Science.gov

Sample records for implementing high availability

  1. Implementation and use of a highly available and innovative IaaS solution: the Cloud Area Padovana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiftimiei, C.; Andreetto, P.; Bertocco, S.; Biasotto, M.; Dal Pra, S.; Costa, F.; Crescente, A.; Dorigo, A.; Fantinel, S.; Fanzago, F.; Frizziero, E.; Gulmini, M.; Michelotto, M.; Sgaravatto, M.; Traldi, S.; Venaruzzo, M.; Verlato, M.; Zangrando, L.

    2015-12-01

    While in the business world the cloud paradigm is typically implemented purchasing resources and services from third party providers (e.g. Amazon), in the scientific environment there's usually the need of on-premises IaaS infrastructures which allow efficient usage of the hardware distributed among (and owned by) different scientific administrative domains. In addition, the requirement of open source adoption has led to the choice of products like OpenStack by many organizations. We describe a use case of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) which resulted in the implementation of a unique cloud service, called ’Cloud Area Padovana’, which encompasses resources spread over two different sites: the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories and the INFN Padova division. We describe how this IaaS has been implemented, which technologies have been adopted and how services have been configured in high-availability (HA) mode. We also discuss how identity and authorization management were implemented, adopting a widely accepted standard architecture based on SAML2 and OpenID: by leveraging the versatility of those standards the integration with authentication federations like IDEM was implemented. We also discuss some other innovative developments, such as a pluggable scheduler, implemented as an extension of the native OpenStack scheduler, which allows the allocation of resources according to a fair-share based model and which provides a persistent queuing mechanism for handling user requests that can not be immediately served. Tools, technologies, procedures used to install, configure, monitor, operate this cloud service are also discussed. Finally we present some examples that show how this IaaS infrastructure is being used.

  2. High Availability Electronics Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  3. Small PACS implementation using publicly available software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passadore, Diego J.; Isoardi, Roberto A.; Gonzalez Nicolini, Federico J.; Ariza, P. P.; Novas, C. V.; Omati, S. A.

    1998-07-01

    Building cost effective PACS solutions is a main concern in developing countries. Hardware and software components are generally much more expensive than in developed countries and also more tightened financial constraints are the main reasons contributing to a slow rate of implementation of PACS. The extensive use of Internet for sharing resources and information has brought a broad number of freely available software packages to an ever-increasing number of users. In the field of medical imaging is possible to find image format conversion packages, DICOM compliant servers for all kinds of service classes, databases, web servers, image visualization, manipulation and analysis tools, etc. This paper describes a PACS implementation for review and storage built on freely available software. It currently integrates four diagnostic modalities (PET, CT, MR and NM), a Radiotherapy Treatment Planning workstation and several computers in a local area network, for image storage, database management and image review, processing and analysis. It also includes a web-based application that allows remote users to query the archive for studies from any workstation and to view the corresponding images and reports. We conclude that the advantage of using this approach is twofold. It allows a full understanding of all the issues involved in the implementation of a PACS and also contributes to keep costs down while enabling the development of a functional system for storage, distribution and review that can prove to be helpful for radiologists and referring physicians.

  4. High Availability in Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Wayne D.; Wosinska, Lena; Fumagalli, Andrea

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: High Availability in Optical Networks Submission Deadline: 1 January 2006 The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a feature Issue pertaining to all aspects of reliable components and systems for optical networks and concepts, techniques, and experience leading to high availability of services provided by optical networks. Most nations now recognize that telecommunications in all its forms -- including voice, Internet, video, and so on -- are "critical infrastructure" for the society, commerce, government, and education. Yet all these services and applications are almost completely dependent on optical networks for their realization. "Always on" or apparently unbreakable communications connectivity is the expectation from most users and for some services is the actual requirement as well. Achieving the desired level of availability of services, and doing so with some elegance and efficiency, is a meritorious goal for current researchers. This requires development and use of high-reliability components and subsystems, but also concepts for active reconfiguration and capacity planning leading to high availability of service through unseen fast-acting survivability mechanisms. The feature issue is also intended to reflect some of the most important current directions and objectives in optical networking research, which include the aspects of integrated design and operation of multilevel survivability and realization of multiple Quality-of-Protection service classes. Dynamic survivable service provisioning, or batch re-provisioning is an important current theme, as well as methods that achieve high availability at far less investment in spare capacity than required by brute force service path duplication or 100% redundant rings, which is still the surprisingly prevalent practice. Papers of several types are envisioned in the feature issue, including outlook and forecasting types of treatments, optimization and analysis, new

  5. Implementation and Validation of Uncertainty Analysis of Available Energy and Available Power

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; B. J. Schubert; Shawn Allred

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory does extensive testing and evaluation of state-of-the-art batteries and ultracapacitors for hybrid-electric vehicle applications as part of the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. Significant parameters of interest include Available Energy and Available Power. Documenting the uncertainty analysis of these derived parameters is a very complex problem. The error is an unknown combination of both linearity and offset; the analysis presented in this paper computes the uncertainty both ways and then the most conservative method is assumed (which is the worst case scenario). Each method requires the use of over 134 equations, some of which are derived and some are measured values. This includes the measurement device error (calibration error) and bit resolution and analog noise error (standard deviation error). The implementation of these equations to acquire a closed form answer was done using Matlab (an array based programming language) and validated using Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Designing and Running for High Accelerator Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke,F.

    2009-05-04

    The report provides an overview and examples of high availability design considerations and operational aspects making references to some of the available methods to assess and improve on accelerator reliability.

  7. 45 CFR 162.920 - Availability of implementation specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference in subparts I through S of this part in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... Security Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland 21244. For more information on the availability on the materials at... obtained from the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs, 9240 East Raintree Drive, Scottsdale,...

  8. GPS time transfer with implementation of selective availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, David W.; Granveaud, Michel P.; Klepczynski, William J.; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz W.

    1990-05-01

    The international community of time metrology is facing a major challenge with the Selective Availability (SA) degradation of GPS satellite signals. At present there are 6 Block 1 satellites and 8 Block 2 satellites operating. According to the policy of the U.S. Department of Defence the Block 1 satellite signals will not be degraded, but these satellites are old with a finite life. The Block 2 satellites, which have all been launched since 1988, were subject to Selective Availability from March 25, 1990. The effect of SA should be to limit precision to about 100 meters for navigation and 167 ns for timing. A study was conducted in order to understand the nature of the actual introduced degradation, and to elaborate the means of removing the effects of this degradation on time transfer. This study concerns the time extraction from GPS satellites at NIST, USNO and Paris Observatory, and the comparison of atomic clocks between these laboratories by common view approach. The results show that when using the data taken over several days the time extraction can be achieved with uncertainty of a few tens of nanoseconds, while strict common-view has removed entirely the effects of SA during the periods under study.

  9. GPS time transfer with implementation of selective availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, David W.; Granveaud, Michel P.; Klepczynski, William J.; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz W.

    1990-01-01

    The international community of time metrology is facing a major challenge with the Selective Availability (SA) degradation of GPS satellite signals. At present there are 6 Block 1 satellites and 8 Block 2 satellites operating. According to the policy of the U.S. Department of Defence the Block 1 satellite signals will not be degraded, but these satellites are old with a finite life. The Block 2 satellites, which have all been launched since 1988, were subject to Selective Availability from March 25, 1990. The effect of SA should be to limit precision to about 100 meters for navigation and 167 ns for timing. A study was conducted in order to understand the nature of the actual introduced degradation, and to elaborate the means of removing the effects of this degradation on time transfer. This study concerns the time extraction from GPS satellites at NIST, USNO and Paris Observatory, and the comparison of atomic clocks between these laboratories by common view approach. The results show that when using the data taken over several days the time extraction can be achieved with uncertainty of a few tens of nanoseconds, while strict common-view has removed entirely the effects of SA during the periods under study.

  10. Digitally Controlled High Availability Power Supply

    SciTech Connect

    MacNair, David; /SLAC

    2008-09-25

    This paper reports the design and test results on novel topology, high-efficiency, and low operating temperature, 1,320-watt power modules for high availability power supplies. The modules permit parallel operation for N+1 redundancy with hot swap capability. An embedded DSP provides intelligent start-up and shutdown, output regulation, general control and fault detection. PWM modules in the DSP drive the FET switches at 20 to 100 kHz. The DSP also ensures current sharing between modules, synchronized switching, and soft start up for hot swapping. The module voltage and current have dedicated ADCs (>200 kS/sec) to provide pulse-by-pulse output control. A Dual CAN bus interface provides for low cost redundant control paths. Over-rated module components provide high reliability and high efficiency at full load. Low on-resistance FETs replace conventional diodes in the buck regulator. Saturable inductors limit the FET reverse diode current during switching. The modules operate in a two-quadrant mode, allowing bipolar output from complimentary module groups. Controllable, low resistance FETs at the input and output provide fault isolation and allow module hot swapping.

  11. 75 FR 69373 - Source Specific Federal Implementation Plan for Implementing Best Available Retrofit Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Federal Register on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64221). Given the significant public interest in this source... rule was published in the Federal Register on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64221) and can be accessed the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 49 Source Specific Federal Implementation Plan for Implementing Best...

  12. ATF2 High Availability Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, A; Lira, C.de; Lam, B.; MacNair, D.; White, G.; /SLAC

    2008-06-27

    ATF2 is an accelerator test facility modeled after the final focus beamline envisioned for the ILC. By the end of 2008, KEK plans to commission the ATF2 [1]. SLAC and OCEM collaborated on the design of 38 power systems for beamline magnets. The systems range in output power from 1.5 kW to 6 kW. Since high availability is essential for the success of the ILC, Collaborators employed an N+1 modular approach, allowing for redundancy and the use of a single power module rating. This approach increases the availability of the power systems. Common power modules reduces inventory and eases maintenance. Current stability requirements are as tight as 10 ppm. A novel, SLAC designed 20-bit Ethernet Power Supply Controller provides the required precision current regulation. In this paper, Collaborators present the power system design, the expected reliability, fault immunity features, and the methods for satisfying the control and monitoring challenges. Presented are test results and the status of the power systems.

  13. Digitally Controlled High Availability Power Supply

    SciTech Connect

    MacNair, David; /SLAC

    2009-05-07

    This paper will report on the test results of a prototype 1320 watt power module for a high availability power supply. The module will allow parallel operation for N+1 redundancy with hot swap capability. The two quadrant output of each module allows pairs of modules to provide a 4 quadrant (bipolar) operation. Each module employs a novel 4 FET buck regulator arranged in a bridge configuration. Each side of the bridge alternately conducts through a small saturable ferrite that limits the reverse current in the FET body diode during turn off. This allows hard switching of the FETs with low switching losses. The module is designed with over-rated components to provide high reliability and better then 97% efficiency at full load. The modules use a Microchip DSP for control, monitoring, and fault detection. The switching FETS are driven by PWM modules in the DSP at 60 KHz. A Dual CAN bus interface provides for low cost redundant control paths. The DSP will also provide current sharing between modules, synchronized switching, and soft start up for hot swapping. The input and output of each module have low resistance FETs to allow hot swapping and isolation of faulted units.

  14. High Available COTS Based Computer for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J.; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The availability and reliability factors of a system are central requirements of a target application. From a simple fuel injection system used in cars up to a flight control system of an autonomous navigating spacecraft, each application defines its specific availability factor under the target application boundary conditions. Increasing quality requirements on data processing systems used in space flight applications calling for new architectures to fulfill the availability, reliability as well as the increase of the required data processing power. Contrary to the increased quality request simplification and use of COTS components to decrease costs while keeping the interface compatibility to currently used system standards are clear customer needs. Data processing system design is mostly dominated by strict fulfillment of the customer requirements and reuse of available computer systems were not always possible caused by obsolescence of EEE-Parts, insufficient IO capabilities or the fact that available data processing systems did not provide the required scalability and performance.

  15. 77 FR 43205 - Notice of Data Availability for Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... FR 33022, June 4, 2012). III. New Information Placed in the Docket EPA requests comment on the... Implementation Plans; State of Wyoming; Regional Haze State Implementation Plan; Federal Implementation Plan for Regional Haze AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of data availability (NODA)....

  16. 75 FR 44007 - Notice of Availability: Notice of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 Implementation of the Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Development, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Through this notice, HUD announces the availability on its website... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Availability: Notice of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 Implementation of the Veterans... Development. BILLING CODE 4210-67-P...

  17. Status Update for Implementation of Best Available Technology per DOE Order 5400.5

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Major

    1999-07-01

    This report provides an update, as of July 1999, on the implementation of best available technology to control or eliminate radionuclide discharges to soil columns at facilities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in accordance with DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment.'' The best available technology to reduce or eliminate radionuclide discharges to soil columns currently implemented by the different facilities appears to be generally effective. Therefore, the different facilities should continue their current best available technology approaches, and also implement the specific recommendations listed in this report for their respective facility.

  18. A high-availability distributed hardware control system using Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessner, Albert F.

    2010-07-01

    Two independent coronagraph experiments that require 24/7 availability with different optical layouts and different motion control requirements are commanded and controlled with the same Java software system executing on many geographically scattered computer systems interconnected via TCP/IP. High availability of a distributed system requires that the computers have a robust communication messaging system making the mix of TCP/IP (a robust transport), and XML (a robust message) a natural choice. XML also adds the configuration flexibility. Java then adds object-oriented paradigms, exception handling, heavily tested libraries, and many third party tools for implementation robustness. The result is a software system that provides users 24/7 access to two diverse experiments with XML files defining the differences.

  19. A High-Availability, Distributed Hardware Control System Using Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niessner, Albert F.

    2011-01-01

    Two independent coronagraph experiments that require 24/7 availability with different optical layouts and different motion control requirements are commanded and controlled with the same Java software system executing on many geographically scattered computer systems interconnected via TCP/IP. High availability of a distributed system requires that the computers have a robust communication messaging system making the mix of TCP/IP (a robust transport), and XML (a robust message) a natural choice. XML also adds the configuration flexibility. Java then adds object-oriented paradigms, exception handling, heavily tested libraries, and many third party tools for implementation robustness. The result is a software system that provides users 24/7 access to two diverse experiments with XML files defining the differences

  20. Implementation of a versatile research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner.

    PubMed

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a versatile, open-architecture research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner. The open architecture will allow researchers and clinicians to rapidly develop applications and move them relatively easy to the clinic. The system consists of a standard PC equipped with a camera link and an ultrasound scanner equipped with a research interface. The ultrasound scanner is an easy-to-use imaging device that is capable of generating high-quality images. In addition to supporting the acquisition of multiple data types, such as B-mode, M-mode, pulsed Doppler, and color flow imaging, the machine provides users with full control over imaging parameters such as transmit level, excitation waveform, beam angle, and focal depth. Beamformed RF data can be acquired from regions of interest throughout the image plane and stored to a file with a simple button press. For clinical trials and investigational purposes, when an identical image plane is desired for both an experimental and a reference data set, interleaved data can be captured. This form of data acquisition allows switching between multiple setups while maintaining identical transducer, scanner, region of interest, and recording time. Data acquisition is controlled through a graphical user interface running on the PC. This program implements an interface for third-party software to interact with the application. A software development toolkit is developed to give researchers and clinicians the ability to utilize third-party software for data analysis and flexible manipulation of control parameters. Because of the advantages of speed of acquisition and clinical benefit, research projects have successfully used the system to test and implement their customized solutions for different applications. Three examples of system use are presented in this paper: evaluation of synthetic aperture sequential beamformation, transverse

  1. Universal Basic Education in Nigeria: Availability of Schools' Infrastructure for Effective Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikoya, Peter O.; Onoyase, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the availability and adequacy of schools' infrastructural facilities for implementation of the Universal Basic Education program in Nigeria. Adopting the "ex post facto" design, the researchers used existing school data on physical facilities, including a survey of key stakeholders in the education sector. Data analysed…

  2. 78 FR 4800 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Reasonably Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ...EPA is proposing approval of State Implementation Plan revisions submitted by the State of Connecticut. These SIP revisions consist of a demonstration that Connecticut meets the requirements of reasonably available control technology for oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds set forth by the Clean Air Act with respect to the 1997 8-hour ozone standard. Additionally, we are......

  3. Nationwide survey on resource availability for implementing current sepsis guidelines in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Bataar, Otgon; Lundeg, Ganbold; Tsenddorj, Ganbat; Jochberger, Stefan; Grander, Wilhelm; Baelani, Inipavudu; Wilson, Iain; Baker, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess if secondary and tertiary hospitals in Mongolia have the resources needed to implement the 2008 Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines. Methods To obtain key informant responses, we conducted a nationwide survey by sending a 74-item questionnaire to head physicians of the intensive care unit or department for emergency and critically ill patients of 44 secondary and tertiary hospitals in Mongolia. The questionnaire inquired about the availability of the hospital facilities, equipment, drugs and disposable materials required to implement the SSC guidelines. Descriptive methods were used for statistical analysis. Comparisons between central and peripheral hospitals were performed using non-parametric tests. Findings The response rate was 86.4% (38/44). No Mongolian hospital had the resources required to consistently implement the SSC guidelines. The median percentage of implementable recommendations and suggestions combined was 52.8% (interquartile range, IQR: 45.8–67.4%); of implementable recommendations only, 68% (IQR: 58.0–80.5%) and of implementable suggestions only, 43.5% (IQR: 34.8–57.6%). These percentages did not differ between hospitals located in the capital city and those located in rural areas. Conclusion The results of this study strongly suggest that the most recent SSC guidelines cannot be implemented in Mongolia due to a dramatic shortage of the required hospital facilities, equipment, drugs and disposable materials. Further studies are needed on current awareness of the problem, development of national reporting systems and guidelines for sepsis care in Mongolia, as well as on the quality of diagnosis and treatment and of the training of health-care professionals. PMID:21076565

  4. SeaDataNet network services monitoring: Definition and Implementation of Service availability index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykiardopoulos, Angelos; Mpalopoulou, Stavroula; Vavilis, Panagiotis; Pantazi, Maria; Iona, Sissy

    2014-05-01

    SeaDataNet (SDN) is a standardized system for managing large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the automatic observation systems. The SeaDataNet network is constituted of national oceanographic data centres of 35 countries, active in data collection. SeaDataNetII project's objective is to upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art infrastructure; therefore Network Monitoring is a step to this direction. The term Network Monitoring describes the use of system that constantly monitors a computer network for slow or failing components and that notifies the network administrator in case of outages. Network monitoring is crucial when implementing widely distributed systems over the Internet and in real-time systems as it detects malfunctions that may occur and notifies the system administrator who can immediately respond and correct the problem. In the framework of SeaDataNet II project a monitoring system was developed in order to monitor the SeaDataNet components. The core system is based on Nagios software. Some plug-ins were developed to support SeaDataNet modules. On the top of Nagios Engine a web portal was developed in order to give access to local administrators of SeaDataNet components, to view detailed logs of their own service(s). Currently the system monitors 35 SeaDataNet Download Managers, 9 SeaDataNet Services, 25 GeoSeas Download Managers and 23 UBSS Download Managers . Taking advantage of the continuous monitoring of SeaDataNet system components a total availability index will be implemented. The term availability can be defined as the ability of a functional unit to be in a state to perform a required function under given conditions at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, assuming that the required external resources are provided. Availability measures can be considered as a are very important benefit becauseT - The availability trends that can be

  5. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte H; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-07-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300-500kgPha(-1) application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25Mgha(-1) straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. PMID:27082447

  6. Comprehensive evaluation and clinical implementation of commercially available Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aizhen; Wen, Ning; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Chetty, Indrin J

    2013-01-01

    A commercial electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm has become available in Eclipse treatment planning system. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the eMC algorithm and investigate the clinical implementation of this system. The beam modeling of the eMC algorithm was performed for beam energies of 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV for a Varian Trilogy and all available applicator sizes in the Eclipse treatment planning system. The accuracy of the eMC algorithm was evaluated in a homogeneous water phantom, solid water phantoms containing lung and bone materials, and an anthropomorphic phantom. In addition, dose calculation accuracy was compared between pencil beam (PB) and eMC algorithms in the same treatment planning system for heterogeneous phantoms. The overall agreement between eMC calculations and measurements was within 3%/2 mm, while the PB algorithm had large errors (up to 25%) in predicting dose distributions in the presence of inhomogeneities such as bone and lung. The clinical implementation of the eMC algorithm was investigated by performing treatment planning for 15 patients with lesions in the head and neck, breast, chest wall, and sternum. The dose distributions were calculated using PB and eMC algorithms with no smoothing and all three levels of 3D Gaussian smoothing for comparison. Based on a routine electron beam therapy prescription method, the number of eMC calculated monitor units (MUs) was found to increase with increased 3D Gaussian smoothing levels. 3D Gaussian smoothing greatly improved the visual usability of dose distributions and produced better target coverage. Differences of calculated MUs and dose distributions between eMC and PB algorithms could be significant when oblique beam incidence, surface irregularities, and heterogeneous tissues were present in the treatment plans. In our patient cases, monitor unit differences of up to 7% were observed between PB and eMC algorithms. Monitor unit calculations were also preformed

  7. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of Implementation: Is Sufficient Evidence Available?

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Sophie; Dixon, Simon; Faria, Rita; Walker, Simon; Palmer, Stephen; Sculpher, Mark; Radford, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely implementation of recommended interventions can provide health benefits to patients and cost savings to the health service provider. Effective approaches to increase the implementation of guidance are needed. Since investment in activities that improve implementation competes for funding against other health generating interventions, it should be assessed in term of its costs and benefits. Objective In 2010, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence released a clinical guideline recommending natriuretic peptide (NP) testing in patients with suspected heart failure. However, its implementation in practice was variable across the National Health Service in England. This study demonstrates the use of multi-period analysis together with diffusion curves to estimate the value of investing in implementation activities to increase uptake of NP testing. Methods Diffusion curves were estimated based on historic data to produce predictions of future utilization. The value of an implementation activity (given its expected costs and effectiveness) was estimated. Both a static population and a multi-period analysis were undertaken. Results The value of implementation interventions encouraging the utilization of NP testing is shown to decrease over time as natural diffusion occurs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the value of the implementation activity depends on its efficacy and on the population size. Conclusions Value of implementation can help inform policy decisions of how to invest in implementation activities even in situations in which data are sparse. Multi-period analysis is essential to accurately quantify the time profile of the value of implementation given the natural diffusion of the intervention and the incidence of the disease. PMID:27021746

  8. SLAC Next-Generation High Availability Power Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, P.; MacNair, D.; ,

    2010-06-11

    SLAC recently commissioned forty high availability (HA) magnet power supplies for Japan's ATF2 project. SLAC is now developing a next-generation N+1 modular power supply with even better availability and versatility. The goal is to have unipolar and bipolar output capability. It has novel topology and components to achieve very low output voltage to drive superconducting magnets. A redundant, embedded, digital controller in each module provides increased bandwidth for use in beam-based alignment, and orbit correction systems. The controllers have independent inputs for connection to two external control nodes. Under fault conditions, they sense failures and isolate the modules. Power supply speed mitigates the effects of fault transients and obviates subsequent magnet standardization. Hot swap capability promises higher availability and other exciting benefits for future, more complex, accelerators, and eventually the International Linear Collider project.

  9. High Availability Instrumentation Packaging Standards for the ILC and Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R.W.; Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-11-30

    ILC designers are exploring new packaging standards for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation, particularly high-speed serial interconnect systems for intelligent instruments versus the existing parallel backplanes of VME, VXI and CAMAC. The High Availability Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) system is a new industrial open standard designed to withstand single-point hardware or software failures. The standard crate, controller, applications module and sub-modules are being investigated. All modules and sub-modules are hot-swappable. A single crate is designed for a data throughput in communications applications of 2 Tb/s and an Availability of 0.99999, which translates into a downtime of five minutes per year. The ILC is planning to develop HA architectures for controls, beam instrumentation and detector systems.

  10. Examining Perceptions over the Effectiveness of Professional Development and Available Resources on the Common Core State Standards Implementation in Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Julie Trammell

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine the perceptions of teachers and curriculum specialists over the effectiveness of professional development and available resources of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) implementation process in Arkansas. Arkansas divided the implementation process into three stages: Phase I implemented…

  11. 77 FR 27162 - Notice of Data Availability Supporting Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Generating Station, Kodak Operations at Eastman Business Park, Oswego Harbor Power Owens Corning Delmar Plant... proposed on April 25, 2012 (77 FR 24794) to take action on a revision to the state implementation plan...

  12. GEODE An electrical energy supply with high availability

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, J.L.; Gerard, M.J.; Girard, J.

    1983-10-01

    Project GEODE describes an electrical energy supply characterized by its very high availability. It is to be used in the PTT (French Telephone Company) telephone exchanges and is targeted for an unavailability of better than 10/sup -6/. In order to achieve this performance Merlin Gerin has adopted: a double bus bar architecture, remote controlled electrical equipment, a motor-generator set specifically designed for this project, and computer assisted surveillance. The authors present the overall reliability calculations for this project along with that for energy sources. The E.d.F (French Utility Company) network and the Motor-Generators.

  13. Instrumentation Standard Architectures for Future High Availability Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2005-10-13

    Architectures for next-generation modular instrumentation standards should aim to meet a requirement of High Availability, or robustness against system failure. This is particularly important for experiments both large and small mounted on production accelerators and light sources. New standards should be based on architectures that (1) are modular in both hardware and software for ease in repair and upgrade; (2) include inherent redundancy at internal module, module assembly and system levels; (3) include modern high speed serial inter-module communications with robust noise-immune protocols; and (4) include highly intelligent diagnostics and board-management subsystems that can predict impending failure and invoke evasive strategies. The simple design principles lead to fail-soft systems that can be applied to any type of electronics system, from modular instruments to large power supplies to pulsed power modulators to entire accelerator systems. The existing standards in use are briefly reviewed and compared against a new commercial standard which suggests a powerful model for future laboratory standard developments. The past successes of undertaking such projects through inter-laboratory engineering-physics collaborations will be briefly summarized.

  14. 78 FR 19599 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Reasonably Available Control Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ...The EPA is finalizing its proposal to approve revisions to the Texas State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Houston/Galveston/ Brazoria (HGB) 1997 8-Hour ozone nonattainment Area (Area). The HGB Area consists of Brazoria, Chambers, Fort Bend, Galveston, Harris, Liberty, Montgomery and Waller counties. Specifically, we are finalizing our proposed approval of portions of two revisions to the......

  15. 76 FR 48754 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Reasonably Available Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Rule To Implement the 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard--Phase 2'' (70 FR 71612... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information...); Does not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August...

  16. The availability of novelty sweets within high school localities.

    PubMed

    Aljawad, A; Morgan, M Z; Rees, J S; Fairchild, R

    2016-06-10

    Background Reducing sugar consumption is a primary focus of current global public health policy. Achieving 5% of total energy from free sugars will be difficult acknowledging the concentration of free sugars in sugar sweetened beverages, confectionery and as hidden sugars in many savoury items. The expansion of the novelty sweet market in the UK has significant implications for children and young adults as they contribute to dental caries, dental erosion and obesity.Objective To identify the most available types of novelty sweets within the high school fringe in Cardiff, UK and to assess their price range and where and how they were displayed in shops.Subjects and methods Shops within a ten minute walking distance around five purposively selected high schools in the Cardiff aea representing different levels of deprivation were visited. Shops in Cardiff city centre and three supermarkets were also visited to identify the most commonly available novelty sweets.Results The ten most popular novelty sweets identified in these scoping visits were (in descending order): Brain Licker, Push Pop, Juicy Drop, Lickedy Lips, Big Baby Pop, Vimto candy spray, Toxic Waste, Tango candy spray, Brain Blasterz Bitz and Mega Mouth candy spray. Novelty sweets were located on low shelves which were accessible to all age-groups in 73% (14 out of 19) of the shops. Novelty sweets were displayed in the checkout area in 37% (seven out of 19) shops. The price of the top ten novelty sweets ranged from 39p to £1.Conclusion A wide range of acidic and sugary novelty sweets were easily accessible and priced within pocket money range. Those personnel involved in delivering dental and wider health education or health promotion need to be aware of recent developments in children's confectionery. The potential effects of these novelty sweets on both general and dental health require further investigation. PMID:27283564

  17. 75 FR 23640 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York Reasonably Available Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... control measure analysis and New York's efforts to meet the reasonably available control technology... addition, EPA is proposing a conditional approval of the reasonably available control measure analysis... New York's reasonably available control measure (RACM) analysis and New York's efforts to meet...

  18. 75 FR 71548 - Availability of Federally-Enforceable State Implementation Plans for All States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Register on November 1, 1995 at 60 FR 55459. The second notice of availability was published in the Federal Register on November 18, 1998 at 63 FR 63986. The third notice of availability was published in the Federal Register on November 20, 2001 at 66 FR 58070. The fourth notice of availability was published in...

  19. 45 CFR 162.920 - Availability of implementation specifications and operating rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, the..., call (202) 714-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr... availability on the materials at CMS, call (410) 786-6597. The materials are also available from the...

  20. 45 CFR 162.920 - Availability of implementation specifications and operating rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, the..., call (202) 714-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr... availability on the materials at CMS, call (410) 786-6597. The materials are also available from the...

  1. 45 CFR 162.920 - Availability of implementation specifications and operating rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, the..., call (202) 714-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr... availability on the materials at CMS, call (410) 786-6597. The materials are also available from the...

  2. 78 FR 71508 - Availability of Federally-Enforceable State Implementation Plans for All States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... FR 55459. Subsequent notices of availability were published in the Federal Register on November 18, 1998 (63 FR 63986), November 20, 2001 (66 FR 58070), December 22, 2004 (69 FR 76617), November 15, 2007 (72 FR 64158), and November 24, 2010 (75 FR 71548). This is the seventh notice of availability of...

  3. Developing and Implementing a Discipline Plan for Hawthorne High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evanac, Diane M.

    This practicum paper describes a method for developing and implementing a student-discipline plan in a small, rural high school in north central Florida. The combined middle- and high-school is the poorest in the county. When corporal punishment was banned in the county and no alternatives were implemented, the number of suspensions increased. An…

  4. Engineering in High School: Implementing TMMW & TPE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordoloi, Kiron C.; Cole, Joseph D.

    1979-01-01

    The success of two engineering and technology-oriented secondary school programs is discussed. Also presented is the Man Made World and the Technology-People-Environment at two suburban high schools. (BB)

  5. 75 FR 4769 - Availability of Grant Funds and Proposed Implementation Guidelines; Withdrawal of Solicitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ...The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration publishes this notice to announce the withdrawal of the solicitation of applications for the NOAA Marine Aquaculture Initiative 2010, which was published in the NOAA ``Availability of Grant Funds for Fiscal Year 2010'' on January 19, 2010. A new funding opportunity with revised requirements and goals is under development and will be published......

  6. 77 FR 58063 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Reasonably Available Control Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... submittal on October 24, 2008, at 73 FR 63378. The revision to these sections has been in effect, federally... helped lower ozone levels in the HGB Area. See 75 FR 15348 of March 29, 2010. The revisions to these... reasonably available, considering technological and economic feasibility. See 44 FR 53761, September 17,...

  7. 77 FR 28338 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Reasonably Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... technology that is reasonably available considering technological and economic feasibility. See 44 FR 53761... regulations to control VOCs. See 58 FR 63085, November 30, 1993; 59 FR 46180, September 7, 1994; 59 FR 60908, November 29, 1994; and 60 FR 2018, January 6, 1995. The second requirement, set forth in section...

  8. 76 FR 44279 - Implementation of Section 304 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996: Commercial Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ...(b)(5), and 76.1602(b), published at 76 FR 40263, July 8, 2011, are effective on August 8, 2011. FOR..., FCC 10-181, and published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2011, 76 FR 40263, the Federal...: Commercial Availability of Navigation Devices; Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer...

  9. 75 FR 14116 - Approval of Implementation Plans of Wisconsin: Nitrogen Oxides Reasonably Available Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... approved in the Federal Register on January 26, 1996 (61 FR 2428). This NO X waiver, issued under section... (66 FR 56931). These other NO X rules were submitted as part of Wisconsin's reasonable further... reasonably available considering technological and economic feasibility (44 FR 53762). Section 302 of the...

  10. Status Update for Implementing Best Available Technology per DOE Order 5400.5 - September 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael George

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies discharges of liquid waste streams that require documentation of the Best Available Technology selection process at Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, operated facilities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Best Available Technology selection process is conducted according to Department of Energy Order 5400.5, Chapter II (3),“Management and Control of Radioactive Materials in Liquid Discharges and Phaseout of Soil Columns” and Department of Energy guidance. Only those liquid waste streams and facilities requiring the Best Available Technology selection process are evaluated in further detail. In addition, this report will be submitted to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office Field Office manager for approval according to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter II, Section 3.b.(1). Two facilities (Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center existing Percolation Ponds and Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Disposal Pond) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory required documentation of the Best Available Technology selection process (Section 4). These two facilities required documentation of the Best Available Technology selection process because they discharge wastewater that may contain process-derived radionuclides to a soil column even though the average radioactivity levels are typically below drinking water maximum contaminant levels. At the request of the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office, the 73.5-acre Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant land application site is included in Section 4 of this report to ensure the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter II, Section 3 are met. The Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant effluent contains process-derived radionuclides from radioactive tracers used in certain analytical procedures. The radioactivity levels of these radionuclides are below maximum contaminant levels. According to Department of Energy

  11. Status Update for Implementing Best Available Technology per DOE Order 5400.5

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Lewis

    2003-09-01

    This report identifies discharges of liquid waste streams that require documentation of the best available technology selection process at Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, operated facilities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The best available technology selection process is conducted according to Department of Energy Order 5400.5, Chapter II (3), ''Management and Control of Radioactive Materials in Liquid Discharges and Phaseout of Soil Columns'' and Department of Energy guidance. This report evaluates only those liquid waste streams and facilities where the best available technology selection process was determined to be applicable. In addition, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office will submit this report to their field office manager for approval according to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter II, Section 3.b.(1). According to Department of Energy guidance, ''If the liquid waste stream is below maximum contaminant levels, then the goals of the best available technology selection process are being met and the liquid waste stream is considered 'clean water.' However, it is necessary to document this through the best available technology selection process.'' Because liquid waste streams below drinking water maximum contaminant levels are already considered ''clean water,'' additional treatment technologies are considered unnecessary and unjustifiable on a cost-benefit basis and are not addressed in this report. Two facilities (Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center New Percolation Ponds and Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Disposal Pond) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory required documentation of the best available technology selection process (Section 4). These two facilities required documentation of the best available technology selection process because they discharge wastewater that may contain process-derived radionuclides to a soil column even though the average radioactivity levels

  12. Status Update for Implementing Best Available Technology per DOE Order 5400.5 (2003)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lewis

    2004-09-01

    This report identifies discharges of liquid waste streams that require documentation of the best available technology selection process at Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, operated facilities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The best available technology selection process is conducted according to Department of Energy Order 5400.5, Chapter II (3), “Management and Control of Radioactive Materials in Liquid Discharges and Phaseout of Soil Columns” and Department of Energy guidance. This report evaluates only those liquid waste streams and facilities where the best available technology selection process was determined to apply. Two facilities (Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center New Percolation Ponds and Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Plant Disposal Pond) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory required documentation of the best available technology selection process. These two facilities required documentation of the best available technology selection process because they discharge wastewater that may contain process-derived radionuclides to a soil column even though the average radioactivity levels are typically below drinking water maximum contaminant levels. At the request of the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office, the 73.5-acre Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant land application site is included in this report to ensure the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter II, Section 3 are met. The Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant effluent contains process-derived radionuclides from radioactive tracers used in certain analytical procedures. The radioactivity levels of these radionuclides are below maximum contaminant levels. The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office will submit this report to their field office manager for approval according to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter II, Section 3.b.(1).

  13. A DSP Based POD Implementation for High Speed Multimedia Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang Nian; Li, Hua; Zhang, Nuannuan; Xie, Jiesheng

    2002-12-01

    In the cable network services, the audio/video entertainment contents should be protected from unauthorized copying, intercepting, and tampering. Point-of-deployment (POD) security module, proposed by[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], allows viewers to receive secure cable services such as premium subscription channels, impulse pay-per-view, video-on-demand as well as other interactive services. In this paper, we present a digital signal processor (DSP) (TMS320C6211) based POD implementation for the real-time applications which include elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA), elliptic curve Diffie Hellman (ECDH) key exchange, elliptic curve key derivation function (ECKDF), cellular automata (CA) cryptography, communication processes between POD and Host, and Host authentication. In order to get different security levels and different rates of encryption/decryption, a CA based symmetric key cryptography algorithm is used whose encryption/decryption rate can be up to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. The experiment results indicate that the DSP based POD implementation provides high speed and flexibility, and satisfies the requirements of real-time video data transmission.

  14. Implementation of High Speed Distributed Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Anju P.; Sekhar, Ambika

    2012-09-01

    This paper introduces a high speed distributed data acquisition system based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The aim is to develop a "distributed" data acquisition interface. The development of instruments such as personal computers and engineering workstations based on "standard" platforms is the motivation behind this effort. Using standard platforms as the controlling unit allows independence in hardware from a particular vendor and hardware platform. The distributed approach also has advantages from a functional point of view: acquisition resources become available to multiple instruments; the acquisition front-end can be physically remote from the rest of the instrument. High speed data acquisition system transmits data faster to a remote computer system through Ethernet interface. The data is acquired through 16 analog input channels. The input data commands are multiplexed and digitized and then the data is stored in 1K buffer for each input channel. The main control unit in this design is the 16 bit processor implemented in the FPGA. This 16 bit processor is used to set up and initialize the data source and the Ethernet controller, as well as control the flow of data from the memory element to the NIC. Using this processor we can initialize and control the different configuration registers in the Ethernet controller in a easy manner. Then these data packets are sending to the remote PC through the Ethernet interface. The main advantages of the using FPGA as standard platform are its flexibility, low power consumption, short design duration, fast time to market, programmability and high density. The main advantages of using Ethernet controller AX88796 over others are its non PCI interface, the presence of embedded SRAM where transmit and reception buffers are located and high-performance SRAM-like interface. The paper introduces the implementation of the distributed data acquisition using FPGA by VHDL. The main advantages of this system are high

  15. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  16. Status Update for Implementing Best Available Technology per DOE Order 5400.5

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael George

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LCC, operated facilities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that require the Best Available Technology selection process in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5400.5, Chapter II (3), “Management and Control of Radioactive Materials in Liquid Discharges.”1 This report differs from previous reports in that only those liquid waste streams and facilities requiring the Best Available Technology selection process will be evaluated in detail. In addition, this report will be submitted to the DOE-ID Field Office Manager for approval in accordance with DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter II, Section 3.b.(1). The report also identifies facilities addressed in last year’s report that do not require the Best Available Technology selection process to be completed. These facilities will not be addressed in future reports. This report reviews the following facilities: • Auxiliary Reactor Area • Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Block Areas • Central Facilities Area • Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center • Idaho Falls Facilities • Power Burst Facility • Radioactive Waste Management Complex • Test Area North • Test Reactor Area. Three facilities (Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Percolation Ponds and Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Disposal Pond) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory required documentation of the Best Available Technology selection process. The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Percolation Ponds and Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Disposal Pond discharge wastewater that may contain process-derived radionuclides to a soil column with average radionuclide concentrations below drinking water MCLs. At the request of the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office, Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC has included the 73.5acre

  17. 2006 Update for Implementing Best Available Technology per DOE Order 5400.5

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Lewis

    2007-09-01

    In accordance with Contract Data Requirements List F.19, this report addresses the Best Available Technology requirements per Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,” as they apply to radiological discharges to the soil for Calendar Year 2006. The report includes review of discharges for both, Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC and CH2M WG Idaho, LLC. The Best Available Technology selection process is applicable to wastewater discharges containing process derived radionuclides to surface waters, sanitary sewerages greater than five times the Derived Concentration Guideline (found in DOE Order 5400.5), and to the soil. Wastewater at the Idaho National Laboratory Site is not discharged to surface water (Big Lost River and Birch Creek) nor is it discharged to sanitary sewerages at activity levels greater than five times a Derived Concentration Guideline. Therefore, this report focuses on radiological discharges to the soil.

  18. High Molybdenum availability for evolution in a Mesoproterozoic lacustrine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, John; Spinks, Samuel; Andrews, Steven; Thayalan, Wanethon; Bowden, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    Trace metal data for Proterozoic marine euxinic sediments imply that the expansion of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and diversification of eukaryotes were delayed while the availability of bioessential metals such as molybdenum in the ocean was limited. However, there is increasing recognition that the Mesoproterozoic evolution of nitrogen fixation and eukaryotic life may have been promoted in marginal marine and terrestrial environments, including lakes, rather than in the deep ocean. Molybdenum availability is critical to life in lakes, just as it is in the oceans. It is, therefore, important to assess molybdenum availability to the lacustrine environment in the Mesoproterozoic. Here we show that the flux of molybdenum to a Mesoproterozoic lake was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than typical fluxes in the modern and ancient marine environment. Thus, there was no barrier to availability to prevent evolution in the terrestrial environment, in contrast to the nutrient-limited Mesoproterozoic oceans.

  19. High Molybdenum availability for evolution in a Mesoproterozoic lacustrine environment.

    PubMed

    Parnell, John; Spinks, Samuel; Andrews, Steven; Thayalan, Wanethon; Bowden, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Trace metal data for Proterozoic marine euxinic sediments imply that the expansion of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and diversification of eukaryotes were delayed while the availability of bioessential metals such as molybdenum in the ocean was limited. However, there is increasing recognition that the Mesoproterozoic evolution of nitrogen fixation and eukaryotic life may have been promoted in marginal marine and terrestrial environments, including lakes, rather than in the deep ocean. Molybdenum availability is critical to life in lakes, just as it is in the oceans. It is, therefore, important to assess molybdenum availability to the lacustrine environment in the Mesoproterozoic. Here we show that the flux of molybdenum to a Mesoproterozoic lake was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than typical fluxes in the modern and ancient marine environment. Thus, there was no barrier to availability to prevent evolution in the terrestrial environment, in contrast to the nutrient-limited Mesoproterozoic oceans. PMID:25988499

  20. 2005 Update for Implementing Best Available Technology per DOE Order 5400.5

    SciTech Connect

    INL

    2006-09-01

    The report addresses Best Available Technology per DOE Order 5400.5 in relation to wastewater discharges to the soil. In accordance with Contract Data Requirements List F.19, this report addresses the Best Available Technology requirements per Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, "Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment", as they apply to radiological discharges to the soil for Calendar Year 2005. The report includes review of discharges for both, Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC and CH2M WG Idaho, LLC. The Best Available Technology selection process is applicable to wastewater discharges containing process derived radionuclides to surface waters, sanitary sewerages greater than five times the Derived Concentration Guideline (found in DOE Order 5400.5), and to the soil. Wastewater at the Idaho National Laboratory Site is not discharged to surface water (Big Lost River and Birch Creek) nor is it discharged to sanitary sewerages at activity levels greater than five times a Derived Concentration Guideline. Therefore, this report focuses on radiological discharges to the soil.

  1. 75 FR 27256 - Implementation of Section 304 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996: Commercial Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ..., (ii) an Ethernet interface, (iii) Wi-Fi connectivity, or (iv) USB 3.0 on all high-definition set-top... the mandate of Section 629, the FCC adopted rules in its First Report and Order, 63 FR 38089, that... Report and Order, 68 FR 66728, that largely reflected the terms of a Memorandum of Understanding...

  2. Implementation of high throughput experimentation techniques for kinetic reaction testing.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Anton J

    2012-02-01

    Successful implementation of High throughput Experimentation (EE) tools has resulted in their increased acceptance as essential tools in chemical, petrochemical and polymer R&D laboratories. This article provides a number of concrete examples of EE systems, which have been designed and successfully implemented in studies, which focus on deriving reaction kinetic data. The implementation of high throughput EE tools for performing kinetic studies of both catalytic and non-catalytic systems results in a significantly faster acquisition of high-quality kinetic modeling data, required to quantitatively predict the behavior of complex, multistep reactions. PMID:21902639

  3. Does High Educational Attainment Limit the Availability of Romantic Partners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…

  4. High sensitivity of northeastern broadleaf forest trees to water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, M.; Pederson, N.; Andreu-Hayles, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperate deciduous forests of eastern US provide goods and services to millions of people and play a vital role in the terrestrial carbon and hydrological cycles. However, ongoing climate change and increased in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere (ca) are expected to alter growth and gas exchange of trees, and ultimately forest productivity. Still, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. A better comprehension of the species-specific responses to environmental changes will better inform models and managers on the vulnerability and resiliency of these forests. Tree-ring analysis was combined with δ¹³C and δ18O measurements to investigate growth and physiological responses of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in northeastern US to changes in water availability and ca for the period 1950-2014. We found very strong correlations between summer climatic water balance (June-August) and isotopic tree-ring series for δ¹³C (r = -0.65 and -0.73), and δ18O (r = -0.59 and -0.70), for red oak and tulip poplar, respectively. In contrast, tree-ring width was less sensitive to summer water availability (r = 0.33-0.39). Prior to the mid 1980s, low water availability resulted in low stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and growth. Since that period, pluvial conditions occurring in northeastern US have increased stomatal conductance, carbon uptake, and growth of both species. These findings demonstrate that broadleaf trees in this region could be more sensitive to drought than expected. This appears especially true since much of the calibration period looks wet in a multi-centennial perspective. Further, stronger spatial correlations were found between climate data with tree-ring isotopes than with tree-ring width and the geographical area of the observed δ18O-precipitation response (i.e. the area over which correlations are > 0.5) covers most of the northeastern US. Given the good fit between the isotopic time series and water

  5. Availability of high-pressure safety injection system in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.H.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of typical variations in configuration of the design of the High Pressure Injection (HPSI) System on system unavailability. The HPSI systems in seventeen nuclear power plants were reviewed for variations in design, systems operation, testing and maintenance policies, and possible sources for common cause failures. The power plants reviewed include PWRs with two, three and four loop Reactor Coolant Systems and cover all three PWR vendors. As a result of this effort, the following five representative configurations (along with some variations) were identified and their unavailability to initiate injection was estimated.

  6. Dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipole implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, W.C.; Meng, W.; Mernick, K.; Pai, C.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.

    2010-05-02

    AC-dipole magnets are typically implemented as a parallel LC resonant circuit. To maximize efficiency, it's beneficial to operate at a high Q. This, however, limits the magnet to a narrow frequency range. Current designs therefore operate at a low Q to provide a wider bandwidth at the cost of efficiency. Dynamically tuning a high Q resonant circuit tries to maintain a high efficiency while providing a wide frequency range. The results of ongoing efforts at BNL to implement dynamically tuned high-Q AC dipoles will be presented.

  7. Availability of High School Extracurricular Sports Programs and High-Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Taylor, Stephanie L.; Zonta, Michela; Vestal, Katherine D.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Surgeon General has called for an expansion of school-based extracurricular sports programs to address the obesity epidemic. However, little is known about the availability of and participation in high school extracurricular sports and how participation in these sports is related to high-risk behaviors. Methods: We surveyed Los…

  8. Symmetric Active/Active Metadata Service for High Availability Parallel File Systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ou, Li; Engelmann, Christian; Chen, Xin; Scott, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    High availability data storage systems are critical for many applications as research and business become more data-driven. Since metadata management is essential to system availability, multiple metadata services are used to improve the availability of distributed storage systems. Past research focused on the active/standby model, where each active service has at least one redundant idle backup. However, interruption of service and even some loss of service state may occur during a fail-over depending on the used replication technique. In addition, the replication overhead for multiple metadata services can be very high. The research in this paper targets the symmetric active/active replication model, which uses multiple redundant service nodes running in virtual synchrony. In this model, service node failures do not cause a fail-over to a backup and there is no disruption of service or loss of service state. We further discuss a fast delivery protocol to reduce the latency of the needed total order broadcast. Our prototype implementation shows that metadata service high availability can be achieved with an acceptable performance trade-off using our symmetric active/active metadata service solution.

  9. Implementation of weather stations at Ghanaian high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieron, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an initiative that aims to develop a dense weather observation network in Sub-Sahara Africa. The ambition is to have 20.000 low-cost innovative weather stations in place in 2015. An increased amount of weather data is locally required to provide stakeholders that are dependent on the weather, such as farmers and fishermen, with accurate forecasts. As a first proof of concept, showing that sensors can be built at costs lower than commercially available, a disdrometer was developed. In parallel with the design of the measurement instruments, a high school curriculum is developed that covers environmental sciences. In order to find out which requirements the TAHMO weather station and accompanying educational materials should meet for optimal use at Junior High Schools research was done at Ghanaian schools. Useful insights regarding the future African context of the weather station and requirements for an implementation strategy were obtained during workshops with teachers and students, visits to WMO observatories and case studies regarding use of educational materials. The poster presents the conclusions of this research, which is part of the bigger TAHMO framework.

  10. High School Reform Implementation: Principals' Perceptions on Their Leadership Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Smith, Kimberly A.; White, Monica A.

    2009-01-01

    This research is a collection of comparative case studies that examine the perspectives of four principals in their 1st year of implementing the High School College Collaborative (HSCC), which works to provide traditionally underserved high school students with the opportunity to receive college credit, possibly an associate of arts degree,…

  11. Performing Arts Program, Badger High School: Justification, Proposal, Implementation, Stage One Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Dan

    This document presents a justification, proposal, and implementation plan for a comprehensive theatre arts program at Badger High School, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin that would offer a full schedule of amateur and professional arts programs involving the students and the community. The brief Justification section notes that every elementary and…

  12. On implementing MPI-IO portably and with high performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, R.; Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.

    1998-11-30

    We discuss the issues involved in implementing MPI-IO portably on multiple machines and file systems and also achieving high performance. One way to implement MPI-IO portably is to implement it on top of the basic Unix I/O functions (open, seek, read, write, and close), which are themselves portable. We argue that this approach has limitations in both functionality and performance. We instead advocate an implementation approach that combines a large portion of portable code and a small portion of code that is optimized separately for different machines and file systems. We have used such an approach to develop a high-performance, portable MPI-IO implementation, called ROMIO. In addition to basic I/O functionality, we consider the issues of supporting other MPI-IO features, such as 64-bit file sizes, noncontiguous accesses, collective I/O, asynchronous I/O, consistency and atomicity semantics, user-supplied hints, shared file pointers, portable data representation, file preallocation, and some miscellaneous features. We describe how we implemented each of these features on various machines and file systems. The machines we consider are the HP Exemplar, IBM SP, Intel Paragon, NEC SX-4, SGI Origin2000, and networks of workstations; and the file systems we consider are HP HFS, IBM PIOFS, Intel PFS, NEC SFS, SGI XFS, NFS, and any general Unix file system (UFS). We also present our thoughts on how a file system can be designed to better support MPI-IO. We provide a list of features desired from a file system that would help in implementing MPI-IO correctly and with high performance.

  13. Technology's Achilles Heel: Achieving High-Quality Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    2010-01-01

    An inherent characteristic of technology education is the continual development of new technologies and creating innovative applications of already existing technologies. As exciting as these innovations can be, technology educators and school staffs are frequently challenged to accomplish high levels of implementation. The metaphor of the…

  14. The Design, Development, and Implementation of LUDA Virtual High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrasidas, Charalambos

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Large Unit District Association virtual high school (LUDA-VHS) project and discuss its design, development, and implementation. A model developed at the Center for the Application of Information Technologies for designing online classes will be presented and discussed. The focus of the paper will be to…

  15. Implementing RTI in a High School: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This case study chronicles the efforts of a small high school over a 2-year period as it designed and implemented a response to intervention (RTI) program for students at the school. Their efforts were largely successful, with improved achievement, attendance, and grade point averages and a decrease in special education referrals. Major themes…

  16. Cooperative implementation of a high temperature acoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, S. E.; Nowakowski, Edward; Smith, Herbert G.; Friebele, E. J.; Putnam, Martin A.; Rogowski, Robert; Melvin, Leland D.; Claus, Richard O.; Tran, Tuan; Holben, Milford S., Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The current status and results of a cooperative program aimed at the implementation of a high-temperature acoustic/strain sensor onto metallic structures are reported. The sensor systems that are to be implemented under this program will measure thermal expansion, maneuver loads, aircraft buffet, sonic fatigue, and acoustic emissions in environments that approach 1800 F. The discussion covers fiber development, fabrication of an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer acoustic sensor, sensor mounting/integration, and results of an evaluation of the sensor capabilities.

  17. FPGA Implementation of Highly Modular Fast Universal Discrete Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potipantong, Panan; Sirisuk, Phaophak; Oraintara, Soontorn; Worapishet, Apisak

    This paper presents an FPGA implementation of highly modular universal discrete transforms. The implementation relies upon the unified discrete Fourier Hartley transform (UDFHT), based on which essential sinusoidal transforms including discrete Fourier transform (DFT), discrete Hartley transform (DHT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete sine transform (DST) can be realized. It employs a reconfigurable, scalable and modular architecture that consists of a memory-based FFT processor equipped with pre- and post-processing units. Besides, a pipelining technique is exploited to seamlessly harmonize the operation between each sub-module. Experimental results based on Xilinx Virtex-II Pro are given to examine the performance of the proposed UDFHT implementation. Two practical applications are also shown to demonstrate the flexibility and modularity of the proposed work.

  18. High-Performance CCSDS Encapsulation Service Implementation in FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Encapsulation Service is a convergence layer between lower-layer space data link framing protocols, such as CCSDS Advanced Orbiting System (AOS), and higher-layer networking protocols, such as CFDP (CCSDS File Delivery Protocol) and Internet Protocol Extension (IPE). CCSDS Encapsulation Service is considered part of the data link layer. The CCSDS AOS implementation is described in the preceding article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS Encapsulation Service needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate. CCSDS Encapsulation Service has been implemented as an intellectual property core so that the aforementioned problems are solved by way of operating the CCSDS Encapsulation Service inside an FPGA. The CCSDS En capsula tion Service in FPGA implementation consists of both packetizing and de-packetizing features

  19. A high performance hardware implementation image encryption with AES algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmani, Ali; Jafari, Mohamad; Miremadi, Seyed Sohrab

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes implementation of a high-speed encryption algorithm with high throughput for encrypting the image. Therefore, we select a highly secured symmetric key encryption algorithm AES(Advanced Encryption Standard), in order to increase the speed and throughput using pipeline technique in four stages, control unit based on logic gates, optimal design of multiplier blocks in mixcolumn phase and simultaneous production keys and rounds. Such procedure makes AES suitable for fast image encryption. Implementation of a 128-bit AES on FPGA of Altra company has been done and the results are as follow: throughput, 6 Gbps in 471MHz. The time of encrypting in tested image with 32*32 size is 1.15ms.

  20. Design and implementation of super broadband high speed waveguide switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Chao, Ju-Hung; Wang, Chao; Yao, Jimmy; Yin, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, based on the theory of dynamic waveguiding effect in nanodisordered KTN crystals, a detailed design and implementation of a super broadband 1x2 high speed waveguide switch is presented. The important waveguide parameters, including the dimension, the refractive index distribution, and the electric field distribution within the waveguide are quantitatively simulated and analyzed. An experimental verification of switching effect based on the design is also conducted, which confirmed the design. The broadband and high speed nature of such kind of switch can play a key role in data center networks and cloud computing, which needs low power consumption and high speed switches.

  1. Developing and implementing a high precision setup system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lee-Cheng

    The demand for high-precision radiotherapy (HPRT) was first implemented in stereotactic radiosurgery using a rigid, invasive stereotactic head frame. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with a frameless device was developed along a growing interest in sophisticated treatment with a tight margin and high-dose gradient. This dissertation establishes the complete management for HPRT in the process of frameless SRT, including image-guided localization, immobilization, and dose evaluation. The most ideal and precise positioning system can allow for ease of relocation, real-time patient movement assessment, high accuracy, and no additional dose in daily use. A new image-guided stereotactic positioning system (IGSPS), the Align RT3C 3D surface camera system (ART, VisionRT), which combines 3D surface images and uses a real-time tracking technique, was developed to ensure accurate positioning at the first place. The uncertainties of current optical tracking system, which causes patient discomfort due to additional bite plates using the dental impression technique and external markers, are found. The accuracy and feasibility of ART is validated by comparisons with the optical tracking and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems. Additionally, an effective daily quality assurance (QA) program for the linear accelerator and multiple IGSPSs is the most important factor to ensure system performance in daily use. Currently, systematic errors from the phantom variety and long measurement time caused by switching phantoms were discovered. We investigated the use of a commercially available daily QA device to improve the efficiency and thoroughness. Reasonable action level has been established by considering dosimetric relevance and clinic flow. As for intricate treatments, the effect of dose deviation caused by setup errors remains uncertain on tumor coverage and toxicity on OARs. The lack of adequate dosimetric simulations based on the true treatment coordinates from

  2. High performance computing and communications: FY 1996 implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-16

    The High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program was formally authorized by passage of the High Performance Computing Act of 1991, signed on December 9, 1991. Twelve federal agencies, in collaboration with scientists and managers from US industry, universities, and research laboratories, have developed the Program to meet the challenges of advancing computing and associated communications technologies and practices. This plan provides a detailed description of the agencies` HPCC implementation plans for FY 1995 and FY 1996. This Implementation Plan contains three additional sections. Section 3 provides an overview of the HPCC Program definition and organization. Section 4 contains a breakdown of the five major components of the HPCC Program, with an emphasis on the overall directions and milestones planned for each one. Section 5 provides a detailed look at HPCC Program activities within each agency.

  3. Implementing High Performance Remote Method Invocation in CCA

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Agarwal, Khushbu; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Gorton, Ian; Epperly, Thomas G.

    2011-09-30

    We report our effort in engineering a high performance remote method invocation (RMI) mechanism for the Common Component Architecture (CCA). This mechanism provides a highly efficient and easy-to-use mechanism for distributed computing in CCA, enabling CCA applications to effectively leverage parallel systems to accelerate computations. This work is built on the previous work of Babel RMI. Babel is a high performance language interoperability tool that is used in CCA for scientific application writers to share, reuse, and compose applications from software components written in different programming languages. Babel provides a transparent and flexible RMI framework for distributed computing. However, the existing Babel RMI implementation is built on top of TCP and does not provide the level of performance required to distribute fine-grained tasks. We observed that the main reason the TCP based RMI does not perform well is because it does not utilize the high performance interconnect hardware on a cluster efficiently. We have implemented a high performance RMI protocol, HPCRMI. HPCRMI achieves low latency by building on top of a low-level portable communication library, Aggregated Remote Message Copy Interface (ARMCI), and minimizing communication for each RMI call. Our design allows a RMI operation to be completed by only two RDMA operations. We also aggressively optimize our system to reduce copying. In this paper, we discuss the design and our experimental evaluation of this protocol. Our experimental results show that our protocol can improve RMI performance by an order of magnitude.

  4. Implementation Challenges for Ceramic Matrix Composites in High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, electronics, nuclear, and transportation industries. In the aeronautics and space exploration systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters (DPFs), and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. There are a number of critical issues and challenges related to successful implementation of composite materials. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, microstructure and thermomechanical properties of composites fabricated by two techniques (chemical vapor infiltration and melt infiltration), will be presented. In addition, critical need for robust joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed. Other implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  5. High performance computing and communications: FY 1995 implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    The High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program was formally established following passage of the High Performance Computing Act of 1991 signed on December 9, 1991. Ten federal agencies in collaboration with scientists and managers from US industry, universities, and laboratories have developed the HPCC Program to meet the challenges of advancing computing and associated communications technologies and practices. This plan provides a detailed description of the agencies` HPCC implementation plans for FY 1994 and FY 1995. This Implementation Plan contains three additional sections. Section 3 provides an overview of the HPCC Program definition and organization. Section 4 contains a breakdown of the five major components of the HPCC Program, with an emphasis on the overall directions and milestones planned for each one. Section 5 provides a detailed look at HPCC Program activities within each agency. Although the Department of Education is an official HPCC agency, its current funding and reporting of crosscut activities goes through the Committee on Education and Health Resources, not the HPCC Program. For this reason the Implementation Plan covers nine HPCC agencies.

  6. High Performance Storage System Scalability: Architecture, Implementation, and Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R W

    2005-01-05

    The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) provides scalable hierarchical storage management (HSM), archive, and file system services. Its design, implementation and current dominant use are focused on HSM and archive services. It is also a general-purpose, global, shared, parallel file system, potentially useful in other application domains. When HPSS design and implementation began over a decade ago, scientific computing power and storage capabilities at a site, such as a DOE national laboratory, was measured in a few 10s of gigaops, data archived in HSMs in a few 10s of terabytes at most, data throughput rates to an HSM in a few megabytes/s, and daily throughput with the HSM in a few gigabytes/day. At that time, the DOE national laboratories and IBM HPSS design team recognized that we were headed for a data storage explosion driven by computing power rising to teraops/petaops requiring data stored in HSMs to rise to petabytes and beyond, data transfer rates with the HSM to rise to gigabytes/s and higher, and daily throughput with a HSM in 10s of terabytes/day. This paper discusses HPSS architectural, implementation and deployment experiences that contributed to its success in meeting the above orders of magnitude scaling targets. We also discuss areas that need additional attention as we continue significant scaling into the future.

  7. Compliance with best practice: implementing the best available evidence in the use of physical restraint in residential aged care.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Janet

    2008-09-01

    The Aged Care Clinical Fellowship, funded by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing and conducted through the Joanna Briggs Institute is an initiative designed to improve the care of older Australians through clinical leadership and promotion of best practice. This paper outlines one of the projects undertaken at Carinya of Bicton, a residential aged high care facility, using an audit and feedback process to implement best practice standards in the use of physical restraint. Aims  Between 12% and 47% of residents in residential care facilities are restrained; however, initial observation of residents restrained in the project facility showed that restraint devices were utilised in up to 40% of residents. Within the aged care sector there has been a shift in attitude to reducing or eliminating restraint in aged care facilities. Restraint is seen as a negative experience for the resident, being associated with physical discomfort, embarrassment and restriction of freedom and of movement. The purpose of the project was to improve practice in the area of physical restraint through the process of auditing current practice against evidence-based, best practice criteria and ultimately to reduce the level of restraint in the facility. Methods  This practice improvement project utilised an audit and implementation cycle. The Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and best practice criteria developed from a systematic review were used to determine compliance with best practice. The Getting Research into Practice module was then employed to develop strategies to improve practice. Results  The follow-up audit indicated there has been a reduction in the number of residents restrained, increased use of alternatives to restraint and an awareness on the part of all care staff of the policies and procedures, which govern the use of restraint in the facility. Conclusions  It is recognised that the success of this project is in

  8. Implementing RTI in a high school: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This case study chronicles the efforts of a small high school over a 2-year period as it designed an implemented a response to intervention (RTI) program for students at the school. Their efforts were largely successful, with improved achievement, attendance, and grade point averages and a decrease in special education referrals. Major themes include the need to focus on quality core instruction as a means for preventing school failure, adopting a schoolwide approach, and developing curriculum-based assessments that make intervention meaningful. PMID:21685349

  9. High-Performance CCSDS AOS Protocol Implementation in FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) space data link protocol provides a framing layer between channel coding such as LDPC (low-density parity-check) and higher-layer link multiplexing protocols such as CCSDS Encapsulation Service, which is described in the following article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

  10. Systems and Methods for Implementing High-Temperature Tolerant Supercapacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik J. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement high-temperature tolerant supercapacitors. In one embodiment, a high-temperature tolerant super capacitor includes a first electrode that is thermally stable between at least approximately 80C and approximately 300C; a second electrode that is thermally stable between at least approximately 80C and approximately 300C; an ionically conductive separator that is thermally stable between at least approximately 80C and 300C; an electrolyte that is thermally stable between approximately at least 80C and approximately 300C; where the first electrode and second electrode are separated by the separator such that the first electrode and second electrode are not in physical contact; and where each of the first electrode and second electrode is at least partially immersed in the electrolyte solution.

  11. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  12. Design and implementation of a high performance network security processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haixin; Bai, Guoqiang; Chen, Hongyi

    2010-03-01

    The last few years have seen many significant progresses in the field of application-specific processors. One example is network security processors (NSPs) that perform various cryptographic operations specified by network security protocols and help to offload the computation intensive burdens from network processors (NPs). This article presents a high performance NSP system architecture implementation intended for both internet protocol security (IPSec) and secure socket layer (SSL) protocol acceleration, which are widely employed in virtual private network (VPN) and e-commerce applications. The efficient dual one-way pipelined data transfer skeleton and optimised integration scheme of the heterogenous parallel crypto engine arrays lead to a Gbps rate NSP, which is programmable with domain specific descriptor-based instructions. The descriptor-based control flow fragments large data packets and distributes them to the crypto engine arrays, which fully utilises the parallel computation resources and improves the overall system data throughput. A prototyping platform for this NSP design is implemented with a Xilinx XC3S5000 based FPGA chip set. Results show that the design gives a peak throughput for the IPSec ESP tunnel mode of 2.85 Gbps with over 2100 full SSL handshakes per second at a clock rate of 95 MHz.

  13. Formation Flying Control Implementation in Highly Elliptical Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capo-Lugo, Pedro A.; Bainum, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The Tschauner-Hempel equations are widely used to correct the separation distance drifts between a pair of satellites within a constellation in highly elliptical orbits [1]. This set of equations was discretized in the true anomaly angle [1] to be used in a digital steady-state hierarchical controller [2]. This controller [2] performed the drift correction between a pair of satellites within the constellation. The objective of a discretized system is to develop a simple algorithm to be implemented in the computer onboard the satellite. The main advantage of the discrete systems is that the computational time can be reduced by selecting a suitable sampling interval. For this digital system, the amount of data will depend on the sampling interval in the true anomaly angle [3]. The purpose of this paper is to implement the discrete Tschauner-Hempel equations and the steady-state hierarchical controller in the computer onboard the satellite. This set of equations is expressed in the true anomaly angle in which a relation will be formulated between the time and the true anomaly angle domains.

  14. Highly parallel implementation of non-adiabatic Ehrenfest molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Yosuke; Schleife, Andre; Draeger, Erik; Anisimov, Victor; Correa, Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    While the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation tremendously lowers computational effort, many questions in modern physics, chemistry, and materials science require an explicit description of coupled non-adiabatic electron-ion dynamics. Electronic stopping, i.e. the energy transfer of a fast projectile atom to the electronic system of the target material, is a notorious example. We recently implemented real-time time-dependent density functional theory based on the plane-wave pseudopotential formalism in the Qbox/qb@ll codes. We demonstrate that explicit integration using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme is very suitable for modern highly parallelized supercomputers. Applying the new implementation to systems with hundreds of atoms and thousands of electrons, we achieved excellent performance and scalability on a large number of nodes both on the BlueGene based ``Sequoia'' system at LLNL as well as the Cray architecture of ``Blue Waters'' at NCSA. As an example, we discuss our work on computing the electronic stopping power of aluminum and gold for hydrogen projectiles, showing an excellent agreement with experiment. These first-principles calculations allow us to gain important insight into the the fundamental physics of electronic stopping.

  15. Design and implementation of high throughput screening assays.

    PubMed

    Macarrón, Ricardo; Hertzberg, Robert P

    2011-03-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) is at the core of the drug discovery process, and so it is critical to design and implement HTS assays in a comprehensive fashion involving scientists from the disciplines of biology, chemistry, engineering, and informatics. This requires careful analysis of many variables, starting with the choice of assay target and ending with the discovery of lead compounds. At every step in this process, there are decisions to be made that can greatly impact the outcome of the HTS effort, to the point of making it a success or a failure. Although specific guidelines should be established to insure that the screening assay reaches an acceptable level of quality, many choices require pragmatism and the ability to compromise opposing forces. PMID:20865348

  16. Design and implementation of highly parallel pipelined VLSI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delange, Alphonsus Anthonius Jozef

    A methodology and its realization as a prototype CAD (Computer Aided Design) system for the design and analysis of complex multiprocessor systems is presented. The design is an iterative process in which the behavioral specifications of the system components are refined into structural descriptions consisting of interconnections and lower level components etc. A model for the representation and analysis of multiprocessor systems at several levels of abstraction and an implementation of a CAD system based on this model are described. A high level design language, an object oriented development kit for tool design, a design data management system, and design and analysis tools such as a high level simulator and graphics design interface which are integrated into the prototype system and graphics interface are described. Procedures for the synthesis of semiregular processor arrays, and to compute the switching of input/output signals, memory management and control of processor array, and sequencing and segmentation of input/output data streams due to partitioning and clustering of the processor array during the subsequent synthesis steps, are described. The architecture and control of a parallel system is designed and each component mapped to a module or module generator in a symbolic layout library, compacted for design rules of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) technology. An example of the design of a processor that is a useful building block for highly parallel pipelined systems in the signal/image processing domains is given.

  17. Design and implementation of high dynamic GNSS digital receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hanmei; Geng, Shengqun; Wang, Ce; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Qishan

    2007-11-01

    The paper presents a scheme of high dynamic GNSS digital receiver using FPGA xc4vsx55 of XILINX and DSP TMS320VC6701 of TI as core controller. Besides brief introduction of scheme design and hardware structure, the paper comprehensively introduces design and implementation of algorithms of fast acquisition and tracking of spread spectrum signal in high dynamic environment. Through optimized design, fast acquisition and tracking of both C code (coarse ranging code) and P code (precision ranging code) are realized in one chip of FPGA, under the control of DSP. Employing FFT-based fast acquisition algorithm, acquisition unit realizes the fast acquisition by duplicated using two FFT/IFFT units with time-sharing fashion, and other optimized FFT calculation structures. Carrier tracking loop is realized by adopting FLL+PLL method which using FLL tracking carrier Doppler shift with greater bandwidth making loop closed rapidly and using PLL precisely tracking carrier phase so as to achieve perfect tracking effects. PN code tracking loop is realized by using multiple non-coherent DLLs with various correlation spacing, which satisfying the requirements of larger tracking range as well as higher tracking precision by using broad spacing accomplishing initial tracking and narrow spacing realizing high precision tracking.

  18. A Very High Order, Adaptable MESA Implementation for Aeroacoustic Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dydson, Roger W.; Goodrich, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Since computational efficiency and wave resolution scale with accuracy, the ideal would be infinitely high accuracy for problems with widely varying wavelength scales. Currently, many of the computational aeroacoustics methods are limited to 4th order accurate Runge-Kutta methods in time which limits their resolution and efficiency. However, a new procedure for implementing the Modified Expansion Solution Approximation (MESA) schemes, based upon Hermitian divided differences, is presented which extends the effective accuracy of the MESA schemes to 57th order in space and time when using 128 bit floating point precision. This new approach has the advantages of reducing round-off error, being easy to program. and is more computationally efficient when compared to previous approaches. Its accuracy is limited only by the floating point hardware. The advantages of this new approach are demonstrated by solving the linearized Euler equations in an open bi-periodic domain. A 500th order MESA scheme can now be created in seconds, making these schemes ideally suited for the next generation of high performance 256-bit (double quadruple) or higher precision computers. This ease of creation makes it possible to adapt the algorithm to the mesh in time instead of its converse: this is ideal for resolving varying wavelength scales which occur in noise generation simulations. And finally, the sources of round-off error which effect the very high order methods are examined and remedies provided that effectively increase the accuracy of the MESA schemes while using current computer technology.

  19. Assessing a parsimonious eco-hydrological model implementation to an Aleppo pine semiarid forest through available remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medici, C.; Pasquato, M.; Frances, F.

    2013-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid climates cover a large portion of Earth's terrestrial surface and most of the ecosystems under these conditions represent hot spots in terms of Global Change consequences. In fact, the ecosystems are controlled by water availability, inducing a tight interconnection between the hydrological cycle and the vegetation dynamics. For this reason, it is essential to model these two systems, vegetational and hydrological, concurrently. However, frequently, in operational applications the available information is quite limited. Therefore parsimonious models together with available satellite information can be valuable tools to predict the vegetation dynamic. In this work, a parsimonious dynamic vegetation model is applied to a semi-arid Aleppo Pine forest area in the south-east of Spain. The model simulates biomass increase as related to the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) through the light use efficiency (LUE). The model is then tested against several available products offered by MODIS instruments flying onboard the Terra and Aqua satellite. The satellite information used in this study is the following: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), both included in the products MOD13Q1 and MYD13Q1 and provided every 16 days at 250-meters spatial resolution; the Leaf Area Index (LAI), included in the products MOD15A2 and MYD15A2 and provided every 8 days at 1000-meters spatial resolution; the actual Evapotranspiration (ET), included in the MOD16A2 product and provided every 8 days at 1000-meters spatial resolution. These satellite data were analyzed for the period 2000 - 2011 over the study area, averaging the spatial distributed data to obtain the evolution through time. All four products showed a marked seasonal quasi-sinusoidal behavior, but differences between them were noticed regarding the timing of peaks. NDVI showed a strong dependence on soil moisture and leaf water content

  20. Clinical review: Strict or loose glycemic control in critically ill patients - implementing best available evidence from randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Glycemic control aiming at normoglycemia, frequently referred to as 'strict glycemic control' (SGC), decreased mortality and morbidity of adult critically ill patients in two randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five successive RCTs, however, failed to show benefit of SGC with one trial even reporting an unexpected higher mortality. Consequently, enthusiasm for the implementation of SGC has declined, hampering translation of SGC into daily ICU practice. In this manuscript we attempt to explain the variances in outcomes of the RCTs of SGC, and point out other limitations of the current literature on glycemic control in ICU patients. There are several alternative explanations for why the five negative RCTs showed no beneficial effects of SGC, apart from the possibility that SGC may indeed not benefit ICU patients. These include, but are not restricted to, variability in the performance of SGC, differences among trial designs, changes in standard of care, differences in timing (that is, initiation) of SGC, and the convergence between the intervention groups and control groups with respect to achieved blood glucose levels in the successive RCTs. Additional factors that may hamper translation of SGC into daily ICU practice include the feared risk of severe hypoglycemia, additional labor associated with SGC, and uncertainties about who the primarily responsible caregiver should be for the implementation of SGC. PMID:20550725

  1. Building a highly available and intrusion tolerant Database Security and Protection System (DSPS).

    PubMed

    Cai, Liang; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Dong, Jin-Xiang

    2003-01-01

    Database Security and Protection System (DSPS) is a security platform for fighting malicious DBMS. The security and performance are critical to DSPS. The authors suggested a key management scheme by combining the server group structure to improve availability and the key distribution structure needed by proactive security. This paper detailed the implementation of proactive security in DSPS. After thorough performance analysis, the authors concluded that the performance difference between the replicated mechanism and proactive mechanism becomes smaller and smaller with increasing number of concurrent connections; and that proactive security is very useful and practical for large, critical applications. PMID:12765281

  2. High nutrient availability reduces the diversity and stability of the equine caecal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Naja C. K.; Avershina, Ekaterina; Mydland, Liv T.; Næsset, Jon A.; Austbø, Dag; Moen, Birgitte; Måge, Ingrid; Rudi, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well known that nutrient availability can alter the gut microbiota composition, while the effect on diversity and temporal stability remains largely unknown. Methods Here we address the equine caecal microbiota temporal stability, diversity, and functionality in response to diets with different levels of nutrient availability. Hay (low and slower nutrient availability) versus a mixture of hay and whole oats (high and more rapid nutrient availability) were used as experimental diets. Results We found major effects on the microbiota despite that the caecal pH was far from sub-clinical acidosis. We found that the low nutrient availability diet was associated with a higher level of both diversity and temporal stability of the caecal microbiota than the high nutrient availability diet. These observations concur with general ecological theories, suggesting a stabilising effect of biological diversity and that high nutrient availability has a destabilising effect through reduced diversity. Conclusion Nutrient availability does not only change the composition but also the ecology of the caecal microbiota. PMID:26246403

  3. SU-E-T-492: Implementing a Method for Brain Irradiation in Rats Utilizing a Commercially Available Radiosurgery Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, J; Drzymala, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to implement a method for accurate rat brain irradiation using the Gamma Knife Perfexion unit. The system needed to be repeatable, efficient, and dosimetrically and spatially accurate. Methods: A platform (“rat holder”) was made such that it is attachable to the Leskell Gamma Knife G Frame. The rat holder utilizes two ear bars contacting bony anatomy and a front tooth bar to secure the rat. The rat holder fits inside of the Leskell localizer box, which utilizes fiducial markers to register with the GammaPlan planning system. This method allows for accurate, repeatable setup.A cylindrical phantom was made so that film can be placed axially in the phantom. We then acquired CT image sets of the rat holder and localizer box with both a rat and the phantom. Three treatment plans were created: a plan on the rat CT dataset, a phantom plan with the same prescription dose as the rat plan, and a phantom plan with the same delivery time as the rat plan. Results: Film analysis from the phantom showed that our setup is spatially accurate and repeatable. It is also dosimetrically accurate, with an difference between predicted and measured dose of 2.9%. Film analysis with prescription dose equal between rat and phantom plans showed a difference of 3.8%, showing that our phantom is a good representation of the rat for dosimetry purposes, allowing for +/- 3mm diameter variation. Film analysis with treatment time equal showed an error of 2.6%, which means we can deliver a prescription dose within 3% accuracy. Conclusion: Our method for irradiation of rat brain has been shown to be repeatable, efficient, and accurate, both dosimetrically and spatially. We can treat a large number of rats efficiently while delivering prescription doses within 3% at millimeter level accuracy.

  4. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study: Abundant Groundwater Doesn't Necessarily Mean Abundant Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, S. M.; Stanton, J. S.; Flynn, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Resources Program is conducting an assessment of groundwater availability to gain a clearer understanding of the status of the Nation's groundwater resources and the natural and human factors that can affect those resources. Additional goals are to better estimate availability and suitability of those resources in the future for various uses. The High Plains aquifer is a nationally important water resource that underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight western states. The aquifer serves as a primary source of drinking water for approximately 2.3 million people and also sustains more than one quarter of the Nation's agricultural production. In 2000, total water withdrawals of 17.5 billion gallons per day from the aquifer accounted for 20 percent of all groundwater withdrawn in the United States, making it the most intensively pumped aquifer in the Nation. In the Central and Southern High Plains, the aquifer historically had less saturated thickness, and current resource management issues are focused on the availability of water, and reduced ability to irrigate as water levels and well productivity have declined. In contrast, the Northern High Plains aquifer includes the thickest part of the aquifer and a larger saturated thickness than the other parts of the aquifer, and current water resource management issues are related to the interaction of groundwater with surface water and resource management triggered primarily by the availability of surface water. The presentation will cover major components of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study, including estimating water budget components for the entire High Plains aquifer, building a refined groundwater model for the Northern High Plains aquifer, and using that model to better understand surface- and groundwater interaction and characterize water availability.

  5. What's the 411? High School Leaders' Perceptions of Inclusion Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Arnella L.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, descriptive study explored and described urban and suburban school leaders' perceptions of the definition of "inclusion" and perceptions of their level of involvement in the implementation of inclusion. Additionally, the study determined if there was a significant difference in the urban and suburban school leaders'…

  6. High light-induced hydrogen peroxide production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is increased by high CO2 availability.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Na, Chae Sun; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable part of photosynthesis. Stress that accompanies high light levels and low CO2 availability putatively includes enhanced ROS production in the so-called Mehler reaction. Such conditions are thought to encourage O2 to become an electron acceptor at photosystem I, producing the ROS superoxide anion radical (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). In contrast, here it is shown in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that CO2 depletion under high light levels lowered cellular H2 O2 production, and that elevated CO2 levels increased H2 O2 production. Using various photosynthetic and mitochondrial mutants of C. reinhardtii, the chloroplast was identified as the main source of elevated H2 O2 production under high CO2 availability. High light levels under low CO2 availability induced photoprotective mechanisms called non-photochemical quenching, or NPQ, including state transitions (qT) and high energy state quenching (qE). The qE-deficient mutant npq4 produced more H2 O2 than wild-type cells under high light levels, although less so under high CO2 availability, whereas it demonstrated equal or greater enzymatic H2 O2 -degrading capacity. The qT-deficient mutant stt7-9 produced the same H2 O2 as wild-type cells under high CO2 availability. Physiological levels of H2 O2 were able to hinder qT and the induction of state 2, providing an explanation for why under high light levels and high CO2 availability wild-type cells behaved like stt7-9 cells stuck in state 1. PMID:25619314

  7. On finite element implementation and computational techniques for constitutive modeling of high temperature composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Chang, T. Y. P.; Wilt, T.; Iskovitz, I.

    1989-01-01

    The research work performed during the past year on finite element implementation and computational techniques pertaining to high temperature composites is outlined. In the present research, two main issues are addressed: efficient geometric modeling of composite structures and expedient numerical integration techniques dealing with constitutive rate equations. In the first issue, mixed finite elements for modeling laminated plates and shells were examined in terms of numerical accuracy, locking property and computational efficiency. Element applications include (currently available) linearly elastic analysis and future extension to material nonlinearity for damage predictions and large deformations. On the material level, various integration methods to integrate nonlinear constitutive rate equations for finite element implementation were studied. These include explicit, implicit and automatic subincrementing schemes. In all cases, examples are included to illustrate the numerical characteristics of various methods that were considered.

  8. High School Physics Availability: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors share their analysis of the data from over 3,500 high schools in the U.S. beginning with an examination of the availability of physics in U.S. high schools. The schools in their sample are a nationally-representative random sample of the almost 25,000 high schools in forty-nine of the fifty states. Table 1 shows the…

  9. Is plant migration restrained by available nitrogen supply in high latitudes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Schlosser, C. A.; Felzer, B.; Kicklighter, D.; Cronin, T.; Melillo, J.; Prinn, R. G.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that growth and distribution of natural vegetation in high latitudes may be controlled by the amount of available nitrogen. Yet few studies have examined the role of available nitrogen on plant migration in response to anticipated climate change. We use a modeling approach to explore this issue. With a projected climate dataset (GFDL CM 2.0) from the IPCC AR4 archive, we first estimate net nitrogen mineralization values for natural plant functional types in high latitudes (north of 52N), using the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). Previous work with TEM indicates that warming increases the rates of net nitrogen mineralization in high latitudes (e.g. 10 percent increase in boreal forests), which may help support a pattern of increased woodiness in northern systems such as boreal woodlands filling in with trees and tundra becoming more shrubby. Constrained with the available nitrogen for each vegetation type, a simple rule- based model, which describes the migration process and adopts processes of climatic tolerances of trees from the BIOME biogeography model, is used to generate a newly projected vegetation map for high latitudes. Our study emphasizes the significance of the role of nitrogen in the high latitude plant distribution. We also investigate the climatic consequences of the changing albedo, resulting from shifts in the vegetation distribution.

  10. Implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports in High Schools: Contextual Factors and Stages of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain-Bradway, Jessica; Pinkney, Christopher; Flannery, K. Brigid

    2015-01-01

    Schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) are an increasingly popular framework for school improvement practices, but many high schools are still lagging behind their elementary counterparts. High school leadership teams can struggle with merging the SWPBIS framework with current operations, and there are limited examples of…

  11. A Systemic Approach to Implementing Response to Intervention in Three Colorado High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Helen; Scala, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The National High School Center continues to receive inquiries about how to support high school implementation of response to intervention (RTI). Given the National High School Center's previous work on the topic, the authors wanted to better understand the conditions that contribute to or inhibit implementation of tiered frameworks in high…

  12. High-speed dynamic domino circuit implemented with gaas mesfets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Long (Inventor); Long, Stephen I. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic logic circuit (AND or OR) utilizes one depletion-mode metal-semiconductor FET for precharging an internal node A, and a plurality of the same type of FETs in series, or a FET in parallel with one or more of the series connected FETs for implementing the logic function. A pair of FETs are connected to provide an output inverter with two series diodes for level shift. A coupling capacitor may be employed with a further FET to provide level shifting required between the inverter and the logic circuit output terminal. These circuits may be cascaded to form a domino chain.

  13. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards ( Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  14. Implementing a Case Management Initiative in High-Need Schools

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    States continue to experiment with ways of improving health and human service use by people with complex needs. Such efforts have often sought to increase individual and family control over services as well as to enhance coordination among providers. Paths to achieving these goals are not well understood. This study draws on two previously distinct conceptual frameworks to examine how 71 public schools implemented a team approach to increasing family and agency engagement for children at risk. Results from longitudinal data fit the core components expected to affect implementation and also indicated sustainability, but in ways distinctive to the initiative's public school settings. Accountability to the state appeared to be a major catalyst, yet in some respects also constrained local agencies from participating as intended. School inertia may have both undermined the program through some evaluation practices and gaps in administrative support, and supported integration into organizational routines and successful experimentation over time in increasing caregiver involvement. Family hesitation about sharing information with multiple agencies may also help explain why the goal of seamless coordination remains elusive. PMID:23976809

  15. Implementation of the high-order schemes QUICK and LECUSSO in the COMMIX-1C Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, K.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

    1995-08-01

    Multidimensional analysis computer programs based on the finite volume method, such as COMMIX-1C, have been commonly used to simulate thermal-hydraulic phenomena in engineering systems such as nuclear reactors. In COMMIX-1C, the first-order schemes with respect to both space and time are used. In many situations such as flow recirculations and stratifications with steep gradient of velocity and temperature fields, however, high-order difference schemes are necessary for an accurate prediction of the fields. For these reasons, two second-order finite difference numerical schemes, QUICK (Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics) and LECUSSO (Local Exact Consistent Upwind Scheme of Second Order), have been implemented in the COMMIX-1C computer code. The formulations were derived for general three-dimensional flows with nonuniform grid sizes. Numerical oscillation analyses for QUICK and LECUSSO were performed. To damp the unphysical oscillations which occur in calculations with high-order schemes at high mesh Reynolds numbers, a new FRAM (Filtering Remedy and Methodology) scheme was developed and implemented. To be consistent with the high-order schemes, the pressure equation and the boundary conditions for all the conservation equations were also modified to be of second order. The new capabilities in the code are listed. Test calculations were performed to validate the implementation of the high-order schemes. They include the test of the one-dimensional nonlinear Burgers equation, two-dimensional scalar transport in two impinging streams, von Karmann vortex shedding, shear driven cavity flow, Couette flow, and circular pipe flow. The calculated results were compared with available data; the agreement is good.

  16. Nitrogen saturation and soil N availability in a high-elevation spruce and fir forest

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2000-06-01

    A field study was conducted during the summer of 1995 to gain abetter understanding of the causes of nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N) leaching and ongoing changes in soil nitrogen (N) availability in high-elevation (1524-2000 m) spruce (Picea rubens) and fir (Abies fraseri) forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A. Indicators of soil N availability (total soil N concentrations, extractable NH{sub 4}-N, extractable NO{sub 3}-N, and C/N ratios) were measured in Oa and A horizons at 33 study plots. Dynamic measures included potential net soil N mineralization determined in 12-week aerobic laboratory incubations at 22 C. Potential net nitrification in the A horizon was correlated (r = + 0.83, P < 0.001) with total soil n concentrations. mostmeasures of soil n availability did not exhibit significanttrends with elevation, but there were topographic differences. Potential net soil N mineralization and net nitrification in the A horizon were higher in coves than on ridges. Relative amounts of particulate and organomineral soil organic matter influenced potential net N mineralization and nitrification in the A horizon. Calculations indicate that soil N availability and NO{sub 3}-N leaching in high-elevation spruce and fir forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park will increase in response to regional warming.

  17. Constellation Ground Systems Launch Availability Analysis: Enhancing Highly Reliable Launch Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernand, Jeffrey L.; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Cummings, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Success of the Constellation Program's lunar architecture requires successfully launching two vehicles, Ares I/Orion and Ares V/Altair, in a very limited time period. The reliability and maintainability of flight vehicles and ground systems must deliver a high probability of successfully launching the second vehicle in order to avoid wasting the on-orbit asset launched by the first vehicle. The Ground Operations Project determined which ground subsystems had the potential to affect the probability of the second launch and allocated quantitative availability requirements to these subsystems. The Ground Operations Project also developed a methodology to estimate subsystem reliability, availability and maintainability to ensure that ground subsystems complied with allocated launch availability and maintainability requirements. The verification analysis developed quantitative estimates of subsystem availability based on design documentation; testing results, and other information. Where appropriate, actual performance history was used for legacy subsystems or comparative components that will support Constellation. The results of the verification analysis will be used to verify compliance with requirements and to highlight design or performance shortcomings for further decision-making. This case study will discuss the subsystem requirements allocation process, describe the ground systems methodology for completing quantitative reliability, availability and maintainability analysis, and present findings and observation based on analysis leading to the Ground Systems Preliminary Design Review milestone.

  18. Constellation Ground Systems Launch Availability Analysis: Enhancing Highly Reliable Launch Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernand, Jeffrey L.; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Cummings, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Success of the Constellation Program's lunar architecture requires successfully launching two vehicles, Ares I/Orion and Ares V/Altair, within a very limited time period. The reliability and maintainability of flight vehicles and ground systems must deliver a high probability of successfully launching the second vehicle in order to avoid wasting the on-orbit asset launched by the first vehicle. The Ground Operations Project determined which ground subsystems had the potential to affect the probability of the second launch and allocated quantitative availability requirements to these subsystems. The Ground Operations Project also developed a methodology to estimate subsystem reliability, availability, and maintainability to ensure that ground subsystems complied with allocated launch availability and maintainability requirements. The verification analysis developed quantitative estimates of subsystem availability based on design documentation, testing results, and other information. Where appropriate, actual performance history was used to calculate failure rates for legacy subsystems or comparative components that will support Constellation. The results of the verification analysis will be used to assess compliance with requirements and to highlight design or performance shortcomings for further decision making. This case study will discuss the subsystem requirements allocation process, describe the ground systems methodology for completing quantitative reliability, availability, and maintainability analysis, and present findings and observation based on analysis leading to the Ground Operations Project Preliminary Design Review milestone.

  19. Design and Implementation of High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    PubMed

    Powell, David J; Hertzberg, Robert P; Macarrόn, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    HTS remains at the core of the drug discovery process, and so it is critical to design and implement HTS assays in a comprehensive fashion involving scientists from the disciplines of biology, chemistry, engineering, and informatics. This requires careful consideration of many options and variables, starting with the choice of screening strategy and ending with the discovery of lead compounds. At every step in this process, there are decisions to be made that can greatly impact the outcome of the HTS effort, to the point of making it a success or a failure. Although specific guidelines should be established to ensure that the screening assay reaches an acceptable level of quality, many choices require pragmatism and the ability to compromise opposing forces. PMID:27316985

  20. Design and implementation of high throughput screening assays.

    PubMed

    Macarrón, Ricardo; Hertzberg, Robert P

    2002-01-01

    HTS is at the core of the drug-discovery process, and so it is critical to design and implement HTS assays in a comprehensive fashion involving scientists from the disciplines of biology, chemistry, engineering, and informatics. This requires careful analysis of many variables, starting with the choice of assay target and ending with the discovery of lead compounds. At every step in this process, there are decisions to be made that can greatly impact the outcome of the HTS effort, to the point of making it a success or a failure. Although specific guidelines can be established to ensure that the screening assay reaches an acceptable level of quality, many choices require pragmatism and the ability to compromise opposing forces. PMID:12029816

  1. Design and implementation of high-throughput screening assays.

    PubMed

    Macarrón, Ricardo; Hertzberg, Robert P

    2009-01-01

    HTS is at the core of the drug discovery process, and so it is critical to design and implement HTS assays in a comprehensive fashion involving scientists from the disciplines of biology, chemistry, engineering, and informatics. This requires careful analysis of many variables, starting with the choice of assay target and ending with the discovery of lead compounds. At every step in this process, there are decisions to be made that can greatly impact the outcome of the HTS effort, to the point of making it a success or a failure. Although specific guidelines should be established to ensure that the screening assay reaches an acceptable level of quality, many choices require pragmatism and the ability to compromise opposing forces. PMID:19551355

  2. Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.

  3. Implementation of a College Biology Course in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druger, Marvin; Spector, Barbara S.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are given for dealing with "senioritis" in high school students. These include offering college-level courses at a reduced cost. A description of introducing the college freshman biology course at Syracuse University into a high school program is given, with guidelines to promote success. (Author/SA)

  4. The California High School Proficiency Examination Six Years After Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Cynthia L.; Padia, William L.

    In 1975 California became the first state to offer an "early exit" proficiency test from high school to persons 16 years of age or older (California law normally requires young persons to attend school until they reach 18 or graduate regularly from high school). More than 87,000 persons have passed the early exit examination; a pass rate of…

  5. High responsivity CMOS imager pixel implemented in SOI technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, X.; Wrigley, C.; Yang, G.; Pain, B.

    2000-01-01

    Availability of mature sub-micron CMOS technology and the advent of the new low noise active pixel sensor (APS) concept have enabled the development of low power, miniature, single-chip, CMOS digital imagers in the decade of the 1990's.

  6. Successful Strategies for Implementation of a High School Standards-Based Integrated Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Math achievement for students in the United States is not as high as in other countries. In response, one state implemented a new standards-based, integrated math curriculum that combines traditional high school math courses and emphasizes student centered instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of a standards…

  7. Urban Students Achieve When High Schools Implement Proven Practices. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Han, Lingling; Presson, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Students benefit from a year or more gain in student achievement when urban district and high school leaders commit to the implementation of the "High Schools That Work" ("HSTW") design. It is not enough to be a "HSTW" site--it is about taking effective actions to implement the design. Schools that do take action witness significant progress in…

  8. Career Guidance: An Implementation Model for Small High Schools. A Maxi I Practicum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Richard; And Others

    The purpose of this practicum was to design, develop, and implement a career guidance program for small high schools. The program description would act as a model for implementation at other high schools desiring a career guidance program. The method of communicating the program to others was the writing of a "how to" book which others would use…

  9. Factors Influencing the Implementation of an International Baccalaureate Diploma Program in a Diverse Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Anysia P.

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies factors that promoted the successful implementation of an International Baccalaureate Diploma Program in an urban high school. The study draws on data from an in-depth case study at a large high school serving an urban community in a Western state. The study investigates seven implementation mechanisms that research…

  10. High School Principals' Rating of Success in Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Sonn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate how Rhode Island high school principals rate success in implementing 21st century skills in their schools. Secondly, this study investigated how high school principals rate the influence of implementing of 21st century skills in curriculum and instruction in their schools. The high…

  11. High Availability On-line Relational Databases for Accelerator Control and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Dohan,D.; Dalesio, L.; Carcassi, G.

    2009-05-04

    The role that relational database (RDB) technology plays in accelerator control and operation continues to grow in such areas as electronic logbooks, machine parameter definitions, and facility infrastructure management. RDBs are increasingly relied upon to provide the official 'master' copy of these data. Whereas the services provided by the RDB have traditionally not been 'mission critical', the availability of modern RDB management systems is now equivalent to that of standard computer file-systems. RDBs can be relied on to supply pseudo real-time response to operator and machine physicist requests. This paper describes recent developments in the IRMIS RDB project. Generic lattice support has been added, serving as the driver for model-based machine control. Abstract physics name service and process variable introspection has been added. Specific emphasis has been placed both on providing fast response time to accelerator operators and modeling code requests, as well as high (24/7) availability of the RDB service.

  12. Availability and cost estimate of a high naphthene, modified aviation turbine fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Information from an Air Force study was used to determine the potential availability and cost of a modified conventional fuel with a naphthene content which could have a thermal stability near that of JP-7 for high-speed civil transports. Results showed sufficient capacity for a fuel made of a blend of 50 percent naphthenic straight run kerosene and 50 percent hydrocracked product, assuming a near-term requirement of 210,000 BBL per day. Fuel cost would be as low as 62.5 to 64.5 cents per gallon, assuming 20 dollars per barrel for crude.

  13. Innovative use of controlled availability fertilizers with high performance for intensive agriculture and environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Sadao

    2005-12-01

    A variety of slow release fertilizers, controlled release (availability) fertilizers (CAFs), and stability fertilizers have been developed in response to the serious drawbacks of the conventional fertilizers since the early 1960's. Of these fertilizers, CAFs which are coated with resin are consumed in the largest quantity in the world. Selecting CAFs with higher performance, the author will discuss about: 1) Innovation of agro-technologies for various field crops including new concepts of fertilizer application, 2) high yielding of field crops, 3) enhancing quality and safety of farm products, and 4) controlling the adverse effect of intensive agriculture on the environment. PMID:16512212

  14. Innovative use of controlled availability fertilizers with high performance for intensive agriculture and environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Sadao

    2005-09-01

    A variety of slow release fertilizers, controlled release (availability) fertilizers (CAFs), and stability fertilizers have been developed in response to the serious drawbacks of the conventional fertilizers since the early 1960's. Of these fertilizers, CAFs which are coated with resin are consumed in the largest quantity in the world. Selecting CAFs with higher performance, the author will discuss about: 1) Innovation of agro-technologies for various field crops including new concepts of fertilizer application, 2) high yielding of field crops, 3) enhancing quality and safety of farm products, and 4) controlling the adverse effect of intensive agriculture on the environment. PMID:20549445

  15. Competitive foods in schools: Availability and purchasing in predominately rural small and large high schools

    PubMed Central

    Nollen, Nicole L.; Befort, Christie; Davis, Ann McGrath; Snow, Tricia; Mahnken, Jonathan; Hou, Qingjiang; Story, Mary; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Schools have an important role to play in obesity prevention, but little is known about the food environment in small, predominately rural schools. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the availability and student purchasing of foods sold outside of the reimbursable meals program through a la carte (ALC) or vending (i.e., competitive foods) in small (n = 7) and large (n = 6) Kansas high schools. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study design was used to capture the number of ALC and vending items available and purchased, and the fat and caloric content of all available and purchased items on a single school day between January and May 2005. RESULTS Small schools had significantly fewer vending machines than large schools [median=3.0 (range=2.0–5.0) versus 6.5 (range=4.0–8.0), p<0.01]. Vending and ALC items at small schools contained a median of 2.3 fewer fat grams per item (p≤0.05), while vending products contained a median of 25.0 fewer calories per item (p≤0.05) than at large schools. Significantly less fat (median= −15.4 grams/student) and fewer calories (median= −306.8 kcal/student) were purchased per student from all competitive food sources and from ALC (median= −12.9 fat grams and −323.3 kcal/student) by students in small schools compared to students in large schools (p≤0.05). CONCLUSIONS The findings, which highlight less availability and lower energy content from competitive foods at small compared to large schools, have implications for understanding how small schools support their food service programs with limited dependence on competitive foods and the impact that food and nutrition professionals can have on the school environment by providing more oversight into the nutritional quality of foods available. PMID:19394472

  16. High performance computing and communications: FY 1997 implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program was formally authorized by passage, with bipartisan support, of the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991, signed on December 9, 1991. The original Program, in which eight Federal agencies participated, has now grown to twelve agencies. This Plan provides a detailed description of the agencies` FY 1996 HPCC accomplishments and FY 1997 HPCC plans. Section 3 of this Plan provides an overview of the HPCC Program. Section 4 contains more detailed definitions of the Program Component Areas, with an emphasis on the overall directions and milestones planned for each PCA. Appendix A provides a detailed look at HPCC Program activities within each agency.

  17. High-frequency nutrient monitoring to infer seasonal patterns in catchment source availability, mobilisation and delivery.

    PubMed

    Bende-Michl, Ulrike; Verburg, Kirsten; Cresswell, Hamish P

    2013-11-01

    To explore the value of high-frequency monitoring to characterise and explain riverine nutrient concentration dynamics, total phosphorus (TP), reactive phosphorus (RP), ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations were measured hourly over a 2-year period in the Duck River, in north-western Tasmania, Australia, draining a 369-km(2) mixed land use catchment area. River discharge was observed at the same location and frequency, spanning a wide range of hydrological conditions. Nutrient concentrations changed rapidly and were higher than previously observed. Maximum nutrient concentrations were 2,577 μg L(-1) TP, 1,572 μg L(-1) RP, 972 μg L(-1) NH₄-N and 1,983 μg L(-1) NO₃-N, respectively. Different nutrient response patterns were evident at seasonal, individual event and diurnal time scales-patterns that had gone largely undetected in previous less frequent water quality sampling. Interpretation of these patterns in terms of nutrient source availability, mobilisation and delivery to the stream allowed the development of a conceptual model of catchment nutrient dynamics. Functional stages of nutrient release were identified for the Duck River catchment and were supported by a cluster analysis which confirmed the similarities and differences in nutrient responses caused by the sequence of hydrologic events: (1) a build-up of nutrients during periods with low hydrologic activity, (2) flushing of readily available nutrient sources at the onset of the high flow period, followed by (3) a switch from transport to supply limitation, (4) the accessibility of new nutrient sources with increasing catchment wetness and hydrologic connectivity and (5) high nutrient spikes occurring when new sources become available that are easily mobilised with quickly re-established hydrologic connectivity. Diurnal variations that could be influenced by riverine processes and/or localised point sources were also identified as part of stage (1) and during late recession of some of

  18. The research and design for a high availability object storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Ling; Tan, Zhihu; Gu, Peng; Wan, Jiguang

    2008-12-01

    With the growing scale of the computer storage systems, the likelihood of multi-disk failures happening in the storage systems has increased dramatically. Based on a thorough analysis on the fault-tolerance capability on various existing storage systems, we propose a new hierarchical, highly reliable, multi-disk fault-tolerant storage system architecture: High Availability Object Storage System (HAOSS). In the HAOSS, each object has an attribute field for reliability level, which can be set by the user according to the importance of data. Higher reliability level corresponds to better data survivability in case of multi-device failure. The HAOSS is composed of two layers: the upper-layer and the lower-layer. The upper-layer achieves the high availability by storing multiple replicas for each storage object in a set of storage devices. The individual replicas can service the I/O requests in parallel so as to obtain high performance. The lower-layer deploys RAID5, RAID6 or RAID_Blaum coding schemes to tolerate multi-disk failures. In addition, the disk utilization rate of RAID_Blaum is higher than that of multiple replicas, and it can be further improved by growing the RAID group size. These advantages come at the price of more complicated fault-tolerant coding schemes, which involve a large amount of calculation for encoding and cause an adverse impact on the I/O performance, especially on the write performance. Results from both our internal experiments and third-party independent tests have shown that HAOSS servers have better multi-disk- failure tolerance than existing similar products. In a 1000Mb Ethernet interconnection environment, with a request block size of 1024KB, the sequential read performance for a HAOSS server reaches 104MB/s, which is very close to the theoretical maximum effective bandwidth of Ethernet networks. The HAOSS offers a complete storage solution for high availability applications without the compromises that today's storage systems

  19. Complementarity among four highly productive grassland species depends on resource availability.

    PubMed

    Roscher, Christiane; Schmid, Bernhard; Kolle, Olaf; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2016-06-01

    Positive species richness-productivity relationships are common in biodiversity experiments, but how resource availability modifies biodiversity effects in grass-legume mixtures composed of highly productive species is yet to be explicitly tested. We addressed this question by choosing two grasses (Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata) and two legumes (Medicago × varia and Onobrychis viciifolia) which are highly productive in monocultures and dominant in mixtures (the Jena Experiment). We established monocultures, all possible two- and three-species mixtures, and the four-species mixture under three different resource supply conditions (control, fertilization, and shading). Compared to the control, community biomass production decreased under shading (-56 %) and increased under fertilization (+12 %). Net diversity effects (i.e., mixture minus mean monoculture biomass) were positive in the control and under shading (on average +15 and +72 %, respectively) and negative under fertilization (-10 %). Positive complementarity effects in the control suggested resource partitioning and facilitation of growth through symbiotic N2 fixation by legumes. Positive complementarity effects under shading indicated that resource partitioning is also possible when growth is carbon-limited. Negative complementarity effects under fertilization suggested that external nutrient supply depressed facilitative grass-legume interactions due to increased competition for light. Selection effects, which quantify the dominance of species with particularly high monoculture biomasses in the mixture, were generally small compared to complementarity effects, and indicated that these species had comparable competitive strengths in the mixture. Our study shows that resource availability has a strong impact on the occurrence of positive diversity effects among tall and highly productive grass and legume species. PMID:26932467

  20. Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Howard; Hirsch, Linda S.; Simon, Laurent; Burr-Alexander, Levelle; Dave, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    The Research Experience for Teachers was designed to help high school science teachers develop skills and knowledge in research, science and engineering with a focus on the area of pharmaceutical particulate and composite systems. The experience included time for the development of instructional modules for classroom teaching. Results of the…

  1. Planning and Implementing a High Performance Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the conceptual framework for developing a rapid-prototype high-performance knowledge base for the four mission agencies of the United States Department of Agriculture and their university partners. Describes the background of the project and methods used for establishing the requirements; examines issues and problems surrounding semantic…

  2. Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project: Implementation Manual for High School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    The Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project (BICP) is a two-year interdisciplinary precollege curriculum designed to prepare high school students for entry into college and vocational programs leading to a career in the health field. Composed of three separate yet interrelated courses with interdisciplinary relationships between…

  3. Sexually transmitted infections treatment and care available to high risk populations in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rahimtoola, Minal; Hussain, Hamidah; Khowaja, Saira N; Khan, Aamir J

    2008-01-01

    Limited literature exists on the quality and availability of treatment and care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Pakistan. This article aims to document existing services for the care and treatment of STIs available in Pakistan's public and private sectors to high risk groups (HRG), particularly the transgendered population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to document STI services in Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and Quetta. Seventy-three interviews were administered with health service providers at the 3 largest public sector hospitals in each city, as well as with general physicians and traditional healers in the private sector. Twenty-five nongovernmental organizations (NGO) providing STI services were also interviewed. Fewer than 45% of private and public sector general practitioners had been trained in STI treatment after the completion of their medical curriculum, and none of the traditional healers had received any formal training or information on STIs. The World Health Organization (WHO) syndromic management guidelines were followed for STI management by 29% of public and private sector doctors and 5% of traditional healers. STI drugs were available at no cost at 44% of NGOs and at some public sector hospitals. Our findings show that although providers do treat HRGs for STIs, there are significant limitations in their ability to provide these services. These deterrents include, but are not limited to, a lack of STI training of service providers, privacy and adherence to recommended WHO syndromic management guidelines, and costly diagnostic and consultation fees. PMID:19856743

  4. HALR: A TCP Enhancement Scheme Using Local Caching in High-Availability Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Nen-Fu; Wu, Yen-Min

    In this paper, we study the end-to-end TCP performance over a path deploying a High-Availability cluster, whose characteristics are highlighted by the failover procedure to remove single-point failure. This paper proposes an approach, called High-Availability Local Recovery (HALR), to enhance TCP performance in the face of a cluster failover. To minimize the latency of retransmission, HALR saves TCP packets selectively and resends them locally after the failover is finished. For better understanding, we further develop simple analytic models to predict the TCP performance in the aspect of flow latency under a range of failover times and the effects of HALR. Using simulation results, we validate our models and show that HALR improves the TCP performance significantly over a failover event as compared with the original TCP. Typically, HALR reduces the flow latency from 4.1sec to less than 1.9sec when the failover time equals to 500ms. The simulation by real packet trace further demonstrates that the memory requirement of the proposed solution is not a concern for modern network equipments.

  5. A High Throughput Medium Access Control Implementation Based on IEEE 802.11e Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min Li; Lee, Jin; Setiawan, Hendra; Ochi, Hiroshi; Park, Sin-Chong

    With the growing demand for high-performance multimedia applications over wireless channels, we need to develop a Medium Access Control (MAC) system that supports high throughput and quality of service enhancements. This paper presents the standard analysis, design architecture and design issues leading to the implementation of an IEEE 802.11e based MAC system that supports MAC throughput of over 100Mbps. In order to meet the MAC layer timing constraints, a hardware/software co-design approach is adopted. The proposed MAC architecture is implemented on the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (XC2VP70-5FF1704C) prototype, and connected to a host computer through an external Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. The total FPGA resource utilization is 11, 508 out of 33, 088 (34%) available slices. The measured MAC throughput is 100.7Mbps and 109.2Mbps for voice and video access categories, transmitted at a data rate of 260Mbps based on IEEE 802.11n Physical Layer (PHY), using the contention-based hybrid coordination function channel access mechanism.

  6. Implementing high-latitude biogeochemical processes into Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkin, Victor; Kleinen, Thomas; Cresto-Aleina, Fabio; Kloster, Silvia; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Projections of future climate changes suggest that air temperatures in the Arctic could rise to the levels unprecedented in the last million years. Sensitivity of carbon storages on land and shelves to climate change of that scale is highly uncertain. Earth System models (ESMs), consisting of atmosphere, ocean, land, and cryosphere components are the main tools to understand interactions between carbon cycle and climate. However, ESM representation of ecological and biogeochemical processes in the Arctic is extremely simplistic. For example, all ESMs agree that tree cover in the future warming scenarios will move northwards to the Arctic coast, but they ignore interactions between vegetation, permafrost, and disturbances such as fires, which are critical for vegetation dynamics in this region. Improving modeling of interactions between model components and their evaluation against growing observational evidence is a promising research area. The first attempts to account for the permafrost carbon dynamics in the ESM framework suggest that CO2 and CH4 emissions from high-latitude regions in the 21st century are relatively small, but they become much more significant afterwards due to committed climate changes. Therefore, extension of ESM simulations beyond 2100 is essential to estimate a proper scale of frozen carbon pool response to human-induced climate change. Additionally, inclusion of sub-sea permafrost component into ESMs is an active research area that brings together terrestrial and marine biogeochemical communities, as well as geologists analyzing climate proxies on glacial timescales. Another challenging aspect of biogeochemical interactions in Arctic is an extreme land surface heterogeneity. A mixture of wetlands, lakes, and vegetation-covered surfaces on fine local scale is not properly reflected in the model structure. A promising approach of dealing with scaling gaps in modeling high-latitude biogeochemical processes in ESMs will be presented.

  7. High speed fiber optics local area networks: Design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.

    1988-09-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: (1) the network medium and its topology; (2) the medium access control; and (3) the network interface. Considerable progress has been made in all areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given in Section 2, including references to papers which appeared in the literature, as well as to Ph.D. dissertations and technical reports published at Stanford University.

  8. High sensitivity of broadleaf trees to water availability in northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Mathieu; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Pederson, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Broadleaf dominated forests of eastern US cover more than one million km2 and provide ecosystem services to millions of people. High species diversity and a varied sensitivity to drought make it uncertain whether these forests will be carbon sinks or sources under climate change. Ongoing climate change, increased in atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) and strong reductions in acidic depositions are expected to alter growth and gas exchange of trees, and ultimately forest productivity. Still, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. A better comprehension of the species-specific responses to environmental changes will better inform models and managers on the vulnerability and resiliency of these forests. Here, we combined tree-ring width data with δ13C and δ18O measurements to investigate growth and physiological responses of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in northeastern US to changes in water availability, ca and acidic depositions for the period 1950-2014. Based on structural equation modeling approaches, we found that summer water availability (June-August) is the main environmental variable driving growth, water-use efficiency and δ18O of broadleaf trees whereas ca and acidic depositions have little effects. This high sensitivity to moisture availability was also supported by the very strong correlations found between summer vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and tree-ring δ13C (r = 0.67 and 0.71), and δ18O series (r = 0.62 and 0.72), for red oak and tulip poplar, respectively. In contrast, tree-ring width was less sensitive to summer VPD (r = ‑0.44 and‑0.31). Since the mid 1980s, pluvial conditions occurring in northeastern US have increased stomatal conductance, carbon uptake, and growth of both species. Further, the strong spatial field correlations found between the tree-ring δ13C and δ18O and summer VPD indicate a greater sensitivity of eastern US broadleaf forests to moisture availability than previously

  9. Implementing high-performance work practices in healthcare organizations: qualitative and conceptual evidence.

    PubMed

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Robbins, Julie; Garman, Andrew N; Song, Paula H

    2013-01-01

    Studies across industries suggest that the systematic use of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) may be an effective but underused strategy to improve quality of care in healthcare organizations. Optimal use of HPWPs depends on how they are implemented, yet we know little about their implementation in healthcare. We conducted 67 key informant interviews in five healthcare organizations, each considered to have exemplary work practices in place and to deliver high-quality care, as part of an extensive study of HPWP use in healthcare. We analyzed interview transcripts inductively and deductively to examine why and how organizations implement HPWPs. We used an evidence-based model of complex innovation adoption to guide our exploration of factors that facilitate HPWP implementation. We found considerable variability in interviewees' reasons for implementing HPWPs, including macro-organizational (strategic level) and micro-organizational (individual level) reasons. This variability highlighted the complex context for HPWP implementation in many organizations. We also found that our application of an innovation implementation model helped clarify and categorize facilitators of HPWP implementation, thus providing insight on how these factors can contribute to implementation effectiveness. Focusing efforts on clarifying definitions, building commitment, and ensuring consistency in the application of work practices may be particularly important elements of successful implementation. PMID:24400459

  10. Implementing a High-Assurance Smart-Card OS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karger, Paul A.; Toll, David C.; Palmer, Elaine R.; McIntosh, Suzanne K.; Weber, Samuel; Edwards, Jonathan W.

    Building a high-assurance, secure operating system for memory constrained systems, such as smart cards, introduces many challenges. The increasing power of smart cards has made their use feasible in applications such as electronic passports, military and public sector identification cards, and cell-phone based financial and entertainment applications. Such applications require a secure environment, which can only be provided with sufficient hardware and a secure operating system. We argue that smart cards pose additional security challenges when compared to traditional computer platforms. We discuss our design for a secure smart card operating system, named Caernarvon, and show that it addresses these challenges, which include secure application download, protection of cryptographic functions from malicious applications, resolution of covert channels, and assurance of both security and data integrity in the face of arbitrary power losses.

  11. Geographic Information Network of Alaska: Real-Time Synoptic Satellite Data for Alaska and the High Arctic, Best Available DEMs, and Highest Available Resolution Imagery for Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrichs, T. A.; Sharpton, V. L.; Engle, K. E.; Ledlow, L. L.; Seman, L. E.

    2006-12-01

    In support of the International Polar Year, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) intends to make available to researchers three important Arctic data sets. The first is near-real-time synoptic scale data from GINA and NOAA/NESDIS satellite ground stations. GINA operates ground stations that receive direct readout from the AVHRR (1.1-km per pixel resolution) and MODIS (250- to 1000-meter) sensors carried on NOAA and NASA satellites. GINA works in partnership with NOAA/NESDIS's Fairbanks Command and Data Acquisition Station (FCDAS) to distribute real-time data captured by FCDAS facilities in Fairbanks and Barrow, Alaska. AVHRR and Feng Yun 1D (1.1-km) sensors are captured in Fairbanks by FCDAS and distributed by GINA. AVHRR data is captured by FCDAS in Barrow and distributed by GINA. Due to its high latitude, the station mask of the Barrow station extends well beyond the Pole, showing the status in real-time of Arctic basin cloud and sea ice conditions. Second, digital elevation models (DEM) for Alaska vary greatly in quality and availability. The best available DEMs for Alaska will be combined and served through a GINA gateway. Third, the best available imagery for more than three quarters of Alaska is 15-meter pan-sharpened Landsat data. Less than a quarter of the state is covered by 5-meter or better data. The best available imagery for Alaska will be combined and served through a GINA gateway. In accordance with the IPY Subcommittee on Data Policy and Management recommendations, all data will be made available via Open Geospatial Consortium protocols, including Web Mapping, Feature, and Coverage Services. Data will also be made available for download in georeferenced formats such as GeoTIFF, MrSID, or GRID. Metadata will be available though the National Spatial Data Infrastructure via Z39.50 GEO protocols and through evolving web-based metadata standards.

  12. The implementation of sea ice model on a regional high-resolution scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Siva; Zakharov, Igor; Bobby, Pradeep; McGuire, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The availability of high-resolution atmospheric/ocean forecast models, satellite data and access to high-performance computing clusters have provided capability to build high-resolution models for regional ice condition simulation. The paper describes the implementation of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) on a regional scale at high resolution. The advantage of the model is its ability to include oceanographic parameters (e.g., currents) to provide accurate results. The sea ice simulation was performed over Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea to retrieve important parameters such as ice concentration, thickness, ridging, and drift. Two different forcing models, one with low resolution and another with a high resolution, were used for the estimation of sensitivity of model results. Sea ice behavior over 7 years was simulated to analyze ice formation, melting, and conditions in the region. Validation was based on comparing model results with remote sensing data. The simulated ice concentration correlated well with Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) data. Visual comparison of ice thickness trends estimated from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) agreed with the simulation for year 2010-2011.

  13. The Implementation of High-Leverage Teaching Practices: From the University Classroom to the Field Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davin, Kristin J.; Troyan, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the ACTFL's Research Priorities Initiative, the present study used a multiple case study design to examine teacher candidates' ability to implement two high-leverage teaching practices: increasing interaction and target language comprehensibility and questioning to build and assess student understanding. Candidates implemented these…

  14. An intense, high-repetition nanosecond light source using a commercially available Xe-arc lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Tsutomu; Yamada, Akihisa; Uchida, Teruo

    1993-07-01

    We describe the construction and emission characteristics of a Xe light source that produces broadband emission spectrum (250-650 nm) and high-repetition pulsed light of nanosecond duration. The standard dc-operated Xe-arc lamp, which is commercially available, is employed as the primary light source, with modified circuitry to realize pulsed operation. A dc voltage higher than 5 kV is applied to the electrode gap through a high-value resistor in order to generate a periodical discharge of current between the electrode gap. In order to further increase the intensity of the light pulses, the electrical polarity of the electrode must be in inverse connection relative to the normal connection under the dc operation. Intense light pulses as large as 20 W (peak value) of 3 ns width were generated repetitively from the Xe lamp. Fluorescence lifetimes of a quinine-sulfate solution and a fluorescent cell nucleus were measured to demonstrate the usefulness of the light source.

  15. On the use of fuzzy logic assessment for high consequence implementation risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.; Cooper, A.; Bennett, R.

    1994-05-01

    ``High consequence`` operations are systems, structures, and/or strategies for which it is crucial to provide assured protection against some potential catastrophe or catastrophes. The word ``catastrophe`` implies a significant loss of a resource (e.g., money, lives, health, environment, national security, etc.). The implementation of operations that are to be as catastrophe-free as possible must incorporate a very high level of protection. Unfortunately, real world limitations on available resources, mainly money and time, preclude absolute protection. For this reason, conventional ``risk analysis`` focuses on ``cost-effective`` protection, demonstrating through analysis that the benefits of any protective measures chosen outweigh their cost. This is a ``crisp`` one-parameter (usually monetary) comparison. A major problem with this approach, especially for high consequence operations, is that it may not be possible to accurately determine quantitative ``costs,`` and furthermore, the costs may not be accurately quantifiable. Similarly, it may not be possible to accurately determine or to quantify the benefits of protection in high consequence operations. These weaknesses are addressed in this paper by introducing multiple parameters instead of a single monetary measure both for costs of implementing protective measures and their benefits. In addition, a fuzzy-algebra comparison based on fuzzy number theory is introduced as a tool in providing cost/benefit tradeoff depiction, with the incorporation of measures of the uncertainty that necessarily exists in the input information. The result allows a more informative comparison to be made through use of fuzzy results, especially at the extreme bounds of the uncertainty.

  16. The Availability of Competitive Foods and Beverages to Middle School Students in Appalachian Virginia Before Implementation of the 2014 Smart Snacks in School Standards

    PubMed Central

    Kraak, Vivica; Serrano, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture’s Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.6%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (63.4%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply. PMID:26378899

  17. Characterization of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel detectors implemented with a high-resistive CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishishita, T.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Hirono, T.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.

    2016-07-01

    We present the recent development of DMAPS (Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), implemented with a Toshiba 130 nm CMOS process. Unlike in the case of standard MAPS technologies which are based on an epi-layer, this process provides a high-resistive substrate that enables larger signal and faster charge collection by drift in a 50 - 300 μm thick depleted layer. Since this process also enables the use of deep n-wells to isolate the collection electrodes from the thin active device layer, NMOS and PMOS transistors are available for the readout electronics in each pixel cell. In order to characterize the technology, we implemented a simple three transistor readout with a variety of pixel pitches and input FET sizes. This layout variety gives us a clue on sensor characteristics for future optimization, such as the input detector capacitance or leakage current. In the initial measurement, the radiation spectra were obtained from 55Fe with an energy resolution of 770 eV (FWHM) and 90Sr with the MVP of 4165 e-.

  18. High-performance FFT implementation on the BOPS ManArray parallel DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Pechanek, Gerald

    1999-11-01

    We present a high performance implementation of the FFT algorithm on the BOPS ManArray parallel DSP processor. The ManArray we consider for this application consists of an array controller and 2 to 4 fully interconnected processing elements. To expose the parallelism inherent to an FFT algorithm we use a factorization of the DFT matrix in Kronecker products, permutation and diagonal matrices. Our implementation utilizes the multiple levels of parallelism that are available on the ManArray. We use the special multiply complex instruction, that calculates the product of two complex 32-bit fixed point numbers in 2 cycles (pipelinable). Instruction level parallelism is exploited via the indirect Very Long Instruction Word (iVLIW). With an iVLIW, in the same cycle a complex number is read from memory, another complex number is written to memory, a complex multiplication starts and another finishes, two complex additions or subtractions are done and a complex number is exchanged with another processing element. Multiple local FFTs are executed in Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) mode, and to avoid a costly data transposition we execute distributed FFTs in Synchronous Multiple Instructions Multiple Data (SMIMD) mode.

  19. A software and hardware architecture for a high-availability PACS.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Josefina; Núñez-Gaona, Marco Antonio; Aguirre-Meneses, Heriberto; Delgado-Esquerra, Ruth Evelin

    2012-08-01

    Increasing radiology studies has led to the emergence of new requirements for management medical information, mainly affecting the storage of digital images. Today, it is a necessary interaction between workflow management and legal rules that govern it, to allow an efficient control of medical technology and associated costs. Another important topic that is growing in importance within the healthcare sector is compliance, which includes the retention of studies, information security, and patient privacy. Previously, we conducted a series of extensive analysis and measurements of pre-existing operating conditions. These studies and projects have been described in other papers. The first phase: hardware and software installation and initial tests were completed in March 2006. The storage phase was built step by step until the PACS-INR was totally completed. Two important aspects were considered in the integration of components: (1) the reliability and performance of the system to transfer and display DICOM images, and (2) the availability of data backups for disaster recovery and downtime scenarios. This paper describes the high-availability model for a large-scale PACS to support the storage and retrieve of data using CAS and DAS technologies to provide an open storage platform. This solution offers a simple framework that integrates and automates the information at low cost and minimum risk. Likewise, the model allows an optimized use of the information infrastructure in the clinical environment. The tests of the model include massive data migration, openness, scalability, and standard compatibility to avoid locking data into a proprietary technology. PMID:22692771

  20. Teaching High School Science Using Image Processing: A Case Study of Implementation of Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Richard; Raphael, Jacqueline; Keller, Jill L.; Tobias, Sheila

    1998-01-01

    Outlines an in-depth case study of teachers' use of image processing in biology, earth science, and physics classes in one high school science department. Explores issues surrounding technology implementation. Contains 21 references. (DDR)

  1. Implementation of a Parallel High-Performance Visualization Technique in GRASS GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an extension for GRASS GIS that enables users to perform geographic visualization tasks on tiled high-resolution displays powered by the clusters of commodity personal computers. Parallel visualization systems are becoming more common in scientific computing due to the decreasing hardware costs and availability of the open source software to support such architecture. High-resolution displays allow scientists to visualize very large datasets with minimal loss of details. Such systems have a big promise especially in the field of geographic information systems because users can naturally combine several geographic scales on a single display. The paper discusses architecture, implementation and operation of pd-GRASS - a GRASS GIS extension for high-performance parallel visualization on tiled displays. pd-GRASS is specifically well suited for the very large geographic datasets such as LIDAR data or high-resolution nation-wide geographic databases. The paper also briefly touches on computational efficiency, performance and potential applications for such systems.

  2. ArcticDEM; A Publically Available, High Resolution Elevation Model of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Bates, Brian; Willamson, Cathleen; Peterman, Kennith

    2016-04-01

    A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Arctic is needed for a large number of reasons, including: measuring and understanding rapid, ongoing changes to the Arctic landscape resulting from climate change and human use and mitigation and adaptation planning for Arctic communities. The topography of the Arctic is more poorly mapped than most other regions of Earth due to logistical costs and the limits of satellite missions with low-latitude inclinations. A convergence of civilian, high-quality sub-meter stereo imagery; petascale computing and open source photogrammetry software has made it possible to produce a complete, very high resolution (2 to 8-meter posting), elevation model of the Arctic. A partnership between the US National Geospatial-intelligence Agency and a team led by the US National Science Foundation funded Polar Geospatial Center is using stereo imagery from DigitalGlobe's Worldview-1, 2 and 3 satellites and the Ohio State University's Surface Extraction with TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) software running on the University of Illinois's Blue Water supercomputer to address this challenge. The final product will be a seemless, 2-m posting digital surface model mosaic of the entire Arctic above 60 North including all of Alaska, Greenland and Kamchatka. We will also make available the more than 300,000 individual time-stamped DSM strip pairs that were used to assemble the mosaic. The Arctic DEM will have a vertical precision of better than 0.5m and can be used to examine changes in land surfaces such as those caused by permafrost degradation or the evolution of arctic rivers and floodplains. The data set can also be used to highlight changing geomorphology due to Earth surface mass transport processes occurring in active volcanic and glacial environments. When complete the ArcticDEM will catapult the Arctic from the worst to among the best mapped regions on Earth.

  3. Computational Environments and Analysis methods available on the NCI High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Performance Data (HPD) Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, B. J. K.; Foster, C.; Minchin, S. A.; Pugh, T.; Lewis, A.; Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J.; Uhlherr, A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has established a powerful in-situ computational environment to enable both high performance computing and data-intensive science across a wide spectrum of national environmental data collections - in particular climate, observational data and geoscientific assets. This paper examines 1) the computational environments that supports the modelling and data processing pipelines, 2) the analysis environments and methods to support data analysis, and 3) the progress in addressing harmonisation of the underlying data collections for future transdisciplinary research that enable accurate climate projections. NCI makes available 10+ PB major data collections from both the government and research sectors based on six themes: 1) weather, climate, and earth system science model simulations, 2) marine and earth observations, 3) geosciences, 4) terrestrial ecosystems, 5) water and hydrology, and 6) astronomy, social and biosciences. Collectively they span the lithosphere, crust, biosphere, hydrosphere, troposphere, and stratosphere. The data is largely sourced from NCI's partners (which include the custodians of many of the national scientific records), major research communities, and collaborating overseas organisations. The data is accessible within an integrated HPC-HPD environment - a 1.2 PFlop supercomputer (Raijin), a HPC class 3000 core OpenStack cloud system and several highly connected large scale and high-bandwidth Lustre filesystems. This computational environment supports a catalogue of integrated reusable software and workflows from earth system and ecosystem modelling, weather research, satellite and other observed data processing and analysis. To enable transdisciplinary research on this scale, data needs to be harmonised so that researchers can readily apply techniques and software across the corpus of data available and not be constrained to work within artificial disciplinary boundaries. Future challenges will

  4. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  5. Implementing California's School Funding Formula: Will High-Need Students Benefit? Technical Appendix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura; Ugo, Iwunze

    2015-01-01

    Intended to accompany "Implementing California's School Funding Formula: Will High-Need Students Benefit?," this appendix examines the extent to which school shares of high-need students vary relative to their district concentrations by grouping approximately 950 school districts by their share of high-need students, arraying them into…

  6. Estimating photosynthesis with high resolution field spectroscopy in a Mediterranean grassland under different nutrient availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Fava, F.; Rossini, M.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have shown how human induced N:P imbalances are affecting essential processes (e.g. photosynthesis, plant growth rate) that lead to important changes in ecosystem structure and function. In this regard, the accuracy of the approaches based on remotely-sensed data for monitoring and modeling gross primary production (GPP) relies on the ability of vegetation indices (VIs) to track the dynamics of vegetation physiological and biophysical properties/variables. Promising results have been recently obtained when Chlorophyll-sensitive VIs and Chlorophyll fluorescence are combined with structural indices in the framework of the Monteith's light use efficiency (LUE) model. However, further ground-based experiments are required to validate LUE model performances, and their capability to be generalized under different nutrient availability conditions. In this study, the overall objective was to investigate the sensitivity of VIs to track short- and long-term GPP variations in a Mediterranean grassland under different N and P fertilization treatments. Spectral VIs were acquired manually using high resolution spectrometers (HR4000, OceanOptics, USA) along a phenological cycle. The VIs examined included photochemical reflectance index (PRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence calculated at the oxygen absorption band O2-A (F760) using spectral fitting methods was also used. Simultaneously, measurements of GPP and environmental variables were conducted using a transient-state canopy chamber. Overall, GPP, F760 and VIs showed a clear seasonal time-trend in all treatments, which was driven by the phenological development of the grassland. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) in midday GPP values between N and without N addition plots, in particular at the peak of the growing season during the flowering stage and at the end of the season during senescence. While

  7. High-resolution prediction of soil available water content within the crop root zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghverdi, Amir; Leib, Brian G.; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Ayers, Paul D.; Buschermohle, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed understanding of soil hydraulic properties, particularly soil available water content (AWC) within the effective root zone, is needed to optimally schedule irrigation in fields with substantial spatial heterogeneity. However, it is difficult and time consuming to directly measure soil hydraulic properties. Therefore, easily collected and measured soil properties, such as soil texture and/or bulk density, that are well correlated with hydraulic properties are used as proxies to develop pedotransfer functions (PTF). In this study, multiple modeling scenarios were developed and evaluated to indirectly predict high resolution AWC maps within the effective root zone. The modeling techniques included kriging, co-kriging, regression kriging, artificial neural networks (NN) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The efficiency of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as proximal data in the modeling process was assessed. There was a good agreement (root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.052 cm3 cm-3 and r = 0.88) between observed and point prediction of water contents using pseudo continuous PTFs. We found that both GWR (mean RMSE = 0.062 cm3 cm-3) and regression kriging (mean RMSE = 0.063 cm3 cm-3) produced the best water content maps with these accuracies improved up to 19% when ECa was used as an ancillary soil attribute in the interpolation process. The maps indicated fourfold differences in AWC between coarse- and fine-textured soils across the study site. This provided a template for future investigations for evaluating the efficiency of variable rate irrigation management scenarios in accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic attributes.

  8. Circulating tumour necrosis factor is highly correlated with brainstem serotonin transporter availability in humans.

    PubMed

    Krishnadas, Rajeev; Nicol, Alice; Sassarini, Jen; Puri, Navesh; Burden, A David; Leman, Joyce; Combet, Emilie; Pimlott, Sally; Hadley, Donald; McInnes, Iain B; Cavanagh, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical studies demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokines increase serotonin transporter availability and function, leading to depressive symptoms in rodent models. Herein we investigate associations between circulating inflammatory markers and brainstem serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability in humans. We hypothesised that higher circulating inflammatory cytokine concentrations, particularly of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), would be associated with greater 5-HTT availability, and that TNF-α inhibition with etanercept (sTNFR:Fc) would in turn reduce 5-HTT availability. In 13 neurologically healthy adult women, plasma TNF-α correlated significantly with 5-HTT availability (rho=0.6; p=0.03) determined by [(123)I]-beta-CIT SPECT scanning. This association was replicated in an independent sample of 12 patients with psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis (rho=0.76; p=0.003). Indirect effects analysis, showed that there was a significant overlap in the variance explained by 5-HTT availability and TNF-α concentrations on BDI scores. Treatment with etanercept for 6-8weeks was associated with a significant reduction in 5-HTT availability (Z=2.09; p=0.03; r=0.6) consistent with a functional link. Our findings confirm an association between TNF-α and 5-HTT in both the basal physiological and pathological condition. Modulation of both TNF-α and 5-HTT by etanercept indicate the presence of a mechanistic pathway whereby circulating inflammatory cytokines are related to central nervous system substrates underlying major depression. PMID:26255693

  9. High-reliability teams and situation awareness: implementing a hospital emergency incident command system.

    PubMed

    Autrey, Pamela; Moss, Jacqueline

    2006-02-01

    To enhance disaster preparedness, hospitals are beginning to implement the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System. Although Hospital Emergency Incident Command System provides a template for disaster preparation, its successful implementation requires an understanding of situation awareness (SA) and high-reliability teams. The authors present the concept of SA and how this concept relates to team reliability in dynamic environments. Then strategies for increasing SA and team reliability through education, training, and improved communication systems are discussed. PMID:16528147

  10. Implementation of an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Quantification of Allergenic Egg Residues in Red Wines Using Commercially Available Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Koestel, Carole; Simonin, Céline; Belcher, Sandrine; Rösti, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Since the early 2000s, labeling of potentially allergenic food components to protect people who suffer from food allergies is compulsory in numerous industrialized countries. In Europe, milk and egg components used during the winemaking process must be indicated on the label since July 1, 2012. Several ELISA procedures have been developed to detect allergenic residues in wines. However, the complexity of the wine matrix can inhibit the immunoenzymatic reaction. The aim of this study was to implement an ELISA assay for the detection of ovalbumin in red wines using commercially available antibodies. The specificity of the acquired antibodies and the absence of cross reactivity were assessed by immunoblotting and ELISA. An ELISA assay with a LOD of 14.2 μg/L and a LOQ of 56.4 μg/L of ovalbumin in aqueous solution was obtained. Differences in ELISA signals were observed when analyzing various fining agents, although reproducible conformation of the antigen could be reached for the comparison of ovalbumin and Ovicolle. The differences between samples in terms of pH could be leveled but the inhibition of the ELISA signal, positively correlated to the tannin content of the wines, could not be suppressed. Thus, standard curves of ovalbumin in several wines were obtained by relative quantification. The control steps and the difficulties encountered presented in this study should be considered by anybody working toward the development of ELISA assays for the detection of allergenic residues in complex food matrices. PMID:27356183

  11. 78 FR 20503 - Energy Conservation Program: Availability of the Interim Technical Support Document for High...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ..., 2013, at 78 FR 13566, is extended. DOE will accept comments, data, and information regarding this... public meeting and availability of the interim analysis in the Federal Register (78 FR 13566) to...

  12. Early Findings from the Implementation and Impact Study of Early College High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Larry; Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Unlu, Fatih; Edmunds, Julie; Glennie, Elizabeth; Willse, John; Arshavsky, Nina; Dallas, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to rigorously examine the implementation and impact of the Early College High School (ECHS) model in North Carolina. The primary goal of the ECHS model is to increase the number of students who graduate from high school and who continue on and succeed in college. Therefore, the anticipated long-term outcomes for the…

  13. Select Novice Elementary Teachers' Perceived Knowledge and Implementation of High-Quality Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine select novice teachers' perceived knowledge of high-quality reading instruction, explore the extent that select novice teachers implemented high-quality reading instruction into their own classrooms, and to investigate any factors that explain the similarities and differences between…

  14. Roadmap for High School Feedback Reports: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality Implementation. Data for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    High school feedback reports let school and district leaders know where their students go after graduation and how well they are prepared for college and beyond. This roadmap discusses the seven key focus areas the Data Quality Campaign (DQC) recommends states work on to ensure quality implementation of high school feedback reports.

  15. Preparing Students for College: The Implementation and Impact of the Early College High School Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Julie A.; Bernstein, Lawrence; Glennie, Elizabeth; Willse, John; Arshavsky, Nina; Unlu, Fatih; Bartz, Deborah; Silberman, Todd; Scales, W. David; Dallas, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    As implemented in North Carolina, Early College High Schools are small, autonomous schools designed to increase the number of students who graduate from high school and are prepared for postsecondary education. Targeted at students who are underrepresented in college, these schools are most frequently located on college campuses and are intended…

  16. Analyzing the United States Department of Transportation's Implementation Strategy for High Speed Rail: Three Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ryan

    High-speed rail (HSR) has become a major contributor to the transportation sector with a strong push by the Obama Administration and the Department of Transportation to implement high-speed rail in the United States. High-speed rail is a costly transportation alternative that has the potential displace some car and airport travel while increase energy security and environmental sustainability. This thesis will examine the United States high-speed rail implementation strategy by comparing it to the implementation strategies of France, Japan, and Germany in a multiple case study under four main criteria of success: economic profitability, reliability, safety, and ridership. Analysis will conclude with lessons to be taken away from the case studies and applied to the United States strategy. It is important to understand that this project has not been established to create a comprehensive implementation plan for high-speed rail in the United States; rather, this project is intended to observe the depth and quality of the current United States implementation strategy and make additional recommendations by comparing it with France, Japan, and Germany.

  17. RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, AND SERVICEABILITY FOR PETASCALE HIGH-END COMPUTING AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect

    Chokchai "Box" Leangsuksun

    2011-05-31

    Our project is a multi-institutional research effort that adopts interplay of RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, and SERVICEABILITY (RAS) aspects for solving resilience issues in highend scientific computing in the next generation of supercomputers. results lie in the following tracks: Failure prediction in a large scale HPC; Investigate reliability issues and mitigation techniques including in GPGPU-based HPC system; HPC resilience runtime & tools.

  18. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2015-03-24

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  19. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2014-04-29

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  20. Making resonance a common case: a high-performance implementation of collective I/O on parallel file systems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Marion Kei; Zhang, Xuechen; Jiang, Song

    2009-01-01

    Collective I/O is a widely used technique to improve I/O performance in parallel computing. It can be implemented as a client-based or server-based scheme. The client-based implementation is more widely adopted in MPI-IO software such as ROMIO because of its independence from the storage system configuration and its greater portability. However, existing implementations of client-side collective I/O do not take into account the actual pattern offile striping over multiple I/O nodes in the storage system. This can cause a significant number of requests for non-sequential data at I/O nodes, substantially degrading I/O performance. Investigating the surprisingly high I/O throughput achieved when there is an accidental match between a particular request pattern and the data striping pattern on the I/O nodes, we reveal the resonance phenomenon as the cause. Exploiting readily available information on data striping from the metadata server in popular file systems such as PVFS2 and Lustre, we design a new collective I/O implementation technique, resonant I/O, that makes resonance a common case. Resonant I/O rearranges requests from multiple MPI processes to transform non-sequential data accesses on I/O nodes into sequential accesses, significantly improving I/O performance without compromising the independence ofa client-based implementation. We have implemented our design in ROMIO. Our experimental results show that the scheme can increase I/O throughput for some commonly used parallel I/O benchmarks such as mpi-io-test and ior-mpi-io over the existing implementation of ROMIO by up to 157%, with no scenario demonstrating significantly decreased performance.

  1. The Design and Implementation of hypre, a Library of Parallel High Performance Preconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Falgout, R D; Jones, J E; Yang, U M

    2004-07-17

    The increasing demands of computationally challenging applications and the advance of larger more powerful computers with more complicated architectures have necessitated the development of new solvers and preconditioners. Since the implementation of these methods is quite complex, the use of high performance libraries with the newest efficient solvers and preconditioners becomes more important for promulgating their use into applications with relative ease. The hypre library [14, 17] has been designed with the primary goal of providing users with advanced scalable parallel preconditioners. Issues of robustness, ease of use, flexibility and interoperability have also been important. It can be used both as a solver package and as a framework for algorithm development. Its object model is more general and flexible than most current generation solver libraries [9]. hypre also provides several of the most commonly used solvers, such as conjugate gradient for symmetric systems or GMRES for nonsymmetric systems to be used in conjunction with the preconditioners. Design innovations have been made to enable access to the library in the way that applications users naturally think about their problems. For example, application developers that use structured grids, typically think of their problems in terms of stencils and grids. hypre's users do not have to learn complicated sparse matrix structures; instead hypre does the work of building these data structures through various conceptual interfaces. The conceptual interfaces currently implemented include stencil-based structured and semi-structured interfaces, a finite-element based unstructured interface, and a traditional linear-algebra based interface. The primary focus of this paper is on the design and implementation of the conceptual interfaces in hypre. The paper is organized as follows. The first two sections are of general interest.We begin in Section 2 with an introductory discussion of conceptual interfaces and

  2. The Availability and Delivery of Health Care to High School Athletes in Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Michael I.

    1986-01-01

    A sports medicine survey of 119 public high schools in Alabama showed smaller schools at a disadvantage in offering health care for athletes relative to larger schools. Many schools rated the delivery and quality of medical care to the athletes as fair to very poor. (MT)

  3. System, apparatus and methods to implement high-speed network analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Ezick, James; Lethin, Richard; Ros-Giralt, Jordi; Szilagyi, Peter; Wohlford, David E

    2015-11-10

    Systems, apparatus and methods for the implementation of high-speed network analyzers are provided. A set of high-level specifications is used to define the behavior of the network analyzer emitted by a compiler. An optimized inline workflow to process regular expressions is presented without sacrificing the semantic capabilities of the processing engine. An optimized packet dispatcher implements a subset of the functions implemented by the network analyzer, providing a fast and slow path workflow used to accelerate specific processing units. Such dispatcher facility can also be used as a cache of policies, wherein if a policy is found, then packet manipulations associated with the policy can be quickly performed. An optimized method of generating DFA specifications for network signatures is also presented. The method accepts several optimization criteria, such as min-max allocations or optimal allocations based on the probability of occurrence of each signature input bit.

  4. A Synchronization Algorithm and Implementation for High-Speed Block Codes Applications. Part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Nakamura, Eric B.; Uehara, Gregory T.

    1998-01-01

    Block codes have trellis structures and decoders amenable to high speed CMOS VLSI implementation. For a given CMOS technology, these structures enable operating speeds higher than those achievable using convolutional codes for only modest reductions in coding gain. As a result, block codes have tremendous potential for satellite trunk and other future high-speed communication applications. This paper describes a new approach for implementation of the synchronization function for block codes. The approach utilizes the output of the Viterbi decoder and therefore employs the strength of the decoder. Its operation requires no knowledge of the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal, has a simple implementation, adds no overhead to the transmitted data, and has been shown to be effective in simulation for received SNR greater than 2 dB.

  5. Implementation of checklists in health care; learning from high-reliability organisations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Checklists are common in some medical fields, including surgery, intensive care and emergency medicine. They can be an effective tool to improve care processes and reduce mortality and morbidity. Despite the seemingly rapid acceptance and dissemination of the checklist, there are few studies describing the actual process of developing and implementing such tools in health care. The aim of this study is to explore the experiences from checklist development and implementation in a group of non-medical, high reliability organisations (HROs). Method A qualitative study based on key informant interviews and field visits followed by a Delphi approach. Eight informants, each with 10-30 years of checklist experience, were recruited from six different HROs. Results The interviews generated 84 assertions and recommendations for checklist implementation. To achieve checklist acceptance and compliance, there must be a predefined need for which a checklist is considered a well suited solution. The end-users ("sharp-end") are the key stakeholders throughout the development and implementation process. Proximity and ownership must be assured through a thorough and wise process. All informants underlined the importance of short, self-developed, and operationally-suited checklists. Simulation is a valuable and widely used method for training, revision, and validation. Conclusion Checklists have been a cornerstone of safety management in HROs for nearly a century, and are becoming increasingly popular in medicine. Acceptance and compliance are crucial for checklist implementation in health care. Experiences from HROs may provide valuable input to checklist implementation in healthcare. PMID:21967747

  6. Future water availability in North African dams simulated by high-resolution regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Yves; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Somot, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa, the countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are already experiencing water scarcity and a strong interannual variability of precipitation. To better manage their existing water resources, several dams and reservoirs have been built on most large river catchments. The objective of this study is to provide quantitative scenarios of future changes in water availability for the 47 major dams and reservoirs catchments located in North Africa. An ensemble of regional climate models (RCM) with a spatial resolution of 12km, driven by different general circulation models (GCM), from the EuroCORDEX experiment have been considered to analyze the projected changes on temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) for two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two time horizons (2040-2065 and 2065-2090). PET is estimated from RCM outputs either with the FAO-Penman-Monteith (PM) equation, requiring air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation and wind, or with the Hargreave Samani (HS) equation, requiring only air temperature. The water balance is analyzed by comparing the climatic demand and supply of water, considering that for most of these catchments groundwater storage is negligible over long time periods. Results indicated a future temperature increase for all catchments between +1.8° and +4.2°, depending on the emission scenario and the time period considered. Precipitation is projected to decrease between -14% to -27%, mainly in winter and spring, with a strong East to West gradient. PET computed from PM or HS formulas provided very similar estimates and projections, ranging between +7% to +18%. Changes in PET are mostly driven by rising temperatures and are greatest during dry summer months than for the wet winter season. Therefore the increased PET has a lower impact than declining precipitation on future water availability, which is expected to decrease by -19% to -33% on average.

  7. A Comparison of the High Count Rate Performance of Three Commercially Available Digital Signal Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell

    2005-10-01

    Three commercial ã-ray digital signal processors, a Canberra InSpector 2000, an ORTEC DigiDART, and an X-ray Instrumentation Associates Polaris system, coupled to a Canberra 2002C resistive-feedback preamplifier-equipped high-purity germanium detector, were performance tested to input rates of 440 kHz. The spectrometers were evaluated on their throughput, stability and peak shape performance. The accuracy of their quantitative corrections for dead time and pile-up were also tested. All three of the tested units performed well at input rates that strain most analog spectroscopy systems.

  8. Implementing Student Information Systems in High Schools: An Embedded Single Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes-O'Neill, Tamyra LaShawn

    2014-01-01

    As new technologies are developed for teaching and learning, they hold the potential to transform education but have yet to be fully integrated into K-12 classrooms in the United States. The purpose of this study was to explore how a student information system was implemented in 2 urban public high schools and how stakeholders perceived that…

  9. Implementation of an Entry-Level Retention Program for High-Risk College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanoni, Candido

    The specially funded program described in this report was implemented at the University of Minnesota's General College in Fall 1979 to promote the academic improvement and long-range retention of high-risk Black, Hispanic, and Native American students. After introductory material discussing the process involved in securing program funds from the…

  10. It Takes a Network: One Curriculum Leader Implements the Common Core High School Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckford, Franchetta Joenise

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted for the purpose of determining whether a district mathematics curriculum leader's social network advanced the implementation of the high school mathematics Common Core State Standards (CCSS) (CCSSI, 2012c). The qualitative data was collected through an interview, a hand-drawn network map, observations, and…

  11. Negotiating Implementation of High-Stakes Performance Assessment Policies in Teacher Education: From Compliance to Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Charles A.; Gallucci, Chrysan; Sloan, Tine

    2010-01-01

    Teacher education programs in the United States face a variety of new accountability policies at both the federal and the state level. Many of these policies carry high-stakes implications for students and programs and involve some of the same challenges for implementation as they have in the P-12 arena. Serious dilemmas for teacher educators…

  12. Implementation of Formative Assessment Strategies as Perceived by High School Students and Teachers: Professional Development Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate the level of implementation of formative assessment strategies among Rhode Island high school teachers and students in three districts. Furthermore, the research analyzed the relationship of the disciplines taught, the amount and kinds of professional development teachers had, and district…

  13. A Systematic Approach to Improving E-Learning Implementations in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardamean, Bens; Suparyanto, Teddy

    2014-01-01

    This study was based on the current growing trend of implementing e-learning in high schools. Most endeavors have been inefficient, rendering an objective of determining the initial steps that could be taken to improve these efforts by assessing a student population's computer skill levels and performances in an IT course. Demographic factors…

  14. A Literature Review: The Effect of Implementing Technology in a High School Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study is a literature review to investigate the effects of implementing technology into a high school mathematics classroom. Mathematics has a hierarchical structure in learning and it is essential that students get a firm understanding of mathematics early in education. Some students that miss beginning concepts may continue to struggle with…

  15. Serve and Learn: Implementing and Evaluating Service-Learning in Middle and High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Florence Fay; Whitehead, George I., III

    2004-01-01

    This volume makes two important contributions: First, it provides a framework grounded in theory and best professional practice that middle and high school teachers, their students, and community partners can use to design, implement, and evaluate service-learning projects that address authentic community needs. Second, it demonstrates ways…

  16. The Three-Block Model of Universal Design for Learning Implementation in a High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Jennifer; Sugden, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The role of the school leader (principal) in supporting educational reform is explored through a case study of one high school implementing the Three Block Model of UDL (Katz, 2012a) in an effort to meet the needs of a diverse student population. This case study is a part of a much larger study exploring outcomes for students and teachers of…

  17. Highly Proficient Bilinguals Implement Inhibition: Evidence from N-2 Language Repetition Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Thoma, Aniella M.; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Several, but not all, models of language control assume that highly proficient bilinguals implement little to no inhibition during bilingual language production. In the current study, we tested this assumption with a less equivocal marker of inhibition (i.e., n-2 language repetition costs) than previous language switching studies have. N-2…

  18. Academic-Career Integration in Magnet High Schools: Assessing the Level of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokarska, Barbara; And Others

    An ongoing study examined implementation and student response to academic career magnet (ACM) programs in New York City high schools. The programs emphasize both college preparation and career education, demonstrating one approach to the current emphasis on integrating academic and vocational education. New York City offers a wide array of magnet…

  19. School Violence, Substance Use, and Availability of Illegal Drugs on School Property among U.S. High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Richard; Cohen, Lisa R.; Modzeleski, William; Kann, Laura; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated whether school violence among high school students related to substance use and availability of illegal drugs at school, examining the associations of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana and availability of illegal drugs with five school violence indicators. Data from the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that school violence…

  20. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  1. Implementation method of a core SONET/SDH switch with high capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, JinQi

    2004-05-01

    An implementation method of a core SONET/SDH switch with high capacity is introduced in the paper. High-speed serial I/O, switching architectures and design considerations for switching unit are involved. It supports strictly non-blocking for unicast traffic and re-arrangeably non-blocking for dual-cast. Dualcast traffic allows for efficient scheduling of working and protection paths in UPSR(Unidirectional Path Switched Ring)/BLSR (Bidirectional Line Switched Ring) applications.

  2. Scalable Unix commands for parallel processors : a high-performance implementation.

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, E.; Lusk, E.; Gropp, W.

    2001-06-22

    We describe a family of MPI applications we call the Parallel Unix Commands. These commands are natural parallel versions of common Unix user commands such as ls, ps, and find, together with a few similar commands particular to the parallel environment. We describe the design and implementation of these programs and present some performance results on a 256-node Linux cluster. The Parallel Unix Commands are open source and freely available.

  3. Hardware implementation of a scheduler for high performance switches with quality of service (QoS) support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga, R.; Tobajas, F.; De Armas, V.; Sarmiento, R.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, the hardware implementation of a scheduler with QoS support is presented. The starting point is a Differentiated Service (DiffServ) network model. Each switch of this network classifies the packets in flows which are assigned to traffic classes depending of its requirements with an independent queue being available for each traffic class. Finally, the scheduler chooses the right queue in order to provide Quality of Service support. This scheduler considers the bandwidth distribution, introducing the time frame concept, and the packet delay, assigning a priority to each traffic class. The architecture of this algorithm is also presented in this paper describing their functionality and complexity. The architecture was described in Verilog HDL at RTL level. The complete system has been implemented in a Spartan-3 1000 FPGA device using ISE software from Xilinx, demonstrating it is a suitable design for high speed switches.

  4. Implementation of scalable video coding deblocking filter from high-level SystemC description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo, Pedro P.; Espino, Omar; Neris, Romén.; Hernández-Fernández, Pedro; Szydzik, Tomasz M.; Núñez, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes key concepts in the design and implementation of a deblocking filter (DF) for a H.264/SVC video decoder. The DF supports QCIF and CIF video formats with temporal and spatial scalability. The design flow starts from a SystemC functional model and has been refined using high-level synthesis methodology to RTL microarchitecture. The process is guided with performance measurements (latency, cycle time, power, resource utilization) with the objective of assuring the quality of results of the final system. The functional model of the DF is created in an incremental way from the AVC DF model using OpenSVC source code as reference. The design flow continues with the logic synthesis and the implementation on the FPGA using various strategies. The final implementation is chosen among the implementations that meet the timing constraints. The DF is capable to run at 100 MHz, and macroblocks are processed in 6,500 clock cycles for a throughput of 130 fps for QCIF format and 37 fps for CIF format. The proposed architecture for the complete H.264/SVC decoder is composed of an OMAP 3530 SOC (ARM Cortex-A8 GPP + DSP) and the FPGA Virtex-5 acting as a coprocessor for DF implementation. The DF is connected to the OMAP SOC using the GPMC interface. A validation platform has been developed using the embedded PowerPC processor in the FPGA, composing a SoC that integrates the frame generation and visualization in a TFT screen. The FPGA implements both the DF core and a GPMC slave core. Both cores are connected to the PowerPC440 embedded processor using LocalLink interfaces. The FPGA also contains a local memory capable of storing information necessary to filter a complete frame and to store a decoded picture frame. The complete system is implemented in a Virtex5 FX70T device.

  5. Implementation of physics and everyday thinking in a high school classroom: Concepts and argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belleau, Shelly N.; Ross, Mike J.; Otero, Valerie K.

    2012-02-01

    The Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum is based on educational research and consists of carefully sequenced sets of activities intended to help students develop physics ideas through guided experimentation and questioning with extensive small group and whole class discussion. A high school physics teacher has adapted and implemented the PET curriculum in a low-income urban high school with the aim of removing barriers that typically limit access to traditional physics curriculum. Though PET was not designed for secondary physics students, this teacher has worked closely with physics education research faculty and graduate students to simultaneously modify, implement, and investigate the impact of PET on urban high school students' physics learning. Preliminary results indicate that the PET curriculum has great potential to provide students with opportunities for success in understanding physics concepts, as well as helping to develop scientific argumentation strategies.

  6. Implementing a Highly Specified Curricular, Instructional, and Organizational School Design in a High-Poverty Urban Elementary School: Three Year Results. Report No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Barbara; Stringfield, Sam

    This report provides background, implementation, and diverse outcome data from the first 3 years of an ongoing effort to implement a highly specified school reform design in a high-poverty, urban elementary school, Woodson Elementary School, Baltimore (Maryland). The design that is being implemented is the Calvert School model. The Calvert School…

  7. High School Physics Availability: Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S.--both public and private--to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  8. An implementation of the SNR high speed network communication protocol (Receiver part)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Wen-Jyh

    1995-03-01

    This thesis work is to implement the receiver pan of the SNR high speed network transport protocol. The approach was to use the Systems of Communicating Machines (SCM) as the formal definition of the protocol. Programs were developed on top of the Unix system using C programming language. The Unix system features that were adopted for this implementation were multitasking, signals, shared memory, semaphores, sockets, timers and process control. The problems encountered, and solved, were signal loss, shared memory conflicts, process synchronization, scheduling, data alignment and errors in the SCM specification itself. The result was a correctly functioning program which implemented the SNR protocol. The system was tested using different connection modes, lost packets, duplicate packets and large data transfers. The contributions of this thesis are: (1) implementation of the receiver part of the SNR high speed transport protocol; (2) testing and integration with the transmitter part of the SNR transport protocol on an FDDI data link layered network; (3) demonstration of the functions of the SNR transport protocol such as connection management, sequenced delivery, flow control and error recovery using selective repeat methods of retransmission; and (4) modifications to the SNR transport protocol specification such as corrections for incorrect predicate conditions, defining of additional packet types formats, solutions for signal lost and processes contention problems etc.

  9. Implementing molecular dynamics on hybrid high performance computers - Particle-particle particle-mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. Michael; Kohlmeyer, Axel; Plimpton, Steven J.; Tharrington, Arnold N.

    2012-03-01

    The use of accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high-performance computers, machines with nodes containing more than one type of floating-point processor (e.g. CPU and GPU), are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this paper, we present a continuation of previous work implementing algorithms for using accelerators into the LAMMPS molecular dynamics software for distributed memory parallel hybrid machines. In our previous work, we focused on acceleration for short-range models with an approach intended to harness the processing power of both the accelerator and (multi-core) CPUs. To augment the existing implementations, we present an efficient implementation of long-range electrostatic force calculation for molecular dynamics. Specifically, we present an implementation of the particle-particle particle-mesh method based on the work by Harvey and De Fabritiis. We present benchmark results on the Keeneland InfiniBand GPU cluster. We provide a performance comparison of the same kernels compiled with both CUDA and OpenCL. We discuss limitations to parallel efficiency and future directions for improving performance on hybrid or heterogeneous computers.

  10. Implementation and modeling of parametrizable high-speed Reed Solomon decoders on FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocke, A.; Blume, H.; Noll, T. G.

    2005-05-01

    One of the most important error correction codes in digital signal processing is the Reed Solomon code. A lot of VLSI implementations have been described in literature. This paper introduces a highly parametrizable RS-decoder for FPGAs. By implementing resource-sharing and by using a fully pipelined multiplier/adder-unit in GF(2m) it was possible to achieve high throughput rates up to 1.3Gbit/s on a standard FPGA, while using only an attractive small amount of logical elements (LE). The implementation, written in a hardware description language (HDL), is based on an inversionless Berlekamp Algorithm (iBA), whose structure leads to a chain of identical processing elements (PE). The critical path of one PE runs only through one adder and one multiplier. A detailed description of a resource-sharing methodology for this Berlekamp Algorithm and the achievable gain are presented in this paper. The benchmarking for the design was done for different 8bit-codes against state-of-the-art FPGA-solutions and showed a gain of up to a factor of six regarding the AT-product, compared to other implementations.

  11. Implementing Molecular Dynamics on Hybrid High Performance Computers - Particle-Particle Particle-Mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W Michael; Kohlmeyer, Axel; Plimpton, Steven J; Tharrington, Arnold N

    2012-01-01

    The use of accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high-performance computers, machines with nodes containing more than one type of floating-point processor (e.g. CPU and GPU), are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this paper, we present a continuation of previous work implementing algorithms for using accelerators into the LAMMPS molecular dynamics software for distributed memory parallel hybrid machines. In our previous work, we focused on acceleration for short-range models with an approach intended to harness the processing power of both the accelerator and (multi-core) CPUs. To augment the existing implementations, we present an efficient implementation of long-range electrostatic force calculation for molecular dynamics. Specifically, we present an implementation of the particle-particle particle-mesh method based on the work by Harvey and De Fabritiis. We present benchmark results on the Keeneland InfiniBand GPU cluster. We provide a performance comparison of the same kernels compiled with both CUDA and OpenCL. We discuss limitations to parallel efficiency and future directions for improving performance on hybrid or heterogeneous computers.

  12. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  13. A C++11 implementation of arbitrary-rank tensors for high-performance computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón, Alejandro M.

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses an efficient implementation of tensors of arbitrary rank by using some of the idioms introduced by the recently published C++ ISO Standard (C++11). With the aims at providing a basic building block for high-performance computing, a single Array class template is carefully crafted, from which vectors, matrices, and even higher-order tensors can be created. An expression template facility is also built around the array class template to provide convenient mathematical syntax. As a result, by using templates, an extra high-level layer is added to the C++ language when dealing with algebraic objects and their operations, without compromising performance. The implementation is tested running on both CPU and GPU.

  14. Implementation of a High Explosive Equation of State into an Eulerian Hydrocode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlefield, David L.; Baker, Ernest L.

    2004-07-01

    The implementation of a high explosive equation of state into the Eulerian hydrocode CTH is described. The equation of state is an extension to JWL referred to as JWLB, and is intended to model the thermodynamic state of detonation products from a high explosive reaction. The EOS was originally cast in a form p = p(ρ, e), where p is the pressure, ρ is the density and e is the internal energy. However, the target application code requires an EOS of the form p = p(ρ, T), where T is the temperature, so it was necessary to reformulate the EOS in a thermodynamically consistent manner. A Helmholtz potential, developed from the original EOS, insures this consistency. Example calculations are shown that illustrate the veracity of this implementation.

  15. Parallel Implementation of a High Order Implicit Collocation Method for the Heat Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouatchou, Jules; Halem, Milton (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We combine a high order compact finite difference approximation and collocation techniques to numerically solve the two dimensional heat equation. The resulting method is implicit arid can be parallelized with a strategy that allows parallelization across both time and space. We compare the parallel implementation of the new method with a classical implicit method, namely the Crank-Nicolson method, where the parallelization is done across space only. Numerical experiments are carried out on the SGI Origin 2000.

  16. Computer simulations in teaching physics: Development and implementation of a hypermedia system for high school teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, A. M. R.; de Macêdo, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the technological advancement in the middle and the difficulty of learning by the students in the discipline of physics, this article describes the process of elaboration and implementation of a hypermedia system for high school teachers involving computer simulations for teaching basic concepts of electromagnetism, using free tool. With the completion and publication of the project there will be a new possibility of interaction of students and teachers with the technology in the classroom and in labs.

  17. Highly-Parallel, Highly-Compact Computing Structures Implemented in Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, D. G.; Duff, M. J. B.; Fountain, T. J.; Moffat, C. D.; Tomlinson, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we describe work in which we are evaluating how the evolving properties of nano-electronic devices could best be utilized in highly parallel computing structures. Because of their combination of high performance, low power, and extreme compactness, such structures would have obvious applications in spaceborne environments, both for general mission control and for on-board data analysis. However, the anticipated properties of nano-devices mean that the optimum architecture for such systems is by no means certain. Candidates include single instruction multiple datastream (SIMD) arrays, neural networks, and multiple instruction multiple datastream (MIMD) assemblies.

  18. Great Careers in Two Years: The Associate Degree Option. High Skill and High Wage Jobs Available through Two-Year Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Paul

    This book explores high-skill and high-wage jobs available through two-year programs. It identifies 100 high-need occupational areas, and discusses "hot" programs and starting salaries for graduates of dental hygiene, manufacturing, process technology, telecommunications, physical therapy assisting, and registered nursing. Each career article…

  19. IMPLEMENTING SCIENTIFIC SIMULATION CODES HIGHLY TAILORED FOR VECTOR ARCHITECTURES USING CUSTOM CONFIGURABLE COMPUTING MACHINES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David K.

    2006-01-01

    The motivation for this work comes from an observation that amidst the push for Massively Parallel (MP) solutions to high-end computing problems such as numerical physical simulations, large amounts of legacy code exist that are highly optimized for vector supercomputers. Because re-hosting legacy code often requires a complete re-write of the original code, which can be a very long and expensive effort, this work examines the potential to exploit reconfigurable computing machines in place of a vector supercomputer to implement an essentially unmodified legacy source code. Custom and reconfigurable computing resources could be used to emulate an original application's target platform to the extent required to achieve high performance. To arrive at an architecture that delivers the desired performance subject to limited resources involves solving a multi-variable optimization problem with constraints. Prior research in the area of reconfigurable computing has demonstrated that designing an optimum hardware implementation of a given application under hardware resource constraints is an NP-complete problem. The premise of the approach is that the general issue of applying reconfigurable computing resources to the implementation of an application, maximizing the performance of the computation subject to physical resource constraints, can be made a tractable problem by assuming a computational paradigm, such as vector processing. This research contributes a formulation of the problem and a methodology to design a reconfigurable vector processing implementation of a given application that satisfies a performance metric. A generic, parametric, architectural framework for vector processing implemented in reconfigurable logic is developed as a target for a scheduling/mapping algorithm that maps an input computation to a given instance of the architecture. This algorithm is integrated with an optimization framework to arrive at a specification of the architecture parameters

  20. The Availability and Utilization of School Library Resources in Some Selected Secondary Schools (High School) in Rivers State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owate, C. N.; Iroha, Okpa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the availability and utilization of school library resources by Secondary School (High School) Students. Eight Selected Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria were chosen based on their performance in external examinations and geographic locations. In carrying out the research, questionnaires were administered to both…

  1. An Exploration of Support Factors Available to Higher Education Students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Emily N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the support factors available to students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome in higher education that contribute to their success as perceived by the students. Creswell's (2009) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies was used to…

  2. International Conference on Harmonisation; Electronic Transmission of Postmarket Individual Case Safety Reports for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines; Availability of Food and Drug Administration Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Reporting to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. Notice of Availability.

    PubMed

    2016-06-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) Regional Implementation Specifications for the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) E2B(R3) Specification. FDA is making this technical specifications document available to assist interested parties in electronically submitting individual case safety reports (ICSRs) (and ICSR attachments) to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This document, entitled "FDA Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Implementation: Postmarket Submission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines" supplements the "E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) Implementation Guide--Data Elements and Message Specification" final guidance for industry and describes FDA's technical approach for receiving ICSRs, for incorporating regionally controlled terminology, and for adding region-specific data elements when reporting to FAERS. PMID:27373012

  3. Power of the policy: how the announcement of high-stakes clinical examination altered OSCE implementation at institutional level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been widely applied as a high-stakes examination for assessing physicians’ clinical competency. In 1992, OSCE was first introduced in Taiwan, and the authorities announced that passing the OSCE would be a prerequisite for step-2 medical licensure examination in 2013. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of the announced national OSCE policy on implementation of OSCE at the institutional level. Further, the readiness and the recognition of barriers toward a high-stakes examination were explored. Methods In 2007 and 2010, the year before and after the announcement of high-stakes OSCE policy in 2008, respectively, questionnaires on the status of OSCE implementation were distributed to all hospitals with active OSCE programs in Taiwan. Information on OSCE facilities, equipment, station length, number of administrations per year, and the recognition of barriers to the success of implementing an OSCE were collected. The missing data were completed by telephone interviews. The OSCE format, administration, and facilities before and after the announcement of the nationwide OSCE policy were compared. Results The data were collected from 17 hospitals in 2007 and 21 in 2010. Comparing the OSCE formats between 2007 and 2010, the number of stations increased and the station length decreased. The designated space and the equipment for OSCE were also found to have been improved. As for the awareness of OSCE implementation barriers, the hospital representatives concerned mostly about the availability and quality of standardized patients in 2007, as well as space and facilities in 2010. Conclusions The results of this study underscored an overall increase in the number of OSCE hospitals and changes in facilities and formats. While recruitment and training of standardized patients were the major concerns before the official disclosure of the policy, space and facilities became the focus of attention after

  4. A high-performance, portable implementation of the MPI message passing interface standard.

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Doss, N.; Skjellum, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Mississippi State Univ.

    1996-09-01

    MPI (Message Passing Interface) is a specification for a standard library for message passing that was defined by the MPI Forum, a broadly based group of parallel computer vendors, library writers, and applications specialists. Multiple implementations of MPI have been developed. In this paper, we describe MPICH, unique among existing implementations in its design goal of combining portability with high performance. We document its portability and performance and describe the architecture by which these features are simultaneously achieved. We also discuss the set of tools that accompany the free distribution of MPICH, which constitute the beginnings of a portable parallel programming environment. A project of this scope inevitably imparts lessons about parallel computing, the specification being followed, the current hardware and software environment for parallel computing, and project management; we describe those we have learned. Finally, we discuss future developments for MPICH, including those necessary to accommodate extensions to the MPI Standard now being contemplated by the MPI Forum.

  5. Implementation of a High Throughput Variable Decimation Pane Filter Using the Xilinx System Generator

    SciTech Connect

    RADDER,JERAHMIE WILLIAM

    2003-01-01

    In a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system, the purpose of the receiver is to process incoming radar signals in order to obtain target information and ultimately construct an image of the target area. Incoming raw signals are usually in the microwave frequency range and are typically processed with analog circuitry, requiring hardware designed specifically for the desired signal processing operations. A more flexible approach is to process the signals in the digital domain. Recent advances in analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology allow direct digital processing of wideband intermediate frequency (IF) signals. Modern ADCs can achieve sampling rates in excess of 1GS/s, and modern FPGAs can contain millions of logic gates operating at frequencies over 100 MHz. The combination of these technologies is necessary to implement a digital radar receiver capable of performing high speed, sophisticated and scalable DSP designs that are not possible with analog systems. Additionally, FPGA technology allows designs to be modified as the design parameters change without the need for redesigning circuit boards, potentially saving both time and money. For typical radars receivers, there is a need for operation at multiple ranges, which requires filters with multiple decimation rates, i.e., multiple bandwidths. In previous radar receivers, variable decimation was implemented by switching between SAW filters to achieve an acceptable filter configuration. While this method works, it is rather ''brute force'' because it duplicates a large amount of hardware and requires a new filter to be added for each IF bandwidth. By implementing the filter digitally in FPGAs, a larger number of decimation values (and consequently a larger number of bandwidths) can be implemented with no need for extra components. High performance, wide bandwidth radar systems also place high demands on the DSP throughput of a given digital receiver. In such

  6. Principles and practical implementation for high resolution multi-sensor QPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, C. V.; Lim, S.; Cifelli, R.

    2011-12-01

    The multi-sensor Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (MPE) is a principle and a practical concept and is becoming a well-known term in the scientific circles of hydrology and atmospheric science. The main challenge in QPE is that precipitation is a highly variable quantity with extensive spatial and temporal variability at multiple scales. There are MPE products produced from satellites, radars, models and ground sensors. There are MPE products at global scale (Heinemann et al. 2002), continental scale (Seo et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2011) and regional scale (Kitzmiller et al. 2011). Lots of the MPE products are used to alleviate the problems of one type of sensor by another. Some multi-sensor products are used to move across scales. This paper looks at a comprehensive view of the "concept of multi sensor precipitation estimate", from different perspectives. This paper delineates the MPE problem into three categories namely, a) Scale based MPE, b) MPE for accuracy enhancement and coverage and c) Integrative across scales. For example, by introducing dual polarization radar data to the MPE system, QPE can be improved significantly. In last decade, dual polarization radars are becoming an important tool for QPE in operational networks. Dual polarization radars offer an advantage to interpret more accurate physical models by providing information of the size, shape, phase and orientation of hydrometers (Bringi and Chandrasekar 2001). In addition, these systems have the ability to provide measurements that are immune to absolute radar calibration and partial beam blockage as well as help in data quality enhancement. By integrating these characteristics of dual polarization radar, QPE performance can be improved in comparison of single polarization radar based QPE (Cifelli and Chandrasekar 2010). Dual-polarization techniques have been applied to S and C band radar systems for several decades and higher frequency system such as X band are now widely available to the

  7. Numerical implementation of a crystal plasticity model with dislocation transport for high strain rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeur, Jason R.; Mourad, Hashem M.; Luscher, Darby J.; Hunter, Abigail; Kenamond, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper details a numerical implementation of a single crystal plasticity model with dislocation transport for high strain rate applications. Our primary motivation for developing the model is to study the influence of dislocation transport and conservation on the mesoscale response of metallic crystals under extreme thermo-mechanical loading conditions (e.g. shocks). To this end we have developed a single crystal plasticity theory (Luscher et al (2015)) that incorporates finite deformation kinematics, internal stress fields caused by the presence of geometrically necessary dislocation gradients, advection equations to model dislocation density transport and conservation, and constitutive equations appropriate for shock loading (equation of state, drag-limited dislocation velocity, etc). In the following, we outline a coupled finite element–finite volume framework for implementing the model physics, and demonstrate its capabilities in simulating the response of a [1 0 0] copper single crystal during a plate impact test. Additionally, we explore the effect of varying certain model parameters (e.g. mesh density, finite volume update scheme) on the simulation results. Our results demonstrate that the model performs as intended and establishes a baseline of understanding that can be leveraged as we extend the model to incorporate additional and/or refined physics and move toward a multi-dimensional implementation.

  8. High altitude mine waste remediation -- Implementation of the Idarado remedial action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, A.J.; Redmond, J.V.; River, R.A.; Davis, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    The Idarado Mine in Colorado's San Juan Mountains includes 11 tailing areas, numerous waste rock dumps, and a large number of underground openings connected by over 100 miles of raises and drifts. The tailings and mine wastes were generated from different mining and milling operations between 1975 and 1978. the Idarado Remedial Action Plan (RAP) was an innovative 5-year program developed for remediating the impacts of historic mining activities in the San Miguel River and Red Mountain Creek drainages. The challenges during implementation included seasonal access limitations due to the high altitude construction areas, high volumes of runoff during snow melt, numerous abandoned underground openings and stopped-out veins, and high profile sites adjacent to busy jeep trails and a major ski resort town. Implementation of the RAP has included pioneering efforts in engineering design and construction of remedial measures. Innovative engineering designs included direct revegetation techniques for the stabilization of tailings piles, concrete cutoff walls and French drains to control subsurface flows, underground water controls that included pipelines, weeplines, and portal collection systems, and various underground structures to collect and divert subsurface flows often exceeding 2,000 gpm. Remote work locations have also required the use of innovative construction techniques such as heavy lift helicopters to move construction materials to mines above 10,000 feet. This paper describes the 5-year implementation program which has included over 1,000,000 cubic yards of tailing regrading, application of 5,000 tons of manure and 26,000 tons of limestone, and construction of over 10,000 feet of pipeline and approximately 45,000 feet of diversion channel.

  9. Variables that impact the implementation of project-based learning in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Kellie

    Wagner and colleagues (2006) state the mediocrity of teaching and instructional leadership is the central problem that must be addressed if we are to improve student achievement. Educational reform efforts have been initiated to improve student performance and to hold teachers and school leaders accountable for student achievement (Wagner et al., 2006). Specifically, in the area of science, goals for improving student learning have led reformers to establish standards for what students should know and be able to do, as well as what instructional methods should be used. Key concepts and principles have been identified for student learning. Additionally, reformers recommend student-centered, inquiry-based practices that promote a deep understanding of how science is embedded in the everyday world. These new approaches to science education emphasize inquiry as an essential element for student learning (Schneider, Krajcik, Marx, & Soloway, 2002). Project-based learning (PBL) is an inquiry-based instructional approach that addresses these recommendations for science education reform. The objective of this research was to study the implementation of project-based learning (PBL) in an urban school undergoing reform efforts and identify the variables that positively or negatively impacted the PBL implementation process and its outcomes. This study responded to the need to change how science is taught by focusing on the implementation of project-based learning as an instructional approach to improve student achievement in science and identify the role of both school leaders and teachers in the creation of a school environment that supports project-based learning. A case study design using a mixed-method approach was used in this study. Data were collected through individual interviews with the school principal, science instructional coach, and PBL facilitator. A survey, classroom observations and interviews involving three high school science teachers teaching grades 9

  10. High School/High Tech Program Guide: An Implementation Guide for High School/High Tech Program Coordinators. Promoting Careers in Science and Technology for High School Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Disability Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This implementation guide is intended to assist educators in planning, establishing, building, and managing a High School/High Tech project for high school students with disabilities. The program is designed to develop career opportunities, provide activities that will spark an interest in high technology fields, and encourage students to pursue…

  11. ''Towards a High-Performance and Robust Implementation of MPI-IO on Top of GPFS''

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, J.P.; Tremann, R.; Blackwore, R.; Hartman, C.; Hedges, R.; Jia, B.; Kouiges, A.; White, A.

    2000-01-11

    MPI-IO/GPFS is a prototype implementation of the I/O chapter of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) 2 standard. It uses the IBM General Parallel File System (GPFS), with prototyped extensions, as the underlying file system. this paper describes the features of this prototype which support its high performance and robustness. The use of hints at the file system level and at the MPI-IO level allows tailoring the use of the file system to the application needs. Error handling in collective operations provides robust error reporting and deadlock prevention in case of returning errors.

  12. Design and implementation of high sensitive CCD on gallium arsenide based miniaturized spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jiamin; Shen, Jianhua; Guo, Fangmin

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a method on how to design and implement a miniaturized spectrometer with low-light-level (LLL) CCD on GaAs is introduced. The optical system uses a blazed grating as the dispersive element and a 1×64 CCD on GaAs as the sensor. We apply a highly integrated Cortex-M4 MCU (STM32F407), to build the data acquisition and analysis unit, providing Wi-Fi interface to communicate with the PC software. It can complete the tasks like data acquisition, digital filtering, spectral display, network communication, human-computer interaction etc.

  13. Evaluate the Options of Implementing Skew Quadrupoles in the High Energy Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    1999-03-09

    There are six skew quadrupoles needed in each side of the interaction region to compensate the effects of coupling and vertical dispersion due to the solenoid detector. Two of those skew quadrupoles are at the location of the first pair of the local chromatic sextupoles in the arcs adjacent the interaction region. To avoid introducing high order aberration, the skew quadrupoles could not be placed between the sextupoles pair. In this note, we evaluate two options of implementing the skew quadrupoles at those locations, namely adding trim coil into the sextupoles or vertically displacing the sextupoles.

  14. High Performance Data Clustering: A Comparative Analysis of Performance for GPU, RASC, MPI, and OpenMP Implementations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luobin; Chiu, Steve C; Liao, Wei-Keng; Thomas, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Compared to Beowulf clusters and shared-memory machines, GPU and FPGA are emerging alternative architectures that provide massive parallelism and great computational capabilities. These architectures can be utilized to run compute-intensive algorithms to analyze ever-enlarging datasets and provide scalability. In this paper, we present four implementations of K-means data clustering algorithm for different high performance computing platforms. These four implementations include a CUDA implementation for GPUs, a Mitrion C implementation for FPGAs, an MPI implementation for Beowulf compute clusters, and an OpenMP implementation for shared-memory machines. The comparative analyses of the cost of each platform, difficulty level of programming for each platform, and the performance of each implementation are presented. PMID:25309040

  15. High Performance Data Clustering: A Comparative Analysis of Performance for GPU, RASC, MPI, and OpenMP Implementations*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Luobin; Chiu, Steve C.; Liao, Wei-Keng; Thomas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to Beowulf clusters and shared-memory machines, GPU and FPGA are emerging alternative architectures that provide massive parallelism and great computational capabilities. These architectures can be utilized to run compute-intensive algorithms to analyze ever-enlarging datasets and provide scalability. In this paper, we present four implementations of K-means data clustering algorithm for different high performance computing platforms. These four implementations include a CUDA implementation for GPUs, a Mitrion C implementation for FPGAs, an MPI implementation for Beowulf compute clusters, and an OpenMP implementation for shared-memory machines. The comparative analyses of the cost of each platform, difficulty level of programming for each platform, and the performance of each implementation are presented. PMID:25309040

  16. Three case studies of three high school teachers' definitions, beliefs, and implementation practices of inquiry-based science method including barriers to and facilitators of successful implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn-Morrison, Kimberly D.

    This study involved three teachers in various stages of implementation of inquiry-based science method. The cases were chosen because one participant was a novice in using inquiry-based science method, one participant was in her second year of implementation, and the third participant was experienced with inquiry-based science method. The cases were set in a rural high school in three different science classrooms. One of the classrooms was a regular biology class. One of the classrooms was an honors oceanography class and another was an advanced placement environmental science classroom. Data sources included interviews, observations, and document collection. Interviews, observations, and document collection were used to triangulate data. Each classroom was observed five times. Interviews were conducted at the beginning of the semester with each participant and at the end of the semester. Follow-up interviews were conducted after each observation. Documents were collected such as each teacher's lesson plans, student work, and assignments. Data was initially organized according to the research areas of teacher's definition, teacher's beliefs, teacher's barriers to implementation, and teacher's enablers to implementation. Then, patterns emerging from each of these cases were organized. Lastly, patterns emerging across cases were compared in a cross-case analysis. Patterns shared between cases were: Participants related inquiry-based science method with hands-on learning activities. Participants saw students as the center of the learning process. Participants had positive beliefs about constructivist learning practices that were strengthened after implementation of inquiry-based teaching. Facilitators of successful implementation of inquiry-based science method were positive student motivation, students' retention of knowledge, and a positive experience for lower level students. Barriers to successful implementation were teachers not having complete control of the

  17. Bringing High-Rate, CO2-Based Microbial Electrosynthesis Closer to Practical Implementation through Improved Electrode Design and Operating Conditions.

    PubMed

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Freguia, Stefano; Flexer, Victoria; Keller, Jurg

    2016-02-16

    The enhancement of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of acetate from CO2 to performance levels that could potentially support practical implementations of the technology must go through the optimization of key design and operating conditions. We report that higher proton availability drastically increases the acetate production rate, with pH 5.2 found to be optimal, which will likely suppress methanogenic activity without inhibitor addition. Applied cathode potential as low as -1.1 V versus SHE still achieved 99% of electron recovery in the form of acetate at a current density of around -200 A m(-2). These current densities are leading to an exceptional acetate production rate of up to 1330 g m(-2) day(-1) at pH 6.7. Using highly open macroporous reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes with macropore sizes of about 0.6 mm in diameter was found to be optimal for achieving a good balance between total surface area available for biofilm formation and effective mass transfer between the bulk liquid and the electrode and biofilm surface. Furthermore, we also successfully demonstrated the use of a synthetic biogas mixture as carbon dioxide source, yielding similarly high MES performance as pure CO2. This would allow this process to be used effectively for both biogas quality improvement and conversion of the available CO2 to acetate. PMID:26810392

  18. The Galaxy Mass Function at High-Redshift from the Largest Available Spitzer-Based Survey (SERVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Maraston, Claudia; Lacy, Mark; Capozzi, Diego

    2015-08-01

    We exploit the largest (18 deg2) and deepest (AB = 23.1) galaxy and QSO survey available up to date of five highly observed astronomical fields (SERVS) to derive the galaxy stellar mass function and detailed galaxy properties as a function of cosmic time. SERVS obtained Spitzer 3.6µm and 4.5µm magnitudes for ~1 million galaxies up to redshift ~6, which we complement with multi-wavelength data from other on-going surveys, including VIDEO, GALEX, CFHTLS, UKIDSS, etc. in order to perform full SED fitting to models. The power of Spitzer data is its sensitivity to evolved stars at high-redshift, which allows us to better constrain the galaxy star formation histories. The wide area and depth of SERVS was designed precisely to capture the light from the most massive galaxies up to high-redshift. Results and comparison with the literature will be presented.

  19. Architecture and implementation for high-bandwidth real-time radar signal transmission and computing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yoong-Goog; Chandrasekar, V.; Jayasumana, Anura P.; Brunkow, David

    2002-06-01

    he design, architecture, and implementation for the high-throughput data transmission and high-performance computing,which are applicable for various real-time radar signal transmission applications over the data network, are presented. With a client-server model, the multiple processes and threads on the end systems operate simultaneously and collaborately to meet the real-time requirement. The design covers the Digitized Radar Signal (DRS) data acquisition and data transmission on the DRS server end as well as DRS data receiving, radar signal parameter computation and parameter transmission on the DRS receiver end. Generic packet and data structures for transmission and inter-process data sharing are constructed. The architecture was successfully implemented on Sun/Solaris workstations with dual 750 MHz UltraSPARC-III processors containing Gigabit Ethernet card. The comparison in transmission throughput over gigabit link between with computation and without computation clearly shows the importance of the signal processing capability on the end-to-end performance. Profiling analysis on the DRS receiver process shows the work-loaded functions and provides guides for improving computing capabilities.

  20. A high performance Josephson binary counter implemented in Nb and NbN technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, F. ); Whitely, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a Josephson binary counter with nondestructive readout implemented and tested in both niobium and niobium nitride technology. Successful operation of the Nb version has been observed. The design incorporates an additional tapered edge SiO{sub 2} level in the Nb processing sequence, which increases interferometer inductance, decreases capacitance, and ensures that geometric resonances are as high in frequency as possible. This new level has the added advantage of providing mask compatibility with the NbN process, as this level is skipped in the NbN flow, thereby compensating in part for the larger penetration depth of NbN. The counter cell is designed to be as compact as possible to minimize stray inductance and maximize top count rate and high count rate bias margins low read SQUID inductance, and requires no holes in the ground plane.

  1. Analysis of the Steady-State Eddy Available Energy Budget in the High-Latitude Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, A. D.; Kwak, Y.; Roble, R. G.

    2007-05-01

    Only part of the energy of the thermospheric gas is available for driving dynamics. This eddy available energy (EAE) is composed of an eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and an eddy available potential energy (EAPE). In the high-latitude thermosphere EKE is generated primarily where the ion-drag force associated with plasma convection accelerates the neutral gas, and is destroyed primarily where the ion-drag force opposes the wind. EAPE is generated primarily where Joule heat is deposited in regions of elevated temperatures, and destroyed where the heat is deposited in regions of reduced temperatures. We have evaluated the budgets of EAE production, transport, and loss under steady-state forcing of the high-latitude lower thermosphere, using the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General-Circulation Model. In general, ion-drag forcing is a larger contributor to both the production and destruction (depending on location) of EAE than is Joule heating for steady-state conditions, although Joule heating can play a more significant role for impulsive forcing. Transport of EAE by horizontal and vertical winds is a significant component of the EAE budget. Conversion of EAPE to EKE, and of EKE to EAPE, constitutes an important part of the budgets of these two components of EAE.

  2. A C++11 implementation of arbitrary-rank tensors for high-performance computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón, Alejandro M.

    2014-11-01

    This article discusses an efficient implementation of tensors of arbitrary rank by using some of the idioms introduced by the recently published C++ ISO Standard (C++11). With the aims at providing a basic building block for high-performance computing, a single Array class template is carefully crafted, from which vectors, matrices, and even higher-order tensors can be created. An expression template facility is also built around the array class template to provide convenient mathematical syntax. As a result, by using templates, an extra high-level layer is added to the C++ language when dealing with algebraic objects and their operations, without compromising performance. The implementation is tested running on both CPU and GPU. Catalogue identifier: AESA_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AESA_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Lesser General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 376 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 81 669 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: All modern architectures. Operating system: Linux/Unix/Mac OS. RAM: Problem dependent Classification: 5. External routines: GNU CMake build system and BLAS implementation. NVIDIA CUBLAS for GPU computing. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Catalogue identifier of previous version: AESA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 185 (2014) 1681 Nature of problem: Tensors are a basic building block for any program in scientific computing. Yet, tensors are not a built-in component of the C++ programming language. Solution method: An arbitrary-rank tensor class template is crafted by using the new features introduced by the C++11 set of requirements. In addition, an entire expression template facility is built on top, to provide mathematical

  3. Vocational High School Teachers' Difficulties in Implementing the Assessment in Curriculum 2013 in Yogyakarta Province of Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retnawati, Heri; Hadi, Samsul; Nugraha, Ariadie Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to describe vocational high school teachers' difficulties in implementing the assessment within Curriculum 2013, which has been implemented since July 2013 in several Indonesian schools and which might have been in effect in all schools around 2014. The study was descriptive explorative research by means of qualitative data…

  4. The Relationship between Professional Learning Community Implementation and Academic Achievement and Graduation Rates in Georgia High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardinger, Regina Gail

    2013-01-01

    Many educational administrators in Georgia continue to struggle with low student academic achievement and low high school graduation rates. DuFour's professional learning community (PLC) theory suggests a positive relationship between levels of PLC implementation and academic achievement and between levels of PLC implementation and graduation…

  5. The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE and LC/MS. The results indicated that foodstuffs under the study generally comply with European Union legislation in terms of sweetener content. However, a few cases of food product mislabelling were detected, i.e. the use of cyclamate for non-approved applications. PMID:22827164

  6. Development, Implementation and Application of Micromechanical Analysis Tools for Advanced High Temperature Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the final report to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the research project entitled Development, Implementation, and Application of Micromechanical Analysis Tools for Advanced High-Temperature Composites. The research supporting this initiative has been conducted by Dr. Brett A. Bednarcyk, a Senior Scientist at OM in Brookpark, Ohio from the period of August 1998 to March 2005. Most of the work summarized herein involved development, implementation, and application of enhancements and new capabilities for NASA GRC's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package. When the project began, this software was at a low TRL (3-4) and at release version 2.0. Due to this project, the TRL of MAC/GMC has been raised to 7 and two new versions (3.0 and 4.0) have been released. The most important accomplishments with respect to MAC/GMC are: (1) A multi-scale framework has been built around the software, enabling coupled design and analysis from the global structure scale down to the micro fiber-matrix scale; (2) The software has been expanded to analyze smart materials; (3) State-of-the-art micromechanics theories have been implemented and validated within the code; (4) The damage, failure, and lifing capabilities of the code have been expanded from a very limited state to a vast degree of functionality and utility; and (5) The user flexibility of the code has been significantly enhanced. MAC/GMC is now the premier code for design and analysis of advanced composite and smart materials. It is a candidate for the 2005 NASA Software of the Year Award. The work completed over the course of the project is summarized below on a year by year basis. All publications resulting from the project are listed at the end of this report.

  7. Implementation of a Novel Flight Tracking and Recovery Package for High Altitude Ballooning Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Aqsa; Nekkanti, Sanjay; Mohan Suri, Ram; Shankar, Divya; Prasad Nagendra, Narayan

    High altitude ballooning is typically used for scientific missions including stratospheric observations, aerological observations, and near space environment technology demonstration. The usage of stratospheric balloons is a cost effective method to pursue several scientific and technological avenues against using satellites in the void of space. Based on the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) ballooning program for studying Comet ISON using high altitude ballooning, a cost effective flight tracking and recovery package for ballooning missions has been developed using open source hardware. The flight tracking and recovery package is based on using Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) and has a redundant Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) based Global Positioning System (GPS) tracker. The APRS based tracker uses AX.25 protocol for transmission of the GPS coordinates (latitude, longitude, altitude, time) alongside the heading and health parameters of the board (voltage, temperature). APRS uses amateur radio frequencies where data is transmitted in packet messaging format, modulated by radio signals. The receiver uses Very High Frequency (VHF) transceiver to demodulate the APRS signals. The data received will be decoded using MixW (open source software). A bridge will be established between the decoding software and the APRS software. The flight path will be predicted before the launch and the real time position co-ordinates will be used to obtain the real time flight path that will be uploaded online using the bridge connection. We also use open source APRS software to decode and Google Earth to display the real time flight path. Several ballooning campaigns do not employ payload data transmission in real time, which makes the flight tracking and package recovery vital for data collection and recovery of flight instruments. The flight tracking and recovery package implemented in our missions allow independent development of the payload package

  8. Performance evaluation and capacity planning for a scalable and highly available virtualisation infrastructure for the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.; Sborzacchi, F.

    2014-06-01

    The virtual computing is often run to satisfy different needs: reduce costs, reduce resources, simplify maintenance and the last but not the least adds flexibility. The use of Virtualization in a complex system such as a farm of PCs that control the hardware of an experiment (PLC, power supplies, gas, magnets...) put us in a condition where not only an High Performance requirements need to be carefully considered but also a deep analysis of strategies to achieve a certain level of High Availability. We conducted a performance evaluation on different and comparable storage/network/virtualization platforms. The performance is measured using a series of independent benchmarks, testing the speed and the stability of multiple VMs running heavy-load operations on the I/O of virtualized storage and the virtualized network. The result from the benchmark tests allowed us to study and evaluate how the different VMs workloads interact with the Hardware/Software resource layers.

  9. Centrality dependence of high energy jets in p+Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bzdak, Adam; Skokov, Vladimir; Bathe, Stefan

    2016-04-08

    We investigate the recently measured centrality dependence of high energy jets in proton-lead collisions at the LHC. Here, we hypothesize that events with jets of very high energy (a few hundred GeV) are characterized by a suppressed number of soft particles, thus shifting these events into more peripheral bins. This naturally results in the suppression (enhancement) of the nuclear modification factor, RpA, in central (peripheral) collisions. Our calculations suggest that a moderate suppression of the order of 20%, for 103 GeV jets, can quantitatively reproduce the experimental data. Finally, we further extract the suppression factor as a function of jetmore » energy and test our conjecture using available RpA data for various centralities.« less

  10. Centrality dependence of high energy jets in p +Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzdak, Adam; Skokov, Vladimir; Bathe, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The recently measured centrality dependence of high energy jets in proton-lead collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is investigated. We hypothesize that events with jets of very high energy (a few hundred GeV) are characterized by a suppressed number of soft particles, thus shifting these events into more peripheral bins. This naturally results in the suppression (enhancement) of the nuclear modification factor, Rp A, in central (peripheral) collisions. Our calculations suggest that a moderate suppression of the order of 20 % , for 103 GeV jets, can quantitatively reproduce the experimental data. We further extract the suppression factor as a function of jet energy and test our conjecture using available Rp A data for various centralities.

  11. Next Generation Fast RF Interlock Module and ATCA Adapter for ILC High Availability RF Test Station Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R

    2009-10-17

    High availability interlocks and controls are required for the ILC (International Linear Collider) L-Band high power RF stations. A new F3 (Fast Fault Finder) VME module has been developed to process both fast and slow interlocks using FPGA logic to detect the interlock trip excursions. This combination eliminates the need for separate PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control of slow interlocks. Modules are chained together to accommodate as many inputs as needed. In the next phase of development the F3's will be ported to the new industry standard ATCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) crate (shelf) via a specially designed VME adapter module with IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface). The goal is to demonstrate auto-failover and hot-swap for future partially redundant systems.

  12. FPGA Implementation of Stereo Disparity with High Throughput for Mobility Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Morfopolous, Arin; Matthies, Larry; Goldberg, Steven

    2011-01-01

    High speed stereo vision can allow unmanned robotic systems to navigate safely in unstructured terrain, but the computational cost can exceed the capacity of typical embedded CPUs. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end stereo computation co-processing system optimized for fast throughput that has been implemented on a single Virtex 4 LX160 FPGA. This system is capable of operating on images from a 1024 x 768 3CCD (true RGB) camera pair at 15 Hz. Data enters the FPGA directly from the cameras via Camera Link and is rectified, pre-filtered and converted into a disparity image all within the FPGA, incurring no CPU load. Once complete, a rectified image and the final disparity image are read out over the PCI bus, for a bandwidth cost of 68 MB/sec. Within the FPGA there are 4 distinct algorithms: Camera Link capture, Bilinear rectification, Bilateral subtraction pre-filtering and the Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD) disparity. Each module will be described in brief along with the data flow and control logic for the system. The system has been successfully fielded upon the Carnegie Mellon University's National Robotics Engineering Center (NREC) Crusher system during extensive field trials in 2007 and 2008 and is being implemented for other surface mobility systems at JPL.

  13. Agent based modeling of blood coagulation system: implementation using a GPU based high speed framework.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenan; Ward, Kevin; Li, Qi; Kecman, Vojislav; Najarian, Kayvan; Menke, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The coagulation and fibrinolytic systems are complex, inter-connected biological systems with major physiological roles. The complex, nonlinear multi-point relationships between the molecular and cellular constituents of two systems render a comprehensive and simultaneous study of the system at the microscopic and macroscopic level a significant challenge. We have created an Agent Based Modeling and Simulation (ABMS) approach for simulating these complex interactions. As the scale of agents increase, the time complexity and cost of the resulting simulations presents a significant challenge. As such, in this paper, we also present a high-speed framework for the coagulation simulation utilizing the computing power of graphics processing units (GPU). For comparison, we also implemented the simulations in NetLogo, Repast, and a direct C version. As our experiments demonstrate, the computational speed of the GPU implementation of the million-level scale of agents is over 10 times faster versus the C version, over 100 times faster versus the Repast version and over 300 times faster versus the NetLogo simulation. PMID:22254271

  14. Implementation of the High-Risk Alcoholism Relapse Scale in a Liver Transplant Clinic.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Wagner, Laura M; Diflo, Thomas; Naegle, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    Because of the high prevalence of alcohol relapse after liver transplantation, transplant programs are challenged to evaluate alcoholism among liver transplant patients. Relapse after liver transplantation can have detrimental outcomes such as organ rejection, medical and social resource exhaustion, financial burden to the family and society, and negative public perception of organ transplantation. The purpose of this project was to improve post-liver transplant assessment for the risk of relapse to heavy alcohol use by implementing a protocol using the High-Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) scale (DiMartini et al., 2000; Yates et al., 1993). The project was conducted in an urban organ transplant center's outpatient post liver transplant clinic. Chart reviews assessed the process of patients identified as being at high risk and the transplant providers' completion of the HRAR scale. Eleven percent of patients assessed were identified as being at high risk for relapse of heavy alcohol use and 85% of providers used the HRAR scale in their clinic interviews. This project demonstrates that further refinements in techniques of predicting the risks of relapse are necessary, and nurses are in ideal positions to screen patients for alcohol use. PMID:26626033

  15. The Development and Implementation of Two Industrial Chemistry Case Studies for the Israeli High School Chemistry Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Miri; Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Hofstein, Avi

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the development and implementation of two case studies based on local chemical industries for the Israeli high school chemistry curriculum. Also includes two types of professional-development experiences. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

  16. Highly Efficient Long-Distance Quantum Communication: a Blueprint for Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linshu; Muralidharan, Sreraman; Kim, Jungsang; Lutkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail; Jiang, Liang

    2015-03-01

    Quantum repeaters provide a way for long distance quantum communication through optical fiber networks. Transmission losses and operation errors are two major challenges to the implementation of quantum repeaters. At each intermediate repeater station, transmission losses can be overcome using either heralded entanglement generation or quantum error correction, while operation errors can be corrected via entanglement purification or quantum error correction. Depending on the mechanisms used to correct loss and operation errors respectively, three generations of quantum repeaters have been proposed. We present a quantitative comparison of different quantum repeater schemes by evaluating the time- and qubit-resource consumed simultaneously. We can identify the most efficient scheme for given technological capabilities, which are characterized by fiber coupling efficiency, local gate fidelity, and local gate speed. Our work provides a roadmap for high-speed quantum networks across continental distances. Linshu and Sreraman contributed equally to this work.

  17. LS-DYNA Implementation of Polymer Matrix Composite Model Under High Strain Rate Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xia-Hua; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model is implemented into LS-DYNA as a user defined material model (UMAT) to characterize the nonlinear strain rate dependent behavior of polymers. By utilizing this model within a micromechanics technique based on a laminate analogy, an algorithm to analyze the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of a fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite is then developed as a UMAT to simulate the response of these composites under high strain rate impact. The models are designed for shell elements in order to ensure computational efficiency. Experimental and numerical stress-strain curves are compared for two representative polymers and a representative polymer matrix composite, with the analytical model predicting the experimental response reasonably well.

  18. Simulation of High Velocity Impact on Composite Structures - Model Implementation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Dominik; Toso-Pentecôte, Nathalie; Voggenreiter, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    High velocity impact on composite aircraft structures leads to the formation of flexural waves that can cause severe damage to the structure. Damage and failure can occur within the plies and/or in the resin rich interface layers between adjacent plies. In the present paper a modelling methodology is documented that captures intra- and inter-laminar damage and their interrelations by use of shell element layers representing sub-laminates that are connected with cohesive interface layers to simulate delamination. This approach allows the simulation of large structures while still capturing the governing damage mechanisms and their interactions. The paper describes numerical algorithms for the implementation of a Ladevèze continuum damage model for the ply and methods to derive input parameters for the cohesive zone model. By comparison with experimental results from gas gun impact tests the potential and limitations of the modelling approach are discussed.

  19. Simulation of High Velocity Impact on Composite Structures - Model Implementation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Dominik; Toso-Pentecôte, Nathalie; Voggenreiter, Heinz

    2016-05-01

    High velocity impact on composite aircraft structures leads to the formation of flexural waves that can cause severe damage to the structure. Damage and failure can occur within the plies and/or in the resin rich interface layers between adjacent plies. In the present paper a modelling methodology is documented that captures intra- and inter-laminar damage and their interrelations by use of shell element layers representing sub-laminates that are connected with cohesive interface layers to simulate delamination. This approach allows the simulation of large structures while still capturing the governing damage mechanisms and their interactions. The paper describes numerical algorithms for the implementation of a Ladevèze continuum damage model for the ply and methods to derive input parameters for the cohesive zone model. By comparison with experimental results from gas gun impact tests the potential and limitations of the modelling approach are discussed.

  20. Integrated State Estimation and Contingency Analysis Software Implementation using High Performance Computing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-31

    Power system simulation tools are traditionally developed in sequential mode and codes are optimized for single core computing only. However, the increasing complexity in the power grid models requires more intensive computation. The traditional simulation tools will soon not be able to meet the grid operation requirements. Therefore, power system simulation tools need to evolve accordingly to provide faster and better results for grid operations. This paper presents an integrated state estimation and contingency analysis software implementation using high performance computing techniques. The software is able to solve large size state estimation problems within one second and achieve a near-linear speedup of 9,800 with 10,000 cores for contingency analysis application. The performance evaluation is presented to show its effectiveness.

  1. Finite volume numerical scheme for high-resolution gravity field modelling and its parallel implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fašková, Z.; Macák, M.; Čunderlík, R.; Mikula, K.

    2012-04-01

    The paper discusses a numerical solution of the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) by the finite volume method (FVM). The FVM is a numerical method where numerical flux is conserved from one discretization cell to its neighbour, so it's very appropriate for solving GBVP with the Neumann and the Dirichlet BCs. Our numerical scheme is developed for 3D computational domain above an ellipsoid. It is shown that a refinement of the discretization in height's direction leads to more precise numerical results. In order to achieve high-resolution numerical results, parallel implementations of algorithms using the MPI procedures were developed and computations on parallel computers were successfully performed. This basis includes the splitting of all arrays in meridian's direction, usage of an implementation of the Bi-CGSTAB non-stationary iterative solver instead of the standard SOR and an optimization of communications on parallel computers with the NUMA architecture. This gives us higher speed up in comparison to standard approaches and enables us to develop an efficient tool for high-resolution global or regional gravity field modelling in huge areas. Numerical experiments present global modelling with the resolution comparable with EGM2008 and detailed regional modelling in the Pacific Ocean with the resolution 2x2 arc min. Input gravity disturbances are generated from the DTU10-GRAV gravity field model and the disturbing potential is computed from the GOCE_DIR2 satellite geopotential model up to degree 240. Finally, the obtained disturbing potential is used to evaluate the geopotential on the DTU10 mean sea surface and the achieved mean dynamic topography is compared with the ECCO oceanographic model.

  2. Improved virus removal by high-basicity polyaluminum coagulants compared to commercially available aluminum-based coagulants.

    PubMed

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Oshiba, A; Marubayashi, T; Sato, S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of basicity, sulfate content, and aluminum hydrolyte species on the ability of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants to remove F-specific RNA bacteriophages from river water at a pH range of 6-8. An increase in PACl basicity from 1.5 to 2.1 and the absence of sulfate led to a reduction of the amount of monomeric aluminum species (i.e., an increase of the total amount of polymeric aluminum and colloidal aluminum species) in the PACl, to an increase in the colloid charge density of the PACl, or to both and, as a result, to high virus removal efficiency. The efficiency of virus removal at around pH 8 observed with PACl-2.1c, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high colloidal aluminum content, was larger than that observed with PACl-2.1b, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high polymeric aluminum content. In contrast, although extremely high basicity PACls (e.g., PACl-2.7ns, basicity 2.7) effectively removed turbidity and UV260-absorbing natural organic matter and resulted in a very low residual aluminum concentration, the virus removal ratio with PACl-2.7ns was smaller than the ratio with PACl-2.1c at around pH 8, possibly as a result of a reduction of the colloid charge density of the PACl as the basicity was increased from 2.1 to 2.7. Liquid (27)Al NMR analysis revealed that PACl-2.1c contained Al30 species, which was not the case for PACl-2.1b or PACl-2.7ns. This result suggests that Al30 species probably played a major role in virus removal during the coagulation process. In summary, PACl-2.1c, which has high colloidal aluminum content, contains Al30 species, and has a high colloid charge density, removed viruses more efficiently (>4 log10 for infectious viruses) than the other aluminum-based coagulants-including commercially available PACls (basicity 1.5-1.8), alum, and PACl-2.7ns-over the entire tested pH (6-8) and coagulant dosage (0.54-5.4 mg-Al/L) ranges. PMID:24139360

  3. Development and implementation of a perfusion-based high cell density cell banking process.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yiwen; Shih, Jennifer; Sinacore, Marty; Ryll, Thomas; Yusuf-Makagiansar, Helena

    2011-01-01

    A perfusion-based high cell density (HD) cell banking process has been developed that offers substantial advantages in time savings and simplification of upstream unit operations. HD cell banking provides the means to reduce the time required for culture inoculum expansion and scale-up by eliminating the need for multiple small to intermediate scale shake flask-based operations saving up to 9 days of operation during large-scale inoculum expansion. HD perfusion cultures were developed and optimized in a disposable Wave bioreactor system. Through optimization of perfusion rate, rocking speed and aeration rate, the perfusion system supported peak cell densities of >20 × 10(6) cells/mL while maintaining high cell viability (≥ 90%). The cells were frozen at HD (90-100 × 10(6) viable cells/mL) in 5-mL CryoTube vials. HD cell banks were demonstrated to enable direct inoculation of culture into a Wave bioreactor in the inoculum expansion train thus eliminating the need for intermediate shake flask expansion unit operations. The simplicity of the disposable perfusion system and high quality of the cell banks resulted in the successful implementation in a 2000 L scale manufacturing facility. PMID:21538974

  4. Implementing the Professional Development Standards: An Innovative M.S. Degree for High School Chemistry Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowery Bretz, Stacey

    2002-11-01

    The 1996 publication of the National Science Education Standards (NSES) has had a profound effect on curriculum development, assessment of student learning, and pre-service teacher education. One consequence of this at the state level has been the abandonment of permanent certification for K-12 teachers in favor of renewable licensure. Ohio and Pennsylvania now require secondary teachers to earn an M.S. within ten years of their B.S. However, the NSES for professional development have yet to receive emphasis and priority in implementation equal to that given the content standards. For high school chemistry teachers, existing M.S. programs fail to meet the NSES professional development guidelines. This report outlines a vision for a new kind of masters' degree, tailored to the needs and talents of high school chemistry teachers, which provides for integration of both pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge (chemistry). The program empowers teachers with the skills necessary for continual professional development throughout their careeers by using action research in the high school classroom. Graduate courses in chemistry education research, including an extensive annotated bibliography, and early evaluation results are reported.

  5. An Evaluation of a Peer-Based HIV/AIDS Education Program as Implemented in a Suburban High School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Brian P.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Steele, Ric G.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of an evaluation of a peer-based HIV/AIDS education program, the BASE program, as implemented in a suburban high school setting. The participants were 132 high school students who participated in an "AIDS Awareness Day" as a part of the BASE program in their high school. Each student completed preintervention and…

  6. Identification of Microorganisms in Duck Meat Products Available in Korea and the Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Samooel; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Heo, Kang Nyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial count of duck meat and duck meat products commercially available in Korea. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment was applied at 0.1, 300, 400, and 500 MPa for 5 min to enhance the microbiological safety of duck meats. The levels of total aerobic bacteria were in the ranges of 3.53-6.19 and 3.62-6.85 Log CFU/g in raw and smoked duck products, respectively. By DNA sequence analysis, we identified microorganisms responsible for spoilage, with the most common species in the raw and smoked duck products being Aeromonas spp. or Pseudomonas spp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, respectively. HHP treatment significantly reduced the levels of total aerobic bacteria in raw and smoked duck products. This study demonstrates that HHP treatment may be used to effectively improve the safety of raw and smoked duck meat products. PMID:27194939

  7. A 5200-year record of freshwater availability for regions in western North America fed by high-elevation runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Brent B.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Hall, Roland I.; Johnston, John W.

    2011-06-01

    Shrinking glaciers and snowpacks are reducing discharge in rivers that drain the central Rocky Mountain region - water that supports downstream societies and ecosystems of western North America. However, a new 5200-year record of Lake Athabasca water-level variations, which serves as a sensitive gauge of past changes in alpine-sourced river discharge, reveals that western Canadian society has developed during a rare period of unusually abundant water ‘subsidized’ by prior glacier expansion. As the ‘alpine water tap’ closes, much drier times are ahead. Future water availability is likely to become similar to the mid-Holocene when Lake Athabasca dropped 2-4 m below the twentieth-century mean. Regions dependent on high-elevation runoff (i.e., western North America) must prepare to cope with impending water scarcity of magnitude not yet experienced since European settlement.

  8. Self-selecting fluid intake while maintaining high carbohydrate availability does not impair half-marathon performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J C; Hammond, K M; Vasdev, A; Poole, K L; Impey, S G; Close, G L; Morton, J P

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that self-selecting fluid intake but maintaining high exogenous CHO availability (60 g/h) does not compromise half-marathon performance. 15 participants completed 3 half-marathons while drinking a 6% CHO solution to guidelines (DRINK) or a non-caloric solution in self-selected volumes when consuming 3×glucose (20 g) gels (G-GEL) or glucose-fructose (13 g glucose+7 g fructose) gels (GF-GEL) per hour. Fluid intake (DRINK: 1 557±182, G-GEL: 473±234, GF-GEL: 404±144 ml) and percent body mass loss (DRINK: - 0.8±0.9, G-GEL: - 2.0±0.6, GF-GEL: -2.3±1.1) were different (P<0.05) between conditions, though race time did not differ (DRINK: 110.6±14.4, G-GEL: 110.3±14.6, GF-GEL: 113.7±12.8 min). In G-GEL, there was a positive correlation (P<0.05) between body mass loss and race time. Plasma glucose was lower (P<0.05) in GF-GEL compared with other conditions, and total CHO oxidation (DRINK: 3.2±0.5, G-GEL: 3.0±0.4, GF-GEL: 2.6±0.4 g/min) was lower (P=0.06) in this trial. Self-selecting fluid intake but maintaining high CHO availability does not impair half-marathon performance. Additionally, consuming glucose-fructose mixtures in sub-optimal amounts reduces plasma glucose and total rates of CHO oxidation. PMID:25144431

  9. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Mulloy, Barbara; Wu, Nian; Gyapon-Quast, Frederick; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Fuming; Pickering, Matthew C; Linhardt, Robert J; Feizi, Ten; Chai, Wengang

    2016-07-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. (1)H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  10. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. 1H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  11. Towards high performance computing for molecular structure prediction using IBM Cell Broadband Engine - an implementation perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background RNA structure prediction problem is a computationally complex task, especially with pseudo-knots. The problem is well-studied in existing literature and predominantly uses highly coupled Dynamic Programming (DP) solutions. The problem scale and complexity become embarrassingly humungous to handle as sequence size increases. This makes the case for parallelization. Parallelization can be achieved by way of networked platforms (clusters, grids, etc) as well as using modern day multi-core chips. Methods In this paper, we exploit the parallelism capabilities of the IBM Cell Broadband Engine to parallelize an existing Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm for RNA secondary structure prediction. We design three different implementation strategies that exploit the inherent data, code and/or hybrid parallelism, referred to as C-Par, D-Par and H-Par, and analyze their performances. Our approach attempts to introduce parallelism in critical sections of the algorithm. We ran our experiments on SONY Play Station 3 (PS3), which is based on the IBM Cell chip. Results Our results suggest that introducing parallelism in DP algorithm allows it to easily handle longer sequences which otherwise would consume a large amount of time in single core computers. The results further demonstrate the speed-up gain achieved in exploiting the inherent parallelism in the problem and also elicits the advantages of using multi-core platforms towards designing more sophisticated methodologies for handling a fairly long sequence of RNA. Conclusion The speed-up performance reported here is promising, especially when sequence length is long. To the best of our literature survey, the work reported in this paper is probably the first-of-its-kind to utilize the IBM Cell Broadband Engine (a heterogeneous multi-core chip) to implement a DP. The results also encourage using multi-core platforms towards designing more sophisticated methodologies for handling a fairly long sequence of RNA to predict

  12. Temporal high-pass non-uniformity correction algorithm based on grayscale mapping and hardware implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Minglei; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Yiyang; Li, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scene-based non-uniformity correction algorithm for infrared image processing-temporal high-pass non-uniformity correction algorithm based on grayscale mapping (THP and GM). The main sources of non-uniformity are: (1) detector fabrication inaccuracies; (2) non-linearity and variations in the read-out electronics and (3) optical path effects. The non-uniformity will be reduced by non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithms. The NUC algorithms are often divided into calibration-based non-uniformity correction (CBNUC) algorithms and scene-based non-uniformity correction (SBNUC) algorithms. As non-uniformity drifts temporally, CBNUC algorithms must be repeated by inserting a uniform radiation source which SBNUC algorithms do not need into the view, so the SBNUC algorithm becomes an essential part of infrared imaging system. The SBNUC algorithms' poor robustness often leads two defects: artifacts and over-correction, meanwhile due to complicated calculation process and large storage consumption, hardware implementation of the SBNUC algorithms is difficult, especially in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform. The THP and GM algorithm proposed in this paper can eliminate the non-uniformity without causing defects. The hardware implementation of the algorithm only based on FPGA has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption, and (2) small hardware delay: less than 20 lines, it can be transplanted to a variety of infrared detectors equipped with FPGA image processing module, it can reduce the stripe non-uniformity and the ripple non-uniformity.

  13. Line manager implementation perceptions as a mediator of relations between high-performance work practices and employee outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sikora, David M; Ferris, Gerald R; Van Iddekinge, Chad H

    2015-11-01

    Strategic human resources management (SHRM) scholars recently have suggested that high-performance work practices (HPWP) implementation might serve as a critical mediator between HPWP and workplace outcomes. This study proposes and tests a model that positions line managers' perceptions regarding the extent to which they implement their organization's HPWP as a mediator of relations between HPWP and employee attitudes (i.e., turnover intentions and participative decision-making perceptions) and behavior (i.e., job performance). Using data from 507 line managers and 109 matched line manager-subordinate response sets, the results suggest that line managers' HPWP implementation perceptions fully mediate relations between HPWP and employee outcomes. The authors also found that line managers' human resources competency and political skill affect their HPWP implementation perceptions. Overall, these findings contribute to a more informed understanding of relationships between HPWP and work outcomes and suggest that additional SHRM research is needed to better understand whether and how HPWP are implemented. PMID:26011722

  14. Low-fat milk and high-fiber bread availability in food stores in urban and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hosler, Akiko S; Varadarajulu, Deepa; Ronsani, Adrienne E; Fredrick, Bonnie L; Fisher, Brian D

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Albany Prevention Research Center's Core Project to understand environmental influences on a healthy lifestyle, all food stores in downtown Albany (N=79) and rural Columbia and Greene counties (N=177) in New York State were visited and surveyed for their availability of low-fat milk and high-fiber bread. Stores in the rural community were significantly (P < .01) more likely to stock low-fat milk (71%) and high-fiber bread (55%) than stores in Albany (40% and 33%, respectively). The rural community also had a significantly higher population ratio of "healthy milk & bread (M&B) stores" (carrying both items) than Albany (7.6 vs 3.9 per 10,000 residents). Urban healthy M&B stores were more likely to be a convenience store and accept food stamps, whereas rural healthy M&B stores were more likely to be a gas station store and offer off-street parking. Multiple logistic regression analysis found that healthy M&B stores were inversely associated with proportions of ethnic/racial minorities in the census block group (CBG). More than 80 percent of minorities in Albany resided in a CBG without a healthy M&B store. Urban residents in predominantly minority neighborhoods were most likely to encounter environmental barriers to obtain healthy staple food, and intervention should be tailored to aid this population. PMID:17041304

  15. High-throughput imaging and analysis of root system architecture in Brachypodium distachyon under differential nutrient availability.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Paul A; Zhu, Jinming; Shariff, Aabid; Davis, Ian W; Benfey, Philip N; Elich, Tedd

    2012-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiency are primary constraints for plant productivity, and root system architecture (RSA) plays a vital role in the acquisition of these nutrients. The genetic determinants of RSA are poorly understood, primarily owing to the complexity of crop genomes and the lack of sufficient RSA phenotyping methods. The objective of this study was to characterize the RSA of two Brachypodium distachyon accessions under different nutrient availability. To do so, we used a high-throughput plant growth and imaging platform, and developed software that quantified 19 different RSA traits. We found significant differences in RSA between two Brachypodium accessions grown on nutrient-rich, low-N and low-P conditions. More specifically, one accession maintained axile root growth under low N, while the other accession maintained lateral root growth under low P. These traits resemble the RSA of crops adapted to low-N and -P conditions, respectively. Furthermore, we found that a number of these traits were highly heritable. This work lays the foundation for future identification of important genetic components of RSA traits under nutrient limitation using a mapping population derived from these two accessions. PMID:22527399

  16. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric in a High Performance Computing Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2013-06-30

    As data centers proliferate in size and number, the improvement of their energy efficiency and productivity has become an economic and environmental imperative. Making these improvements requires metrics that are robust, interpretable, and practical. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high-performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and between data centers.

  17. Development and implementation of a high-performance, cardiac-gated dual-energy imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkumat, N. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Dhanantwari, A. C.; Williams, D. B.; Richard, S.; Tward, D. J.; Paul, N. S.; Yorkston, J.; Van Metter, R.

    2007-03-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the superposition of anatomical clutter in a projection radiograph poses a major impediment to the detectability of subtle lung nodules. Through decomposition of projections acquired at multiple kVp, dual-energy (DE) imaging offers to dramatically improve lung nodule detectability and, in part through quantitation of nodule calcification, increase specificity in nodule characterization. The development of a high-performance DE chest imaging system is reported, with design and implementation guided by fundamental imaging performance metrics. A diagnostic chest stand (Kodak RVG 5100 digital radiography system) provided the basic platform, modified to include: (i) a filter wheel, (ii) a flat-panel detector (Trixell Pixium 4600), (iii) a computer control and monitoring system for cardiac-gated acquisition, and (iv) DE image decomposition and display. Computational and experimental studies of imaging performance guided optimization of key acquisition technique parameters, including: x-ray filtration, allocation of dose between low- and high-energy projections, and kVp selection. A system for cardiac-gated acquisition was developed, directing x-ray exposures to within the quiescent period of the heart cycle, thereby minimizing anatomical misregistration. A research protocol including 200 patients imaged following lung nodule biopsy is underway, allowing preclinical evaluation of DE imaging performance relative to conventional radiography and low-dose CT.

  18. Design and implementation of a high sensitivity fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoucheng, Li; Xin'an, Wang; Ke, Lin; Jinpeng, Shen; Jinhai, Zhang

    2014-10-01

    A fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag complying with the ISO18000-6B protocol is presented, which includes an analog front-end, a baseband processor, and an EEPROM memory. To extend the communication range, a high efficiency differential-drive CMOS rectifier is adopted. A novel high performance voltage limiter is used to provide a stable limiting voltage, with a 172 mV voltage variation against temperature variation and process dispersion. The dynamic band-enhancement technique is used in the regulator circuit to improve the regulating capacity. A rail-to-rail hysteresis comparator is adopted to demodulate the signal correctly in any condition. The whole transponder chip is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process, with a die size of 900 × 800 μm2. Our measurement results show that the total power consumption of the tag chip is only 6.8 μW, with a sensitivity of -13.5 dBm

  19. Logic design and implementation of FPGA for a high frame rate ultrasound imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Anjun; Wang, Jing; Lu, Jian-Yu

    2002-05-01

    Recently, a method has been developed for high frame rate medical imaging [Jian-yu Lu, ``2D and 3D high frame rate imaging with limited diffraction beams,'' IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44(4), 839-856 (1997)]. To realize this method, a complicated system [multiple-channel simultaneous data acquisition, large memory in each channel for storing up to 16 seconds of data at 40 MHz and 12-bit resolution, time-variable-gain (TGC) control, Doppler imaging, harmonic imaging, as well as coded transmissions] is designed. Due to the complexity of the system, field programmable gate array (FPGA) (Xilinx Spartn II) is used. In this presentation, the design and implementation of the FPGA for the system will be reported. This includes the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) controller and other system controllers, time sharing for auto-refresh of SDRAMs to reduce peak power, transmission and imaging modality selections, ECG data acquisition and synchronization, 160 MHz delay locked loop (DLL) for accurate timing, and data transfer via either a parallel port or a PCI bus for post image processing. [Work supported in part by Grant 5RO1 HL60301 from NIH.

  20. Grazing simulation in a high arctic mire decreases CH4 emission, CO2 fluxes and substrate availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, J. M.; Ström, L.; Schmidt, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    Herbivory is an important part of many ecosystems; grazing alone can have a large impact on the ecosystems carbon balance with both direct and indirect effects. Removal of above-ground biomass by consumption of herbivores will change the below-ground carbon stock; the reduction of litter that goes into the ground will influence the total ecosystem carbon content Little is known about how plant-herbivory interactions effects the carbon balance, in particular methane emissions, of high arctic mires. However, a decrease in net ecosystem exchange with herbivory has been demonstrated in several arctic studies. We hypothesized that grazing will change carbon allocation patterns resulting in decreased net ecosystem uptake of carbon and subsequently in lower methane emissions. Our study is an in-situ field experiment conducted over three years in a high arctic mire in NE Greenland, Zackenberg. The experiment consists of five blocks, each having one control plot, one plot where vascular plants were removed and one that were clipped twice each growing season, to simulate muskox grazing. Over the experimental period we measured CH4, CO2 fluxes and substrate availability for methane production (mainly acetic acid). Immediately after the initial simulated grazing experiment in 2010 net ecosystem uptake of CO2 decreased in 'grazed' plots, the mean decrease for all three years were 30%. One year after the experiment was initiated significantly lower CH4 emission from 'grazed' plots was observed, the mean reduction for the following two years were 21%. The third year lower substrate availability for methane producing microorganisms was observed, 'grazed' plots had a 27% lower acetic acid concentration. The lower net ecosystem carbon uptake and acetic acid concentration in 'grazed' plots is the likely explaination to the lower CH4 emission. Plots with no vascular plants had a mean decrease in CO2 uptake of 133%, a 65% decrease in ecosystem respiration and an 85% decrease in CH4

  1. High Endogenous Avidin Binding Activity: An Inexpensive and Readily Available Marker for the Differential Diagnosis of Kidney Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kanehira, Kazunori; Hu, Johnny; Pier, Thomas; Sebree, Linda; Huang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    It has been documented that some tissues, such as salivary gland, liver, cardiac and skeletal muscles and kidney, have high level endogenous biotin or endogenous avidin binding activity (EABA). Limited data is available on EABA in renal cell neoplasms. A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed that included oncocytoma (n=30), chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (n=18), clear cell RCC (n=45), clear cell RCC with granular/eosinophilic (G/E) features (n=19), papillary RCC (n=21), papillary RCC with G/E features (n=29) and benign renal tissues (n=31). The TMA slides were stained with or without biotin blocker and analyzed using the automated cellular imaging system (ACIS®). Without biotin blocker, a high positive rate of EABA was found in oncocytoma (56/60, 93%) and normal renal tubules (46/60, 77%). A moderate positive rate of EABA was found in clear cell and papillary RCCs with G/E features (13/39, 33% and 19/55, 35%, respectively). Chromophobe RCC and RCC without G/E features had essentially no EABA. With biotin blocker, benign renal tissue and clear cell RCC were negative for EABA; but a significant number of renal oncocytoma (29/60, 48%) and a few papillary RCC with G/E features (5/52, 10%) remained positive for EABA. In conclusion, high EABA may be used to differentiate oncocytoma from chromophobe RCC, and the staining results must be interpreted with caution when avidin-biotin detection system is used in diagnosing renal neoplasms. PMID:18787626

  2. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn; Watson, Leela R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Launch Services Program, Ground Systems Development and Operations, Space Launch System and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). Examples include determining if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 km Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model configured by the AMU (Watson 2013) in real time. Implementing a real-time version of the ER WRF-EMS would generate a larger database of model output than in the previous AMU task for determining model performance, and allows the AMU more control over and access to the model output archive. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The AMU also calculated verification statistics to determine model performance compared to observational data. Finally, the AMU made the model output available on the AMU Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II (AWIPS II) servers, which allows the 45 WS and AMU staff to customize

  3. Neural network controller development and implementation for spark ignition engines with high EGR levels.

    PubMed

    Vance, Jonathan Blake; Singh, Atmika; Kaul, Brian C; Jagannathan, Sarangapani; Drallmeier, James A

    2007-07-01

    Past research has shown substantial reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) concentrations by using 10%-25% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition (SI) engines (see Dudek and Sain, 1989). However, under high EGR levels, the engine exhibits strong cyclic dispersion in heat release which may lead to instability and unsatisfactory performance preventing commercial engines to operate with high EGR levels. A neural network (NN)-based output feedback controller is developed to reduce cyclic variation in the heat release under high levels of EGR even when the engine dynamics are unknown by using fuel as the control input. A separate control loop was designed for controlling EGR levels. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is given and the boundedness of the control input is demonstrated by relaxing separation principle, persistency of excitation condition, certainty equivalence principle, and linear in the unknown parameter assumptions. Online training is used for the adaptive NN and no offline training phase is needed. This online learning feature and model-free approach is used to demonstrate the applicability of the controller on a different engine with minimal effort. Simulation results demonstrate that the cyclic dispersion is reduced significantly using the proposed controller when implemented on an engine model that has been validated experimentally. For a single cylinder research engine fitted with a modern four-valve head (Ricardo engine), experimental results at 15% EGR indicate that cyclic dispersion was reduced 33% by the controller, an improvement of fuel efficiency by 2%, and a 90% drop in NOx from stoichiometric operation without EGR was observed. Moreover, unburned hydrocarbons (uHC) drop by 6% due to NN control as compared to the uncontrolled scenario due to the drop in cyclic dispersion. Similar performance was observed with the controller on a different engine. PMID:17668663

  4. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a (59)Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16-24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11-15μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350-470μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands. PMID:26971209

  5. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Demaeyer, Ph

    2016-01-01

    Medicine owes many to Hippocrate, but pneumology traces its origin back to antiquity, from Mesopotamia to ancient Rome. Regarding prehistory: if viscera of this period have not been kept, some bones were. Since Neanderthals, it is then possible to study osteoarticular pathologies (often chronic arthrosis). But no evidence of tuberculosis was found (all thoracic kyphosis are not tuberculosis). Tuberculosis probably appears during the Neolithic age, because of high concentration of population. In ancient times, pneumology was of course not a real medical specialty. However, respiratory illness already constituted a big part of antique medical practice. The purpose of the physician in antiquity was to establish a diagnosis, a prognostic and to propose a treatment. Prognostic revealed to be of great importance in ancient times, since therapeutic efficacy was limited. Contemporary physicians often neglect this part of their practice. In ancient times, physicians also tried to gradually eliminate magic-religious aspects in taking care of the patients. This review will propose a journey from Mesopotamia to ancient Egypt (and its medical papyrus). Very few sources are available concerning medicine in pre-Columbian cultures. However, it is well known that shamans had, besides their religious competences, a great pharmacopoeia. Because of these very few sources, this topic will not be added to this article. Little is known in Europa about chinese medicine before the Jesuit mission in China during the 17th and 18th centuries. Yet, chinese medicine grew in parallel with European's one. Some relevant elements of this medicine will hereafter be shown. PMID:27120938

  6. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Soret, Juliette; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques

    2016-06-01

    THE ROLE OF RUXOLITINIB IN THE TREATMENT OF MYELOPROLIFERATIVE NEOPLASMS: The discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in 2005, present in 95% of polycythemia vera (PV) and in 55% of myelofibrosis (MF) patients, opened the way for a new era of targeted therapies for myeloproliferative neoplasms. Ruxolitinib was the first-in-class Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitor approved for the management of these diseases. In PV patients, conventional treatment strategies including aspirin, phlebotomy, cytoreductive agents such as hydroxyurea and interferon, clearly provide clinical benefits. However, some patients develop resistance or intolerance to these treatments. Ruxolitinib has been approved for PV patients who are resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea, based on the results of the phase 3 RESPONSE study. This study showed that ruxolitinib improves hematocrit control, reduces splenomegaly, and ameliorate disease-related symptoms as compared with best available therapy. In MF patients, the only curative treatment is allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but it remains restricted to a limited group of patients with poor prognosis and who are eligible for such procedure associated with non-negligible transplant-related mortality. Other treatments are palliative and unlikely to prolong survival. Ruxolitinib has been approved in the United States for MF patients with intermediate or high-risk disease, and in Europe for disease-related splenomegaly or symptoms in adults with MF, based on phase 3 COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II studies. These studies showed that ruxolitinib was able to reduce splenomegaly, ameliorate symptoms, and improve survival. However, the journey is not finished yet since there are still important unmet needs for MF patients, including improvement in cytopenias, and significant modification of disease natural history. PMID:27494970

  7. Analog Exercise Hardware to Implement a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Background: In order to evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a space flight analog prior to validation on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is sponsoring a multi-investigator bedrest campaign that utilizes a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistive and aerobic exercise protocols. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware and how they are used to support current bedrest studies at NASA's Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, TX. Discussion: To implement candidate exercise countermeasure studies during extended bed rest studies the following analog hardware are being utilized: Stand alone Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulator (sZLS) -- a custom built device by NASA, the sZLS allows bedrest subjects to remain supine as they run on a vertically-oriented treadmill (0-15 miles/hour). The treadmill includes a pneumatic subject loading device to provide variable body loading (0-100%) and a harness to keep the subject in contact with the motorized treadmill to provide a ground reaction force at their feet that is quantified by a Kistler Force Plate. Supine Cycle Ergometer -- a commercially available supine cycle ergometer (Lode, Groningen, Netherlands) is used for all cycle ergometer sessions. The ergometer has adjustable shoulder supports and handgrips to help stabilize the subject during exercise. Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) -- a custom built device by Quantum Fitness Corp (Stafford, TX), the HSD allows for squat exercises to be performed while lying in a supine position. The HSD can provide 0 to 600 pounds of force in selectable 5 lb increments, and allows hip translation in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Prone Leg Curl -- a commercially available prone leg curl machine (Cybex International Inc., Medway, MA) is used to complete leg curl exercises. Horizontal Leg Press -- a commercially available horizontal leg press (Quantum Fitness Corporation) is

  8. Approaches in highly parameterized inversion: bgaPEST, a Bayesian geostatistical approach implementation with PEST: documentation and instructions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; D'Oria, Marco; Doherty, John E.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    The application bgaPEST is a highly parameterized inversion software package implementing the Bayesian Geostatistical Approach in a framework compatible with the parameter estimation suite PEST. Highly parameterized inversion refers to cases in which parameters are distributed in space or time and are correlated with one another. The Bayesian aspect of bgaPEST is related to Bayesian probability theory in which prior information about parameters is formally revised on the basis of the calibration dataset used for the inversion. Conceptually, this approach formalizes the conditionality of estimated parameters on the specific data and model available. The geostatistical component of the method refers to the way in which prior information about the parameters is used. A geostatistical autocorrelation function is used to enforce structure on the parameters to avoid overfitting and unrealistic results. Bayesian Geostatistical Approach is designed to provide the smoothest solution that is consistent with the data. Optionally, users can specify a level of fit or estimate a balance between fit and model complexity informed by the data. Groundwater and surface-water applications are used as examples in this text, but the possible uses of bgaPEST extend to any distributed parameter applications.

  9. Implementation of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Androgen Deprivation in Patients With Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lilleby, Wolfgang; Tafjord, Gunnar; Raabe, Nils K.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome (overall survival [OS], the actuarial 5-year cancer-specific survival [CSS], disease-free survival [DFS], biochemical failure-free survival [BFS]), complications and morbidity in patients treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost and hormonal treatment with curative aims. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 275 prospectively followed pN0/N0M0 patients were included: 19 patients (7%) with T2, Gleason score 7 and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 and 256 patients (93%) with T3 or Gleason score 8-10 or PSA >20 received multimodal treatment with conformal four-field radiotherapy (prostate/vesiculae 2 Gy Multiplication-Sign 25) combined with HDR-BT (iridium 192; prostate 10 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Results: After a median observation time of 44.2 months (range, 10.4-90.5 months) 12 patients had relapsed clinically and/or biochemically and 10 patients were dead, of which 2 patients died from prostate cancer. Five-year estimates of BFS, CSS, DFS, and OS rates were 98.5%, 99.3%, 95.6%, and 96.3%, respectively. None of the patients with either Gleason score <8 or with intermediate risk profile had relapsed. The number of HDR-BT treatments was not related to outcome. Despite of age (median, 65.7 years; range, 45.7-77 years) and considerable pretreatment comorbidity in 39 of 275 patients, Genitourinary treatment-related morbidity was moderate with long-lasting Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2 voiding problems in 26 patients (9.5%) and occasionally mucous discharge in 20 patients (7%), none with Grade >2 for gastrointestinal at follow-up. Complications during implantations were related to pubic arch interference (4 patients) and lithotomy time, causing 2 patients to develop compartment syndrome. Conclusion: Despite still preliminary observations, our 5-year outcome estimates favor the implementation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in high-risk patients combined with conformal

  10. The Implementation of Cooperative Learning in English Class of Favorite School of Secondary High School 5 Batusangkar, West Sumatera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiawan, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explain the implementation of cooperative learning in English class of favorite school of Secondary High School 5 Batusangkar, West Sumatera; to find out the achievement of Cooperative Learning in English class of Favorite School of Secondary High School 5 Batusangkar, West Sumatera; and to know how is the strengths…

  11. The Implementation and Effects of High School Graduation Requirements: First Steps toward Curricular Reform. CPRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.; And Others

    The focus of this study is the implementation and effects of high school graduation requirements enacted as a result of the recent wave of state reforms of education. The study concentrates on high school graduation course requirements. Interview data on the intent and effects of the requirements were gathered in six states, 24 districts, 32 high…

  12. Implementing an Additive, College Access and Readiness Program for Latina/o High School Students in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro-Jimenez, Carla; Hungerford-Kresser, Holly

    2013-01-01

    In this article we draw on the experiences of a diverse group of 34 first-generation college students, collected over a year, who served as peer mentors to minority and Latina/o high school students enrolled in four Title I (low-income) high schools in the Southwest U.S. The article identifies the successes and challenges of implementing an…

  13. Reading Intervention in Middle and High Schools: Implementation Fidelity, Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Carter, Janis C.; Rintamaa, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' efficacy and implementation in the context of a supplemental intervention for struggling adolescent readers. It examined teachers' efficacy at the start of their intervention training and investigated relationships among teachers' efficacy, implementation, and students' reading progress. The efficacy and…

  14. Primary production and respiration of hypersaline microbial mats as a response for high and low CO2 availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bento, L.; Enrich-Prast, A.; Nielsen, L. P.

    2012-09-01

    Here we report a time series of experiments performed in a microcosm to test the response of hypersaline microbial mats to diverse atmospheric CO2 conditions. Different from most part of the literature, our study used a sample chamber were carbon dioxide concentration was controlled. Our aim was to test the effect of different atmospheric CO2 conditions in benthic gross and net primary production, and respiration. This study showed for the first time to our knowledge absolute carbon limitation in a microbial mat. Oxygen concentration profile varied from a flattened shape to almost linear when atmospheric CO2 at the chamber reached 0 ppm, with NPP reaching 0 nmol cm-3 s-1 throughout most part of the profile. In this conditions sediment community respiration represented 100% of GPP. Extreme close coupling between primary production and respiration in microbial mats can be even self-sustainable in environments with temporally no atmospheric CO2 available. When submitted to even high CO2 concentrations (550 ppm), our sample showed a characteristic shape that indicate limitation composed by a more rectilinear oxygen profile, and NPP peaks mainly restricted to deeper layers. Therefore, we suggest that phototrophic communities in aquatic shallow ecosystems can be carbon limited. This limitation could be common especially in ecosystems submitted to variable water depth conditions, like coastal lagoons and intertidal sediments.

  15. Surface runoff losses of phosphorus from Virginia soils amended with turkey manure using phytase and high available phosphorus corn diets.

    PubMed

    Penn, C J; Mullins, G L; Zelazny, L W; Warren, J G; McGrath, J M

    2004-01-01

    Many states have passed legislation that regulates agricultural P applications based on soil P levels and crop P uptake in an attempt to protect surface waters from nonpoint P inputs. Phytase enzyme and high available phosphorus (HAP) corn supplements to poultry feed are considered potential remedies to this problem because they can reduce total P concentrations in manure. However, less is known about their water solubility of P and potential nonpoint-source P losses when land-applied. This study was conducted to determine the effects of phytase enzyme and HAP corn supplemented diets on runoff P concentrations from pasture soils receiving surface applications of turkey manure. Manure from five poultry diets consisting of various combinations of phytase enzyme, HAP corn, and normal phytic acid (NPA) corn were surface-applied at 60 kg P ha(-1) to runoff boxes containing tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and placed under a rainfall simulator for runoff collection. The alternative diets caused a decrease in manure total P and water soluble phosphorus (WSP) compared with the standard diet. Runoff dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrations were significantly higher from HAP manure-amended soils while DRP losses from other manure treatments were not significantly different from each other. The DRP concentrations in runoff were not directly related to manure WSP. Instead, because the mass of manure applied varied for each treatment causing different amounts of manure particles lost in runoff, the runoff DRP concentrations were influenced by a combination of runoff sediment concentrations and manure WSP. PMID:15254126

  16. Implementation of Ultrasonic Sensing for High Resolution Measurement of Binary Gas Mixture Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Berry, Stephane; Bitadze, Alexander; Bonneau, Pierre; Bousson, Nicolas; Boyd, George; Bozza, Gennaro; Crespo-Lopez, Olivier; Riva, Enrico Da; Degeorge, Cyril; Deterre, Cecile; DiGirolamo, Beniamino; Doubek, Martin; Favre, Gilles; Godlewski, Jan; Hallewell, Gregory; Hasib, Ahmed; Katunin, Sergey; Langevin, Nicolas; Lombard, Didier; Mathieu, Michel; McMahon, Stephen; Nagai, Koichi; Pearson, Benjamin; Robinson, David; Rossi, Cecilia; Rozanov, Alexandre; Strauss, Michael; Vitek, Michal; Vacek, Vaclav; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    We describe an ultrasonic instrument for continuous real-time analysis of the fractional mixture of a binary gas system. The instrument is particularly well suited to measurement of leaks of a high molecular weight gas into a system that is nominally composed of a single gas. Sensitivity < 5 × 10−5 is demonstrated to leaks of octaflouropropane (C3F8) coolant into nitrogen during a long duration (18 month) continuous study. The sensitivity of the described measurement system is shown to depend on the difference in molecular masses of the two gases in the mixture. The impact of temperature and pressure variances on the accuracy of the measurement is analysed. Practical considerations for the implementation and deployment of long term, in situ ultrasonic leak detection systems are also described. Although development of the described systems was motivated by the requirements of an evaporative fluorocarbon cooling system, the instrument is applicable to the detection of leaks of many other gases and to processes requiring continuous knowledge of particular binary gas mixture fractions. PMID:24961217

  17. Implementation of ultrasonic sensing for high resolution measurement of binary gas mixture fractions.

    PubMed

    Bates, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Berry, Stephane; Bitadze, Alexander; Bonneau, Pierre; Bousson, Nicolas; Boyd, George; Bozza, Gennaro; Crespo-Lopez, Olivier; Da Riva, Enrico; Degeorge, Cyril; Deterre, Cecile; DiGirolamo, Beniamino; Doubek, Martin; Favre, Gilles; Godlewski, Jan; Hallewell, Gregory; Hasib, Ahmed; Katunin, Sergey; Langevin, Nicolas; Lombard, Didier; Mathieu, Michel; McMahon, Stephen; Nagai, Koichi; Pearson, Benjamin; Robinson, David; Rossi, Cecilia; Rozanov, Alexandre; Strauss, Michael; Vitek, Michal; Vacek, Vaclav; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    We describe an ultrasonic instrument for continuous real-time analysis of the fractional mixture of a binary gas system. The instrument is particularly well suited to measurement of leaks of a high molecular weight gas into a system that is nominally composed of a single gas. Sensitivity < 5 × 10(-5) is demonstrated to leaks of octaflouropropane (C3F8) coolant into nitrogen during a long duration (18 month) continuous study. The sensitivity of the described measurement system is shown to depend on the difference in molecular masses of the two gases in the mixture. The impact of temperature and pressure variances on the accuracy of the measurement is analysed. Practical considerations for the implementation and deployment of long term, in situ ultrasonic leak detection systems are also described. Although development of the described systems was motivated by the requirements of an evaporative fluorocarbon cooling system, the instrument is applicable to the detection of leaks of many other gases and to processes requiring continuous knowledge of particular binary gas mixture fractions. PMID:24961217

  18. Supercomputer implementation of finite element algorithms for high speed compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1986-01-01

    Prediction of compressible flow phenomena using the finite element method is of recent origin and considerable interest. Two shock capturing finite element formulations for high speed compressible flows are described. A Taylor-Galerkin formulation uses a Taylor series expansion in time coupled with a Galerkin weighted residual statement. The Taylor-Galerkin algorithms use explicit artificial dissipation, and the performance of three dissipation models are compared. A Petrov-Galerkin algorithm has as its basis the concepts of streamline upwinding. Vectorization strategies are developed to implement the finite element formulations on the NASA Langley VPS-32. The vectorization scheme results in finite element programs that use vectors of length of the order of the number of nodes or elements. The use of the vectorization procedure speeds up processing rates by over two orders of magnitude. The Taylor-Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin algorithms are evaluated for 2D inviscid flows on criteria such as solution accuracy, shock resolution, computational speed and storage requirements. The convergence rates for both algorithms are enhanced by local time-stepping schemes. Extension of the vectorization procedure for predicting 2D viscous and 3D inviscid flows are demonstrated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the finite element procedures for realistic problems that require hundreds of thousands of nodes.

  19. Implementation of tetra-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel with high mechanical strength into microfluidic device technology

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Hiroaki; Nagaoka, Akira; Noguchi, Jun; Akagi, Takanori; Sakai, Takamasa; Chung, Ung-il; Kasai, Haruo; Ichiki, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogels have several excellent characteristics suitable for biomedical use such as softness, biological inertness and solute permeability. Hence, integrating hydrogels into microfluidic devices is a promising approach for providing additional functions such as biocompatibility and porosity, to microfluidic devices. However, the poor mechanical strength of hydrogels has severely limited device design and fabrication. A tetra-poly(ethylene glycol) (tetra-PEG) hydrogel synthesized recently has high mechanical strength and is expected to overcome such a limitation. In this research, we have comprehensively studied the implementation of tetra-PEG gel into microfluidic device technology. First, the fabrication of tetra-PEG gel/PDMS hybrid microchannels was established by developing a simple and robust bonding technique. Second, some fundamental features of tetra-PEG gel/PDMS hybrid microchannels, particularly fluid flow and mass transfer, were studied. Finally, to demonstrate the unique application of tetra-PEG-gel-integrated microfluidic devices, the generation of patterned chemical modulation with the maximum concentration gradient: 10% per 20 μm in a hydrogel was performed. The techniques developed in this study are expected to provide fundamental and beneficial methods of developing various microfluidic devices for life science and biomedical applications. PMID:24404072

  20. Implementation of a single quad MS detector in high-throughput transdermal research of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Veryser, Lieselotte; Taevernier, Lien; Roche, Nathalie; Blondeel, Phillip; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-11-10

    In this study, a new type of single quadrupole mass spectrometric detector was implemented in transdermal research. The local skin pharmacokinetic properties of the plant N-alkylamides (NAAs) pellitorine and anacycline, present in an Anacyclus pyrethrum extract, and spilanthol, present in a Spilanthes acmella extract were investigated. This single quad MS detection method showed great advantages compared to the traditional UV detector. The NAAs could be identified and quantified in the samples with an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-single quad MS detection system, even if they were not separated, which is a requirement when using an UV-detector. Another advantage of the UPLC-MS system is that lower limit of detection values could be obtained allowing a more accurate and precise determination of the experimental lag time in the in vitro skin permeation experiments. To conclude, this single quad MS detector coupled to UPLC is a useful analytical tool with improved performance compared to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV for biomedical-pharmaceutical purposes in transdermal research. PMID:26320078

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Van Trimpont, F; Ebogo, T Ebogo; Waroquier, F; Verwilghen, D; Schmidt, R; Mols, P

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of preventive devices is always a difficult task to anticipate. It is also difficult to verify the adequacy of resources used to the needs. For this purpose, the Belgian Red Cross created the computer tool collecting administrative information, diagnostic codes, destination of the patient, triage, level of emergency as well as kinetics of admission to the preventive care station. Data analysis in the various types of events confirms the usefulness of prevention devices. Although it can be improved, the tool is reliable and permits a great extent the adaptative means to the needs. PMID:27120934

  2. Graduate Student and High School Teacher Partnerships Implementing Inquiry-Based Lessons in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.; Preston, L.; Graham, K.

    2007-12-01

    Partnering science graduate students with high school teachers in their classroom is a mutually beneficial relationship. Graduate students who may become future university level faculty are exposed to teaching, classroom management, outreach scholarship, and managing time between teaching and research. Teachers benefit by having ready access to knowledgeable scientists, a link to university resources, and an additional adult in the classroom. Partnerships in Research Opportunities to Benefit Education (PROBE), a recent NSF funded GK-12 initiative, formed partnerships between science and math graduate students from the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and local high school science teachers. A primary goal of this program was to promote inquiry-based science lessons. The teacher-graduate student teams worked together approximately twenty hours per week on researching, preparing, and implementing new lessons and supervising student-led projects. Several new inquiry-based activities in Geology and Astronomy were developed as a result of collaboration between an Earth Science graduate student and high school teacher. For example, a "fishbowl" activity was very successful in sparking a classroom discussion about how minerals are used in industrial materials. The class then went on to research how to make their own paint using minerals. This activity provided a capstone project at the end of the unit about minerals, and made real world connections to the subject. A more involved geology lesson was developed focusing on the currently popular interest in forensics. Students were assigned with researching how geology can play an important part in solving a crime. When they understood the role of geologic concepts within the scope of the forensic world, they used techniques to solve their own "crime". Astronomy students were responsible for hosting and teaching middle school students about constellations, using a star- finder, and operating an interactive planetarium

  3. High water availability increases the negative impact of a native hemiparasite on its non-native host.

    PubMed

    Cirocco, Robert M; Facelli, José M; Watling, Jennifer R

    2016-03-01

    Environmental factors alter the impacts of parasitic plants on their hosts. However, there have been no controlled studies on how water availability modulates stem hemiparasites' effects on hosts. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the association between the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and the introduced host Ulex europaeus under high (HW) and low (LW) water supply. Cassytha pubescens had a significant, negative effect on the total biomass of U. europaeus, which was more severe in HW than LW. Regardless of watering treatment, infection significantly decreased shoot and root biomass, nodule biomass, nodule biomass per unit root biomass, F v/F m, and nitrogen concentration of U. europaeus. Host spine sodium concentration significantly increased in response to infection in LW but not HW conditions. Host water potential was significantly higher in HW than in LW, which may have allowed the parasite to maintain higher stomatal conductances in HW. In support of this, the δ(13)C of the parasite was significantly lower in HW than in LW (and significantly higher than the host). C. pubescens also had significantly higher F v/F m and 66% higher biomass per unit host in the HW compared with the LW treatment. The data suggest that the enhanced performance of C. pubescens in HW resulted in higher parasite growth rates and thus a larger demand for resources from the host, leading to poorer host performance in HW compared with LW. C. pubescens should more negatively affect U. europaeus growth under wet conditions rather than under dry conditions in the field. PMID:26703920

  4. High water availability increases the negative impact of a native hemiparasite on its non-native host

    PubMed Central

    Cirocco, Robert M.; Facelli, José M.; Watling, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors alter the impacts of parasitic plants on their hosts. However, there have been no controlled studies on how water availability modulates stem hemiparasites’ effects on hosts. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the association between the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and the introduced host Ulex europaeus under high (HW) and low (LW) water supply. Cassytha pubescens had a significant, negative effect on the total biomass of U. europaeus, which was more severe in HW than LW. Regardless of watering treatment, infection significantly decreased shoot and root biomass, nodule biomass, nodule biomass per unit root biomass, F v/F m, and nitrogen concentration of U. europaeus. Host spine sodium concentration significantly increased in response to infection in LW but not HW conditions. Host water potential was significantly higher in HW than in LW, which may have allowed the parasite to maintain higher stomatal conductances in HW. In support of this, the δ13C of the parasite was significantly lower in HW than in LW (and significantly higher than the host). C. pubescens also had significantly higher F v/F m and 66% higher biomass per unit host in the HW compared with the LW treatment. The data suggest that the enhanced performance of C. pubescens in HW resulted in higher parasite growth rates and thus a larger demand for resources from the host, leading to poorer host performance in HW compared with LW. C. pubescens should more negatively affect U. europaeus growth under wet conditions rather than under dry conditions in the field. PMID:26703920

  5. Root-Raised Cosine Filter Implementation That Uses Canonical Signed Digits for High-Speed Digital Filter Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Heechul

    1997-01-01

    receiver. The frequency response of a set of collected CSD-represented filter coefficients was compared with the same filter that was conventionally implemented. Analyses show CSD-implemented filters perform as well as conventional filters. Comparison of eye diagrams and bit-error-rate curves between CSD filters and traditionally implemented filters are almost indistinguishable. However, filter complexity was reduced from almost 3.5 to 1 for CSD filters. Complete computer simulation results are available. In the near future, work will focus on building actual working digital filter hardware in a field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  6. GPU implementation for three-dimensional mantle convection at high Rayleigh number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, G. A.; Wright, G. B.; Yuen, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The last decade has seen the strong influence exerted by the gaming industry on high-performance scientific computing since the landmark year of 2003 when the speed of floating point operations for GPUs surpassed that of CPUs. Since then, the progress of GPUs has been astounding because of the development of faster components with many flow processing units (cores) and larger memories (240 cores and 4 Gbytes with the NVIDIA Tesla 1060). It is feasible with GPUs to have the potential computing power of around one Teraflop in your office environment for around $5000. In this study we demonstrate the enormous capabilities GPUs offers for certain geophysical fluid dynamics applications. We focus our attention on high Rayleigh number three dimensional mantle convection (ie. Rayleigh-Bénard convection in the infinite Prandtl number limit) in a rectangular box. The model equations are taken from Larsen et al (1997), where a constant viscosity has been assumed, which allows the momentum equations to be decomposed into two coupled Poisson equations involving a scalar potential for computing the velocity. These equations together with the spatial derivatives in the energy equation are approximated with second order finite differences. The whole system is advanced forward in time with an explicit, third order accurate Runge-Kutta scheme, which allows for variable time-stepping. We discuss the method with specific attention given to the solution of the two Poisson equations, which are solved directly with a Fourier transform-based algorithm, eg. Hockney (1965). We compare the implementations of this algorithm and its variations on the GPU vs the CPU and demonstrate how the choice depends on the architecture. We report the results from 3D mantle convection simulations run on a single GPU with Rayleigh number up to 10**7 and grids of size up to 512X512X256 (see figure below). A comparison of the computational time for the GPU code shows a speed up of more than 10 times over the

  7. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Östgren, Carl-Johan; Krook-Brandt, Margareta; Carlborg, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the medical knowledge test after fulfilled internship for Swedish medical authorization during the years 2009 to the spring of 2015. A total of 7,613 tests were analyzed. Interns graduated from Swedish universities failed in 2.7% to 3.8% of the test moments. Interns who graduated from countries within the European Union (EU) failed in 21.2% and interns graduated from a non-EU country failed in 41.6%. The results from those who graduated from EU and non-EU countries have worsened compared to an earlier study in 2009. Proper measures have now to be implemented for doctors graduated from a non-Swedish university to improve the outcome and introduction to the Swedish health care system. PMID:27070392

  8. Research and implement on the high speed network system with CIINS based on ATM for aero manufacturing enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhi-qiang; Feng, Xi-lan; Zong, Xue-wen; Ding, Yu-cheng

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, the design and implementation on the high-speed network system of the Computer Integrated and Information Network System (CIINS) for aeronautical manufacturing enterprise based on ATM is explained. And designing the high-speed network, choosing the devices, network administration, and developing the network application are discussed. And also, the key technology of the network design is analyzed. The system safety is ensured, when the ATM with QoS in the main backbone network and the work team with network layer in intelligent Ethernet equipment are adapted, and a kind of firewall based on Hard-wall technology is implemented.

  9. SC'11 Poster: A Highly Efficient MGPT Implementation for LAMMPS; with Strong Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Oppelstrup, T; Stukowski, A; Marian, J

    2011-12-07

    The MGPT potential has been implemented as a drop in package to the general molecular dynamics code LAMMPS. We implement an improved communication scheme that shrinks the communication layer thickness, and increases the load balancing. This results in unprecedented strong scaling, and speedup continuing beyond 1/8 atom/core. In addition, we have optimized the small matrix linear algebra with generic blocking (for all processors) and specific SIMD intrinsics for vectorization on Intel, AMD, and BlueGene CPUs.

  10. Implementing Molecular Dynamics for Hybrid High Performance Computers - 1. Short Range Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W Michael; Wang, Peng; Plimpton, Steven J; Tharrington, Arnold N

    2011-01-01

    The use of accelerators such as general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) have become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high performance computers, machines with more than one type of floating-point processor, are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this work, we discuss several important issues in porting a large molecular dynamics code for use on parallel hybrid machines - 1) choosing a hybrid parallel decomposition that works on central processing units (CPUs) with distributed memory and accelerator cores with shared memory, 2) minimizing the amount of code that must be ported for efficient acceleration, 3) utilizing the available processing power from both many-core CPUs and accelerators, and 4) choosing a programming model for acceleration. We present our solution to each of these issues for short-range force calculation in the molecular dynamics package LAMMPS. We describe algorithms for efficient short range force calculation on hybrid high performance machines. We describe a new approach for dynamic load balancing of work between CPU and accelerator cores. We describe the Geryon library that allows a single code to compile with both CUDA and OpenCL for use on a variety of accelerators. Finally, we present results on a parallel test cluster containing 32 Fermi GPGPUs and 180 CPU cores.

  11. The implementation of an Interactive Engagement model of instruction in the high school physics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchoney, David P.

    The content mastery and epistemological effects of an integrated, Interactive Engagement (IE) model of physics instruction and of a traditional model of physics instruction were investigated. Three groups of high school students participated in the study, for which a quasi-experimental design was employed. A General physics class (n=21) served as the control group in the study, and received a traditional mode of instruction consisting of lecture, group problem solving, and laboratory exercises. A General physics class (n=28) and an Advanced physics class (n=30) served as the experimental groups in the study. These groups received an integrated, IE model of instruction consisting of lectures infused with ConcepTests (CTs) and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs), group problem solving, laboratory exercises, and a protocol of Student Constructed Problems (SCP) and presentations. The data collection instruments employed in the study were the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science (EBAPS). Significant differences in the average FCI normalized gains and EBAPS posttest scores were found between the Advanced physics experimental group and the General physics control group, and between the Advanced physics experimental group and the General physics experimental group. No significant difference was found between the two types of instruction with regard to the cognitive gains or epistemological development of males and females. The results of this study indicate that an integrated, IE model of instruction can concurrently promote the conceptual content mastery and epistemological development of Advanced physics students. Additional analyses revealed content-mastery benefits associated with the implementation of CT/ILD protocols and with interaction-based classroom activities. Physics teachers can utilize the results of this study to design instruction that attends to both the cognitive and epistemological needs of their

  12. Computer implementations of iterative and non-iterative crystal plasticity solvers on high performance graphics hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Daniel J.; Knezevic, Marko

    2015-10-01

    We present parallel implementations of Newton-Raphson iterative and spectral based non-iterative solvers for single-crystal visco-plasticity models on a specialized computer hardware integrating a graphics-processing unit (GPU). We explore two implementations for the iterative solver on GPU multiprocessors: one based on a thread per crystal parallelization on local memory and another based on multiple threads per crystal on shared memory. The non-iterative solver implementation on the GPU hardware is based on a divide-conquer approach for matrix operations. The reduction of computational time for the iterative scheme was found to approach one order of magnitude. From detailed performance comparisons of the developed GPU iterative and non-iterative implementations, we conclude that the spectral non-iterative solver programed on a GPU platform is superior over the iterative implementation in terms of runtime as well as ease of implementation. It provides remarkable speedup factors exceeding three orders of magnitude over the iterative scalar version of the solver.

  13. Implementation of algorithms to discriminate chemical/biological airbursts from high explosive airbursts utilizing acoustic signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohil, Myron E.; Desai, Sachi; Morcos, Amir

    2006-05-01

    The Army is currently developing acoustic sensor systems that will provide extended range surveillance, detection, and identification for force protection and tactical security. A network of such sensors remotely deployed in conjunction with a central processing node (or gateway) will provide early warning and assessment of enemy threats, near real-time situational awareness to commanders, and may reduce potential hazards to the soldier. In contrast, the current detection of chemical/biological (CB) agents expelled into a battlefield environment is limited to the response of chemical sensors that must be located within close proximity to the CB agent. Since chemical sensors detect hazardous agents through contact, the sensor range to an airburst is the key-limiting factor in identifying a potential CB weapon attack. The associated sensor reporting latencies must be minimized to give sufficient preparation time to field commanders, who must assess if an attack is about to occur, has occurred, or if occurred, the type of agent that soldiers might be exposed to. The long-range propagation of acoustic blast waves from heavy artillery blasts, which are typical in a battlefield environment, introduces a feature for using acoustics and other sensor suite technologies for the early detection and identification of CB threats. Employing disparate sensor technologies implies that warning of a potential CB attack can be provided to the solider more rapidly and from a safer distance when compared to current conventional methods. Distinct characteristics arise within the different airburst signatures because High Explosive (HE) warheads emphasize concussive and shrapnel effects, while chemical/biological warheads are designed to disperse their contents over immense areas, therefore utilizing a slower burning, less intensive explosion to mix and distribute their contents. Highly reliable discrimination (100%) has been demonstrated at the Portable Area Warning Surveillance System

  14. Implementation of algorithms to discriminate between chemical/biological airbursts and high explosive airbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohil, Myron E.; Desai, Sachi; Morcos, Amir

    2006-09-01

    The Army is currently developing acoustic sensor systems that will provide extended range surveillance, detection, and identification for force protection and tactical security. A network of such sensors remotely deployed in conjunction with a central processing node (or gateway) will provide early warning and assessment of enemy threats, near real-time situational awareness to commanders, and may reduce potential hazards to the soldier. In contrast, the current detection of chemical/biological (CB) agents expelled into a battlefield environment is limited to the response of chemical sensors that must be located within close proximity to the CB agent. Since chemical sensors detect hazardous agents through contact, the sensor range to an airburst is the key-limiting factor in identifying a potential CB weapon attack. The associated sensor reporting latencies must be minimized to give sufficient preparation time to field commanders, who must assess if an attack is about to occur, has occurred, or if occurred, the type of agent that soldiers might be exposed to. The long-range propagation of acoustic blast waves from heavy artillery blasts, which are typical in a battlefield environment, introduces a feature for using acoustics and other sensor suite technologies for the early detection and identification of CB threats. Employing disparate sensor technologies implies that warning of a potential CB attack can be provided to the solider more rapidly and from a safer distance when compared to current conventional methods. Distinct characteristics arise within the different airburst signatures because High Explosive (HE) warheads emphasize concussive and shrapnel effects, while chemical/biological warheads are designed to disperse their contents over immense areas, therefore utilizing a slower burning, less intensive explosion to mix and distribute their contents. Highly reliable discrimination (100%) has been demonstrated at the Portable Area Warning Surveillance System

  15. High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-08-18

    The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were

  16. 76 FR 18298 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the DesertXpress High-Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... passenger rail transportation between southern California and Las Vegas using proven high-speed rail... DesertXpress High-Speed Passenger Train Project AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United... High-Speed Passenger Train Project (DesertXpress project). FRA is the Lead Agency for the...

  17. 77 FR 64183 - Notice of Availability of a Final General Conformity Determination for the California High-Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... General Conformity requirements. The California High Speed Rail Authority (Authority), as the Project... California High-Speed Train System Merced to Fresno Section AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Section of the California High-Speed Train (HST) System on September 18, 2012. FRA is the lead...

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Pecevski, Dejan; Natschläger, Thomas; Schuch, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The Parallel Circuit SIMulator (PCSIM) is a software package for simulation of neural circuits. It is primarily designed for distributed simulation of large scale networks of spiking point neurons. Although its computational core is written in C++, PCSIM's primary interface is implemented in the Python programming language, which is a powerful programming environment and allows the user to easily integrate the neural circuit simulator with data analysis and visualization tools to manage the full neural modeling life cycle. The main focus of this paper is to describe PCSIM's full integration into Python and the benefits thereof. In particular we will investigate how the automatically generated bidirectional interface and PCSIM's object-oriented modular framework enable the user to adopt a hybrid modeling approach: using and extending PCSIM's functionality either employing pure Python or C++ and thus combining the advantages of both worlds. Furthermore, we describe several supplementary PCSIM packages written in pure Python and tailored towards setting up and analyzing neural simulations. PMID:19543450

  19. Development of a high-resolution interstellar dust engineering model - technical implementation for fast simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strub, P.; Sterken, V. J.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Krüger, H.; Grün, E.

    2013-09-01

    nterstellar dust (ISD) is one of the constituents of the dust population observed in the solar system. Beyond 3 AU heliocentric distance, it represents the dominant component of the total dust population (cf. Abstract V.J. Sterken). Due to the modulation by the solar magnetic field, the ISD exhibits a pronounced spatial and temporal variability. A high-resolution model of the Interstellar Dust (ISD) component has been developed to predict the densities and velocity field for a range of sizes and optical properties (radiation pressure factor β) of dust particles. To achieve the required resolution of 0.25 AU at a sufficient S/N ratio, a high number of trajectories had to be integrated numerically. Therefore the simulation has been adapted to make full use of the available computing cluster hardware. Here we discuss the details of the model, the influence of different solar magnetic field prescriptions and of the physical properties used, the numerical approach, and the model's limitations. We also demonstrate the predictions of dust impact rates and velocities for present and future space missions, including heliocentric distances from ≤1AU to˜10AU.

  20. Parallel implementation of high-speed, phase diverse atmospheric turbulence compensation method on a neural network-based architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrasmith, William W.; Sullivan, Sean F.

    2008-04-01

    Phase diversity imaging methods work well in removing atmospheric turbulence and some system effects from predominantly near-field imaging systems. However, phase diversity approaches can be computationally intensive and slow. We present a recently adapted, high-speed phase diversity method using a conventional, software-based neural network paradigm. This phase-diversity method has the advantage of eliminating many time consuming, computationally heavy calculations and directly estimates the optical transfer function from the entrance pupil phases or phase differences. Additionally, this method is more accurate than conventional Zernike-based, phase diversity approaches and lends itself to implementation on parallel software or hardware architectures. We use computer simulation to demonstrate how this high-speed, phase diverse imaging method can be implemented on a parallel, highspeed, neural network-based architecture-specifically the Cellular Neural Network (CNN). The CNN architecture was chosen as a representative, neural network-based processing environment because 1) the CNN can be implemented in 2-D or 3-D processing schemes, 2) it can be implemented in hardware or software, 3) recent 2-D implementations of CNN technology have shown a 3 orders of magnitude superiority in speed, area, or power over equivalent digital representations, and 4) a complete development environment exists. We also provide a short discussion on processing speed.

  1. NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, Susan K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The new Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards should be part of every school district's repertoire of standards to ensure that the learning needs of advanced students are being met. "NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services" details six standards that…

  2. Implementing a High Performance Work Place in the Distribution and Logistics Industry: Recommendations for Leadership & Team Member Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Laura Harding

    2012-01-01

    Leadership development and employee engagement are two elements critical to the success of organizations. In response to growth opportunities, our Distribution and Logistics company set on a course to implement High Performance Work Place to meet the leadership and employee engagement needs, and to find methods for improving work processes. This…

  3. Implementation of a Self-Monitoring Application to Improve On-Task Behavior: A High-School Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Howard P.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovations offer promise for improving intervention implementation in secondary, inclusive classrooms. A withdrawal design was employed with two high-school students in order to assess the effectiveness of a technologically delivered, self-monitoring intervention in improving on-task behavior in a science classroom. Two students…

  4. Efficient quadrature-free high-order spectral volume method on unstructured grids: Theory and 2D implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2007-11-19

    An efficient implementation of the high-order spectral volume (SV) method is presented for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured grids. In the SV method, each simplex cell is called a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal (2D), or polyhedral (3D) control volumes (CVs) to support high-order data reconstructions. In the traditional implementation, Gauss quadrature formulas are used to approximate the flux integrals on all faces. In the new approach, a nodal set is selected and used to reconstruct a high-order polynomial approximation for the flux vector, and then the flux integrals on the internal faces are computed analytically, without the need for Gauss quadrature formulas. This gives a significant advantage over the traditional SV method in efficiency and ease of implementation. For SV interfaces, a quadrature-free approach is compared with the Gauss quadrature approach to further evaluate the accuracy and efficiency. A simplified treatment of curved boundaries is also presented that avoids the need to store a separate reconstruction for each boundary cell. Fundamental properties of the new SV implementation are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for linear and non-linear advection equations, and the Euler equations. Several well known inviscid flow test cases are utilized to show the effectiveness of the simplified curved boundary representation.

  5. Efficient quadrature-free high-order spectral volume method on unstructured grids: Theory and 2D implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Rob; Wang, Z. J.; Liu, Yen

    2008-01-01

    An efficient implementation of the high-order spectral volume (SV) method is presented for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured grids. In the SV method, each simplex cell is called a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal (2D), or polyhedral (3D) control volumes (CVs) to support high-order data reconstructions. In the traditional implementation, Gauss quadrature formulas are used to approximate the flux integrals on all faces. In the new approach, a nodal set is selected and used to reconstruct a high-order polynomial approximation for the flux vector, and then the flux integrals on the internal faces are computed analytically, without the need for Gauss quadrature formulas. This gives a significant advantage over the traditional SV method in efficiency and ease of implementation. For SV interfaces, a quadrature-free approach is compared with the Gauss quadrature approach to further evaluate the accuracy and efficiency. A simplified treatment of curved boundaries is also presented that avoids the need to store a separate reconstruction for each boundary cell. Fundamental properties of the new SV implementation are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for linear and non-linear advection equations, and the Euler equations. Several well known inviscid flow test cases are utilized to show the effectiveness of the simplified curved boundary representation.

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Teachers' Participation in Modified Lesson Study Cycles and Their Implementation of High-Level Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskelson, Samuel L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between mathematics teachers' participation in professional development and subsequent changes in their instructional practices. This professional development aimed to help teachers to implement high-level tasks through the use of the "five practices": anticipating, monitoring, selecting, and…

  7. Implementation of a Research-Based Lab Module in a High School Chemistry Curriculum: A Study of Classroom Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilarz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For this study, a research-based lab module was implemented in two high school chemistry classes for the purpose of examining classroom dynamics throughout the process of students completing the module. A research-based lab module developed for use in undergraduate laboratories by the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) was…

  8. Leadership for Sustaining Pedagogical Innovations in ICT Implementation: A Case Study of a Taiwanese Vocational High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Chen, Yu-Horng; Wu, Shun-Jyh; Tang, Fang-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a case study of a vocational high school in Taiwan. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the key determinants of a school's success in initiating and sustaining pedagogical innovations in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) implementation, with a specific focus on the effect of leadership approaches in…

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Arens, C; Voigt-Zimmermann, S

    2016-06-01

    The present article gives an overview of the current state of laryngeal surgery of benign lesions without claiming completeness and with a focus on the ENT board exam. Laryngeal procedures are highly endoscopic and microscopic based. New instruments and high-resolution endoscopic imaging techniques may substitute the typical Kleinsasser approach in the near future. Additionally, new flexible endoscopes may initiate a new era of so-called "office-based surgery". Furthermore, a consistent education of the public about performing vocal hygiene is necessary to prevent the rise of laryngeal diseases. PMID:27259173

  10. Implementation of high-resolution time-to-digital converter in 8-bit microcontrollers.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Lars E

    2012-04-01

    This paper will demonstrate how a time-to-digital converter (TDC) with sub-nanosecond resolution can be implemented into an 8-bit microcontroller using so called "direct" methods. This means that a TDC is created using only five bidirectional digital input-output-pins of a microcontroller and a few passive components (two resistors, a capacitor, and a diode). We will demonstrate how a TDC for the range 1-10 μs is implemented with 0.17 ns resolution. This work will also show how to linearize the output by combining look-up tables and interpolation. PMID:22559576

  11. Implementation of high-resolution time-to-digital converter in 8-bit microcontrollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Lars E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper will demonstrate how a time-to-digital converter (TDC) with sub-nanosecond resolution can be implemented into an 8-bit microcontroller using so called "direct" methods. This means that a TDC is created using only five bidirectional digital input-output-pins of a microcontroller and a few passive components (two resistors, a capacitor, and a diode). We will demonstrate how a TDC for the range 1-10 μs is implemented with 0.17 ns resolution. This work will also show how to linearize the output by combining look-up tables and interpolation.

  12. Systems engineering management and implementation plan for Project W-464, immobilized high-level waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wecks, M.D.

    1998-04-15

    The Systems Engineering Management and Implementation Plan (SEMIP) for TWRS Project W-46 describes the project implementation of the Tank Waste Remediation System Systems Engineering Management Plan. (TWRS SEMP), Rev. 1. The SEMIP outlines systems engineering (SE) products and processes to be used by the project for technical baseline development. A formal graded approach is used to determine the products necessary for requirements, design, and operational baseline completion. SE management processes are defined, and roles and responsibilities for management processes and major technical baseline elements are documented.

  13. The ESA FELYX High Resolution Diagnostic Data Set System Design and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taberner, M.; Shutler, J.; Walker, P.; Poulter, D.; Piolle, J.-F.; Donlon, C.; Guidetti, V.

    2013-10-01

    Felyx is currently under development and is the latest evolution of a generalised High Resolution Diagnostic Data Set system funded by ESA. It draws on previous prototype developments and experience in the GHRSST, Medspiration, GlobColour and GlobWave projects. In this paper, we outline the design and implementation of the system, and illustrate using the Ocean Colour demonstration activities. Felyx is fundamentally a tool to facilitate the analysis of EO data: it is being developed by IFREMER, PML and Pelamis. It will be free software written in python and javascript. The aim is to provide Earth Observation data producers and users with an opensource, flexible and reusable tool to allow the quality and performance of data streams from satellite, in situ and model sources to be easily monitored and studied. New to this project, is the ability to establish and incorporate multi-sensor match-up database capabilities. The systems will be deployable anywhere and even include interaction mechanisms between the deployed instances. The primary concept of Felyx is to work as an extraction tool. It allows for the extraction of subsets of source data over predefined target areas(which can be static or moving). These data subsets, and associated metrics, can then be accessed by users or client applications either as raw files or through automatic alerts. These data can then be used to generate periodic reports or be used for statistical analysis and visualisation through a flexible web interface. Felyx can be used for subsetting, the generation of statistics, the generation of reports or warnings/alerts, and in-depth analyses, to name a few. There are many potential applications but important uses foreseen are: * monitoring and assessing the quality of Earth observations (e.g. satellite products and time series) through statistical analysis and/or comparison with other data sources * assessing and inter-comparing geophysical inversion algorithms * observing a given phenomenon

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Zecchini, Céline; Chanoine, Sébastien; Chapuis, Claire; Claustre, Johanna; Schir, Edith; Allenet, Benoît; Raymond, Christel Saint; Bedouch, Pierrick

    2015-01-01

    Advances in lung transplantation allow the women of childbearing age to consider becoming mothers. When planning to become pregnant, a therapeutic drug management of immunosuppressive drugs and associated therapies is required. It must take into account teratogenic and fetotoxic drugs, as well as pharmacokinetic changes encountered during pregnancy. Increasingly data are currently available on the management of immunosuppressive drugs and associated therapies during pregnancy. We report the case management of drug therapy before and during pregnancy in two patients after a lung or heart-lung transplantation. To prevent the emergence of complications for mother and child, a literature review has been necessary to manage drug therapies of each patient. PMID:27393315

  15. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Oddo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This new paper on chemical risk from anaesthetic agents in operating theatres is the natural progression of that published in this journal in supplement 1-2013, as it constitutes a development and complement of the previous work and an applicative confirmation from the highest organ of administrative justice, the Consiglio di Stato, regarding, in particular, the obligation of adopting the technically most advanced "measures" to eliminate or, at least, minimise risk in the use of new generation and the most commonly-used anaesthetic agents (sevoflurane and desflurane). Therefore, in this paper, the authors commence by referring to the starting point, consisting in the conclusions of the previous study, which highlighted the extraordinary convergence of technical and scientific, legislative and case law data on the same result, constituted by the possibility, and consequent obligation, of implementing, also in operating theatres, the greatest technologically possible safety, starting with the choice of the most suitable equipment, methods and quality systems for avoiding the diffusion, dispersion and /or leakage of volatile hazardous agents that may contribute - together with those chemical reactions that are foreseeable and avoidable, given the characteristics of the materials, substances and relative "packaging" - to workplace pollution, which can, in any case, reach levels that are hazardous due to the concentration of anaesthetic gases. Subsequently, once the "scientific" fruit of the previous contributions has been discussed, the authors evaluate the impact of the result already achieved in practice with concrete cases and the judgement expressed with a series of judgements issued in rapid succession by the Consiglio di Stato, showing the application, not merely of the legislative "data" but also of the references and citations that these "data" contain regarding the "knowledge acquired regarding the relationship with technical progress". Lastly, the Authors

  16. 78 FR 72753 - Notice of Funds Availability for Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    .... VA published a Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) in the Federal Register on July 9, 2013 (78 FR... provision of VA medical care. To allow applicants more time to complete the application process, VA is... published in the Federal Register on April 2, 2013 (78 FR 19586), which is codified at 38 CFR 17.700...

  17. 76 FR 30753 - Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Proposed Honolulu High-Capacity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...), Honolulu, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Record... Administration, Honolulu Airports District Office, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 7-128, Honolulu, HI 96813. 2... Hawaii, Department of Transportation, Airports Division, 400 Rodgers Boulevard, Suite 700, Honolulu,...

  18. The theory and implementation of a high quality pulse width modulated waveform synthesiser applicable to voltage FED inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lower, Kim Nigel

    1985-03-01

    Modulation processes associated with the digital implementation of pulse width modulation (PWM) switching strategies were examined. A software package based on a portable turnkey structure is presented. Waveform synthesizer implementation techniques are reviewed. A three phase PWM waveform synthesizer for voltage fed inverters was realized. It is based on a constant carrier frequency of 18 kHz and a regular sample, single edge, asynchronous PWM switching scheme. With high carrier frequencies, it is possible to utilize simple switching strategies and as a consequence, many advantages are highlighted, emphasizing the importance to industrial and office markets.

  19. Implementing Response to Intervention: Challenges of Diversity and System Change in a High Stakes Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavendish, Wendy; Harry, Beth; Menda, Anne Maria; Espinosa, Anabel; Mahotiere, Margarette

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Response to Intervention (RTI) approach involves the use of a dynamic model built around the systematic documentation of students' response to research-based instructional interventions. Although there has been widespread implementation of RTI models for early intervention and in some cases, as a means to identify students with…

  20. Undergraduate Laboratory Module for Implementing ELISA on the High Performance Microfluidic Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giri, Basant; Peesara, Ravichander R.; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Dutta, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Implementing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in microchannels offers several advantages over its traditional microtiter plate-based format, including a reduced sample volume requirement, shorter incubation period, and greater sensitivity. Moreover, microfluidic ELISA platforms are inexpensive to fabricate and allow integration of…

  1. Case Study: Parent-Implemented Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with a High Risk Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCathren, Rebecca B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to determine if a mother with mild developmental disabilities living in poverty was able to implement Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (PMT) strategies. The strategies included following the child's lead, arranging the environment to increase opportunities for communication, imitating the…

  2. Vestiges of Segregation in the Implementation of Inclusion Policies in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mary Rose; Wiener, Roberta; Soodak, Leslie Carol

    2012-01-01

    The present study sought to determine to what extent vestiges of the dual system of educating students with and without disabilities persist and how they undermine the implementation and sustainability of inclusive education. We investigated how prior experiences with segregation shape administrators' thinking and school policies and practices…

  3. Do High Schools Implementing SWPBIS Have Lower Rates of Illegal Drug and Alcohol Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastable, Eoin; Kittelman, Angus; McIntosh, Kent; Hoselton, Rob

    2015-01-01

    School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) is a systems-level framework for improving social and academic outcomes for students in schools through the use of integrated evidence-based practices. Although the effects of SWPBIS are well-documented in elementary schools, there is increasing interest in implementing SWPBIS in…

  4. Implementation of a School Environment Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, D. S.; Saunders, R.; Felton, G. M.; Williams, E.; Epping, J. N.; Pate, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels begin to decline in childhood and continue falling throughout adolescence, with girls being at greatest risk for inactivity. Schools are ideal settings for helping girls develop and maintain a physically active lifestyle. This paper describes the design and implementation of "Lifestyle Education for Activity Program", or…

  5. The Realities of Implementing a Technology Plan in High School: A Personal Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondracek, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the potential of technology in classrooms, along with the problems that occur with implementing curricular changes throughout an entire school. Addresses considerations such as staff development, parent acceptance and involvement, student vandalism and overall hardware and software security, and the inclusion of technology in…

  6. Increased Learning Time under Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants: High Hopes, Varied Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Research has long suggested that significantly increasing quality time in school for teaching and learning can have a positive impact on student achievement. Recognizing this connection, federal guidance requires low-performing schools to increase student learning time if they are implementing two popular reform models using school improvement…

  7. Tee It up!: Implementing a TPSR System in a High School Golf Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Nikki; Lavay, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Implementing Hellison's "Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility" (TPSR) system can help students take responsibility for their own behavior by helping students understand what it means to demonstrate appropriate behavior at various levels of responsibility. The levels range from zero through five and include: 0) irresponsibility, 1) respect,…

  8. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Gellerfors, Mikael; Gryth, Dan; Lossius, Hans Morten; Linde, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    For the most severely injured and unstable patients physician staffed second tier emergency medical service (EMS) units are used in many European areas. Physician staffed prehospital care is associated with a high rate of survival, advanced trauma care and beneficial cost-effectiveness. In the Nordic countries anaesthesiologists staff the rapid response cars and ambulance helicopters. This article reviews the current status of physician EMS in Sweden and the rapid development of new prehospital intensive care methods. PMID:27003522

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is increasing worldwide in both sexes and a challenge for health professionals and the health care system. Women have more subcutaneous fat and are more insulin sensitive while men have more visceral and liver fat and higher cardiovascular risk. Women more often show the metabolically healthy obese phenotype than males. However, with increasing BMI the risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases increases more dramatically in women compared to males. Obese women suffer more from weight-related problems, have a higher rate of depression and seek more often medical help to reduce weight. Both biological factors and psychosocial factors contribute to the disease and interact with each other. In this special edition of the journal sex and gender aspects in prevention, treatment and development of complications will be discussed, as proposed by the Austrian Obesity Association. Data available from the Austrian population will be included in the Austrian Gender Obesity Report. PMID:26847444

  10. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Elodie; de Lara, Manuel Tunon

    2013-01-01

    Pholcodine is an opioid that has been widely used worldwide since 1950 for the treatment of non-productive cough in children and adults. The results of early preclinical studies but also those of recent clinical trials have shown the antitussive efficacy of pholcodine to be superior to that of codeine, of longer duration, and with an equivalent or safer toxicity profile. Also, there is no risk of addiction. Concern had been raised over a possible cross-sensitisation with neuromuscular blocking agents. While a recent assessment of the available data by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has confirmed the favourable risk-benefit ratio of pholcodine, further studies are needed to clear this point. PMID:27392673

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Olsen, Björn; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos. The virus was discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda. Symptomatic disease is usually mild and is characterized by maculopapular rash, headache, fever, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. Fatalities are rare. There is neither vaccine nor curative treatment available. In May 2015, the first observation of local virus transmission was reported from Brazil. During the expanding outbreak in the Americas, Zika virus infection has been associated with microcephaly in newborn and fetal losses in women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. The main reason for the current epidemic in the Americas is the introduction of an Old World virus into a new ecosystem, with no background herd immunity in the population. It is likely that the spread of Zika virus will continue, affecting all countries in the Americas except for Chile and Canada. PMID:26978815

  12. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Forstner, Christina; Pletz, Mathias W

    2016-02-01

    Infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria are increasing worldwide. Glycopeptides, linezolid, daptomycin and 5th generation cephalosporins ("MRSA-cephalsoporins") are used against severe infections with MRSA, combination partners are rifampin and fosfomycin. Treatment options against VRE-infections are limited to linezolid, daptomycin and tigecyclin. New agents with activity against MRSA and VRE are tedizolid, dalbvancin and oritavancin. For monotherapy of severe infections due to 3MRGN carbapenems are available. Ceftolozane/tazobactam has been licensed by the European Medical Agency and shows good activity against a relevant proportion of ESBL-pathogens. Oral agents such as nitrofurantoin or fosfomycin are used for treatment of uncomplicated cystitis. Colistin shows best in vitro susceptibility against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, followed by fosfomycin and tigecycline. For serious infections with 4MRGN a colistin-based combination treatment with two to three agents is recommended. In such cases a carbapenem as combination partner may be useful. PMID:26949908

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Schott, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Viktor von Weizsäcker (1886-1957) founded his concept of medical anthropology as a clinician educated in internal medicine and neurology. He tried to broaden natural scientific medicine psychosomatically focussing on the "sick human". The natural scientific approach would exclude subjectivity, and therefore he propagated the "introduction of the subject' (Einführung des Subjekts) into the life sciences. His own sensory physiological experiments and Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis inspired him essentially since the 1920s. In his main work Der Gestaltkreis (gestalt circle) published in 1940 he stressed the "entity of perceiving and moving" (Einheit von Wahrnehmen und Bewegen) in regard to relevant aspects of medicine. In 1932, Weizsäcker became a member of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, whose president he was from 1947 till 1949; 1942 he became a member of the Leopoldina. Primarily his merits as a neurologist were highly appreciated. His medical anthropology was not relevant for his election by the two academies. Nevertheless, there was a certain repudiation against the objectivistic and materialistic Weltanschauung within the scientific community. So, Paracelsus and Goethe were highly estimated as natural philosophical guides for own conceptions. This was especially evident for the circle around Wilhelm Troll and Karl Lothar Wolf in Halle, both members of the Leopoldina, who were fascinated by Goethe's concept of "Gestalt". Weizsäcker's lecture on "Gestalt und Zeit" in Halle in 1942 fitted in the concept of those natural scientists. PMID:27514115

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Torres Hinojal, María Del Carmen; Geijo Uribe, María Soraya; Redondo Del Río, María Paz; Mongil López, Beatriz; De Brito García-Sousa, Inés; Caballero Sanz, Irene; Eiros Bouza, José María

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is the most prevalent of eating disorders in children and adolescents, and its treatment is long and complex, involving a multidisciplinary team. Nutritional rehabilitation and restoration of a healthy body weight is one of the central goals in the initial stages of inpatient treatment. However, current recommendations on initial energy requirements for these patients are inconsistent, with a clear lack of controlled studies, available scientific evidence and global consensus on the most effective and safe refeeding practices in hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). Conservative refeeding recommendations have been classically established in order to prevent the refeeding syndrome. Nevertheless, various works have recently appeared advocating a higher initial caloric intake, without observing more complications or refeeding syndrome, and allowing a shorter average stay. We present our experience in the treatment of restricting AN with a conservative progressive treatment. We have obtained good results with this approach, which was well tolerated by patients, with no observing complications. As a consequence, the medical team could establish a pact about the therapeutic goals with the patients in an easier way. PMID:27444457

  15. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Torres Hinojal, María Del Carmen; Geijo Uribe, María Soraya; Redondo Del Río, María Paz; Mongil López, Beatriz; De Brito García-Sousa, Inés; Caballero Sanz, Irene; Eiros Bouza, José María

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is the most prevalent of eating disorders in children and adolescents, and its treatment is long and complex, involving a multidisciplinary team. Nutritional rehabilitation and restoration of a healthy body weight is one of the central goals in the initial stages of inpatient treatment. However, current recommendations on initial energy requirements for these patients are inconsistent, with a clear lack of controlled studies, available scientific evidence and global consensus on the most effective and safe refeeding practices in hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). Conservative refeeding recommendations have been classically established in order to prevent the refeeding syndrome. Nevertheless, various works have recently appeared advocating a higher initial caloric intake, without observing more complications or refeeding syndrome, and allowing a shorter average stay. We present our experience in the treatment of restricting AN with a conservative progressive treatment. We have obtained good results with this approach, which was well tolerated by patients, with no observing complications. As a consequence, the medical team could establish a pact about the therapeutic goals with the patients in an easier way. PMID:27513485

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Chaibdraa, A; Medjelekh, M S; Saouli, A; Bentakouk, M C

    2015-09-30

    Use of local/regional anesthesia in burn patients is limited by many factors. It is considered as marginal in the multimodal treatment of nociceptive pain. We conducted a retrospective study on regional anesthesia used for analgesia over a period of three years. Given the lack of available literature on this subject, the results obtained from this study will enable suggestions to be made for possible uses of this technique. We identified 634 uses of regional anesthesia of which 96% were in adults. Most cases involved the lower limbs (76%). Spinal anesthesia was performed on 32 patients, including four children. Incidents were infrequent (3%) and had no morbid consequence. Regional anesthesia may be a useful option in a multimodal strategy of analgesia, allowing early passive rehabilitation and recovery after surgical skin grafts. It should be assessed in outpatients, since 95% of burns patients are not hospitalized. Use of regional anesthesia in burn patients should generate more interest to allow the establishment of protocols in multidisciplinary reflection. PMID:27279806

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Goffinet, L; Breton, A; Gavillot, C; Barbary, S; Journeau, P; Lascombes, P; Dautel, G

    2015-09-30

    The early management of pediatric hand burns includes surgical treatment, medical follow up and prevention of abnormal scarring by splits and/or pressure garment therapy. The aim of this review was to find the best available evidence in the literature on the surgical part of this management. This review started with a search in the PubMed database for the keywords, hand AND/OR child AND/OR burn. Only the articles published between January 1(st), 2005 and January 1(st), 2011 were selected. The data were compared to French and American textbooks. Contradictory findings were reported on the timing of the excision and graft, with only two comparative studies reported, with a lot of biases. The state of the art on the initial management of hand burns in children is not totally conclusive due to the lack of statistic power in these studies, but many expert opinions help to define options for good therapeutic paradigms. It is important to include these patients in prospective protocols with both early and long-term follow-up in order to increase the amount of evidence at our disposal. PMID:27279807

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Naesström, Matilda; Blomstedt, Patric; Bodlund, Owe

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders Deep brain stimulation is an established treatment for movement disorders. It has been proven to be a safe method; only minor complications have been reported in larger studies. New indications for deep brain stimulation are under investigation; among them major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Deep brain stimulation for severe and therapy-resistant major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive-disorder shows promising results. However, the experience of deep brain stimulation in psychiatric disorders is limited. Several potential target areas for stimulation have been presented; which are the most effective is still an open question. Deep brain stimulation in psychiatric disorders is a highly experimental treatment and should only be performed by a multidisciplinary team with extensive experience with deep brain stimulation in other conditions. PMID:27551867

  19. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem, which is associated with physical, psychological and social problems. The prevalence in children and adolescents has increased dramatically in developed countries and economies in transition in recent decades. It is more common in population groups with lower educational and socioeconomic status. The increase has been attributed to changes in eating habits, with higher consumption of highly processed energy dense foods and low consumption of fruits and vegetables. It has also been associated with low levels of physical activities and with sedentary lifestyles. Some analyses suggest that dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and sleep time tend to cluster, so that such combinations could increase the risk of overweight and obesity. It is important to consider the different clustering patterns of lifestyles when designing intervention strategies for preventive purposes. PMID:27571858

  20. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ratsak, G; Küchler, T

    2000-03-01

    Since 1994 there is a continuous education program on psychooncological topics for medical doctors, psychologists and other oncological caregivers. This program is organised and conducted by the workinggroup "Psychooncology" (PSO) within the German Cancer Society in cooperation with the "Workinggroup for Psychosocial Oncology" (dapo). This standardised education program can be seen as a measure of quality assurance and a first step toward developing Standards for psychooncological care in Germany. Up till now 262 participants attended the program. First results of the continuous evaluation showed a high level of satisfaction with the concept and the didactics of this curriculum. However, the interdisciplinary orientation of this program in terms as well of content as of professional diversity among the participants serves as a constant challenge to improve contents, didactics and appropriate evaluation. PMID:11793305

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Freller, T

    1994-01-01

    During early modern period Mediterranean people feared epidemics far more than war and other destructive activities. Where epidemics, especially the plague, struck, all communications broke down and trade just withered away. With the coming of the Knights of St. John in 1530 the Maltese Islands became increasingly important as an international boarding place in the very center of the Mediterranean. Soon the maritime development of the Order's state was enhanced by the high regard in which the Maltese Quarantine System was held by European countries in the 17th and 18th century. The aetiology of plague was then unknown and the restrictive measures adopted by the Maltese Quarantine System too were in accordance with the approved epidemiological practices and theories of the time. This article tries to single out the importance of the Maltese Quarantine as a kind of medical "shield" for the southern European countries. PMID:11640574

  2. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Fröberg, Andreas; Raustorp, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to overview high-qualitative systematic reviews to synthesize the evidence for associations between sedentary behavior and health outcomes in adults. There is evidence for a cross-sectional association between accelerometer measured sedentary time and poorer insulin sensitivity, and an association between sedentary breaks and BMI/waist circumference and triglycerides. Based on intervention studies (only randomized cross-over), there is evidence for an association between prolonged sitting and some markers for poorer cardiovascular health, but it is unclear whether this may be generalized to adults in general. There is also evidence to support an association between self-reported sedentary behavior (e.g., screen-time and total sitting time) and cardiovascular disease incidence and death, cancer incidence and death, and all-cause mortality. The inconsistent use of sedentary measures suggests, however, that caution is required when interpreting the results. PMID:27115777

  3. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Fagerberg, Björn; Kjellström, Tord; Vilhelmsson, Andreas; Barregård, Lars

    2016-01-01

    High temperatures have a direct impact on body functions. Heat waves increase mortality risks due to myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary disease. Cold temperatures also increase mortality, but with a longer latency. A recent study found only a small difference between the minimal mortality temperature (MMT) and the temperatures at which mortality rose steeply, although the majority of deaths occurred at temperatures below MMT. Global climate change with increasing temperatures seriously threatens health, work capacity, and generation of household incomes, particularly among poor people in hot countries. In Sweden, heat waves increase mortality in vulnerable groups of elderly people and patients with chronic heart and lung diseases, as well as those performing intensive physical work in hot environments. The medical profession can play an important role not only in prevention of climate change, but also in adaptation to climate change with the goal of minimizing health risks. PMID:27459087

  4. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Eduardo; Kainz, Martin A; Stei, Martin; Wester, Roland

    2016-07-21

    The proton transfer reaction H3(+) + CO is one of the cornerstone chemical processes in the interstellar medium. Here, the dynamics of this reaction have been investigated using crossed beam velocity map imaging. Formyl product cations are found to be predominantly scattered into the forward direction irrespective of the collision energy. In this process, a high amount of energy is transferred to internal product excitation. By fitting a sum of two distribution functions to the measured internal energy distributions, the product isomer ratio is extracted. A small HOC(+) fraction is obtained at a collision energy of 1.8 eV, characterized by an upper limit of 24% with a confidence level of 84%. At lower collision energies, the data indicate purely HCO(+) formation. Such low values are unexpected given the previously predicted efficient formation of both HCO(+) and HOC(+) isomers for thermal conditions. This is discussed in light of the direct reaction dynamics that are observed. PMID:27352138

  5. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Jörg; Ragnarsson, Thony; Danielsson, Tom; Johansson, Therése; Schreyer, Hendrik; Breyne, Antonia; Bergman, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical changes after strenuous exercise - data from the Kalmar Ironman Strenuous and prolonged exercise like marathon, ultra running and triathlon can lead to changes in biomarkers of cardiac, muscle and kidney functional damage. We present the data of 30 (15 men, 15 women) participants of the Kalmar Ironman 2015. Pre-race electrocardiograms and echocardiograms showed a high frequency of abnormalities. Post race elevations of troponin T, creatine kinase, myoglobin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and creatinine returned to normal in almost all cases within 5-8 days. In all but one participant the troponin T pattern was compatible with the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. It is an up-to-date unanswered question whether the increase of troponin represents myocardial damage or just is a benign consequence of an intermittent change of the permeability of myocardial cell membranes. PMID:27483401

  6. Implementation of High-Order Multireference Coupled-Cluster Methods on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture.

    PubMed

    Aprà, E; Kowalski, K

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation of multireference coupled-cluster formalism with singles, doubles, and noniterative triples (MRCCSD(T)), which is capable of taking advantage of the processing power of the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. We discuss the integration of two levels of parallelism underlying the MRCCSD(T) implementation with computational kernels designed to offload the computationally intensive parts of the MRCCSD(T) formalism to Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. Special attention is given to the enhancement of the parallel performance by task reordering that has improved load balancing in the noniterative part of the MRCCSD(T) calculations. We also discuss aspects regarding efficient optimization and vectorization strategies. PMID:26808463

  7. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Performance analysis was begin on the Ada implementations. The goal is to supply the system designer with tools that will allow a rational decision to be made about whether a particular implementation can support a given application early in the design cycle. Primary activities were: analysis of the original approach to recovery in distributed Ada programs using the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) example; review and assessment of the original approach which was found to be capable of improvement; preparation and presentation of a paper at the 1987 Washington DC Ada Symposium; development of a refined approach to recovery that is presently being applied to the ATOPS example; and design and development of a performance assessment scheme for Ada programs based on a flexible user-driven benchmarking system.

  8. Computer-implemented system and method for automated and highly accurate plaque analysis, reporting, and visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, James Herbert (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor); Lambert, James (Inventor); Lam, Raymond (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A computer-implemented system and method of intra-oral analysis for measuring plaque removal is disclosed. The system includes hardware for real-time image acquisition and software to store the acquired images on a patient-by-patient basis. The system implements algorithms to segment teeth of interest from surrounding gum, and uses a real-time image-based morphing procedure to automatically overlay a grid onto each segmented tooth. Pattern recognition methods are used to classify plaque from surrounding gum and enamel, while ignoring glare effects due to the reflection of camera light and ambient light from enamel regions. The system integrates these components into a single software suite with an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) that allows users to do an end-to-end run of a patient record, including tooth segmentation of all teeth, grid morphing of each segmented tooth, and plaque classification of each tooth image.

  9. Sector and Sphere: the design and implementation of a high-performance data cloud

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunhong; Grossman, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Cloud computing has demonstrated that processing very large datasets over commodity clusters can be done simply, given the right programming model and infrastructure. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of the Sector storage cloud and the Sphere compute cloud. By contrast with the existing storage and compute clouds, Sector can manage data not only within a data centre, but also across geographically distributed data centres. Similarly, the Sphere compute cloud supports user-defined functions (UDFs) over data both within and across data centres. As a special case, MapReduce-style programming can be implemented in Sphere by using a Map UDF followed by a Reduce UDF. We describe some experimental studies comparing Sector/Sphere and Hadoop using the Terasort benchmark. In these studies, Sector is approximately twice as fast as Hadoop. Sector/Sphere is open source. PMID:19451100

  10. Sector and Sphere: the design and implementation of a high-performance data cloud.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yunhong; Grossman, Robert L

    2009-06-28

    Cloud computing has demonstrated that processing very large datasets over commodity clusters can be done simply, given the right programming model and infrastructure. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of the Sector storage cloud and the Sphere compute cloud. By contrast with the existing storage and compute clouds, Sector can manage data not only within a data centre, but also across geographically distributed data centres. Similarly, the Sphere compute cloud supports user-defined functions (UDFs) over data both within and across data centres. As a special case, MapReduce-style programming can be implemented in Sphere by using a Map UDF followed by a Reduce UDF. We describe some experimental studies comparing Sector/Sphere and Hadoop using the Terasort benchmark. In these studies, Sector is approximately twice as fast as Hadoop. Sector/Sphere is open source. PMID:19451100

  11. Implementation Challenges for Sintered Silicon Carbide Fiber Bonded Ceramic Materials for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, a number of fiber reinforced ceramic composites have been developed and tested for various aerospace and ground based applications. However, a number of challenges still remain slowing the wide scale implementation of these materials. In addition to continuous fiber reinforced composites, other innovative materials have been developed including the fibrous monoliths and sintered fiber bonded ceramics. The sintered silicon carbide fiber bonded ceramics have been fabricated by the hot pressing and sintering of silicon carbide fibers. However, in this system reliable property database as well as various issues related to thermomechanical performance, integration, and fabrication of large and complex shape components has yet to be addressed. In this presentation, thermomechanical properties of sintered silicon carbide fiber bonded ceramics (as fabricated and joined) will be presented. In addition, critical need for manufacturing and integration technologies in successful implementation of these materials will be discussed.

  12. 75 FR 17368 - Notice of Availability of an Evaluation of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Status of Czech...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... additional risk factors that would indicate that domestic poultry in the Czech Republic and Sweden continue... introduction of diseases and pests into the U.S. livestock and poultry populations. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a zoonotic disease of poultry. The H5N1 subtype of HPAI is an extremely infectious...

  13. Meeting Oregon's New High School Math Graduation Requirements: Examining Student Enrollment and Teacher Availability. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Sage, Nicole; Ishimaru, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Disaggregating the data across four school variables--size, locale, racial/ethnic minority population, and population eligible for free or reduced-price lunch--this study examines the extent to which Oregon grade 9-12 students enrolled in high school math courses during 2006/07 and 2007/08 would not have been on track to graduate had the new…

  14. FPGA implementation of high-frequency multiple PWM for variable voltage variable frequency controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumaaraf, Abdelâali; Mohamadi, Tayeb; Gourmat, Laïd

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present the FPGA implementation of the multiple pulse width modulation (MPWM) signal generation with repetition of data segments, applied to the variable frequency variable voltage systems and specially at to the photovoltaic water pumping system, in order to generate a signal command very easily between 10hz to 60 hz with a small frequency and reduce the cost of the control system.

  15. A Highly Parallel Implementation of K-Means for Multithreaded Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Patrick S.; Feo, John T.; Wong, Pak C.; Chen, Yousu

    2011-04-06

    We present a parallel implementation of the popular k-means clustering algorithm for massively multithreaded computer systems, as well as a parallelized version of the KKZ seed selection algorithm. We demonstrate that as system size increases, sequential seed selection can become a bottleneck. We also present an early attempt at parallelizing k-means that highlights critical performance issues when programming massively multithreaded systems. For our case studies, we used data collected from electric power simulations and run on the Cray XMT.

  16. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Gregory, S. T.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1984-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada (a trade mark of the US Dept. of Defense) in distributed environments in which the hardware are assumed to be unreliable were investigated. The possibility that a distributed system is programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on and failures occurring in the underlying hardware were examined.

  17. The Vortex: a universal 'high-acuity implementation tool' for emergency airway management.

    PubMed

    Chrimes, N

    2016-09-01

    Factors influencing performance during emergency airway management can be broadly divided into issues with preparation and those with implementation. Effective design of resources that provide guidance on management requires consideration of the context in which they are to be used. Many of the major airway guidelines do not specify whether they are intended to be used during preparation or implementation and may not take the context for use into account in their design. This can produce tools which may be not only ineffective but actively disruptive to team function in an emergency. The Vortex is a novel, simple, and predominantly visually based cognitive aid, which has been specifically designed to be used in real time during airway emergencies to support team function and target recognized failings in airway crisis management. Unlike the major algorithms, which are context specific, the Vortex is flexible enough for the same tool to be applied to any circumstance in which airway management takes place, independent of context, patient type, or the intended airway device. This makes the same tool suitable for use by emergency physicians, intensivists, paramedical staff, and anaesthetists. The Vortex contains many of the recognized features of an ideal cognitive tool and may be effective in reducing implementation errors in emergency airway management. Experimental evidence is required to establish this. PMID:27440673

  18. ASIC Implementation of Highly Reliable IR-UWB Transceiver for Industrial Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olonbayar, Sonom; Fischer, Gunter; Kreiser, Dan; Martynenko, Denys; Klymenko, Oleksiy; Kraemer, Rolf; Grass, Eckhard

    2016-07-01

    An in-depth treatment of impulse an radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) wireless system is provided reviewing theoretical background, proceeding with detailed implementation procedure, and finally giving simulation and test results. This is the first research and prototyping work to be published in the field of IR-UWB that operates in the 6-8 GHz band. The aim of this work is to implement an IR-UWB wireless system for industrial automation that is robust and reliable. To achieve this, an analogue bandwidth of 250 MHz and digital baseband processing at the clock frequency 499.2 MHz were realized in a 250 nm BiCMOS process, integrating the complete system into a single chip. Simulation and measurement results confirm that the implemented IR-UWB transceiver is operational across four frequency channels in the band 6-8 GHz each supporting three data rates 850 kb/s, 6.81 Mb/s and 27.24 Mb/s.

  19. Hox cluster polarity in early transcriptional availability: a high order regulatory level of clustered Hox genes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Roelen, Bernard A J; de Graaff, Wim; Forlani, Sylvie; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2002-11-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying the 3' to 5' polarity of induction of mouse Hox genes is still elusive. While relief from a cluster-encompassing repression was shown to lead to all Hoxd genes being expressed like the 3'most of them, Hoxd1 (Kondo and Duboule, 1999), the molecular basis of initial activation of this 3'most gene, is not understood yet. We show that, already before primitive streak formation, prior to initial expression of the first Hox gene, a dramatic transcriptional stimulation of the 3'most genes, Hoxb1 and Hoxb2, is observed upon a short pulse of exogenous retinoic acid (RA), whereas it is not in the case for more 5', cluster-internal, RA-responsive Hoxb genes. In contrast, the RA-responding Hoxb1lacZ transgene that faithfully mimics the endogenous gene (Marshall et al., 1994) did not exhibit the sensitivity of Hoxb1 to precocious activation. We conclude that polarity in initial activation of Hoxb genes reflects a greater availability of 3'Hox genes for transcription, suggesting a pre-existing (susceptibility to) opening of the chromatin structure at the 3' extremity of the cluster. We discuss the data in the context of prevailing models involving differential chromatin opening in the directionality of clustered Hox gene transcription, and regarding the importance of the cluster context for correct timing of initial Hox gene expression.Interestingly, Cdx1 manifested the same early transcriptional availability as Hoxb1. PMID:12385756

  20. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Paunescu, A C; Ayotte, P; Dewailly, É; Dodin, S

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported that the status in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and the omega-3/omega-6 PUFA ratio are positively related to bone health. This study aimed at examining the relationship between the status of different PUFAs and bone strength expressed by the stiffness index (SI) among indigenous women in northern Canada and Greenland, whose diets are rich in PUFAs compared to those of non-Aboriginals. Our study includes 118 Inuit women from Nuuk (Greenland), 195 Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada), and 249 Cree women of from East James Bay (Canada). Projects in Nunavik and in the Cree communities had a cross-sectional design and the Greenland project, a longitudinal design. The content of some PUFAs phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes was measured after transmethylation by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector. Stiffness index was measured by ultrasound at the right calcaneus with a water-bath Achilles Lunar instrument (Greenland) or an Achilles Insight instrument (Nunavik, East James Bay). Relations between SI and various PUFAs were studied using multiple linear regression analyses. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was positively and significantly associated with SI (log), even after adjustment for several confounders and covariates in all three projects. A high EPA status, resulting mainly from the consumption of fatty fish or marine mammal fat, seems to have a positive effect on bone strength measured by ultrasonography among Aboriginal women from three different populations. PMID:24383511

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Bossard, Matthias; Kühne, Michael; Conen, David

    2013-05-01

    An irregular pulse is a common finding in daily clinical practice. The underlying rhythm disorders are influenced by the patient's age, cardiac history and other comorbidities. It is of paramount importance to discriminate benign discoveries from potentially harmful heart rhythm disorders. The primary diagnostic approach is a thorough clinical examination followed by electrocardiographic documentation. Depending on the findings, further work-up may be needed: laboratory tests, prolonged rhythm monitoring and cardiac imaging. The causes of an asymptomatic arrhythmic pulse are manifold. Common possible causes are respiratory arrhythmia, premature beats as well as various supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation is especially noteworthy, as it is not only associated with an increased morbidity and mortality but also needs specific treatment. Affected persons should undergo thorough risk stratification. Premature atrial contractions and ventricular premature beats are common findings. A high burden may be associated with a subclinical cardiac disease and with increased morbidity and mortality. However, there are patients with idiopathic premature beats without associated cardiac disease. Asymptomatic bradyarrhythmias do mostly not need a therapeutic intervention. Pacemaker placement is only needed if specific symptoms can be linked to the bradyarrhythmia. PMID:23619180

  2. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Paquette, Guy

    2003-05-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behaviour. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 2100 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Finally, the author would also like to indicate that psychological violence is taking on a more significant role. PMID:20020031

  3. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ulisubisya, Mpoki; Dahlén, Erik; Jörnvall, Henrik; Irestedt, Lars; Baker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The impact of an Anaesthesia and Intensive Care collaboration between Sweden and Tanzania Anaesthesia and intensive care is a neglected specialty in low-income countries. Many countries have less than 1 anaesthesia provider per 100,000 population and few hospitals in Africa have the resources for managing critically ill patients. Health partnerships between institutions in high- and low-income countries have been proposed as an effective way to strengthen health systems. This article describes a partnership in anaesthesia and intensive care between institutions in Sweden and Tanzania and its impact at regional and national levels. The partnership, initiated in 2008 on the request of Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, conducts training, exchanges, research, equipment, routines and guidelines projects. Through the newly formed Life Support Foundation, the partnership has expanded to all hospitals in Dar es Salaam, has assisted in the reactivation of the Society of Anaesthesiologists of Tanzania and has seen a marked increase in the number of trainee doctors. PMID:27622761

  4. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Palep, Jaydeep H

    2009-01-01

    The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom's Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor. The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder) prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK), FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany) have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc.) redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System((R)) classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist((R)). It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naïve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions. PMID:19547687

  5. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Dussart, A; De Buyst, J; Djeunang, C; Janssens, M; Müller, M-F; Strebelle, E; Mathe, K; Infantino, S; Malfilâtre, G

    2016-01-01

    This is the clinical history of a term baby born at home who presents a severe hyperbilirubinémia. The medical monitoring was assessed by a private midwife according to parental choice. On the third day of life, the newborn presented an icterus and was exposed to natural daylight in the familial greenhouse under the midwife recommandations. On that day, no laboratory test precised the bilirubin level. On the fifth day, a blood sampling revealed a very high blood bilirubinémia (31 mg/dl or 527 mmol/L), the baby is refered to our NICU and underwent an exchange transfusion. The radiological assessment report structural abnomalies in basal ganglia seen on both MRI and transfontannellar echography. These lesions are known to be responsible of cerebral palsy and hearing loos. The neurophysiologic investigations showed background abnormaly and depression. The extensive blood sampling excluded haemolysis. The clinical examination brought out neurologic impairement and weight loos in this exclusively breastfed baby. This clinical case point out the increasing risk of home Kernicterius as hospital stays diminish and homebirth enthousiasm rise up. The present clinical situation vouches for an adaptation of care giving to both mother and child at home in order to avoid this severe illness. PMID:27120931

  6. Matched interface and boundary (MIB) for the implementation of boundary conditions in high-order central finite differences

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shan; Wei, G. W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY High-order central finite difference schemes encounter great difficulties in implementing complex boundary conditions. This paper introduces the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method as a novel boundary scheme to treat various general boundary conditions in arbitrarily high-order central finite difference schemes. To attain arbitrarily high order, the MIB method accurately extends the solution beyond the boundary by repeatedly enforcing only the original set of boundary conditions. The proposed approach is extensively validated via boundary value problems, initial-boundary value problems, eigenvalue problems, and high-order differential equations. Successful implementations are given to not only Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions, but also more general ones, such as multiple boundary conditions in high-order differential equations and time-dependent boundary conditions in evolution equations. Detailed stability analysis of the MIB method is carried out. The MIB method is shown to be able to deliver high-order accuracy, while maintaining the same or similar stability conditions of the standard high-order central difference approximations. The application of the proposed MIB method to the boundary treatment of other non-standard high-order methods is also considered. PMID:20485574

  7. High ANC coverage and low skilled attendance in a rural Tanzanian district: a case for implementing a birth plan intervention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, more than 90% of all pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once and approximately 62% four times or more, yet less than five in ten receive skilled delivery care at available health units. We conducted a qualitative study in Ngorongoro district, Northern Tanzania, in order to gain an understanding of the health systems and socio-cultural factors underlying this divergent pattern of high use of antenatal services and low use of skilled delivery care. Specifically, the study examined beliefs and behaviors related to antenatal, labor, delivery and postnatal care among the Maasai and Watemi ethnic groups. The perspectives of health care providers and traditional birth attendants on childbirth and the factors determining where women deliver were also investigated. Methods Twelve key informant interviews and fifteen focus group discussions were held with Maasai and Watemi women, traditional birth attendants, health care providers, and community members. Principles of the grounded theory approach were used to elicit and assess the various perspectives of each group of participants interviewed. Results The Maasai and Watemi women's preferences for a home birth and lack of planning for delivery are reinforced by the failure of health care providers to consistently communicate the importance of skilled delivery and immediate post-partum care for all women during routine antenatal visits. Husbands typically serve as gatekeepers of women's reproductive health in the two groups - including decisions about where they will deliver- yet they are rarely encouraged to attend antenatal sessions. While husbands are encouraged to participate in programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission of HIV, messages about the importance of skilled delivery care for all women are not given emphasis. Conclusions Increasing coverage of skilled delivery care and achieving the full implementation of Tanzania's Focused Antenatal Care Package in Ngorongoro depends

  8. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Berglund, Anna; Heimer, Gun

    2016-01-01

    Violence is a common problem in society worldwide, and recent research has shown links to various signs of ill-health among victims. In a Swedish population based study, 46 per cent of women and 38 per cent of men had, at some point, been subjected to severe sexual, physical or emotional violence. The respondents were also asked about their present health. The study showed a significant over-representation of respondents subjected to serious violence in all ill-health indicators (PTSD, depression, psychosomatic symptoms, self-harm behaviour, risky alcohol intake, low self-rated physical health and heart attacks in the older age group). Several other Swedish studies have addressed abuse and future health. In a study among young people attending youth clinics the last year prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional violence was high, as expected. Young women were to a higher extent than young men exposed to sexual (14 and 4 per cent, respectively) and emotional violence (33 and 18 per cent respectively) and young men more to physical violence than young women (27 and 18 per cent respectively). Those who had been exposed to more than two types of violence were significantly more likely to resort to self-harm behaviour and suicide ideation and rated their psychological wellbeing lower than others. In one study the violence victimization and self-reported physical and mental ill-health among young women belonging to a sexual minority and heterosexual young women was assessed. Being subjected to two or more types of violence was significantly more frequent among the minority women compared to heterosexual women. However all victimized women had significantly higher risk for ill-health in all outcomes (PTSD, sleeping difficulties, and recurrent bowel problems). The impact of being subjected to more than one type of violence has been shown to be even more strongly linked to mental ill-health also in adult patients. Hence, research supports that violence victimisation is

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Carlino, A

    1994-01-01

    Anatomical fugitive sheets are of great interest, as a typographical genre, not only for the history of printing and the history of medicine, but also, more generally, for the history of culture as a whole. They were published as folio woodcuts (more rarely engravings) in Germany, France, Italy, England and the Netherlands from the end of the XVth centkury to the mid XVIIIth century. These sheets contain a figure representing the human body (male and female) and a text describing in a concise and quite rough way the elements of the illustration. What is unusual about these sheets is that the trunk of the figures and some of the internal organs can be lifted up or peeled away, like some contemporary books for children. The figures and some internal parts are very often coloured. Judging from the number of editions (I have found 15 editions published between 1538 and 1540!), anatomical sheets met with a huge commercial success and a very wide circulation indeed. Students of the faculties of medicine and philosophy and barber-surgeons were the more obvious consumers. Students would use them as aids to memory to accompany non-illustrated medical books; barbers to grasp some basic notions of the human body, useful for the practice of phlebotomy. They could be purchased in bookshops, but they were more likely to have been sold in market places or around the University where many colporteurs displayed their cheap prints and booklets. I shall argue, however, that anatomical fugitive sheets have also been produced for and used by a non-professional public, literate but not highly educated, unable to read Latin and more used to learning from images rather than from the written word. A public that was eager to discover the inner secrets of the bodily self, the divine machine that we inhabit. From a scientific point of view anatomical fugitive sheets often reveal errors and differences compared to academic textual and iconographic material on the same subject. The discrepancy

  10. A chemical analysis examining the pharmacology of novel psychoactive substances freely available over the internet and their impact on public (ill)health. Legal highs or illegal highs?

    PubMed Central

    Bond, John W

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Public Health England aims to improve the nation's health and acknowledges that unhealthy lifestyles, which include drug use, undermine society's health and well-being. Recreational drug use has changed to include a range of substances sold as ‘research chemicals’ but known by users as ‘legal highs’ (legal alternatives to the most popular illicit recreational drugs), which are of an unknown toxicity to humans and often include prohibited substances controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act (1971). Consequently, the long-term effects on users' health and inconsistent, often illegal ingredients, mean that this group of drugs presents a serious risk to public health both now and in the future. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain what is in legal highs, their legality and safety, while considering the potential impact, these synthetic substances might be having on public health. Design A total of 22 products were purchased from five different internet sites, 18 months after the UK ban on substituted cathinones, like mephedrone, was introduced in April 2010. Each substance was screened to determine its active ingredients using accepted analytical techniques. Setting The research was conducted in Leicestershire but has implications for the provision of primary and secondary healthcare throughout the UK. Results Two products, both sold as NRG-2 from different internet suppliers, were found to contain the banned substituted cathinones 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC), the latter being present in much smaller quantities. Although sold as research chemicals and labelled ‘not for human consumption’, they are thinly disguised ‘legal highs’, available online in quantities that vary from 1 g to 1 kg. Conclusions Despite amendments to legislation, prohibited class B substances are still readily available in large quantities over the internet. The findings suggest that these prohibited substances are being

  11. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.

    2015-01-01

    Customer: NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO), and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. NASA's LSP, GSDO, SLS and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). For example, to determine if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 kilometer Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the AMU high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model (Watson 2013) in real-time. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The model was set up with a triple-nested grid configuration over KSC/CCAFS based on previous AMU work (Watson 2013). The outer domain (D01) has 12-kilometer grid spacing, the middle domain (D02) has 4-kilometer grid spacing, and the inner domain (D03) has 1.33-kilometer grid spacing. The model runs a 12-hour forecast every hour, D01 and D02 domain outputs are available once an hour and D03 is every 15 minutes during the forecast period. The AMU assessed the WRF-EMS 1

  12. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Spivak, M

    1987-01-01

    Some ideas, whether right or wrong, seem never to die, whatever might be the general evolution of knowledge, of science, or simply of good common sense. This is exactly the case with physical education or sports. For centuries, and especially since the middle of the nineteenth century, its advocates have fought for recognition of its all-round virtues, taken as a concept. But to attain a high level of recognition, not only in society but in official government circles, certain conditions were necessary. Education as a whole, around the middle of the nineteenth century, had to be strict and similar to military drill to be considered efficient, although the French middle classes and bourgeoisie had very little taste for the military. Although they admired physical prowess they had a horror of regimentation. But later on, when the Prussians so easily defeated Austria, feelings of doubt in French superiority began to spread, and a handful of theoreticians of physical exercise tried to show that to combat the so-called degeneration of the race, it was essential to impose a system of education in which physical exercise, coupled with military drill, still had an important place. As scientific arguments they referred to the theories of evolution and its then accepted principle, according to Lamarck, or the transmission of acquired properties and character. Darwin was still unknown in France at that time. These zealous advocates succeeded in convincing the Minister of Public Education, Victor Duruy, to include gymnastics in the normal course of studies in all schools, and by 1869 one can say that a craze for all types of physical exercise and sport had spread into many levels of society. That was the start of a never-ending movement which has passed through various stages of evolution corresponding to the changes in society itself. It has therefore changed its methods, its ways, its forms, but the overall principle remains the same, in spite of the improved understanding

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Sibalic, V

    1996-01-01

    further education towards specializing in psychiatry. A walk through today's clinic does not only mean seeing, but also experiencing history. Situated between the walls of the former monastery of St. Pirmin, the old part of the building, with its splendid ornamentation, can transport the visitor back to former times. Life in the clinic must have been difficult: massive, cold walls, mostly badly-lit rooms and corridors temporarily filled with beds must surely have had a very unfavourable effect on the disposition of the patients. Pavilions, erected later in a more useful but nonetheless pleasing style of architecture are equally impressive - new and old harmoniously united. Even in earlier times, people praised the beautiful countryside in which Pfäfers is situated. The outward appearance of the village has not changed in years. Its high location offers a wonderful view over the valley and provides a fresh, cool climate - an advantage which will always be held in great esteem by the clinic St. Pirminsberg. PMID:11630263

  14. A One Chip Hardened Solution for High Speed SpaceWire System Implementations. Session: Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Joseph R.; Berger, Richard W.; Rakow, Glenn P.

    2007-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that implements the SpaceWire protocol has been developed in a radiation hardened 0.25 micron CMOS technology. This effort began in March 2003 as a joint development between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and BAE Systems. The BAE Systems SpaceWire ASIC is comprised entirely of reusable core elements, many of which are already flight-proven. It incorporates a router with 4 SpaceWire ports and two local ports, dual PC1 bus interfaces, a microcontroller, 32KB of internal memory, and a memory controller for additional external memory use. The SpaceWire cores are also reused in other ASICs under development. The SpaceWire ASIC is planned for use on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and other missions. Engineering and flight parts have been delivered to programs and users. This paper reviews the SpaceWire protocol and those elements of it that have been built into the current and next SpaceWire reusable cores and features within the core that go beyond the current standard and can be enabled or disabled by the user. The adaptation of SpaceWire to BAE Systems' On Chip Bus (OCB) for compatibility with the other reusable cores will be reviewed and highlighted. Optional configurations within user systems and test boards will be shown. The physical implementation of the design will be described and test results from the hardware will be discussed. Application of this ASIC and other ASICs containing the SpaceWire cores and embedded microcontroller to Plug and Play and reconfigurable implementations will be described. Finally, the BAE Systems roadmap for SpaceWire developments will be updated, including some products already in design as well as longer term plans.

  15. A study on implementing a multithreaded version of the SIRENE detector simulation software for high energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, Petros; Gkoumas, Michail; Diplas, Ioannis; Voularinos, Georgios; Vlachos, Theofanis; Balasi, Konstantia; Tzamariudaki, Ekaterini; Filippidis, Christos; Cotronis, Yiannis; Markou, Christos

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of SIRENE is to simulate the response to neutrino events of any type of high energy neutrino telescope. Additionally, it implements different geometries for a neutrino detector and different configurations and characteristics of photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) inside the optical modules of the detector through a library of C+ + classes. This could be considered a massive statistical analysis of photo-electrons. Aim of this work is the development of a multithreaded version of the SIRENE detector simulation software for high energy neutrinos. This approach allows utilization of multiple CPU cores leading to a potentially significant decrease in the required execution time compared to the sequential code. We are making use of the OpenMP framework for the production of multithreaded code running on the CPU. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of a GPU-accelerated implementation.

  16. Culture-Independent Metagenomic Surveillance of Commercially Available Probiotics with High-Throughput Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Patro, Jennifer N.; Ramachandran, Padmini; Barnaba, Tammy; Mammel, Mark K.; Lewis, Jada L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Millions of people consume dietary supplements either following a doctor’s recommendation or at their own discretion to improve their overall health and well-being. This is a rapidly growing trend, with an associated and expanding manufacturing industry to meet the demand for new health-related products. In this study, we examined the contents and microbial viability of several popular probiotic products on the United States market. Culture-independent methods are proving ideal for fast and efficient analysis of foodborne pathogens and their associated microbial communities but may also be relevant for analyzing probiotics containing mixed microbial constituents. These products were subjected to next-generation whole-genome sequencing and analyzed by a custom in-house-developed k-mer counting method to validate manufacturer label information. In addition, the batch variability of respective products was examined to determine if any changes in their formulations and/or the manufacturing process occurred. Overall, the products we tested adhered to the ingredient claims and lot-to-lot differences were minimal. However, there were a few discrepancies in the naming of closely related Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, whereas one product contained an apparent Enterococcus contaminant in two of its three lots. With the microbial contents of the products identified, we used traditional PCR and colony counting methods to comparatively assess our results and verify the viability of the microbes in these products with regard to the labeling claims. Of all the supplements examined, only one was found to be inaccurate in viability. Our use of next-generation sequencing as an analytical tool clearly demonstrated its utility for quickly analyzing commercially available products containing multiple microbes to ensure consumer safety. IMPORTANCE The rapidly growing supplement industry operates without a formal premarket approval process. Consumers rely on

  17. Culture-Independent Metagenomic Surveillance of Commercially Available Probiotics with High-Throughput Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Patro, Jennifer N; Ramachandran, Padmini; Barnaba, Tammy; Mammel, Mark K; Lewis, Jada L; Elkins, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people consume dietary supplements either following a doctor's recommendation or at their own discretion to improve their overall health and well-being. This is a rapidly growing trend, with an associated and expanding manufacturing industry to meet the demand for new health-related products. In this study, we examined the contents and microbial viability of several popular probiotic products on the United States market. Culture-independent methods are proving ideal for fast and efficient analysis of foodborne pathogens and their associated microbial communities but may also be relevant for analyzing probiotics containing mixed microbial constituents. These products were subjected to next-generation whole-genome sequencing and analyzed by a custom in-house-developed k-mer counting method to validate manufacturer label information. In addition, the batch variability of respective products was examined to determine if any changes in their formulations and/or the manufacturing process occurred. Overall, the products we tested adhered to the ingredient claims and lot-to-lot differences were minimal. However, there were a few discrepancies in the naming of closely related Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, whereas one product contained an apparent Enterococcus contaminant in two of its three lots. With the microbial contents of the products identified, we used traditional PCR and colony counting methods to comparatively assess our results and verify the viability of the microbes in these products with regard to the labeling claims. Of all the supplements examined, only one was found to be inaccurate in viability. Our use of next-generation sequencing as an analytical tool clearly demonstrated its utility for quickly analyzing commercially available products containing multiple microbes to ensure consumer safety. IMPORTANCE The rapidly growing supplement industry operates without a formal premarket approval process. Consumers rely on product labels to

  18. Design and Implementation of High Frequency Ultrasound Pulsed-Wave Doppler Using FPGA

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chang-hong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    The development of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based pulsed-wave Doppler processing approach in pure digital domain is reported in this paper. After the ultrasound signals are digitized, directional Doppler frequency shifts are obtained with a digital-down converter followed by a low-pass filter. A Doppler spectrum is then calculated using the complex fast Fourier transform core inside the FPGA. In this approach, a pulsed-wave Doppler implementation core with reconfigurable and real-time processing capability is achieved. PMID:18986909

  19. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern were investigted. A distributed system, programmed entirely in Ada, was studied to assess the use of individual tasks without concern for the processor used. Continued development and testing of the fault tolerant Ada testbed; development of suggested changes to Ada to cope with the failures of interest; design of approaches to fault tolerant software in real time systems, and the integration of these ideas into Ada; and the preparation of various papers and presentations were discussed.

  20. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the Ada implementation of the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS), an experimental computer control system developed at NASA Langley for a modified Boeing 737 aircraft, is presented. The criteria that was determined for the evaluation of this approach is described. A preliminary version of the requirements for the ATOPS is contained. This requirements specification is not a formal document, but rather a description of certain aspects of the ATOPS system at a level of detail that best suits the needs of the research. The survey of backward error recovery techniques is also presented.

  1. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the possibility that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in ADA so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on, and that failures may occur in the software or underlying hardware. The primary activities are: (1) Continued development and testing of our fault-tolerant Ada testbed; (2) consideration of desirable language changes to allow Ada to provide useful semantics for failure; (3) analysis of the inadequacies of existing software fault tolerance strategies.

  2. Detection of highly toxic elements (lead and chromium) in commercially available eyeliner (kohl) using laser induced break down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Dastageer, M. A.; Al-Adel, F. F.; Naqvi, A. A.; Habibullah, Y. B.

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive laser induced breakdown spectroscopic system was developed and optimized for using it as a sensor for the detection of trace levels of lead and chromium present in the cosmetic eyeliner (kohl) of different price ranges (brands) available in the local market. Kohl is widely used in developing countries for babies as well adults for beautification as well eyes protection. The atomic transition lines at 405.7 nm and 425.4 nm were used as the marker lines for the detection of lead and chromium respectively. The detection system was optimized by finding the appropriate gate delay between the laser excitation and the data acquisition system and also by achieving optically thin plasma near the target by establishing the local thermodynamic equilibrium condition. The detection system was calibrated for these two hazardous elements and the kohl samples under investigation showed 8-15 ppm by mass of lead and 4-9 ppm by mass of Chromium, which are higher than the safe permissible levels of these elements. The limits of detection of the LIBS system for lead and chromium were found to be 1 and 2 ppm respectively.

  3. High-end climate change impact on European water availability and stress: exploring the presence of biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, L. V.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Grillakis, M. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

    2015-07-01

    Climate models project a much more substantial warming than the 2 °C target making higher end scenarios increasingly plausible. Freshwater availability under such conditions is a key issue of concern. In this study, an ensemble of Euro-CORDEX projections under RCP8.5 is used to assess the mean and low hydrological states under +4 °C of global warming for the European region. Five major European catchments were analyzed in terms of future drought climatology and the impact of +2 vs. +4 °C global warming was investigated. The effect of bias correction of the climate model outputs and the observations used for this adjustment was also quantified. Projections indicate an intensification of the water cycle at higher levels of warming. Even for areas where the average state may not considerably be affected, low flows are expected to reduce leading to changes in the number of dry days and thus drought climatology. The identified increasing or decreasing runoff trends are substantially intensified when moving from the +2 to the +4 °C of global warming. Bias correction resulted in an improved representation of the historical hydrology. It is also found that the selection of the observational dataset for the application of the bias correction has an impact on the projected signal that could be of the same order of magnitude to the selection of the RCM.

  4. Variation in bird's originating nitrogen availability limits High Arctic tundra development over last 2000 year (Hornsund, Svalbard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Hua, Quan; Richter, Dorota; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-04-01

    Arctic and subarctic regions play important roles in the global carbon balance. However, nitrogen (N) deficiency is a major constraint for organic carbon sequestration in the High Arctic. Hence, the identification of the relative contributions from different N-sources is critical for understanding the constraints that limit tundra growth. The stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources and numerous plants were analyzed in ten tundra types (including those influenced by seabirds) in the Fuglebekken catchment (Hornsund, Svalbard, 77°N 15°E). The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by seabirds' feces (from planktivorous colonially breeding little auks Alle alle), ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment originated from birds (36%), atmospheric deposition (38%), and N2-fixation (26%). The results clearly show that N-pool in the tundra is significantly supplemented by nesting seabirds. Thus, if they experienced climate change induced substantial negative environmental pressure, it would adversely influence the tundra N-budget (Skrzypek et al. 2015). The growth rates and the sediment thickness (<15cm) in different tundra types varied considerably but the tundra age was similar in the whole area, <450 cal BP. The only exception was Ornithocoprophilous bird-N rich tundra with very diverse ages ranging from 235 to 2300 cal BP and thickness up to 110 cm. The growth rates for this tundra (62 cm core, 18 AMS 14C dates) were high (1.5-3.0 mm/yr) between 1568 and 1804 AD and then substantially declined for the period between 1804 and 1929 AD (0.2 mm/yr). These findings deliver an additional argument, that the organic matter accumulation is driven not only directly by climatic conditions but also by birds' contribution to the tundra N-pool. Skrzypek G, Wojtuń B, Richter D, Jakubas D, Wojczulanis-Jakubas K, Samecka-Cymerman A, 2015

  5. Discovery of novel 4-(2-pyrimidinylamino)benzamide derivatives as highly potent and orally available hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xin, Minhang; Zhang, Liandi; Jin, Qiu; Tang, Feng; Wen, Jun; Gu, Liyun; Cheng, Lingfei; Zhao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    A series of novel hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors have been designed by structural modification based on the former reported scaffold of 4-(2-pyrimidinylamino)benzamide. The SAR for this series was described and many derivatives showed potent inhibitory activity. Among these compounds, compounds 12af and 12bf were identified to have high potency and optimal PK profiles. Although both of compounds 12af and 12bf did not show strong antitumor efficacy in LS-174T nude mice model, they were promising candidates as Hh signaling inhibitors due to great potency against Hh signaling pathway and outstanding PK properties, deserving further evaluation in other Hh signaling operative tumor models. PMID:26820554

  6. Available evidence on re-irradiation with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy following high-dose previous thoracic radiotherapy for lung malignancies.

    PubMed

    De Bari, Berardino; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Mazzola, Rosario; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Trovò, Marco; Livi, Lorenzo; Alongi, Filippo

    2015-06-01

    Patients affected with intra-thoracic recurrences of primary or secondary lung malignancies after a first course of definitive radiotherapy have limited therapeutic options, and they are often treated with a palliative intent. Re-irradiation with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) represents an appealing approach, due to the optimized dose distribution that allows for high-dose delivery with better sparing of organs at risk. This strategy has the goal of long-term control and even cure. Aim of this review is to report and discuss published data on re-irradiation with SABR in terms of efficacy and toxicity. Results indicate that thoracic re-irradiation may offer satisfactory disease control, however the data on outcome and toxicity are derived from low quality retrospective studies, and results should be cautiously interpreted. As SABR may be associated with serious toxicity, attention should be paid for an accurate patients' selection. PMID:25913714

  7. The implementation and use of ADA on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the possibility that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on, and that failures may occur in the software or underlying hardware. A new linguistic construct, the colloquy, is introduced which solves the problems identified in an earlier proposal, the conversation. It was shown that the colloquy is at least as powerful as recovery blocks, but it is also as powerful as all the other language facilities proposed for other situations requiring backward error recovery: recovery blocks, deadlines, generalized exception handlers, traditional conversations, s-conversations, and exchanges. The major features that distinguish the colloquy are described. Sample programs that were written, but not executed, using the colloquy show that extensive backward error recovery can be included in these programs simply and elegantly. These ideas are being implemented in an experimental Ada test bed.

  8. A highly scalable parallel computation strategy and optimized implementation for Fresnel Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yongan; Zhao, Changhai; Li, Chuang; Yan, Haihua; Zhao, Liang

    2013-03-01

    Fresnel Seismic Tomography which uses a huge amount of seismic data is an efficient methodology of researching three-dimensional structure of earth. However, in practical application, it confronts with two key challenges of enormous data volume and huge computation. It is difficult to accomplish computation tasks under normal operating environment and computation strategies. In this paper, a Job-By-Application parallel computation strategy, which uses MPI (Message Passing Interface) and Pthread hybrid programming models based on the cluster, is designed to implement Fresnel seismic tomography, this method can solve the problem of allocating tasks dynamically, improve the load balancing and scalability of the system effectively; and we adopted the cached I/O strategy to accommodate the limited memory resources. Experimental results demonstrated that the program implemented on these strategies could completed the actual job within the idea time, the running of the program was stable, achieved load balancing, showed a good speedup and could adapt to the hardware environment of insufficient memory.

  9. Some Health Effects of Implementing School Nursing in a Norwegian High School: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svebak, Sven; Jensen, Eva Naper; Gotestam, K. Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a school nursing service on health complaints and mood were investigated in a Norwegian high school. The school nursing service was delivered to students in 1 high school, and students in a comparable high school served as the comparison group. There were 41 students in the treatment group and 63 in the comparison group. All…

  10. New methodologies at PF AR-NW12A: the implementation of high-pressure macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Chavas, Leonard Michel Gabriel; Nagae, Tadayuki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Yamada, Yusuke; Hiraki, Masahiko; Matsugaki, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    The macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamline AR-NW12A is evolving from its original design of high-throughput crystallography to a multi-purpose end-station. Among the various options to be implemented, great efforts were made in making available high-pressure MX (HPMX) at the beamline. High-pressure molecular biophysics is a developing field that attracts the interest of a constantly growing scientific community. A plethora of activities can benefit from high pressure, and investigations have been performed on its applicability to study multimeric complex assemblies, compressibility of proteins and their crystals, macromolecules originating from extremophiles, or even the trapping of higher-energy conformers for molecules of biological interest. Recent studies using HPMX showed structural hydrostatic-pressure-induced changes in proteins. The conformational modifications could explain the enzymatic mechanism differences between proteins of the same family, living at different environmental pressures, as well as the initial steps in the pressure-denaturation process that have been attributed to water penetration into the protein interior. To facilitate further HPMX, while allowing access to various individualized set-ups and experiments, the AR-NW12A sample environment has been revisited. Altogether, the newly added implementations will bring a fresh breath of life to AR-NW12A and allow the MX community to experiment in a larger set of fields related to structural biology. PMID:24121324

  11. Availability of High Quality TRMM Ground Validation Data from Kwajalein, RMI: A Practical Application of the Relative Calibration Adjustment Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, David A.; Wolff, David B.; Silberstein, David S.; Tokay, Ali; Pippitt, Jason L.; Wang, Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    Since the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite launch in November 1997, the TRMM Satellite Validation Office (TSVO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been performing quality control and estimating rainfall from the KPOL S-band radar at Kwajalein, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Over this period, KPOL has incurred many episodes of calibration and antenna pointing angle uncertainty. To address these issues, the TSVO has applied the Relative Calibration Adjustment (RCA) technique to eight years of KPOL radar data to produce Ground Validation (GV) Version 7 products. This application has significantly improved stability in KPOL reflectivity distributions needed for Probability Matching Method (PMM) rain rate estimation and for comparisons to the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR). In years with significant calibration and angle corrections, the statistical improvement in PMM distributions is dramatic. The intent of this paper is to show improved stability in corrected KPOL reflectivity distributions by using the PR as a stable reference. Inter-month fluctuations in mean reflectivity differences between the PR and corrected KPOL are on the order of 1-2 dB, and inter-year mean reflectivity differences fluctuate by approximately 1 dB. This represents a marked improvement in stability with confidence comparable to the established calibration and uncertainty boundaries of the PR. The practical application of the RCA method has salvaged eight years of radar data that would have otherwise been unusable, and has made possible a high-quality database of tropical ocean-based reflectivity measurements and precipitation estimates for the research community.

  12. Next-Generation Phage Display: Integrating and Comparing Available Molecular Tools to Enable Cost-Effective High-Throughput Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Nunes, Diana N.; Giordano, Ricardo J.; Sun, Jessica; Botz, Gregory H.; Yang, Kuan; Setubal, João C.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2009-01-01

    Background Combinatorial phage display has been used in the last 20 years in the identification of protein-ligands and protein-protein interactions, uncovering relevant molecular recognition events. Rate-limiting steps of combinatorial phage display library selection are (i) the counting of transducing units and (ii) the sequencing of the encoded displayed ligands. Here, we adapted emerging genomic technologies to minimize such challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings We gained efficiency by applying in tandem real-time PCR for rapid quantification to enable bacteria-free phage display library screening, and added phage DNA next-generation sequencing for large-scale ligand analysis, reporting a fully integrated set of high-throughput quantitative and analytical tools. The approach is far less labor-intensive and allows rigorous quantification; for medical applications, including selections in patients, it also represents an advance for quantitative distribution analysis and ligand identification of hundreds of thousands of targeted particles from patient-derived biopsy or autopsy in a longer timeframe post library administration. Additional advantages over current methods include increased sensitivity, less variability, enhanced linearity, scalability, and accuracy at much lower cost. Sequences obtained by qPhage plus pyrosequencing were similar to a dataset produced from conventional Sanger-sequenced transducing-units (TU), with no biases due to GC content, codon usage, and amino acid or peptide frequency. These tools allow phage display selection and ligand analysis at >1,000-fold faster rate, and reduce costs ∼250-fold for generating 106 ligand sequences. Conclusions/Significance Our analyses demonstrates that whereas this approach correlates with the traditional colony-counting, it is also capable of a much larger sampling, allowing a faster, less expensive, more accurate and consistent analysis of phage enrichment. Overall, qPhage plus pyrosequencing is

  13. Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

  14. Design and implementation of a high power rf oscillator on a printed circuit board for multipole ion guides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Raman; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2006-11-01

    Radio frequency (rf) oscillators are commonly used to drive electrodes of ion guides. In this article a rf oscillator circuit design and its implementation is presented. The printed circuit board for the rf oscillator is designed and fabricated. The performance of the circuit was tested to transfer ions through a hexapole in a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometer. A comprehensive discussion of several aspects of printed circuit board design for high power and high frequency circuits is presented.

  15. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada were investigated in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern. In particular, the focus was on the possibility that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors are being executed, and that failures may occur in the software and underlying hardware. A secondary interest is in the performance of Ada systems and how that performance can be gauged reliably. Primary activities included: analysis of the original approach to recovery in distributed Ada programs using the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) example; review and assessment of the original approach which was found to be capable of improvement; development of a refined approach to recovery that was applied to the ATOPS example; and design and development of a performance assessment scheme for Ada programs based on a flexible user-driven benchmarking system.

  16. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Gregory, S. T.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1985-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern were investigated. In particular, the concept that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on, and that failures may occur in the software or underlying hardware was examined. Progress is discussed for the following areas: continued development and testing of the fault-tolerant Ada testbed; development of suggested changes to Ada so that it might more easily cope with the failure of interest; and design of new approaches to fault-tolerant software in real-time systems, and integration of these ideas into Ada.

  17. Blind channel estimation for MLSE receiver in high speed optical communications: theory and ASIC implementation.

    PubMed

    Gorshtein, Albert; Levy, Omri; Katz, Gilad; Sadot, Dan

    2013-09-23

    Blind channel estimation is critical for digital signal processing (DSP) compensation of optical fiber communications links. The overall channel consists of deterministic distortions such as chromatic dispersion, as well as random and time varying distortions including polarization mode dispersion and timing jitter. It is critical to obtain robust acquisition and tracking methods for estimating these distortions effects, which, in turn, can be compensated by means of DSP such as Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation (MLSE). Here, a novel blind estimation algorithm is developed, accompanied by inclusive mathematical modeling, and followed by extensive set of real time experiments that verify quantitatively its performance and convergence. The developed blind channel estimation is used as the basis of an MLSE receiver. The entire scheme is fully implemented in a 65 nm CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Experimental measurements and results are presented, including Bit Error Rate (BER) measurements, which demonstrate the successful data recovery by the MLSE ASIC under various channel conditions and distances. PMID:24104070

  18. Systemic impediments to the implementation of Project Based Learning in middle and high school settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouilly, Delphine

    This study examines the potential structural impediments to the reform movement of Project Based Learning (PBL) that are presented to teachers by the inherent nature of the school system, as well as the ways in which teachers address these systemic barriers when attempting to implement PBL in their classrooms. Much of the current research that is aimed at investigating the transition from traditional teacher-centered learning to student-centered PBL---whether PBL as problem based or project based learning---has focused on the transition issues at the level of individual teacher/student. Systemic barriers, on the other hand, are those features that are inherent to the structure of the system, and that pose---by their very nature---physical and/or political circumstances that are inconsistent with the student-centered and collaborative goals of PBL. It is not enough for teachers, parents, students, and administrators to be philosophically aligned with PBL, if the encompassing school system is structurally incompatible with the method. This study attempts to make the structural impediments to PBL explicit, to determine whether or not the existing school system is amenable to the successful implementation of PBL. Because the universal features of PBL coupled with the ubiquity of factory-model schools is likely to create recurring themes, it is plausible that this study may in fact be analytically generalizable to situations beyond those described by the populations and contexts in this set of purposive, multiple cases. One of the themes that emerged from this study was the role of rural poverty as an underlying cause of student apathy. More research may be needed to see whether science, as taught through PBL and in collaboration with practical arts courses, might be able to address some of the social, gendered, and educational needs of impoverished rural students and their families.

  19. An adaptive quadrature-free implementation of the high-order spectral volume method on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robert Evan

    2008-10-01

    An efficient implementation of the high-order spectral volume (SV) method is presented for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured grids. In the SV method, each simplex cell is called a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal (2D), or polyhedral (3D) control volumes (CVs) to support high-order data reconstructions. In the traditional implementation, Gauss quadrature formulas are used to approximate the flux integrals on all faces. In the new approach, a nodal set is selected and used to reconstruct a high-order polynomial approximation for the flux vector, and then the flux integrals on the internal faces are computed analytically, without the need for Gauss quadrature formulas. This gives a significant advantage over the traditional SV method in efficiency and ease of implementation. Fundamental properties of the new SV implementation are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for linear and nonlinear advection equations, and the Euler equations. The new quadrature-free approach is then extended to handle local adaptive hp-refinement (grid and order refinement). Efficient edge-based adaptation utilizing a binary tree search algorithm is employed. Several different adaptation criteria which focus computational effort near high gradient regions are presented. Both h- and p-refinements are presented in a general framework where it is possible to perform either or both on any grid cell at any time. Several well-known inviscid flow test cases, subjected to various levels of adaptation, are utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. An analysis of the accuracy and stability properties of the spectral volume (SV) method is then presented. The current work seeks to address the issue of stability, as well as polynomial quality, in the design of SV partitions. A new approach is presented, which efficiently locates stable partitions by means of constrained minimization. Once stable partitions are located, a

  20. Implementing an Affordable High-Performance Computing for Teaching-Oriented Computer Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Goldschmidt, Kathleen; Elleithy, Yasser; Lee, Jeongkyu

    2013-01-01

    With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However,…

  1. Education through Occupations in American High Schools. Volume II. The Challenges of Implementing Curriculum Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the challenges of integrating high school vocational and academic curricula to provide education through occupations: "Components of a Complex Reform" (W. Norton Grubb); "Integrating Vocational and Academic Education: Lessons from Early Innovators" (Kimberly Ramsey et al.); "Improving High Schools…

  2. Alternatives in Scheduling Patterns: Practitioner Implementation of Minicourse Programs in Selected Midwestern High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Patricia; Guenther, John

    The purposes of the document are to report on the status of social studies minicourse programs in selected midwestern high schools and to provide information to schools regarding obstacles to minicourses as alternatives to traditional programs. A 1976-77 survey of 265 midwestern high schools determined that only 60 (23%) of the schools offered…

  3. Effects of Implementing STEM-I Project-Based Learning Activities for Female High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…

  4. Design and Implementation of High School Reform: Perspectives from Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of high school reform models and interventions over the past few decades aimed at improving the nation's high schools, including increasing graduation requirements, introducing technology to classrooms, grouping ninth-grade students into their own "academies," reorienting the curriculum toward particular…

  5. Evaluation of Academic Policy Formulation and Implementation Transmountain Early College High School, El Paso, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidemann, Virginia Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Transmountain Early College High School (TMECHS) opened in August 2008, created by a partnership between the El Paso Community College (EPCC) and the El Paso Independent School District (EPISD), and supported in its conceptualization, start-up, and first few years operation by grant funding and guidance from the Texas High School Project (THSP)…

  6. Use of Formative Research to Develop a Yoga Curriculum for High-Risk Youth: Implementation Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Herman-Stahl, Mindy; Fishbein, Diana; Lavery, Bud; Johnson, Michelle; Markovits, Lara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the use of formative research to adapt, develop, and pretest a mindful yoga curriculum for high-risk youth attending a nontraditional high school. The formative work was conducted in the first year of a larger project to test the efficacy of a mindful yoga program through a randomized controlled trial. The…

  7. Implementation of large-scale landscape evolution modelling to real high-resolution DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, S.; Babeyko, A. Y.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a surface evolution model to be naturally integrated with 3D thermomechanical codes like SLIM-3D to study coupled tectonic-climate interaction. The resolution of the surface evolution model is independent of that of the underlying continuum box. The surface model follows the concept of the cellular automaton implemented on a regular Eulerian mesh. It incorporates an effective filling algorithm that guarantees flow direction in each cell, D8 search for flow directions, computation of discharges and bedrock incision. Additionally, the model implements hillslope erosion in the form of non-linear, slope-dependent diffusion. The model was designed to be employed not only to synthetic topographies but also to real Digital Elevation Models (DEM). In present work we report our experience with model implication to the 30-meter resolution ASTER GDEM of the Pamir orogen, in particular, to the segment of the Panj river. We start with calibration of the model parameters (fluvial incision and hillslope diffusion coefficients) using direct measurements of Panj incision rates and volumes of suspended sediment transport. Since the incision algorithm is independent on hillslope processes, we first adjust the incision parameters. Power-law exponents of the incision equation were evaluated from the profile curvature of the main Pamir rivers. After that, incision coefficient was adjusted to fit the observed incision rate of 5 mm/y. Once the model results are consistent with the measured data, the calibration of hillslope processes follows. For given critical slope, diffusivity could be fitted to match the observed sediment discharge. Applying of surface evolution model to real DEM reveals specific problems which do not appear when working with synthetic landscapes. One of them is the noise of the satellite-measured topography. In particular, due to the non-vertical observation perspective, satellite may not be able to detect the bottom of the river channel, especially

  8. Early Warning System Implementation Guide: For Use with the National High School Center's Early Warning System Tool v2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therriault, Susan Bowles; Heppen, Jessica; O'Cummings, Mindee; Fryer, Lindsay; Johnson, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This Early Warning System (EWS) Implementation Guide is a supporting document for schools and districts that are implementing the National High School Center's Early Warning System (EWS) Tool v2.0. Developed by the National High School Center at the American Institutes for Research (AIR), the guide and tool support the establishment and…

  9. An Analysis of High School Math, Science, Social Studies, English, and Foreign Language Teachers' Implementation of One-to-One Computing and Their Pedagogical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inserra, Albert; Short, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high school Math, Science, Social Studies, English, and Foreign Language teachers' implementation of teaching practices in terms of their pedagogical dimensions in a one-to-one computing environment. A survey was developed to measure high school teachers' implementation of teaching practices associated with…

  10. Model Based Inquiry in the High School Physics Classroom: An Exploratory Study of Implementation and Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Todd; Zhang, Danhui; Neilson, Drew

    2011-06-01

    This study considers whether Model Based Inquiry (MBI) is a suitable mechanism for facilitating science as inquiry to allow students to develop deep understandings of difficult concepts, while also gaining better understandings of science process and the nature of science. This manuscript also considers time devoted to MBI in comparison to more traditional demonstration and lecture (TDL) teaching methods, while also revealing the MBI strategy implemented in the physics classroom. Pre-, post-, and delayed- revised versions of the Physics, Attitudes, Skills, and Knowledge Survey (PASKS) were administered to two groups of students, those taught a unit on buoyancy with a TDL instructional strategy ( n = 26) and those taught the same buoyancy unit, but with the MBI instructional strategy ( n = 28). The PASKS focuses on student achievement in terms of science content, science process/reasoning, nature of science, and student attitude toward science. Through quantitative methods the findings revealed statistical differences when considering the pre-, post-, and delayed- measures with significant differences found overall and on each scale. This indicated improved achievement overall and on each scale with the exception of attitude scale for both groups. Additionally, the findings revealed no statistical differences between groups (i.e., TDL & MBI).

  11. Undergraduate Laboratory Module for Implementing ELISA on the High Performance Microfluidic Platform

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Basant; Peesara, Ravichander R.; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Dutta, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Implementing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in microchannels offers several advantages over its traditional microtiter plate-based format, including a reduced sample volume requirement, shorter incubation period, and greater sensitivity. Moreover, microfluidic ELISA platforms are inexpensive to fabricate and allow integration of analytical procedures, such as sample preconcentration, that further enhance the performance of the immunoassay. In view of the scientific potential of microfluidic ELISAs, inclusion of this technique into an undergraduate curriculum is valuable in preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers. Here, an experimental module is presented for this immunoassay method that can be completed in an undergraduate laboratory setting within two 3-h periods (including all incubation and data analyses procedures) using only a microliter of sample and reagents per assay. In addition to acquainting students with the microfluidic technology, the reported module provides training in quantitating ELISAs using the kinetic format of the assay. Furthermore, it offers a useful educational tool for introducing undergraduates to basic image analysis techniques, as well as signal-to-noise ratio and limit of detection calculations that are valuable in characterizing any analytical method. PMID:26052160

  12. Design and Implementation of High Interaction Client Honeypot for Drive-by-Download Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Mitsuaki; Iwamura, Makoto; Kawakoya, Yuhei; Aoki, Kazufumi; Itoh, Mitsutaka

    Nowadays, the number of web-browser targeted attacks that lead users to adversaries' web sites and exploit web browser vulnerabilities is increasing, and a clarification of their methods and countermeasures is urgently needed. In this paper, we introduce the design and implementation of a new client honeypot for drive-by-download attacks that has the capacity to detect and investigate a variety of malicious web sites. On the basis of the problems of existing client honeypots, we enumerate the requirements of a client honeypot: 1) detection accuracy and variety, 2) collection variety, 3) performance efficiency, and 4) safety and stability. We improve our system with regard to these requirements. The key features of our developed system are stepwise detection focusing on exploit phases, multiple crawler processing, tracking of malware distribution networks, and malware infection prevention. Our evaluation of our developed system in a laboratory experiment and field experiment indicated that its detection variety and crawling performance are higher than those of existing client honeypots. In addition, our system is able to collect information for countermeasures and is secure and stable for continuous operation. We conclude that our system can investigate malicious web sites comprehensively and support countermeasures.

  13. Cheng Cycle reporting high availability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    Operating results from the Cheng Cycle cogeneration plants at San Jose State University and at Sunkist Growers in Ontario, California look very good so far, according to officials of International Power Technology (IPT). Both plants contain IPT's Cheng Cycle Series 7-Cogen system, which produces between 3 and 6 MW of electricity and up to 45,000 pounds of steam per hour. The company is developing the patented technology as an improved combined cycle system which can produce steam and electricity under widely varying load demands.

  14. Pseudo-random single photon counting: a high-speed implementation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Ling; Chen, Nanguang

    2010-01-01

    Pseudo-random single photon counting (PRSPC) is a new time-resolved optical measurement method which combines the spread spectrum time-resolved method with single photon counting. A pseudo-random bit sequence is used to modulate a continuous wave laser diode, while single photon counting is used to build up the optical signal in response to the modulated excitation. Periodic cross-correlation is performed to obtain the temporal profile of the subject of interest. Compared with conventional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), PRSPC enjoys many advantages such as low cost and high count rate without compromising the sensitivity and time-resolution. In this paper, we report a PRSPC system that can be used for high-speed acquisition of the temporal point spread function of diffuse photons. It can reach a photon count rate as high as 3 Mcps (counts per second). Phantom experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the system performance. PMID:21258444

  15. Ultra stable carbon fiber high power CO2 laser with high quality laser beam and AOM implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    High security printing as well as ultra high precision engraving need laser resonators with very stable laser beams (600 - 800W) especially in combination with AOMs. Based upon a unique carbon fiber structure - stable within the sub-micrometer range - a new resonator has been developed, accompanied by most recent thermo-mechanical FEM calculations. The resulting beam is evaluated on an automated optical bench allowing to optimize the complete beam path with collimators and AOM. Synchronous on-line evaluation with PyroCams and thus knowledge about how to minimize distortions within the nonlinear elements is presented in this paper.

  16. A low-power and high-quality implementation of the discrete cosine transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyne, B.; Götze, J.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a computationally efficient and high-quality preserving DCT architecture is presented. It is obtained by optimizing the Loeffler DCT based on the Cordic algorithm. The computational complexity is reduced from 11 multiply and 29 add operations (Loeffler DCT) to 38 add and 16 shift operations (which is similar to the complexity of the binDCT). The experimental results show that the proposed DCT algorithm not only reduces the computational complexity significantly, but also retains the good transformation quality of the Loeffler DCT. Therefore, the proposed Cordic based Loeffler DCT is especially suited for low-power and high-quality CODECs in battery-based systems.

  17. The implementation of a culturally based HIV sexual risk reduction program for Latino youth in a Denver area high school.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Trisha E; Castaneda, Charlene Angel; Sainer, Shannon; Martinez, Donna; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Wilkes, Aisha L; Villarruel, Antonia M

    2009-10-01

    In the United States, Latino youth experience disproportionately higher rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than non-Latino Whites. As a result, organizations serving Latino youth seek culturally appropriate evidence-based prevention programs that promote sexual abstinence and condom use. Cuídate! is an efficacious HIV sexual risk reduction program for Latino youth aged 13-18. The program incorporates cultural beliefs that are common among Latino youth and associated with sexual risk behavior, and uses these beliefs to frame abstinence and condom use as culturally accepted and effective ways to prevent unintended pregnancy and STIs, including HIV/AIDS. Cuídate! has been successfully delivered in community agencies and after-school programs but has not been integrated into an existing school curriculum. This brief case study describes efforts to implement Cuídate! in a predominantly Latino urban high school in Denver. Ninety-three youth participated in the program from October 2007 to May 2008. Cuídate! was adapted to accommodate the typical class period by delivering program content over a larger number of sessions and extending the total amount of time of the program to allow for additional activities. Major challenges of program implementation included student recruitment and the "opt in" policy for participation. Despite these challenges, Cuídate! was implemented with minor adaptations in a school setting. PMID:19824843

  18. PM sources in a highly industrialised area in the process of implementing PM abatement technology. Quantification and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cruz Minguillón, María; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Monfort, Eliseo; Vicente Miró, José

    2007-10-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with a multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) was applied to PM(10) speciation data series (2002-2005) from four sampling sites in a highly industrialised area (ceramic production) in the process of implementing emission abatement technology. Five common factors with similar chemical profiles were identified at all the sites: mineral, regional background (influenced by the industrial estate located on the coast: an oil refinery and a power plant), sea spray, industrial 1 (manufacture and use of glaze components, including frit fusion) and road traffic. The contribution of the regional background differs slightly from site to site. The mineral factor, attributed to the sum of several sources (mainly the ceramic industry, but also with minor contributions from soil resuspension and African dust outbreaks) contributes between 9 and 11 microg m(-3) at all the sites. Source industrial 1 entails an increase in PM(10) levels between 4 and 5 microg m(-3) at the urban sites and 2 microg m(-3) at the suburban background site. However, after 2004, this source contributed less than 2 microg m(-3) at most sites, whereas the remaining sources did not show an upward or downward trend along the study period. This gradual decrease in the contribution of source industrial 1 coincides with the implementation of PM abatement technology in the frit fusion kilns of the area. This relationship enables us to assess the efficiency of the implementation of environmental technologies in terms of their impact on air quality. PMID:17909641

  19. Effects of High Dissolved Inorganic and Organic Carbon Availability on the Physiology of the Hard Coral Acropora millepora from the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Friedrich W; Vogel, Nikolas; Diele, Karen; Kunzmann, Andreas; Uthicke, Sven; Wild, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are facing major global and local threats due to climate change-induced increases in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and because of land-derived increases in organic and inorganic nutrients. Recent research revealed that high availability of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) negatively affects scleractinian corals. Studies on the interplay of these factors, however, are lacking, but urgently needed to understand coral reef functioning under present and near future conditions. This experimental study investigated the individual and combined effects of ambient and high DIC (pCO2 403 μatm/ pHTotal 8.2 and 996 μatm/pHTotal 7.8) and DOC (added as Glucose 0 and 294 μmol L-1, background DOC concentration of 83 μmol L-1) availability on the physiology (net and gross photosynthesis, respiration, dark and light calcification, and growth) of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834) from the Great Barrier Reef over a 16 day interval. High DIC availability did not affect photosynthesis, respiration and light calcification, but significantly reduced dark calcification and growth by 50 and 23%, respectively. High DOC availability reduced net and gross photosynthesis by 51% and 39%, respectively, but did not affect respiration. DOC addition did not influence calcification, but significantly increased growth by 42%. Combination of high DIC and high DOC availability did not affect photosynthesis, light calcification, respiration or growth, but significantly decreased dark calcification when compared to both controls and DIC treatments. On the ecosystem level, high DIC concentrations may lead to reduced accretion and growth of reefs dominated by Acropora that under elevated DOC concentrations will likely exhibit reduced primary production rates, ultimately leading to loss of hard substrate and reef erosion. It is therefore important to consider the potential impacts of elevated DOC and DIC simultaneously to assess real world scenarios, as

  20. Effects of High Dissolved Inorganic and Organic Carbon Availability on the Physiology of the Hard Coral Acropora millepora from the Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Friedrich W.; Vogel, Nikolas; Diele, Karen; Kunzmann, Andreas; Uthicke, Sven; Wild, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are facing major global and local threats due to climate change-induced increases in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and because of land-derived increases in organic and inorganic nutrients. Recent research revealed that high availability of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) negatively affects scleractinian corals. Studies on the interplay of these factors, however, are lacking, but urgently needed to understand coral reef functioning under present and near future conditions. This experimental study investigated the individual and combined effects of ambient and high DIC (pCO2 403 μatm/ pHTotal 8.2 and 996 μatm/pHTotal 7.8) and DOC (added as Glucose 0 and 294 μmol L-1, background DOC concentration of 83 μmol L-1) availability on the physiology (net and gross photosynthesis, respiration, dark and light calcification, and growth) of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834) from the Great Barrier Reef over a 16 day interval. High DIC availability did not affect photosynthesis, respiration and light calcification, but significantly reduced dark calcification and growth by 50 and 23%, respectively. High DOC availability reduced net and gross photosynthesis by 51% and 39%, respectively, but did not affect respiration. DOC addition did not influence calcification, but significantly increased growth by 42%. Combination of high DIC and high DOC availability did not affect photosynthesis, light calcification, respiration or growth, but significantly decreased dark calcification when compared to both controls and DIC treatments. On the ecosystem level, high DIC concentrations may lead to reduced accretion and growth of reefs dominated by Acropora that under elevated DOC concentrations will likely exhibit reduced primary production rates, ultimately leading to loss of hard substrate and reef erosion. It is therefore important to consider the potential impacts of elevated DOC and DIC simultaneously to assess real world scenarios, as

  1. Implementing California's School Funding Formula: Will High-Need Students Benefit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura; Ugo, Iwunze

    2015-01-01

    The Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) reformed California's K-12 school finance system. It replaced a patchwork of formulas and specific (or "categorical") programs with a focus on local control, funding equity, and additional support for the large share of students (63%) who are "high needs"--that is, low-income, English…

  2. Exploring Problem-Based Learning in the Context of High School Science: Design and Implementation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnough, Karen; Cashion, Marie

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the experiences of a small collaborative inquiry group consisting of a high school science teacher, Deidre, and two university researchers, the authors of this paper, as they explored an active, inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning referred to as Problem-Based Learning or PBL (Barrows, 1994; Barrows & Tamblyn,…

  3. Prisoners of Time: Implementing a Block Schedule in the High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistretta, Gerald M.; Polansky, Harvey B.

    1997-01-01

    A committee comprised of six veteran teachers, the principal, and one parent initiated East Lyme (Connecticut) High School's search for a workable school schedule. The alternative-day block schedule featured semester and full-year course formats, 85-minute time blocks, a 45-minute lunch/club/activity period, and a closed campus. A survey found…

  4. Implementation of Web-Based Dynamic Assessment in Facilitating Junior High School Students to Learn Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    This research adopts the Graduated Prompting Assessment Module of the WATA system (GPAM-WATA) and applies it to the remedial teaching of junior high school mathematics. The theoretical basis of the development of GPAM-WATA is the idea of 'graduated prompt approach' proposed by Campione and Brown (1985; 1987, pp. 92-95). In GPAM-WATA, when…

  5. Response-to-Intervention in High-Risk Preschools: Critical Issues for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Carrie R.; Trammell, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the current knowledge of response-to-intervention (RTI) models in preschool settings, with an emphasis on evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of our current research base. Particular attention is given to the unique challenges of high-risk preschool settings. Presently, sufficient empirical support exists to begin…

  6. Development and Implementation of a New Attendance Policy at Napa High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Ronald L.

    The attendance policy outlined in this document succeeded in increasing attendance in Napa High School, California. The program focused on student absences due to truancy, not illness, although many of the illness absences reported were due to other, not-so-legitimate causes. The attendance program utilized a direct relationship between the…

  7. Implementing an Inexpensive and Accurate Introductory Gas Density Activity with High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, W. Patrick; Joseph, Christopher; Morey, Samantha; Santos Romo, Ana; Shope, Cullen; Strang, Jonathan; Yang, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    A simplified activity examined gas density while employing cost-efficient syringes in place of traditional glass bulbs. The exercise measured the density of methane, with very good accuracy and precision, in both first-year high school and AP chemistry settings. The participating students were tasked with finding the density of a gas. The…

  8. Development and Implementation of High School Chemistry Modules Using Touch-Screen Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Maurica S.; Zhao, Jinhui; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Technology was employed to motivate and captivate students while enriching their in-class education. An outreach program is described that involved college mentors introducing touch-screen technology into a high school chemistry classroom. Three modules were developed, with two of them specifically tailored to encourage comprehension of molecular…

  9. Development and Implementation of a Sport Psychology Program in an Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article is based on a dissertation of the author that was centered on the process of developing a sport psychology program at the high school level. The program was developed to address academic, mental, social, and emotional needs of student-athletes and coaches. This sport psychology program, which was developed in the Linden Public School…

  10. 75 FR 75625 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina: Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...-Winston-Salem-High Point; Determination of Attaining Data for the 1997 Fine Particulate Matter Standard..., 2010 (75 FR 56). However, EPA inadvertently cited 40 CFR 52.1004(c) as the section of the Code of... Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this action is not a ``significant regulatory action''...

  11. NCLB Implementation Report: State Approaches for Calculating High School Graduation Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Christopher B.

    This review investigated the state accountability Workbooks provisionally approved and publicly reported by the U.S. Department of Education (DOE) as of June 2003. These documents were obtained from the DOE Web site. This report examines state definitions of high school graduation rates and strategies for constructing graduation rate indicators. A…

  12. A Qualitative Inquiry of Career Exploration in Highly Implemented Career and Technical Education Programs of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipanovic, Natalie; Stringfield, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores career counseling and guidance services as provided to students engaged in career and technical education programs at three sites in the United States. The sites, consisting of high schools and community colleges, were part of the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's 5-year studies of…

  13. Implementation of a High-Performance Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Protocol at a Collegiate Emergency Medical Services Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefos, Kathryn A.; Nable, Jose V.

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a significant public health issue. Although OHCA occurs relatively infrequently in the collegiate environment, educational institutions with on-campus emergency medical services (EMS) agencies are uniquely positioned to provide high-quality resuscitation care in an expedient fashion. Georgetown University's…

  14. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  15. Using magnetic coupling to implement 1H, 19F, 13C experiments in routine high resolution NMR probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, Paul; Finnigan, Jim; Marsden, Brian; Taber, Bob; Zens, Albert

    2015-12-01

    We report in this paper the design of 1H, 19F, 13C circuitry using magnetic coupling which can do on demand experiments where one of the three nuclei is observed and the other two are decoupled. The implementation of this circuitry in routine NMR probes is compared with capacitive coupling methods where it was found that by using magnetic coupling the performance of the routine NMR probe was not impacted by the addition of this circuitry. It is surmised that using this type of circuitry would be highly desirable for those chemists doing routine 19F NMR.

  16. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  17. Delivering High-Quality Family Planning Services in Crisis-Affected Settings I: Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a “pull” system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with

  18. Implementing effective hypertensive management--review of the 2014 high blood pressure management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenjing; Kelly, Shawn C; Petrasko, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The Joint National Committee (JNC 8) hypertension guidelines have modified the blood pressure goals across the spectrum of disease processes and patient characteristics. This article will elucidate these changes and help clinicians improve the clinical care of patients with hypertension. Patients are now conceptually categorized into two different patient populations: those who are at a low- or high-risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or chronic kidney disease (CKD). A low-risk population comprises patients aged 60 or older who do not have disease processes that enhance ASCVD or CKD disease development. High-risk patients are those with CKD and/or diabetes, and patients less than 60 years of age who remain at risk of future development. The current recommendation for blood-pressure goals in the low- and high-risk population is 150/90 mmHg and 140/90 mmHg, respectively. In all patients considered for antihypertensive therapy, the first line antihypertensive pharmacotherapy should include either a thiazide-type diuretic, calcium channel blocker (CCB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Beta blockers no longer have a role as standalone therapy. Thiazide- type diuretics and CCB continue to demonstrate benefit in the African American population and should continue to be considered as first line agents. CKD patients with concomitant hypertension should be treated with an ACE inhibitor or ARB. PMID:25985606

  19. Multimodal behavior program for ADHD incorporating yoga and implemented by high school volunteers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjiv; Mehta, Vijay; Mehta, Sagar; Shah, Devesh; Motiwala, Ashok; Vardhan, Jay; Mehta, Naina; Mehta, Devendra

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost resource approach to ADHD therapy would be a practical approach to treating children in developing countries. Research has shown that ADHD is prevalent in all areas of the world, and yet treatment for children in more impoverished countries is still lacking. The approach taken was to combine yoga and meditation combined with multimodal behavioral therapy program for children ageing 6 to 11. The program was kept low cost by using trained high school volunteers and integrating the program within the public school. After 6 weeks of the program, 90.5% of children showed improvement as measured by their performance impairment score, a measurement of academic performance. Parent and Teacher evaluations of behavior also found improvement as 25 of the 64 children (39.1%) improved into the normal range as measured by the Vanderbilt questionnaire. Moreover, children could successfully learn both yoga and meditation from high school students irrespective of their age, ADHD type, or initial performance impairment. The results demonstrate efficacy of a multimodal behavioral program incorporating yoga and meditation. The use of high school volunteers from schools in the area demonstrates an effective low-cost and universally applicable approach. PMID:22389788

  20. Fertility of a high-altitude sheep model is compromised by deficiencies in both preovulatory follicle development and plasma LH availability.

    PubMed

    Parraguez, V H; Diaz, F; Cofré, E; Urquieta, B; De Los Reyes, M; Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2014-12-01

    At high altitude, hypoxia and/or oxidative stress may compromise fertility. This study tested the relative effect of short- or long-term exposure to high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia and oxidative stress in sheep on preovulatory follicle dynamics and gonadotrophin secretion. Thus, growth dynamics, stereidogenic function and competence to ovulate of preovulatory follicles, as well as FSH and LH availability throughout the entire oestrous cycle, were compared among sheep native from low and high altitude, and sheep newcomers to high altitude. The results indicates that short-term exposure in sheep newcomers to high altitude has a deleterious effect on both the ovarian function (affecting preovulatory follicular development) and the pituitary function (diminishing plasma LH availability). On the other hand, there were no detected differences in the preovulatory follicular development in sheep adapted to high altitude for generations and, conversely, LH secretion was increased, which suggests an adaptive mechanism. The treatment with antioxidant agents during a relative short period for the time of folliculogenesis (approximately 1 month and a half) changed substantially the development of preovulatory follicles in short-term exposed sheep to similar patterns than in sheep native and living to both high and low altitude. These results highlight the role of oxidative stress in the detriment of the reproductive function in individuals recently exposed to high-altitude hypoxic environment. PMID:25251782

  1. Implementing molecular dynamics on hybrid high performance computers—Three-body potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. Michael; Yamada, Masako

    2013-12-01

    The use of coprocessors or accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high-performance computers, defined as machines with nodes containing more than one type of floating-point processor (e.g. CPU and GPU), are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. Although there has been extensive research into methods to use accelerators efficiently to improve the performance of molecular dynamics (MD) codes employing pairwise potential energy models, little is reported in the literature for models that include many-body effects. 3-body terms are required for many popular potentials such as MEAM, Tersoff, REBO, AIREBO, Stillinger-Weber, Bond-Order Potentials, and others. Because the per-atom simulation times are much higher for models incorporating 3-body terms, there is a clear need for efficient algorithms usable on hybrid high performance computers. Here, we report a shared-memory force-decomposition for 3-body potentials that avoids memory conflicts to allow for a deterministic code with substantial performance improvements on hybrid machines. We describe modifications necessary for use in distributed memory MD codes and show results for the simulation of water with Stillinger-Weber on the hybrid Titan supercomputer. We compare performance of the 3-body model to the SPC/E water model when using accelerators. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach can attain a speedup of 5.1 with acceleration on Titan for production simulations to study water droplet freezing on a surface.

  2. Implementing Molecular Dynamics on Hybrid High Performance Computers - Three-Body Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W Michael; Yamada, Masako

    2013-01-01

    The use of coprocessors or accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power re- quirements. Hybrid high-performance computers, defined as machines with nodes containing more than one type of floating-point processor (e.g. CPU and GPU), are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. Although there has been extensive research into methods to efficiently use accelerators to improve the performance of molecular dynamics (MD) employing pairwise potential energy models, little is reported in the literature for models that include many-body effects. 3-body terms are required for many popular potentials such as MEAM, Tersoff, REBO, AIREBO, Stillinger-Weber, Bond-Order Potentials, and others. Because the per-atom simulation times are much higher for models incorporating 3-body terms, there is a clear need for efficient algo- rithms usable on hybrid high performance computers. Here, we report a shared-memory force-decomposition for 3-body potentials that avoids memory conflicts to allow for a deterministic code with substantial performance improvements on hybrid machines. We describe modifications necessary for use in distributed memory MD codes and show results for the simulation of water with Stillinger-Weber on the hybrid Titan supercomputer. We compare performance of the 3-body model to the SPC/E water model when using accelerators. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach can attain a speedup of 5.1 with acceleration on Titan for production simulations to study water droplet freezing on a surface.

  3. Implementation of Both High-Speed Transmission and Quality of System for Internet Protocol Multicasting Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Byounghee; Park, Youngchoong; Nahm, Euiseok

    The paper introduces both high-speed transmission and quality of system to offer the Internet services on a HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coaxial) network. This utilizes modulating the phase and the amplitude to the signal of the IPMS (Internet Protocol Multicasting Service). An IP-cable transmitter, IP-cable modem, and IP-cable management servers that support 30-Mbps IPMS on the HFC were developed. The system provides a 21Mbps HDTV transporting stream on a cable TV network. It can sustain a clear screen for a long time.

  4. A Comparative Study of Heavy Ion and Proton Induced Bit Error Sensitivity and Complex Burst Error Modes in Commercially Available High Speed SiGe BiCMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Paul; Carts, Marty; Campbell, Art; Reed, Robert; Ladbury, Ray; Seidleck, Christina; Currie, Steve; Riggs, Pam; Fritz, Karl; Randall, Barb

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation that reviews recent SiGe bit error test data for different commercially available high speed SiGe BiCMOS chips that were subjected to various levels of heavy ion and proton radiation. Results for the tested chips at different operating speeds are displayed in line graphs.

  5. Comparing the Effects of Commercially Available and Custom-Made Video Prompting for Teaching Cooking Skills to High School Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Foster, Ashley L.; Bryant, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    The study compared the effects of using commercially available and custom-made video prompts on the completion of cooking recipes by four high school age males with a diagnosis of autism. An adapted alternating treatments design with continuous baseline, comparison, final treatment, and best treatment condition was used to compare the two…

  6. Concept and experimental implementation of a scalable high power and highly homogeneous laser line generator for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodner, M.; Bayer, A.; Meinschien, J.

    2011-03-01

    High power diode laser line generators are nowadays industrial standard for applications like plastic processing, vision inspection and drying. With increased beam quality, especially peak intensity and homogeneity, they also enable new applications like hardening, annealing or cutting of various materials. All of these applications have in common that simultaneous processing is limited by the scalability of the generated line length without changing process relevant parameters of the line like working distance, peak intensity, homogeneity and depth of focus. Therefore, a patent pending beam shaping concept is presented that enables the interconnection of an arbitrary number of nearly free selectable laser sources to generate scalable laser lines with outstanding beam parameters. System design, experimental setup and results of a laser line generator are shown. It is based on a stitching concept consisting of ten fibre coupled high power diode lasers, which generates a 200mm long and 2mm wide laser line with a homogeneity level of 97% p-v over a depth of focus of +/- 5 mm with an overall output power of up to 4.2 kW. The concept is discussed regarding industrial applications and the options for even higher beam quality, especially the capability of generating lines with increased power densities up to several kW/cm² and a line length of several meters.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Characterization Test Rig for Evaluating High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Flow Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; DeLaat, John C.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    A test rig was designed and developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the purpose of characterizing high bandwidth liquid fuel flow modulator candidates to determine their suitability for combustion instability control research. The test rig is capable of testing flow modulators at up to 600 psia supply pressure and flows of up to 2 gpm. The rig is designed to provide a quiescent flow into the test section in order to isolate the dynamic flow modulations produced by the test article. Both the fuel injector orifice downstream of the test article and the combustor are emulated. The effect of fuel delivery line lengths on modulator dynamic performance can be observed and modified to replicate actual fuel delivery systems. For simplicity, water is currently used as the working fluid, although future plans are to use jet fuel. The rig is instrumented for dynamic pressures and flows and a high-speed data system is used for dynamic data acquisition. Preliminary results have been obtained for one candidate flow modulator.

  8. Spatially-discretized high-temperature approximations and theirO(N) implementation on a grid

    SciTech Connect

    Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-01

    We consider the problem of performing imaginary-time propagation of wavefunctions on a grid. We demonstrate that spatially-continuous high-temperature approximations can be discretized in such a way that their convergence order is preserved. Requirements of minimal computational work and reutilization of data then uniquely determine the optimal grid, quadrature technique, and propagation method. It is shown that the optimal propagation technique is O(N) with respect to the grid size. The grid technique is utilized to compare the Monte Carlo efficiency of the Trotter-Suzuki approximation against a recently introduced fourth-order high-temperature approximation, while circumventing the issue of statistical noise, which usually prevents such comparisons from being carried out. We document the appearance of a systematic bias in the Monte Carlo estimators that involve temperature differentiation of the density matrix, bias that is due to the dependence of the eigenvalues on the inverse temperature. This bias is negotiated more successfully by the short-time approximations having higher convergence order, leading to non-trivial computational savings.

  9. Blue-coloured highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells by implementing the diketopyrrolopyrrole chromophore.

    PubMed

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Holcombe, Thomas W; Kim, Yongjoo; Rakstys, Kasparas; Moehl, Thomas; Teuscher, Joel; Delcamp, Jared H; Nazeeruddin, Mohammed K; Grätzel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) - towards donor- π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) dyes - increases the performances of DSCs and challenges established design principles. Framed by this shifting landscape, a series of four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based sensitizers utilizing the donor-chromophore-anchor (D-C-A) motif were investigated computationally, spectroscopically, and fabricated by systematic evaluation of finished photovoltaic cells. In all cases, the [Co(bpy)3](3+/2+) redox-shuttle afforded superior performance compared to I3(-)/I(-). Aesthetically, careful molecular engineering of the DPP chromophore yielded the first example of a high-performance blue DSC - a challenge unmet since the inception of this photovoltaic technology: DPP17 yields over 10% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the [Co(bpy)3](3+/2+) electrolyte at full AM 1.5 G simulated sun light. PMID:23945746

  10. Implementation of High-resolution Manometry in the Clinical Practice of Speech Language Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Thibeault, Susan; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Visual imaging modalities, videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallow, for assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia have been part of the speech language pathologist’s (SLPs) armamentarium for the diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia for decades. Recently, the addition of high-resolution manometry (HRM) has enabled the SLP to evaluate pharyngeal pressures and upper esophageal sphincter relaxation. Taken together, the use of visual imaging modalities with HRM can improve interpretation of swallowing physiology and facilitate more effective treatment planning. The goal of this article is to describe a clinical paradigm using HRM as an adjunct to VFSS, by the SLP, in the assessment of complex dysphagia. Moreover, in three cases described, the value of manometric measurements in elucidating swallowing imaging studies and documenting physiologic change in response to treatment is highlighted. As technology in this area is evolving, so will the clinical use of HRM by the SLP. Limitations of current HRM systems and applications are discussed. PMID:24233810

  11. The BaBar LST Detector High Voltage System: Design And Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Benelli, G.; Honscheid, K.; Lewis, E.A.; Regensburger, J.J.; Smith, D.S.; /Ohio State U.

    2006-08-18

    In 2004, the first two sextants of the new Limited Streamer Tube (LST) detector were installed in the BABAR experiment to replace the ageing Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active detectors for the BABAR Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) muon system. Each streamer tube of the new detector consists of 8 cells. The cell walls are coated with graphite paint and a 100 {micro}m wire forms the anode. These wires are coupled in pairs inside the tubes resulting in 4 independent two-cell segments per LST. High voltage (HV) is applied to the 4 segments through a custom connector that also provides the decoupling capacitor to pick up the detector signals from the anode wires. The BABAR LST detector is operated at 5.5 kV. The high voltage system for the LST detector was designed and built at The Ohio State University (OSU HVPS). Each of the 25 supplies built for BaBar provides 80 output channels with individual current monitoring and overcurrent protection. For each group of 20 channels the HV can be adjusted between 0 and 6 kV. A 4-fold fan-out is integrated in the power supplies to provide a total of 320 outputs. The power supplies are controlled through built-in CANbus and Ethernet (TCP/IP) interfaces. In this presentation we will discuss the design and novel features of the OSU HVPS system and its integration into the BABAR EPICS detector control framework. Experience with the supplies operation during the LST extensive quality control program and their performance during the initial data taking period will be discussed.

  12. Architecture and implementation considerations of a high-speed Viterbi decoder for a Reed-Muller subcode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu (Principal Investigator); Uehara, Gregory T.; Nakamura, Eric; Chu, Cecilia W. P.

    1996-01-01

    The (64, 40, 8) subcode of the third-order Reed-Muller (RM) code for high-speed satellite communications is proposed. The RM subcode can be used either alone or as an inner code of a concatenated coding system with the NASA standard (255, 233, 33) Reed-Solomon (RS) code as the outer code to achieve high performance (or low bit-error rate) with reduced decoding complexity. It can also be used as a component code in a multilevel bandwidth efficient coded modulation system to achieve reliable bandwidth efficient data transmission. The progress made toward achieving the goal of implementing a decoder system based upon this code is summarized. The development of the integrated circuit prototype sub-trellis IC, particularly focusing on the design methodology, is addressed.

  13. The design and implementation of a high-fidelity Raman imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Kidder, L H; Herne, T M; Levin, I W; Lewis, E N

    1996-10-01

    We describe a Raman imaging microscope that produces high-fidelity, large format Raman images and Raman spectra from samples as small as 1 micron in size. Laser illumination is delivered to the object by means of an infinity corrected microscope objective, either by a galvanometer scanning system or a widefield fibre optic. Wavelength selection of Raman scattered emission is achieved by an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), which maintains image fidelity and provides either continuous or random wavelength selection. The collimated AOTF output is imaged first by a tube lens and then by a projection lens onto a cooled silicon CCD array. Instrument features, including factors that determine the system's spatial and spectral resolution, and design considerations are discussed in detail. Images and spectra of test objects and samples that demonstrate the capability of this imaging spectrometer are presented. The potential of intrinsic chemical imaging is discussed in terms of its use in the analyses of a variety of chemical and biological samples. PMID:8923757

  14. The implementation of equitable teaching strategies by high school biology student teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scantlebury, Kate; Butler Kahle, Jane

    Teachers can perpetuate stereotypic cultural beliefs regarding girls' ability in, aptitude for, and suitability for science by their teaching practices and behaviors. As teachers have a major influence on girls' career choices their equitable teaching practices in the classroom are important to encourage all students, but especially girls, to continue with science. Researchers have studied science classrooms and have defined common strategies and practices that can help create an equitable classroom environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school biology student teachers could transfer learned equitable teaching strategies to actual teaching and the support conditions necessary for that transfer. Two support conditions were assessed: cooperating teacher and peer group support. Seven preservice teachers were placed into three groups. One group had both support conditions, the second group had only one condition (peer support), and the third group did not have either support condition. Both qualitative and quantitative data sources were collected. Results showed that preservice teachers could transfer learned equitable teaching into actual teaching practice. However, they were more successful in achieving the transfer if they were supervised by cooperating teachers who are sensitized to the issue of gender equity in education. Being involved in a peer support group was not as crucial to using the strategies as having a supportive cooperative teacher.

  15. Breaking the bottleneck: high-speed medical image transmission through ATM network--implementation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hailei L.; Meissner, Marion C.; Cleary, Kevin R.; Rodgers, James E.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, Georgetown University Medical Center's (GUMC) experience with utilizing ATM technology in a telemedicine application will be presented. This application involves 3D radiation treatment planning where radiological imaging, calculation of the treatment plan, and 3D display all take place at different sites. To do this, GUMC must exchange large amounts of radiology images and data with other institutions in real time. A high speed network consisting of an ATM infrastructure and satellite links was created to connect seamlessly the three sites, GUMC, University of Hawaii, and Ohio Supercomputing Center, which are thousands of miles apart. This paper studies the performance of the ATM network between GUMC and Goddard Space Flight Center, which provides satellite service to link partners in this project. The steps required to test and evaluate the ATM system will be presented. A performance comparison between ATM and Internet-LAN connections will be featured in the presentation. In particular, the theoretical speed of 155 Mbps is hard to reach due to the lack of ATM-native protocols in the transport level of the communication structure.

  16. Feasibility and cost analysis of implementing high intensity aphasia clinics within a sub-acute setting.

    PubMed

    Wenke, Rachel; Lawrie, Melissa; Hobson, Tania; Comben, Wendy; Romano, Michelle; Ward, Elizabeth; Cardell, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    The current study explored the clinical feasibility and costs of embedding three different intensive service delivery models for aphasia treatment (computer, group therapy, and therapy with a speech pathology therapy assistant) within three sub-acute facilities. The study employed a two cohort comparison design, with the first cohort (n = 22) receiving the standard service of treatment currently offered. This treatment was delivered by a speech-language pathologist and involved on average 3 hours of treatment/week over 8 weeks. Participants in the second cohort (n = 31) received one of the three intensive treatment models providing up to 9 hours of therapy/week for 11 weeks. Organizational data was collected throughout treatment, with participant, caregiver, and clinician satisfaction with the intensive models also being measured. Participants completed the spoken language production sub-tests and the Disability Questionnaire of the Comprehensive Aphasia Test (CAT) pre- and post-treatment. All intensive models yielded high participant attendance, satisfaction, and significant improvements to the CAT sub-tests. The pro-rata cost of providing treatment per hour per client for the computer and group therapy models was found to be ˜ 30% cheaper compared to the standard service. The outcomes support the potential feasibility of embedding the different models into sub-acute facilities to enhance client access to intensive treatment for aphasia. PMID:24597463

  17. High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft Simulation: Reference-H Cycle 1, MATLAB Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sotack, Robert A.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Buttrill, Carey S.

    1999-01-01

    The mathematical model and associated code to simulate a high speed civil transport aircraft - the Boeing Reference H configuration - are described. The simulation was constructed in support of advanced control law research. In addition to providing time histories of the dynamic response, the code includes the capabilities for calculating trim solutions and for generating linear models. The simulation relies on the nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom equations which govern the motion of a rigid aircraft in atmospheric flight. The 1962 Standard Atmosphere Tables are used along with a turbulence model to simulate the Earth atmosphere. The aircraft model has three parts - an aerodynamic model, an engine model, and a mass model. These models use the data from the Boeing Reference H cycle 1 simulation data base. Models for the actuator dynamics, landing gear, and flight control system are not included in this aircraft model. Dynamic responses generated by the nonlinear simulation are presented and compared with results generated from alternate simulations at Boeing Commercial Aircraft Company and NASA Langley Research Center. Also, dynamic responses generated using linear models are presented and compared with dynamic responses generated using the nonlinear simulation.

  18. Development and the Implementation of High-Temperature Reliable Heaters in Plasma Spray Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudenziati, Maria

    2008-06-01

    Many problems have been encountered during development of reliable high-temperature heaters by means of atmospheric plasma spray and procedures commonly adopted in thermal spray technology, especially due to poor steel substrate corrosion resistance, notably affected by grit-blasting operations, but also deriving from contamination of insulating layers, dielectric arcs, and failures due to hot spots in the heating elements. While seeking the origin of these problems, a close scrutiny of every single step of the preparation process and analyses of the coatings were carried out using laser confocal scanning microscopy, optical and electronic microscopy, fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction, and ancillary techniques. The electrical properties of both alumina layers and metal strips prepared with Ni, NiCr, NiAl commercial powders for the heating elements were studied and cross-related to the failures in the heaters. The article reports the main results of these investigations, delineates the innovations introduced to overcome or circumvent the problems, and underlines the distinct characteristics of new heaters, whose reliability has been proven up to now with temperatures of up to 600 °C in air.

  19. The Value of High Resolution Forest Canopy Maps for Implementing Carbon Sequestration Programs in Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Abbott, P. C.; Hittich, R.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Program, the University of Maryland has produced 1m resolution forest canopy cover and height maps that have been provided to the State of Maryland. The project used existing, wall-to-wall airborne lidar coverage combined with other remote sensing and field datasets to produce countywide maps of carbon stocks and their uncertainties at 30 m resolution as well as the 1m canopy maps. In this paper, we examine what purposes we identified for the data for decision making in climate mitigation, what use it has already seen, and what potential there is in the future for using the data. The State of Maryland has three programs focused on maintaining or increasing forest cover as part of its Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Program (GHGRP) program enacted in 2012, including Woodland Incentive Program (WIP), the Lawn to Woodland Initiative (L2W), and the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Forest canopy data from CMS were examined the prospects for both adoption and carbon sequestration of these three initiatives, and their effects on the overall success of the GHGRP. We found that it was difficult it is to pin down "value" that is directly attributable to the data, although we found the data to be important in recognizing the nature and extent of the carbon problem, and in identifying potential solutions to addressing the problem. As in many decision-making contexts, having high quality, accurate data on forest cover is necessary but not sufficient for effective, affordable programs that lead to carbon sequestration in the state.

  20. Design and implementation of a high-performance readout circuit for uncooled infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Honghui; Chen, Shijun; Zhai, Houming; Chen, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    At present, most uncooled infrared detectors circuits consist of the corresponding blind pixel detector, which increases the complexity of uncooled infrared detector, and the performance of the readout circuits is not ideal in practical applications. In order to achieve high performance of the readout circuit for uncooled infrared detectors, a kind of readout circuit based on current mirror has been designed in this paper. The readout circuit is composed of current mirror input part, capacitor feedback transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) and correlated double sampling (CDS) output circuit. Transconductance amplifier CTIA with capacitance negative feedback is used in the circuit and it consists of three integral capacitors, thus the circuit can realize different magnifications. The CDS N SF (source follow) and P SF are adopted as the circuit's output, the output swing can easily be greater than 2V. In average, the CDS N SF and P SF's power consumption is very low. So the total power consumption of 160 line circuit is about 100 mW. The non-uniformity of circuit has been obviously improved by reasonable parameter settings. In the test, the non-uniformity of the readout circuit has reached 1%. The other test results of total power consumption and the output amplitude also agree with simulation results. When the readout circuit and uncooled infrared detector are connected, the infrared signal can be well read out. the device has good noise characteristics and the NETD(noise equivalent temperature difference) is near 80mK. When the integration time is 20μs, the whole device's response is about 15mV/K.

  1. First Year K-12 Teachers as High Leverage Point to Implement GEMS Space Science Curriculum Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Mendez, B. J.; Schultz, G.; Wierman, T.

    2013-01-01

    The recurring challenge for curriculum developers is how to efficiently prepare K-12 classroom teachers to use new curricula. First-year teachers, numbering nearly 250,000 in the US each year, have the greatest potential to impact the largest number of students because they have potential to be in the classroom for thirty years. At the same time, these novice teachers are often the most open minded about adopting curricular innovation because they are not yet deeply entrenched in existing practices. To take advantage of this high leverage point, a collaborative of space scientists and science educators at the University of California, Berkeley’s Lawrence Hall of Science and Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory with experts from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the University of Wyoming, and the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education experimented with a unique professional development model focused on helping master teachers work closely with pre-service teachers during their student teaching internship field experience. The Advancing Mentor and Novice Teachers in Space Science (AMANTISS) team first identified master teachers who supervise novice, student teachers and trained these master teachers to use the GEMS Space Science Curriculum Sequence. Then, these master teachers were mentored in coaching interning student teachers assigned to them in using GEMS materials. Evaluation showed that novice teachers mentored by the master teachers felt knowledgeable after teaching the GEMS units. However, they seemed relatively less confident about the solar system and objects beyond the solar system. Overall, mentees felt strongly at the end of the year that they have acquired good strategies for teaching the various topics, suggesting that the support they received while teaching and working with a mentor was of real benefit to them. Funding provided in part by NASA ROSES AMANTISS NNX09AD51G

  2. Review of policy and status of implementation of collaborative HIV-TB activities in 23 high-burden countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Granich, R; Date, A; Lepere, P; Hersh, B; Gouws, E; Samb, B

    2014-10-01

    Issuance of national policy guidance is a critical step to ensure quality HIV-TB (human immunodeficiency virus-tuberculosis) coordination and programme implementation. From the database of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), we reviewed 62 national HIV and TB guidelines from 23 high-burden countries for recommendations on HIV testing for TB patients, criteria for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the Three I's for HIV/TB (isoniazid preventive treatment [IPT], intensified TB case finding and TB infection control). We used UNAIDS country-level programme data to determine the status of implementation of existing guidance. Of the 23 countries representing 89% of the global HIV-TB burden, Brazil recommends ART irrespective of CD4 count for all people living with HIV, and four (17%) countries recommend ART at the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 guidelines level of CD4 count ⩿500 cells/mm(3) for asymptomatic persons. Nineteen (83%) countries are consistent with WHO 2013 guidelines and recommend ART for HIV-positive TB patients irrespective of CD4 count. IPT is recommended by 16 (70%) countries, representing 67% of the HIV-TB burden; 12 recommend symptom-based screening alone for IPT initiation. Guidelines from 15 (65%) countries with 79% of the world's HIV-TB burden include recommendations on HIV testing and counselling for TB patients. Although uptake of ART, HIV testing for TB patients, TB screening for people living with HIV and IPT have increased significantly, progress is still limited in many countries. There is considerable variance in the timing and content of national policies compared with WHO guidelines. Missed opportunities to implement new scientific evidence and delayed adaptation of existing WHO guidance remains a key challenge for many countries. PMID:25216827

  3. Design, implementation, and applications of devices for generation of ultra high frequency miniature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghioskoui, Mazdak

    The main objectives of this research are: (1) to develop novel and application-specific sources for generation of ultra-high frequency miniature plasmas that operate in a wide pressure range (˜1 to 760 Torr) with power requirement of less than 10 W, (2) to investigate the active species of such miniature plasma sources using mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy, and (3) to explore novel applications of such miniature plasma sources with an emphasis on their application in chemical analysis for identification of gaseous species and volatile organic compounds. First, a miniature inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources was developed, operating at a pressure of 1 to 10 Torr and a power requirement of 2--8 W with carbon dioxide, helium and argon as the plasma gas. The plasma impedance was measured using Smith chart. Furthermore, the background emission of the miniature ICP sources was monitored to investigate the species in the carbon dioxide, argon, and helium miniature ICPs. Ethylene, neon, and hydrogen were introduced separately into the miniature carbon dioxide ICP for qualitative identification. Distinguishable peaks were observed at approximately 431, 585, and 656 nm for ethylene, neon, and hydrogen, respectively. Second, a miniature ICP operating under conditions mimicking the Martian atmosphere was investigated. The miniature ICP source was able to generate a stable plasma, operating at a pressure range of 4 to 16 Torr and a power requirement of less than 3.5 W. The quantitative analysis of trace amounts of methane sample was performed by interfacing the miniature ICP with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The effects of pressure, plasma power, and skimmer voltage were investigated and optimized for obtaining analytical results. Excellent calibration curves were obtained for CH3+ at m/z of 15. A detection limit of 0.15 ppm for CH3 + at 16 Torr was achieved using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In addition, a magnetic loop antenna was used to

  4. Design and implementation of ultra-high resolution, large bandwidth, and compact diffuse light spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badieirostami, Majid

    To realize spectrometers with state-of-the-art performance measures, we need to combine novel synthetic material properties and new device concepts using efficient design and optimization tools. Considering the material engineering, device innovation, and modeling and simulation tool development as the three primary areas of research in the invention of modern spectrometers, I put myself at the intersection of these three areas. My Ph.D. research has been focused on the development of such infrastructures for next generation spectrometers. My research on the new concepts for spectrometer has been focused on the development of true multi-dimensional spectrometers, which use a multi-dimensional [two-dimensional (2D) or 3D] mapping of the spectral information into space. While the conventional spectrometers use a grating to form a one-dimensional (1D) spatial-spectral mapping, I showed that by combining a simple dispersive element (a volume hologram) formed in very inexpensive polymers with a basic Fabry-Perot interferometer, we can form a spectrometer with ultra-high resolution over a large spectral bandwidth, which surpasses all conventional spectrometers. This unique performance is obtained by the 2D spatial-spectral mapping enabled by combining two simple optical functionalities. I strongly believe that the extension of this mapping into three dimensions by using synthetic nanophotonic structures with engineered dispersion (optimized using the recently demonstrated modeling tool) can further improve the performance and reduce the overall spectrometer size into the micron regime. The need for efficient modeling and simulation tools comes from the sophisticated nature of the new 3D nanophotonic structures, which makes their simple analysis using well-known simple formulas for the propagation of the electromagnetic fields in bulk materials impossible. On the other hand, direct numerical simulation of these structures using the well-known numerical simulation tools

  5. Peripheral dose measurement in high-energy photon radiotherapy with the implementation of MOSFET

    PubMed Central

    Vlachopoulou, Vassiliki; Malatara, Georgia; Delis, Harry; Theodorou, Kiki; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Panayiotakis, George

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the peripheral dose (PD) from high-energy photon beams in radiotherapy using the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dose verification system. METHODS: The radiation dose absorbed by the MOSFET detector was calculated taking into account the manufacturer’s Correction Factor, the Calibration Factor and the threshold voltage shift. PD measurements were carried out for three different field sizes (5 cm × 5 cm, 10 cm × 10 cm and 15 cm × 15 cm) and for various depths with the source to surface distance set at 100 cm. Dose measurements were realized on the central axis and then at distances (1 to 18 cm) parallel to the edge of the field, and were expressed as the percentage PD (% PD) with respect to the maximum dose (dmax). The accuracy of the results was evaluated with respect to a calibrated 0.3 cm3 ionization chamber. The reproducibility was expressed in terms of standard deviation (s) and coefficient of variation. RESULTS: % PD is higher near the phantom surface and drops to a minimum at the depth of dmax, and then tends to become constant with depth. Internal scatter radiation is the predominant source of PD and the depth dependence is determined by the attenuation of the primary photons. Closer to the field edge, where internal scatter from the phantom dominates, the % PD increases with depth because the ratio of the scatter to primary increases with depth. A few centimeters away from the field, where collimator scatter and leakage dominate, the % PD decreases with depth, due to attenuation by the water. The % PD decreases almost exponentially with the increase of distance from the field edge. The decrease of the % PD is more than 60% and can reach up to 90% as the measurement point departs from the edge of the field. For a given distance, the % PD is significantly higher for larger field sizes, due to the increase of the scattering volume. Finally, the measured PD obtained with MOSFET is higher than that obtained with an

  6. Preventing Perinatal Depression in High Risk Women: Moving the Mothers and Babies Course from Clinical Trials to Community Implementation.

    PubMed

    Le, Huynh-Nhu; Perry, Deborah F; Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2015-10-01

    A growing research literature highlights the public health need for preventive interventions to reduce symptoms and incidence of perinatal depression among vulnerable populations. The Mothers and Babies (MB) course is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to teach mood regulation skills to English- and Spanish-speaking low-income women at high risk for perinatal depression. We describe the development of the MB course and evaluate the extent to which research findings support efficacy, effectiveness, and dissemination based on the Society for Prevention Research Standards Committee's standards of evidence. Our review of research and implementation activities suggests that the MB intervention demonstrates promising evidence for efficacy in reducing depressive symptoms; empirical support for prevention of major depressive episodes is still preliminary. Work is in progress to evaluate program effectiveness and prepare for broad dissemination and implementation. The MB course shows promise as an intervention for low-income women at risk for perinatal mood issues. Spanish and English intervention materials have been developed that can be delivered in different settings (hospitals, home visiting), in different dosages (6, 8, or 12 sessions), and via different modalities (group, individual). Evaluating the MB course against current standards is intended to inform other prevention intervention development research. PMID:25673369

  7. Design Implementation and Testing of a VLSI High Performance ASIC for Extracting the Phase of a Complex Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Ronald C.

    2002-09-01

    This thesis documents the research, circuit design, and simulation testing of a VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) ASIC which extracts phase angle information from a complex sampled signal using the arctangent relationship: (phi=tan/-1 (Q/1). Specifically, the circuit will convert the In-Phase and Quadrature terms into their corresponding phase angle. The design specifications were to implement the design in CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors) technology with a minimum transistor count and ability to operate at a clock frequency of 700 MHz. Research on the arctangent function was performed to determine mathematical calculation methods and the CORDIC method was chosen to achieve the stated design specifications. MATLAB simulations were used to calculate and verify accuracy and to implement Quine-McClusky logic minimization. T-SPICE netlists were generated and simulations were run to determine transistor and circuit electrical operation and timing. Finally, overall circuit logic functionality of all possible input combinations was completed using a VHDL (VHSIC(Very High Speed Integrated Circuit) Hardware Description Language) simulation program.

  8. Attitudes about AIDS education and condom availability among parents of high school students in New York City: a focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Y; Radosh, A

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes parents' views of the New York City Public High School's AIDS Education and Condom Availability Program. It presents findings from 12 focus groups with 81 parents of students at six representative high schools. Focus groups were conducted as part of an independent, comprehensive 3-year evaluation of the program, consisting of both qualitative and quantitative components. Participants were mostly supportive of the program, citing intense concern about AIDS among adolescents, fear that teenagers do not adequately perceive themselves as being vulnerable, and personal experiences with infected relatives and friends. Implications of these findings for program development are discussed and recommendations for social policy changes are presented. PMID:9083588

  9. Implementation of nanoscale circuits using dual metal gate engineered nanowire MOSFET with high-k dielectrics for low power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles Pravin, J.; Nirmal, D.; Prajoon, P.; Ajayan, J.

    2016-09-01

    This work covers the impact of dual metal gate engineered Junctionless MOSFET with various high-k dielectric in Nanoscale circuits for low power applications. Due to gate engineering in junctionless MOSFET, graded potential is obtained and results in higher electron velocity of about 31% for HfO2 than SiO2 in the channel region, which in turn improves the carrier transport efficiency. The simulation is done using sentaurus TCAD, ON current, OFF current, ION/IOFF ratio, DIBL, gain, transconductance and transconductance generation factor parameters are analysed. When using HfO2, DIBL shows a reduction of 61.5% over SiO2. The transconductance and transconductance generation factor shows an improvement of 44% and 35% respectively. The gain and output resistance also shows considerable improvement with high-k dielectrics. Using this device, inverter circuit is implemented with different high-k dielectric material and delay have been decreased by 4% with HfO2 when compared to SiO2. In addition, a significant reduction in power dissipation of the inverter circuit is obtained with high-k dielectric Dual Metal Surround Gate Junctionless Transistor than SiO2 based device. From the analysis, it is found that HfO2 will be a better alternative for the future nanoscale device.

  10. Theory and implementation of a very high throughput true random number generator in field programmable gate array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications. PMID:27131692

  11. Theory and implementation of a very high throughput true random number generator in field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications.

  12. School-wide implementation of the elements of effective classroom instruction: Lessons from a high-performing, high-poverty urban school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Hilarie

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify structures and systems implemented in a high-performing high-poverty urban school to promote high academic achievement among students of color. The researcher used a sociocultural theoretical framework to examine the influence of culture on the structures and systems that increased performance by African American and Hispanic students. Four research questions guided the study: (1) What are the trends and patterns of student performance among students of color? (2) What are the organizational structures and systems that are perceived to contribute to high student performance in high-poverty urban schools with high concentrations of students of color? (3) How are the organizational structures and systems implemented to support school-wide effective classroom instruction that promotes student learning? (4) How is the construct of race reflected in the school's structures and systems? Qualitative data were collected through interviews, observations, and artifact collection. A single case study method was employed and collected data were triangulated to capture and explore the rich details of the study. The study focused on a high-performing high-poverty urban elementary school located in southern California. The school population consisted of 99% students of color and 93% were economically disadvantaged. The school was selected for making significant and consistent growth in Academic Performance Index and Adequate Yearly Progress over a 3-year period. The school-wide structures and systems studied were (a) leadership, (b) school climate and culture, (c) standards-based instruction, (d) data-driven decision making, and (e) professional development. Four common themes emerged from the findings: (a) instructional leadership that focused on teaching and learning; (b) high expectations for all students; (c) school-wide focus on student achievement using standards, data, and culturally responsive teaching; and (d) positive

  13. Design and Implementation of High-Speed Input-Queued Switches Based on a Fair Scheduling Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qingsheng; Zhao, Hua-An

    To increase both the capacity and the processing speed for input-queued (IQ) switches, we proposed a fair scalable scheduling architecture (FSSA). By employing FSSA comprised of several cascaded sub-schedulers, a large-scale high performance switches or routers can be realized without the capacity limitation of monolithic device. In this paper, we present a fair scheduling algorithm named FSSA_DI based on an improved FSSA where a distributed iteration scheme is employed, the scheduler performance can be improved and the processing time can be reduced as well. Simulation results show that FSSA_DI achieves better performance on average delay and throughput under heavy loads compared to other existing algorithms. Moreover, a practical 64 × 64 FSSA using FSSA_DI algorithm is implemented by four Xilinx Vertex-4 FPGAs. Measurement results show that the data rates of our solution can be up to 800Mbps and the tradeoff between performance and hardware complexity has been solved peacefully.

  14. A high precision method for mapping phase to amplitude in direct digital synthesis and its hardware implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhang; Song, Wei; Peng, Zhicong; Xu, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    There exist a number of algorithms to map the phase to amplitude in direct digital synthesis (DDS). For DDS with more than 14 output bits, the Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm is well known for its high precision. Also, it is effective in solutions where there is the need of in-phase and quadrature components simultaneously because the algorithm calculates both. In this paper, a Taylor expansion based method was proposed to calculate both in-phase and quadrature at the same time. Numerical simulations for different data format, e.g., double and finite bits, were carried out in Matlab and Quartus, which were followed by the hardware implementation in Field Programmable Gate Array. The results demonstrated that the proposed method possessed higher precision and exhausted less logic elements than the CORDIC algorithm.

  15. A high precision method for mapping phase to amplitude in direct digital synthesis and its hardware implementation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhang; Song, Wei; Peng, Zhicong; Xu, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    There exist a number of algorithms to map the phase to amplitude in direct digital synthesis (DDS). For DDS with more than 14 output bits, the Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm is well known for its high precision. Also, it is effective in solutions where there is the need of in-phase and quadrature components simultaneously because the algorithm calculates both. In this paper, a Taylor expansion based method was proposed to calculate both in-phase and quadrature at the same time. Numerical simulations for different data format, e.g., double and finite bits, were carried out in Matlab and Quartus, which were followed by the hardware implementation in Field Programmable Gate Array. The results demonstrated that the proposed method possessed higher precision and exhausted less logic elements than the CORDIC algorithm. PMID:25430130

  16. High-throughput root phenotyping screens identify genetic loci associated with root architectural traits in Brassica napus under contrasting phosphate availabilities

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Shi, Taoxiong; Broadley, Martin R.; White, Philip J.; Long, Yan; Meng, Jinling; Xu, Fangsen; Hammond, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Phosphate (Pi) deficiency in soils is a major limiting factor for crop growth worldwide. Plant growth under low Pi conditions correlates with root architectural traits and it may therefore be possible to select these traits for crop improvement. The aim of this study was to characterize root architectural traits, and to test quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with these traits, under low Pi (LP) and high Pi (HP) availability in Brassica napus. Methods Root architectural traits were characterized in seedlings of a double haploid (DH) mapping population (n = 190) of B. napus [‘Tapidor’ × ‘Ningyou 7’ (TNDH)] using high-throughput phenotyping methods. Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length (LRL), lateral root number (LRN), lateral root density (LRD) and biomass traits were measured 12 d post-germination in agar at LP and HP. Key Results In general, root and biomass traits were highly correlated under LP and HP conditions. ‘Ningyou 7’ had greater LRL, LRN and LRD than ‘Tapidor’, at both LP and HP availability, but smaller PRL. A cluster of highly significant QTL for LRN, LRD and biomass traits at LP availability were identified on chromosome A03; QTL for PRL were identified on chromosomes A07 and C06. Conclusions High-throughput phenotyping of Brassica can be used to identify root architectural traits which correlate with shoot biomass. It is feasible that these traits could be used in crop improvement strategies. The identification of QTL linked to root traits under LP and HP conditions provides further insights on the genetic basis of plant tolerance to P deficiency, and these QTL warrant further dissection. PMID:23172414

  17. Sensory processing within cockroach antenna enables rapid implementation of feedback control for high-speed running maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Sponberg, Simon N; Miller, John P; Full, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Animals are remarkably stable during high-speed maneuvers. As the speed of locomotion increases, neural bandwidth and processing delays can limit the ability to achieve and maintain stable control. Processing the information of sensory stimuli into a control signal within the sensor itself could enable rapid implementation of whole-body feedback control during high-speed locomotion. Here, we show that processing in antennal afferents is sufficient to act as the control signal for a fast sensorimotor loop. American cockroaches Periplaneta americana use their antennae to mediate escape running by tracking vertical surfaces such as walls. A control theoretic model of wall following predicts that stable control is possible if the animal can compute wall position (P) and velocity, its derivative (D). Previous whole-nerve recordings from the antenna during simulated turning experiments demonstrated a population response consistent with P and D encoding, and suggested that the response was synchronized with the timing of a turn executed while wall following. Here, we record extracellularly from individual mechanoreceptors distributed along the antenna and show that these receptors encode D and have distinct latencies and filtering properties. The summed output of these receptors can be used as a control signal for rapid steering maneuvers. The D encoding within the antenna in addition to the temporal filtering properties and P dependence of the population of afferents support a sensory-encoding notion from control theory. Our findings support the notion that peripheral sensory processing can enable rapid implementation of whole-body feedback control during rapid running maneuvers. PMID:26026042

  18. Immunochemistry for high-throughput screening of human exhaled breath condensate (EBC) media: implementation of automated Quanterix SIMOA instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Angrish, Michelle M; Madden, Michael C

    2015-12-01

    Immunochemistry is an important clinical tool for indicating biological pathways leading towards disease. Standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are labor intensive and lack sensitivity at low-level concentrations. Here we report on emerging technology implementing fully-automated ELISA capable of molecular level detection and describe application to exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples. The Quanterix SIMOA HD-1 analyzer was evaluated for analytical performance for inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8). The system was challenged with human EBC representing the most dilute and analytically difficult of the biological media. Calibrations from synthetic samples and spiked EBC showed excellent linearity at trace levels (r(2)  >  0.99). Sensitivities varied by analyte, but were robust from ~0.006 (IL-6) to ~0.01 (TNF-α) pg ml(-1). All analytes demonstrated response suppression when diluted with deionized water and so assay buffer diluent was found to be a better choice. Analytical runs required ~45 min setup time for loading samples, reagents, calibrants, etc., after which the instrument performs without further intervention for up to 288 separate samples. Currently, available kits are limited to single-plex analyses and so sample volumes require adjustments. Sample dilutions should be made with assay diluent to avoid response suppression. Automation performs seamlessly and data are automatically analyzed and reported in spreadsheet format. The internal 5-parameter logistic (pl) calibration model should be supplemented with a linear regression spline at the very lowest analyte levels, (<1.3 pg ml(-1)). The implementation of the automated Quanterix platform was successfully demonstrated using EBC, which poses the greatest challenge to ELISA due to limited sample volumes and low protein levels. PMID:26658359

  19. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H; Ditto, Mary E; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna G; Haverlock, Tamara J; Levitskaia, Taiana G; Bartsch, Richard A; Surowiec, Malgorzata A; Zhou, Hui

    2005-07-06

    This project unites expertise at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Texas Tech University (TTU, Prof. Richard A. Bartsch) to answer fundamental questions addressing the problem of cesium removal from high-level tank waste. Efforts focus on novel solvent-extraction systems containing calixcrown extractants designed for enhanced cesium binding and release. Exciting results are being obtained in three areas: (1) a new lipophilic cesium extractant with a high solubility in the solvent; (2) new proton-ionizable calixcrowns that both strongly extract cesium and "switch off" when protonated; and (3) an improved solvent system that may be stripped with more than 100-fold greater efficiency. Scientific questions primarily concern how to more effectively reverse extraction, focusing on the use of amino groups and proton-ionizable groups to enable pH-switching. Synthesis is being performed at ORNL (amino calixcrowns) and TTU (proton-ionizable calixcrowns). At ORNL, the extraction behavior is being surveyed to assess the effectiveness of candidate solvent systems, and systematic distribution measurements are under way to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of partitioning and complexation equilibria. Crystal structures obtained at ORNL are revealing the structural details of cesium binding. The overall objective is a significant advance in the predictability and efficiency of cesium extraction from high-level waste in support of potential implementation at U. S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites.

  20. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Ditto, Mary E.; Engle, Nancy L.; Gorbunova, Maryna G.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2005-07-06

    This project unites expertise at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Texas Tech University (TTU, Prof. Richard A. Bartsch) to answer fundamental questions addressing the problem of cesium removal from high-level tank waste. Efforts focus on novel solvent-extraction systems containing calixcrown extractants designed for enhanced cesium binding and release. Exciting results are being obtained in three areas: (1) a new lipophilic cesium extractant with a high solubility in the solvent; (2) new proton-ionizable calixcrowns that both strongly extract cesium and ''switch off'' when protonated; and (3) an improved solvent system that may be stripped with more than 100-fold greater efficiency. Scientific questions primarily concern how to more effectively reverse extraction, focusing on the use of amino groups and proton-ionizable groups to enable pH-switching. Synthesis is being performed at ORNL (amino calixcrowns) and TTU (proton-ionizable calixcrowns). At ORNL, the extraction behavior is being surveyed to assess the effectiveness of candidate solvent systems, and systematic distribution measurements are under way to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of partitioning and complexation equilibria. Crystal structures obtained at ORNL are revealing the structural details of cesium binding. The overall objective is a significant advance in the predictability and efficiency of cesium extraction from high-level waste in support of potential implementation at U. S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites.