its top health policy priorities. In November 2009, implementation of CG became a task for all hospitals across the country. However, it has been a challenge to clarify the notion of CG and the way to implement it in Iran. The purpose of this action research study is to understand how CG can be defined and implemented in a selected teaching emergency department (ED). Methods/design We will use Soft Systems Methodology for both designing the study and inquiring into its content. As we considered a complex problem situation regarding the quality of care in the selected ED, we initially conceptualized CG as a cyclic set of purposeful activities designed to explore the situation and find relevant changes to improve the quality of care. Then, implementation of CG will conceptually be to carry out that set of purposeful activities. The activities will be about: understanding the situation and finding out relevant issues concerning the quality of care; exploring different stakeholders’ views and ideas about the situation and how it can be improved; and defining actions to improve the quality of care through structured debates and development of accommodations among stakeholders. We will flexibly use qualitative methods of data collection and analysis in the course of the study. To ensure the study rigor, we will use different strategies. Discussion Successful implementation of CG, like other quality improvement frameworks, requires special consideration of underlying complexities. We believe that addressing the complex situation and reflections on involvement in this action research will make it possible to understand the concept of CG and its implementation in the selected setting. By describing the context and executed flexible methods of implementation, the results of this study

  17. Implementing DSpace at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Greta

    2007-01-01

    This presentation looks at the implementation of the DSpace institutional repository system at the NASA Langley Technical Library. NASA Langley Technical Library implemented DSpace software as a replacement for the Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS). DSpace was also used to develop the Langley Technical Library Digital Repository (LTLDR). LTLDR contains archival copies of core technical reports in the aeronautics area dating back to the NACA era and other specialized collections relevant to the NASA Langley community. Extensive metadata crosswalks were created to facilitate moving data from various systems and formats to DSpace. The Dublin Core metadata screens were also customized. The OpenURL standard and Ex Libris Metalib are being used in this environment to assist our customers with either discovering full-text content or with initiating a request for the item.

  18. flankr: An R package implementing computational models of attentional selectivity.

    PubMed

    Grange, James A

    2016-06-01

    The Eriksen flanker task (Eriksen and Eriksen, Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143-149, 1974) is a classic test in cognitive psychology of visual selective attention. Two recent computational models have formalised the dynamics of the apparent increasing attentional selectivity during stimulus processing, but with very different theoretical underpinnings: The shrinking spotlight (SSP) model (White et al., Cognitive Psychology, 210-238, 2011) assumes attentional selectivity improves in a gradual, continuous manner; the dual stage two phase (DSTP) model (Hübner et al., Psychological Review, 759-784, 2010) assumes attentional selectivity changes from a low- to a high-mode of selectivity at a discrete time-point. This paper presents an R package-flankr-that instantiates both computational models. flankr allows the user to simulate data from both models, and to fit each model to human data. flankr provides statistics of the goodness-of-fit to human data, allowing users to engage in competitive model comparison of the DSTP and the SSP models on their own data. It is hoped that the utility of flankr lies in allowing more researchers to engage in the important issue of the dynamics of attentional selectivity. PMID:26174713

  19. Next Steps in Implementing Kaput's Research Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard

    2008-01-01

    We explore some key constructs and research themes initiated by Jim Kaput, and attempt to illuminate them further with reference to our own research. These "design principles" focus on the evolution of digital representations since the early 1990s, and we attempt to take forward our collective understanding of the cognitive and cultural…

  20. Selection bias in rheumatic disease research

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyon K.; Nguyen, Uyen-Sa; Niu, Jingbo; Danaei, Goodarz; Zhang, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable risk factors for the development of rheumatic conditions and their sequelae is crucial for reducing the substantial worldwide burden of these diseases. However, the validity of such research can be threatened by sources of bias, including confounding, measurement and selection biases. In this Review, we discuss potentially major issues of selection bias—a type of bias frequently overshadowed by other bias and feasibility issues, despite being equally or more problematic—in key areas of rheumatic disease research. We present index event bias (a type of selection bias) as one of the potentially unifying reasons behind some unexpected findings, such as the ‘risk factor paradox’—a phenomenon exemplified by the discrepant effects of certain risk factors on the development versus the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also discuss potential selection biases owing to differential loss to follow-up in RA and OA research, as well as those due to the depletion of susceptibles (prevalent user bias) and immortal time bias. The lesson remains that selection bias can be ubiquitous and, therefore, has the potential to lead the field astray. Thus, we conclude with suggestions to help investigators avoid such issues and limit the impact on future rheumatology research. PMID:24686510

  1. Science Selections. Accounts of Ongoing Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornberg, Warren, Ed.

    This publication is intended to present science teachers with an opportunity to communicate to students the idea that science is an ongoing and never-ending process. The booklet contains supplemental materials, valuable as enrichment materials. A selection of ongoing research in the biological sciences, physics and astronomy, oceanography,…

  2. Implementation of Treatments in Research and Practice: Commentary on the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, George H.

    2014-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue both advance what is currently known about treatment implementation in research and practice and illuminate what remains unknown. This article provides a commentary selectively linking current findings to prior research to make arguments regarding those facts that are well established and the gaps in…

  3. The Research Implementation Process: Some Reflections and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.

    1970-01-01

    Barriers to an understanding of the research implementation process are discussed. The purposes of the research utilization conference, a new element in this process, include intensive study of specific results to determine implications of the research for practice and future examination. (Author)

  4. Research and Implementation of Heart Sound Denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Yutai; Wang, Yanxiang

    Heart sound is one of the most important signals. However, the process of getting heart sound signal can be interfered with many factors outside. Heart sound is weak electric signal and even weak external noise may lead to the misjudgment of pathological and physiological information in this signal, thus causing the misjudgment of disease diagnosis. As a result, it is a key to remove the noise which is mixed with heart sound. In this paper, a more systematic research and analysis which is involved in heart sound denoising based on matlab has been made. The study of heart sound denoising based on matlab firstly use the powerful image processing function of matlab to transform heart sound signals with noise into the wavelet domain through wavelet transform and decomposition these signals in muli-level. Then for the detail coefficient, soft thresholding is made using wavelet transform thresholding to eliminate noise, so that a signal denoising is significantly improved. The reconstructed signals are gained with stepwise coefficient reconstruction for the processed detail coefficient. Lastly, 50HZ power frequency and 35 Hz mechanical and electrical interference signals are eliminated using a notch filter.

  5. Implementing stationary-phase optimized selectivity in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, Sander; Lynen, Frédéric

    2014-12-16

    The performance of stationary-phase optimized selectivity liquid chromatography (SOS-LC) for improved separation of complex mixtures has been demonstrated before. A dedicated kit containing column segments of different lengths and packed with different stationary phases is commercially available together with algorithms capable of predicting and ranking isocratic and gradient separations over vast amounts of possible column combinations. Implementation in chromatographic separations involving compressible fluids, as is the case in supercritical fluid chromatography, had thus far not been attempted. The challenge of this approach is the dependency of solute retention with the mobile-phase density, complicating linear extrapolation of retention over longer or shorter columns segments, as is the case in conventional SOS-LC. In this study, the possibilities of performing stationary-phase optimized selectivity supercritical fluid chromatography (SOS-SFC) are demonstrated with typical low density mobile phases (94% CO2). The procedure is optimized with the commercially available column kit and with the classical isocratic SOS-LC algorithm. SOS-SFC appears possible without any density correction, although optimal correspondence between prediction and experiment is obtained when isopycnic conditions are maintained. As also the influence of the segment order appears significantly less relevant than expected, the use of the approach in SFC appears as promising as is the case in HPLC. Next to the classical use of SOS for faster baseline separation of all solutes in a mixture, the benefits of the approach for predicting as wide as possible separation windows around to-be-purified solutes in semipreparative SFC are illustrated, leading to significant production rate improvements in (semi)preparative SFC. PMID:25393519

  6. Patterns in Implementing Comprehensive School Reform: What the Researchers Say. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan

    Implementation of school reform is a much-studied and often-discussed topic among researchers and educators alike. To hear what researchers have to say about this issue, questions were put to the Network of Researchers about what trends and patterns they see in schools implementing comprehensive school reform. Researchers agree that it is…

  7. Comparative Effectiveness and Implementation Research: Directions for Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Vickrey, Barbara G.; Hirtz, Deborah; Waddy, Salina; Cheng, Eric M.; Johnston, S. Claiborne

    2013-01-01

    There is an enormous unmet need for knowledge about how new insights from discovery and translational research can yield measurable, population-level improvements in health and reduction in mortality among those having or at risk for neurological disease. Once several, well-conducted randomized controlled trials establish the efficacy of a given therapy, implementation research can generate new knowledge about barriers to uptake of the therapy into widespread clinical care, and what strategies are effective in overcoming those barriers and in addressing health disparities. Comparative effectiveness research aims to elucidate the relative value (including clinical benefit, clinical harms, and/or costs) of alternative efficacious management approaches to a neurological disorder, generally through direct comparisons, and may include comparisons of methodologies for implementation. Congress has recently appropriated resources and established an institute to prioritize funding for such research. Neurologists and neuroscientists should understand the scope and objectives of comparative effectiveness and implementation research, their range of methodological approaches (formal literature syntheses, randomized trials, observational studies, modeling), and existing research resources (centers for literature synthesis, registries, practice networks) relevant to research for neurological conditions, in order to close the well-documented “evidence-to-practice gap.” Future directions include building this research resource capacity, producing scientists trained to conduct rigorous comparative effectiveness and implementation research, and embracing innovative strategies to set research priorities in these areas. PMID:22718542

  8. Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research. PMID:23062065

  9. Comprehensive School Reform: The Implementation Gap. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Does Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) work? Research results have been mixed. Some studies have measured a modest improvement in student achievement; others have found no effect. A team of RAND researchers has approached the question of CSR's effectiveness by first focusing on an even more basic question: Has CSR been implemented? A shortcoming…

  10. Challenges and Dilemmas in Implementing Random Assignment in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong-Dean, Colin; Hofstetter, Carolyn Huie; Strick, Betsy R.

    2011-01-01

    In the contentious debate over the use of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in education research, little attention has been given to how methodological issues arise and/or are resolved in the implementation of random assignment. Following a review of the methodological-theoretical literature on RCTs and alternative research designs, this article…

  11. Research-Based Implementation of Peer Instruction: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vickrey, Trisha; Rosploch, Kaitlyn; Rahmanian, Reihaneh; Pilarz, Matthew; Stains, Marilyne

    2015-01-01

    Current instructional reforms in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses have focused on enhancing adoption of evidence-based instructional practices among STEM faculty members. These practices have been empirically demonstrated to enhance student learning and attitudes. However, research indicates that instructors often adapt rather than adopt practices, unknowingly compromising their effectiveness. Thus, there is a need to raise awareness of the research-based implementation of these practices, develop fidelity of implementation protocols to understand adaptations being made, and ultimately characterize the true impact of reform efforts based on these practices. Peer instruction (PI) is an example of an evidence-based instructional practice that consists of asking students conceptual questions during class time and collecting their answers via clickers or response cards. Extensive research has been conducted by physics and biology education researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of this practice and to better understand the intricacies of its implementation. PI has also been investigated in other disciplines, such as chemistry and computer science. This article reviews and summarizes these various bodies of research and provides instructors and researchers with a research-based model for the effective implementation of PI. Limitations of current studies and recommendations for future empirical inquiries are also provided. PMID:25713095

  12. Breeding schemes for the implementation of genomic selection in wheat (Triticum spp.).

    PubMed

    Bassi, Filippo M; Bentley, Alison R; Charmet, Gilles; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Crossa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the breeding technology referred to as 'genomic selection' (GS) has been implemented in a variety of species, with particular success in animal breeding. Recent research shows the potential of GS to reshape wheat breeding. Many authors have concluded that the estimated genetic gain per year applying GS is several times that of conventional breeding. GS is, however, a new technology for wheat breeding and many programs worldwide are still struggling to identify the best strategy for its implementation. This article provides practical guidelines on the key considerations when implementing GS. A review of the existing GS literature for a range of species is provided and used to prime breeder-oriented considerations on the practical applications of GS. Furthermore, this article discusses potential breeding schemes for GS, genotyping considerations, and methods for effective training population design. The components of selection intensity, progress toward inbreeding in half- or full-sibs recurrent schemes, and the generation of selection are also presented. PMID:26566822

  13. Implementation of biosurety systems in a Department of Defense medical research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Carr, Kathleen; Henchal, Erik A; Wilhelmsen, Catherine; Carr, Bridget

    2004-01-01

    New biosurety regulations and guidelines were implemented in 2003 because of increased concern for the safety and security of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) that may be used as weapons of mass destruction. Biosurety is defined as the combination of security, biosafety, agent accountability, and personnel reliability needed to prevent unauthorized access to select agents of bioterrorism. These new regulations will lead to increased scrutiny of the use of select biological agents in registered research laboratories, but the regulations may have unintended effects on cost, progress, and perceptions in programs previously considered part of the academic research community. We review the history of biosurety, evolving guidelines, implementation of the regulations, and impacts at the lead research laboratory for medical biological defense for the Department of Defense. PMID:15068675

  14. Multilevel Research and the Challenges of Implementing Genomic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Ralph J.; Fennell, Mary L.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Scheuner, Maren T.; Schully, Sheri D.; Williams, Marc S.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in genomics and related fields promise a new era of personalized medicine in the cancer care continuum. Nevertheless, there are fundamental challenges in integrating genomic medicine into cancer practice. We explore how multilevel research can contribute to implementation of genomic medicine. We first review the rapidly developing scientific discoveries in this field and the paucity of current applications that are ready for implementation in clinical and public health programs. We then define a multidisciplinary translational research agenda for successful integration of genomic medicine into policy and practice and consider challenges for successful implementation. We illustrate the agenda using the example of Lynch syndrome testing in newly diagnosed cases of colorectal cancer and cascade testing in relatives. We synthesize existing information in a framework for future multilevel research for integrating genomic medicine into the cancer care continuum. PMID:22623603

  15. Developing and implementing the community nursing research strategy for Wales.

    PubMed

    Kenkre, Joyce; Wallace, Carolyn; Davies, Robyn; Bale, Sue; Thomas, Sue

    2013-11-01

    In order to obtain the best patient outcomes in community nursing, practice needs to be underpinned by robust research-based evidence. This article describes a Community Nursing Research Strategy developed and implemented in Wales to provide the nursing profession with the evidence to support future organisational and professional change in achieving excellence in the community. This was developed in partnership with education, research, health services, workforce planning and Government using consensus methodology (specifically, a nominal group technique). Consequently, the process was inclusive and included three steps: escalating presentation of ideas, topic debate and topic rating. The result was a strategy with four implementation strands, including a virtual network, research portfolio, application to practice and leadership. PMID:24471230

  16. Implementing No Child Left Behind in Three States. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Brian M.; Epstein, Scott; Hamilton, Laura S.; Marsh, Julie A.; Robyn, Abby; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Russell, Jennifer; Naftel, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This research brief describes work done for RAND Education and documented in "Pain and Gain: Implementing No Child Left Behind in Three States, 2004-2006", Brian M. Stecher, Scott Epstein, Laura S. Hamilton, Julie A. Marsh, Abby Robyn, Jennifer Sloan McCombs, Jennifer Russell, and Scott Naftel." The three states discussed are: California, Georgia,…

  17. Empowering Design-Based Implementation Research: The Need for Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabelli, Nora; Dede, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses frameworks and conceptual lenses that help orient design-based implementation research (DBIR) work to the types of infrastructure required for success, while contributing to theories about the processes of educational improvement. Such infrastructures can be conceived as a framework: a set of interconnected elements that…

  18. E-Consult Implementation: Lessons Learned Using Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Haverhals, Leah M.; Sayre, George; Helfrich, Christian D.; Battaglia, Catherine; Aron, David; Stevenson, Lauren D.; Kirsh, Susan; Ho, P. Michael; Lowery, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In 2011, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) implemented electronic consults (e-consults) as an alternative to in-person specialty visits to improve access and reduce travel for veterans. We conducted an evaluation to understand variation in the use of the new e-consult mechanism and the causes of variable implementation, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Study Design Qualitative case studies of 3 high- and 5 low-implementation e-consult pilot sites. Participants included e-consult site leaders, primary care providers, specialists, and support staff identified using a modified snowball sample. Methods We used a 3-step approach, with a structured survey of e-consult site leaders to identify key constructs, based on the CFIR. We then conducted open-ended interviews, focused on key constructs, with all participants. Finally, we produced structured, site-level ratings of CFIR constructs and compared them between high- and low-implementation sites. Results Site leaders identified 14 initial constructs. We conducted 37 interviews, from which 4 CFIR constructs distinguished high implementation e-consult sites: compatibility, networks and communications, training, and access to knowledge and information. For example, illustrating compatibility, a specialist at a high-implementation site reported that the site changed the order of consult options so that all specialties listed e-consults first to maintain consistency. High-implementation sites also exhibited greater agreement on constructs. Conclusions By using the CFIR to analyze results, we facilitate future synthesis with other findings, and we better identify common patterns of implementation determinants common across settings. PMID:26760426

  19. Gas Hydrate Research Site Selection and Operational Research Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.; Boswell, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years it has become generally accepted that gas hydrates represent a potential important future energy resource, a significant drilling and production hazard, a potential contributor to global climate change, and a controlling factor in seafloor stability and landslides. Research drilling and coring programs carried out by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), government agencies, and several consortia have contributed greatly to our understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in marine and permafrost environments. For the most part, each of these field projects were built on the lessons learned from the projects that have gone before them. One of the most important factors contributing to the success of some of the more notable gas hydrate field projects has been the close alignment of project goals with the processes used to select the drill sites and to develop the project’s operational research plans. For example, IODP Expedition 311 used a transect approach to successfully constrain the overall occurrence of gas hydrate within the range of geologic environments within a marine accretionary complex. Earlier gas hydrate research drilling, including IODP Leg 164, were designed primarily to assess the occurrence and nature of marine gas hydrate systems, and relied largely on the presence of anomalous seismic features, including bottom-simulating reflectors and “blanking zones”. While these projects were extremely successful, expeditions today are being increasingly mounted with the primary goal of prospecting for potential gas hydrate production targets, and site selection processes designed to specifically seek out anomalously high-concentrations of gas hydrate are needed. This approach was best demonstrated in a recently completed energy resource focused project, the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II), which featured the collection of a

  20. Between and within-site variation in qualitative implementation research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multisite qualitative studies are challenging in part because decisions regarding within-site and between-site sampling must be made to reduce the complexity of data collection, but these decisions may have serious implications for analyses. There is not yet consensus on how to account for within-site and between-site variations in qualitative perceptions of the organizational context of interventions. The purpose of this study was to analyze variation in perceptions among key informants in order to demonstrate the importance of broad sampling for identifying both within-site and between-site implementation themes. Methods Case studies of four sites were compared to identify differences in how Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers implemented a Primary Care/Mental Health Integration (PC/MHI) intervention. Qualitative analyses focused on between-profession variation in reported referral and implementation processes within and between sites. Results Key informants identified co-location, the consultation-liaison service, space, access, and referral processes as important topics. Within-site themes revealed the importance of coordination, communication, and collaboration for implementing PC/MHI. The between-site theme indicated that the preexisting structure of mental healthcare influenced how PC/MHI was implemented at each site and that collaboration among both leaders and providers was critical to overcoming structural barriers. Conclusions Within- and between-site variation in perceptions among key informants within different professions revealed barriers and facilitators to the implementation not available from a single source. Examples provide insight into implementation barriers for PC/MHI. Multisite implementation studies may benefit from intentionally eliciting and analyzing variation within and between sites. Suggestions for implementation research design are presented. PMID:23286552

  1. Design-Based Implementation Research: An Emerging Model for Transforming the Relationship of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Barry J.; Penuel, William R.; Allen, Anna-Ruth; Cheng, Britte Haugan; Sabelli, Nora

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to design-based implementation research (DBIR). We describe the need for DBIR as a research approach that challenges educational researchers and practitioners to transcend traditional research/practice barriers to facilitate the design of educational interventions that are effective, sustainable, and scalable.…

  2. Selecting the best theory to implement planned change.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary

    2013-04-01

    Planned change in nursing practice is necessary for a wide range of reasons, but it can be challenging to implement. Understanding and using a change theory framework can help managers or other change agents to increase the likelihood of success. This article considers three change theories and discusses how one in particular can be used in practice. PMID:23705547

  3. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science

    PubMed Central

    Damschroder, Laura J; Aron, David C; Keith, Rosalind E; Kirsh, Susan R; Alexander, Jeffery A; Lowery, Julie C

    2009-01-01

    Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR) that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality), four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources), 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture, leadership engagement

  4. How to successfully select and implement electronic health records (EHR) in small ambulatory practice settings

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Adoption of EHRs by U.S. ambulatory practices has been slow despite the perceived benefits of their use. Most evaluations of EHR implementations in the literature apply to large practice settings. While there are similarities relating to EHR implementation in large and small practice settings, the authors argue that scale is an important differentiator. Focusing on small ambulatory practices, this paper outlines the benefits and barriers to EHR use in this setting, and provides a "field guide" for these practices to facilitate successful EHR implementation. Discussion The benefits of EHRs in ambulatory practices include improved patient care and office efficiency, and potential financial benefits. Barriers to EHRs include costs; lack of standardization of EHR products and the design of vendor systems for large practice environments; resistance to change; initial difficulty of system use leading to productivity reduction; and perceived accrual of benefits to society and payers rather than providers. The authors stress the need for developing a flexible change management strategy when introducing EHRs that is relevant to the small practice environment; the strategy should acknowledge the importance of relationship management and the role of individual staff members in helping the entire staff to manage change. Practice staff must create an actionable vision outlining realistic goals for the implementation, and all staff must buy into the project. The authors detail the process of implementing EHRs through several stages: decision, selection, pre-implementation, implementation, and post-implementation. They stress the importance of identifying a champion to serve as an advocate of the value of EHRs and provide direction and encouragement for the project. Other key activities include assessing and redesigning workflow; understanding financial issues; conducting training that is well-timed and meets the needs of practice staff; and evaluating the

  5. Achieving standardized medication data in clinical research studies: two approaches and applications for implementing RxNorm.

    PubMed

    Richesson, Rachel L; Smith, Susan B; Malloy, Jamie; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2010-08-01

    The National Institutes of Health has proposed a roadmap for clinical research. Test projects of this roadmap include centralized data management for distributed research, the harmonization of clinical and research data, and the use of data standards throughout the research process. In 2003, RxNorm was named as a standard for codifying clinical drugs. Clinical researchers looking to implement RxNorm have few template implementation plans. Epidemiological studies and clinical trials (types of clinical research) have different requirements for model standards and best implementation tools. This paper highlights two different (epidemiological and intervention) clinical research projects, their unique requirements for a medication standard, the suitability of RxNorm as a standard for each, and application and process requirements for implementation. It is hoped that our experience of selecting and implementing the RxNorm standard to address varying study requirements in both domestic and international settings will be of value to other efforts. PMID:20703919

  6. Enhancing Dissemination and Implementation Research Using Systems Science Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Neal, Jennifer Watling; Meissner, Helen I.; Yonas, Michael; Mabry, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Dissemination and implementation (D&I) research seeks to understand and overcome barriers to adoption of behavioral interventions that address complex problems; specifically interventions that arise from multiple interacting influences crossing socio-ecological levels. It is often difficult for research to accurately represent and address the complexities of the real world, and traditional methodological approaches are generally inadequate for this task. Systems science methods, expressly designed to study complex systems, can be effectively employed for an improved understanding about dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions. METHODS Case examples of three systems science methods – system dynamics modeling, agent-based modeling, and network analysis – are used to illustrate how each method can be used to address D&I challenges. RESULTS The case studies feature relevant behavioral topical areas: chronic disease prevention, community violence prevention, and educational intervention. To emphasize consistency with D&I priorities, the discussion of the value of each method is framed around the elements of the established Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. CONCLUSIONS Systems science methods can help researchers, public health decision makers and program implementers to understand the complex factors influencing successful D&I of programs in community settings, and to identify D&I challenges imposed by system complexity. PMID:24852184

  7. Parent-Implemented Procedural Modification of Escape Extinction in the Treatment of Food Selectivity in a Young Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbox, Jonathan; Schiff, Averil; Najdowski, Adel C.

    2010-01-01

    Fool selectivity is characterized by the consumption of an inadequate variety of foods. The effectiveness of behavioral treatment procedures, particularly nonremoval of the spoon, is well validated by research. The role of parents in the treatment of feeding disorders and the feasibility of behavioral procedures for parent implementation in the…

  8. Research, Perspectives, and Recommendations on Implementing the Flipped Classroom.

    PubMed

    Rotellar, Cristina; Cain, Jeff

    2016-03-25

    Flipped or inverted classrooms have become increasingly popular, and sometimes controversial, within higher education. Many educators have touted the potential benefits of this model and initial research regarding implementation has been primarily positive. The rationale behind the flipped classroom methodology is to increase student engagement with content, increase and improve faculty contact time with students, and enhance learning. This paper presents a summary of primary literature regarding flipped classrooms, discusses concerns and unanswered questions from both a student and faculty member perspective, and offers recommendations regarding implementation. PMID:27073287

  9. Research, Perspectives, and Recommendations on Implementing the Flipped Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Rotellar, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Flipped or inverted classrooms have become increasingly popular, and sometimes controversial, within higher education. Many educators have touted the potential benefits of this model and initial research regarding implementation has been primarily positive. The rationale behind the flipped classroom methodology is to increase student engagement with content, increase and improve faculty contact time with students, and enhance learning. This paper presents a summary of primary literature regarding flipped classrooms, discusses concerns and unanswered questions from both a student and faculty member perspective, and offers recommendations regarding implementation. PMID:27073287

  10. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents` energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today`s results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  11. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents' energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today's results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  12. A bibliographic review of public health dissemination and implementation research output and citation rates.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, Luke; Milat, Andrew J; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Skelton, Eliza; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Williams, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Chai, Li Kheng; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the research output and citation rates (academic impact) of public health dissemination and implementation research according to research design and study type. A cross sectional bibliographic study was undertaken in 2013. All original data-based studies and review articles focusing on dissemination and implementation research that had been published in 10 randomly selected public health journals in 2008 were audited. The electronic database 'Scopus' was used to calculate 5-year citation rates for all included publications. Of the 1648 publications examined, 216 were original data-based research or literature reviews focusing on dissemination and implementation research. Of these 72% were classified as descriptive/epidemiological, 26% were intervention and just 1.9% were measurement research. Cross-sectional studies were the most common study design (47%). Reviews, randomized trials, non-randomized trials and decision/cost-effectiveness studies each represented between 6 and 10% of all output. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and cohort studies were the most frequently cited study designs. The study suggests that publications that had the greatest academic impact (highest citation rates) made up only a small proportion of overall public health dissemination and implementation research output. PMID:27583203

  13. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Are Promising Laboratories for Conducting Dissemination and Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Heintzman, John; Gold, Rachel; Krist, Alexander; Crosson, Jay; Likumahuwa, Sonja; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science addresses the application of research findings in varied health care settings. Despite the potential benefit of dissemination and implementation work to primary care, ideal laboratories for this science have been elusive. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have a long history of conducting research in community clinical settings, demonstrating an approach that could be used to execute multiple research projects over time in broad and varied settings. PBRNs also are uniquely structured and increasingly involved in pragmatic trials, a research design central to dissemination and implementation science. We argue that PBRNs and dissemination and implementation scientists are ideally suited to work together and that the collaboration of these 2 groups will yield great value for the future of primary care and the delivery of evidence-based health care. PMID:25381072

  14. Multisystemic Therapy(®) : Clinical Overview, Outcomes, and Implementation Research.

    PubMed

    Henggeler, Scott W; Schaeffer, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is an evidence-based treatment originally developed for youth with serious antisocial behavior who are at high risk for out-of-home placement and their families; and subsequently adapted to address other challenging clinical problems experience by youths and their families. The social-ecological theoretical framework of MST is presented as well as its home-based model of treatment delivery, defining clinical intervention strategies, and ongoing quality assurance/quality improvement system. With more than 100 peer-reviewed outcome and implementation journal articles published as of January 2016, the majority by independent investigators, MST is one of the most extensively evaluated family based treatments. Outcome research has yielded almost uniformly favorable results for youths and families, and implementation research has demonstrated the importance of treatment and program fidelity in achieving such outcomes. PMID:27370172

  15. Selection and implementation of a laboratory computer system.

    PubMed

    Moritz, V A; McMaster, R; Dillon, T; Mayall, B

    1995-07-01

    The process of selection of a pathology computer system has become increasingly complex as there are an increasing number of facilities that must be provided and stringent performance requirements under heavy computing loads from both human users and machine inputs. Furthermore, the continuing advances in software and hardware technology provide more options and innovative new ways of tackling problems. These factors taken together pose a difficult and complex set of decisions and choices for the system analyst and designer. The selection process followed by the Microbiology Department at Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital included examination of existing systems, development of a functional specification followed by a formal tender process. The successful tenderer was then selected using predefined evaluation criteria. The successful tenderer was a software development company that developed and supplied a system based on a distributed network using a SUN computer as the main processor. The software was written using Informix running on the UNIX operating system. This represents one of the first microbiology systems developed using a commercial relational database and fourth generation language. The advantages of this approach are discussed. PMID:8532393

  16. Theories and Research Methodologies for Design-Based Implementation Research: Examples from Four Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Jackson, Kara; Krumm, Andrew E.; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Design-Based Implementation Research is the process of engaging "learning scientists, policy researchers, and practitioners in a model of collaborative, iterative, and systematic research and development" designed to address persistent problems of teaching and learning. Addressing persistent problems of teaching and learning requires…

  17. The Importance of Quality Implementation for Research, Practice, and Policy. ASPE Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durlak, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sometimes, program evaluations report no difference in outcomes between persons given a program and those not given the program. Is this because the program does not work, or because it was poorly implemented? Achieving high quality program implementation is critical to achieving anticipated outcomes, and researchers have made considerable…

  18. GPS time transfer with implementation of selective availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, David W.; Granveaud, Michel P.; Klepczynski, William J.; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz W.

    1990-05-01

    The international community of time metrology is facing a major challenge with the Selective Availability (SA) degradation of GPS satellite signals. At present there are 6 Block 1 satellites and 8 Block 2 satellites operating. According to the policy of the U.S. Department of Defence the Block 1 satellite signals will not be degraded, but these satellites are old with a finite life. The Block 2 satellites, which have all been launched since 1988, were subject to Selective Availability from March 25, 1990. The effect of SA should be to limit precision to about 100 meters for navigation and 167 ns for timing. A study was conducted in order to understand the nature of the actual introduced degradation, and to elaborate the means of removing the effects of this degradation on time transfer. This study concerns the time extraction from GPS satellites at NIST, USNO and Paris Observatory, and the comparison of atomic clocks between these laboratories by common view approach. The results show that when using the data taken over several days the time extraction can be achieved with uncertainty of a few tens of nanoseconds, while strict common-view has removed entirely the effects of SA during the periods under study.

  19. GPS time transfer with implementation of selective availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, David W.; Granveaud, Michel P.; Klepczynski, William J.; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz W.

    1990-01-01

    The international community of time metrology is facing a major challenge with the Selective Availability (SA) degradation of GPS satellite signals. At present there are 6 Block 1 satellites and 8 Block 2 satellites operating. According to the policy of the U.S. Department of Defence the Block 1 satellite signals will not be degraded, but these satellites are old with a finite life. The Block 2 satellites, which have all been launched since 1988, were subject to Selective Availability from March 25, 1990. The effect of SA should be to limit precision to about 100 meters for navigation and 167 ns for timing. A study was conducted in order to understand the nature of the actual introduced degradation, and to elaborate the means of removing the effects of this degradation on time transfer. This study concerns the time extraction from GPS satellites at NIST, USNO and Paris Observatory, and the comparison of atomic clocks between these laboratories by common view approach. The results show that when using the data taken over several days the time extraction can be achieved with uncertainty of a few tens of nanoseconds, while strict common-view has removed entirely the effects of SA during the periods under study.

  20. Natural Selection, Nutrition Research, and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Darby

    1980-01-01

    Provides examples of the teaching of hypothesis generation and scientific inquiry in biology. Specifically, the author applies the selection paradigm to considerations of the human nutrient-handling apparatus, finally suggesting a model of the selective forces that may have operated on the human genome since hunting-gathering and primitive…

  1. The implementation of intentional rounding using participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Ann; Bradley, Sandra; Jeffers, Lesley; Linedale, Ecushla; Kelman, Sue; Killington, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    'Intentional'/'hourly rounding' is defined as regular checks of individual patients carried out by health professionals at set intervals rather than a response to a summons via a call bell. Intentional rounding places patients at the heart of the ward routine including the acknowledgement of patient preferences and in anticipation of their needs. The aim of this study was to implement intentional rounding using participatory action research to increase patient care, increase staff productivity and the satisfaction of care provision from both patients and staff. Outcomes of the study revealed a drop in call bell use, no observable threats to patient safety, nursing staff and patient satisfaction with care provision. However, any future studies should consider staff skill mix issues including the needs of newly graduated nursing staff as well as the cognitive status of patients when implementing intentional rounding on acute care wards. PMID:24093744

  2. Designing and implementing full immersion simulation as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Belinda; Buckley, Thomas; Curtis, Kate; Morris, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Simulation is a valuable research tool used to evaluate the clinical performance of devices, people and systems. The simulated setting may address concerns unique to complex clinical environments such as the Emergency Department, which make the conduct of research challenging. There is limited evidence available to inform the development of simulated clinical scenarios for the purpose of evaluating practice in research studies, with the majority of literature focused on designing simulated clinical scenarios for education and training. Distinct differences exist in scenario design when implemented in education compared with use in clinical research studies. Simulated scenarios used to assess practice in clinical research must not comprise of any purposeful or planned teaching and be developed with a high degree of validity and reliability. A new scenario design template was devised to develop two standardised simulated clinical scenarios for the evaluation of a new assessment framework for emergency nurses. The scenario development and validation processes undertaken are described and provide an evidence-informed guide to scenario development for future clinical research studies. PMID:26917415

  3. Implementing Common Data Elements Across Studies to Advance Research

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marlene Z.; Thompson, Cheryl Bagley; Yates, Bernice; Zimmerman, Lani; Pullen, Carol H.

    2014-01-01

    Challenges arise in building the knowledge needed for evidence based practice partially because obtaining clinical research data is expensive and complicated, and many studies have small sample sizes. Combining data from several studies may have the advantage of increasing the impact of the findings, or expanding the population to which findings may be generalized. The use of common data elements will allow this combining and, in turn, create big data, which is an important approach that may accelerate knowledge development. This article discusses the philosophy of using common data elements across research studies and illustrates their use by the processes in a Developmental Center grant funded by the National Institutes of Health. The researchers identified a set of data elements and used them across several pilot studies. Issues that need to be considered in the adoption and implementation of common data elements across pilot studies include theoretical framework, purpose of the common measures, respondent burden, team work, managing large data sets, grant writing, and unintended consequences. We describe these challenges and solutions that can be implemented to manage them. PMID:25771192

  4. Research Mathematicians' Practices in Selecting Mathematical Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to…

  5. Select Novice Elementary Teachers' Perceived Knowledge and Implementation of High-Quality Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine select novice teachers' perceived knowledge of high-quality reading instruction, explore the extent that select novice teachers implemented high-quality reading instruction into their own classrooms, and to investigate any factors that explain the similarities and differences between…

  6. SELECT RESEARCH GROUP IN AIR POLLUTION METEOROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six individual investigators, who have conducted different but related meteorological research, present in-depth technical reviews of their work. Prime conclusions are that (1) a scale analysis shows that different models are necessary for meteorological processes on urban, regio...

  7. Barriers in implementing research findings in cancer care: the Greek registered nurses perceptions.

    PubMed

    Patiraki, Elisabeth; Karlou, Chrysoula; Papadopoulou, Despina; Spyridou, Ageliki; Kouloukoura, Chrysoula; Bare, Elpida; Merkouris, Anastasios

    2004-09-01

    This study explored Greek nurses' perceptions of the barriers to research utilization faced in every day practice. The barriers between nurses working in cancer and general hospitals, as well as between those employed at central and provincial hospitals were compared. The study used a cross-sectional design and data were collected using the "Barriers Scale" (Funk et al., 1991a, Applied Nursing Research, 4, 39-45). A convenience sample of 301 nurses was randomly selected from 12 hospitals in Greece. The two key barriers identified were related to the 'availability of research findings'. English language was perceived to range between moderate and major barrier for the vast majority of participants (n = 231, 78%). Nurses surveyed indicated the presentation of research findings as the greatest barrier while the characteristics of nurses themselves were perceived as the least important one. No significant differences were found between types of hospitals (cancer/general) and geographical areas (central/provincial). Some differences, however, were observed in relation to specific items of the scale such as feeling isolated from 'research-knowledgeable' colleagues and having insufficient time to implement new ideas. The observations reported here appear to agree with the findings in mainstream literature. The results suggest that more emphasis should be given in research methodology, statistics and critical appraisal skills at all levels of nursing education, and that efforts should be made towards increasing research availability and creating supportive environments for implementation of research findings. PMID:15304232

  8. Integrated obesity care management system -implementation and research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Carpentier, André; Donovan, Denise; Fortin, Martin; Grant, Andrew; Simoneau-Roy, Judith; St-Cyr-Tribble, Denise; Xhignesse, Mariane; Langlois, Marie-France

    2007-01-01

    Background Nearly 50% of Canadians are overweight and their number is increasing rapidly. The majority of obese subjects are treated by primary care physicians (PCPs) who often feel uncomfortable with the management of obesity. The current research proposal is aimed at the development and implementation of an innovative, integrated, interdisciplinary obesity care management system involving both primary and secondary care professionals. Methods We will use both action and evaluative research in order to achieve the following specific objectives. The first one is to develop and implement a preceptorship-based continuing medical education (CME) program complemented by a web site for physicians and nurses working in Family Medicine Groups (FMGs). This CME will be based on needs assessment and will be validated by one FMG using questionnaires and semi structured interviews. Also, references and teaching tools will be available for participants on the web site. Our second objective is to establish a collaborative intra and inter-regional interdisciplinary network to enable on-going expertise update and networking for FMG teams. This tool consists of a discussion forum and monthly virtual meetings of all participants. Our third objective is to evaluate the implementation of our program for its ability to train 8 FMGs per year, the access and utilization of electronic tools and the participants' satisfaction. This will be measured with questionnaires, web logging tools and group interviews. Our fourth objective is to determine the impact for the participants regarding knowledge and expertise, attitudes and perceptions, self-efficacy for the management of obesity, and changes in FMG organization for obesity management. Questionnaires and interviews will be used for this purpose. Our fifth objective is to deliver transferable knowledge for health professionals and decision-makers. Strategies and pitfalls of setting up this program will also be identified. Conclusion This

  9. Selected Styles in Web-Based Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Bruce, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Selected Styles in Web-Based Educational Research" is concerned with the most common research styles in Web-based teaching or learning. It is intended for practitioners, educators and students, who wish to learn how to conduct research in online teaching and learning, and helps define style in educational research methodology. To enhance…

  10. Double point source W-phase inversion: Real-time implementation and automated model selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealy, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Gavin P.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid and accurate characterization of an earthquake source is an extremely important and ever evolving field of research. Within this field, source inversion of the W-phase has recently been shown to be an effective technique, which can be efficiently implemented in real-time. An extension to the W-phase source inversion is presented in which two point sources are derived to better characterize complex earthquakes. A single source inversion followed by a double point source inversion with centroid locations fixed at the single source solution location can be efficiently run as part of earthquake monitoring network operational procedures. In order to determine the most appropriate solution, i.e., whether an earthquake is most appropriately described by a single source or a double source, an Akaike information criterion (AIC) test is performed. Analyses of all earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 and greater occurring since January 2000 were performed with extended analyses of the September 29, 2009 magnitude 8.1 Samoa earthquake and the April 19, 2014 magnitude 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake. The AIC test is shown to be able to accurately select the most appropriate model and the selected W-phase inversion is shown to yield reliable solutions that match published analyses of the same events.

  11. Double point source W-phase inversion: Real-time implementation and automated model selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nealy, Jennifer; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate characterization of an earthquake source is an extremely important and ever evolving field of research. Within this field, source inversion of the W-phase has recently been shown to be an effective technique, which can be efficiently implemented in real-time. An extension to the W-phase source inversion is presented in which two point sources are derived to better characterize complex earthquakes. A single source inversion followed by a double point source inversion with centroid locations fixed at the single source solution location can be efficiently run as part of earthquake monitoring network operational procedures. In order to determine the most appropriate solution, i.e., whether an earthquake is most appropriately described by a single source or a double source, an Akaike information criterion (AIC) test is performed. Analyses of all earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 and greater occurring since January 2000 were performed with extended analyses of the September 29, 2009 magnitude 8.1 Samoa earthquake and the April 19, 2014 magnitude 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake. The AIC test is shown to be able to accurately select the most appropriate model and the selected W-phase inversion is shown to yield reliable solutions that match published analyses of the same events.

  12. Research ethics committees in Europe: implementing the directive, respecting diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hedgecoe, A; Carvalho, F; Lobmayer, P; Raka, F

    2006-01-01

    With the recent Clinical Trials Directive, a degree of harmonisation into research ethics committees (RECs) across Europe, including the time taken to assess a trial proposal and the kinds of issues a committee should take into account, has been introduced by the European Union (EU). How four different member states—Hungary, Portugal, Sweden and the UK—have chosen to implement the directive is shown. Although this has resulted in four very different ways of structuring RECs, similar themes are present in all four cases, such as centralisation of control over RECs within member states, harmonisation of REC procedures across the EU and increased role of political decision making with regard to such committees. PMID:16877630

  13. Research and Energy Efficiency: Selected Success Stories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Garland, P. W.; Garland, R. W.

    1997-06-26

    Energy use and energy technology play critical roles in the U.S. economy and modern society. The Department of Energy (DOE) conducts civilian energy research and development (R&D) programs for the purpose of identifying promising technologies that promote energy security, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. DOE-sponsored research ranges from basic investigation of phenomena all the way through development of applied technology in partnership with industry. DOE`s research programs are conducted in support of national strategic energy objectives, however austere financial times have dictated that R&D programs be measured in terms of cost vs. benefit. In some cases it is difficult to measure the return on investment for the basic "curiosity-driven" research, however many applied technology development programs have resulted in measurable commercial successes. The DOE has published summaries of their most successful applied technology energy R&D programs. In this paper, we will discuss five examples from the Building Technologies area of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. Each story will describe the technology, discuss the level of federal funding, and discuss the returns in terms of energy savings, cost savings, or national economic impacts.

  14. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ``demonstration technologies.`` Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria.

  15. Implementation of Evidence-Based Adolescent Literacy Practices by Select Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mergele, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to investigate how evidence-based adolescent literacy practices are implemented by secondary teachers in the classroom or what the reasons might be for these practices not being implemented. Three secondary English teachers of three different types of classes, comprising Intensive, Project-based…

  16. Analysis and selection of optimal function implementations in massively parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Peters, Amanda; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2011-05-31

    An apparatus, program product and method optimize the operation of a parallel computer system by, in part, collecting performance data for a set of implementations of a function capable of being executed on the parallel computer system based upon the execution of the set of implementations under varying input parameters in a plurality of input dimensions. The collected performance data may be used to generate selection program code that is configured to call selected implementations of the function in response to a call to the function under varying input parameters. The collected performance data may be used to perform more detailed analysis to ascertain the comparative performance of the set of implementations of the function under the varying input parameters.

  17. Research-based recommendations for implementing international service-learning.

    PubMed

    Amerson, Roxanne

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of schools of nursing are incorporating international service-learning and/or immersion experiences into their curriculum to promote cultural competence. The purpose of this paper is to identify research-based recommendations for implementing an international service-learning program. A review of literature was conducted in the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature database using the keywords international, immersion, cultural competence, nursing, and international service-learning. Additional references were located from the reference lists of related articles. Planning of international or immersion experiences requires consideration of the type of country, the length of time, and design of the program; the use of a service-learning framework; opportunities that require the student to live and work in the community, provide hands-on care, participate in unstructured activities, and make home visits; and a method of reflection. Increasing cultural competence does not require foreign travel, but it does necessitate that students are challenged to move outside their comfort zone and work directly with diverse populations. These research-based recommendations may be used either internationally or locally to promote the most effective service-learning opportunities for nursing students. PMID:24720947

  18. Geothermal Reservoir Technology Research Program: Abstracts of selected research projects

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.J.

    1993-03-01

    Research projects are described in the following areas: geothermal exploration, mapping reservoir properties and reservoir monitoring, and well testing, simulation, and predicting reservoir performance. The objectives, technical approach, and project status of each project are presented. The background, research results, and future plans for each project are discussed. The names, addresses, and telephone and telefax numbers are given for the DOE program manager and the principal investigators. (MHR)

  19. [Selected research problems of anthrax vaccine development].

    PubMed

    Zakowska, Dorota; Kocik, Janusz; Bartoszcze, Michał

    2009-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism with B. anthracis against civilian population is one of major concern. After successful bioterroristic attack in 2001 in US renewed research interest has prompted in the development of new and more effective vaccine against anthrax. There are two licensed vaccines against anthrax--AVA-Bio-Thrax US and UK--sterile culture filtrate prepared by alum precipitation. Both vaccines are based on PA antigen. There are several concerns regarding PA based vaccines. They require six sc injections and yearly booster, high rates of local reaction after vaccination is observed, the immunity is not long lasting, vaccination do not protect animals against different strains of B. anthracis. New strategies in the development of anthrax vaccines have been presented (recombinant PA, subunits vaccine, mutants, conjugated). Using proteomic approaches new antigens have been also identified as candidates for future vaccines. More effective and easy to perform methods of vaccination have been reviewed. PMID:20120948

  20. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  1. Sample Identification at Scale - Implementing IGSN in a Research Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Golodoniuc, P.; Wyborn, L. A.; Devaraju, A.; Fraser, R.

    2015-12-01

    Earth sciences are largely observational and rely on natural samples, types of which vary significantly between science disciplines. Sharing and referencing of samples in scientific literature and across the Web requires the use of globally unique identifiers essential for disambiguation. This practice is very common in other fields, e.g. ISBN in publishing, doi in scientific literature, etc. In Earth sciences however, this is still often done in an ad-hoc manner without the use of unique identifiers. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) system provides a persistent, globally unique label for identifying environmental samples. As an IGSN allocating agency, CSIRO implements the IGSN registration service at the organisational scale with contributions from multiple research groups. Capricorn Distal Footprints project is one of the first pioneers and early adopters of the technology in Australia. For this project, IGSN provides a mechanism for identification of new and legacy samples, as well as derived sub-samples. It will ensure transparency and reproducibility in various geochemical sampling campaigns that will involve a diversity of sampling methods. Hence, diverse geochemical and isotopic results can be linked back to the parent sample, particularly where multiple children of that sample have also been analysed. The IGSN integration for this project is still in early stages and requires further consultations on the governance mechanisms that we need to put in place to allow efficient collaboration within CSIRO and collaborating partners on the project including naming conventions, service interfaces, etc. In this work, we present the results of the initial implementation of IGSN in the context of the Capricorn Distal Footprints project. This study has so far demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach, while maintaining the flexibility to adapt to various media types, which is critical in the context of a multi-disciplinary project.

  2. Implementation research design: integrating participatory action research into randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Leykum, Luci K; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Lanham, Holly J; Harmon, Joel; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-01-01

    Background A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. Discussion We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. Summary The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process. PMID:19852784

  3. Document Selection and Relevance Assessments during a Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas; Wang, Peiling

    User's information needs and the tasks they face change over the stages of a research project. In previous research by Peiling Wang, a cognitive model of users' document selection behavior for their research projects was developed. This study looks at the general applicability of Wang's model to subsequent decision-making about items selected…

  4. A GPU-Based Implementation of the Firefly Algorithm for Variable Selection in Multivariate Calibration Problems

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Lauro C. M.; Soares, Anderson S.; de Lima, Telma W.; Delbem, Alexandre C. B.; Coelho, Clarimar J.; Filho, Arlindo R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Several variable selection algorithms in multivariate calibration can be accelerated using Graphics Processing Units (GPU). Among these algorithms, the Firefly Algorithm (FA) is a recent proposed metaheuristic that may be used for variable selection. This paper presents a GPU-based FA (FA-MLR) with multiobjective formulation for variable selection in multivariate calibration problems and compares it with some traditional sequential algorithms in the literature. The advantage of the proposed implementation is demonstrated in an example involving a relatively large number of variables. The results showed that the FA-MLR, in comparison with the traditional algorithms is a more suitable choice and a relevant contribution for the variable selection problem. Additionally, the results also demonstrated that the FA-MLR performed in a GPU can be five times faster than its sequential implementation. PMID:25493625

  5. The Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario (CAHO) Adopting Research to Improve Care (ARTIC) Program: Reach, Sustainability, Spread and Lessons Learned from an Implementation Funding Model

    PubMed Central

    Grouchy, Michelle; Graham, Ian D.; Shandling, Maureen; Doyle, Winnie; Straus, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence on what works in healthcare, there is a significant gap in the time it takes to bring research into practice. The Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario's Adopting Research to Improve Care program addresses this research-to-practice gap by incorporating the following components into its funding program: strategic selection of evidence for implementation, education and training for implementation, implementation supports, executive champions and governance, and evaluation. Funded projects have been sustained (76% reported full sustainability) and spread to over 200 new sites. Lessons learned include the following: assess readiness, develop tailored implementation materials, consider characteristics of implementation supports, protect champion time and consider evaluation feasibility. PMID:27232234

  6. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  7. Selected Examples of NACA/NASA Supersonic Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1995-01-01

    The present Dryden Flight Research Center, a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, has a flight research history that extends back to the mid-1940's. The parent organization was a part of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and was formed in 1946 as the Muroc Flight Test Unit. This document describes 13 selected examples of important supersonic flight research conducted from the Mojave Desert location of the Dryden Flight Research Center over a 4 decade period beginning in 1946. The research described herein was either obtained at supersonic speeds or enabled subsequent aircraft to penetrate or traverse the supersonic region. In some instances there accrued from these research efforts benefits which are also applicable at lower or higher speed regions. A major consideration in the selection of the various research topics was the lasting impact they have had, or will have, on subsequent supersonic flight vehicle design, efficiency, safety, and performance or upon improved supersonic research techniques.

  8. Selecting and Creating Mathematical Tasks: From Research To Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Margaret Schwan; Stein, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the selection and creation of mathematical tasks, drawing on QUASAR's research on mathematical tasks and experiences with teachers and teacher educators. Presents examples of task analysis and issues that teachers should reflect on. (ASK)

  9. Helping Traditional Teachers To Plan and Implement Student Centered Classrooms; Selected Classroom Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gerald F. J.; Page, William C.

    The Selected Classroom Project was planned, implemented, evaluated, and disseminated between October 1970 and June 1971. It narrowed the focus of Project COD to helping teachers in specific classroom develop a practical approach to the transition from traditional to "open" classrooms. The 21 participating teachers in grades 4 through 8 were…

  10. Leading the Way to Appropriate Selection, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Read-Aloud Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    The read-aloud accommodation is one of the most frequently used accommodations. Many educators need training to more confidently select, implement, and evaluate the use of the read-aloud accommodation. Planning by special education leaders can help ensure that test day goes smoothly for students who need the read-aloud accommodation.

  11. Improved implementation and application of the individually selecting configuration interaction method.

    PubMed

    Stampfuss, P; Wenzel, W

    2005-01-01

    We report on the progress of our implementation of the configuration-selecting multireference configuration interaction method on massively parallel architectures with distributed memory, which now permits the treatment of Hilbert spaces of dimension O(10(12)). Of these about 50,000,000 can be selected in the variational subspace. We provide scaling data for the running time of the code for the IBM/SP3 and the CRAY-T3E. We present benchmark results for two selected applications: the energetics of the isomers of dinitrosoethylene and the benchmark results for the ring closure reaction of enediyene. PMID:15638575

  12. Selected issues of the universal communication environment implementation for CII standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Poźniak, Krzysztof T.; Drabik, Paweł K.

    2011-10-01

    In the contemporary FPGA market there is the wide assortment of structures, integrated development environments, and boards of different producers. The variety allows to fit resources to requirements of the individual designer. There is the need of standardization of the projects to make it useful in research laboratories equipped with different producers tools. Proposed solution is CII standardization of VHDL components. This paper contains specification of the universal communication environment for CII standard. The link can be used in different FPGA structures. Implementation of the link enables object oriented VHDL programming with the use of CII standardization. The whole environment contains FPGA environment and PC software. The paper contains description of the selected issues of FPGA environment. There is description of some specific solutions that enables environment usage in structures of different producers. The flexibility of different size data transmissions with the use of CII is presented. The specified tool gives the opportunity to use FPGA structures variety fully and design faster and more effectively.

  13. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings. PMID:24722814

  14. Challenges of implementation and implementation research: Learning from an intervention study designed to improve tumor registry reporting

    PubMed Central

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Walker, Daniel M; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Parides, Michael; Bickell, Nina A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Implementation of interventions designed to improve the quality of medical care often proceeds differently from what is planned. Improving existing conceptual models to better understand the sources of these differences can help future projects avoid these pitfalls and achieve desired effectiveness. To inform an adaptation of an existing theoretical model, we examined unanticipated changes that occurred in an intervention designed to improve reporting of adjuvant therapies for breast cancer patients at a large, urban academic medical center. Methods: Guided by the complex innovation implementation conceptual framework, our study team observed and evaluated the implementation of an intervention designed to improve reporting to a tumor registry. Findings were assessed against the conceptual framework to identify boundary conditions and modifications that could improve implementation effectiveness. Results: The intervention successfully increased identification of the managing medical oncologist and treatment reporting. During implementation, however, unexpected external challenges including hospital acquisitions of community practices and practices’ responses to government incentives to purchase electronic medical record systems led to unanticipated changes and associated threats to implementation. We present a revised conceptual model that incorporates the sources of these unanticipated challenges. Conclusion: This report of our experience highlights the importance of monitoring implementation over time and accounting for changes that affect both implementation and measurement of intervention impact. In this article, we use our study to examine the challenges of implementation research in health care, and our experience can help future implementation efforts.

  15. Prevalence and Implementation Fidelity of Research-Based Prevention Programs in Public Schools. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosse, Scott; Williams, Barbara; Hagen, Carol A.; Harmon, Michele; Ristow, Liam; DiGaetano, Ralph; Broene, Pamela; Alexander, Debbie; Tseng, Margaret; Derzon, James H.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents descriptive information about the prevalence and quality of implementation of research-based programs from the Study of the Implementation of Research-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Substance Abuse and School Crime. The study found that, while schools reported implementing a large number of prevention programs during the…

  16. Social Research and the Black Community: Selected Issues and Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    This volume is comprised of selected papers which were presented at a workshop sponsored by the Institute for Urban Affairs and Research, Howard University, Washington, D.C. Part 1 of the volume presents an overview of the functional significance of social research in the black community. The four papers in this section deal with issues such as…

  17. Perspectives for genomic selection applications and research in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) has created a lot of excitement and expectations in the animal and plant breeding research communities. In this review, we briefly describe how genomic prediction can be integrated into breeding efforts and point out achievements and areas where more research is needed. GS pro...

  18. Research on Routing Selection Algorithm Based on Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guohong; Zhang, Baojian; Li, Xueyong; Lv, Jinna

    The hereditary algorithm is a kind of random searching and method of optimizing based on living beings natural selection and hereditary mechanism. In recent years, because of the potentiality in solving complicate problems and the successful application in the fields of industrial project, hereditary algorithm has been widely concerned by the domestic and international scholar. Routing Selection communication has been defined a standard communication model of IP version 6.This paper proposes a service model of Routing Selection communication, and designs and implements a new Routing Selection algorithm based on genetic algorithm.The experimental simulation results show that this algorithm can get more resolution at less time and more balanced network load, which enhances search ratio and the availability of network resource, and improves the quality of service.

  19. Implementation Plans for a Systems Microbiology and Extremophile Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-04-20

    Introduction Biological organisms long ago solved many problems for which scientists and engineers seek solutions. Microbes in particular offer an astonishingly diverse set of capabilities that can help revolutionize our approach to solving many important DOE problems. For example, photosynthetic organisms can generate hydrogen from light while simultaneously sequestering carbon. Others can produce enzymes that break down cellulose and other biomass to produce liquid fuels. Microbes in water and soil can capture carbon and store it in the earth and ocean depths. Understanding the dynamic interaction between living organisms and the environment is critical to predicting and mitigating the impacts of energy-production-related activities on the environment and human health. Collectively, microorganisms contain most of the biochemical diversity on Earth and they comprise nearly one-half of its biomass. They primary impact the planet by acting as catalysts of biogeochemical cycles; they capture light energy and fix CO2 in the worlds oceans, they degrade plant polymers and convert them to humus in soils, they weather rocks and facilitate mineral precipitation. Although the ability of selected microorganisms to participate in these processes is known, they rarely live in monoculture but rather function within communities. In spite of this, little is known about the composition of microbial communities and how individual species function within them. We lack an understanding of the nature of the individual organisms and their genes, how they interact to perform complex functions such as energy and materials exchange, how they sense and respond to their environment and how they evolve and adapt to environmental change. Understanding these aspects of microbes and their communities would be transformational with far-reaching impacts on climate, energy and human health. This knowledge would create a foundation for predicting their behavior and, ultimately, manipulating them to

  20. Strengthening implementation and utilization of nutrition interventions through research: a framework and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Menon, Purnima; Covic, Namukolo M; Harrigan, Paige B; Horton, Susan E; Kazi, Nabeeha M; Lamstein, Sascha; Neufeld, Lynnette; Oakley, Erica; Pelletier, David

    2014-12-01

    Undernutrition among women and children contributes to almost half the global burden of child mortality in developing countries. The impact of nutrition on economic development has highlighted the need for evidence-based solutions and yielded substantial global momentum. However, it is now recognized that the impact of evidence-based interventions is limited by the lack of evidence on the best operational strategies for scaling up nutrition interventions. With the goal of encouraging greater engagement in implementation research in nutrition and generating evidence on implementation and utilization of nutrition interventions, this paper brings together a framework and a broad analysis of literature to frame and highlight the crucial importance of research on the delivery and utilization of nutrition interventions. The paper draws on the deliberations of a high-level working group, an e-consultation, a conference, and the published literature. It proposes a framework and areas of research that have been quite neglected, and yet are critical to better understanding through careful research to enable better translation of global and national political momentum for nutrition into public health impact. PMID:24934307

  1. An Implementation Research Approach to Evaluating Health Insurance Programs: Insights from India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Krishna D.; Nagulapalli, Srikant; Arora, Radhika; Madhavi, Mallela; Andersson, Elin; Ingabire, Marie-Gloriose

    2016-01-01

    One of the distinguishing features of implementation research is the importance given to involve implementers in all aspects of research, and as users of research. We report on a recent implementation research effort in India, in which researchers worked together with program implementers from one of the longest serving government funded insurance schemes in India, the Rajiv Aarogyasri Scheme (RAS) in the state of undivided Andhra Pradesh, that covers around 70 million people. This paper aims to both inform on the process of the collaborative research, as well as, how the nature of questions that emerged out of the collaborative exercise differed in scope from those typically asked of insurance program evaluations. Starting in 2012, and over the course of a year, staff from the Aarogyasri Health Care Trust (AHCT), and researchers held a series of meetings to identify research questions that could serve as a guide for an evaluation of the RAS. The research questions were derived from the application of a Logical Framework Approach ("log frame") to the RAS. The types of questions that emerged from this collaborative effort were compared with those seen in the published literature on evaluations of insurance programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In the published literature, 60% of the questions pertained to output/outcome of the program and the remaining 40%, relate to processes and inputs. In contrast, questions generated from the RAS participatory research process between implementers and researchers had a remarkably different distribution – 81% of questions looked at program input/processes, and 19% on outputs and outcomes. An implementation research approach can lead to a substantively different emphasis of research questions. While there are several challenges in collaborative research between implementers and researchers, an implementation research approach can lead to incorporating tacit knowledge of program implementers into the research

  2. An Implementation Research Approach to Evaluating Health Insurance Programs: Insights from India.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna D; Nagulapalli, Srikant; Arora, Radhika; Madhavi, Mallela; Andersson, Elin; Ingabire, Marie-Gloriose

    2016-01-01

    One of the distinguishing features of implementation research is the importance given to involve implementers in all aspects of research, and as users of research. We report on a recent implementation research effort in India, in which researchers worked together with program implementers from one of the longest serving government funded insurance schemes in India, the Rajiv Aarogyasri Scheme (RAS) in the state of undivided Andhra Pradesh, that covers around 70 million people. This paper aims to both inform on the process of the collaborative research, as well as, how the nature of questions that emerged out of the collaborative exercise differed in scope from those typically asked of insurance program evaluations. Starting in 2012, and over the course of a year, staff from the Aarogyasri Health Care Trust (AHCT), and researchers held a series of meetings to identify research questions that could serve as a guide for an evaluation of the RAS. The research questions were derived from the application of a Logical Framework Approach ("log frame") to the RAS. The types of questions that emerged from this collaborative effort were compared with those seen in the published literature on evaluations of insurance programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In the published literature, 60% of the questions pertained to output/outcome of the program and the remaining 40%, relate to processes and inputs. In contrast, questions generated from the RAS participatory research process between implementers and researchers had a remarkably different distribution - 81% of questions looked at program input/processes, and 19% on outputs and outcomes. An implementation research approach can lead to a substantively different emphasis of research questions. While there are several challenges in collaborative research between implementers and researchers, an implementation research approach can lead to incorporating tacit knowledge of program implementers into the research

  3. A neuromorphic VLSI device for implementing 2-D selective attention systems.

    PubMed

    Indiveri, G

    2001-01-01

    Selective attention is a mechanism used to sequentially select and process salient subregions of the input space, while suppressing inputs arriving from nonsalient regions. By processing small amounts of sensory information in a serial fashion, rather than attempting to process all the sensory data in parallel, this mechanism overcomes the problem of flooding limited processing capacity systems with sensory inputs. It is found in many biological systems and can be a useful engineering tool for developing artificial systems that need to process in real-time sensory data. In this paper we present a neuromorphic hardware model of a selective attention mechanism implemented on a very large scale integration (VLSI) chip, using analog circuits. The chip makes use of a spike-based representation for receiving input signals, transmitting output signals and for shifting the selection of the attended input stimulus over time. It can be interfaced to neuromorphic sensors and actuators, for implementing multichip selective attention systems. We describe the characteristics of the circuits used in the architecture and present experimental data measured from the system. PMID:18249973

  4. Research on implementation of proxy Arp in IP DSLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuanqing; Wang, Li; Huang, Qiugen

    2005-02-01

    While the ethernet is applied more and more in public network environment and xdsl service become the most common access mode ,IP kenel DSLAM undertakes some functions such as service distribution and convergence ,security management and customer management.Facing the contradiction of the need of port isolation and the shortage of ip address,VLAN aggregation technology is applied in DSLAM.How to implement the communicatio between the two vlan but share the same ip subnet,proxy arp does this. This paper introduces how to implement proxy arp in the DSLAM. TCP/IP communication detail procedure betweent two host ,the relation of VLAN and network segment are discussed. The proxy arp model and its implementation in IP DSLAM is also expatiated in this paper and a conformance tesing is given.

  5. The use of selected interventions in monitoring primary health care implementation in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egwu, I N

    1992-03-01

    Nigeria's Primary Health Care (PHC)-based health system development aims to strengthen PHC in the local government areas (LGA) through technical planning and implementation that emphasize maternal and child health services. Convenient variables, including expanded programme on immunization (EPI), antenatal care (ANC) utilization and attended births, were selected as interventions to monitor the progress of implementation of PHC activities during 1985-90 in Odukpani LGA. Analysis of available data at the LGA showed that immunization coverage for most EPI antigens increased; ANC services showed increased utilization; health worker-attended births increased as traditional birth deliveries declined during the period. Some of the increases were modest but are considered important. The study offers a pilot approach to monitoring implementation of PHC activities in Odukpani LGA. The implications of the findings for similar studies are discussed. PMID:1589661

  6. Selecting and implementing scientific objectives. [for Voyager 1 and 2 planetary encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, E. D.; Stembridge, C. H.; Doms, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    The procedures used to select and implement scientific objectives for the Voyager 1 and 2 planetary encounters are described. Attention is given to the scientific tradeoffs and engineering considerations must be addressed at various stages in the mission planning process, including: the limitations of ground and spacecraft communications systems, ageing of instruments in flight, and instrument calibration over long distances. The contribution of planetary science workshops to the definition of scientific objectives for deep space missions is emphasized.

  7. Depression Prevention Research: Design, Implementation, and Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; And Others

    This document contains three papers concerned with prevention intervention research, a new area of depression research which has shown great promise for contributing new knowledge to the understanding of depression. The first paper, "Clinical Trials vs. Prevention Trials: Methodological Issues in Depression Research" (Ricardo F. Munoz), emphasizes…

  8. Educational Research and Useful Knowledge: Production, Dissemination, Reception, Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoveid, Marit Honerod

    2012-01-01

    What the author has argued in this talk is that the answers to the question posed to this panel--"what counts as useful knowledge in educational research?"--are something which will be framed by what researchers care about as researchers. It requires a collective undertaking where a space in between them is cherished for the sake of the many…

  9. Intervention for Food Selectivity in a Specialized School Setting: Teacher Implemented Prompting, Reinforcement, and Demand Fading for an Adolescent Student with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Maria; Rue, Hanna C.; Wildenger, Leah; Lamb, Kara; Luiselli, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity is a common problem among children and youth who have intellectual and developmental disabilities or autism spectrum disorders. Whereas most intervention research has been conducted under simulated conditions in clinic and hospital settings, this study evaluated teacher implemented procedures at a specialized school. The…

  10. Staff Selection: What's Important for Out-Of-School Time Programs? Part 1 in a Series on Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Out-of-School Time Programs: The Role of Frontline Staff. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Allison J. R.; Bandy, Tawana; Burkhauser, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Research on successful out-of-school time programs repeatedly has found that the caliber of a program's staff is a critical feature of high-quality programs that achieve positive outcomes. Therefore, attracting, selecting, and retaining high-quality staff has become a major objective of out-of-school time programs. To expand what is known about…

  11. Programme Implementation in Social and Emotional Learning: Basic Issues and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…

  12. Three Decades of Implementation Research in Higher Education: Limitations and Prospects of Theory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article adopts a comparative approach to review three periods of theory development in research into higher education policy implementation. Given the conceptual affinity between Cerych and Sabatier's 1986 seminal study into higher education policy implementation and public policy implementation theory, the field of public policy is chosen for…

  13. Implementation of the FAA research and development electromagnetic database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowall, R. L.; Grush, D. J.; Cook, D. M.; Glynn, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been assisting the FAA in developing a database of information about lightning. The FAA Research and Development Electromagnetic Database (FRED) will ultimately contain data from a variety of airborne and ground-based lightning research projects. An outline of the data currently available in FRED is presented. The data sources which the FAA intends to incorporate into FRED are listed. In addition, it describes how the researchers may access and use the FRED menu system.

  14. Research and embedded implementation of Layer 3 switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jin; Cheng, Zijing

    2009-12-01

    In the internetworking world, switches and routers have been deployed for workgroup and enterprise connectivity. In the past, switches mainly operated at Layer 2 (they were extensions of bridges), while routers were clearly Layer3 devices. Recently, the line has blurred and switches operating at Layer 3 are becoming more popular. This paper explains the Linux Bridge, Layer 2 Switches, Virtual LAN (VLAN) and Layer 3 Switches. The flow chart of Layer 3 switches and working routine related to Layer 3 switch technology were investigated in detail. This paper presents a new method to implement layer 3 switching that is entirely accomplished in software and is embedded implemented by code transplanting based on PowerPC 460GT platform.

  15. Retinoblastoma genetics in India: From research to implementation.

    PubMed

    Dimaras, Helen

    2015-03-01

    Retinoblastoma is the prototypic genetic cancer. India carries the biggest burden of retinoblastoma globally, with an estimated 1500 new cases annually. Recent advances in retinoblastoma genetics are reviewed, focusing specifically on information with clinical significance to patients. The Indian literature on retinoblastoma clinical genetics is also highlighted, with a comment on challenges and future directions. The review concludes with recommendations to help clinicians implement and translate retinoblastoma genetics to their practice. PMID:25971166

  16. Selection of Research Mentors for K Funded Scholars

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Ellen L.; Fleming, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring is an important element in the training of new investigators, particularly for KL2, K12, K08, and K23 funded scholars who are often physicians or other clinicians with limited prior research experience. Matching K scholars with appropriate mentors who have the mentoring skills and available time is an ongoing challenge for most universities. The goal of this paper is to present a variety of strategies used to select mentors for K awardees. The information presented in this special communication is derived from the literature, a national survey of CTSA leaders, as well as K scholar and K mentor focus groups. Some of the mentor selection methods discussed in this paper include a) having the scholar find a mentor as part of the application process for the award, b) selecting mentors post award, c) expecting the chair of the department to identify a mentor(s), d) using a committee to match the scholar and a mentor based on a pool of approved mentors e) selecting additional mentors as the scholar’s research program develops. The paper concludes that mentor selection requires an ongoing programmatic approach with the active participation of K scholars, CTSA program leaders, center directors, research deans and chairs. PMID:21463493

  17. 77 FR 43416 - ITS Industry Forum on Connected Vehicles: Moving From Research Towards Implementation; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Industry Forum on Connected Vehicles: Moving From Research Towards Implementation; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: ITS Joint Program Office, Research and Innovative Technology Administration,...

  18. Developing, Approving and Maintaining Qualifications: Selected International Approaches. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2015-01-01

    There are lessons for Australia in the key approaches to the development, approval, maintenance and quality assurance of qualifications adopted in countries overseas. This research takes into account a range of approaches used in selected European Union (EU) member states (Germany, Finland and Sweden), the United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland…

  19. Advanced aerodynamics and active controls. Selected NASA research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic and active control concepts for application to commercial transport aircraft are discussed. Selected topics include in flight direct strike lightning research, triply redundant digital fly by wire control systems, tail configurations, winglets, and the drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) program.

  20. Selecting Research Collections for Digitization: Applying the Harvard Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancolini, Kristine R.

    2000-01-01

    Librarians at Harvard University have written the most comprehensive guide to selecting research collections for digitization. This article applies the Harvard Model to a digitization project at Indiana University in order to evaluate the appropriateness of the model for use at another institution and to adapt the model to local needs. (Contains 7…

  1. Music Teacher Effectiveness: Selected Historical and Contemporary Research Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Manny

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and analyzes selected past and current research approaches in the study of music teacher effectiveness. Early "teacher characteristic studies" are discussed along with the role of these first-generation studies in attempting to identify personal qualities and characteristics of apparently effective or ineffective teachers.…

  2. Corticostriatal circuit mechanisms of value-based action selection: Implementation of reinforcement learning algorithms and beyond.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kenji; Jitsev, Jenia; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-09-15

    Value-based action selection has been suggested to be realized in the corticostriatal local circuits through competition among neural populations. In this article, we review theoretical and experimental studies that have constructed and verified this notion, and provide new perspectives on how the local-circuit selection mechanisms implement reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms and computations beyond them. The striatal neurons are mostly inhibitory, and lateral inhibition among them has been classically proposed to realize "Winner-Take-All (WTA)" selection of the maximum-valued action (i.e., 'max' operation). Although this view has been challenged by the revealed weakness, sparseness, and asymmetry of lateral inhibition, which suggest more complex dynamics, WTA-like competition could still occur on short time scales. Unlike the striatal circuit, the cortical circuit contains recurrent excitation, which may enable retention or temporal integration of information and probabilistic "soft-max" selection. The striatal "max" circuit and the cortical "soft-max" circuit might co-implement an RL algorithm called Q-learning; the cortical circuit might also similarly serve for other algorithms such as SARSA. In these implementations, the cortical circuit presumably sustains activity representing the executed action, which negatively impacts dopamine neurons so that they can calculate reward-prediction-error. Regarding the suggested more complex dynamics of striatal, as well as cortical, circuits on long time scales, which could be viewed as a sequence of short WTA fragments, computational roles remain open: such a sequence might represent (1) sequential state-action-state transitions, constituting replay or simulation of the internal model, (2) a single state/action by the whole trajectory, or (3) probabilistic sampling of state/action. PMID:27173430

  3. Implementing Change in Secondary Schools Using Effective Schools Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamburg, Jerry D.; Andrews, Richard L.

    This paper describes research based on the Effective Schools Project, a collaborative project between the University of Washington and the Seattle School District. The research was undertaken to determine the amount of change that took place in two rural high schools over two years and to analyze the factors that contributed to those changes based…

  4. [Polish legal terms of animal-based research - selected aspects].

    PubMed

    Poznański, Paweł; Niedźwiecki, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Animal-based models used in biomedical sciences allow to perform research that, conducted on humans, would be highly problematic because of bioethical and technical issues. Contemporary researchers race can lead to abuse, hence the need for special law regulations regarding this subject. This necessity reflected both in the EU and Polish legislation, and is rooted in the philosophical and moral achievements of Europe. EU legislation in this case takes the form of directives implemented in the legal systems of the member states. Polish tradition of legislative approach to animal-based research is long. In 1959 the wide attempt to regulate this matter was undertaken. Until 2005, the nature of the matter had been regulated by the Polish animal protection law. Currently, details concerning animal-based-research are regulated by the animal experiments law (2005). The elapsed time since enactment allowed doctrine and judicature to reveal capabilities and vulnerabilities of the law. PMID:25932901

  5. Implementing Scientific-Based Research: Learning from the History of the Reading First Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Shereeza; Walker, David A.; Conderman, Greg; Pasapia, John

    2016-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires that educators at all grade levels use Scientifically Based Research (SBR) instructional practices. Researchers constructed a literature-based model to examine the predictive relationship between a state's comprehensiveness of planned implementation and its capacity to implement the plan. An approach comprised…

  6. Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Jane L; Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2008-01-01

    Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by

  7. Bibliometrics: tracking research impact by selecting the appropriate metrics.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Tatagari, Sindhuja; Esteves, Sandro C; Harlev, Avi; Henkel, Ralf; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Homa, Sheryl; Puchalt, Nicolás Garrido; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Majzoub, Ahmad; Ly, Kim Dao; Tvrda, Eva; Assidi, Mourad; Kesari, Kavindra; Sharma, Reecha; Banihani, Saleem; Ko, Edmund; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Gosalvez, Jaime; Bashiri, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the success of a researcher is assessed by the number of publications he or she publishes in peer-reviewed, indexed, high impact journals. This essential yardstick, often referred to as the impact of a specific researcher, is assessed through the use of various metrics. While researchers may be acquainted with such matrices, many do not know how to use them to enhance their careers. In addition to these metrics, a number of other factors should be taken into consideration to objectively evaluate a scientist's profile as a researcher and academician. Moreover, each metric has its own limitations that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate metric for evaluation. This paper provides a broad overview of the wide array of metrics currently in use in academia and research. Popular metrics are discussed and defined, including traditional metrics and article-level metrics, some of which are applied to researchers for a greater understanding of a particular concept, including varicocele that is the thematic area of this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. We recommend the combined use of quantitative and qualitative evaluation using judiciously selected metrics for a more objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact. PMID:26806079

  8. Bibliometrics: tracking research impact by selecting the appropriate metrics

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Tatagari, Sindhuja; Esteves, Sandro C; Harlev, Avi; Henkel, Ralf; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Homa, Sheryl; Puchalt, Nicolás Garrido; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Majzoub, Ahmad; Ly, Kim Dao; Tvrda, Eva; Assidi, Mourad; Kesari, Kavindra; Sharma, Reecha; Banihani, Saleem; Ko, Edmund; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Gosalvez, Jaime; Bashiri, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the success of a researcher is assessed by the number of publications he or she publishes in peer-reviewed, indexed, high impact journals. This essential yardstick, often referred to as the impact of a specific researcher, is assessed through the use of various metrics. While researchers may be acquainted with such matrices, many do not know how to use them to enhance their careers. In addition to these metrics, a number of other factors should be taken into consideration to objectively evaluate a scientist's profile as a researcher and academician. Moreover, each metric has its own limitations that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate metric for evaluation. This paper provides a broad overview of the wide array of metrics currently in use in academia and research. Popular metrics are discussed and defined, including traditional metrics and article-level metrics, some of which are applied to researchers for a greater understanding of a particular concept, including varicocele that is the thematic area of this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. We recommend the combined use of quantitative and qualitative evaluation using judiciously selected metrics for a more objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact. PMID:26806079

  9. Four challenges in selecting and implementing methods to monitor and evaluate participatory processes: Example from the Rwenzori region, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Ducrot, Raphaëlle; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Anne Daniell, Katherine; Pittock, Jamie

    2016-09-15

    Participatory approaches are now increasingly recognized and used as an essential element of policies and programs, especially in regards to natural resource management (NRM). Most practitioners, decision-makers and researchers having adopted participatory approaches also acknowledge the need to monitor and evaluate such approaches in order to audit their effectiveness, support decision-making or improve learning. Many manuals and frameworks exist on how to carry out monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for participatory processes. However, few provide guidelines on the selection and implementation of M&E methods, an aspect which is also often obscure in published studies, at the expense of the transparency, reliability and validity of the study. In this paper, we argue that the selection and implementation of M&E methods are particularly strategic when monitoring and evaluating a participatory process. We demonstrate that evaluators of participatory processes have to tackle a quadruple challenge when selecting and implementing methods: using mixed-methods, both qualitative and quantitative; assessing the participatory process, its outcomes, and its context; taking into account both the theory and participants' views; and being both rigorous and adaptive. The M&E of a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori Region, Uganda, is used as an example to show how these challenges unfold on the ground and how they can be tackled. Based on this example, we conclude by providing tools and strategies that can be used by evaluators to ensure that they make utile, feasible, coherent, transparent and adaptive methodological choices when monitoring and evaluating participatory processes for NRM. PMID:27288554

  10. Implementation Science in School Mental Health: Key Constructs in a Developing Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Brandt, Nicole Evangelista; Warner, Carrie Masia; Nadeem, Erum; Spiel, Craig; Wagner, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an implementation science research agenda as it applies to school mental health (SMH). First, we provide an overview of important contextual issues to be considered when addressing research questions pertinent to the implementation of mental health interventions in schools. Next, we critically review three core implementation components: (a) professional development and coaching for school professionals regarding evidence-based practices (EBPs); (b) the integrity of EBPs implemented in schools; and (c) EBP sustainment under typical school conditions. We articulate research questions central to the next generation of research in each of these areas as well as methods to address such questions. Our intent in doing so is to contribute to a developing blueprint to guide community-research partnerships as well as funding agencies in their efforts to advance implementation science in SMH. PMID:26413173

  11. Establishing a framework to implement 4D XCAT Phantom for 4D radiotherapy research

    PubMed Central

    Panta, Raj K.; Segars, Paul; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Aims To establish a framework to implement the 4D integrated extended cardiac torso (XCAT) digital phantom for 4D radiotherapy (RT) research. Materials and Methods A computer program was developed to facilitate the characterization and implementation of the 4D XCAT phantom. The program can (1) generate 4D XCAT images with customized parameter files; (2) review 4D XCAT images; (3) generate composite images from 4D XCAT images; (4) track motion of selected region-of-interested (ROI); (5) convert XCAT raw binary images into DICOM format; (6) analyse clinically acquired 4DCT images and real-time position management (RPM) respiratory signal. Motion tracking algorithm was validated by comparing with manual method. Major characteristics of the 4D XCAT phantom were studied. Results The comparison between motion tracking and manual measurements of lesion motion trajectory showed a small difference between them (mean difference in motion amplitude: 1.2 mm). The maximum lesion motion decreased nearly linearly (R2 = 0.97) as its distance to the diaphragm (DD) increased. At any given DD, lesion motion amplitude increased nearly linearly (R 2 range: 0.89 to 0.95) as the inputted diaphragm motion increased. For a given diaphragm motion, the lesion motion is independent of the lesion size at any given DD. The 4D XCAT phantom can closely reproduce irregular breathing profile. The end-to-end test showed that clinically comparable treatment plans can be generated successfully based on 4D XCAT images. Conclusions An integrated computer program has been developed to generate, review, analyse, process, and export the 4D XCAT images. A framework has been established to implement the 4D XCAT phantom for 4D RT research. PMID:23361276

  12. Implementation of R & QA practices in Research and Development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1983-01-01

    DOE has established a number of broad programs aimed at reducing fuel consumption. Several programs address the R&D of ground transportation propulsion alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. NASA Lewis is responsible for managing the effort between the Government and industry teams involving American and foreign companies. Thus, existing NASA SR&QA procedure were modified/adapted to these R&D programs and implemented to assure that the test hardware design intent was met, the hardware was not hazardous to personnel, it would demonstrate reliable operation, and it would help establish the future R&D quality assurance and maintainability requirements. This successful low-cost approach might be applicable to other similar projects.

  13. Research and implementation of object model in HLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Shabai

    2004-03-01

    High Level Architecture (HLA) is a new architecture for distributed simulation. Its purpose is to facilitate interoperability among the simulation applications and to promote reuse of simulations and their components. Object Model is important to implement purpose of HLA. OM provides a standard template to describe the abilities of simulations joining federate and the demands of outer systems. This paper introduces the basic content of HLA and describes the components of OM. Based on the authors' comprehend and practice, the paper analyzes the object-oriented characteristic of OM and the ability to support interoperability and reuse of OM. With the primary practice of navy slavage drilling simulation system, the authors give the designing of OM with an example acccording to the designing principle of OM.

  14. Motivating an Action Design Research Approach to Implementing Online Training in an Organisational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Christine; Scott, Elsje

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of Action Design Research (ADR), a combination of Action Research and Design Science Research, as a methodology to examine how the implementation of e-learning will affect the learning outcomes for staff training in an organisational context. The research involves an intervention in the…

  15. Implementing a Research-Based Model of Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The author used qualitative research methods to explore an 8th-grade mathematics teacher's personal definition of cooperative learning and the enactment of cooperative learning in his classroom according to that definition. Data collection involved interviews and classroom observations. The author used coding schemes and descriptive statistics for…

  16. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  17. NHEERL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT RESEARCH MULTI-YEAR IMPLEMENTATION PLAN (2005)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD has developed a multi-year plan (MYP) called the Contaminated Sites MYP to address the research needs of EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI). One of the long-term goals of the Contaminated Sites MYP relates to contaminated sediments, and t...

  18. Decision Support Framework (DSF) Team Research Implementation Plan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of ORD's Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) is to provide the information and methods needed by decision-makers to assess the benefits of ecosystem goods and services to human well-being for inclusion in management alternatives. The Decision Support Framework...

  19. National Risk Management Research Laboratory Strategic plan and Implementation - Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication provides an overview of the strategic plan recently developed by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). It includes a description of NRMRL's mission and goals and their alignment with Agency goals. Additionally, the overview contains a brief se...

  20. Selecting and implementing an interactive Computer Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Success with Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) depends upon management, users, and the system itself. If you are in a design and drafting environment, the thought of acquiring a CADD/M system will probably occur to you sometime in the very near future - if it hasn't already. Convincing yourself and your management of the benefits of such systems is but the first step. Evaluating and selecting one particular type of CADD/M system can turn out to be a complicated undertaking - not to mention somewhat frustrating. Procedures for selecting and successfully implementing a CADD/M system are outlined. INITIAL PREPARATION examines the techniques used to evaluate CADD/M systems including formation of an evaluation team, and application analysis. GRAPHICS EVALUATION describes the methods that can be used to test a CADD/M system, including benchmark drawings and specifications, human engineering considerations, and other evaluation criteria and general system configurations are also discussed. COMPUTER SYSTEM EVALUATION examines other factors in systems selection: programming, communications, documentation, and service. SYSTEM STARTUP addresses site preparation, people preparation, system acceptance, and operator, designer/drafter selection. Finally, operator, designer/drafter TRAINING and SYSTEM MANAGEMENT are discussed. This systematic approach wil help those contemplating the acquisition of CADD/M systems for their activities and will help minimize unplanned events and problem areas.Advanced planning in these areas is needed to ensure successful implementation of a CADD/M system. This in turn will lead to considerable cost savings and schedule improvements for an entire project, from initial design to final production. These are ambitious goals but easily realized if a logical and rational plan is adopted in the same manner as that used in a typical development program.

  1. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Beard, T. Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.; McIntyre, Peter B.; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin; Cowx, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social–ecological system dynamics. PMID:21325307

  2. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, T. Douglas, Jr.; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.; McIntyre, Peter B.; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin M.; Cowx, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social–ecological system dynamics.

  3. Amphibian research and monitoring initiative: Concepts and implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, P.S.; Adams, M.J.; Battaglin, W.A.; Gallant, A.L.; James, D.L.; Knutson, M.; Langtimm, C.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides the basis for discussion and subsequent articulation of a national plan for the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI). The authors were members of a task force formed from within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that included scientists with expertise in biology, cartography, hydrology, and statistics. The assignment of the task force was to extend work begun by the National Amphibian Leadership Group. This group, composed of senior USGS scientists, managers, and external authorities, met in Gainesville, Florida, in February 20001. The product of this meeting was a document outlining the framework for a national program to monitor amphibian populations and to conduct research into the causes of declines.

  4. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: Research needs and implementation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, T.D., Jr.; Arlinghaus, R.; Cooke, S.J.; McIntyre, P.B.; De Silva, S.; Bartley, D.; Cowx, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social-ecological system dynamics. ?? 2010 The Royal Society.

  5. Sampling: how to select participants in my research study?*

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Bastos, João Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Background In this paper, the basic elements related to the selection of participants for a health research are discussed. Sample representativeness, sample frame, types of sampling, as well as the impact that non-respondents may have on results of a study are described. The whole discussion is supported by practical examples to facilitate the reader's understanding. Objective To introduce readers to issues related to sampling. PMID:27438200

  6. Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Parisa; Shahrokni, Armin; Ranjbar, Mohammad R Nezami

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of the death, accounts for about 13% of all annual deaths worldwide. Many different fields of science are collaborating together studying cancer to improve our knowledge of this lethal disease, and find better solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Proteomics is one of the most recent and rapidly growing areas in molecular biology that helps understanding cancer from an omics data analysis point of view. The human proteome project was officially initiated in 2008. Proteomics enables the scientists to interrogate a variety of biospecimens for their protein contents and measure the concentrations of these proteins. Current necessary equipment and technologies for cancer proteomics are mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we provide a brief review on proteomics and its application in cancer research. After a brief introduction including its definition, we summarize the history of major previous work conducted by researchers, followed by an overview on the role of proteomics in cancer studies. We also provide a list of different utilities in cancer proteomics and investigate their advantages and shortcomings from theoretical and practical angles. Finally, we explore some of the main challenges and conclude the paper with future directions in this field. PMID:24761843

  7. Assessing implementation mechanisms for an international agreement on research and development for health products.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2012-11-01

    The Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are currently debating the substance and form of an international agreement to improve the financing and coordination of research and development (R&D) for health products that meet the needs of developing countries. In addition to considering the content of any possible legal or political agreement, Member States may find it helpful to reflect on the full range of implementation mechanisms available to bring any agreement into effect. These include mechanisms for states to make commitments, administer activities, manage financial contributions, make subsequent decisions, monitor each other's performance and promote compliance. States can make binding or non-binding commitments through conventions, contracts, declarations or institutional reforms. States can administer activities to implement their agreements through international organizations, sub-agencies, joint ventures or self-organizing processes. Finances can be managed through specialized multilateral funds, financial institutions, membership organizations or coordinated self-management. Decisions can be made through unanimity, consensus, equal voting, modified voting or delegation. Oversight can be provided by peer review, expert review, self-reports or civil society. Together, states should select their preferred options across categories of implementation mechanisms, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. The challenge lies in choosing the most effective combinations of mechanisms for supporting an international agreement (or set of agreements) that achieves collective aspirations in a way and at a cost that are both sustainable and acceptable to those involved. In making these decisions, WHO's Member States can benefit from years of experience with these different mechanisms in health and its related sectors. PMID:23226898

  8. Assessing implementation mechanisms for an international agreement on research and development for health products

    PubMed Central

    Røttingen, John-Arne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are currently debating the substance and form of an international agreement to improve the financing and coordination of research and development (R&D) for health products that meet the needs of developing countries. In addition to considering the content of any possible legal or political agreement, Member States may find it helpful to reflect on the full range of implementation mechanisms available to bring any agreement into effect. These include mechanisms for states to make commitments, administer activities, manage financial contributions, make subsequent decisions, monitor each other’s performance and promote compliance. States can make binding or non-binding commitments through conventions, contracts, declarations or institutional reforms. States can administer activities to implement their agreements through international organizations, sub-agencies, joint ventures or self-organizing processes. Finances can be managed through specialized multilateral funds, financial institutions, membership organizations or coordinated self-management. Decisions can be made through unanimity, consensus, equal voting, modified voting or delegation. Oversight can be provided by peer review, expert review, self-reports or civil society. Together, states should select their preferred options across categories of implementation mechanisms, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. The challenge lies in choosing the most effective combinations of mechanisms for supporting an international agreement (or set of agreements) that achieves collective aspirations in a way and at a cost that are both sustainable and acceptable to those involved. In making these decisions, WHO’s Member States can benefit from years of experience with these different mechanisms in health and its related sectors. PMID:23226898

  9. Developing and implementing an integrated delirium prevention system of care: a theory driven, participatory research study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Delirium is a common complication for older people in hospital. Evidence suggests that delirium incidence in hospital may be reduced by about a third through a multi-component intervention targeted at known modifiable risk factors. We describe the research design and conceptual framework underpinning it that informed the development of a novel delirium prevention system of care for acute hospital wards. Particular focus of the study was on developing an implementation process aimed at embedding practice change within routine care delivery. Methods We adopted a participatory action research approach involving staff, volunteers, and patient and carer representatives in three northern NHS Trusts in England. We employed Normalization Process Theory to explore knowledge and ward practices on delirium and delirium prevention. We established a Development Team in each Trust comprising senior and frontline staff from selected wards, and others with a potential role or interest in delirium prevention. Data collection included facilitated workshops, relevant documents/records, qualitative one-to-one interviews and focus groups with multiple stakeholders and observation of ward practices. We used grounded theory strategies in analysing and synthesising data. Results Awareness of delirium was variable among staff with no attention on delirium prevention at any level; delirium prevention was typically neither understood nor perceived as meaningful. The busy, chaotic and challenging ward life rhythm focused primarily on diagnostics, clinical observations and treatment. Ward practices pertinent to delirium prevention were undertaken inconsistently. Staff welcomed the possibility of volunteers being engaged in delirium prevention work, but existing systems for volunteer support were viewed as a barrier. Our evolving conception of an integrated model of delirium prevention presented major implementation challenges flowing from minimal understanding of delirium prevention

  10. Gas Research Institute`s appalachian basin research: Selected bibliography. Topical report, July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Picciano, L.

    1995-07-01

    The Appalachian Basin citations listed in this bibliography present select research reports that provide an overview of research and development (R&D) efforts related to the basin. The bibliography is organized in three sections, one for each of the following unconventional gas resources: coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas sands. Citations are further divided into geology and engineering subsections. The citations are only for those reports resulting directly from GRI`s research investment or reviews that extensively used GRI results.

  11. Literacy in the History Classroom: A Cross Case Analysis of Teacher Implemented Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'warte, Jacqueline Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study researches a participatory action research project undertaken by 12 history teachers in two urban school districts. In this project middle and high school teachers were engaged in a yearlong action research project that involved them in implementing literacy strategies within their classrooms and reflecting on the use and…

  12. Customizing a Research-Based Reading Practice: Balancing the Importance of Implementation Fidelity with Professional Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Brandes, Dana; Pinto, Viveca; Fuchs, Douglas; Kearns, Devin; Lemons, Christopher; Sáenz, Laura; Yen, Loulee

    2014-01-01

    Teachers are often asked to implement research-based instructional programs with fidelity and to ensure that all students reach high academic standards. These requests sometimes conflict when teachers find that not all their students are benefiting from the research-backed programs. In this article, we suggest that researchers and teachers can…

  13. Implementation of a Program of Outcomes Research in Residential Care Settings: Outcomes for Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portwood, Sharon G.; Boyd, A. Suzanne; Murdock, Tamera B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a need to examine behavioral and mental health outcomes for children in out-of-home care across settings. Objective: Using a participatory research approach, researchers and agency personnel aimed to implement a program of scientific outcomes research in residential care settings. Data were used to examine children's…

  14. Organizing Research and Development at the Intersection of Learning, Implementation, and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Fishman, Barry J.; Cheng, Britte Haugan; Sabelli, Nora

    2011-01-01

    This article describes elements of an approach to research and development called "design-based implementation research." The approach represents an expansion of design research, which typically focuses on classrooms, to include development and testing of innovations that foster alignment and coordination of supports for improving…

  15. Implementing a Service Learning Model for Teaching Research Methods and Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick; Kim, Wooksoo; Robinson, Adjoa

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to teach students the basic knowledge of research methods and the realities of conducting research in the context of agencies in the community, faculty developed and implemented a service learning model for teaching research and program evaluation to foundation-year MSW students. A year-long foundation course was designed in which one…

  16. Organizing Research and Development at the Intersection of Learning, Implementation, and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Fishman, Barry J.; Cheng, Britte Haugan; Sabelli, Nora

    2011-01-01

    This article describes elements of an approach to research and development called "design-based implementation research." The approach represents an expansion of design research, which typically focuses on classrooms, to include development and testing of innovations that foster alignment and coordination of supports for improving teaching and…

  17. Continued research on selected parameters to minimize community annoyance from airplane noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frair, L.

    1981-01-01

    Results from continued research on selected parameters to minimize community annoyance from airport noise are reported. First, a review of the initial work on this problem is presented. Then the research focus is expanded by considering multiobjective optimization approaches for this problem. A multiobjective optimization algorithm review from the open literature is presented. This is followed by the multiobjective mathematical formulation for the problem of interest. A discussion of the appropriate solution algorithm for the multiobjective formulation is conducted. Alternate formulations and associated solution algorithms are discussed and evaluated for this airport noise problem. Selected solution algorithms that have been implemented are then used to produce computational results for example airports. These computations involved finding the optimal operating scenario for a moderate size airport and a series of sensitivity analyses for a smaller example airport.

  18. DMPwerkzeug - A tool to support the planning, implementation, and organization of research data management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klar, Jochen; Engelhardt, Claudia; Neuroth, Heike; Enke, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Following the call to make the results of publicly funded research openly accessible, more and more funding agencies demand the submission of a data management plan (DMP) as part of the application process. These documents specify, how the data management of the project is organized and what datasets will be published when. Of particular importance for European researchers is the Open Data Research Pilot of Horizon 2020 which requires data management plans for a set of 9 selected research fields from social sciences to nanotechnology. In order to assist the researchers creating these documents, several institutions developed dedicated software tools. The most well-known are DMPonline by the Digital Curation Centre (DCC) and DMPtool by the California Digital Library (CDL) - both extensive and well received web applications. The core functionality of these tools is the assisted editing of the DMP templates provided by the particular funding agency.While this is certainly helpful, especially in an environment with a plethora of different funding agencies like the UK or the USA, these tools are somewhat limited to this particular task and don't utilise the full potential of DMP. Beyond the purpose of fulfilling funder requirements, DMP can be useful for a number of additional tasks. In the initial conception phase of a project, they can be used as a planning tool to determine which date management activities and measures are necessary throughout the research process, to assess which resources are needed, and which institutions (computing centers, libraries, data centers) should be involved. During the project, they can act as a constant reference or guideline for the handling of research data. They also determine where the data will be stored after the project has ended and whether it can be accessed by the public, helping to take into account resulting requirements of the data center or actions necessary to ensure re-usability by others from early on. Ideally, a DMP

  19. Performance-Based Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis (OABA). Implementation and Supporting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.; And Others

    This document contains two sections: implementation of the performance-based Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis (OABA), and supporting research. Section 1 presents OABA, an analytic procedure designed to identify those affective behaviors important to success in an occupation, and gives directions on how to implement the procedure. The…

  20. State Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice for Youths, Part II: Recommendations for Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Eric J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Rivard, Jeanne C.; Wotring, Jim; Marsenich, Lynne; Carter, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The article surveys the various state-level evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation challenges and strategies adopted for children, youths, and families. The federal government also supports EBP through development and intervention research, training and technical assistance, and evaluation of different planning and implementation strategies.…

  1. Examining Different Forms of Implementation and in Early Childhood Curriculum Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L.; Fleming, Kandace; Diamond, Karen; Lieber, Joan; Hanson, Marci; Butera, Gretchen; Horn, Eva; Palmer, Susan; Marquis, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine different approaches to assessing implementation in an early childhood curriculum research study. Early childhood teachers in 51 preschool classes located at nationally dispersed sites implemented the Children's School Success curriculum for a school year. Structural (proportion of curriculum delivered) and…

  2. Implementing Evidence-Based Practice: A Review of the Empirical Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mel; Joy, Elyssa; Plath, Debbie; Webb, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The article reports on the findings of a review of empirical studies examining the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the human services. Eleven studies were located that defined EBP as a research-informed, clinical decision-making process and identified barriers and facilitators to EBP implementation. A thematic analysis of the…

  3. When Does Consultation Lead to Intervention Implementation?: Critical Issues for Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, George H.; Witt, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that, in applying the consultation model to the special educational needs of students in regular classes, little is known about the extent to which regular teachers actually implement recommended interventions following consultation. Proposes research on the relationship between consultation and intervention implementation and addresses…

  4. Optimizing State Policy Implementation: The Case of the Scientific Based Research Components of the NCLB Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Shereeza; Pisapia, John; Walker, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A hypothesized model of state implementation of federal policy was extracted from empirical studies to discover the strategies states can use to gain compliance more cost effectively. Sixteen factors were identified and applied to the implementation of the Scientific Based Research provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act. Data collected from…

  5. 78 FR 52777 - Implementation of the Revised International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Implementation of the Revised International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH)...

  6. IMPLEMENTING AND AUDITING ELECTRONIC RECORDKEEPING SYSTEMS USED IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electronic recordkeeping is increasingly replacing hadwritten records in the course of "normal business." As this trend continues, it is important that organizations develop and implement electronic recordkeeping policies and procedures. This is especially true for Research and...

  7. An Examination of Selected Datacom Options for the Near-Term Implementation of Trajectory Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Lachter, Joel B.; Battiste, Vernol; Lim, Veranika; Brandt, Summer L.; Koteskey, Robert W.; Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Ligda, Sarah V.; Wu, Shu-Chieh

    2011-01-01

    A primary feature of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is trajectory based operations (TBO). Under TBO, aircraft flight plans are known to computer systems on the ground that aid in scheduling and separation. The Future Air Navigation System (FANS) was developed to support TBO, but relatively few aircraft in the US are FANSequipped. Thus, any near-term implementation must provide TBO procedures for non-FANS aircraft. Previous research has explored controller clearances, but any implementation must also provide procedures for aircraft requests. The work presented here aims to surface issues surrounding TBO communication procedures for non-FANS aircraft and for aircraft requesting deviations around weather. Three types of communication were explored: Voice, FANS, and ACARS,(Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System). ACARS and FANS are datacom systems that differ in that FANS allows uplinked flight plans to be loaded into the Flight Management System (FMS), while ACARS delivers flight plans as text that must be entered manually via the Control Display Unit (CDU). Sixteen pilots (eight two-person flight decks) and four controllers participated in 32 20-minute scenarios that required the flight decks to navigate through convective weather as they approached their top of descents (TODs). Findings: The rate of non-conformance was higher than anticipated, with aircraft off path more than 20% of the time. Controllers did not differentiate between the ACARS and FANS datacom, and were mixed in their preference for Voice vs. datacom (ACARS and FANS). Pilots uniformly preferred Voice to datacom, particularly ACARS. Much of their dislike appears to result from the slow response times in the datacom conditions. As a result, participants frequently resorted to voice communication. These results imply that, before implementing TBO in environments where pilots make weather deviation requests, further research is needed to develop communication

  8. Science Research 4: Results of Implementation of Student-Facilitated Teacher Training and Student Mentorship Programs Promoting Original Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danch, J. M.; Aker, K.

    2014-12-01

    A high school curriculum allowing students previously involved in a 3-year Science Research Program to continue into a 4th year was developed in 2013 and implemented in 2014. The goals of this curriculum were to allow 3-year students to utilize their expertise in research methods and data acquisition technology to mentor both incoming research students and their teachers in the development and implementation of original scientific research. Student responsibilities involved the mentorship of both 8th Grade Honors Geoscience students and 9th grade Science Research students during the development and implementation of original research. Science Research 4 students also conducted teacher training sessions facilitating the use of electronic sensors and data acquisition devices in the classroom for general education and scientific research applications. The development, testing and presentation via teacher workshops, of the utilization of the Daily Inquiry method of promoting original scientific research in the middle school and high school classroom were also undertaken. Mentored students successfully completed and presented original research projects and teachers involved in training sessions reported increased and effective utilization of data acquisition technology and Daily Inquiry methods in the classroom.

  9. Deriving Implementation Strategies for Outcome Monitoring Feedback from Theory, Research and Practice.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Outcome monitoring feedback is a promising intervention to enhance outcomes of clinical practice. However, effective implementation can be tough and research suggests that feedback is not equally effective under all circumstances. In this article, feedback theory, research and experience from clinical practice is used to provide implementation strategies. Factors that moderate the effectiveness of outcome monitoring feedback, including feedback, recipient and organization characteristics are discussed. It is important to pay attention to implementation processes, such as providing sufficient training for clinicians, in order for feedback to be capable of enhancing outcomes. PMID:25208490

  10. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

    1999-12-01

    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  11. A review of research on fidelity of implementation: implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings.

    PubMed

    Dusenbury, Linda; Brannigan, Rosalind; Falco, Mathea; Hansen, William B

    2003-04-01

    To help inform drug abuse prevention research in school settings about the issues surrounding implementation, we conducted a review of the fidelity of implementation research literature spanning a 25-year period. Fidelity has been measured in five ways: (1) adherence, (2) dose, (3) quality of program delivery, (4) participant responsiveness and (5) program differentiation. Definitions and measures of fidelity were found not to be consistent across studies, and new definitions are proposed. While there has been limited research on fidelity of implementation in the social sciences, research in drug abuse prevention provides evidence that poor implementation is likely to result in a loss of program effectiveness. Studies indicate that most teachers do not cover everything in a curriculum, they are likely to teach less over time and training alone is not sufficient to ensure fidelity of implementation. Key elements of high fidelity include teacher training, program characteristics, teacher characteristics and organizational characteristics. The review concludes with a discussion of the tension between fidelity and reinvention/adaptation, and ways of resolving this tension. Recommendations are made for developing a consistent methodology for measuring and analyzing fidelity of implementation. Further, researchers and providers should collaborate to develop ways of introducing flexibility into prevention programs. PMID:12729182

  12. The promise and challenge of practice-research collaborations: Guiding principles and strategies for initiating, designing, and implementing program evaluation research.

    PubMed

    Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L; Berlin, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations, and building on their experiences in successfully completing a community-based research evaluation, the authors identify specific relationship-focused principles and strategies and illustrate how these approaches can guide practice-research teams through the various sequential activities of the evaluation research process. In particular, it is suggested that practice-research collaborations can be formed, strengthened, and sustained by emphasis on a spirit of discovery and shared leadership at the start of the relationship, use of a comprehensive evaluation model to clarify and frame the evaluation and program goals, beginning where the client is when selecting research methodology and measurement tools, commitment to keeping the program first and recording everything during the implementation and data-collection stages, discussion of emerging findings and presentation of findings in graphic format at the data-analysis stage, and a total team approach at the dissemination stage. PMID:21314067

  13. Model Selection in Historical Research Using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Campillo, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Formal Models and History Computational models are increasingly being used to study historical dynamics. This new trend, which could be named Model-Based History, makes use of recently published datasets and innovative quantitative methods to improve our understanding of past societies based on their written sources. The extensive use of formal models allows historians to re-evaluate hypotheses formulated decades ago and still subject to debate due to the lack of an adequate quantitative framework. The initiative has the potential to transform the discipline if it solves the challenges posed by the study of historical dynamics. These difficulties are based on the complexities of modelling social interaction, and the methodological issues raised by the evaluation of formal models against data with low sample size, high variance and strong fragmentation. Case Study This work examines an alternate approach to this evaluation based on a Bayesian-inspired model selection method. The validity of the classical Lanchester’s laws of combat is examined against a dataset comprising over a thousand battles spanning 300 years. Four variations of the basic equations are discussed, including the three most common formulations (linear, squared, and logarithmic) and a new variant introducing fatigue. Approximate Bayesian Computation is then used to infer both parameter values and model selection via Bayes Factors. Impact Results indicate decisive evidence favouring the new fatigue model. The interpretation of both parameter estimations and model selection provides new insights into the factors guiding the evolution of warfare. At a methodological level, the case study shows how model selection methods can be used to guide historical research through the comparison between existing hypotheses and empirical evidence. PMID:26730953

  14. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION PLAN, NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD), is responsible for conducting research to improve the risk assessment of chemicals for potential effects ...

  15. Multivariate Analysis for Animal Selection in Experimental Research

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Renan Mercuri; de Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Tomasi, Loreta Casquel; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Okoshi, Katashi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Several researchers seek methods for the selection of homogeneous groups of animals in experimental studies, a fact justified because homogeneity is an indispensable prerequisite for casualization of treatments. The lack of robust methods that comply with statistical and biological principles is the reason why researchers use empirical or subjective methods, influencing their results. Objective To develop a multivariate statistical model for the selection of a homogeneous group of animals for experimental research and to elaborate a computational package to use it. Methods The set of echocardiographic data of 115 male Wistar rats with supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS) was used as an example of model development. Initially, the data were standardized, and became dimensionless. Then, the variance matrix of the set was submitted to principal components analysis (PCA), aiming at reducing the parametric space and at retaining the relevant variability. That technique established a new Cartesian system into which the animals were allocated, and finally the confidence region (ellipsoid) was built for the profile of the animals’ homogeneous responses. The animals located inside the ellipsoid were considered as belonging to the homogeneous batch; those outside the ellipsoid were considered spurious. Results The PCA established eight descriptive axes that represented the accumulated variance of the data set in 88.71%. The allocation of the animals in the new system and the construction of the confidence region revealed six spurious animals as compared to the homogeneous batch of 109 animals. Conclusion The biometric criterion presented proved to be effective, because it considers the animal as a whole, analyzing jointly all parameters measured, in addition to having a small discard rate. PMID:25651342

  16. Mixed Methods for Implementation Research: Application to Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Staff Turnover in Community Based Organizations Providing Child Welfare Services

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Fettes, Danielle L.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Palinkas, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Many public sector services systems and provider organizations are in some phase of learning about or implementing evidence-based interventions. Child welfare service systems represent a context where implementation spans system, management, and organizational concerns. Research utilizing mixed methods that combine qualitative and quantitative design, data collection, and analytic approaches are particularly well-suited to understanding both the process and outcomes of dissemination and implementation efforts in child welfare systems. This paper describes the process of using mixed methods in implementation research and provides an applied example of an examination of factors impacting staff retention during an evidence-based intervention implementation in a statewide child welfare system. We integrate qualitative data with previously published quantitative analyses of job autonomy and staff turnover during this statewide implementation project in order to illustrate the utility of mixed method approaches in providing a more comprehensive understanding of opportunities and challenges in implementation research. PMID:22146861

  17. A District's Use of Data and Research to Inform Policy Formation and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Andrew; Madura, John P.; Cox, Joshua; Carey, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study of a change initiative by the Syracuse (NY) City School District informs the question, "How do school boards and districts better use research and data to inform policy decisions?" Researchers used interviews and artifacts to describe how the district developed and implemented a new discipline policy, the Syracuse…

  18. Implementation of Systems to Support the Management of Research: Commentary from a UK University Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Scott; Langley, David

    2007-01-01

    The increasing complexity and diversity of a typical portfolio of research awards coupled with advancing technology makes successful implementation and delivery of system benefits more challenging than ever. Moreover, the role of systems in knowledge management is a fundamental issue faced by all research active organizations. One of the principal…

  19. Redefining Authentic Research Experiences in Introductory Biology Laboratories and Barriers to Their Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spell, Rachelle M.; Guinan, Judith A.; Miller, Kristen R.; Beck, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratory classes would greatly expand the number of students exposed to the excitement of discovery and the rigor of the scientific process. However, the essential components of an authentic research experience and the barriers to their implementation in laboratory classes are…

  20. A research-based child welfare employee selection protocol: strengthening retention of the workforce.

    PubMed

    Ellett, Alberta J; Ellett, Chad D; Ellis, Jacquelyn; Lerner, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial implementation of a new employee selection protocol (ESP) for child welfare grounded in the results of recent large-scale employee retention studies and a set of research-based, minimally essential knowledge, skills, abilities, and values. The complete ESP consists of a sequenced set of Web- and site-based assessment processes and procedures for potential applicants. Using the ESP, applicants and employers make informed decisions about the goodness of fit between the applicant and the demands of a career in child welfare. To date, the new ESP has been piloted in three Georgia Division of Family and Children Services (DFCS) regions and implemented by all nine colleges and universities participating in IV-E child welfare education programs. Evaluation data collected from students and new employees in one DFCS region strongly support the value of the ESP Web-based activities to make a more informed decision about whether to apply for the IV-E stipends and child welfare positions. Feedback from trained ESP assessors supports the value of various ESP activities. A major goal of implementing the ESP is to select more professionally committed and highly qualified applicants to strengthen employee retention and outcomes for children and families. PMID:20187562

  1. A selective review of advances in coccidiosis research.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H David; Barta, John R; Blake, Damer; Gruber, Arthur; Jenkins, Mark; Smith, Nicholas C; Suo, Xun; Tomley, Fiona M

    2013-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a widespread and economically significant disease of livestock caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. This disease is worldwide in occurrence and costs the animal agricultural industry many millions of dollars to control. In recent years, the modern tools of molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology and immunology have been used to expand greatly our knowledge of these parasites and the disease they cause. Such studies are essential if we are to develop new means for the control of coccidiosis. In this chapter, selective aspects of the biology of these organisms, with emphasis on recent research in poultry, are reviewed. Topics considered include taxonomy, systematics, genetics, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, transfection, oocyst biogenesis, host cell invasion, immunobiology, diagnostics and control. PMID:23876872

  2. Implementing community-based provider participation in research: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2003, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) has sought to restructure the clinical research enterprise in the United States by promoting collaborative research partnerships between academically-based investigators and community-based physicians. By increasing community-based provider participation in research (CBPPR), the NIH seeks to advance the science of discovery by conducting research in clinical settings where most people get their care, and accelerate the translation of research results into everyday clinical practice. Although CBPPR is seen as a promising strategy for promoting the use of evidence-based clinical services in community practice settings, few empirical studies have examined the organizational factors that facilitate or hinder the implementation of CBPPR. The purpose of this study is to explore the organizational start-up and early implementation of CBPPR in community-based practice. Methods We used longitudinal, case study research methods and an organizational model of innovation implementation to theoretically guide our study. Our sample consisted of three community practice settings that recently joined the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) in the United States. Data were gathered through site visits, telephone interviews, and archival documents from January 2008 to May 2011. Results The organizational model for innovation implementation was useful in identifying and investigating the organizational factors influencing start-up and early implementation of CBPPR in CCOP organizations. In general, the three CCOP organizations varied in the extent to which they achieved consistency in CBPPR over time and across physicians. All three CCOP organizations demonstrated mixed levels of organizational readiness for change. Hospital management support and resource availability were limited across CCOP organizations early on, although they improved in one CCOP organization

  3. Implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes: a protocol for mixed methods research

    PubMed Central

    Busetto, Loraine; Luijkx, Katrien Ger; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While integrated care for diabetes mellitus type 2 has achieved good results in terms of intermediate clinical and process outcomes, the evidence-based knowledge on its implementation is scarce, and insights generalisable to other settings therefore remain limited. Objective This study protocol provides a description of the design and methodology of a mixed methods study on the implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes. The aim of the proposed research is to investigate the mechanisms by which and the context in which integrated care for type 2 diabetes has been implemented, which outcomes have been achieved and how the context and mechanisms have affected the outcomes. Methods This article describes a convergent parallel mixed methods research design, including a systematic literature review on the implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes as well as a case study on two Dutch best practices on integrated care for type 2 diabetes. Discussion The implementation of integrated care for diabetes type 2 is an under-researched area. Insights from this study could be applied to other settings as well as other chronic conditions to strengthen the evidence on the implementation of integrated care. PMID:25550689

  4. Implementing Research in the Science Classroom: Students and Teachers as Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, C. Bobbi

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of having students do research with other students and having teachers do research with other teachers. Recommends connecting topics for the investigative process with issues from students' real life experiences. (DDR)

  5. Exploring the barriers to and facilitators of implementing research into practice.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Bridget; Coole, Carol; Narayanasamy, Melanie; Feakes, Ruth; Whitworth, Gillian; Tyrell, Tracy; Hardy, Beth

    2016-08-01

    District and community nursing roles have changed rapidly in recent years. Community nurses are increasingly being tasked with carrying out multiple roles, which require them to put research into practice and use evidence-based tools and interventions. The implementation of interventions and tools needs to be developed from empirical research, requiring evidence, to be translated into practice. However, this process may be compromised or enhanced by a number of factors. This exploratory, descriptive qualitative study sought to identify barriers and facilitators to community nurses implementing research into practice. Four focus groups were conducted with registered community nurses and district nurses (n=22). Analysis identified four main themes: keeping up to date with evidence; using a clinical tool; education/training and implementation. Findings suggest that there are barriers at a personal, professional and organisational level. Strategies are suggested to overcome these obstacles. PMID:27479853

  6. Techniques for selecting topology and implementing the distributed control system network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyi, S.

    2016-04-01

    On grounds of reviews devoted to flows analysis methods in the data processing networks within the automated control systems for the technological process and assessment of these methods by the selected set of requirements, one may make conclusion about expediency of using the combination of graph flow algorithms and the queuing theory. The outputs of the research concerning the impact of network dynamics on the drilling platform distributed system control quality prove the fact that the quality of the transient depends upon the frequency of discretization and intensity of flows. With increasing the intensity of flows, the static error of the control enlarges. It was concluded that in order to control the automation objects in the real-time mode it is required to minimize the delays in transmitting packets in the network.

  7. Implementing and auditing electronic recordkeeping systems used in scientific research and development.

    PubMed

    Brilis, George M; Lyon, John G; Worthington, Jeffrey C; Lysakowski, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Electronic recordkeeping is increasingly replacing handwritten records in the course of "normal business." As this trend continues, it is important that organizations develop and implement electronic recordkeeping policies and procedures. This is especially true for research and development organizations because of the potential to transform a discovery into a patent, and at times patent application contests are resolved in litigation. This paper provides a basis for the development, implementation, and subsequent assessment of a research and development recordkeeping policy. The approach described in this paper should be tailored by the organization adopting this approach to meet the needs of their organization. PMID:16044560

  8. Implementation of evidence-based health care using action research: An emancipatory approach.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Luciana; Soares, Cassia Baldini

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss the emancipatory approach to action research as an appropriate methodology for workers' meaningful implementation of evidence-based health care. Implementation of evidence-based health care using action research is well supported by the literature. There are various approaches to action research, and they are coherent with the objectives and methods elected to develop the investigation. It is not clear which approach of action research is responsible for meaningful worker engagement in changing praxis. This is a discussion paper based on our experiences and supported by literature on collective health. Health care is defined as a social praxis, dependent upon the capitalist mode of production in which health workers engage themselves in a labour process that has negative (as alienation) as well as positive (as creativity) meanings. Emancipatory changes of social praxis through implementation of evidence-based health care require that participants understand the positive and negative meanings of their work and engage health workers in a conscious and intentional collaborative educational process. Implementation of evidence-based health care through emancipatory action research is capable of overcoming alienation and changing social practice through a participatory meaningful process of knowledge translation. PMID:27562664

  9. A review of diabetes prevention program translations: use of cultural adaptation and implementation research.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Rachel G; Sinclair, Kàimi A; Baumann, Ana A; Racette, Susan B; Sebert Kuhlmann, Anne; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-12-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) has been shown to prevent type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modification. The purpose of this study was to describe the literature on DPP translation, synthesizing studies using cultural adaptation and implementation research. A systematic search was conducted. Original studies evaluating DPP implementation and/or cultural adaptation were included. Data about cultural adaptation, implementation outcomes, and translation strategies was abstracted. A total of 44 were included, of which 15 reported cultural adaptations and 38 explored implementation. Many studies shortened the program length and reported a group format. The most commonly reported cultural adaptation (13 of 15) was with content. At the individual level, the most frequently assessed implementation outcome (n = 30) was adoption. Feasibility was most common (n = 32) at the organization level. The DPP is being tested in a variety of settings and populations, using numerous translational strategies and cultural adaptations. Implementation research that identifies, evaluates, and reports efforts to translate the DPP into practice is crucial. PMID:26622913

  10. Insights into Implementing Research Collaborations between Research-Intensive Universities and Minority-Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thao, Mao; Lawrenz, Frances; Brakke, Mary; Sherman, Jamie; Matute, Martin

    2016-01-01

    With the high demand to build the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce and the disparity of underrepresented minorities in STEM fields, there have been increased educational efforts to diversify STEM fields. This article describes what works in research collaborations between research-intensive universities (RIUs) and…

  11. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…

  12. Focus on Cultural Issues in Research: Developing and Implementing Native American Postcolonial Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Joseph B.

    Indian country presents even the most seasoned and careful researcher with numerous methodological issues. Two of the most salient of these are appropriate understanding of postcolonial stress in tribal communities, and the use of participatory action research methods and models in a culturally sensitive manner. This paper explains postcolonial…

  13. Implementing the foundations of learning project: considerations for preschool intervention research.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Chrishana M; Morris, Pamela A; Portilla, Ximena A

    2014-01-01

    While studies have documented the importance of strong implementation in intervention studies (e.g., see Durlak & Dupre, 2008 ), more information is needed about how to ensure strong fidelity and quality of program implementation when delivering interventions under "real world conditions" and on a large scale. In this article, key lessons in implementing a demonstration and evaluation project known as the Foundations of Learning (FOL) demonstration are presented. Our discussion highlights several key components to the success of the project, including the building of effective coalitions before, and during, the delivery of the intervention to support the implementation process, as well as intensive, collaborative, and multilayered technical assistance provided as the intervention was delivered. Key lessons learned over the course of this project represent some that are highly consistent with prior research on this topic, as well as some that are unique, thus representing new areas for exploration in this burgeoning area of study. PMID:25321642

  14. Implementing Effective Substance Abuse Treatments in General Medical Settings: Mapping the Research Terrain.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Harris, Alex H S

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) share an interest in promoting high quality, rigorous health services research to improve the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Recent and continuing changes in the healthcare policy and funding environments prioritize the integration of evidence-based substance abuse treatments into primary care and general medical settings. This area is a prime candidate for implementation research. Recent and ongoing implementation projects funded by these agencies are reviewed. Research in five areas is highlighted: screening and brief intervention for risky drinking; screening and brief intervention for tobacco use; uptake of FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies; safe opioid prescribing; and disease management. Gaps in the portfolios, and priorities for future research, are described. PMID:26233697

  15. Medication Assisted Treatment Research with Criminal Justice Populations: Challenges of Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Miller, Patrice M.

    2011-01-01

    Creating, implementing and evaluating substance abuse interventions, especially medication-assisted treatments, for prisoners, parolees, and probationers with histories of heroin addiction is an especially challenging endeavor because of the difficulty in coordinating and achieving cooperation among diverse criminal justice, substance abuse treatment, research, and social service agencies, each with its own priorities and agenda. In addition, there are special rules that must be followed when conducting research with criminal justice-involved populations, particularly prisoners. The following case studies will explore the authors’ experience of over 10 years conducting pharmacotherapy research using methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone with criminal justice populations. The major obstacles and how they were overcome are presented. Finally, recommendations are provided with regard to implementing and conducting research with criminal justice populations. PMID:22086665

  16. Medication-assisted treatment research with criminal justice populations: challenges of implementation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Miller, Patrice M

    2011-01-01

    Creating, implementing and evaluating substance abuse interventions, especially medication-assisted treatments, for prisoners, parolees, and probationers with histories of heroin addiction is an especially challenging endeavor because of the difficulty in coordinating and achieving cooperation among diverse criminal justice, substance abuse treatment, research, and social service agencies, each with its own priorities and agenda. In addition, there are special rules that must be followed when conducting research with criminal justice-involved populations, particularly prisoners. The following case studies will explore the authors' experience of over 10 years conducting pharmacotherapy research using methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone with criminal justice populations. The major obstacles and how they were overcome are presented. Finally, recommendations are provided with regard to implementing and conducting research with criminal justice populations. PMID:22086665

  17. Fidelity of Implementation of Research Experience for Teachers in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Tapati

    In this study, the Arizona State University Mathematics and Science Teaching Fellows 2010 program was analyzed qualitatively from start to finish to determine the impact of the research experience on teachers in the classroom. The sample for the study was the 2010 cohort of eight high school science teachers. Erickson’s (1986) interpretive, participant observational fieldwork method was used to report data by means of detailed descriptions of the research experience and classroom implementation. Data was collected from teacher documents, interviews, and observations. The findings revealed various factors that were responsible for an ineffective implementation of the research experience in the classroom such as research experience, curriculum support, availability of resources, and school curriculum. Implications and recommendations for future programs are discussed in the study.

  18. Using ethnography in implementation research to improve nutrition interventions in populations.

    PubMed

    Tumilowicz, Alison; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Pelto, Gretel H

    2015-12-01

    'Implementation research in nutrition' is an emerging area of study aimed at building evidence-based knowledge and sound theory to design and implement programs that will effectively deliver nutrition interventions. This paper describes some of the basic features of ethnography and illustrates its applications in components of the implementation process. We review the central purpose of ethnography, which is to obtain the emic view--the insider's perspective--and how ethnography has historically interfaced with nutrition. We present examples of ethnographic studies in relation to an analytic framework of the implementation process, situating them with respect to landscape analysis, formative research, process evaluation and impact evaluation. These examples, conducted in various parts of the world by different investigators, demonstrate how ethnography provided important, often essential, insights that influenced programming decisions or explained programme outcomes. Key messages Designing, implementing and evaluating interventions requires knowledge about the populations and communities in which interventions are situated, including knowledge from the 'emic' (insider's) perspective. Obtaining emic perspectives and analysing them in relation to cultural, economic and structural features of social organisation in societies is a central purpose of ethnography. Ethnography is an essential aspect of implementation research in nutrition, as it provides important insights for making decisions about appropriate interventions and delivery platforms; determining how best to fit aspects of programme design and implementation into different environmental and cultural contexts; opening the 'black box' in interventions to understand how delivery and utilisation processes affect programme outcomes or impacts; and understanding how programme impacts were achieved, or not. PMID:26778802

  19. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Hilt, Lori M.; Chereji, Elizabeth; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment integrity refers to implementing interventions as intended. Treatment integrity is critically important for experimental validity and for drawing valid inferences regarding the relationship between treatment and outcome. Yet, it is rarely adequately addressed in psychotherapy research. The authors examined barriers to treatment integrity…

  20. Fidelity of Implementation and Instructional Alignment in Response to Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David R.; King, Seth A.; Lemons, Christopher J.; Partanen, Jane N.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we explore the extent to which researchers evaluating the efficacy of Tier 2 elementary reading interventions within the framework of Response to Intervention reported on fidelity of implementation and alignment of instruction between tiers. A literature search identified 22 empirical studies from which conclusions were drawn.…

  1. Educating Students in Real-World Sustainability Research: Vision and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundiers, Katja; Wiek, Arnim

    2011-01-01

    Readers are invited to imagine students helping to solve real-world sustainability problems brought to them by societal stakeholders and simultaneously learning about and contributing to sustainable changes in society. Effective sustainability research education engages students in just that. Higher education institutions are implementing this…

  2. Implementing an Action Research Project: A Case Study in Making Decisions and Managing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges involved in implementing an action research project. It discusses a project which uses a series of interventions (unfreezing techniques, cases studies in conjunction with analogical encoding and lecturer input) to encourage students to critically reflect on their approach to career decision-making. This paper…

  3. Association for Counselor Education and Supervision Guidelines for Research Mentorship: Development and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, L. DiAnne; Wester, Kelly L.; Granello, Darcy Haag; Chang, Catherine Y.; Hays, Danica G.; Pepperell, Jennifer; Spurgeon, Shawn L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe guidelines endorsed by the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision for research mentorship, including characteristics of mentors and mentees. Suggestions for implementing the guidelines at the individual, program, institution, and professional levels are focused on enhancing mentoring relationships as well as…

  4. Teacher Competencies for the Implementation of Collaborative Learning in the Classroom: A Framework and Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaendler, Celia; Wiedmann, Michael; Rummel, Nikol; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This article describes teacher competencies for implementing collaborative learning in the classroom. Research has shown that the effectiveness of collaborative learning largely depends on the quality of student interaction. We therefore focus on what a "teacher" can do to foster student interaction. First, we present a framework that…

  5. Design and Implementation of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Coe, Alice; Klaver, Irene; Dickson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Informed by the results of a baseline research study of regional citizen knowledge and understanding concerning watershed issues, a team of university faculty and classroom teachers designed and implemented a water conservation education program to address lacking areas of watershed knowledge. The authors developed age-appropriate, hands-on…

  6. Implementation and Effects of One-to-One Computing Initiatives: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.

    2006-01-01

    There are now a large number of initiatives designed to make laptops with wireless connectivity available to all students in schools. This paper synthesizes findings from research and evaluation studies that analyzed implementation and effects of one-to-one initiatives from a range of countries. Factors related to successful implementation…

  7. Offender Research Project. A Handbook for Designing and Implementing Offender Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Carol S.; And Others

    A product of the Offender Research Project, this handbook is intended for use in designing and implementing offender programs. The first of six chapters explains the necessity and techniques for developing community and financial support for offender programs. Chapter 2 is a synopsis of the twelve model projects developed as a part of the research…

  8. Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Lindamer, Laurie A; Lebowitz, Barry; Hough, Richard L; Garcia, Piedad; Aguirre, Alfredo; Halpain, Maureen C; Depp, Colin; Jeste, Dilip V

    2009-01-01

    Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers. PMID:19335915

  9. The Adaptation and Implementation of a Community-Based Participatory Research Curriculum to Build Tribal Research Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Tvli; Styne, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    We studied community-based participatory research in American Indian/Alaska Native communities. We have presented a case study describing a community–clinic–academic partnership with the goal of building tribal capacity and infrastructure to conduct health disparities research. The 2-year intensive training was guided by the framework of an evidence- and community-based participatory research curriculum, adapted and implemented with practice-based data collection activities and seminars to address issues specific to community-based participatory research with sovereign tribal nations. The initiative highlighted important challenges and opportunities in transdisciplinary partnerships; identified gaps in conducting health disparities research at the tribal, clinical, and university levels; and led to important policy change initiatives in all the partner settings. PMID:25905848

  10. Recruiting post-doctoral fellows into global health research: selecting NIH Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows.

    PubMed

    Heimburger, Douglas C; Warner, Tokesha L; Carothers, Catherine Lem; Blevins, Meridith; Thomas, Yolanda; Gardner, Pierce; Primack, Aron; Vermund, Sten H

    2014-08-01

    From 2008 to 2012, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows Program (FICRF) provided 1-year mentored research training at low- and middle-income country sites for American and international post-doctoral health professionals. We examined the FICRF applicant pool, proposed research topics, selection process, and characteristics of enrollees to assess trends in global health research interest and factors associated with applicant competitiveness. The majority (58%) of 67 US and 57 international Fellows were women, and 83% of Fellows had medical degrees. Most applicants were in clinical fellowships (41%) or residencies (24%). More applicants proposing infectious disease projects were supported (59%) than applicants proposing non-communicable disease (NCD) projects (41%), although projects that combined both topic areas were most successful (69%). The numbers of applicants proposing research on NCDs and the numbers of these applicants awarded fellowships rose dramatically over time. Funding provided to the FICRF varied significantly among NIH Institutes and Centers and was strongly associated with the research topics awarded. PMID:24865678

  11. Recruiting Post-Doctoral Fellows into Global Health Research: Selecting NIH Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Heimburger, Douglas C.; Warner, Tokesha L.; Carothers, Catherine Lem; Blevins, Meridith; Thomas, Yolanda; Gardner, Pierce; Primack, Aron; Vermund, Sten H.

    2014-01-01

    From 2008 to 2012, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows Program (FICRF) provided 1-year mentored research training at low- and middle-income country sites for American and international post-doctoral health professionals. We examined the FICRF applicant pool, proposed research topics, selection process, and characteristics of enrollees to assess trends in global health research interest and factors associated with applicant competitiveness. The majority (58%) of 67 US and 57 international Fellows were women, and 83% of Fellows had medical degrees. Most applicants were in clinical fellowships (41%) or residencies (24%). More applicants proposing infectious disease projects were supported (59%) than applicants proposing non-communicable disease (NCD) projects (41%), although projects that combined both topic areas were most successful (69%). The numbers of applicants proposing research on NCDs and the numbers of these applicants awarded fellowships rose dramatically over time. Funding provided to the FICRF varied significantly among NIH Institutes and Centers and was strongly associated with the research topics awarded. PMID:24865678

  12. Practical recommendations to help students bridge the research-implementation gap and promote conservation.

    PubMed

    Pietri, Diana M; Gurney, Georgina G; Benitez-Vina, Nancy; Kuklok, Audrey; Maxwell, Sara M; Whiting, Libby; Vina, Michael A; Jenkins, Lekelia D

    2013-10-01

    Seasoned conservation researchers often struggle to bridge the research-implementation gap and promote the translation of their work into meaningful conservation actions. Graduate students face the same problems and must contend with obstacles such as limited opportunities for relevant interdisciplinary training and a lack of institutional support for application of research results. However, students also have a crucial set of opportunities (e.g., access to academic resources outside their degree programs and opportunities to design research projects promoting collaboration with stakeholders) at their disposal to address these problems. On the basis of results of breakout discussions at a symposium on the human dimensions of the ocean, a review of the literature, and our own experiences, we devised recommendations on how graduate students can create resources within their academic institutions, institutionalize resources, and engage with stakeholders to promote real-world conservation outcomes. Within their academic institutions, graduate students should foster links to practitioners and promote knowledge and skill sharing among students. To institutionalize resources, students should cultivate student leaders and faculty sponsors, systematically document their program activities, and engage in strategic planning to promote the sustainability of their efforts. While conducting research, students should create connections to and engage actively with stakeholders in their relevant study areas and disseminate research results both to stakeholders and the broader public. Our recommendations can serve as a template for graduate students wishing to bridge the research-implementation gap, both during their current studies and in their future careers as conservation researchers and practitioners. PMID:23869527

  13. From Research to Flight: Thinking About Implementation While Performing Fundamental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation calls for a strategy to implement new technologies. Such a strategy would allow advanced space transportation technologies to mature for exploration beyond Earth orbit. It discusses the difference between technology push versus technology pull. It also reviews the three basic technology readiness levels (TRL). The presentation traces examples of technology development to flight application: the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System, the Friction Stir Welding technology the (auto-adjustable pin tool). A couple of technologies currently not in flight, but are being reviewed for potential use are: cryogenic fluid management (CFM), and solar sail propulsion. There is also an attempt to explain why new technologies are so difficult to field.

  14. Selecting and Implementing an ERMS at Wayne State University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    The successful development and implementation of an electronic resources management (ERM) system depends on an undertaking that includes many key factors. Some of these key factors include determining user groups and their needs, evaluating implementation and technical issues, testing the system, exploring how the system will be used, setting…

  15. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: A Selected Annotated Bibliography of Implementation Studies 1994-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, project implementation descriptions have accounted for the majority of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) publications, some 345 in total. Those interested in MALL applications thus need to read widely to acquire an adequate perspective of MALL implementations. The intent of this bibliography is to facilitate this…

  16. Integrating addiction treatment into primary care using mobile health technology: protocol for an implementation research study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare reform in the United States is encouraging Federally Qualified Health Centers and other primary-care practices to integrate treatment for addiction and other behavioral health conditions into their practices. The potential of mobile health technologies to manage addiction and comorbidities such as HIV in these settings is substantial but largely untested. This paper describes a protocol to evaluate the implementation of an E-Health integrated communication technology delivered via mobile phones, called Seva, into primary-care settings. Seva is an evidence-based system of addiction treatment and recovery support for patients and real-time caseload monitoring for clinicians. Methods/Design Our implementation strategy uses three models of organizational change: the Program Planning Model to promote acceptance and sustainability, the NIATx quality improvement model to create a welcoming environment for change, and Rogers’s diffusion of innovations research, which facilitates adaptations of innovations to maximize their adoption potential. We will implement Seva and conduct an intensive, mixed-methods assessment at three diverse Federally Qualified Healthcare Centers in the United States. Our non-concurrent multiple-baseline design includes three periods — pretest (ending in four months of implementation preparation), active Seva implementation, and maintenance — with implementation staggered at six-month intervals across sites. The first site will serve as a pilot clinic. We will track the timing of intervention elements and assess study outcomes within each dimension of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework, including effects on clinicians, patients, and practices. Our mixed-methods approach will include quantitative (e.g., interrupted time-series analysis of treatment attendance, with clinics as the unit of analysis) and qualitative (e.g., staff interviews regarding adaptations to implementation

  17. Ames Research Center FY 2000 Implementation Plan: Leading Technology into the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This document presents the implementation plan for Ames Research Center (ARC) within the overall framework of the NASA Strategic Plan. It describes how ARC intends to implement its Center of Excellence responsibilities, Agency assigned missions, Agency and Enterprise lead programs, and other roles in support of NASA's vision and mission. All Federal agencies are required by the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act to implement a long-term strategic planning process that includes measurable outcomes and strict accountability. At NASA, this planning process is shaped by the Space Act of 1958, annual appropriations, and other external mandates, as well as by customer requirements. The resulting Strategic Plan sets the overall architecture for what we do, identifies who our customers are, and directs where we are going and why. The Strategic Plan is the basis upon which decisions regarding program implementation and resource deployment are made. Whereas the strategic planning process examines the long-term direction of the organization and identifies a specific set of goals, the implementation planning process examines the detailed performance of the organization and allocates resources toward meeting these goals. It is the purpose of this implementation document to provide the connection between the NASA Strategic Plan and the specific programs and support functions that ARC employees perform. This connection flows from the NASA Strategic Plan, through the various Strategic Enterprise plans to the ARC Center of Excellence, primary missions, Lead Center programs, program support responsibilities, and ultimately, to the role of the individual ARC employee.

  18. Moving comparative effectiveness research into practice: implementation science and the role of academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Bonham, Ann C; Solomon, Mildred Z

    2010-10-01

    The success of the federal investment in comparative effectiveness research will hinge on using the power of science to guide reforms in health care delivery and improve patient-centered outcomes. Translating the results of comparative effectiveness research into practice calls for the rigors of implementation science to ensure the efficient and systematic uptake, dissemination, and endurance of these innovations. Academic medicine can help answer the call by thoroughly integrating its research and training missions with clinical care that is focused on patient-centered outcomes; building multidisciplinary teams that include a wide range of experts such as clinicians, clinical and implementation scientists, systems engineers, behavioral economists, and social scientists; and training future care providers, scientists, and educators to carry innovations forward. PMID:20921492

  19. Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: Research and Implementation Needs for Improvements in Global Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Elliott T.; Carter, Ellison M.; Matt Earnest, C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  20. Implementation of a research prototype onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Michael T.; Abbott, Kathy H.; Schutte, Paul C.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the dynamic and complex nature of in-flight fault monitoring and diagnosis, a research effort was undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center to investigate the application of artificial intelligence techniques for improved situational awareness. Under this research effort, concepts were developed and a software architecture was designed to address the complexities of onboard monitoring and diagnosis. This paper describes the implementation of these concepts in a computer program called FaultFinder. The implementation of the monitoring, diagnosis, and interface functions as separate modules is discussed, as well as the blackboard designed for the communication of these modules. Some related issues concerning the future installation of FaultFinder in an aircraft are also discussed.

  1. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: research and implementation needs for improvements in global public health.

    PubMed

    Gall, Elliott T; Carter, Ellison M; Earnest, C Matt; Stephens, Brent

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  2. University of Chicago Center for Personalized Therapeutics: research, education and implementation science

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, M Eileen; Maitland, Michael L; O’Donnell, Peter H; Nakamura, Yusuke; Cox, Nancy J; Ratain, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is aimed at advancing our knowledge of the genetic basis of variable drug response. The Center for Personalized Therapeutics within the University of Chicago comprises basic, translational and clinical research as well as education including undergraduate, graduate, medical students, clinical/postdoctoral fellows and faculty. The Committee on Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics is the educational arm of the Center aimed at training clinical and postdoctoral fellows in translational pharmacology and pharmacogenomics. Research runs the gamut from basic discovery and functional studies to pharmacogenomic implementation studies to evaluate physician adoption of genetic medicine. The mission of the Center is to facilitate research, education and implementation of pharmacogenomics to realize the true potential of personalized medicine and improve the lives of patients. PMID:24024891

  3. Implementation of the Immersed Boundary Method in the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, K A

    2006-12-07

    Accurate simulations of atmospheric boundary layer flow are vital for predicting dispersion of contaminant releases, particularly in densely populated urban regions where first responders must react within minutes and the consequences of forecast errors are potentially disastrous. Current mesoscale models do not account for urban effects, and conversely urban scale models do not account for mesoscale weather features or atmospheric physics. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop and implement an immersed boundary method (IBM) along with a surface roughness parameterization into the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. IBM will be used in WRF to represent the complex boundary conditions imposed by urban landscapes, while still including forcing from regional weather patterns and atmospheric physics. This document details preliminary results of this research, including the details of three distinct implementations of the immersed boundary method. Results for the three methods are presented for the case of a rotation influenced neutral atmospheric boundary layer over flat terrain.

  4. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Practical guidance for selection, calibration, and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Upal; Driscoll, Susan Kane; Burgess, Robert M; Jonker, Michiel To; Reible, Danny; Gobas, Frank; Choi, Yongju; Apitz, Sabine E; Maruya, Keith A; Gala, William R; Mortimer, Munro; Beegan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article provides practical guidance on the use of passive sampling methods (PSMs) that target the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) for improved exposure assessment of hydrophobic organic chemicals in sediments. Primary considerations for selecting a PSM for a specific application include clear delineation of measurement goals for Cfree, whether laboratory-based “ex situ” and/or field-based “in situ” application is desired, and ultimately which PSM is best-suited to fulfill the measurement objectives. Guidelines for proper calibration and validation of PSMs, including use of provisional values for polymer–water partition coefficients, determination of equilibrium status, and confirmation of nondepletive measurement conditions are defined. A hypothetical example is described to illustrate how the measurement of Cfree afforded by PSMs reduces uncertainty in assessing narcotic toxicity for sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The article concludes with a discussion of future research that will improve the quality and robustness of Cfree measurements using PSMs, providing a sound scientific basis to support risk assessment and contaminated sediment management decisions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:210–223. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:24288273

  5. Assessing Autonomous Learning in Research Methods Courses: Implementing the Student-Driven Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Donna M.; Walsh, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    As empirical assessments of teaching strategies increase in many disciplines and across many different courses, a paucity of such assessment seems to exist in courses devoted to social science research methods. This lack of assessment and evaluation impedes progress in developing successful teaching pedagogy. The teaching-learning issue addressed…

  6. Challenges of Implementing the NIH Extramural Associate Research Development Award (EARDA) at a Minority-Serving University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The impacts and challenges of implementing an NIH/NICHD Extramural Associate Research Development Award (EARDA) at a private Minority-Serving-Institution (MSI) are examined. This article outlines efforts to gain institutional buy-in and challenges encountered in creating a functioning Office of Sponsored Research and implementing research policies…

  7. Implementation challenges in end-of-life research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Savage, Teresa A; Moro, Teresa Thalia; Boyden, Jackelyn Y; Brown, Allison A; Kavanaugh, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    Although the 4 million+people in the U.S. with an intellectual or developmental disability (I/DD) experience the same life expectancy as those in the general population, end-of-life research including these individuals is lacking and can be difficult to implement. As will be described in this paper, it is possible to overcome barriers to successfully include people with I/DD in end-of-life research. In this paper, the implementation challenges, feasibility, and implications for successful end-of-life research with individuals with I/DD using focus groups are described. Individuals with I/DD were able to discuss their experiences and views about end-of-life care. However, while people with I/DD made valuable contributions to the focus groups, there were several modifications needed in order to execute this study. In order to gain a complete picture of end-of-life care for people with I/DD, it is imperative to include them in research to the best of their ability. By anticipating issues related to recruitment, the consent process, setting, and support needs of participants, focus groups can be successfully implemented. PMID:25457272

  8. Changes in foods selected and consumed after implementation of the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns in southeast Texas

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen W.; Chen, Tzu-An; Dave, Jayna M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We compared elementary students' school lunches selected and consumed before (Spring, 2011) and after (Spring, 2013) implementation of the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns in the fall of 2012. Method Students in eight elementary schools in one Southeast Texas school district were observed during lunch: foods selected/consumed were recorded. The percentage of students who selected each food group was compared between years, as were the differences in the consumption and the percent of food consumed by year, for students who selected the food group. All analyses controlled for student gender and grade and school free/reduced price meal status. Results Observations were conducted for 472 (2011) and 573 (2013) students. Significantly more 2013 students selected fruit, 100% juice, total fruit + 100% juice, other vegetables, whole grains, protein foods and milk, but fewer selected starchy vegetables. For those students selecting them, significantly more total fruit + 100% juice and red–orange vegetables, but significantly less other vegetables, legumes, and protein foods were consumed. There were no differences in waste of fruit, whole grains, or vegetables, with the exception of legumes. More legumes were wasted in 2013 than 2011. Conclusion The findings that students had similar consumption rates for fruit, whole grains, and most vegetables in this study are encouraging. Regular monitoring of student food selection and consumption at school is needed to assess whether the new meal patterns improve intake at school. PMID:26101737

  9. Teacher change in implementing a research-developed representation construction pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubber, Peter; Chittleborough, Gail

    2016-05-01

    The Representations in Learning Science (RiLS) project developed a representation construction approach to teaching and learning in science, which has successfully demonstrated enhanced student learning through sustained engagement with ideas, and enhancement of teachers' pedagogical knowledge and understandings of how knowledge in science is developed and communicated. The current Constructing Representations in Science Pedagogy (CRISP) project aims at wider scale implementation of the representation construction approach. This paper explores a range of issues that confronted four Year-8 teachers in implementing this research-developed approach, such as: preparedness of the teacher in terms of epistemological positioning and positioning as a learner, significant support for planning and modelling by the university expert, and a team ethos where teachers share ideas and plan jointly. The Year-8 teachers implemented a representation construction approach to the teaching of the topic of astronomy. The Interconnected Model of Teacher Growth (IMTG) (Clarke and Hollingworth, Teach. Educ., 18 (2001) 947) was used to analyse the teachers' experience in planning and delivering the teaching sequence. This model was found to be flexible in identifying the experiences of teachers in different situations and useful in identifying issues for implementation of a research-developed pedagogy.

  10. Developments on the implementation of the Three Rs in research and education.

    PubMed

    van Zutphen, L F; van der Valk, J B

    2001-01-01

    More than 40 years ago, Russell and Burch published their views on the implementation of the 'Three Rs' in animal experimentation. Since then, much has been achieved in this area. Recently, the European Science Foundation (ESF) has made a further step forward. In a position paper on the use of animals, ESF has formulated what it sees as prerequisites for the humane use of animals in research, testing and education. In this paper, we briefly report on these ESF guidelines. Also, an overview is presented on European legislative regulations for the (ethical) review of research protocols and for the education and training of persons involved in animal experiments. The great diversity between countries is illustrated with some examples and the need for harmonization is emphasised. The paper ends by highlighting the special role that editorial boards of journals can play in the further implementation of the Three Rs. PMID:11566596

  11. Toward a sustainable biomedical research enterprise: Finding consensus and implementing recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Christopher L.; Corb, Benjamin W.; Matthews, C. Robert; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Berg, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The US research enterprise is under significant strain due to stagnant funding, an expanding workforce, and complex regulations that increase costs and slow the pace of research. In response, a number of groups have analyzed the problems and offered recommendations for resolving these issues. However, many of these recommendations lacked follow-up implementation, allowing the damage of stagnant funding and outdated policies to persist. Here, we analyze nine reports published since the beginning of 2012 and consolidate over 250 suggestions into eight consensus recommendations made by the majority of the reports. We then propose how to implement these consensus recommendations, and we identify critical issues, such as improving workforce diversity and stakeholder interactions, on which the community has yet to achieve consensus. PMID:26195768

  12. Advances in Applying Treatment Integrity Research for Dissemination and Implementation Science: Introduction to Special Issue

    PubMed Central

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; McLeod, Bryce D.

    2013-01-01

    This special series focuses upon the ways in which research on treatment integrity, a multidimensional construct including assessment of the content and quality of a psychosocial treatment delivered to a client as well as relational elements, can inform dissemination and implementation science. The five articles for this special series illustrate how treatment integrity concepts and methods can be applied across different levels of the mental health service system to advance dissemination and implementation science. In this introductory article, we provide an overview of treatment integrity research and describe three broad conceptual models that are relevant to the articles in the series. We conclude with a brief description of each of the five articles in the series. PMID:23970819

  13. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection...

  14. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection...

  15. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection...

  16. Implementation Plan for the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark D.; Gephart, Roy E.; Triplett, Mark B.; Johnson, Timothy C.

    2011-02-11

    The Long-Range Deep Vadose Zone Program Plan was published in October 2010. It summarized the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) state-of-knowledge about the contaminant remediation challenges facing the deep vadose zone (DVZ) beneath the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site and their approach to solving those challenges. Developing an implementation plan is the next step to address the knowledge and capabilities required to solve DVZ challenges when needed. This multi-year plan (FY-11 through FY-20) identifies the short to long-term research, management, and execution plans required to solve those problems facing the DVZ-Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC). The schedule supporting implementation overlies existing activities and milestones from Hanford’s DOE-Environmental Management (EM) end-user projects. Success relies upon multi-project teams focused on coordinated subsurface projects undertaken across the DOE Complex combined with facilitated, problem-focused, research investments implemented through the DVZ-AFRC.

  17. Perspectives on a Multidisciplinary Team Approach to Implementation of Planned Emergent Use Research

    PubMed Central

    Racedo Africano, Carlos J.; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Smischney, Nathan J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the viewpoints of three members of a research team, on the approach to teamwork in the development of an emergent use clinical trial when dealing with diversity of opinions, in order to facilitate stakeholder buy-in. We also discuss a specific approach to the coordination of the team members, which in our opinion had a positive impact on the implementation of the project. We also comment on the influence of the team organization in the timeline and completion of a clinical trial. We hope to start a conversation on team dynamics in the design of clinical trials, especially in the context of emergent use research. PMID:26386913

  18. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  19. Building and executing a research agenda toward conducting implementation science in medical education

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; Crites, Gerald E.; Miller, Karen H.; Haight, Michelle; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Cichoskikelly, Eileen; Price, David W.; Akinola, Modupeola O.; Scott, Victoria C.; Kalishman, Summers

    2016-01-01

    Background Implementation science (IS) is the study of methods that successfully integrate best evidence into practice. Although typically applied in healthcare settings to improve patient care and subsequent outcomes, IS also has immediate and practical applications to medical education toward improving physician training and educational outcomes. The objective of this article is to illustrate how to build a research agenda that focuses on applying IS principles in medical education. Approach We examined the literature to construct a rationale for using IS to improve medical education. We then used a generalizable scenario to step through a process for applying IS to improve team-based care. Perspectives IS provides a valuable approach to medical educators and researchers for making improvements in medical education and overcoming institution-based challenges. It encourages medical educators to systematically build upon the research outcomes of others to guide decision-making while evaluating the successes of best practices in individual environments and generate additional research questions and findings. Conclusions IS can act as both a driver and a model for educational research to ensure that best educational practices are easier and faster to implement widely. PMID:27565131

  20. Advancing Aeronautics: A Decision Framework for Selecting Research Agendas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Ecola, Liisa; Kallimani, James G.; Light, Thomas; Ohlandt, Chad J. R.; Osburg, Jan; Raman, Raj; Grammich, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded research has long played a role in the development of aeronautics, ranging from foundational research on airfoils to development of the air-traffic control system. Yet more than a century after the research and development of successful controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air flight vehicles, there are questions over the future of aeronautics research. The field of aeronautics is relatively mature, technological developments within it have become more evolutionary, and funding decisions are sometimes motivated by the continued pursuit of these evolutionary research tracks rather than by larger factors. These developments raise questions over whether public funding of aeronautics research continues to be appropriate or necessary and at what levels. Tightened federal budgets and increasing calls to address other public demands make these questions sharper still. To help it address the questions of appropriate directions for publicly funded aeronautics research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) asked the RAND Corporation to assess the elements required to develop a strategic view of aeronautics research opportunities; identify candidate aeronautic grand challenges, paradigms, and concepts; outline a framework for evaluating them; and exercise the framework as an example of how to use it. Accordingly, this research seeks to address these questions: What aeronautics research should be supported by the U.S. government? What compelling and desirable benefits drive government-supported research? How should the government--especially NASA--make decisions about which research to support? Advancing aeronautics involves broad policy and decisionmaking challenges. Decisions involve tradeoffs among competing perspectives, uncertainties, and informed judgment.

  1. Designing and Developing a NASA Research Projects Knowledge Base and Implementing Knowledge Management and Discovery Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiru, L.; O'Hara, C. G.; Shaw, D.; Katragadda, S.; Anderson, D.; Kim, S.; Shrestha, B.; Aanstoos, J.; Frisbie, T.; Policelli, F.; Keblawi, N.

    2006-12-01

    The Research Project Knowledge Base (RPKB) is currently being designed and will be implemented in a manner that is fully compatible and interoperable with enterprise architecture tools developed to support NASA's Applied Sciences Program. Through user needs assessment, collaboration with Stennis Space Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, and NASA's DEVELOP Staff personnel insight to information needs for the RPKB were gathered from across NASA scientific communities of practice. To enable efficient, consistent, standard, structured, and managed data entry and research results compilation a prototype RPKB has been designed and fully integrated with the existing NASA Earth Science Systems Components database. The RPKB will compile research project and keyword information of relevance to the six major science focus areas, 12 national applications, and the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). The RPKB will include information about projects awarded from NASA research solicitations, project investigator information, research publications, NASA data products employed, and model or decision support tools used or developed as well as new data product information. The RPKB will be developed in a multi-tier architecture that will include a SQL Server relational database backend, middleware, and front end client interfaces for data entry. The purpose of this project is to intelligently harvest the results of research sponsored by the NASA Applied Sciences Program and related research program results. We present various approaches for a wide spectrum of knowledge discovery of research results, publications, projects, etc. from the NASA Systems Components database and global information systems and show how this is implemented in SQL Server database. The application of knowledge discovery is useful for intelligent query answering and multiple-layered database construction. Using advanced EA tools such as the Earth Science Architecture Tool (ESAT), RPKB will enable NASA and

  2. Evaluation of a large-scale weight management program using the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the United States, as in many other parts of the world, the prevalence of overweight/obesity is at epidemic proportions in the adult population and even higher among Veterans. To address the high prevalence of overweight/obesity among Veterans, the MOVE!® weight management program was disseminated nationally to Veteran Affairs (VA) medical centers. The objective of this paper is two-fold: to describe factors that explain the wide variation in implementation of MOVE!; and to illustrate, step-by-step, how to apply a theory-based framework using qualitative data. Methods Five VA facilities were selected to maximize variation in implementation effectiveness and geographic location. Twenty-four key stakeholders were interviewed about their experiences in implementing MOVE!. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to guide collection and analysis of qualitative data. Constructs that most strongly influence implementation effectiveness were identified through a cross-case comparison of ratings. Results Of the 31 CFIR constructs assessed, ten constructs strongly distinguished between facilities with low versus high program implementation effectiveness. The majority (six) were related to the inner setting: networks and communications; tension for change; relative priority; goals and feedback; learning climate; and leadership engagement. One construct each, from intervention characteristics (relative advantage) and outer setting (patient needs and resources), plus two from process (executing and reflecting) also strongly distinguished between high and low implementation. Two additional constructs weakly distinguished, 16 were mixed, three constructs had insufficient data to assess, and one was not applicable. Detailed descriptions of how each distinguishing construct manifested in study facilities and a table of recommendations is provided. Conclusions This paper presents an approach for using the CFIR to code and rate

  3. Implementation of a versatile research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner.

    PubMed

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a versatile, open-architecture research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner. The open architecture will allow researchers and clinicians to rapidly develop applications and move them relatively easy to the clinic. The system consists of a standard PC equipped with a camera link and an ultrasound scanner equipped with a research interface. The ultrasound scanner is an easy-to-use imaging device that is capable of generating high-quality images. In addition to supporting the acquisition of multiple data types, such as B-mode, M-mode, pulsed Doppler, and color flow imaging, the machine provides users with full control over imaging parameters such as transmit level, excitation waveform, beam angle, and focal depth. Beamformed RF data can be acquired from regions of interest throughout the image plane and stored to a file with a simple button press. For clinical trials and investigational purposes, when an identical image plane is desired for both an experimental and a reference data set, interleaved data can be captured. This form of data acquisition allows switching between multiple setups while maintaining identical transducer, scanner, region of interest, and recording time. Data acquisition is controlled through a graphical user interface running on the PC. This program implements an interface for third-party software to interact with the application. A software development toolkit is developed to give researchers and clinicians the ability to utilize third-party software for data analysis and flexible manipulation of control parameters. Because of the advantages of speed of acquisition and clinical benefit, research projects have successfully used the system to test and implement their customized solutions for different applications. Three examples of system use are presented in this paper: evaluation of synthetic aperture sequential beamformation, transverse

  4. Implementing reproducible research using the Madagascar open-source software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Reproducible research is a concept pioneered by Jon Claerbout. It refers to the discipline of attaching software code and data to scientific publications, which enables the reader to reproduce, verify, and extend published computational experiments. The Madagascar open-source software package provides an example of implementing the reproducible research discipline in geophysical publications. The package contains not only software tools for making geophysical computations but also research papers complete with links to data and reproducible data-analysis workflows. When researchers discover a research paper published on the Madagascar website and install Madagascar, they are able to follow the links and replicate all computations to verify the published computational results. Of course, reproducibility is not the goal in itself. The goal is to be able to extend previously published research by, for example, trying new computations on previously used data or previously used computations on new data. The Madagscar collection currently contains about 150 research papers and book chapters and about 900 reproducible scripts. More than 80 people from different organizations around the world have contributed to the development. This experience shows that, instead of being the responsibility of an individual author, computational reproducibility can become the responsibility of open-source scientific-software communities. Our experience shows how a dedicated community effort can keep a body of computational research alive by actively maintaining its reproducibility.

  5. Research on suppliers selection for e-commerce alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Chunhua; Sun, Bin; Liu, Dongsheng

    2009-07-01

    First, the characteristics of suppliers in the e-Commerce alliances of certain industries will be analyzed in this paper and the initial model to select suppliers is built. Then, the history performances of providers in the initial model and the ability to cooperate with others are recorded and analyzed. Based on the analysis above and considering the restriction of supply, the number of re-sellers and the price of products, an improved model to select suppliers in the e-Commerce alliance of certain industries called "the mix-integers model" is built. Finally, a mathematical example is used to describe how the mix-integers model to work.

  6. Selection and implementation of a flagship fleet in a locally undervalued region of high endemicity.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Armesto, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Flagships are one conservation education tool. We present a proposed flagship species fleet for environmental education in central Chile. Our methods followed recent flagship guidelines. We present our selection process and a detailed justification for the fleet of flagship species that we selected. Our results are a list of eight flagship species forming a flagship fleet, including two small- and medium-sized mammals, the degu (Octodon degus) and the culpeo fox (Lycalopex culpeaus), two birds, the turca (Pteroptochos megapoidius) and the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), the Chilean iguana (Calopistes palluma), the tarantula (Grammostola mollicoma), and two trees, the litre (Lithrea caustica) and the espino (Acacia caven). We then describe how these flagships can be deployed most effectively, describing their audience, effective narrative frames, and modes of presentation. We conclude that general selection rules paired with social science background data allow for an efficient selection process. PMID:23479265

  7. The Missing Link: A Process to Select and Implement the Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Fred H.; McQuarrie, Frank O., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Educators and the public must study recommendations from national educational reports to discover strengths and weaknesses and then select those that match their needs. An example of this process is provided. (DF)

  8. Selection and Implementation of a Simulated Electronic Medical Record (EMR) in a Nursing Skills Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, David G.

    2011-01-01

    SUNY Plattsburgh has a baccalaureate nursing program that has been active in integrating technology in nursing education for many years. Recently, the faculty implemented human simulation (Laerdal's SimMan) in the Nursing Skills Lab (NSL) to provide some uniform clinical experiences (high frequency or high risk scenarios) not always available in…

  9. The Implementation of Career Education as Perceived by Selected Chief State School Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, Byron W.

    Because PL 95-207 requires the chief state school officer in each state to play a key role in the implementation of career education, this study sought the professional judgements of twenty chief state school officers on crucial issues in career education. Among the findings of the interviews was that most chief state school officers felt career…

  10. Research in School Consultation: A Content Analysis of Selected Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Judith L.; Yammer, M. David

    The complexity of the school consultation field points to the need for review of the current state of the field. To further understanding of the content and methodology utilized in consultation research, a content analysis of research articles published over the last 12 years considered the following areas: type of consultation, subject matter,…

  11. The Undergraduate as Researcher: Selected Studies in Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenthal, Norman A.

    Reporting on a group of class projects undertaken by a series of his college-level "Broadcasting and Society" courses, the author concludes that there is great value in encouraging undergraduates to do their own original research. Among the topics researched by the students are the effect of television on nuns, television news viewing habits of…

  12. Implementation of a lightning data assimilation technique in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for improving precipitation prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaros, Theodore; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Lagouvardos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    Lightning data assimilation has been recently attracting increasing attention as a technique implemented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models for improving precipitation forecasts. In the frame of TALOS project, we implemented a robust lightning data assimilation technique in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the aim to improve the precipitation prediction in Greece. The assimilation scheme employs lightning as a proxy for the presence or absence of deep convection. In essence, flash data are ingested in WRF to control the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective parameterization scheme (CPS). When lightning is observed, indicating the occurrence of convective activity, the CPS is forced to attempt to produce convection, whereas the CPS may be optionally be prevented from producing convection when no lightning is observed. Eight two-day precipitation events were selected for assessing the performance of the lightning data assimilation technique. The ingestion of lightning in WRF was carried out during the first 6 h of each event and the evaluation focused on the consequent 24 h, constituting a realistic setup that could be used in operational weather forecasting applications. Results show that the implemented assimilation scheme can improve model performance in terms of precipitation prediction. Forecasts employing the assimilation of flash data were found to exhibit more skill than control simulations, particularly for the intense (>20 mm) 24 h rain accumulations. Analysis of results also revealed that the option not to suppress the KF scheme in the absence of observed lightning, leads to a generally better performance compared to the experiments employing the full control of the CPS' triggering. Overall, the implementation of the lightning data assimilation technique is found to improve the model's ability to represent convection, especially in situations when past convection has modified the mesoscale environment in ways that affect the

  13. Selected Research Tools in Economics, Labor and Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Ronald J.

    Twenty-two indexing and abstracting services and general reference sources in the areas of labor and industrial relations are listed in this selective bibliography for users of State University of New York at Albany Libraries. Classification numbers are included for each source and most have annotations. Materials are listed under four…

  14. Selecting Reading Materials for High School Students. ERIC Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B., Ed.

    This topical bibliography and commentary discusses resource aids that help educators evaluate and select high quality reading materials for young adults. It discusses general resource articles as aids. Examples are: specific themes, booklists, and school system aids. It concludes that there are no succinct lists of criteria or resources; rather,…

  15. The SAFE strategy for trachoma control: Using operational research for policy, planning and implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Paul M.; Burton, Matthew; Solomon, Anthony W.; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David

    2006-01-01

    Trachoma is a neglected disease and also the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. It causes misery, dependency and is a barrier to development. Trachoma is controlled by a WHO-endorsed integrated strategy of surgery for trichiasis, antibiotic therapy, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement, which is known by the acronym SAFE. The strategy is based on evidence from field trials and is continually being refined by operational research that informs national policy and planning; the strategy has affected both programme delivery and implementation. As a result of the findings of operational research, surgery is now frequently conducted by paramedics in communities rather than by ophthalmologists in hospitals; yearly mass distribution of a single oral dose of azithromycin has replaced the use of topical tetracycline; and the promotion of better hygiene, face-washing and the use of latrines are used to reduce transmission. Those who implement programmes have been equal partners in conducting operational research thus reducing the "know-do" gap and minimizing the lag that often exists between the completion of trials and putting their results into practice. Operational research has become a part of practice. Although there are still many questions without answers, national programme coordinators have a reasonable expectation that trachoma control programmes based on SAFE will work. PMID:16917648

  16. Engaging the Community in the Dissemination, Implementation, and Improvement of Health-Related Research.

    PubMed

    Bodison, Stefanie C; Sankaré, Ibrahima; Anaya, Henry; Booker-Vaughns, Juanita; Miller, Aria; Williams, Pluscedia; Norris, Keith

    2015-12-01

    To help maximize the real-world applicability of available interventions in clinical and community healthcare practice, there has been greater emphasis over the past two decades on engaging local communities in health-related research. While there have been numerous successful community-academic partnered collaborations, there continues to be a need to articulate the common barriers experienced during the evolution of these partnerships, and to provide a roadmap for best practices that engage healthcare providers, patients, families, caregivers, community leaders, healthcare systems, public agencies and academic medical centers. To this end, this paper presents a summary of a forum discussion from the 2014 Southern California Dissemination, Implementation and Improvement (DII) Science Symposium, sponsored by the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Clinical Translational Science Institute (CTSI), University of Southern California (USC) CTSI, and Kaiser Permanente. During this forum, a diverse group of individuals representing multiple constituencies identified four key barriers to success in community-partnered participatory research (CPPR) and discussed consensus recommendations to enhance the development, implementation, and dissemination of community health-related research. In addition, this group identified several ways in which the over 60 NIH funded Clinical and Translational Science Institutes across the country could engage communities and researchers to advance DII science. PMID:26546337

  17. American Thoracic Society and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Implementation Research Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Bender, Bruce G; Krishnan, Jerry A; Chambers, David A; Cloutier, Michelle M; Riekert, Kristin A; Rand, Cynthia S; Schatz, Michael; Thomson, Carey C; Wilson, Sandra R; Apter, Andrea; Carson, Shannon S; George, Maureen; Gerald, Joe K; Gerald, Lynn; Goss, Christopher H; Okelo, Sande O; Mularski, Richard A; Nguyen, Huong Q; Patel, Minal R; Szefler, Stanley J; Weiss, Curtis H; Wilson, Kevin C; Freemer, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    To advance implementation research (IR) in respiratory, sleep, and critical care medicine, the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases from the NHLBI cosponsored an Implementation Research Workshop on May 17, 2014. The goals of IR are to understand the barriers and facilitators of integrating new evidence into healthcare practices and to develop and test strategies that systematically target these factors to accelerate the adoption of evidence-based care. Throughout the workshop, presenters provided examples of IR that focused on the rate of adoption of evidence-based practices, the feasibility and acceptability of interventions to patients and other stakeholders who make healthcare decisions, the fidelity with which practitioners use specific interventions, the effects of specific barriers on the sustainability of an intervention, and the implications of their research to inform policies to improve patients' access to high-quality care. During the discussions that ensued, investigators' experience led to recommendations underscoring the importance of identifying and involving key stakeholders throughout the research process, ensuring that those who serve as reviewers understand the tenets of IR, managing staff motivation and turnover, and tackling the challenges of scaling up interventions across multiple settings. PMID:26653201

  18. Dissemination and Implementation Research Funded by the US National Institutes of Health, 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tinkle, Mindy; Kimball, Richard; Haozous, Emily A.; Shuster, George; Meize-Grochowski, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation (D&I) research is a growing area of science focused on overcoming the science-practice gap by targeting the distribution of information and adoption of interventions to public health and clinical practice settings. This study examined D&I research projects funded under specific program announcements by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 2005 to 2012. The authors described the projects' D&I strategies, funding by NIH Institute, focus, characteristics of the principal investigators (PIs) and their organizations, and other aspects of study design and setting. Results showed 46 R01s, 6 R03s, and 24 R21s funded totaling $79.2 million. The top funders were the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Mental Health, together providing 61% of funding. The majority of PIs were affiliated with Schools of Medicine or large, nonprofit research organizations and think tanks. Only 4% of projects were to PIs with appointments at Schools of Nursing, with 7% of the funding. The most commonly funded projects across all of the studies focused on cancer control and screening, substance abuse prevention and treatment, and mental health services. Typically implemented in community and organizational settings, D&I research provides an excellent opportunity for team science, including nurse scientists and interdisciplinary collaborators. PMID:23606958

  19. Implementation of a Research Participant Satisfaction Survey at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Smailes, Paula; Reider, Carson; Hallarn, Rose Kegler; Hafer, Lisa; Wallace, Lorraine; Miser, William F.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive case study covers the development of a survey to assess research subject satisfaction among those participating in clinical research studies at an academic medical center (AMC). The purpose was twofold: to gauge the effectiveness of the survey, as well as to determine the level of satisfaction of the research participants. The authors developed and implemented an electronic research participant satisfaction survey. It was created to provide research teams at the authors’ AMC with a common instrument to capture research participant experiences in order to improve upon the quality of research operations. The instrument captured participant responses in a standardized format. Ultimately, the results are to serve as a means to improve the research experience of participants for single studies, studies conducted within a division or department of the AMC, or across the entire research enterprise at the institution. For ease of use, the survey was created within an electronic data capture system known as REDCap, which is used by a consortium of more than 1,800 institutional partners as a tool from the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Participants in the survey described in this article were more than 18 years of age and participating in an institutional review board (IRB)-approved study. Results showed that the vast majority of participants surveyed had a positive experience engaging in research at the authors’ AMC. Further, the tool was found to be effective in making that determination. The authors hope to expand the use of the survey as a means to increase research satisfaction and quality at their university. PMID:27390769

  20. Translational Research in South Africa: Evaluating Implementation Quality Using a Factorial Design

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Edward A.; Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.; Lai, Mary; Wegner, Lisa; Vergnani, Tania; Matthews, Catherine; Jacobs, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Background HealthWise South Africa: Life Skills for Adolescents (HW) is an evidence-based substance use and sexual risk prevention program that emphasizes the positive use of leisure time. Since 2000, this program has evolved from pilot testing through an efficacy trial involving over 7,000 youth in the Cape Town area. Beginning in 2011, through 2015, we are undertaking a new study that expands HW to all schools in the Metro South Education District. Objective This paper describes a research study designed in partnership with our South African collaborators that examines three factors hypothesized to affect the quality and fidelity of HW implementation: enhanced teacher training; teacher support, structure and supervision; and enhanced school environment. Methods Teachers and students from 56 schools in the Cape Town area will participate in this study. Teacher observations are the primary means of collecting data on factors affecting implementation quality. These factors address the practical concerns of teachers and schools related to likelihood of use and cost-effectiveness, and are hypothesized to be “active ingredients” related to high-quality program implementation in real-world settings. An innovative factorial experimental design was chosen to enable estimation of the individual effect of each of the three factors. Results Because this paper describes the conceptualization of our study, results are not yet available. Conclusions The results of this study may have both substantive and methodological implications for advancing Type 2 translational research. PMID:22707870

  1. Toward the commoditization of translational genomic research: Design and implementation features of the Galaxy genomic workbench.

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Ross; Taylor, James; Qiu, Weiliang; Nekrutenko, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Although there is now plenty of genomic data and no shortage of analysis methods for translational genomic research, many biologists do not have efficient and transparent access to the computational resources they need. No single data resource or analysis application is ever likely to efficiently address all aspects of any individual researcher’s needs, so most researchers are forced to manually integrate data and outputs from multiple resources. The inevitable heterogeneity of data formats and of command syntax between data resources and software applications presents a major obstacle, particularly to those biologists lacking practical informatics skills. We describe some design and implementation features of an open-source application that supports the integration of the best available third-party genomics software applications, data and annotation resources into a coherent framework, substantially overcoming many practical challenges associated with actually doing translational genomic research. PMID:21347127

  2. Challenges for quality management in implementation, maintenance, and sustainability of research tissue biobanks.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, S; Kynast, K; Schirmacher, P; Herpel, E

    2016-01-01

    Availability of high-quality human tissue samples and access to associated histopathological and clinical data is essential for basic and translational biomedical research, especially in areas of personalized medicine, drug, and biomarker development and mechanistically oriented biomedical research projects. Therefore, it is pivotal to establish and maintain quality-assured tissue biobanks that provide high-quality biomaterial to research thereby increasing the impact and reliability of scientific results. Quality concerns do not only address the biomaterial specimen itself but include all biobanking-related procedures. Tissue biobanks thus face essential challenges that encompass the implementation of adequate structural components, documentation of tissue sample collection and storage (procedures), as well as data and project management and IT. An integral and indispensable component of tissue biobanks is expert-driven evaluation (entry and exit controls) of tissue specimen to guarantee provision of high-quality assured biomaterials. PMID:26271995

  3. Designing and Implementing INTREPID, an Intensive Program in Translational Research Methodologies for New Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Plottel, Claudia S.; Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Shao, Yongzhao; Micoli, Keith J.; Fang, Yixin; Galeano, Claudia R.; Stangel, Jessica H.; Hochman, Judith S.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Pillinger, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Senior housestaff and junior faculty are often expected to perform clinical research, yet may not always have the requisite knowledge and skills to do so successfully. Formal degree programs provide such knowledge, but require a significant commitment of time and money. Short-term training programs (days to weeks) provide alternative ways to accrue essential information and acquire fundamental methodological skills. Unfortunately, published information about short-term programs is sparse. To encourage discussion and exchange of ideas regarding such programs, we here share our experience developing and implementing INTREPID (INtensive Training in Research Statistics, Ethics, and Protocol Informatics and Design), a 24-day immersion training program in clinical research methodologies. Designing, planning, and offering INTREPID was feasible, and required significant faculty commitment, support personnel and infrastructure, as well as committed trainees. PMID:25066862

  4. Publication selection in health policy research: the winner's curse hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair; Stanley, Tom

    2013-01-01

    There is a widely discussed problem of publication bias in medical and health services research. Where quantitative effects form the basis of a publication a 'winner's curse' curse may apply. This phenomenon may occur as prospective authors of research papers compete by reporting 'more extreme and spectacular results' in order to increase the chances of their paper being accepted for publication. This paper examines this phenomenon using quantitative findings on income and price elasticities as reported in health economics research. We find robust statistical evidence that higher-impact journals preferentially report larger empirical estimates of these elasticities. That is, we find robust evidence of a winner's curse hypothesis contributing to the existence of publication bias found in both the income and the price elasticities of health care and drugs, as well as value of life research. PMID:23182564

  5. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research. PMID:26325424

  6. Selective laser hyperthermia of malignant neoplasms: experimental and clinical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfond, Mark L.; Mizgirev, I. V.; Barchuk, A. S.; Hudoley, V. V.; Vasilyev, D. V.; Balluzek, F. V.; Venkov, A. A.; Chaly, Viktor P.; Ter-Martirosyan, Alexander L.

    1999-12-01

    Experimental study of various modes of the semiconductor laser irradiation upon Ehrlich carcinoma in mice was carried out. Optimal patterns for distance laser scanning irradiation resulting in practically complete healing of experimental animals, were found. Selective damage of tumor tissue subjected to laser irradiation at 800 nm was evidenced in the absence of a photosensitizing agent. The results of a clinical trial completely corresponded to the experimental data. The treatment proved to be efficient in all 28 patients.

  7. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor utilization patterns: consistency across research designs.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, D S; Klein, E G; Signa, W F; Young, C H; Gregor, K J

    1998-01-01

    We examined the impact of commonly applied selection criteria on the ability of patients who are initiating antidepressant therapy to reach a stable pattern, which was defined as receipt of only the initial agent at the initial dose for 90 or more consecutive days. Patients in a large US prescription database who initiated fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline therapy between February and April of 1995 were categorized as with (typical design) and without (relaxed design) commonly applied selection criteria. The percentage of patients achieving a stable pattern was then determined. We found that this percentage was significantly higher with the relaxed design (typical, 28.8%; relaxed, 32.4%) and for patients initiating fluoxetine therapy (>5.5% higher than for those initiating paroxetine or sertraline therapy). The results for fluoxetine were consistent across designs, whereas comparisons between paroxetine and sertraline yielded mixed results. Therefore, the relative relationship of the stable pattern is robust across designs for fluoxetine but not for paroxetine and sertraline. Further, application of commonly applied selection criteria may make a sample less representative and reduce the measured rates of stable antidepressant use, potentially leading to underestimation of the benefits of pharmacotherapy. PMID:9737838

  8. The Pentagonal E-Portfolio Model for Selecting, Adopting, Building, and Implementing an E-Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzetto-More, Nicole; Alade, Ayodele

    2008-01-01

    Electronic portfolios are a student-centered outcomes-based assessment regime involving learners in the gathering, selection, and organization of artifacts synthesized into a compilation purposed to demonstrate knowledge, skills, and/or achievements supported by reflections that articulate the relevance, credibility, and meaning of the artifacts…

  9. Passive Sampling Methods for Contaminated Sediments: Practical Guidance for Selection, Calibration, and Implementation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides practical guidance on the use of passive sampling methods(PSMs) that target the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) for improved exposure assessment of hydrophobic organic chemicals in sediments. Primary considerations for selecting a PSM for a specific a...

  10. Demographic Factors Influencing Selection of an Ideal Graduate Institution: A Literature Review with Recommendations for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Simon A.; Chuang, Ning-Kuang

    2010-01-01

    Choosing a graduate (masters and doctoral) program of study at an ideal institution is probably one of the most important decisions students and their family will make. The graduate college selection involves identifying the most critical academic and non-academic factors, and weighing their importance against the large quantity of choices…

  11. Alternatives in Scheduling Patterns: Practitioner Implementation of Minicourse Programs in Selected Midwestern High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Patricia; Guenther, John

    The purposes of the document are to report on the status of social studies minicourse programs in selected midwestern high schools and to provide information to schools regarding obstacles to minicourses as alternatives to traditional programs. A 1976-77 survey of 265 midwestern high schools determined that only 60 (23%) of the schools offered…

  12. Integrated Endeavors: Cooperative Efforts in Selection and Implementation of Tape Loads for Major Microforms Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Janet

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the eight-step process Virginia Tech University Libraries followed for purchasing and loading catalog records for Major Microforms Sets. The process began with the creation of a committee, selecting microform record sets for cataloging, and concluded with a thorough in-depth analysis after tapes were loaded. Management and personnel…

  13. Implementation of quality management in early stages of research and development projects at a university.

    PubMed

    Fiehe, Sandra; Wagner, Georg; Schlanstein, Peter; Rosefort, Christiane; Kopp, Rüdger; Bensberg, Ralf; Knipp, Peter; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-04-01

    The ultimate objective of university research and development projects is usually to create knowledge, but also to successfully transfer results to industry for subsequent marketing. We hypothesized that the university technology transfer requires efficient measures to improve this important step. Besides good scientific practice, foresighted and industry-specific adapted documentation of research processes in terms of a quality management system might improve the technology transfer. In order to bridge the gap between research institute and cooperating industry, a model project has been accompanied by a project specific amount of quality management. However, such a system had to remain manageable and must not constrain the researchers' creativity. Moreover, topics and research team are strongly interdisciplinary, which entails difficulties regarding communication because of different perspectives and terminology. In parallel to the technical work of the model project, an adaptable quality management system with a quality manual, defined procedures, and forms and documents accompanying the research, development and validation was implemented. After process acquisition and analysis the appropriate amount of management for the model project was identified by a self-developed rating system considering project characteristics like size, innovation, stakeholders, interdisciplinarity, etc. Employees were trained according to their needs. The management was supported and the technical documentation was optimized. Finally, the quality management system has been transferred successfully to further projects. PMID:24523303

  14. Analysis and Implementation of an Electronic Laboratory Notebook in a Biomedical Research Institute

    PubMed Central

    Dujardin, Gwendal; Cabrera-Andrade, Alejandro; Paz-y-Miño, César; Indacochea, Alberto; Inglés-Ferrándiz, Marta; Nadimpalli, Hima Priyanka; Collu, Nicola; Dublanche, Yann; De Mingo, Ismael; Camargo, David

    2016-01-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) will probably replace paper laboratory notebooks (PLNs) in academic research due to their advantages in data recording, sharing and security. Despite several reports describing technical characteristics of ELNs and their advantages over PLNs, no study has directly tested ELN performance among researchers. In addition, the usage of tablet-based devices or wearable technology as ELN complements has never been explored in the field. To implement an ELN in our biomedical research institute, here we first present a technical comparison of six ELNs using 42 parameters. Based on this, we chose two ELNs, which were tested by 28 scientists for a 3-month period and by 80 students via hands-on practical exercises. Second, we provide two survey-based studies aimed to compare these two ELNs (PerkinElmer Elements and Microsoft OneNote) and to analyze the use of tablet-based devices. We finally explore the advantages of using wearable technology as ELNs tools. Among the ELNs tested, we found that OneNote presents almost all parameters evaluated (39/42) and both surveyed groups preferred OneNote as an ELN solution. In addition, 80% of the surveyed scientists reported that tablet-based devices improved the use of ELNs in different respects. We also describe the advantages of using OneNote application for Apple Watch as an ELN wearable complement. This work defines essential features of ELNs that could be used to improve ELN implementation and software development. PMID:27479083

  15. So much research, so little application: Barriers to dissemination and practical implementation of Tai Ji Quan

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large number of articles published in the medical literature advocating the use of Tai Ji Quan for a wide variety of health-related outcomes, there has been little systematic broad-scale implementation of these programs. It may be argued that the lack of funding from organizations capable of implementing and overseeing large-scale programs, such as governmental health agencies or national non-governmental organizations concerned with healthcare for older adults, is to blame. However, the evidence these organizations need to justify underwriting such programs is in short supply because of conflicting priorities and standards related to determining the efficacy and effectiveness of Tai Ji Quan. Establishing efficacy through acceptable designs such as randomized controlled trials involves strict protocols to ensure meaningful internal validity but different approaches are needed to demonstrate meaningful effectiveness (external validity) outside the study setting. By examining the quality, quantity, and relative proportions of the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and dissemination studies reported in the medical literature, this paper highlights the disparity in emphasis between efficacy and effectiveness research that has impeded the development of a cohesive literature on Tai Ji Quan and concludes that until more researchers develop a systematic, long-range commitment to investigating its health-related benefits, the research related will remain fractured and sporadic, limiting the incentive of large funding agencies to support its wide-spread use. PMID:25089214

  16. Analysis and Implementation of an Electronic Laboratory Notebook in a Biomedical Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Santiago; Dujardin, Gwendal; Cabrera-Andrade, Alejandro; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Indacochea, Alberto; Inglés-Ferrándiz, Marta; Nadimpalli, Hima Priyanka; Collu, Nicola; Dublanche, Yann; De Mingo, Ismael; Camargo, David

    2016-01-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) will probably replace paper laboratory notebooks (PLNs) in academic research due to their advantages in data recording, sharing and security. Despite several reports describing technical characteristics of ELNs and their advantages over PLNs, no study has directly tested ELN performance among researchers. In addition, the usage of tablet-based devices or wearable technology as ELN complements has never been explored in the field. To implement an ELN in our biomedical research institute, here we first present a technical comparison of six ELNs using 42 parameters. Based on this, we chose two ELNs, which were tested by 28 scientists for a 3-month period and by 80 students via hands-on practical exercises. Second, we provide two survey-based studies aimed to compare these two ELNs (PerkinElmer Elements and Microsoft OneNote) and to analyze the use of tablet-based devices. We finally explore the advantages of using wearable technology as ELNs tools. Among the ELNs tested, we found that OneNote presents almost all parameters evaluated (39/42) and both surveyed groups preferred OneNote as an ELN solution. In addition, 80% of the surveyed scientists reported that tablet-based devices improved the use of ELNs in different respects. We also describe the advantages of using OneNote application for Apple Watch as an ELN wearable complement. This work defines essential features of ELNs that could be used to improve ELN implementation and software development. PMID:27479083

  17. The NIHR collaboration for leadership in applied health research and care (CLAHRC) for greater manchester: combining empirical, theoretical and experiential evidence to design and evaluate a large-scale implementation strategy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In response to policy recommendations, nine National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) were established in England in 2008, aiming to create closer working between the health service and higher education and narrow the gap between research and its implementation in practice. The Greater Manchester (GM) CLAHRC is a partnership between the University of Manchester and twenty National Health Service (NHS) trusts, with a five-year mission to improve healthcare and reduce health inequalities for people with cardiovascular conditions. This paper outlines the GM CLAHRC approach to designing and evaluating a large-scale, evidence- and theory-informed, context-sensitive implementation programme. Discussion The paper makes a case for embedding evaluation within the design of the implementation strategy. Empirical, theoretical, and experiential evidence relating to implementation science and methods has been synthesised to formulate eight core principles of the GM CLAHRC implementation strategy, recognising the multi-faceted nature of evidence, the complexity of the implementation process, and the corresponding need to apply approaches that are situationally relevant, responsive, flexible, and collaborative. In turn, these core principles inform the selection of four interrelated building blocks upon which the GM CLAHRC approach to implementation is founded. These determine the organizational processes, structures, and roles utilised by specific GM CLAHRC implementation projects, as well as the approach to researching implementation, and comprise: the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework; a modified version of the Model for Improvement; multiprofessional teams with designated roles to lead, facilitate, and support the implementation process; and embedded evaluation and learning. Summary Designing and evaluating a large-scale implementation

  18. A Community-Engaged Cardiovascular Health Disparities Research Training Curriculum: Implementation and Preliminary Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Purnell, Tanjala; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Matens, Richard; Miller, Edgar R. “Pete”; Levine, David M.; Nguyen, Tam H.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.; Crews, Deidra C.; Mahlangu-Ngcobo, Mankekolo; Cooper, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    To overcome cardiovascular disease (CVD) disparities impacting high-risk populations, it is critical to train researchers and leaders in conducting community-engaged CVD disparities research. The authors summarize the key elements, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of the CVD Disparities Fellowship and Summer Internship Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Schools of Medicine, Nursing, and Bloomberg School of Public Health. In 2010, program faculty and coordinators established a trans-disciplinary CVD disparities training and career development fellowship program for scientific investigators who desire to conduct community-engaged clinical and translational disparities research. The program was developed to enhance mentorship support and research training for faculty, post-doctoral fellows, and pre-doctoral students interested in conducting CVD disparities research. A CVD Disparities Summer Internship Program for undergraduate and pre-professional students was also created to provide a broad experience in public health and health disparities in Baltimore, Maryland, with a focus on CVD. Since 2010, 39 pre-doctoral, post-doctoral, and faculty fellows have completed the program. Participating fellows have published disparities-related research and given presentations both nationally and internationally. Five research grant awards have been received by faculty fellows. Eight undergraduates, 1 post-baccalaureate, and 2 medical professional students representing seven universities have participated in the summer undergraduate internship. Over half of the undergraduate students are applying to or have been accepted into medical or graduate school. The tailored CVD health disparities training curriculum has been successful at equipping varying levels of trainees (from undergraduate students to faculty) with clinical research and public health expertise to conducting community-engaged CVD disparities research. PMID:25054421

  19. A community-engaged cardiovascular health disparities research training curriculum: implementation and preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Purnell, Tanjala; Halbert, Jennifer P; Matens, Richard; Miller, Edgar R Pete; Levine, David M; Nguyen, Tam H; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Mahlangu-Ngcobo, Mankekolo; Cooper, Lisa A

    2014-10-01

    To overcome cardiovascular disease (CVD) disparities impacting high-risk populations, it is critical to train researchers and leaders in conducting community-engaged CVD disparities research. The authors summarize the key elements, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of the CVD Disparities Fellowship and Summer Internship Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Schools of Medicine, Nursing, and Bloomberg School of Public Health. In 2010, program faculty and coordinators established a transdisciplinary CVD disparities training and career development fellowship program for scientific investigators who desire to conduct community-engaged clinical and translational disparities research. The program was developed to enhance mentorship support and research training for faculty, postdoctoral fellows, and predoctoral students interested in conducting CVD disparities research. A CVD Disparities Summer Internship Program for undergraduate and preprofessional students was also created to provide a broad experience in public health and health disparities in Baltimore, Maryland, with a focus on CVD. Since 2010, 39 predoctoral, postdoctoral, and faculty fellows have completed the program. Participating fellows have published disparities-related research and given presentations both nationally and internationally. Five research grant awards have been received by faculty fellows. Eight undergraduates, one postbaccalaureate, and two medical professional students representing seven universities have participated in the summer undergraduate internship. Over half of the undergraduate students are applying to or have been accepted into medical or graduate school. The tailored CVD health disparities training curriculum has been successful at equipping varying levels of trainees (from undergraduate students to faculty) with clinical research and public health expertise to conducting community-engaged CVD disparities research. PMID:25054421

  20. Selected Alberta science and research success stories. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This publication provides a sampling of the value of science and research to Albertans, to the Alberta economy, and to the global community as revealed in stories of successful science and research activities in the province. Each story includes name of developer, inventor, company, and/or supporter; names of co-operating agencies, if any; contact name and address for further information; and a list of expected or realized benefits. The stories are organized under subject areas relating to agriculture and agri-food, arts and culture, biotechnology, construction, education, energy, environment, forest sector, health and medicine, human and community development, information and communications, manufacturing, mineral sector, tourism, and transportation.

  1. Experiences in implementation and publication of operations research interventions: gaps and a way forward

    PubMed Central

    Kalibala, Samuel; Woelk, Godfrey B; Gloyd, Stephen; Jani, Nrupa; Kay, Lynnette; Sarna, Avina; Okal, Jerry; Ndwiga, Charity; Haberland, Nicole; Sinai, Irit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to UNAIDS, the world currently has an adequate collection of proven HIV prevention, treatment and diagnostic tools, which, if scaled up, can lay the foundation for ending the AIDS epidemic. HIV operations research (OR) tests and promotes the use of interventions that can increase the demand for and supply of these tools. However, current publications of OR mainly focus on outcomes, leaving gaps in reporting of intervention characteristics, which are essential to address for the utilization of OR findings. This has prompted WHO and other international public health agencies to issue reporting requirements for OR studies. The objective of this commentary is to review experiences in HIV OR intervention design, implementation, process data collection and publication in order to identify gaps, contribute to the body of knowledge and propose a way forward to improve the focus on “implementation” in implementation research. Discussion Interventions in OR, like ordinary service delivery programmes, are subject to the programme cycle, which continually uses insights from implementation and the local context to modify service delivery modalities. Given that some of these modifications in the intervention may influence study outcomes, the documentation of process data becomes vital in OR. However, a key challenge is that study resources tend to be skewed towards documentation and the reporting of study outcomes to the detriment of process data, even though process data is vital for understanding factors influencing the outcomes. Conclusions Interventions in OR should be viewed using the lens of programme evaluation, which includes formative assessment (to determine concept and design), followed by process evaluation (to monitor inputs and outputs) and effectiveness evaluation (to assess outcomes and effectiveness). Study resources should be equitably used between process evaluation and outcome measurement to facilitate inclusion of data about

  2. Sonic-boom research: Selected bibliography with annotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Maglieri, D. J.; Stephens, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Citations of selected documents are included which represent the state of the art of technology in each of the following subject areas: prediction, measurement, and minimization of steady-flight sonic booms; prediction and measurement of accelerating-flight sonic booms; sonic-boom propagation; the effects of sonic booms on people, communities, structures, animals, birds, and terrain; and sonic-boom simulator technology. Documents are listed in chronological order in each section of the paper, with key documents and associated annotation listed first. The sources are given along with acquisition numbers, when available, to expedite the acquisition of copies of the documents.

  3. Research Subject Advocacy: Program Implementation and Evaluation at Clinical and Translational Science Award Centers

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Rhonda G.; Reider, Carson; Stephens, Julie; Schuff, Kathryn G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In 2000, the National Center for Research Resources mandated that General Research Centers create a Research Subject Advocate (RSA) position. In 2008, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium endorsed a new advocacy model based on four RSA Best Practice Functions. The authors surveyed CTSA centers to learn about their implementation of programs to fulfill the RSA functions. Method In 2010, the RSA taskforce developed a two-part online survey to examine leadership, organizational structure, governance, scope, collaboration and integration, and funding and evaluation of RSA activities implemented at CTSA centers. Results Respondents from 45 RSA programs at 43 CTSA centers completed the survey. Senior university or CTSA officials led all programs. Ninety-six percent (43/45) of programs were funded by a CTSA core. Eighty percent (36/45) designated an individual “RSA.” Ninety-eight percent (44/45) provided diverse services either in collaboration with or complementary to other departments, including development of Data and Safety Monitoring Plans (16/45, 36%), informed consent observation (10/45, 22%), training responsive to audit findings (12/45, 27%), and direct advocacy services to participants (11/45, 24%). Eighty-six percent (24/28) reported qualitative evaluation methods for these activities. Conclusions RSA programs conduct both collaborative and unique research protection activities. This survey, an initial step in developing a more robust mechanism for evaluating RSA programs, collected valuable feedback. The authors recommend defining and developing outcome-based evaluation measures that take the heterogeneity of the individual RSA programs into account while advancing their value and effectiveness in protecting human research subject participants. PMID:22836849

  4. Implementing an International Consultation on Earth System Research Priorities Using Web 2.0 Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, L.; Yang, A.

    2009-12-01

    Leah Goldfarb, Paul Cutler, Andrew Yang*, Mustapha Mokrane, Jacinta Legg and Deliang Chen The scientific community has been engaged in developing an international strategy on Earth system research. The initial consultation in this “visioning” process focused on gathering suggestions for Earth system research priorities that are interdisciplinary and address the most pressing societal issues. It was implemented this through a website that utilized Web 2.0 capabilities. The website (http://www.icsu-visioning.org/) collected input from 15 July to 1 September 2009. This consultation was the first in which the international scientific community was asked to help shape the future of a research theme. The site attracted over 7000 visitors from 133 countries, more than 1000 of whom registered and took advantage of the site’s functionality to contribute research questions (~300 questions), comment on posts, and/or vote on questions. To facilitate analysis of results, the site captured a small set of voluntary information about each contributor and their contribution. A group of ~50 international experts were invited to analyze the inputs at a “Visioning Earth System Research” meeting held in September 2009. The outcome of this meeting—a prioritized list of research questions to be investigated over the next decade—was then posted on the visioning website for additional comment from the community through an online survey tool. In general, many lessons were learned in the development and implementation of this website, both in terms of the opportunities offered by Web 2.0 capabilities and the application of these capabilities. It is hoped that this process may serve as a model for other scientific communities. The International Council for Science (ICSU) in cooperation with the International Social Science Council (ISSC) is responsible for organizing this Earth system visioning process.

  5. Tracers and Tracer Testing: Design, Implementation, Tracer Selection, and Interpretation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    G. Michael Shook; Shannon L.; Allan Wylie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting a successful tracer test requires adhering to a set of steps. The steps include identifying appropriate and achievable test goals, identifying tracers with the appropriate properties, and implementing the test as designed. When these steps are taken correctly, a host of tracer test analysis methods are available to the practitioner. This report discusses the individual steps required for a successful tracer test and presents methods for analysis. The report is an overview of tracer technology; the Suggested Reading section offers references to the specifics of test design and interpretation.

  6. 34 CFR 663.20 - How is a Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad Fellow selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad Fellow selected? 663.20 Section 663.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS FACULTY RESEARCH ABROAD FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Selection of...

  7. The Selection of Scientific Talent in the Allocation of Research Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Arensbergen, Pleun; van den Besselaar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Career grants are an important instrument for selecting and stimulating the next generation of leading researchers. Earlier research has mainly focused on the relation between past performance and success. In this study we investigate how the selection process takes place. More specifically, we investigate which quality dimensions (of the…

  8. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  9. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) science data processing center implementation history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Ellen L.; Taylor, K. David

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Goddard is responsible for the development of a ground system for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) observatory, whose launch is scheduled for 1991. This ground system encompasses a dedicated Central Data Handling Facility (CDHF); attention is presently given to the management of software systems design and implementation phases for CDHF by the UARS organization. Also noted are integration and testing activities performed following software deliveries to the CDHF. The UARS project has an obvious requirement for a powerful and flexible data base management system; an off-the-shelf commercial system has been incorporated.

  10. Selected Research, Development and Organizational Needs of the Hearing Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Charles W., Ed.

    Identified are research, development, and organizational needs regarding sensory aids for the hearing impaired. Discussion of the present status of sensory aids focuses on acoustic and nonacoustic aids and points out that practical long-term utility has been extremely limited. Described are organizational and planning needs such as demographic…

  11. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  12. Review of Selected Intervention Research with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James O.

    Reviewing of long term and short term intervention research undertaken by Skeels and Dye (1939), Dawe (1942), Brazziel and Terrell (1962), Carter (1966), Sigel, Roeper, and Hooper (1966), Weikart (1967), Klaus and Gray (1967), Karnes and others (1966), Bereiter and Engelmann (1966), Blatt and Garfunkel (1965), Nimnicht (1966), and Smilansky (1964…

  13. A study of the operation of selected national research facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisner, M.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of national research facilities was studied. Conclusions of the study show that a strong resident scientific staff is required for successful facility operation. No unique scheme of scientific management is revealed except for the obvious fact that the management must be responsive to the users needs and requirements. Users groups provide a convenient channel through which these needs and requirements are communicated.

  14. Children and Media Violence Research: A Selection (1989-). Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronstrom, Johan, Comp.

    In 1997, the Nordic Information Centre for Media and Communication Research (Nordicom), with funding from UNESCO and the government of Sweden, created the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen. The Clearinghouse contributes to and clarifies knowledge on, children, young people, and media violence, based on the…

  15. A qualitative systematic review of studies using the normalization process theory to research implementation processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a well-recognized need for greater use of theory to address research translational gaps. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a set of sociological tools to understand and explain the social processes through which new or modified practices of thinking, enacting, and organizing work are implemented, embedded, and integrated in healthcare and other organizational settings. This review of NPT offers readers the opportunity to observe how, and in what areas, a particular theoretical approach to implementation is being used. In this article we review the literature on NPT in order to understand what interventions NPT is being used to analyze, how NPT is being operationalized, and the reported benefits, if any, of using NPT. Methods Using a framework analysis approach, we conducted a qualitative systematic review of peer-reviewed literature using NPT. We searched 12 electronic databases and all citations linked to six key NPT development papers. Grey literature/unpublished studies were not sought. Limitations of English language, healthcare setting and year of publication 2006 to June 2012 were set. Results Twenty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria; in the main, NPT is being applied to qualitatively analyze a diverse range of complex interventions, many beyond its original field of e-health and telehealth. The NPT constructs have high stability across settings and, notwithstanding challenges in applying NPT in terms of managing overlaps between constructs, there is evidence that it is a beneficial heuristic device to explain and guide implementation processes. Conclusions NPT offers a generalizable framework that can be applied across contexts with opportunities for incremental knowledge gain over time and an explicit framework for analysis, which can explain and potentially shape implementation processes. This is the first review of NPT in use and it generates an impetus for further and extended use of NPT. We recommend that in future

  16. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program: Selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and from the operation of DOE facilities. The program has been divided into seven general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 380 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliograhpy is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by national laboratory and by year. Multi-authored studies are indicated only once, according to the main supporting laboratory.

  17. Research Recommendations for Selected IARC-Classified Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Elizabeth M.; Schulte, Paul A.; Straif, Kurt; Hopf, Nancy B.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Carreón, Tania; DeMarini, David M.; Fowler, Bruce A.; Goldstein, Bernard D.; Hemminki, Kari; Hines, Cynthia J.; Pursiainen, Kirsti Husgafvel; Kuempel, Eileen; Lewtas, Joellen; Lunn, Ruth M.; Lynge, Elsebeth; McElvenny, Damien M.; Muhle, Hartwig; Nakajima, Tamie; Robertson, Larry W.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra; Smith, Martyn T.; Sorahan, Tom; Steenland, Kyle; Stevens, Richard G.; Vineis, Paolo; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Zeise, Lauren; Cogliano, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives There are some common occupational agents and exposure circumstances for which evidence of carcinogenicity is substantial but not yet conclusive for humans. Our objectives were to identify research gaps and needs for 20 agents prioritized for review based on evidence of widespread human exposures and potential carcinogenicity in animals or humans. Data sources For each chemical agent (or category of agents), a systematic review was conducted of new data published since the most recent pertinent International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph meeting on that agent. Data extraction Reviewers were charged with identifying data gaps and general and specific approaches to address them, focusing on research that would be important in resolving classification uncertainties. An expert meeting brought reviewers together to discuss each agent and the identified data gaps and approaches. Data synthesis Several overarching issues were identified that pertained to multiple agents; these included the importance of recognizing that carcinogenic agents can act through multiple toxicity pathways and mechanisms, including epigenetic mechanisms, oxidative stress, and immuno- and hormonal modulation. Conclusions Studies in occupational populations provide important opportunities to understand the mechanisms through which exogenous agents cause cancer and intervene to prevent human exposure and/or prevent or detect cancer among those already exposed. Scientific developments are likely to increase the challenges and complexities of carcinogen testing and evaluation in the future, and epidemiologic studies will be particularly critical to inform carcinogen classification and risk assessment processes. PMID:20562050

  18. A3-4: Implementing a Pragmatic Clinical Trial: Lessons Learned about Embedded Research

    PubMed Central

    Kindler, Lindsay; McMullen, Carmit; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Honda, Stacey; Firemark, Alison; DeBar, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Pragmatic trials are fostering a paradigm shift to increasingly embed research into healthcare settings. Pragmatic trials test interventions in real world settings representative of those targeted for dissemination to promote robust, sustainable changes within the health care system. Kaiser Permanente’s Center for Health Research, is conducting a pragmatic trial to test the effectiveness of teaching pain self-management skills using interdisciplinary teams within primary care in three Kaiser regions. Implementation requires a pragmatic approach to create a working relationship between health system leaders and the research team. We present lessons learned during our preparatory year in which we partnered with health systems to build an embedded research infrastructure for the study. Methods In accordance with a pragmatic approach, we used the Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) whereby the fieldwork team gathers and analyzes information quickly in the form of journal entries and detailed meeting minutes following stakeholder encounters and regular team meetings to document the emerging collective understanding of stakeholders’ expressed concerns and informational needs. This approach allows for iterative feedback from operational stakeholders and accommodates quick trial modifications. Results Using RAP to systematically identify lessons learned, several guiding principles surfaced for successfully embedding research into a healthcare system. The study foundation must come from a need identified by the health system, not the research team. Study outcomes must have obvious utility to operational leaders and practicing providers. Health plan administrators and clinicians have pre-existing ideas of research that necessitate ongoing education and dialogue to address concerns. Using a framework of change native to the health system promotes navigation of potentially disruptive change. Given rapid changes within health systems, the research team must be

  19. Toward a fundamental theory of optimal feature selection: Part II - Implementation and computational complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Morgera, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Certain algorithms and their computational complexity are examined for use in a VLSI implementation of the real-time pattern classifier described in Part I of this work. The most computationally intensive processing is found in the classifier training mode wherein subsets of the largest and smallest eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors of the input data covariance pair must be computed. It is shown that if the matrix of interest is centrosymmetric and the method for eigensystem decomposition is operator-based, the problem architecture assumes a parallel form. Such a matrix structure is found in a wide variety of pattern recognition and speech and signal processing applications. Each of the parallel channels requires only two specialized matrix-arithmetic modules.

  20. Connecting Marketing and Implementation Research and Library Program Development: A Case Study of the Implementation of [U.S.] National Guidelines and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken; Cavill, Pat

    This case study examined: (1) what market research is required for planning for the implementation of "Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning," the 1998 national guidelines for effective school library media programs; (2) what issues need to be addressed and what target audiences are required to effect change, as well as how these…

  1. A Global Perspective on Using Implementation Research to Address Hypertension-Associated Target Organ Damage.

    PubMed

    Peprah, Emmanuel; Lopez-Class, Maria; Shero, Susan; John-Sowah, Joylene; Engelgau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, imposes a significant public health burden and challenge to address it worldwide. Scaling up delivery of proven, effective interventions for hypertension could significantly advance the goal of reducing the global burden. Although significant progress has been made in many countries, some lament that large-scale initiatives focused on reducing blood pressure in global populations have not effectively addressed this challenge. Late-stage implementation research plays a critical role in determining effective and sustainable scale-up of these initiatives. In this article, we briefly discuss some of the global initiatives that have been funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the US National Institutes of Health. Intervention delivery strategies in low resource settings must have demonstrated effectiveness and consideration for the social, cultural and physical context (eg, access, affordability, and availability of medications) in which a program is being delivered in order to be sustainable nationally and globally. Hence, the use of implementation research is central to determining sustainable delivery of evidence-based and tailored interventions focused on hypertension control. The sustained control of hypertension in global populations holds tremendous potential for reducing morbidity, premature mortality, and the adverse economic impact of cardiovascular disease in all regions. PMID:27440980

  2. Selecting and Implementing Whole School Improvement Models: A District and School Administrator Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graczewski, Cheryl; Ruffin, Monya; Shambaugh, Larisa; Therriault, Susan Bowles

    2007-01-01

    As a growing number of schools and districts are found to be underperforming under the requirements of NCLB, school and district administrators are increasingly searching for research-based whole school improvement programs, including comprehensive school reform (CSR) models and education service providers (ESPs), in order to create dramatic…

  3. A framework for implementing biodiversity offsets: selecting sites and determining scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Copeland, Holly; Pocewicz, Amy; Nibbelink, Nate; McKenney, Bruce; Dahlke, John; Holloran, Matthew J.; Stroud, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets provide a mechanism for maintaining or enhancing environmental values in situations where development is sought despite detrimental environmental impacts. They seek to ensure that unavoidable negative environmental impacts of development are balanced by environmental gains, with the overall aim of achieving a net neutral or positive outcome. Once the decision has been made to offset, multiple issues arise regarding how to do so in practice. A key concern is site selection. In light of the general aim to locate offsets close to the affected sites to ensure that benefits accrue in the same area, what is the appropriate spatial scale for identifying potential offset sites (e.g., local, ecoregional)? We use the Marxan site-selection algorithm to address conceptual and methodological challenges associated with identifying a set of potential offset sites and determining an appropriate spatial scale for them. To demonstrate this process, we examined the design of offsets for impacts from development on the Jonah natural gas field in Wyoming.

  4. A Broadly Implementable Research Course in Phage Discovery and Genomics for First-Year Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Tuajuanda C.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Carson, Susan; Caruso, Steven M.; Clase, Kari; DeJong, Randall J.; Dennehy, John J.; Denver, Dee R.; Dunbar, David; Elgin, Sarah C. R.; Findley, Ann M.; Gissendanner, Chris R.; Golebiewska, Urszula P.; Guild, Nancy; Hartzog, Grant A.; Grillo, Wendy H.; Hollowell, Gail P.; Hughes, Lee E.; Johnson, Allison; King, Rodney A.; Lewis, Lynn O.; Li, Wei; Rosenzweig, Frank; Rubin, Michael R.; Saha, Margaret S.; Sandoz, James; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Taylor, Barbara; Temple, Louise; Vazquez, Edwin; Ware, Vassie C.; Barker, Lucia P.; Bradley, Kevin W.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Pope, Welkin H.; Russell, Daniel A.; Cresawn, Steven G.; Lopatto, David; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Engaging large numbers of undergraduates in authentic scientific discovery is desirable but difficult to achieve. We have developed a general model in which faculty and teaching assistants from diverse academic institutions are trained to teach a research course for first-year undergraduate students focused on bacteriophage discovery and genomics. The course is situated within a broader scientific context aimed at understanding viral diversity, such that faculty and students are collaborators with established researchers in the field. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Science Education Alliance Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science (SEA-PHAGES) course has been widely implemented and has been taken by over 4,800 students at 73 institutions. We show here that this alliance-sourced model not only substantially advances the field of phage genomics but also stimulates students’ interest in science, positively influences academic achievement, and enhances persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Broad application of this model by integrating other research areas with large numbers of early-career undergraduate students has the potential to be transformative in science education and research training. PMID:24496795

  5. Design, implementation and operation of a multimodality research imaging informatics repository

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomedical imaging research increasingly involves acquiring, managing and processing large amounts of distributed imaging data. Integrated systems that combine data, meta-data and workflows are crucial for realising the opportunities presented by advances in imaging facilities. Methods This paper describes the design, implementation and operation of a multi-modality research imaging data management system that manages imaging data obtained from biomedical imaging scanners operated at Monash Biomedical Imaging (MBI), Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. In addition to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images, raw data and non-DICOM biomedical data can be archived and distributed by the system. Imaging data are annotated with meta-data according to a study-centric data model and, therefore, scientific users can find, download and process data easily. Results The research imaging data management system ensures long-term usability, integrity inter-operability and integration of large imaging data. Research users can securely browse and download stored images and data, and upload processed data via subject-oriented informatics frameworks including the Distributed and Reflective Informatics System (DaRIS), and the Extensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT). PMID:25870760

  6. The challenges of implementing pathogen control strategies for fishes used in biomedical research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, C.; Ennis, D.G.; Harper, C.; Kent, M.L.; Murray, K.; Sanders, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades, a number of fish species, including the zebrafish, medaka, and platyfish/swordtail, have become important models for human health and disease. Despite the increasing prevalence of these and other fish species in research, methods for health maintenance and the management of diseases in laboratory populations of these animals are underdeveloped. There is a growing realization that this trend must change, especially as the use of these species expands beyond developmental biology and more towards experimental applications where the presence of underlying disease may affect the physiology animals used in experiments and potentially compromise research results. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop, improve, and implement strategies for managing health and disease in aquatic research facilities. The purpose of this review is to report the proceedings of a workshop entitled "Animal Health and Disease Management in Research Animals" that was recently held at the 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease in September 2010 at Corvallis, Oregon to discuss the challenges involved with moving the field forward on this front. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  8. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE U.S. EPA'S WASTE REDUCTION INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (WRITE) RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) Program is one of EPA's major pollution prevention research programs. his program encourages joint interaction by industry and government in the development, demonstration and implementation of effective techniques and ...

  10. Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your "House"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cynthia; Osanloo, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework is one of the most important aspects in the research process, yet is often misunderstood by doctoral candidates as they prepare their dissertation research study. The importance of theory-driven thinking and acting is emphasized in relation to the selection of a topic, the development of research questions, the…

  11. FutureGen 2.0 Monitoring Program: An Overview of the Monitoring Approach and Technologies Selected for Implementation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Strickland, Chris E.; Thorne, Paul D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Kelly, Mark E.; Sullivan, Charlotte; Williams, Mark D.; Amonette, James E.; Downs, Janelle L.; et al

    2014-12-31

    The FutureGen 2.0 Project will design and build a first-of-its-kind, near-zero emissions coal-fueled power plant with carbon capture and storage (CCS). To assess storage site performance and meet the regulatory requirements of the Class VI Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program for CO2 Geologic Sequestration, the FutureGen 2.0 project will implement a suite of monitoring technologies designed to 1) evaluate CO2 mass balance and 2) detect any unforeseen loss in CO2 containment. The monitoring program will include direct monitoring of the injection stream and reservoir, and early-leak-detection monitoring directly above the primary confining zone. It will also implement an adaptive monitoringmore » strategy whereby monitoring results are continually evaluated and the monitoring network is modified as required, including the option to drill additional wells in out-years. Wells will be monitored for changes in CO2 concentration and formation pressure, and other geochemical/isotopic signatures that provide indication of CO2 or brine leakage. Indirect geophysical monitoring technologies that were selected for implementation include passive seismic, integrated surface deformation, time-lapse gravity, and pulsed neutron capture logging. Near-surface monitoring approaches that have been initiated include surficial aquifer and surface- water monitoring, soil-gas monitoring, atmospheric monitoring, and hyperspectral data acquisition for assessment of vegetation conditions. Initially, only the collection of baseline data sets is planned; the need for additional near- surface monitoring will be continually evaluated throughout the design and operational phases of the project, and selected approaches may be reinstituted if conditions warrant. Given the current conceptual understanding of the subsurface environment, early and appreciable impacts to near-surface environments are not expected.« less

  12. FutureGen 2.0 Monitoring Program: An Overview of the Monitoring Approach and Technologies Selected for Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Strickland, Chris E.; Thorne, Paul D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Kelly, Mark E.; Sullivan, Charlotte; Williams, Mark D.; Amonette, James E.; Downs, Janelle L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Bonneville, Alain; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2014-12-31

    The FutureGen 2.0 Project will design and build a first-of-its-kind, near-zero emissions coal-fueled power plant with carbon capture and storage (CCS). To assess storage site performance and meet the regulatory requirements of the Class VI Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program for CO2 Geologic Sequestration, the FutureGen 2.0 project will implement a suite of monitoring technologies designed to 1) evaluate CO2 mass balance and 2) detect any unforeseen loss in CO2 containment. The monitoring program will include direct monitoring of the injection stream and reservoir, and early-leak-detection monitoring directly above the primary confining zone. It will also implement an adaptive monitoring strategy whereby monitoring results are continually evaluated and the monitoring network is modified as required, including the option to drill additional wells in out-years. Wells will be monitored for changes in CO2 concentration and formation pressure, and other geochemical/isotopic signatures that provide indication of CO2 or brine leakage. Indirect geophysical monitoring technologies that were selected for implementation include passive seismic, integrated surface deformation, time-lapse gravity, and pulsed neutron capture logging. Near-surface monitoring approaches that have been initiated include surficial aquifer and surface- water monitoring, soil-gas monitoring, atmospheric monitoring, and hyperspectral data acquisition for assessment of vegetation conditions. Initially, only the collection of baseline data sets is planned; the need for additional near- surface monitoring will be continually evaluated throughout the design and operational phases of the project, and selected approaches may be reinstituted if conditions warrant. Given the current conceptual understanding of the subsurface environment, early and appreciable impacts to near-surface environments are not expected.

  13. A selection of biomechanical research problems: From modeling to experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Cyrus Omid

    The research undertakings within this manuscript illustrate the importance of biomechanics in today's science. Without doubt, biomechanics can be utilized to obtain a better understanding of many unsolved mysteries involved in the field of medicine. Moreover, biomechanics can be used to develop better prosthetic or surgical devices as well. Chapter 2 represents a medical problem, which has not been solved for more than a century. With the use of fundamental principles of biomechanics', a better insight of this problem and its possible causes were obtained. Chapter 3 investigates the mechanical interaction between the human teeth and some processed food products during mastication, which is a routine but crucial daily activity of a human being. Chapter 4 looks at a problem within the field of surgery. In this chapter the stability and reliability of two different Suturing-Techniques are explored. Chapters 5 and 6 represent new patent designs as a result of the investigations made in Chapter 4. Chapter 7 studies the impact and load transfer patterns during the collision between a child's head and the ground. All of the above mentioned chapters show the significance of biomechanics in solving a range of different medical problems that involve physical and or mechanical characters.

  14. Selection and Pilot Implementation of a Mobile Image Viewer: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    He, Miao; Wu, Teresa; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Mitchell, Joseph Ross; Hara, Amy K

    2015-01-01

    Background For health care providers, mobile image viewing increases image accessibility, which could lead to faster interpretation/consultations and improved patient outcomes. Objective We explored the technical requirements and challenges associated with implementing a commercial mobile image viewer and conducted a small study testing the hypothesis that the mobile image viewer would provide faster image access. Methods A total of 19 clinicians (9 radiologists, 3 surgeons, 4 neurologists, and 3 physician assistants) evaluated (1) a desktop commercial picture archiving and communication system (PACS) viewer, (2) a desktop viewer developed internally over 20 years and deployed throughout the enterprise (ENTERPRISE viewer) and (3) a commercial Food and Drug Administration class II-cleared mobile viewer compatible with Web browsers, tablets, and mobile phones. Data were collected during two separate 7-day periods, before and after mobile image viewer deployment. Data included image viewer chosen, time to view first image, technical issues, diagnostic confidence, and ease of use. Results For 565 image-viewing events, ease of use was identical for PACS and mobile viewers (mean 3.6 for all scores of a possible 4.0), and significantly worse for the enterprise viewer (mean 2.9, P=.001). Technical issues were highest with the enterprise viewer (26%, 56/215) compared with the mobile (7%,19/259, P=.001) and PACS (8%, 7/91, P=.003) viewers. Mean time to first image for the mobile viewer (2.4 minutes) was significantly faster than PACS (12.5 minutes, P=.001) and the enterprise viewer (4.5 minutes, P=.001). Diagnostic confidence was similar for PACS and mobile viewers and worst for enterprise viewer. Mobile image viewing increased by sixfold, from 14% (37/269, before the deployment) to 88.9% (263/296, after the deployment). Conclusions A mobile viewer provided faster time to first image, improved technical performance, ease of use, and diagnostic confidence, compared with

  15. WMO Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (SDS-WAS): Research Implementation Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Barrie, Leonard

    2010-05-01

    Strong winds cause lifting of large amounts of sand and dust from bare, dry soils into the atmosphere. For countries in and downwind of arid regions, airborne sand and dust presents serious risks to the environment, property and human health. Impacts on health include respiratory and cardio-vascular problems, eye infections and in some regions, diseases such as meningitis and valley fever. Dust can efficiently carry irritating spores, bacteria, viruses and persistent organic pollutants. It can also efficiently transport nutrients to parts of the world oceans and affect marine biomass production. Other impacts include negative effects on the ground transport, aviation, agriculture and visibility. The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recognizes dust as a major component of the atmospheric aerosol that is an essential climate variable. Dust aerosol has important effects on weather through feedback on atmospheric dynamics, clouds and precipitation formation. Approximately 15 centres around the world provide sand and dust research operational forecasts. Many are operated by national meteorological services of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Sand and dust storm models can substantially reduce risk by providing dust concentration predictions for several days in advance. Numerical weather prediction systems that drive these models use complex parameterizations and assimilation of satellite, and surface-based observations to predict winds, clouds, precipitation and dust mobilization, transport, and removal from the atmosphere. Sand and dust forecast products contribute to the mitigation and reduction of risk through research based advances in understanding and forecasting products. Observations of sand and dust are made by many agencies and some of them are being coordinated globally through the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme. In 2006, WMO and partners initiated the implementation of the Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and

  16. Implementation of a thermomechanical model for the simulation of selective laser melting

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, N. E.; Ferencz, R. M.; Solberg, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing process in which multiple, successive layers of metal powders are heated via laser in order to build a part. Modeling of SLM requires consideration of both heat transfer and solid mechanics. The present work describes continuum modeling of SLM as envisioned for eventual support of part-scale modeling of this fabrication process to determine end-state information such as residual stresses and distortion. The determination of the evolving temperatures is dependent on the material, the state of the material (powder or solid), the specified heating, and the configuration. Similarly, the current configuration is dependent on the temperatures, the powder-solid state, and the constitutive models. A multi-physics numerical formulation is required to solve such problems. This article describes the problem formulation, numerical method, and constitutive parameters necessary to solve such a problem. Additionally, various verification and example problems are simulated in the parallel, multi-physics finite element code Diablo, and the results presented herein.

  17. Implementing health research through academic and clinical partnerships: a realistic evaluation of the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The English National Health Service has made a major investment in nine partnerships between higher education institutions and local health services called Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC). They have been funded to increase capacity and capability to produce and implement research through sustained interactions between academics and health services. CLAHRCs provide a natural 'test bed' for exploring questions about research implementation within a partnership model of delivery. This protocol describes an externally funded evaluation that focuses on implementation mechanisms and processes within three CLAHRCs. It seeks to uncover what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Design and methods This study is a longitudinal three-phase, multi-method realistic evaluation, which deliberately aims to explore the boundaries around knowledge use in context. The evaluation funder wishes to see it conducted for the process of learning, not for judging performance. The study is underpinned by a conceptual framework that combines the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services and Knowledge to Action frameworks to reflect the complexities of implementation. Three participating CLARHCS will provide in-depth comparative case studies of research implementation using multiple data collection methods including interviews, observation, documents, and publicly available data to test and refine hypotheses over four rounds of data collection. We will test the wider applicability of emerging findings with a wider community using an interpretative forum. Discussion The idea that collaboration between academics and services might lead to more applicable health research that is actually used in practice is theoretically and intuitively appealing; however the evidence for it is limited. Our evaluation is designed to capture the processes and impacts of collaborative approaches for implementing research, and

  18. Innovative Graduate Research Education for Advancement of Implementation Science in Adolescent Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    Burton, Donna L; Levin, Bruce Lubotsky; Massey, Tom; Baldwin, Julie; Williamson, Heather

    2016-04-01

    An innovative approach to research education that integrates the theory and principles of implementation science, participatory research, and service learning in the area of adolescent behavioral health is presented. Qualitative interviews and surveys of program participants have been conducted to assess the program's curricula, service-learning partnerships, student (scholar) satisfaction, and views of community partnerships and academic mentors. The Institute has experienced the successful completion of its first and second cohorts and enrollment of a third cohort of scholars. Community partners are utilizing results of service-learning projects to influence agency operations. Institute scholars have identified research and service learning experiences as key factors in the decision to apply to the Institute graduate certificate program. The availability of tuition support is identified as valuable but not ranked as the most important reason for scholar interest in the program. Academic mentors report positive relationships with community agencies. Future iterations of the program will expand options for distance learning and alternatives to traditional graduate education for community-based scholars. Community partner agency capacity for participation is expected to change over time. Methods are being identified to both sustain existing partnerships and develop new community partnership relationships. PMID:26746638

  19. Qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This article reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the articles included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a "thick description" or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods but often differ with respect to study design, data collection, and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semistructured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed-method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  20. Achieving Smoke-Free Mental Health Services: Lessons from the Past Decade of Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Sharon; Campion, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The culture of smoking by patients and staff within mental health systems of care has a long and entrenched history. Cigarettes have been used as currency between patients and as a patient management tool by staff. These settings have traditionally been exempt from smoke-free policy because of complex held views about the capacity of people with mental disorder to tolerate such policy whilst they are acutely unwell, with stakeholders’ continuing fierce debate about rights, choice and duty of care. This culture has played a significant role in perpetuating physical, social and economic smoking associated impacts experienced by people with mental disorder who receive care within mental health care settings. The past decade has seen a clear policy shift towards smoke-free mental health settings in several countries. While many services have been successful in implementing this change, many issues remain to be resolved for genuine smoke-free policy in mental health settings to be realized. This literature review draws on evidence from the international published research, including national audits of smoke-free policy implementation in mental health units in Australia and England, in order to synthesise what we know works, why it works, and the remaining barriers to smoke-free policy and how appropriate interventions are provided to people with mental disorder. PMID:24025397

  1. Progress in Implementing and Testing State-Space Controls for the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    Designing wind turbines with maximum energy production and longevity for minimal cost is a major goal of the federal wind program and the wind industry. Control can improve the performance of wind turbines by enhancing energy capture and reducing dynamic loads. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) we are designing state-space control algorithms for turbine speed regulation and load reduction and testing them on the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART). The CART is a test-bed especially designed to test advanced control algorithms on a two-bladed teetering hub upwind turbine. In this paper we briefly describe the design of control systems to regulate turbine speed in region 3 for the CART. These controls use rotor collective pitch to regulate speed and also enhance damping in the 1st drive-train torsion, 1st rotor symmetric flap mode, and the 1st tower fore-aft mode. We designed these controls using linear optimal control techniques using state estimation based on limited turbine measurements such as generator speed and tower fore-aft bending moment. In this paper, we describe the issues and steps involved with implementing and testing these controls on the CART, and we show simulated tests to quantify controller performance. We then present preliminary results after implementing and testing these controls on the CART. We compare results from these controls to field test results from a baseline Proportional Integral control system. Finally we report conclusions to this work and outline future studies.

  2. Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An integrative theoretical framework, developed for cross-disciplinary implementation and other behaviour change research, has been applied across a wide range of clinical situations. This study tests the validity of this framework. Methods Validity was investigated by behavioural experts sorting 112 unique theoretical constructs using closed and open sort tasks. The extent of replication was tested by Discriminant Content Validation and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. Results There was good support for a refinement of the framework comprising 14 domains of theoretical constructs (average silhouette value 0.29): ‘Knowledge’, ‘Skills’, ‘Social/Professional Role and Identity’, ‘Beliefs about Capabilities’, ‘Optimism’, ‘Beliefs about Consequences’, ‘Reinforcement’, ‘Intentions’, ‘Goals’, ‘Memory, Attention and Decision Processes’, ‘Environmental Context and Resources’, ‘Social Influences’, ‘Emotions’, and ‘Behavioural Regulation’. Conclusions The refined Theoretical Domains Framework has a strengthened empirical base and provides a method for theoretically assessing implementation problems, as well as professional and other health-related behaviours as a basis for intervention development. PMID:22530986

  3. New customizable phased array UT instrument opens door for furthering research and better industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, Gavin; Ginzel, Robert

    2014-02-18

    Phased array UT as an inspection technique in itself continues to gain wide acceptance. However, there is much room for improvement in terms of implementation of Phased Array (PA) technology for every unique NDT application across several industries (e.g. oil and petroleum, nuclear and power generation, steel manufacturing, etc.). Having full control of the phased array instrument and customizing a software solution is necessary for more seamless and efficient inspections, from setting the PA parameters, collecting data and reporting, to the final analysis. NDT researchers and academics also need a flexible and open platform to be able to control various aspects of the phased array process. A high performance instrument with advanced PA features, faster data rates, a smaller form factor, and capability to adapt to specific applications, will be discussed.

  4. Research Partnerships with Schools to Implement Prevention Programs for Mexican Origin Families

    PubMed Central

    Dumka, Larry E.; Mauricio, Anne-Marie; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe critical participatory principles and practices used in a successful multiyear partnership between university researchers and a public elementary school district to implement an efficacy trial of the Puentes program, a family based program to prevent school disengagement and mental health problems in Mexican origin 7th graders. We highlight the role of the School Advisory Board as the principle structure facilitating the collaboration and the expansion of roles and power sharing that evolved over the course of the project. We also present the results of a focus group conducted to evaluate the school district's perspective on the partnership. We end by sharing conclusions regarding the critical aspects of the partnership. PMID:17846895

  5. eSalud: designing and implementing culturally competent ehealth research with latino patient populations.

    PubMed

    Victorson, David; Banas, Jennifer; Smith, Jeremiah; Languido, Lauren; Shen, Elaine; Gutierrez, Sandra; Cordero, Evelyn; Flores, Lucia

    2014-12-01

    eHealth is characterized by technology-enabled processes, systems, and applications that expedite accurate, real-time health information, feedback, and skill development to advance patient-centered care. When designed and applied in a culturally competent manner, eHealth tools can be particularly beneficial for traditionally marginalized ethnic minority groups, such as Latinos, a group that has been identified as being at the forefront of emerging technology use in the United States. In this analytic overview, we describe current eHealth research that has been conducted with Latino patient populations. In addition, we highlight cultural and linguistic factors that should be considered during the design and implementation of eHealth interventions with this population. With increasing disparities in preventive care information, behaviors, and services, as well as health care access in general, culturally competent eHealth tools hold great promise to help narrow this gap and empower communities. PMID:25320901

  6. eSalud: Designing and Implementing Culturally Competent eHealth Research With Latino Patient Populations

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Jennifer; Smith, Jeremiah; Languido, Lauren; Shen, Elaine; Gutierrez, Sandra; Cordero, Evelyn; Flores, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    eHealth is characterized by technology-enabled processes, systems, and applications that expedite accurate, real-time health information, feedback, and skill development to advance patient-centered care. When designed and applied in a culturally competent manner, eHealth tools can be particularly beneficial for traditionally marginalized ethnic minority groups, such as Latinos, a group that has been identified as being at the forefront of emerging technology use in the United States. In this analytic overview, we describe current eHealth research that has been conducted with Latino patient populations. In addition, we highlight cultural and linguistic factors that should be considered during the design and implementation of eHealth interventions with this population. With increasing disparities in preventive care information, behaviors, and services, as well as health care access in general, culturally competent eHealth tools hold great promise to help narrow this gap and empower communities. PMID:25320901

  7. Using research and education to implement practical bed bug control programs in multifamily housing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gary W; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Wang, Changlu; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Gibb, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Multifamily housing facilities serving low-income populations have been at the forefront of bed bug outbreaks. Research conducted in the past 8 years has consistently proven that integrated pest management (IPM) is the best approach for successful suppression of bed bug infestations. Bed bug IPM in multifamily settings is especially dependent upon a collaborative community or building-wide effort involving residents, building staff and pest control technicians. Other components of a bed bug IPM program include regular monitoring to detect early-stage bed bug infestations and combined use of non-chemical and chemical interventions. Lastly, to reduce reinfestation rates and costs associated with bed bug control, it is critical to continue periodic monitoring and implement preventive control measures even after successful elimination of bed bugs has been achieved. PMID:26251256

  8. Implementation science in cancer prevention and control: a framework for research and programs in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Sanchez, Michael A; Rimer, Barbara K; Samet, Jonathan M; Glasgow, Russell E

    2014-11-01

    Implementation science is a set of tools, principles, and methodologies that can be used to bring scientific evidence into action, improve health care quality and delivery, and improve public health. As the burden of cancer increases in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to plan cancer control programs that are both evidence based and delivered in ways that are feasible, cost-effective, contextually appropriate, and sustainable. This review presents a framework for using implementation science for cancer control planning and implementation and discusses potential areas of focus for research and programs in low- and middle-income countries interested in integrating research into practice and policy. PMID:25178984

  9. Implementation Science in Cancer Prevention and Control: A framework for research and programs in low and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Michael A.; Rimer, Barbara K.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation Science is a set of tools, principles and methodologies that can be used to bring scientific evidence into action, improve health care quality and delivery and improve public health. As the burden of cancer increases in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to plan cancer control programs that are both evidence-based and delivered in ways that are feasible, cost-effective, contextually appropriate and sustainable. This review presents a framework for using implementation science for cancer control planning and implementation and discusses potential areas of focus for research and programs in low and middle-income countries interested in integrating research into practice and policy. PMID:25178984

  10. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals’ intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention) to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional process. However, despite a

  11. UK Full-Scale Non-Active vitrification development and implementation of research findings onto the waste vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, K.; Gribble, N.R.; Hughes, D.O.; Riley, A.D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the historic and current status of inactive research in support of UK Highly Active (HA) waste vitrification. Experimental work performed to date on the UK's inactive vitrification research facility is summarised along with estimates of the potential impact of this research work on the reduction of HA Liquor (HAL) stocks stored in the UK at Sellafield. The current position regarding implementation of research learning onto the UK's operational vitrification plants is described. (authors)

  12. A Scientometric Evaluation of the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme of the PAHO and TDR

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Yadón, Zaida E.

    2013-01-01

    The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) is an independent global programme of scientific collaboration cosponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. TDR's strategy is based on stewardship for research on infectious diseases of poverty, empowerment of endemic countries, research on neglected priority needs, and the promotion of scientific collaboration influencing global efforts to combat major tropical diseases. In 2001, in view of the achievements obtained in the reduction of transmission of Chagas disease through the Southern Cone Initiative and the improvement in Chagas disease control activities in some countries of the Andean and the Central American Initiatives, TDR transferred the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme (CIRP) to the Communicable Diseases Unit of the Pan American Health Organization (CD/PAHO). This paper presents a scientometric evaluation of the 73 projects from 18 Latin American and European countries that were granted by CIRP/PAHO/TDR between 1997 and 2007. We analyzed all final reports of the funded projects and scientific publications, technical reports, and human resource training activities derived from them. Results about the number of projects funded, countries and institutions involved, gender analysis, number of published papers in indexed scientific journals, main topics funded, patents inscribed, and triatomine species studied are presented and discussed. The results indicate that CIRP/PAHO/TDR initiative has contributed significantly, over the 1997–2007 period, to Chagas disease knowledge as well as to the individual and institutional-building capacity. PMID:24244761

  13. Academic Research Equipment in Selected Science Engineering Fields: 1982-83 to 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgdorf, Kenneth; Chaney, Bradford

    This report presents information for identification of the national trends in the amount, age, loss, condition, and perceived adequacy of academic research equipment in selected science and engineering fields. The data were obtained from a stratified probability sample of 55 colleges and universities and from a separately selected sample of 24…

  14. A Research-based Method for the Selection of Department Chairpersons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konet, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Notes the difficulty high school principals face in selecting and placing department chairpersons. Describes a Rutgers University research program that investigated the problem and discusses the implications of the study for principals and department chairpersons. Presents a model for selecting chairpersons based upon task-oriented and…

  15. ANIMAL WELFARE FROM MOUSE TO MOOSE--IMPLEMENTING THE PRINCIPLES OF THE 3RS IN WILDLIFE RESEARCH.

    PubMed

    Lindsjö, Johan; Fahlman, Åsa; Törnqvist, Elin

    2016-04-01

    The concept of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) was originally developed for improving laboratory animal welfare and is well known in biomedical and toxicologic research. The 3Rs have so far gained little attention in wildlife research, and there could be several reasons for this. First, researchers may prioritize the welfare of populations and ecosystems over the welfare of individual animals. The effects of research on individual animals can, however, impact welfare and research quality at group and population levels. Second, researchers may find it difficult to apply the 3Rs to studies of free-living wildlife because of the differences between laboratory and wild animals, species, research environment, and purpose and design of the studies. There are, however, several areas where it is possible to transfer the 3R principles to wildlife research, including replacement with noninvasive research techniques, reduction with optimized experimental design, and refinement with better methods of capture, anesthesia, and handling. Third, researchers may not have been trained in applying the 3Rs in wildlife research. This training is needed since ethics committees, employers, journal publishers, and funding agencies increasingly require researchers to consider the welfare implications of their research. In this paper, we compare the principles of the 3Rs in various research areas to better understand the possibilities and challenges of the 3Rs in wildlife research. We emphasize the importance of applying the 3Rs systematically throughout the research process. Based on experiences from laboratory research, we suggest three key factors to enhance implementation of the 3Rs in wildlife research: 1) organizational structure and management, 2) 3R awareness, and 3) research innovation, validation, and implementation. Finally, we encourage an interdisciplinary approach to incorporate the 3R principles in wildlife research. For improved animal welfare and increased

  16. Implementing best practice in hospital multidisciplinary nutritional care: an example of using the knowledge-to-action process for a research program

    PubMed Central

    Laur, Celia; Keller, Heather H

    2015-01-01

    Background Prospective use of knowledge translation and implementation science frameworks can increase the likelihood of meaningful improvements in health care practices. An example of this creation and application of knowledge is the series of studies conducted by and with the Canadian Malnutrition Task Force (CMTF). Following a cohort study and synthesis of evidence regarding best practice for identification, treatment, and prevention of malnutrition in hospitals, CMTF created an evidence-informed, consensus-based pathway for nutritional care in hospitals. The purpose of this paper is to detail the steps taken in this research program, through four studies, as an example of the knowledge-to-action (KTA) process. The KTA process The KTA process includes knowledge creation and action cycles. The steps of the action cycle within this program of research are iterative, and up to this point have been informed by three studies, with a fourth underway. The first study identified the magnitude of the malnutrition problem upon admission to hospital and how it is undetected and undertreated (study 1). Knowledge creation resulted in an evidence-based pathway established to address care gaps (study 2) and the development of monitoring tools (study 3). The study was then adapted to local context: focus groups validated face validate the evidence-based pathway; during the final phase, study site implementation teams will continue to adapt the pathway (studies 2 and 4). Barriers to implementation were also assessed; focus groups and interviews were conducted to inform the pathway implementation (studies 1, 2, and 4). In the next step, specific interventions were selected, tailored, and implemented. In the final study in this research program, plan–do–study–act cycles will be used to make changes and to implement the pathway (study 4). To monitor knowledge use and to evaluate outcomes, audits, staff surveys, patient outcomes, etc will be used to record process evaluations

  17. Implementation of a Zebrafish Health Program in a Research Facility: A 4-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana C; Pereira, Nuno; Franco, Maysa; Vale, Liliana; Pereira, Margarida; Cunha, Mónica V; Amaro, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Rebelo, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    In the past two decades, zebrafish (Danio rerio)-based research has contributed to significant scientific advances. Still, husbandry and health programs did not evolve at the same pace, as evidenced by the absence of general guidelines. Health monitoring is essential to animal welfare, to permit animal exchanges across facilities, to contribute to robust experimental results, and for data reproducibility. In this study, we report a health program implemented in a zebrafish research facility to prevent, monitor, and control pathogen, and disease dissemination. This program includes quarantine, routine health screening of sentinels, and nonroutine screenings of retired animals and sick/moribund individuals. An extensive list of clinical signs, lesions, and pathogens was monitored based on: daily observation of fish, necropsy, histology, and bacterial culture. The results indicate that the combined analysis of sentinels with the evaluation of sick/moribund animals enables a comprehensive description not only of pathogen prevalence but also of clinical and histopathologic lesions of resident animals. The establishment of a quarantine program revealed to be effective in the reduction of Pseudoloma neurophilia frequency in the main aquaria room. Finally, characterization of the colony health status based on this multiapproach program shows a low prevalence of lesions and pathogens in the facility. PMID:27186875

  18. Implementation of a Zebrafish Health Program in a Research Facility: A 4-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Nuno; Franco, Maysa; Vale, Liliana; Pereira, Margarida; Cunha, Mónica V.; Amaro, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Rebelo, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the past two decades, zebrafish (Danio rerio)-based research has contributed to significant scientific advances. Still, husbandry and health programs did not evolve at the same pace, as evidenced by the absence of general guidelines. Health monitoring is essential to animal welfare, to permit animal exchanges across facilities, to contribute to robust experimental results, and for data reproducibility. In this study, we report a health program implemented in a zebrafish research facility to prevent, monitor, and control pathogen, and disease dissemination. This program includes quarantine, routine health screening of sentinels, and nonroutine screenings of retired animals and sick/moribund individuals. An extensive list of clinical signs, lesions, and pathogens was monitored based on: daily observation of fish, necropsy, histology, and bacterial culture. The results indicate that the combined analysis of sentinels with the evaluation of sick/moribund animals enables a comprehensive description not only of pathogen prevalence but also of clinical and histopathologic lesions of resident animals. The establishment of a quarantine program revealed to be effective in the reduction of Pseudoloma neurophilia frequency in the main aquaria room. Finally, characterization of the colony health status based on this multiapproach program shows a low prevalence of lesions and pathogens in the facility. PMID:27186875

  19. Implementation of a single quad MS detector in high-throughput transdermal research of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Veryser, Lieselotte; Taevernier, Lien; Roche, Nathalie; Blondeel, Phillip; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-11-10

    In this study, a new type of single quadrupole mass spectrometric detector was implemented in transdermal research. The local skin pharmacokinetic properties of the plant N-alkylamides (NAAs) pellitorine and anacycline, present in an Anacyclus pyrethrum extract, and spilanthol, present in a Spilanthes acmella extract were investigated. This single quad MS detection method showed great advantages compared to the traditional UV detector. The NAAs could be identified and quantified in the samples with an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-single quad MS detection system, even if they were not separated, which is a requirement when using an UV-detector. Another advantage of the UPLC-MS system is that lower limit of detection values could be obtained allowing a more accurate and precise determination of the experimental lag time in the in vitro skin permeation experiments. To conclude, this single quad MS detector coupled to UPLC is a useful analytical tool with improved performance compared to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV for biomedical-pharmaceutical purposes in transdermal research. PMID:26320078

  20. Implementation of Electronic Consent at a Biobank: An Opportunity for Precision Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Natalie T.; Mathieu, Kathleen; Hoffnagle, Alison G.; Allen, Nicole L.; Castro, Victor M.; Morash, Megan; O’Rourke, P. Pearl; Hohmann, Elizabeth L.; Herring, Neil; Bry, Lynn; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Weiss, Scott T.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the potential benefits and challenges of electronic informed consent (eIC) as a strategy for rapidly expanding the reach of large biobanks while reducing costs and potentially enhancing participant engagement. The Partners HealthCare Biobank (Partners Biobank) implemented eIC tools and processes to complement traditional recruitment strategies in June 2014. Since then, the Partners Biobank has rigorously collected and tracked a variety of metrics relating to this novel recruitment method. From June 2014 through January 2016, the Partners Biobank sent email invitations to 184,387 patients at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. During the same time period, 7078 patients provided their consent via eIC. The rate of consent of emailed patients was 3.5%, and the rate of consent of patients who log into the eIC website at Partners Biobank was 30%. Banking of biospecimens linked to electronic health records has become a critical element of genomic research and a foundation for the NIH’s Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). eIC is a feasible and potentially game-changing strategy for these large research studies that depend on patient recruitment. PMID:27294961

  1. Implementation of Electronic Consent at a Biobank: An Opportunity for Precision Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Natalie T; Mathieu, Kathleen; Hoffnagle, Alison G; Allen, Nicole L; Castro, Victor M; Morash, Megan; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Hohmann, Elizabeth L; Herring, Neil; Bry, Lynn; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Weiss, Scott T; Smoller, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the potential benefits and challenges of electronic informed consent (eIC) as a strategy for rapidly expanding the reach of large biobanks while reducing costs and potentially enhancing participant engagement. The Partners HealthCare Biobank (Partners Biobank) implemented eIC tools and processes to complement traditional recruitment strategies in June 2014. Since then, the Partners Biobank has rigorously collected and tracked a variety of metrics relating to this novel recruitment method. From June 2014 through January 2016, the Partners Biobank sent email invitations to 184,387 patients at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital. During the same time period, 7078 patients provided their consent via eIC. The rate of consent of emailed patients was 3.5%, and the rate of consent of patients who log into the eIC website at Partners Biobank was 30%. Banking of biospecimens linked to electronic health records has become a critical element of genomic research and a foundation for the NIH's Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). eIC is a feasible and potentially game-changing strategy for these large research studies that depend on patient recruitment. PMID:27294961

  2. A Coordinated Research Project on the Implementation of Nuclear Techniques to Improve Food Traceability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, Russell; Cannavan, Andrew; Zandric, Zora; Maestroni, Britt; Abrahim, Aiman

    2013-04-01

    Traceability systems play a key role in assuring a safe and reliable food supply. Analytical techniques harnessing the spatial patterns in distribution of stable isotope and trace element ratios can be used for the determination of the provenance of food. Such techniques offer the potential to enhance global trade by providing an independent means of verifying "paper" traceability systems and can also help to prove authenticity, to combat fraudulent practices, and to control adulteration, which are important issues for economic, religious or cultural reasons. To address some of the challenges that developing countries face in attempting to implement effective food traceability systems, the IAEA, through its Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, has initiated a 5-year coordinated research project involving institutes in 15 developing and developed countries (Austria, Botswana, Chile, China, France, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Uganda, UK, USA). The objective is to help in member state laboratories to establish robust analytical techniques and databases, validated to international standards, to determine the provenance of food. Nuclear techniques such as stable isotope and multi-element analysis, along with complementary methods, will be applied for the verification of food traceability systems and claims related to food origin, production, and authenticity. This integrated and multidisciplinary approach to strengthening capacity in food traceability will contribute to the effective implementation of holistic systems for food safety and control. The project focuses mainly on the development of techniques to confirm product authenticity, with several research partners also considering food safety issues. Research topics encompass determination of the geographical origin of a variety of commodities, including seed oils, rice, wine, olive oil, wheat, orange juice, fish, groundnuts, tea, pork, honey and

  3. Development and Implementation of Collaborative e-Infrastructures and Data Management for Global Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. Lee; Davis, Rowena

    2016-04-01

    An e-infrastructure that supports data-intensive, multidisciplinary research is needed to accelerate the pace of science to address 21st century global change challenges. Data discovery, access, sharing and interoperability collectively form core elements of an emerging shared vision of e-infrastructure for scientific discovery. The pace and breadth of change in information management across the data lifecycle means that no one country or institution can unilaterally provide the leadership and resources required to use data and information effectively, or needed to support a coordinated, global e-infrastructure. An 18-month long process involving ~120 experts in domain, computer, and social sciences from more than a dozen countries resulted in a formal set of recommendations that were adopted in fall, 2015 by the Belmont Forum collaboration of national science funding agencies and international bodies on what they are best suited to implement for development of an e-infrastructure in support of global change research, including: • adoption of data principles that promote a global, interoperable e-infrastructure, that can be enforced • establishment of information and data officers for coordination of global data management and e-infrastructure efforts • promotion of effective data planning and stewardship • determination of international and community best practices for adoption • development of a cross-disciplinary training curriculum on data management and curation The implementation plan is being executed under four internationally-coordinated Action Themes towards a globally organized, internationally relevant e-infrastructure and data management capability drawn from existing components, protocols, and standards. The Belmont Forum anticipates opportunities to fund additional projects to fill key gaps and to integrate best practices into an e-infrastructure to support their programs but that can also be scaled up and deployed more widely. Background

  4. Research on Scaling up Evidence-Based Instructional Practice: Developing a Sensitive Measure of the Rate of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzhardt, Jay; Greenwood, Charles R.; Abbott, Mary; Tapia, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    Few evidence-based instructional practices achieve large-scale use, often remaining only in the schools directly involved in their development. Research on scaling up effective educational practice often lacks sensitive measures of the practice's implementation and the required research protocol. This article describes how we used rate of…

  5. Implementation of a Research-Based Lab Module in a High School Chemistry Curriculum: A Study of Classroom Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilarz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For this study, a research-based lab module was implemented in two high school chemistry classes for the purpose of examining classroom dynamics throughout the process of students completing the module. A research-based lab module developed for use in undergraduate laboratories by the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) was…

  6. Cornell University remote sensing program. [selected research projects in land and water resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.; Belcher, D. J.; Mcnair, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    The major activities of the program staff from December 1, 1973 to May 31, 1974 are reported and include: (1) communication and instruction; (2) data and facilities; (3) research completed; (4) research in progress; (5) selected correspondence; (6) grant sponsored travel; and (7) seminars and newsletters. Detailed information and maps are given for the following selected projects: (1) ERTS mapping of waterways in the Tug Hill region of New York State; (2) photo-archeological investigation of Great Gully, New York; and (3) evaluation of selected highway impacts using aerial photography.

  7. Implementing Selective Waste Collection: The Articulation between Pedagogical Theory and Practice in the Pollution and Ecology Class in the Environmental Control Technical Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocas, Giselle; Gonzalez, Wania R. Coutinho; Araujo, Flavia Monteiro de Barros

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of selective waste collection in a school located on the outskirts of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The participants consisted mainly of 64 students taking an Environmental Control technical course during 2007 and 2008. By addressing selective waste collection, the pedagogical proposal aimed at: a) enabling…

  8. How faculty learn about and implement research-based instructional strategies: The case of Peer Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancy, Melissa; Henderson, Charles; Turpen, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] The lack of knowledge about how to effectively spread and sustain the use of research-based instructional strategies is currently a significant barrier to the improvement of undergraduate physics education. In this paper we address this lack of knowledge by reporting on an interview study of 35 physics faculty, of varying institution types, who were self-reported users of, former users of, or knowledgeable nonusers of the research-based instructional strategy Peer Instruction. Interview questions included in this analysis focused on the faculty's experiences, knowledge, and use of Peer Instruction, along with general questions about current and past teaching methods used by the interviewee. The primary findings include the following: (i) Faculty self-reported user status is an unreliable measure of their actual practice. (ii) Faculty generally modify specific instructional strategies and may modify out essential components. (iii) Faculty are often unaware of the essential features of an instructional strategy they claim to know about or use. (iv) Informal social interactions provide a significant communication channel in the dissemination process, in contrast to the formal avenues of workshops, papers, websites, etc., often promoted by change agents, and (v) experience with research-based strategies as a graduate student or through curriculum development work may be highly impactful. These findings indicate that educational transformation can be better facilitated by improving communication with faculty, supporting effective modification by faculty during implementation, and acknowledging and understanding the large impact of informal social interactions as a mode of dissemination.

  9. The Promise and Challenge of Practice-Research Collaborations: Guiding Principles and Strategies for Initiating, Designing, and Implementing Program Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L.; Berlin, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations,…

  10. Implementation of a new aerosol module HAM within the community Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, R.; Irannejad, P.; Feichter, J.

    2009-04-01

    Realistic simulation of direct and indirect effects of aerosols requires models where aerosols, meteorology, radiation and chemistry are coupled in a fully interactive manner. The design of the Community Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF/Chem) permit such an interactive coupling. Over the last few years, various aerosol modules have been implemented into the chemistry version of the WRF model. In this study, a new aerosol module HAM has been incorporated into the WRF/Chem modeling system. The aerosol HAM model embedded into the global ECHAM5 model was developed by Stier et al. in 2005 at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. HAM differs from the previous WRF aerosol modules in terms of the size representation, chemical composition and numerical algorithms used. It is based on a pseudo-modal approach for representation of the particle size distribution by grouping aerosols into four geometrical size classes and two types of particles mixed and insoluble. In the current implementation, aerosol HAM is coupled to the Regional Acid Deposition model version 2 (RADM2 chemical mechanism). We also used a flux-resistance method for dry deposition of particles. A high concentration episode for PM10 particles in Tehran from 23 to 29 January 2007 has been chosen and has been compared to observed near surface measurements to test the performance of the coupled HAM/WRF model. We applied a horizontal spacing of 30-km. Preliminary results show that the model captures reasonably both magnitude and diurnal variation of measured PM10 mass concentration during this episode.

  11. Discriminant content validity of a theoretical domains framework questionnaire for use in implementation research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To improve the implementation of innovations in healthcare settings, it is important to understand factors influencing healthcare professionals’ behaviors. We aimed to develop a generic questionnaire in English and in Dutch assessing the 14 domains of behavioral determinants from the revised TDF (Cane et al., 2012) that can be tailored to suit different targets, actions, contexts, and times of interest, and to investigate questionnaire items’ discriminant content validity. Methods We identified existing questionnaires including items assessing constructs within TDF domains and developed new items where needed. Nineteen judges allocated 79 items to one or more TDF domains. One-sample t-tests were used to examine the discriminant content validity of each item, i.e., whether items measured intended domains or whether items measured a combination of domains. Results We identified items judged to discriminately measure 11 out of 14 domains. Items measuring the domains Reinforcement, Goals, and Behavioral regulation were judged to measure a combination of domains. Conclusions We have developed a questionnaire in English and in Dutch able to discriminately assess the majority of TDF domains. The results partly support Cane et al.’s (2012) 14-domain validation of the TDF and suggest that Michie et al.’s (2005) 12-domain original version might be more applicable in developing a TDF-based questionnaire. The identified items provide a robust basis for developing a questionnaire to measure TDF-based determinants of healthcare professionals’ implementation behaviors to suit different targets, actions, contexts, and times. Future research should investigate the concurrent and predictive validity and reliability of such a questionnaire in practice. PMID:24423394

  12. Communities That Care, Core Elements and Context: Research of Implementation in Two Countries

    PubMed Central

    Jonkman, H. B.; Haggerty, K. P.; Steketee, M.; Fagan, A.; Hanson, K.; Hawkins, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the degree to which implementation of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention operating system was reached in 22 communities in 2 countries: the US (12 communities) and the Netherlands (10 communities). Core elements of CTC and results from two implementation measures conducted in both countries are reported here. Similarities and differences of the implementation process are discussed. PMID:19617929

  13. Conducting Video Research in the Learning Sciences: Guidance on Selection, Analysis, Technology, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Sharon J.; Pea, Roy D.; Barron, Brigid; Engle, Randi A.; Erickson, Frederick; Goldman, Ricki; Hall, Rogers; Koschmann, Timothy; Lemke, Jay L.; Sherin, Miriam Gamoran; Sherin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on expanding technical capabilities and new collaborative possibilities, we address 4 challenges for scientists who collect and use video records to conduct research in and on complex learning environments: (a) Selection: How can researchers be systematic in deciding which elements of a complex environment or extensive video corpus to…

  14. Students' Ideas and Misunderstandings of Enthalpy and Spontaneity: A Review of Selected Researches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    This study is intended to review some of the selected researches carried out on students' understandings of enthalpy and spontaneity. The review puts together the important findings of the researches, summarises the misunderstandings identified so far and the possible sources of these misunderstandings. Therefore, this study would be beneficial…

  15. Ethnic Disparities in Graduate Education: A Selective Review of Quantitative Research, Social Theory, and Quality Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Somer L.; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we analyzed research studies in the field of graduate education. In particular, we explored the issue of inequity in graduate education through three key lenses of social science analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed selected quantitative research studies that undertook a comparative examination of aggregate trends in enrollment and…

  16. Job Analysis for Human Resource Management: A Review of Selected Research and Development. Manpower Research Monograph No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michael

    The report summarizes the various job analysis techniques that have been developed, discusses their applications to selected human resource management activities, and suggests priorities for further research and developmental work. The introduction defines job analysis and discusses the applications of job analysis data, and the structure of the…

  17. Implementation of research results to prevent land degradation in viticultural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marqués Pérez, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramon; de Benito, Alejandro; Velasco, Ana

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the lack of interest of land users to establish contact with scientific institutions and their reluctance to change their traditional way to manage their soils. It is conducted in Madrid and Castilla La Mancha, Spain, where the production of wine is an important source of income. The basic research was dealing with sustainable land management in sloping vineyards to prevent soil degradation. The usual reduced tillage practice in the area is compared with different cover grasses in the inter-rows of vines. The results demonstrate that these managements are able to increase soil organic matter, improve infiltration, reduce runoff and soil loss and increase soil aggregate stability. Nevertheless a decrease in production is noticed in some permanent cover treatments. A survey to know the feasibility of implementation of this sustainable land management was conducted. Less than 5% of vine growers coming to cellars and cooperatives were willing to be interviewed. Finally 64 vine growers answered a questionnaire regarding different aspects of their environmental concerns, age, land management practices and economic situation. The majority of respondents (82%) are worried about erosion problems in their sloping vineyards. They were informed about the results of the abovementioned project but only 32% of them would change the cultivation by grasses in the inter-rows. The respondents were not old (72% below 50 years old), and the agriculture was not their first activity (69% had other different sources of income). It is remarkable that they have some misunderstandings and lack of knowledge in questions regarding soil conservation. Only 3% of them receive some kind of economic aid from the institutions to avoid land degradation. This could be related to the small or medium size of their lands as 87% of them have plots smaller than 50 ha. The extension services and policy makers have to face this situation to achieve the proper implementation of scientific

  18. A proposed model to conduct process and outcome evaluations and implementation research of child health programs in Africa using integrated community case management as an example

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Theresa; Guenther, Tanya; Oliphant, Nicholas P; Muñiz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aim To use a newly devised set of criteria to review the study design and scope of collection of process, outcomes and contextual data for evaluations and implementation research of integrated community case management (iCCM) in Sub–Saharan African. Methods We examined 24 program evaluations and implementation research studies of iCCM in sub–Saharan Africa conducted in the last 5 years (2008–2013), assessed the design used and categorized them according to whether or not they collected sufficient information to conduct process and outcome evaluations. Results Five of the 24 studies used a stepped wedge design and two were randomized control trials. The remaining 17 were quasi–experimental of which 10 had comparison areas; however, not all comparison areas had a pre and post household survey. With regard to process data, 22 of the studies collected sufficient information to report on implementation strength, and all, except one, could report on program implementation. Most common missing data elements were health facility treatments, service costs, and qualitative data to assess demand. For the measurement of program outcomes, 7 of the 24 studies had a year or less of implementation at scale before the endline survey, 6 of the household surveys did not collect point of service, 10 did not collect timeliness (care seeking within 24 hours of symptoms) and 12 did not have socioeconomic (SES) information. Among the 16 studies with comparison areas, only 5 randomly selected comparison areas, while 10 had appropriate comparison areas. Conclusions Several evaluations were done too soon after implementation, lacked information on health facility treatments, costs, demand, timeliness or SES and/or did not have a counterfactual. We propose several study designs and minimal data elements to be collected to provide sufficient information to assess whether iCCM increased timely coverage of treatment for the neediest children in a cost–efficient manner. PMID:25520799

  19. Selected marine mammals of Alaska: species accounts with research and management recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book is the result of a need seen by the Marine Mammal Commission for a current summary of the biology and status of ten species of Alaskan marine mammals, including recommendations for research and management. Its purpose is to serve as a reference and working document as conservation and management plans are developed and implemented for the ten species.

  20. Research and implementation of comprehensive situation sub-system in simulation platform of multiple UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Siliang; Huang, Siniu; Chen, Zongji

    2006-11-01

    Cooperative formation flight of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) becomes an attractive research field in recent years. The Simulation Platform of Multiple UAVs is a distributed interactive simulation environment based on High Level Architecture (HLA), which provides a universal simulation platform for the research of multiple UAVs, such as cooperative control, formation flight, mission planning, etc. The platform is composed of several nodes: Mission Control Station (MCS), Formation Control Unit (FCU), UAV Platform, Comprehensive Situation Display, 3-Dimension Display and Simulation Management. As an integral part of the simulation platform, the comprehensive situation sub-system monitors the geography environment and the situation of entities in the simulation. The sub-system is integrated into several nodes of the simulation platform: MCS, FCU and 2-Dimention Situation Display, etc. Considering generalized method and component-based rule, we design and implement comprehensive situation sub-system as well as supporting tool kits. It includes digital map walkthrough environment, map editor with Digital Elevation Model (DEM), bitmap creator, network communication module, situation display module and scenario editor module. Digital map walkthrough environment is a Geographic Information System (GIS) with specific functions, including multiple windows display, map walkthrough and data management. Map editor and bitmap creator create different type of digital map, which is suited for demands of the simulation, and generate terrain data for the UAVs to execute route planning based on DEM. Situation display module displays the situation information of entities in the simulation dynamically and timely. The system is developed without commercial GIS components, and integrated into the environment smoothly.

  1. Research and implementation of a shaking seat system for flight simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaolin; Yu, Youzhi; Shen, Weiqun; Song, Zishan

    2006-11-01

    To a helicopter the shaking seat system can simulate the vibration caused by the main rotor, tail rotor, engine, weapon firing, landing, etc. This paper focuses on the research and analysis of the shaking system of a helicopter flight simulator. The vibration model of the seat is built and the system is also developed. According to different flight states of the helicopter the vibration states of the seat are classified based on real measurement data, and the spectra of the vibration are interpolated to model the vibration of the seat. An electro-hydraulic servo system is used to drive the seat to shake along the direction that is parallel to the vertical body axis. The seat is shaken under the instructions at reference height with position close-loop control method, and the control law is PID algorithm. Running parameters of the system are configured by the software. The motional states of the shaking seat are displayed to the user through the visualization software. The main parts of the system and some key technologies of the implementation are also presented in the paper. The system can generate the special vibration environment in the helicopter flight process, and is successfully applied to the flight simulator. So the pilots' immersion feelings are increased.

  2. Development of an Informational Web Site for Recruiting Research Participants: Process, Implementation, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Kavanaugh, Karen; Hamilton, Rebekah; Klock, Susan C.; Merry, Lisa; Olshansky, Ellen; Pierce, Penny F.

    2013-01-01

    Internet-based research is increasing, yet there is little known about recruitment approaches that target the Internet. Investigators have been slow to discuss how to plan, develop, and enhance recruitment using the Internet when well-concealed or disparate populations, sensitive topics, or qualitative methods are interspersed into the aims of the study. The twofold purpose of this paper is to 1.) highlight the major steps and strategies undertaken to develop and implement an innovative web site for recruiting high-genetic-risk couples who were considering preimplantation genetic diagnosis use, and 2.) present the recruitment results and lessons learned based on enrollment, self-evaluation, and descriptive data. The web site was developed using a five-step process designed by the investigators. A significant step in the process was determining the web site objectives, which were enacted through contextual and design decisions, and also by incorporating a brief video and study logo into the web site. The recruitment results indicate that of the 22 participant couples, ~82% were recruited via the Internet versus traditional recruitment approaches (i.e., clinics, newsletters) and that the majority of couples viewed the web site prior to enrolling in the study. In conclusion, developing a web site using the five-step process can facilitate recruitment. PMID:21709545

  3. The use of market research in the implementation and evaluation of interactive voice response systems

    SciTech Connect

    Camack, M.

    1994-11-01

    With the continual drive toward reengineering in utilities` customer service organizations, the use of interactive voice response (IVR) systems, also known as voice response units or VRUs, has become more prevalent. The benefits to a utility are obvious: IVRs allow for call center consolidation, perhaps with the introduction of a toll-free, 800 telephone number; they provide for greater call handling capacity, for both normal business and for high calling volume circumstances (e.g., during power outages); and they permit call routing to specially trained representatives in major functional areas such as service connections, billing matters, and credit and collections. Unfortunately, the customer benefits of IVR technology are generally less obvious. Customers tend to have had negative experiences with one or more IVRs before they even enter a utility`s IVR system. Therefore, they come in with an IVR {open_quotes}chip on their shoulder.{close_quotes} As a result, customers` tolerance level for a utility`s IVR may be limited, and the opportunity to show customers that the system benefits them, too, may be limited to how well the IVR works from the customers` perspective the first time they use it (and initially, customers may not even be aware they are calling into an IVR). This paper will discuss several research initiatives to address the customer engineering and system evaluation of IVR systems at utility companies, along with recommended strategies (such as customer education) to implement such systems without adversely affecting customer satisfaction.

  4. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans. PMID:26892502

  5. Qualitative evaluation of the implementation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool: a reflective tool to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork using Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Smith, Tony; Ariss, Steven; Enderby, Pamela M

    2015-07-01

    Reflective practice is used increasingly to enhance team functioning and service effectiveness; however, there is little evidence of its use in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool (IMT), an evidence-based change tool designed to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork through structured team reflection. The IMT incorporates three components: an evidence-based resource guide; a reflective implementation framework based on Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation methodology; and formative and summative evaluation components. The IMT was implemented with intermediate care teams supported by independent facilitators in England. Each intervention lasted 6 months and was evaluated over a 12-month period. Data sources include interviews, a focus group with facilitators, questionnaires completed by team members and documentary feedback from structured team reports. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. The IMT was implemented with 10 teams, including 253 staff from more than 10 different disciplines. Team challenges included lack of clear vision; communication issues; limited career progression opportunities; inefficient resource use; need for role clarity and service development. The IMT successfully engaged staff in the change process, and resulted in teams developing creative strategies to address the issues identified. Participants valued dedicated time to focus on the processes of team functioning; however, some were uncomfortable with a focus on teamwork at the expense of delivering direct patient care. The IMT is a relatively low-cost, structured, reflective way to enhance team function. It empowers individuals to understand and value their own, and others' roles and responsibilities within the team; identify barriers to effective teamwork, and develop and implement appropriate solutions to these. To be successful, teams need protected time to take

  6. CNES studies for on-board implementation via HLS tools of a cloud-detection module for selective compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarero, R.; Thiebaut, C.; Dejean, Ph.; Speciel, A.

    2010-08-01

    Future CNES high resolution instruments for remote sensing missions will lead to higher data-rates because of the increase in resolution and dynamic range. For example, the ground resolution improvement has induced a data-rate multiplied by 8 from SPOT4 to SPOT5 [1] and by 28 to PLEIADES-HR [2]. Innovative "smart" compression techniques will be then required, performing different types of compression inside a scene, in order to reach higher global compression ratios while complying with image quality requirements. This socalled "selective compression", allows important compression gains by detecting and then differently compressing the regions-of-interest (ROI) and non-interest in the image (e.g. higher compression ratios are assigned to the non-interesting data). Given that most of CNES high resolution images are cloudy [1], significant mass-memory and transmission gain could be reached by just detecting and suppressing (or compressing significantly) the areas covered by clouds. Since 2007, CNES works on a cloud detection module [3] as a simplification for on-board implementation of an already existing module used on-ground for PLEIADES-HR album images [4]. The different steps of this Support Vector Machine classifier have already been analyzed, for simplification and optimization, during this on-board implementation study: reflectance computation, characteristics vector computation (based on multispectral criteria) and computation of the SVM output. In order to speed up the hardware design phase, a new approach based on HLS [5] tools is being tested for the VHDL description stage. The aim is to obtain a bit-true VDHL design directly from a high level description language as C or Matlab/Simulink [6].

  7. Geography Should Not Be Destiny: Focusing HIV/AIDS Implementation Research and Programs on Microepidemics in US Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, Annajane; Cutler, Blayne; Trooskin, Stacey; Wilson, Phill; Little, Susan; Mayer, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    African Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Within the most heavily affected cities, a few neighborhoods account for a large share of new HIV infections. Addressing racial and economic disparities in HIV infection requires an implementation program and research agenda that assess the impact of HIV prevention interventions focused on increasing HIV testing, treatment, and retention in care in the most heavily affected neighborhoods in urban areas of the United States. Neighborhood-based implementation research should evaluate programs that focus on community mobilization, media campaigns, routine testing, linkage to and retention in care, and block-by-block outreach strategies. PMID:24716570

  8. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  9. Implementing a knowledge application program for anxiety and depression in community-based primary mental health care: a multiple case study research protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depressive disorders are increasingly recognized as a health care policy priority. Reducing the treatment gap for common mental disorders requires strengthening the quality of primary mental health care. We developed a knowledge application program designed to improve the organization and delivery of care for anxiety and depression in community-based primary mental health care teams in Quebec, Canada. The principal objectives of the study are: to implement and evaluate this evidence-based knowledge application program; to examine the contextual factors associated with the selection of local quality improvement strategies; to explore barriers and facilitators associated with the implementation of local quality improvement plans; and to study the implementation of local quality monitoring strategies. Methods The research design is a mixed-methods prospective multiple case study. The main analysis unit (cases) is composed of the six multidisciplinary community-based primary mental health care teams, and each of the cases has identified at least one primary care medical clinic interested in collaborating with the implementation project. The training modules of the program are based on the Chronic Care Model, and the implementation strategies were developed according to the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services conceptual framework. Discussion The implementation of an evidence-based knowledge application program for anxiety and depression in primary care aims to improve the organization and delivery of mental health services. The uptake of evidence to improve the quality of care for common mental disorders in primary care is a complex process that requires careful consideration of the context in which innovations are introduced. The project will provide a close examination of the interplay between evidence, context and facilitation, and contribute to the understanding of factors associated with the process of

  10. Registry of Communication Research: An Identification of Selected Communication Research Projects in the Academic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elbert J., Ed.

    This Registry is designed to be a single-source reference to aid in determining the kinds of communication research in process, where it is being conducted, and by whom. The projects are categorized by one or more primary areas of communication and then as to the most applicable basic form of communication. Basic areas of communication research…

  11. Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Esplin, Andrea; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) provide primary care to low-income and uninsured patients in the United States. FQHCs are required to report annual measurements and provide evidence of improvement for quality measures; effective methods to improve quality in FQHCs are needed. Systems of Support (SOS) is a proactive, mail-based, colorectal cancer screening program that was developed and tested in an integrated health care system. The objective of this study was to adapt SOS for use in an FQHC system, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews in 2014 with organizational leadership, medical staff, and nursing staff to identify facilitators of and barriers to implementation of SOS in an FQHC system. The interview guide was based on the CFIR framework. Interview transcripts were analyzed using Template Analysis. We adapted SOS and planned implementation strategies to address identified barriers. Results Facilitators of implementation of SOS were previous quality improvement experience and engagement of clinic and administrative leadership. Barriers to implementation were a more diverse patient population, a decentralized administrative structure, and communication challenges throughout the organization. Program adaptations focused on patient instructions and educational materials as well as elimination of follow-up phone calls. Implementation strategies included early and frequent engagement with organizational leadership and a smaller pilot program before organization-wide implementation. Conclusions Use of CFIR identified facilitators of and barriers to implementation of the evidence-based colorectal cancer screening program. Program adaptations and implementation strategies based on this study may generalize to other FQHC systems that are considering implementation of a proactive, mail-based colorectal cancer screening program. PMID:26632954

  12. Urban Students Achieve When High Schools Implement Proven Practices. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Han, Lingling; Presson, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Students benefit from a year or more gain in student achievement when urban district and high school leaders commit to the implementation of the "High Schools That Work" ("HSTW") design. It is not enough to be a "HSTW" site--it is about taking effective actions to implement the design. Schools that do take action witness significant progress in…

  13. Multilevel Mechanisms of Implementation Strategies in Mental Health: Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nathaniel J

    2016-09-01

    A step toward the development of optimally effective, efficient, and feasible implementation strategies that increase evidence-based treatment integration in mental health services involves identification of the multilevel mechanisms through which these strategies influence implementation outcomes. This article (a) provides an orientation to, and rationale for, consideration of multilevel mediating mechanisms in implementation trials, and (b) systematically reviews randomized controlled trials that examined mediators of implementation strategies in mental health. Nine trials were located. Mediation-related methodological deficiencies were prevalent and no trials supported a hypothesized mediator. The most common reason was failure to engage the mediation target. Discussion focuses on directions to accelerate implementation strategy development in mental health. PMID:26474761

  14. Selected Research and Development Topics on Aerospace Communications at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Nessel, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation discusses some of the efforts on communications RD that have been performed or are currently underway at NASA Glenn Research Center. The primary purpose of this presentation is to outline some RD topics to serve as talking points for a Technical Interchange Meeting with the Ohio State University. The meeting is scheduled to take place at The ElectroScience Laboratory of the Ohio State University on February 24, 2014.

  15. From research to practice: factors affecting implementation of prospective targeted injury-detection systems.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A V; Harrison, M I; Kane, H L; Roussel, A E; Halpern, M T; Bernard, S L

    2011-06-01

    AIM This paper describes key factors that shaped implementation of prospective targeted injury-detection systems (TIDS) for adverse drug events (ADEs) and nosocomial pressure ulcers (PrU). METHODS Using case-study methodology, the authors conducted semistructured interviews with implementation champions and TIDS users at five hospitals. Interviews focused on implementation experiences, assessment of TIDS' effectiveness and utility, and plans for sustainability. The authors used content analysis techniques to compare implementation experiences within and across organisations and triangulated data for explanation and confirmation of common themes. FINDINGS Participating hospitals were more successful in implementing the low-complexity PrU-TIDS, as compared with high-complexity ADE-TIDS. This pattern reflected the greater complexity of ADE-TIDS, its higher costs and poorer alignment with existing workflows. Complexity affected the innovations' perceived usability, the time needed to learn and install the trigger systems, and their costs. Local factors affecting implementation and sustainability of both innovations included turnover affecting champions and other staff, shifting organisational priorities, changing information infrastructures, and institutional constraints on adapting existing IT to the electronic TIDS. CONCLUSIONS To facilitate implementation of complex healthcare innovations such as ADE-TIDS, staff in adopting organisations should give high priority to innovation implementation; allocate sufficient resources; effectively communicate with and involve local champions and users; and align innovations with workflows and information systems. In addition, they should monitor local factors, such as changes in organisational priorities and IT, availability of implementation staff and champions, and external regulations and constraints that may pose barriers to innovation implementation and sustainability. PMID:21292693

  16. Commercial Implementation of Ultrasonic Velocity Imaging Methods via Cooperative Agreement Between NASA Lewis Research Center and Sonix, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Whalen, Mike F.; Bodis, James R.; Martin, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the commercial implementation of ultrasonic velocity imaging methods developed and refined at NASA Lewis Research Center on the Sonix c-scan inspection system. Two velocity imaging methods were implemented: thickness-based and non-thickness-based reflector plate methods. The article demonstrates capabilities of the commercial implementation and gives the detailed operating procedures required for Sonix customers to achieve optimum velocity imaging results. This commercial implementation of velocity imaging provides a 100x speed increase in scanning and processing over the lab-based methods developed at LeRC. The significance of this cooperative effort is that the aerospace and other materials development-intensive industries which use extensive ultrasonic inspection for process control and failure analysis will now have an alternative, highly accurate imaging method commercially available.

  17. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.

    2012-01-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  18. Partnerships for the design, conduct, and analysis of effectiveness, and implementation research: experiences of the prevention science and methodology group.

    PubMed

    Brown, C Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J; Pantin, Hilda M; Gallo, Carlos G; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J; McManus, John W

    2012-07-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  19. Switching the poles in sexual and reproductive health research: implementing a research capacity-strengthening network in West and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Dossou, Jean-Paul; Assarag, Bouchra; Delamou, Alexandre; Van der Veken, Karen; Belaid, Loubna; Ouédraogo, Moctar; Khalfallah, Sonia; Aouras, Hayet; Diadhiou, Mohamed; Fassassi, Raïmi; Delvaux, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Health research capacities have been improved in Africa but still remain weak as compared to other regions of the World. To strengthen these research capacities, international collaboration and networking for knowledge and capacity transfer are needed. In this commentary, we present the Network for Scientific Support in the field of Sexual and Reproductive Health in West and North Africa, its priority research topics and discuss its implementation process. Established in January 2014, the Network aims at generating human rights and gender-based research fully carried out and driven by South based institutions. It is composed of 12 institutions including the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp (Belgium) and 11 institutions from eight Francophone West and North African countries. The key areas of interest of this network are health policies analysis and health system research in family planning, HIV prevention among vulnerable groups, quality of care and breast cancers. Since it started, seventeen research proposals based on locally relevant research questions have been developed. Among the seventeen proposals, eleven have been implemented. Several research institutions enhanced linkages with local representations of international partners such as UNFPA. The network is committed to strengthening methodological research capacities and soft skills such as fundraising, advocacy and leadership. Such competencies are strongly needed for developing an effective South-based leadership in Sexual and Reproductive Health research, and for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27502593

  20. Overcoming Barriers to Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice Concepts in Athletic Training Education: Perceptions of Select Educators

    PubMed Central

    Manspeaker, Sarah; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Context: The need to include evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts in entry-level athletic training education is evident as the profession transitions toward using evidence to inform clinical decision making. Objective: To evaluate athletic training educators' experience with implementation of EBP concepts in Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)-accredited entry-level athletic training education programs in reference to educational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Design: Qualitative interviews of emergent design with grounded theory. Setting: Undergraduate CAATE-accredited athletic training education programs. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven educators (3 men, 8 women). The average number of years teaching was 14.73 ± 7.06. Data Collection and Analysis: Interviews were conducted to evaluate perceived barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers to implementation of evidence-based concepts in the curriculum. Interviews were explored qualitatively through open and axial coding. Established themes and categories were triangulated and member checked to determine trustworthiness. Results: Educators identified 3 categories of need for EBP instruction: respect for the athletic training profession, use of EBP as part of the decision-making toolbox, and third-party reimbursement. Barriers to incorporating EBP concepts included time, role strain, knowledge, and the gap between clinical and educational practices. Suggested strategies for surmounting barriers included identifying a starting point for inclusion and approaching inclusion from a faculty perspective. Conclusions: Educators must transition toward instruction of EBP, regardless of barriers present in their academic programs, in order to maintain progress with other health professions' clinical practices and educational standards. Because today's students are tomorrow's clinicians, we need to include EBP concepts in entry-level education to promote

  1. Implementing Project Based Survey Research Skills to Grade Six ELP Students with "The Survey Toolkit" and "TinkerPlots"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Thomas, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    "Survey Toolkit Collecting Information, Analyzing Data and Writing Reports" (Walsh, 2009a) is discussed as a survey research curriculum used by the author's sixth grade students. The report describes the implementation of "The Survey Toolkit" curriculum and "TinkerPlots"[R] software to provide instruction to students learning a project based…

  2. From Testing to Productive Student Learning: Implementing Formative Assessment in Confucian-Heritage Settings. Routledge Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, David

    2010-01-01

    Research evidence indicates that formative assessment is one of the most effective ways of enhancing student learning. It is, however, difficult to implement successfully, principally because what is tested through summative assessment has such a powerful influence on teacher and student actions. This book scrutinizes the relationship between…

  3. Study of the Implementation of the Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act. Research and Evaluation Report Series 91-G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.

    The design and operations of the Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance (EDWAA) Act program in its implementation year were examined through case studies conducted in 15 states and 30 substate areas. During 6- to 8-day visits to each state, field researchers conducted discussions with state and substate respondents. States almost…

  4. Influencing Teacher Efficacy through Action Research: The Implementation of an Embedded, Standards-Based Professional Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Payne, Taisha C.

    2013-01-01

    This action research study examined the implementation and impact of a job-embedded professional development intervention that included professional learning community (PLC) sessions and individualized feedback and coaching. Participants in the study were eight high school teachers who had historically demonstrated poor classroom performance and…

  5. Defining, Conceptualizing, and Measuring Fidelity of Implementation and Its Relationship to Outcomes in K-12 Curriculum Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Education researchers are being asked to conduct rigorous, scientifically based studies of K-12 curriculum interventions; therefore, the need for measuring fidelity of implementation and empirically relating it to outcomes (the chief rationale for this review) is warranted to ensure internal and external validity. The results of this review…

  6. Children and Residential Experiences: A Comprehensive Strategy for Implementing a Research-Informed Program Model for Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Martha J.; Izzo, Charles; Nunno, Michael; Smith, Elliott G.; Endres, Thomas; Holden, Jack C.; Kuhn, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to bridge research and practice in residential care through implementing a program model titled Children and Residential Experiences (CARE). The strategy involves consulting at all levels of the organization to guide personnel to incorporate CARE evidence-based principles into daily practice, and fostering an…

  7. Attitudes of North Dakota Implement Dealership Managers towards a Continuing Management Education Program. Report of the Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleene, Marvin D.; Priebe, Donald W.

    Conducted as part of a Farm Management Education Research and Development Project which was examining the use of variations of the Farm Management Education Program in meeting the managerial needs of agribusinesses, the descriptive study reported here was done to determine attitudes of 359 farm implement dealership managers in North Dakota towards…

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Dissertation Research on the Relationship between Professional Learning Community Implementation and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Susan McClendon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of dissertation research that examined the implementation of professional learning communities (PLCs) and student achievement in preK-12 schools. An exhaustive search for such unpublished studies was conducted using the following criteria: 1) the studies were available on dissertation…

  9. Translating Research to Practice: Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Effective Off-Campus Party Intervention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on overcoming barriers in implementing effective off-campus party intervention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Confronting the Problems Associated With Off-Campus Parties With Evidence-Based Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Overview of Research on Effective Off-Campus Party…

  10. Designing and Implementing a PBL Course on Educational Digital Video Production: Lessons Learned from a Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Paivi

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a design-based research (DBR) process for designing, implementing, and refining a problem-based learning (PBL) course on educational digital video (DV) use and production at the University of Lapland's Faculty of Education. The study focuses on the students' learning processes and outcomes from the viewpoint of meaningful…

  11. Research-Practice Collaboration in NYC: Evaluating the Implementation and Impact of the Expanded Success Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, James; Nathanson, Lori; Villavicencio, Adriana; Duval, John

    2012-01-01

    The Research Alliance for New York City Schools is committed to conducting rigorous, non-partisan research studies on topics that matter to the city's public schools. One of the core functions of the Research Alliance is to conduct research in collaboration with other researchers at NYU, at other universities, and at other organizations across the…

  12. Role of "external facilitation" in implementation of research findings: a qualitative evaluation of facilitation experiences in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Legro, Marcia W; Rycroft-Malone, Joanne; Bowman, Candice; Curran, Geoffrey; Guihan, Marylou; Hagedorn, Hildi; Pineros, Sandra; Wallace, Carolyn M

    2006-01-01

    Background Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects. Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Methods A post-hoc evaluation was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews to examine the concept of facilitation across several multi-site QUERI implementation studies. The interview process is based on a technique developed in the field of education, which systematically enhances learning through experience by stimulating recall and reflection regarding past complex activities. An iterative content analysis approach relative to a set of conceptually-based interview questions was used for data analysis. Findings Findings suggest that facilitation, within an implementation study initiated by a central change agency, is a deliberate and valued process of interactive problem solving and support that occurs in the context of a recognized need for improvement and a supportive interpersonal relationship. Facilitation was described primarily as a distinct role with a number of potentially crucial behaviors and activities. Data further suggest that external facilitators were likely to use or integrate other

  13. Implementing guidelines on reporting research using animals (ARRIVE etc.): new requirements for publication in BJP.

    PubMed

    McGrath, John C; Lilley, Elliot

    2015-07-01

    The ARRIVE guidelines have been implemented in BJP for 4 years with the aim of increasing transparency in reporting experiments involving animals. BJP has assessed our success in implementing them and concluded that we could do better. This editorial discusses the issues and explains how we are changing our requirements for authors to report their findings in experiments involving animals. This is one of a series of editorials discussing updates to the BJP Instructions to Authors. PMID:25964986

  14. Health care informatics research implementation of the VA-DHCP Spanish version for Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Samper, R.; Marin, C. J.; Ospina, J. A.; Varela, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The VA DHCP, hospital computer program represents an integral solution to the complex clinical and administrative functions of any hospital world wide. Developed by the Department of Veterans Administration, it has until lately run exclusively in mainframe platforms. The recent implementation in PCs opens the opportunity for use in Latinamerica. Detailed description of the strategy for Spanish, local implementation in Colombia is made. PMID:1482994

  15. Research in advanced formal theorem-proving techniques. [design and implementation of computer languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, B.; Fikes, R.; Waldinger, R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are summarised of a project aimed at the design and implementation of computer languages to aid in expressing problem solving procedures in several areas of artificial intelligence including automatic programming, theorem proving, and robot planning. The principal results of the project were the design and implementation of two complete systems, QA4 and QLISP, and their preliminary experimental use. The various applications of both QA4 and QLISP are given.

  16. Educational Research with Real-World Data: Reducing Selection Bias with Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    Often it is infeasible or unethical to use random assignment in educational settings to study important constructs and questions. Hence, educational research often uses observational data, such as large-scale secondary data sets and state and school district data, and quasi-experimental designs. One method of reducing selection bias in estimations…

  17. Research and Trends in the Studies of Homeschooling Practices: A Review on Selected Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Khairul Azhar; Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The practice of homeschooling still receives contrasting responses on its relevancy and effectiveness. The current study is aimed to map the trends in the selected eleven studies from various educational journals. The analysis focuses on mapping the trends on: a) research settings, b) target sample, c) method or instrument used, d) common focus or…

  18. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  19. A Multidisciplinary Research Team Approach to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) System Selection. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Ken; And Others

    A multidisciplinary research team was assembled to review existing computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems for the purpose of enabling staff in the Design Drafting Department at Linn Technical College (Missouri) to select the best system out of the many CAD systems in existence. During the initial stage of the evaluation project, researchers…

  20. Research on the Textbook Selection Process in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review published research literature about procedures used to select textbooks in the USA. The contents of books, collected works, reports and journal articles were analysed, and summaries of the contents were then organised chronologically to present a commentary on the topic. The results showed that procedures…

  1. Language Testing Research. Selected Papers from the Colloquium (Monterey, California, February 27-28, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kathleen M., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 10 selected conference papers report the results of language testing research. Titles and authors are: "Computerized Adaptive Language Testing: A Spanish Placement Exam" (Jerry W. Larson); "Utilizing Rasch Analysis to Detect Cheating on Language Examinations" (Harold S. Madsen); "Scalar Analysis of Composition Ratings" (Grant…

  2. Using Instrumental Variables to Account for Selection Effects in Research on First-Year Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Hansen, Michele J.; Lin, Ching-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The widespread popularity of programs for first-year students is due, in large part, to studies showing that participation in first-year programs is significantly related to students' academic success. Because students choose to participate in first-year programs, self-selection effects prevent researchers from making causal claims about the…

  3. Using Instrumental Variables to Account for Selection Effects in Research on First-Year Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Hansen, Michele J.; Lin, Ching-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The widespread popularity of programs for first-year students is due, in large part, to studies showing that participation in first-year programs is significantly related to students' academic success. Because students choose to participate in first-year programs, self-selection effects prevent researchers from making causal claims about the…

  4. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide 90 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Margaret

    This research guide presents a selected bibliography of federal government publications about the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). These documents are listed in five categories: (1) Bibliographies (7); (2) Congressional Publications (69 hearings and reports); (3) Executive Branch Publications (43 reports); (4) Federal Government…

  5. The long view: A selective review of 40 years of coccidiosis research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This selective review of 40 years of coccidiosis research is one of a number being written on important diseases of poultry to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the birth of Avian Pathology, the journal of the World Veterinary Poultry Association, and is written for the non-specialist. Our intention...

  6. RESEARCH TOWARDS DEVELOPING METHODS FOR SELECTED PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) ADAPTED FOR BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development, standardization, and validation of analytical methods provides state-of-the-science

    techniques to evaluate the presence, or absence, of select PPCPs in biosolids. This research

    provides the approaches, methods, and tools to assess the exposures and redu...

  7. [Current research situation of H2S selective catalytic oxidation technologies and catalysts].

    PubMed

    Hao, Zheng-ping; Dou, Guang-yu; Zhang, Xin; Qu, Si-qiu

    2012-08-01

    This review summarizes and discusses different selective catalytic oxidation technologies and various catalysts for removing H2S, the undesirable byproduct of the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) processing. Currently the selective oxidation technologies used include Superclaus, Euroclaus, Clinsulf-Do, BSR/Hi-Activity, Selectox and Modop techniques, which have various characteristics and application areas. Catalysts for H2S selective oxidation mainly contain the following systems: carbon, supported SiC, zeolite, oxide, and pillared clay. Former studies focused on carbon and oxide systems. The research interest on zeolite system decreased in recent years, while SiC is regarded as a typical support with great potential for this reaction and continues to be attractive. Pillared clay system is at the preliminary research stage, and is still far from practical application. PMID:23213923

  8. Leveraging the Zachman framework implementation using action - research methodology - a case study: aligning the enterprise architecture and the business goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Juan Manuel; Romero, David; Espadas, Javier; Molina, Arturo

    2013-02-01

    With the emergence of new enterprise models, such as technology-based enterprises, and the large quantity of information generated through technological advances, the Zachman framework continues to represent a modelling tool of great utility and value to construct an enterprise architecture (EA) that can integrate and align the IT infrastructure and business goals. Nevertheless, implementing an EA requires an important effort within an enterprise. Small technology-based enterprises and start-ups can take advantage of EAs and frameworks but, because these enterprises have limited resources to allocate for this task, an enterprise framework implementation is not feasible in most cases. This article proposes a new methodology based on action-research for the implementation of the business, system and technology models of the Zachman framework to assist and facilitate its implementation. Following the explanation of cycles of the proposed methodology, a case study is presented to illustrate the results of implementing the Zachman framework in a technology-based enterprise: PyME CREATIVA, using action-research approach.

  9. Opportunities and Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research Career Development: Implementation of a Women’s Health Research Training Program

    PubMed Central

    DOMINO, STEVEN E.; SMITH, YOLANDA R.; JOHNSON, TIMOTHY R.B.

    2007-01-01

    A key component of the National Institutes of Health Roadmap for Medical Research is the development of interdisciplinary research teams. How best to teach and foster interdisciplinary research skills has not been determined. An effort at promoting interdisciplinary research was initiated by the Office of Research on Women’s Health at NIH in 1999. The following year, twelve academic centers were funded to support 56 scholar positions for two to five years under the acronym “BIRCWH: Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health.” A second cohort of twelve centers, called BIRCWH II, was funded in 2002. In this article, the authors present the experience of the University of Michigan BIRCWH program including a practical approach to dealing with the challenges and opportunities of interdisciplinary research training. Scholars are mentored not only by their primary research advisor, but by a three person mentor team as well as by their peers. All scholars and a core of supportive faculty meet regularly to discuss interdisciplinary research career development and approaches to apply knowledge in new ways. Of the original cohort of 10 scholars at the University of Michigan, 7 have achieved independent research funding. Challenges include arranging times to meet, developing a common language and knowledge base, dealing proactively with expectations and misunderstandings, focusing on a conceptual model, and providing timely feedback. PMID:17388742

  10. IMPLEMENTATION AND VALIDATION OF STATISTICAL TESTS IN RESEARCH'S SOFTWARE HELPING DATA COLLECTION AND PROTOCOLS ANALYSIS IN SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    KURETZKI, Carlos Henrique; CAMPOS, Antônio Carlos Ligocki; MALAFAIA, Osvaldo; SOARES, Sandramara Scandelari Kusano de Paula; TENÓRIO, Sérgio Bernardo; TIMI, Jorge Rufino Ribas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of information technology is often applied in healthcare. With regard to scientific research, the SINPE(c) - Integrated Electronic Protocols was created as a tool to support researchers, offering clinical data standardization. By the time, SINPE(c) lacked statistical tests obtained by automatic analysis. Aim: Add to SINPE(c) features for automatic realization of the main statistical methods used in medicine . Methods: The study was divided into four topics: check the interest of users towards the implementation of the tests; search the frequency of their use in health care; carry out the implementation; and validate the results with researchers and their protocols. It was applied in a group of users of this software in their thesis in the strict sensu master and doctorate degrees in one postgraduate program in surgery. To assess the reliability of the statistics was compared the data obtained both automatically by SINPE(c) as manually held by a professional in statistics with experience with this type of study. Results: There was concern for the use of automatic statistical tests, with good acceptance. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Fisher and t-Student were considered as tests frequently used by participants in medical studies. These methods have been implemented and thereafter approved as expected. Conclusion: The incorporation of the automatic SINPE(c) Statistical Analysis was shown to be reliable and equal to the manually done, validating its use as a research tool for medical research. PMID:27120732

  11. The Launch of the Philadelphia Education Research Consortium: Lessons Learned from the First Year of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The Philadelphia Education Research Consortium (PERC) was launched in July 2014 as an innovative place-based consortium of educational research partners from multiple sectors. Its primary objective is to provide research and analyses on some of the city's most pressing education issues. As such, PERC's research agenda is driven by both traditional…

  12. Implementation of the CUAHSI information system for regional hydrological research and workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaets, Andrey; Gartsman, Boris; Bugaets, Nadezhda; Krasnopeyev, Sergey; Krasnopeyeva, Tatyana; Sokolov, Oleg; Gonchukov, Leonid

    2013-04-01

    Environmental research and education have become increasingly data-intensive as a result of the proliferation of digital technologies, instrumentation, and pervasive networks through which data are collected, generated, shared, and analyzed. Over the next decade, it is likely that science and engineering research will produce more scientific data than has been created over the whole of human history (Cox et al., 2006). Successful using these data to achieve new scientific breakthroughs depends on the ability to access, organize, integrate, and analyze these large datasets. The new project of PGI FEB RAS (http://tig.dvo.ru), FERHRI (www.ferhri.org) and Primgidromet (www.primgidromet.ru) is focused on creation of an open unified hydrological information system according to the international standards to support hydrological investigation, water management and forecasts systems. Within the hydrologic science community, the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (http://his.cuahsi.org) has been developing a distributed network of data sources and functions that are integrated using web services and that provide access to data, tools, and models that enable synthesis, visualization, and evaluation of hydrologic system behavior. Based on the top of CUAHSI technologies two first template databases were developed for primary datasets of special observations on experimental basins in the Far East Region of Russia. The first database contains data of special observation performed on the former (1957-1994) Primorskaya Water-Balance Station (1500 km2). Measurements were carried out on 20 hydrological and 40 rain gauging station and were published as special series but only as hardcopy books. Database provides raw data from loggers with hourly and daily time support. The second database called «FarEastHydro» provides published standard daily measurement performed at Roshydromet observation network (200 hydrological and meteorological

  13. Implementation of the Enhanced Flight Termination System at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodology, requirements, tests, and results of the implementation of the current operating capability for the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). The implementation involves the development of the EFTS at NASA DFRC starting from the requirements to system safety review to full end to end system testing, and concluding with the acceptance of the system as an operational system. The paper discusses the first operational usage and subsequent flight utilizing EFTS successfully.

  14. Conflicts of Interest, Selective Inertia, and Research Malpractice in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Unholy Trinity

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Vance W.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been paid to conflicts of interest in medical research, and the Institute of Medicine has called for more research into this important area. One research question that has not received sufficient attention concerns the mechanisms of action by which conflicts of interest can result in biased and/or flawed research. What discretion do conflicted researchers have to sway the results one way or the other? We address this issue from the perspective of selective inertia, or an unnatural selection of research methods based on which are most likely to establish the preferred conclusions, rather than on which are most valid. In many cases it is abundantly clear that a method that is not being used in practice is superior to the one that is being used in practice, at least from the perspective of validity, and that it is only inertia, as opposed to any serious suggestion that the incumbent method is superior (or even comparable), that keeps the inferior procedure in use, to the exclusion of the superior one. By focusing on these flawed research methods we can go beyond statements of potential harm from real conflicts of interest, and can more directly assess actual (not potential) harm. PMID:25150846

  15. Selected Proceedings from the International Conference on the Career Development of Handicapped Individuals: Program Implementation. Volume 2 (3rd, Dallas, TX, November 19-21, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaska, Charles J., Ed.

    The document contains 16 papers on program implementation in the career development of the handicapped, and is one of three volumes of selected papers presented at a November, 1981, international conference on the career development of handicapped individuals. Papers have the following titles and authors: "A Career Education Materials Development…

  16. All That Money and for What Purpose? Examining Selected State Departments' of Education Accountability for Implementation, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Supplemental Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Bethany A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the accountability of selected state departments of education on how they implemented, monitored, and evaluated Supplemental Education Services (SES). No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requires low-performing Title I schools to use federal funds to extend the school day for at-risk children by providing SES afterschool programs. This…

  17. 34 CFR 662.20 - How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellow selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research... DISSERTATION RESEARCH ABROAD FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Selection of Fellows § 662.20 How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellow selected? (a) The Secretary considers applications for fellowships...

  18. 34 CFR 662.20 - How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellow selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research... DISSERTATION RESEARCH ABROAD FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Selection of Fellows § 662.20 How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellow selected? (a) The Secretary considers applications for fellowships...

  19. 34 CFR 662.20 - How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellow selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research... DISSERTATION RESEARCH ABROAD FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Selection of Fellows § 662.20 How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellow selected? (a) The Secretary considers applications for fellowships...

  20. 34 CFR 662.20 - How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellow selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research... DISSERTATION RESEARCH ABROAD FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Selection of Fellows § 662.20 How is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellow selected? (a) The Secretary considers applications for fellowships...

  1. [Problems in primary and secondary selection of personnel for scientific research].

    PubMed

    Berić, B M

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his own observations and reflections about the problems which appear with primary and secondary selection and election, in other words, with the selection, election and reelection of candidates, meaning personnel for scientific-research work at institutes and clinics of medical faculties in our country. He is in favor of the introduction of unique, agreed on, scientific and professional criteria, and with that, their strict obeying, without the influence of para-scientific factors, with the elimination of the attempts of such negative occurrences and attempted activities. In the process of secondary selection (reelection) the author recommends the strict obedience of principles of expertly proven scientific and professional qualities of the candidate, with giving priority and propulsive direction to the young, contemporarily educated and efficient workers in scientific research, and the principled elimination from institutes and clinics of such people which have not, up to now, actually proven themselves in the scientific and professional field. With this, broad spaces open for the constant selection of new young personnel and the removal of the insufficiently qualified "plethora" which blocks the further development and efficient work of scientific-research institutions at medical faculties. PMID:2092174

  2. Adopting Best Practices from Team Science in a Healthcare Improvement Research Network: The Impact on Dissemination and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kathleen R.; Patel, Darpan I.

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare is a complex adaptive system, and efforts to improve through the implementation of best practice are well served by various interacting disciplines within the system. As a transdisciplinary model is new to clinicians, an infrastructure that creates academic-practice partnerships and builds capacity for scientific collaboration is necessary to test, spread, and implement improvement strategies. This paper describes the adoption of best practices from the science of team science in a healthcare improvement research network and the impact on conducting a large-scale network study. Key components of the research network infrastructure were mapped to a team science framework and evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and impact on a national study of nursing operations. Results from this study revealed an effective integration of the team science principles which facilitated the rapid collection of a large dataset. Implications of this study support a collaborative model for improvement research and stress a need for future research and funding to further evaluate the impact on dissemination and implementation. PMID:23577246

  3. Assessing the flexibility of research-based instructional strategies: Implementing tutorials in introductory physics in the lecture environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Boudreaux, Andrew; Heins, Dustin

    2014-03-01

    Materials from Tutorials in Introductory Physics, originally designed and implemented by the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington, were used in modified form as interactive lectures under conditions significantly different from those suggested by the curriculum developers. Student learning was assessed using tasks drawn from the physics education research literature. Use of tutorials in the interactive lecture format yielded gains in student understanding comparable to those obtained through the canonical tutorial implementation at the University of Washington, suggesting that student engagement with the intellectual steps laid out in the tutorials, rather than the specific strategies used in facilitating such engagement, plays the central role in promoting student learning. We describe the implementation details and assessment of student learning for two different tutorials: one focused on mechanical waves, used at North Dakota State University, and one on Galilean relativity, used at Western Washington University. Also discussed are factors that may limit the generalizability of the results.

  4. Definition of experiments and instruments for a communication/navigation research laboratory. Volume 2: Experiment selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The selection and definition of candidate experiments and the associated experiment instrumentation requirements are described. Information is presented that addresses the following study objectives: (1) determine specific research and technology needs in the comm/nav field through a survey of the scientific/technical community; (2) develop manned low earth orbit space screening criteria and compile lists of potential candidate experiments; (3) in Blue Book format, define and describe selected candidate experiments in sufficient detail to develop laboratory configuration designs and layouts; and (4) develop experiment time phasing criteria and recommend a payload for sortie can/early laboratory missions.

  5. INFORMATION: Special Report on "Selected Department of Energy Program Efforts to Implement the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    number of risks shared in common. These included the mechanical and substantive requirements related to the award and distribution of funds; program and project performance monitoring; and, program and project execution activities. In particular, the offices self-identified common risks such as: (1) The inability to award and distribute funds in a timely manner to achieve the goals of the Recovery Act; (2) The sufficiency of monitoring procedures and resources to, among other things, prevent and detect fraud, waste and abuse throughout the performance period of financial assistance awards and contracts; and (3) The inherent cost, schedule and performance risks associated with first-of-a-kind, innovative research and demonstration projects. Our review confirmed that the Department had begun to implement a number of strategies designed to mitigate these and other program-specific risks. Our testing, however, identified challenges to the effective implementation of these mitigation strategies that need to be addressed if the Department is to meet the goals and objectives established by the Recovery Act. At the time of our review: (1) Program staffing resources, critical to the success of all other mitigation strategies, remained inadequate both in numbers and qualifications (certifications and training) for positions in procurement and acquisition, project management, and monitoring and oversight functions; (2) Performance measures for achieving Recovery Act goals such as distributing funds in an expeditious manner had not always been established and included in performance plans, and, in financial assistance and contract documents; and (3) Programs had not consistently demonstrated that previously reported deficiencies, identified through audits, inspections, investigations and other oversight activities, had been considered in designing mitigation strategies for the Recovery Act related risks. As we noted in our Special Report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

  6. A critical synthesis of literature on the promoting action on research implementation in health services (PARIHS) framework

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework, or PARIHS, is a conceptual framework that posits key, interacting elements that influence successful implementation of evidence-based practices. It has been widely cited and used as the basis for empirical work; however, there has not yet been a literature review to examine how the framework has been used in implementation projects and research. The purpose of the present article was to critically review and synthesize the literature on PARIHS to understand how it has been used and operationalized, and to highlight its strengths and limitations. Methods We conducted a qualitative, critical synthesis of peer-reviewed PARIHS literature published through March 2009. We synthesized findings through a three-step process using semi-structured data abstraction tools and group consensus. Results Twenty-four articles met our inclusion criteria: six core concept articles from original PARIHS authors, and eighteen empirical articles ranging from case reports to quantitative studies. Empirical articles generally used PARIHS as an organizing framework for analyses. No studies used PARIHS prospectively to design implementation strategies, and there was generally a lack of detail about how variables were measured or mapped, or how conclusions were derived. Several studies used findings to comment on the framework in ways that could help refine or validate it. The primary issue identified with the framework was a need for greater conceptual clarity regarding the definition of sub-elements and the nature of dynamic relationships. Strengths identified included its flexibility, intuitive appeal, explicit acknowledgement of the outcome of 'successful implementation,' and a more expansive view of what can and should constitute 'evidence.' Conclusions While we found studies reporting empirical support for PARIHS, the single greatest need for this and other implementation models is rigorous

  7. Some Aspects of the Implementation of the Principle of Transparency in Russian Universities: Research, Experience, Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egorov, Evgeny Evgenievich; Lebedev?, Tatiana Evgenievna; Bulganina, Svetlana Viktorovna; Vasilyeva, Lyudmila Ivanovna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify achieved successes, existing gaps and possible prospects of implementing the principle of transparency by Russian universities. It was focused upon the information transparency of educational activities from the perspective of legal requirements and interests of applicants and university students. The analysis…

  8. Commentary: Implementing Social-Emotional and Academic Innovations--Reflections, Reactions, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2003-01-01

    The article "Implementation, Sustainability, and Scaling Up of Social-Emotional and Academic Innovations in Public Schools" by Elias, Zins, Graczyk, and Weissberg (2003) is a thought-provoking contribution, and one that begs for more application. Some of the points the authors raise have been articulated in the school and clinical evidence-based…

  9. The Development, Implementation and Initial Research Findings of 'Science and Technology for All' in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Hofstein, Avi

    Reform in science and technology education started in Israel in 1992 with the release of the "Tomorrow '98 Report." The report featured 43 recommendations for new programs, special projects, changes, and improvements that are both educational and structural in the areas of curriculum development and implementation, pedagogy of science, and…

  10. Research and implementation of geographic information service mode in digital home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, B.; Liu, K.; Gan, Y.; Zhong, M.

    2014-04-01

    Accompanying infrastructure improvements and networking technology innovation, the development of digital home service industry has gotten more and more attention. However, the digital home service levels have not sufficiently met rising demand from users. Therefore, it is urgent to propose and develop new service modes for the digital home. Geographic information services can provide various spatial information services such as map search, spatial information query. It has become an inevitable trend to implement geographic information services in the digital home. This paper proposes three new geographic information services modes for the digital home after sufficient requirement analysis: pushed information service mode, interactive information service mode, personalized information service mode. The key technologies to implement geographic information services on digital televisions are studied, involving digital television middleware technology, network transmission technology and visualization technology. According to the service modes' characteristics mentioned above, a service system in the digital home is established to implement geographic information services on the basis of digital television. The implementation of geographic information services in the digital home not only enriches the digital home services content, but also promotes geographic information from specialization to public popularity.

  11. Research and Teaching: Implementation of Interactive Engagement Teaching Methods in a Physical Oceanography Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiner, Louis E.; Gilman, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the effects of increased faculty-student engagement on student learning, success rates, and perceptions in a Physical Oceanography course. The study separately implemented two teaching methods that had been shown to be successful in a different discipline, introductory physics. These methods were the use of interactive…

  12. Follow-Up Study of Rural Schools Implementing CSR Programs in the Southwest. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    Case studies of five small and isolated rural schools in the Southwest focused on their ability to fully implement Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSR) programs over the 3-year period of their federal grants. Data were gathered via interviews with school personnel, classroom observations, document reviews, and telephone interviews with…

  13. Selection Mechanisms Underlying High Impact Biomedical Research - A Qualitative Analysis and Causal Model

    PubMed Central

    Zelko, Hilary; Zammar, Guilherme Roberto; Bonilauri Ferreira, Ana Paula; Phadtare, Amruta; Shah, Jatin; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Background Although scientific innovation has been a long-standing topic of interest for historians, philosophers and cognitive scientists, few studies in biomedical research have examined from researchers' perspectives how high impact publications are developed and why they are consistently produced by a small group of researchers. Our objective was therefore to interview a group of researchers with a track record of high impact publications to explore what mechanism they believe contribute to the generation of high impact publications. Methodology/Principal Findings Researchers were located in universities all over the globe and interviews were conducted by phone. All interviews were transcribed using standard qualitative methods. A Grounded Theory approach was used to code each transcript, later aggregating concept and categories into overarching explanation model. The model was then translated into a System Dynamics mathematical model to represent its structure and behavior. Five emerging themes were found in our study. First, researchers used heuristics or rules of thumb that came naturally to them. Second, these heuristics were reinforced by positive feedback from their peers and mentors. Third, good communication skills allowed researchers to provide feedback to their peers, thus closing a positive feedback loop. Fourth, researchers exhibited a number of psychological attributes such as curiosity or open-mindedness that constantly motivated them, even when faced with discouraging situations. Fifth, the system is dominated by randomness and serendipity and is far from a linear and predictable environment. Some researchers, however, took advantage of this randomness by incorporating mechanisms that would allow them to benefit from random findings. The aggregation of these themes into a policy model represented the overall expected behavior of publications and their impact achieved by high impact researchers. Conclusions The proposed selection mechanism

  14. Participatory development and implementation of a community research workshop: Experiences from a community based participatory research (CBPR) partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While community based participatory research (CBPR) principles stress the importance of "equitable partnerships" and an "empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities", descriptions of actual projects often cite the challenges confronted in academic–-community partnerships...

  15. Reconciling research and implementation in micro health insurance experiments in India: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Microinsurance or Community-Based Health Insurance is a promising healthcare financing mechanism, which is increasingly applied to aid rural poor persons in low-income countries. Robust empirical evidence on the causal relations between Community-Based Health Insurance and healthcare utilisation, financial protection and other areas is scarce and necessary. This paper contains a discussion of the research design of three Cluster Randomised Controlled Trials in India to measure the impact of Community-Based Health Insurance on several outcomes. Methods/Design Each trial sets up a Community-Based Health Insurance scheme among a group of micro-finance affiliate families. Villages are grouped into clusters which are congruous with pre-existing social groupings. These clusters are randomly assigned to one of three waves of implementation, ensuring the entire population is offered Community-Based Health Insurance by the end of the experiment. Each wave of treatment is preceded by a round of mixed methods evaluation, with quantitative, qualitative and spatial evidence on impact collected. Improving upon practices in published Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial literature, we detail how research design decisions have ensured that both the households offered insurance and the implementers of the Community-Based Health Insurance scheme operate in an environment replicating a non-experimental implementation. Discussion When a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial involves randomizing within a community, generating adequate and valid conclusions requires that the research design must be made congruous with social structures within the target population, to ensure that such trials are conducted in an implementing environment which is a suitable analogue to that of a non-experimental implementing environment. PMID:21988774

  16. Interventions in Organizational and Community Context: A Framework for Building Evidence on Dissemination and Implementation in Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Peter; Meredith, Lisa S.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Sherbourne, Cathy D.; Wells, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    The effective dissemination and implementation of evidence-based health interventions within community settings is an important cornerstone to expanding the availability of quality health and mental health services. Yet it has proven a challenging task for both research and community stakeholders. This paper presents the current framework developed by the UCLA/RAND NIMH Center to address this research-to-practice gap by: 1) providing a theoretically-grounded understanding of the multi-layered nature of community and healthcare contexts and the mechanisms by which new practices and programs diffuse within these settings; 2) distinguishing among key components of the diffusion process—including contextual factors, adoption, implementation, and sustainment of interventions—showing how evaluation of each is necessary to explain the course of dissemination and outcomes for individual and organizational stakeholders; 3) facilitating the identification of new strategies for adapting, disseminating, and implementing relatively complex, evidence-based healthcare and improvement interventions, particularly using a community-based, participatory approach; and 4) enhancing the ability to meaningfully generalize findings across varied interventions and settings to build an evidence base on successful dissemination and implementation strategies. PMID:17990095

  17. Mixed-Methods Research in a Complex Multisite VA Health Services Study: Variations in the Implementation and Characteristics of Chiropractic Services in VA.

    PubMed

    Khorsan, Raheleh; Cohen, Angela B; Lisi, Anthony J; Smith, Monica M; Delevan, Deborah; Armstrong, Courtney; Mittman, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the quality and benefits of newly established chiropractic services represents an important policy and practice goal for the US Department of Veterans Affairs' healthcare system. Understanding the implementation process and characteristics of new chiropractic clinics and the determinants and consequences of these processes and characteristics is a critical first step in guiding quality improvement. This paper reports insights and lessons learned regarding the successful application of mixed methods research approaches-insights derived from a study of chiropractic clinic implementation and characteristics, Variations in the Implementation and Characteristics of Chiropractic Services in VA (VICCS). Challenges and solutions are presented in areas ranging from selection and recruitment of sites and participants to the collection and analysis of varied data sources. The VICCS study illustrates the importance of several factors in successful mixed-methods approaches, including (1) the importance of a formal, fully developed logic model to identify and link data sources, variables, and outcomes of interest to the study's analysis plan and its data collection instruments and codebook and (2) ensuring that data collection methods, including mixed-methods, match study aims. Overall, successful application of a mixed-methods approach requires careful planning, frequent trade-offs, and complex coding and analysis. PMID:24489589

  18. Media Competition Implementation for the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD): Adoption and Reach

    PubMed Central

    Criss, Shaniece; Cheung, Lilian; Giles, Catherine; Gortmaker, Steven; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD) was a multi-level, multi-sector community intervention with a media competition component to provide an overarching synergy and promote awareness of target behaviors to reduce childhood obesity. Students participating in the media competition were tasked with developing videos, song/rap lyrics, and artwork that reflected the goals. The aim of this study is to document the process used to develop and implement the media competition along with its reach and adoption. An adapted version of Neta and colleagues’ 2015 framework on dissemination and implementation was used to summarize the process by which the media competition was developed and implemented. Adoption was defined by whether eligible schools or afterschool programs decided to implement the media competition. Reach was defined by student participation rates within schools/programs and the number of votes cast for the finalists on the coalition website and students’ paper ballots. A total of 595 students participated in the media competition from 18 school and afterschool programs in two communities. Adoption of the media competitions ranged from 22% to 100% in programs and reach ranged from 3% to 33% of the student population. The documentation of the implementation should contribute to the replication of the media competition. PMID:27058549

  19. Media Competition Implementation for the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD): Adoption and Reach.

    PubMed

    Criss, Shaniece; Cheung, Lilian; Giles, Catherine; Gortmaker, Steven; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD) was a multi-level, multi-sector community intervention with a media competition component to provide an overarching synergy and promote awareness of target behaviors to reduce childhood obesity. Students participating in the media competition were tasked with developing videos, song/rap lyrics, and artwork that reflected the goals. The aim of this study is to document the process used to develop and implement the media competition along with its reach and adoption. An adapted version of Neta and colleagues' 2015 framework on dissemination and implementation was used to summarize the process by which the media competition was developed and implemented. Adoption was defined by whether eligible schools or afterschool programs decided to implement the media competition. Reach was defined by student participation rates within schools/programs and the number of votes cast for the finalists on the coalition website and students' paper ballots. A total of 595 students participated in the media competition from 18 school and afterschool programs in two communities. Adoption of the media competitions ranged from 22% to 100% in programs and reach ranged from 3% to 33% of the student population. The documentation of the implementation should contribute to the replication of the media competition. PMID:27058549

  20. Measuring Treatment Differentiation for Implementation Research: The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Revised Strategies Scale

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Smith, Meghan M.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Weisz, John R.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Observational measures to assess implementation integrity (the extent to which components of an evidence-based treatment are delivered as intended) are needed. We evaluated the reliability of the scores and the validity of the score interpretations for the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy – Revised Strategies scale (TPOCS-RS; McLeod, 2010) and assessed the potential of the TPOCS-RS to assess treatment differentiation, a component of implementation integrity. The TPOCS-RS includes five theory-based subscales (Cognitive, Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Client-Centered, Family). Using the TPOCS-RS, coders independently rated 954 sessions conducted with 89 children (M age = 10.56, SD = 2.00; aged 7–15 years; 65.20% Caucasian) diagnosed with a primary anxiety disorder who received different treatments (manual-based vs. non-manualized) across settings (research vs. practice). Coders produced reliable ratings at the item level (M ICC = .76, SD = .18). Analyses support the construct validity of the Cognitive and Behavioral subscale scores and, to a lesser extent, the Psychodynamic, Family, and Client-Centered subscale scores. Correlations among the TPOCS-RS subscale scores and between the TPOCS-RS subscale scores and observational ratings of the alliance and client involvement were moderate suggesting independence of the subscale scores. Moreover, the TPOCS-RS showed promise for assessing implementation integrity as the TPOCS-RS subscale scores, as hypothesized, discriminated between manual-guided treatment delivered across research and practice settings and non-manualized usual care. The findings support the potential of the TPOCS-RS Cognitive and Behavioral subscales to assess treatment differentiation in implementation research. Results for the remaining subscales are promising, although further research is needed. PMID:25346995

  1. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Y. C.; Li, Ying; Liu, Gaung; Chen, Hongmin; Zhang, Junjie; Gadzia, Joseph E.

    2006-02-01

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 μm depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages.

  2. A semi-automatic web based tool for the selection of research projects reviewers.

    PubMed

    Pupella, Valeria; Monteverde, Maria Eugenia; Lombardo, Claudio; Belardelli, Filippo; Giacomini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The correct evaluation of research proposals continues today to be problematic, and in many cases, grants and fellowships are subjected to this type of assessment. A web based semi-automatic tool to help in the selection of reviewers was developed. The core of the proposed system is the matching of the MeSH Descriptors of the publications submitted by the reviewers (for their accreditation) and the Descriptor linked to the research keywords, which were selected. Moreover, a citation related index was further calculated and adopted in order to discard not suitable reviewers. This tool was used as a support in a web site for the evaluation of candidates applying for a fellowship in the oncology field. PMID:25160328

  3. New horizons in the implementation and research of comprehensive geriatric assessment: knowing, doing and the 'know-do' gap.

    PubMed

    Gladman, John R F; Conroy, Simon Paul; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Gordon, Adam Lee

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we outline the relationship between the need to put existing applied health research knowledge into practice (the 'know-do gap') and the need to improve the evidence base (the 'know gap') with respect to the healthcare process used for older people with frailty known as comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). We explore the reasons for the know-do gap and the principles of how these barriers to implementation might be overcome. We explore how these principles should affect the conduct of applied health research to close the know gap. We propose that impaired flow of knowledge is an important contributory factor in the failure to implement evidence-based practice in CGA; this could be addressed through specific knowledge mobilisation techniques. We describe that implementation failures are also produced by an inadequate evidence base that requires the co-production of research, addressing not only effectiveness but also the feasibility and acceptability of new services, the educational needs of practitioners, the organisational requirements of services, and the contribution made by policy. Only by tackling these issues in concert and appropriate proportion, will the know and know-do gaps for CGA be closed. PMID:26941353

  4. Designing and implementing medical web portals: spreading educational and research materials on the Internet.

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, M.; Aymard, S.; Staccini, P.; Fieschi, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To design and implement a medical web portal providing access to well qualified and high-quality information in the framework of universities and hospitals. METHOD: Based on the authors experience and the published literature, a model is proposed which describes the properties of documents in an object-oriented way. This model clearly separates from usual properties: the subject of a document as keywords, and information concerning its type, format, and location. RESULTS: An implementation has been done with an existing software that allows the capability to organize and index a web site according to the model. Experiments have been conducted which demonstrate the feasibility and the utility of such an approach. DISCUSSION: The benefits for the users, both designers and end users, of using such a portal are discussed. Forthcoming works are described. PMID:11825199

  5. Research and implementation of geography service bus in spatial data sharing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhiqiang; Nan, Jiang; Lin, Tao; Bai, Mingbai; He, Xingfu

    2006-10-01

    Geographic Information Systems, GIS, software has wide applications in business; however, implementation of the interoperability among the GIS has also become a challenge. This paper presents a solution based on Geography Service Bus that uses web services to achieve the interoperability among these heterogeneous GIS to allow users share the Geosciences data as well as access service. Referring to the abstract specification of OWS (OGC Web Services), the proposed solution adopts the SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) when implementing SDSP (Spatial Data Sharing Platform). To accomplish this, a new abstract layer, GSB (Geography Service Bus), is created to provide standard interface. GSB extends ESB (Enterprise Service Bus) proposed by IBM and SUN, and combines the application in geography. GSB inherits the general features of ESB, such as interoperability, heterogeneity and service-oriented while offering unique functions like the high volume geo-data access and better management in geographic services. GSB includes the following JAVA implemented components: the management component of the geography registry service, the route component of the geography request service and the geographical business process component, etc. GSB plays an important role in SDSP and has been developed and successfully applied in the Data Center for Resources & Environmental Sciences in East China as a key project of Chinese Academy of Sciences. It has been observed that the introduction of GSB has tremendously improved both performance and interoperability of SDSP among heterogeneous GIS than traditional methods.

  6. Implementation and characterisation of new neutron imaging system for dynamic processes investigation at the Es-Salam research reactor.

    PubMed

    Kharfi, F; Denden, O; Abdelkader, A

    2011-10-01

    Neutron imaging is a powerful method for non-destructive investigations where high penetration through metals and in particular high contrast for hydrogenous materials maybe exploited. Due to the complexity of digital neutron static or video image formation, image capture conditions and parameters must be accurately selected. In this work, implementation of a new neutron imaging system based on CCD camera and LiF-ZnS scintillator is presented. The image characteristics in terms of contrast, noise and dynamic range and investigation limits of this new imaging system were studied as a function of the neutron source properties. PMID:21640596

  7. School-Based Management. Institutional Variation, Implementation, and Issues for Further Research. CPRE Research Report Series RR-008.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.; White, Paula A.

    This paper reports the findings of a study (based on telephone interviews) of over 30 school-based management programs. Examined are the changes in roles, the strengths and limitations of various approaches, and the conditions most favorable to success. There are four main sections: (1) literature review; (2) research questions and methods; (3)…

  8. Data dialogues: critical connections for designing and implementing future nanomaterial research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Commentary discusses the important role of “data dialogues” or structured discussions between ENM researchers in EHS fields (e.g., toxicology, exposure science, and industrial hygiene) and decision makers who use the data researchers collect. The importance of these structur...

  9. Bridging Research and Practice: Implementing and Sustaining Knowledge Building in Hong Kong Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Carol K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Despite major theoretical progress in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), relatively less attention has been paid to the problem of how research advances may impact schools and classrooms. Given the global changes and educational policies for twenty-first century education, issues of how research in CSCL can be integrated with…

  10. The Implementation of Models-Based Practice in Physical Education through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of action research as a framework to investigate cooperative learning and tactical games as instructional models in physical education (PE). The teacher/researcher taught a tennis unit using a combination of Cooperative Learning and Teaching Games for Understanding to three classes of boys aged…

  11. "Brown's" Influence on Education and Education Research: "Critical Insights, Uneven Implementation, and Unanticipated Consequences"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floden, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    In recognition of the 50th anniversary of the Supreme Court's decision in "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954), this volume of "Review of Research in Education" looks at education research linked to issues addressed in that decision. In the "Brown" case, the court asserted the central importance of the government's role in education, and reversed…

  12. Implementing Participatory Research with an Urban American Indian Community: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Erica B.; Jette, Shannon L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Participatory research has proven an effective method for improving health equity among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) by addressing power imbalances between communities and researchers, incorporating community knowledge and theory, ensuring mutual benefit and improving community capacity and programme sustainability. However,…

  13. Implementing the Lau Decision in the 1980's: Implications for Research. Professional Papers B-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdan, Robert

    The implications for research of the Lau regulations, the political climate in which the regulations were withdrawn, and the Lau remedies are explored. Research activities have been mandated by the Bilingual Education Act of 1978 in the areas of needs assessment, the quality of educational services, and the effectiveness of Title VII programs.…

  14. Process of Implementing Critical Reading Strategies in an Iranian EFL Classroom: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasrollahi, Mohammad Ali; Krishnasamy, Pramela Krish N.; Noor, Noorizah Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Action research designs are systematic procedures used by teachers to gather quantitative and qualitative data to address improvements in their educational setting, their teaching, and the learning of their students. Action research enables teachers to keep track and take account of the many aspects of their work with students through a systematic…

  15. Ecosystem Services Research Program, Pollutant Specific Studies: Nitrogen Regulations Services Implementation Plan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) is a new, multi-year research initiative under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The overall goal of the ESRP is to transform the way decision-makers understand and respond to environmental issues, making...

  16. Voicing the Tensions of Implementing Research Strategies: Implications for Organizational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billot, Jennie; Codling, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    When higher education institutions seek to align their research goals with nationally driven imperatives, various members of the institutional community need to work in concert to achieve them. The identification of effective strategies and the development of a contextually appropriate research culture are fundamental elements to progressing…

  17. The Implementation of Team-Based Discovery Learning to Improve Students' Ability in Writing Research Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arifani, Yudhi

    2016-01-01

    Writing research proposal in educational setting is a very complex process involving variety of elements. Consequently, analyzing the complex elements from introduction to data analysis sections in order to yield convinced research proposal writing through reviewing reputable journal articles is worth-contributing. The objectives of this research…

  18. Implementation and Outcomes of Online Self and Peer Assessment on Group Based Honours Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chengqing; Chanda, Emmanuel; Willison, John

    2014-01-01

    Honours research projects in the School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering at the University of Adelaide are run with small groups of students working with an academic supervisor in a chosen area for one year. The research project is mainly self-directed study, which makes it very difficult to fairly assess the contribution of…

  19. An Action Research Study Designed to Implement Student Negotiation to Improve Speaking Classroom Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uztosun, Mehmet Sercan; Skinner, Nigel; Cadorath, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the second stage of an action research study designed to improve the effectiveness of speaking classes through negotiating the lesson contents with students. The data were collected through interviews, questionnaires and observations as a way of eliciting students' views. The research, conducted in an English language…

  20. A Self-Guided Tour on Audiocassette at a Large Academic Research Library: Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Charles; Gassmann, Mary

    1986-01-01

    This packet of materials includes an article, "Development of a Self-Guided Audiocassette Tour at a Large Academic Research Library: Preliminary Report," which originally appeared in the Summer 1986 issue of "Research Strategies," and the scripts for self-guided audiocassette tours of the main and undergraduate libraries at the University of…

  1. Implementing Research in Professional Higher Education: Factors That Influence Lecturers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffioen, Didi M. E.; de Jong, Uulkje

    2015-01-01

    Higher professional education in Europe has changed from teaching-only institutes to hybrids of teaching and research. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence the judgements of lecturers about new organisational goals and perceptions of their new research-related competencies. Lecturers' judgements of new organisational…

  2. Commentary: a practical guide for translating basic research on affective science to implementing physiology in clinical child and adolescent assessments.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health recently launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). RDoC is a framework that facilitates the dimensional assessment and classification of processes relevant to mental health (e.g., affect, regulation, cognition, social affiliation), as reflected in measurements across multiple units of analysis (e.g., physiology, circuitry, genes, self-reports). A key focus of RDoC involves opening new lines of research examining patients' responses on biological measures, with the key goal of developing new therapeutic techniques that effectively target mechanisms of mental disorders. Yet applied researchers and practitioners rarely use biological measures within mental health assessments, which may present challenges in translating RDoC-guided research into improvements in patient care. Thus, if RDoC is to result in research that yields clinical tools that reduce the burden of mental illness and improve public health, we ought to develop strategies for effectively implementing biological measures in the context of clinical assessments. In this special issue, we sought to provide an initial step in this direction by assembling a collection of articles from leading research teams carrying out pioneering work on implementing multimodal assessments (biological, subjective, behavioral) of affective processes in applied settings. In this commentary, we expand upon the work presented in this special issue by making a series of suggestions for how to most parsimoniously conduct multimodal assessments of affective processes in applied research and clinical settings. We hope that this approach will facilitate translations of the RDoC framework into applied research and clinic settings. PMID:25664768

  3. Implementing 'translational' biomedical research: convergence and divergence among clinical and basic scientists.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Myfanwy; Barry, Christine A; Donovan, Jenny L; Sandall, Jane; Wolfe, Charles D A; Boaz, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Universities are increasingly regarded as key actors in the new 'knowledge economy', with requirements to produce market-oriented knowledge and engage in commercialization. This is of particular significance in the biomedical field, reflecting the perceived gap between success in terms of scientific discoveries and its transformation into products. The dominant discourse attributes this situation to 'blocks' in the translational pathway from 'bench to bedside', leading to policies to 'reengineer' the research enterprise. This study examines a pilot initiative established by the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC). This involved employing a change agent (Research Translator) supported by a small amount of translational funding to promote the culture and practice of translational research at a university/hospital site in England. An ethnographically informed case study involving semi-structured and open exploratory interviews, observation and document review, was conducted in 2008. Analysis and interpretation were informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice applied to science. The requirements of translational research promoted by the Research Translator and its sources of capital (authority, prestige etc) were largely congruent with the 'field' of clinical science. In contrast, translational research diverged from perceptions of 'legitimate' science and requirements for capital accumulation held by the majority of basic scientists who often described this research as 'high risk' and were resistant to the Research Translator's advice. However some differences in motivations and practices were identified within groups of scientists associated with career stage, work environment and specialty. We argue that there are convergent and divergent forces that influence scientists' readiness to adopt a market-oriented translational research model and in turn facilitate or constrain the effectiveness of a knowledge broker. We also identify ways in which current structures and

  4. Development and implementation of training for interdisciplinary research in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Moira; Reid, Graham; Brown, Judith Belle; Burge, Fred; Dicenso, Alba; Watt, Susan; McWilliam, Carol; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Meredith, Leslie

    2010-06-01

    The authors describe a national training program in Canada focusing on research in primary health care (PHC). The program, sponsored by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research's Strategic Training in Health Research Program, is called Transdisciplinary Understanding and Training on Research-Primary Health Care (TUTOR-PHC); it began in 2002 and is funded to continue until 2015. The purpose-built curriculum has two main goals: (1) to build a cadre of skilled, independent researchers to enhance the evidence base for PHC practice and policy and (2) to increase the interdisciplinary focus in PHC research. The program consists of three elements: (1) a three-day on-site symposium, (2) four online workshops (three weeks each), and (3) two online interdisciplinary discussion groups (seven weeks each). Participants develop PHC research skills during in-person and online workshops. They gain knowledge of and experience in interdisciplinary PHC research through participation in interdisciplinary discussion groups and by observing mentor interactions. Both the symposium and the online components involve a variety of interactive education approaches. The 77 graduates from across Canada represent 14 disciplines, most commonly family medicine, nursing, epidemiology, psychology, social work, and sociology. Graduates of the program publish at a high rate and are building their careers in PHC research. The structure of TUTOR-PHC encourages not only skill development and content uptake but also the exchange of tacit knowledge. The complete program leads to a synthesis of skills, knowledge, personal communication abilities, and cross-discipline curiosity, creating a well-rounded collaborative PHC researcher. PMID:20505396

  5. Implementing Elements of the Physics Suite at a Large Metropolitan Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efthimiou, Costas; Maronde, Dan; McGreevy, Tim; del Barco, Enrique; McCole, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    A key question in physics education is the effectiveness of the teaching methods. A curriculum that has been investigated at the University of Central Florida (UCF) over the last two years is the use of particular elements of The Physics Suite. Select sections of the introductory physics classes at UCF have made use of Interactive Lecture…

  6. Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy: Review of Prospects, Achievements, Challenges and Agenda for Research

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey Martin; Magnussen, Pascal; Goodman, Catherine; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Kitua, Andrew Yona; Olsen, Øystein Evjen; Byskov, Jens; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Bloch, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care (ANC) clinics is recommended for malaria endemic countries. Vast biomedical literature on malaria prevention focuses more on the epidemiological and cost-effectiveness analyses of the randomised controlled trials carried out in selected geographical settings. Such studies fail to elucidate the economic, psychosocial, managerial, organization and other contextual systemic factors influencing the operational effectiveness, compliance and coverage of the recommended interventions. Objective To review literature on policy advances, achievements, constraints and challenges to malaria IPTp implementation, emphasising on its operational feasibility in the context of health-care financing, provision and uptake, resource constraints and psychosocial factors in Africa. Results The importance of IPTp in preventing unnecessary anaemia, morbidity and mortality in pregnancy and improving childbirth outcomes is highly acknowledged, although the following factors appear to be the main constraints to IPTp service delivery and uptake: cost of accessing ANC; myths and other discriminatory socio-cultural values on pregnancy; target users, perceptions and attitudes towards SP, malaria, and quality of ANC; supply and cost of SP at health facilities; understaffing and demoralised staff; ambiguity and impracticability of user-fee exemption policy guidelines on essential ANC services; implementing IPTp, bednets, HIV and syphilis screening programmes in the same clinic settings; and reports on increasing parasite resistant to SP. However, the noted increase in the coverage of the delivery of IPTp doses in several countries justify that IPTp implementation is possible and better than not. Conclusion IPTp for malaria is implemented in constrained conditions in Africa. This is a challenge for higher coverage of at least two doses and attainment

  7. Research Required for the Effective Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Articles 9 and 10

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper is part of a series of articles intended to set out the research questions that are relevant to the successful implementation of the various provisions of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper focuses on issues affecting Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC. This paper focuses on the research that is most important for most countries, rather than on what is desirable in countries with high levels of research capacity. Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC address the regulation of contents and emissions of tobacco products and regulation of tobacco product disclosure. Such regulation will be essential if the long-term objective of reducing the danger of tobacco products is to be achieved. There are many components of tobacco and tobacco smoke that are excessively toxic and dangerous to the user. Many of these components are carcinogenic and addictive and can be removed or reduced substantially with current known technology. The fact that these components remain in tobacco and tobacco smoke at levels that are unnecessarily dangerous is precisely the reason why the successful implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC is important to tobacco control. This paper discusses the scientific challenges involved in successfully implementing Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC, which focuses on regulating carcinogens and toxins in tobacco and tobacco smoke, the abuse liability of tobacco products, and the additives and engineering features in tobacco products that make tobacco products appealing to future consumers. The research issues we focus on are those required to support the early stages of regulation. As regulation proceeds, new and more sophisticated research questions will undoubtedly emerge. PMID:23024247

  8. Prototype of an Integrated Hurricane Information System for Research: Design and Implementation of the Database and Web Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P. P.; Knosp, B.; Vu, Q. A.; Hristova-Veleva, S.; Chao, Y.; Vane, D.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Su, H.; Dang, V.; Fovell, R.; Willis, J.; Tanelli, S.; Fishbein, E.; Ao, C. O.; Poulsen, W. L.; Park, K. J.; Fetzer, E.; Vazquez, J.; Callahan, P. S.; Marcus, S.; Garay, M.; Kahn, R.; Haddad, Z.

    2007-12-01

    location placemark to see the time, location, and the intensity of the hurricane. Large scale datasets, such as SST or aerosol optical depth can be overlaid on top of the hurricane track in Google Map. In addition, available satellite and in-situ data during the hurricane period are displayed as little bars in a time line organized by datasets. When clicking a little bar, pre-generated plots for the selected dataset will be displayed in a separate window together with all other datasets co-located around the same time. The raw data in user-specified format can be downloaded for further analysis or model integration. As for the 3D model data, Live Access Server (LAS) is used to provide custom subsets and on-the-fly visualization. The site is dynamically configured using a backend relational database that is designed to let users easily browse through the website to find data and plots that are pertinent to their research. In this presentation, we will describe the current status of the integrated hurricane information system prototype, the design and the implementation of the hurricane database and portal, and future enhancements.

  9. Research on the Implementation of the NASA Joint Sponsored Research Program and other Innovative Mechanism for Commercializing NASA Funded Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Karen Risa

    1997-01-01

    A goal of the ERAST Program is the commercial application of technology resulting from the work if the ERAST Alliance. This goal is sufficiently primary to be called out in the recitals section of the ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement. In support of this goal, two activities described below were commenced in 1996 to assess and explore commercial applications of UAV technologies relevant to the ERAST Alliance.

  10. The Knowledge Translation Status in Selected Eastern-Mediterranean Universities and Research Institutes

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Katayoun; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Gholami, Jaleh; Mandil, Ahmed; Hamid, Saima; Butt, Zahid Ahmad; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Kheir, Dalia Y. M. El; Saleem, Mohammed; Maqsoud, Sahar; Safi, Najibullah; Abdul-Majeed, Ban A.; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background A serious worldwide effort to strengthen research based knowledge translation (KT) has begun in recent years and some countries, particularly developed ones, are trying to incorporate KT in their health and health research systems. Keeping in mind the recent economic depression and the need to perform more efficient research, we aimed to assess and compare the KT status of selected health research institutes in the Eastern Mediterranean Regions' countries, and to identify their strengths and weaknesses in the field. Methods After finding the focal points that would steer the focus group discussions (FGDs) and help complete the ‘Self Assessment Tool for Research Institutes’ (SATORI) tool, each focal point held two FGDs in which researchers, research authorities and other individuals specified in detail further in the study were held. The scores obtained by each institute were evaluated quantitatively, and the transcriptions were analyzed qualitatively with OpenCode software. Results For ease of analysis the 50 items of the SATORI were classified into 7 main domains: ‘priority setting’, ‘research quality and timeliness’, ‘researchers’ KT capacities', ‘facilities and pre-requisites of KT’, ‘processes and regulations supporting KT’, ‘interaction with research users’, and ‘promoting and evaluating the use of knowledge’. Based on the scoring system, the strongest domain was ‘research quality and timeliness’. ‘Priority setting’ was the weakest domain of all. The remaining domains were more or less equal in strength and were not in a favorable state. The qualitative findings confirmed the quantitative findings. Conclusions The main problem, it seems, is that a KT climate does not exist in the region. And despite the difference in the contexts, there are many similarities in the region's institutes included in this study. Collaborative efforts can play a role in creating this climate by steering countries towards KT and

  11. DOE Office of Energy Research laboratories self-asessment workshop: The nuts and bolts of implementation, July 27--28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-21

    Making self-assessment a ``cultural norm`` at the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER) laboratories has been a tremendous challenge. In an effort to provide a forum for the ER laboratories to share their self-assessment program implementation experiences, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory hosted a Self-Assessment Workshop: July 1993. The workshop was organized to cover such areas as: DOE`s vision of self-assessment; what makes a workable program; line management experiences; how to identify root causes and trends; integrating quality assurance, conduct of operations, and self-assessment; and going beyond environment, safety, and health. Individuals from the ER laboratories wishing to participate in the workshop were invited to speak on topics of their choice. The workshop was organized to cover general topics in morning presentations to all attendees and to cover selected topics at afternoon breakout sessions. This report summarizes the presentations and breakout discussions.

  12. AVR microcontroller simulator for software implemented hardware fault tolerance algorithms research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Adam; Tarnowski, Szymon; Napieralski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Reliability of new, advanced electronic systems becomes a serious problem especially in places like accelerators and synchrotrons, where sophisticated digital devices operate closely to radiation sources. One of the possible solutions to harden the microprocessor-based system is a strict programming approach known as the Software Implemented Hardware Fault Tolerance. Unfortunately, in real environments it is not possible to perform precise and accurate tests of the new algorithms due to hardware limitation. This paper highlights the AVR-family microcontroller simulator project equipped with an appropriate monitoring and the SEU injection systems.

  13. Involving decision-makers in the research process: Challenges of implementing the accountability for reasonableness approach to priority setting at the district level in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; Ndawi, Benedict; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a growing call for researchers, policy-makers and health care providers to collaborate in efforts to bridge the gaps between research, policy and practice. However, there has been a little attention focused on documenting the challenges of dealing with decision-makers in the course of implementing a research project. This paper highlights a collaborative research project aiming to implement the accountability for reasonableness (AFR) approach to priority setting in accordance with the Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) project in Tanzania. Specifically, the paper examines the challenges of dealing with decision-makers during the project-implementation process and shows how the researchers dealt with the decision-makers to facilitate the implementation of the REACT project. Key informant interviews were conducted with the Council Health Management Team (CHMT), local government officials and other stakeholders, using a semi-structured interview guide. Minutes of the Action Research Team and CHMT were analysed. Additionally, project-implementation reports were analysed and group priority-setting processes in the district were observed. The findings show that the characteristics of the REACT research project, the novelty of some aspects of the AFR approach, such as publicity and appeals, the Action Research methodology used to implement the project and the traditional cultural contexts within which the project was implemented, created challenges for both researchers and decision-makers, which consequently slowed down the implementation of the REACT project. While collaboration between researchers and decision-makers is important in bridging gaps between research and practice, it is imperative to understand the challenges of dealing with decision-makers in the course of implementing a collaborative research project. Such analyses are crucial in designing proper strategies for improved communication

  14. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  15. WORKGROUP REPORT: IMPLEMENTING A NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL REPRODUCTIVE RESEARCH AGENDA—DECADE ONE AND BEYOND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial goal of occupational reproductive health research is to effectively study the many toxicants, physical agents, and biomechanical and psychosocial stressors that may constitute reproductive hazards in the workplace. Although the main objective of occupational reproduct...

  16. Leadership networks in Catholic parishes: Implications for implementation research in health

    PubMed Central

    Negrón, Rosalyn; Leyva, Bryan; Allen, Jennifer; Ospino, Hosffman; Tom, Laura; Rustan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Through two case studies of Catholic parishes in Massachusetts, this study explores the implications of leader-centered versus distributed leadership in Catholic parishes for the implementation of evidence-based health interventions. The two parishes involved in the study differ from each other in several ways. In the first, parishioners are less engaged in leadership activities at the decision-making level in the parish. A small group of lay volunteers work with the parish priest and other ordained leaders on parish activities. In the second parish, a large and active lay volunteer leadership have forged an organizational structure that allows more independence from the pastor's direct oversight. In this parish, lay volunteer leaders are the prime drivers of organizational programs and events. In 2012–2013, three types of networks were assessed at each parish: discussion, collaboration, and outside-of-parish ties. The contrasts between each parish include differences in density of collaboration, in frequency of discussion, and network centrality of the respective parish priests. We further identified key actors in the network structures at each parish. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding organizational capacity in the context of health program implementation. PMID:25441317

  17. Leadership networks in Catholic parishes: implications for implementation research in health.

    PubMed

    Negrón, Rosalyn; Leyva, Bryan; Allen, Jennifer; Ospino, Hosffman; Tom, Laura; Rustan, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Through two case studies of Catholic parishes in Massachusetts, this study explores the implications of leader-centered versus distributed leadership in Catholic parishes for the implementation of evidence-based health interventions. The two parishes involved in the study differ from each other in several ways. In the first, parishioners are less engaged in leadership activities at the decision-making level in the parish. A small group of lay volunteers work with the parish priest and other ordained leaders on parish activities. In the second parish, a large and active lay volunteer leadership have forged an organizational structure that allows more independence from the pastor's direct oversight. In this parish, lay volunteer leaders are the prime drivers of organizational programs and events. In 2012-2013, three types of networks were assessed at each parish: discussion, collaboration, and outside-of-parish ties. The contrasts between each parish include differences in density of collaboration, in frequency of discussion, and network centrality of the respective parish priests. We further identified key actors in the network structures at each parish. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding organizational capacity in the context of health program implementation. PMID:25441317

  18. Implementation of a volunteer university student research assistant program in an emergency department: the nuts and bolts for success.

    PubMed

    Steadman, Patrick E; Crudden, Johanna; Boutis, Kathy

    2015-09-01

    Prospective research studies often advance clinical practice in the emergency department (ED), but they can be costly and difficult to perform. In this report, we describe the implementation of a volunteer university student research assistant program that provides students exposure to medicine and clinical research while simultaneously increasing the capacity of an ED's research program. This type of program provides 15 hours per day of research assistant coverage for patient screening and enrolment for minimal risk research studies, and screening for higher risk studies. The latter is true without the added burden or costs of co-administering university course credit or pay for service, which are common features of most of these types of programs currently in operation. We have shown that our volunteer-based program is effective for an ED's research success as well as for its student participants. For other EDs interested in adopting similar programs, we provide the details on how to get such a program started and highlight the structure and non-monetary incentives that facilitate a program's ongoing success. PMID:26166252

  19. Beyond Informed Consent: Ethical Considerations in the Design and Implementation of Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Haire, Bridget; Harrison, Abigail; Fatusi, Olawunmi; Brown, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Interest in addressing the ethical issues related to adolescents’ engagement in research, especially sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) research is increasing in view of the need to design and implement research that address peculiar SRHR needs of adolescents. These needs include issues of sexually transmitted infections, HIV, AIDS, adverse pregnancy outcomes, community, family and relationship violence and mental health. Unfortunately, adolescents’ voluntary participation in research has been limited due to their perceived potential to be coerced into participation, and concerns that they may not fully comprehend the issues related to research risks. As such, many of the regulations for engaging research participants have been defined by age rather than due consideration of psychological development. This paper examines the various potential ethical issues that may impact on decision making when adolescents are engaged in research. These include the need to minimise therapeutic misconception, considerations for recruitment and retention, types and amounts for reimbursement, and engagement of communities of adolescents on advisory boards of studies that involve their population. The potential challenges associated with recruitment of adolescents in early child marriages were also highlighted. PMID:26050384

  20. An Experimental Approach for Selecting Appropriate Rodent Diets for Research Studies on Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Ariyattu Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair; Agarwal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Diverse high energy diets have been utilized to precipitate obesity and related metabolic disorders in rodent models, though the dietary intervention has not absolutely been standardized. The present study established usage of a customized semipurified normal control diet (NCD) and high fat diet (HFD), for research studies on diet-induced metabolic disorders in albino rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with normal pellet diet (NPD) or customized NCDs I, II, III or HFDs I, II, III for 12 weeks and parameters, namely, body weight, visceral adiposity, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and glucose were evaluated to select an appropriate NCD and HFD. The selected HFD was further evaluated for induction of fatty liver, whilst type 2 diabetes (T2D) induction was confirmed in HFD and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes model in Wistar rats. Amongst different diets tested, NCD-I and HFD-I were selected, since NCD-I exhibited close resemblance to NPD, whereas HFD-I induced metabolic alterations, particularly obesity and dyslipidemia consistently. Moreover, HFD-I elevated terminal hepatic lipids, while HFD-I/STZ treatment augmented insulin resistance index and serum glucose levels significantly indicating effective induction of fatty liver and T2D, respectively. Therefore, customized semipurified NCD-I and HFD-I can be recommended for research studies on diet-induced metabolic disorders in albino Wistar rats. PMID:24151620