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Sample records for implementing nuclear non-proliferation

  1. The international nuclear non-proliferation system

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, T.

    1985-01-01

    This volume focuses upon the issues raised at this Conference, and attempts to address the international diplomatic, political and trading, rather than technical, questions which surround nuclear non-proliferation policies. It does so by bringing together chapters contributed by participants in non-proliferation diplomacy, those with experience in shaping International Atomic Energy Agency and national policies and academic observers of non-proliferation activities and the international nuclear industry. An analysis is provided of past non-proliferation policies and activities and current issues, and an attempt is made to offer ideas for new initiatives which may sustain the non-proliferation system in the future.

  2. Understanding China`s nuclear non-proliferation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, P.J.

    1999-06-01

    China`s nuclear-export activities appear to contradict its official non-proliferation policy. Scrutiny of China`s nuclear exports and non- proliferation commitments indicate an adherence to strict `letter-of-the-law` obligations. Yet, China`s commitment to the norms and values of the non- proliferation regime is controversial. The difference between China`s legal obligations and the international norms of acceptable export behavior is a function of the ambiguity inherent in international treaties and agreements. Stephen Meyer`s motivational hypothesis is used to evaluate China`s nuclear-export decision-making process. China`s motivational profile created by the combination of 16 incentives and disincentives on one hand, and international and domestic conditions on the other. Two case studies are used to illustrate that this profile is not static. As environmental conditions and China`s national priorities change, so does China`s motivational profile. In the past, U. S. attempts to alter China`s nuclear-export activities were successful when the targeted changes were congruent with China`s national priorities. For the United States to influence China`s future nuclear-export activities, it must first understand China`s national priorities and determine the corresponding export motivations that influence China`s decision-making process. The United States should then work to change conditions, which would shift the balance of incentives and disincentives, thereby changing the outcome of China`s cost-benefit calculus.

  3. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  4. An Important Issue: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Doc

    2001-03-01

    Historic Facts and Philosophy: In August, 1947, I participated in a secret meeting concerning the validity and use of a hydrogen bomb. I vigorously supported a ``Super Manhattan Project" to build an ``H" bomb. My philosophy at the time was `bigger and better,' to ensure that no nation attacked the U.S. Our retaliation with ``H" bombs vs. ``A" bombs would be too overwhelming for any nation to risk attacking us should they obtain their own ``A" bombs. Thus, all nations would be forced to use diplomacy. I am older and wiser, and am now convinced that World Test Ban Treaties, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and space free of any military weapons is the best policy for all nations and humanity. With current nuclear testing at nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada, Vandenberg AF/Missile site, Cal Tech, etc., I therefore propose that our new APS California Division form a three-person committee to tabulate all pertinent data and submit it to a qualified expert for review and further action. Comments and suggestions are invited.

  5. JAEA's actions and contributions to the strengthening of nuclear non-proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Kazunori; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Michiji, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Japan, a non-nuclear weapons state, has established a commercial nuclear fuel cycle including LWRs, and now is developing a fast neutron reactor fuel cycle as part of the next generation nuclear energy system, with commercial operation targeted for 2050. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is the independent administrative agency for conducting comprehensive nuclear R&D in Japan after the merger of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). JAEA and its predecessors have extensive experience in R&D, facility operations, and safeguards development and implementation for new types of nuclear facilities for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. As the operator of various nuclear fuel cycle facilities and numerous nuclear materials, JAEA makes international contributions to strengthen nuclear non-proliferation. This paper provides an overview of JAEA's development of nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards technologies, including remote monitoring of nuclear facilities, environmental sample analysis methods and new efforts since the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit in Washington D.C.

  6. Applications of virtual reality to nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents several applications of virtual reality relevant to the areas of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation. Each of these applications was developed to the prototype stage at Sandia National Laboratories` Virtual Reality and Intelligent Simulation laboratory. These applications include the use of virtual reality for facility visualization, training of inspection personnel, and security and monitoring of nuclear facilities.

  7. China's Case Against the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Rationality and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Geoffrey

    1986-01-01

    China and other major Third World nations have refused to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). While this position appears morally unjustified and even irrational, their claim that the treaty is discriminatory merits serious attention. Only if certain aspects of this claim are accepted by the nuclear weapons signatories, does a moral…

  8. Preparation for the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Extension Conference in 1995. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1993-05-07

    About 30 specialists in non-proliferation participated in a workshop to explore ideas for US Government preparatory steps leading to the 1995 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. To that end, workshop sessions were devoted to reviewing the lessons learned from previous Review Conferences, discussing the threats to the non-proliferation regime together with ways of preserving and strengthening it, and examining the management of international nuclear commerce. A fundamental premise shared by workshop participants was that extension of the NPT is immensely important to international security. The importance of stemming proliferation and, more specifically, extending the Treaty, is growing as a result of the significant changes in the world. If the conferees of the Extension Conference decide on no extension or extension for a short limited duration, some technically advanced states that have foregone development of nuclear weapons may begin to rethink their options. Also, other arms control measures, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, could start to unravel. The US must provide strong international leadership to ensure that the Extension Conference is a success, resulting in Treaty extension, perhaps through successive terms, into the indefinite future. Workshop participants were struck by the urgent need for the US to take organizational steps so that it is highly effective in its advance preparations for the Extension Conference. Moreover, the Extension Conference provides both a challenge and an opportunity to mold a cohesive set of US policy actions to define the future role of nuclear weapons and combat their proliferation.

  9. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Thomas Jr.

    2014-05-09

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  10. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Thomas, Jr.

    2014-05-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  11. Lessons from the unsuccessful 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nick; Loretz, John; Johnstone, Julia

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is probably the most important treaty for the control of nuclear weapons. A Review Conference was held in May 2005 but the member states failed to agree on any decisions or recommendations. Possible causes for this failure reside in the unsupportive geopolitical climate surrounding the conference, design limitations of the Treaty, and the obstructionist actions of particular states. However, valuable contributions were made at the conference by some states and by civil society representatives. Fortunately there are still many ways for states and civil society to make future conferences more successful in eliminating the threat to human security from nuclear weapons. PMID:16450649

  12. Development of uranium reference particles for nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kips, Ruth

    In the oversight of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and as part of the Additional Protocol of the International Atomic Energy Agency, environmental sampling has become an important tool for the detection of non-declared nuclear activities. One extensively developed technique in environmental sampling (ES) makes use of pieces of cotton cloth called swipes to wipe surfaces in and around a nuclear facility. The dust collected on these swipes typically contains micrometer-sized uranium particles with an isotopic composition characteristic for the processes at the inspected facility. Since its implementation in the 1990s, ES has proven to be a very effective tool in the detection of clandestine activities owing to a number of highly sensitive and selective techniques, including secondary ion mass spectrometry and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. However, considering the potential consequences of the analyses, these measurements need to be subjected to a rigorous quality management system. In a continuous effort to improve the accuracy and detection efficiency of the uranium isotope ratio measurements, uranium particle reference materials are being developed by different research groups. It was concluded however, that the existing methods for the production of particulate reference materials generally do not reproduce the particles recovered from swipe samples. For this reason, we developed the aerosol deposition chamber at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements for the production of reference uranium particles that are representative of the particles collected at enrichment facilities. This method is based on the controlled hydrolysis of milligram amounts of uranium hexafluoride with a certified uranium isotopic composition. After optimization of the experimental set-up, the particles produced by the aerosol deposition chamber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and

  13. Improving the nuclear data base for non-proliferation and homeland security

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Robert C; Bitteker, Leo J; Couture, Aaron J; Devlin, Matthew J; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Gavron, Avigdor; Hill, Tony S; Laptev, Alexander B; Nelson, Ronald O; O'donnell, John M; Taddeucci, Terry N; Tovesson, Fredrik K; Ulmann, John L; Wender, Stephen A

    2009-01-01

    Many of the technical advances in non-proliferation and homeland security require calculations of transport of neutrons and gamma-rays through materials. The nuclear data base on which these calculations are made must be of high quality in order for the calculated responses to be credible. At the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, three spallation neutron sources are being used to provide high-quality cross section and structure data with reactions induced by neutrons. Neutron transmission, neutron-induced fission and capture cross sections, neutron emission in fission, and gamma-ray production by neutrons are principal areas of research. Furthermore, these sources are also being used to validate calculations of the characterization and response of new detectors and detection techniques. Current research activities are summarized here.

  14. Comparison of chemical and nuclear explosions: Numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kamm, J.R.; Bos, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper the authors discuss numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), which was an underground explosion conducted in September 1993 in the volcanic tuff of the Nevada Test Site. The NPE source consisted of 1.29 {times} 10{sup 6} kg of ANFO-emulsion blasting agent, with the approximate energy of 1.1 kt, emplaced 389 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa. The authors compare detailed numerical simulations of the NPE with data collected from that experiment, and with calculations of an equally energetic nuclear explosion in identical geology. Calculated waveforms, at ranges out to approximately 1 km, agree moderately well in the time domain with free-field data, and are in qualitative agreement with free-surface records. Comparison of computed waveforms for equally energetic chemical and nuclear sources reveals relatively minor differences beyond the immediate near-source region, with the chemical source having an {approximately}25% greater seismic moment but otherwise indistinguishable (close-in) seismic source properties. 41 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.

  16. Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Galy, J.; Varga, Z.; Erdmann, N.; Buda, R.; Kratz, J.-V.; Trautmann, N.; Fifield, K.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

  17. Seismic results from DOE`s non-proliferation experiment: A comparison of chemical and nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, M.; Goldstein, P.; Mayeda, K.; Walter, W.

    1995-01-01

    The basic results from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) NonProliferation Experiment (NPE) for seismic signal generation are that the source function for a chemical explosion is equivalent to that of a nuclear explosion of about twice the yield and that the seismic moment measurements are consistent between freefield, local, and regional measurements. In addition, evidence was found that Pn in the Basin and Range province of the western United States is a turning ray and is simply proportional to the source function while the transfer functions for Pg and Lg are low-pass in nature.

  18. Some lessons of the IAEA's nuclear non-proliferation regime for confidence-building under a greenhouse gas convention

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.L. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Energy, Environment and Resources Center)

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA's nuclear non-proliferation regime provides valuable insights into how to enhance the process of negotiations among participants to a greenhouse gas (GHG) convention. IAEA employs an iterative approach to verification that accepts the need for long, arduous negotiations to explore all possible routes to agreement, replicates carefully formulated agreements in more specialized contexts, incorporates scientific and advocacy groups to ensure adaptability to changing economic/political conditions, and uses confidence-building measures that rely on quiet diplomacy and rigorous compliance criteria. Insights from IAEA's nuclear non-proliferation regime for a GHG convention include the need to ensure equality among signatories, provide inclusive participation, place verification activities in small, politically-neutral bodies to resolve anomalies, provide sufficient infrastructure to recruit and train those charged with independent auditing, ensure budgetary independence and non-governmental/intergovernmental organization support, and recognize that successful agreements with detailed rules and regulations generally result from a hierarchical process of negotiations. Signatories to a GHG convention might engage in a symbolic commitment to an international inspection/auditing body with benefits to international education and enhancing awareness of the impact of GHGs. 36 refs.

  19. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978: origins, contradictions, and implications for control of peaceful nuclear activities

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The US Congress has written stringent nonproliferation legislation that attempts to tighten US nuclear export criteria and strengthen the international nonproliferation regime. NNPA/78 created worldwide controversy because of its unilateral nature, and assertations by Congress that commercial reprocessing, plutonium, and breeder reactors are inherently dangerous. Nonetheless, efforts continue in Congress to close loopholes in nonproliferation law and to prevent commercial trafficking in explosives-grade material. This paper chronicles the history of those efforts, using extensive interviews with members of the nuclear priesthood and with nuclear reformers seeking to reorient energy policy and to prevent the second nuclear era from repeating the alleged mistakes of the first. Beginning with the Acheson-Lilienthal Report, and moving through both military and commercial nuclear history, the study highlights critical shifts in thought on nuclear dangers: Atoms for Peace, arms control efforts, the NPT, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Energy Reorganization Act, energy crises, the Indian explosion, and crucial legislative roles played by antinuclear activists and zealous congressional staff members. Extensive attention is paid to shifts in philosophical orientations in Congress about nuclear power, and to the growing distrust of the AEC, the JCAE, and the IAEA safeguards regime.

  20. Denuclearization for a Just World: The Failure of Non Proliferation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for World Order, New York, NY.

    The document discusses the non proliferation policies of nuclear power nations. It specifically focuses on the credibility gap which exists between the actual statements of peaceful intentions made by these nations which express the need for non proliferation of nuclear weapons and their actual conduct with regards to nuclear-related issues in…

  1. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty. PMID:25296517

  2. Counter-proliferation and Non-proliferation: Both Needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Preventing further proliferation of nuclear weapon and nuclear weapons usable materials, and securing the weapons and materials that exist, have increased in importance with the increased urgency of the fight against international terrorism. This problem is likely to continue to increase in importance with the anticipated growth of nuclear civilian applications around the world. Recent experience in North Korea, Iraq and Iran tends to show that some combination of counterproliferation and better use of traditional, multilateral non-proliferation methods provides the best way to address this problem. Governments seeking nuclear civilian applications, particularly those that are suspicious of Western motives, must be offered in parallel an attractive way into the system should they follow its rules and an unacceptable alternative should they not. Such a combination should aim at implementing specific measures to (1) secure nuclear materials, (2) monitor dual-use facilities, (3) improve international governance of treaties and other agreements, and (4) reduce the demand for nuclear weapons. For some of the measures implementation has begun, although with less money and priority than is needed. Other measures would constitute a major departure from the way civilian nuclear activities are now carried out and remain controversial. The established nuclear powers must agree on implementation and funding of the measures suggested before there can be much progress elsewhere.

  3. Non-proliferation treaty at 25

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1995-01-27

    In April, negotiators from more than 160 countries will meet in New York to decide the fate of the 25-year-old Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Under the agreement`s unusual terms, signatories must decide whether to extend it indefinitely, extend it for a specified period or abandon it. Supporters of a permanent NPT, including the United States, warn that instability in the post-Cold War era makes it all the more necessary to prevent rogue nations or terrorists from acquiring nuclear weapons. Critics, especially countries without nuclear weapons, say the treaty unfairly guarantees military superiority to the NPT`s five-member {open_quotes}nuclear club.{close_quotes} They also charge the nuclear powers, especially the United States and Russia, with not living up to the treaty`s requirement that they vigorously seek to halt the arms race and eliminate nuclear weapons.

  4. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  5. The Non-Proliferation Treaty has just been extended. Do you know where your shelter is?

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, C.

    1995-09-01

    This article discusses the problems facing the Non-Proliferation Treaty - from the `small` bomb, needing only plutonium or highly enriched uranium to convert a conventional weapon into a nuclear bomb to the most urgent and immediate threat of nuclear proliferation from scores of poorly secured and unregulated nuclear facilities and research labs spread across the former Soviet Union. The global politics of non-proliferation are described.

  6. US arms control obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-27

    Article VI of the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) obligates the nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty ''to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race, ... to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.'' The preamble to the NPT recalls the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty ''determination ... to achieve the discontinuance of ... explosions.'' These provisions are interpreted by a majority of the non-nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty as an obligation of the nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty to pursue a comprehensive test ban (CTB). However, a review of the history of the NPT negotiations and US ratification proceedings makes clear that the NPT imposes no legal obligation on the US to pursue a CTB. The US did not make a one-to-one correspondence between Article VI and any specific arms control measure; to the contrary, the US argued successfully that such a connection (to any specific measure) would be pernicious to the attempt to achieve agreement on the NPT. This interpretation, which was sustained through the negotiations and the ratification proceedings, still reflects the limits of the legal obligations the US has accepted. But, in the absence of progress on other arms control measures, which would relieve the pressure for a CTB, the majority interpretation creates political difficulties for the US and could threaten the NPT regime in the future. These problems highlight the need for the US to better defend its compliance with Article VI and to develop a long-term strategy that will permit necessary testing while assuring the survival of the NPT regime in effective form.

  7. Non-Proliferation Treaty at 25

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1995-01-20

    This article is a review of nuclear nonproliferation issues during the 25 years that have passed since the signing of the first nonproliferation treaty. A historical background is provided, both declared and undeclared nuclear powers are noted, and considerable attention is given to issues brought about by the dissolution of the Soviet Union and by the renegade actions of a number of signatories, e.g. Iraq, and several of the non-signatories. Present/future policies are discussed, as is the impact of the present Administration in Washington.

  8. Ionospheric measurements for the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    The detection of explosions using ionospheric techniques relies on measuring perturbations induced in radio propagation by acoustics waves which disturb the electron density of the ionosphere. Such techniques have been applied to the detection of atmospheric explosions, underground nuclear tests, earthquakes, and surface mining explosions. The nighttime ionosphere presents a difficulty for the detection of explosions because in the absence of solar ionization radiation the electron density in the altitude range of 90 to 200 km decays after sunset and perturbation effects are correspondingly reduced. On the other hand, acoustic waves produced by weak sources reach a maximum amplitude in the altitude range of 100 to 150 km and are highly attenuated at altitudes above 200 km. For safety reasons, most planned explosions are conducted during daylight which has limited the experimental measurements during nighttime. However a recent opportunity for a nighttime measurement occurred in connection with the Non-Proliferation Experiment which consisted of the detonation of a large chemical charge underground at the Nevada Test Site near midnight local time. the results, based on a new technique of using medium frequency radio transmissions provided by commercial broadcasts to detect explosion effects, were negative. The most likely explanation for the negative result is that the radio transmissions did not reflect at a low enough altitude to sense the perturbations produced by the acoustic waves.

  9. New concept of small power reactor without on-site refueling for non-proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W., LLNL

    1998-07-13

    more pre-conceptual designs. The pre-conceptual designs will be used to confirm the adequacy of the requirements through iteration and trade studies. A down selection to a preferred and backup concept would be made following a 12-18 month design effort. The selected designs, system design specifications, and the necessary R&D programs would be developed in greater detail over the next three and one-half years. A reactor in the 50 to 150 MWe class, nominally 100 MWe, shows the best potential for meeting these challenges. The system will have unique characteristics to achieve proliferation resistance, and will maximize the reliance on passive safety features to reduce the risk of serious accidents and their consequences, simplify operations and maintenance, and reduce the need for the developing country to establish a sophisticated and expensive nuclear infrastructure. In particular, to eliminate all on- site refueling, the reactor will be equipped with a long-life core that will be returned to the supplier when spent. This process will be managed under international control to further both overall non- proliferation objectives and to reduce the infrastructure burden on the developing country. It will also reduce the anticipated burden and expense to the International Atomic Energy Agency for assuring security associated with expanded international use of nuclear energy. An integral part of the program will be the development of new approaches for implementing international safeguards applicable to the entire fuel cycle including recycling and waste disposal. The report discusses the preliminary requirements and the rationale for selecting them. It then discusses the four nuclear system technologies and how they might proceed to meet the requirements. Brief discussions are provided on the approaches to stimulating the appropriate international and industrial participation necessary to finance development of a design with improved proliferation resistance that is useful

  10. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-09-01

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  11. The role of regional systems in international non-proliferation safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Gmelin, W.

    1993-12-31

    In 1990 the IAEA spent some 80% of its safeguards resources in countries or regions where the probability of diversion, i.e. of breaching the NPT is low, or non-existent. This paper discusses possible causes for such an allocation of IAEA resources, possible changes as well as the dilemma that the political concept of Non-discrimination has adversely affected the achievement of the political objectives of Non-Proliferation, the latter comprising discriminatory elements by definition. Possible solutions to this dilemma, while observing that the diversion probabilities are unequally distributed worldwide, include the necessary measures defined to strengthen IAEA safeguards through universal reporting of nuclear materials and equipment but also the decentralization of non-proliferation responsibilities to State systems and/or Regional safeguards systems. The paper discusses, following the presentation of the well-known five criteria for the determination of the relative importance of a regional safeguards system, various arguments pro and against the taking into account of and the reliance on State systems compared with regional systems in non-proliferation safeguards.

  12. Collaborative human-machine nuclear non-proliferation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, F.L.; Badalamente, R.V.; Stewart, T.S.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of a project investigating support concepts for the information treatment needs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, also referred to as the Agency) and its attempts to strengthen international safeguards. The aim of the research was to define user/computer interface concepts and intelligent support features that will enhance the analyst`s access to voluminous and diverse information, the ability to recognize and evaluate uncertain data, and the capability to make decisions and recommendations. The objective was to explore techniques for enhancing safeguards analysis through application of (1) more effective user-computer interface designs and (2) advanced concepts involving human/system collaboration. The approach was to identify opportunities for human/system collaboration that would capitalize on human strengths and still accommodate human limitations. This paper documents the findings and describes a concept prototype, Proliferation Analysis Support System (PASS), developed for demonstration purposes. The research complements current and future efforts to enhance the information systems used by the IAEA, but has application elsewhere, as well.

  13. Stabilization and immobilization of military plutonium: A non-proliferation perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Leventhal, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Nuclear Control Institute welcomes this DOE-sponsored technical workshop on stabilization and immobilization of weapons plutonium (W Pu) because of the significant contribution it can make toward the ultimate non-proliferation objective of eliminating weapons-usable nuclear material, plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU), from world commerce. The risk of theft or diversion of these materials warrants concern, as only a few kilograms in the hands of terrorists or threshold states would give them the capability to build nuclear weapons. Military plutonium disposition questions cannot be addressed in isolation from civilian plutonium issues. The National Academy of Sciences has urged that {open_quotes}further steps should be taken to reduce the proliferation risks posed by all of the world`s plutonium stocks, military and civilian, separated and unseparated...{close_quotes}. This report discusses vitrification and a mixed oxide fuels option, and the effects of disposition choices on civilian plutonium fuel cycles.

  14. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held October 17 through November 4, 1983, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a State system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1983 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Fast Flux Test Facility Visitor Center, and Washington Public Power System nuclear reactor facilities in Richland, Washington. Individual presentations were indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Environmental measurements and technology for non-proliferation objectives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Broadway, J.A.

    1998-03-31

    The purpose of this study is to identify multi-disciplinary and single focus laboratories from the environmental and public health communities that can serve as technical center of opportunity for nuclear, inorganic and organic analyses. The objectives of the Office of Research and Development effort are twofold: (1) to identify the technology shortcomings and technologies gaps (thus requirements) within these communities that could benefit from state-of-the-art infield analysis technologies currently under development and (2) to promote scientist-to-scientist dialog and technical exchange under such existing US government internship programs (eg SABIT/USDOC) to improve skills and work relationships. Although the data analysis will focus on environmentally sensitive signatures and materials, the office of Research and Development wishes to further its nuclear non-proliferation objectives by assessing the current technical skill and ingenious analytical tools in less-developed countries so as to broaden the base of capability for multi-species measurement technology development.

  16. Detection of Materials of Interest to Non-Proliferation: A Novel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ze, F; Tittmann, B R; Lehahan, P M

    2002-04-11

    We propose the development of a novel detector that can locate and identify materials of interest to Nuclear Arms Non Proliferation. The device will combine nuclear acoustic resonance (NAR) with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) widely used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), geophysics, nondestructive evaluations, and biomagnetism, to name only few. NAR works like NMR. Thus resonant absorption (of applied ultrasonic energy) by a nuclear spin system occurs when the ultrasonic frequency is equal to the appropriate frequency separations between the magnetic nuclear energy levels. Ultrasonic energy couples to the nuclear spin system via spin-phonon interaction. The resulting nuclear acoustic resonance can be detected via the changes in (a) ultrasonic attenuation, (b) ultrasonic velocity, (c) material magnetization, (d) or nuclear magnetic susceptibility, all of which carries ''intrinsic and unique signatures'' of the material under investigation. The device's sensitivity and penetration depth (into metals) will be enhanced by incorporating SQUID technology into the design. We will present the details of interaction physics and outline a plan of action needed to successfully transform the concepts into a practical detector.

  17. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held June 3 through June 21, 1985, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and San Clemente, California. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1985 course was placed on safeguards methods used at item-control facilities, particularly nuclear power generating stations and test reactors. An introduction to safeguards methods used at bulk handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants, was also included. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Southern California Edison Company. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Clemente, California.

  18. A Non-Proliferating Fuel Cycle: No Enrichment, Reprocessing or Accessible Spent Fuel - 12375

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Frank L.

    2012-07-01

    Current fuel cycles offer a number of opportunities for access to plutonium, opportunities to create highly enriched uranium and access highly radioactive wastes to create nuclear weapons and 'dirty' bombs. The non-proliferating fuel cycle however eliminates or reduces such opportunities and access by eliminating the mining, milling and enrichment of uranium. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces the production of plutonium per unit of energy created, eliminates reprocessing and the separation of plutonium from the spent fuel and the creation of a stream of high-level waste. It further simplifies the search for land based deep geologic repositories and interim storage sites for spent fuel in the USA by disposing of the spent fuel in deep sub-seabed sediments after storing the spent fuel at U.S. Navy Nuclear Shipyards that have the space and all of the necessary equipment and security already in place. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces transportation risks by utilizing barges for the collection of spent fuel and transport to the Navy shipyards and specially designed ships to take the spent fuel to designated disposal sites at sea and to dispose of them there in deep sub-seabed sediments. Disposal in the sub-seabed sediments practically eliminates human intrusion. Potential disposal sites include Great Meteor East and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain. Such sites then could easily become international disposal sites since they occur in the open ocean. It also reduces the level of human exposure in case of failure because of the large physical and chemical dilution and the elimination of a major pathway to man-seawater is not potable. Of course, the recovery of uranium from sea water and the disposal of spent fuel in sub-seabed sediments must be proven on an industrial scale. All other technologies are already operating on an industrial scale. If externalities, such as reduced terrorist threats, environmental damage (including embedded emissions), long

  19. Enhancing remote surveillance and assessment capabilities in support of non-proliferation using agricultural targets. Annual progress report, September 14, 1995--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, E.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the Department of Energy`s Airborne Multisensor Pod System (ANIPS) missions which include agricultural targets to improve which include agricultural targets. The emphasis is on the use of these agricultural targets to improve nuclear non-proliferation assessment capability. Three areas of application of agricultural targets to non-proliferation is introduced: extending vegetation monitoring capability with radar, assessment of soil and crop damage using data fusion, and the use of data fusion for improved plant stress monitoring using hyperspectral data. Also, new algorithm development and future AMPS mission needs are discussed.

  20. Non-proliferation studies with Double Chooz detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormon, S.; Fallot, M.; Martino, J.; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The near detector of Double Chooz will provide the most accurate measurement of the spectrum and the flux of the electronic anti-neutrinos (νbare) emitted by a nuclear power plant. This enables the collaboration to address certain safeguards issues for the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) benefit.

  1. Verifying Missile Non-Proliferation in Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    VANNONI, MICHAEL G.; BIRINGER, KENT L.; TROST, LAWRENCE C.

    2003-04-01

    Missiles are attractive weapon systems because of their flexibility, survivability, and relatively low cost. Consequently, many nations are seeking to build missile forces resulting in regional arms races. Missile forces can be both stabilizing (e.g., providing a survivable force for deterrence) and destabilizing (e.g., creating strategic asymmetries). Efforts to control missile proliferation must account for these effects. A number of strategies to control the destabilizing effects of missiles were developed during the Cold War. Some of these strategies are applicable to regional missile control but new approaches, tailored to regional geographic and security conditions, are needed. Regional missile nonproliferation can be pursued in a variety of ways: Reducing the demand for missiles by decreasing the perception of national threats; Restricting the export of missiles and associated equipment by supplier countries; Restricting information describing missile technology; Limiting missile development activities such as flight or engine tests; Restricting the operational deployment of existing missile forces; and Reducing existing missile forces by number and/or type. Even when development is complete, limits on deployment within range of potential targets or limits on operational readiness can help stabilize potential missile confrontations. Implementing these strategies often involves the collection and exchange of information about activities related to missile development or deployment. Monitoring is the process of collecting information used to for subsequent verification of commitments. A systematic approach to implementing verification is presented that identifies areas where monitoring could support missile nonproliferation agreements. The paper presents both non-technical and technical techniques for monitoring. Examples of non-technical techniques are declarations about planned test launches or on-site inspections. Examples of technical monitoring include

  2. The social context shaping bioweapons (non)proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ouagrham-Gormley, Sonia Ben; Vogel, Kathleen M

    2010-03-01

    This article explores the practices behind the creation and transfer of knowledge related to biological weapons (BW) in the former Soviet BW program and their implications for understanding bioweapons proliferation. Using in-depth interviews collected for an ongoing oral history project of the Soviet and U.S. bioweapons programs, this article shows that BW proliferation is a complex issue that involves thus far unrecognized social factors that can shape the production and proliferation of bioweapons knowledge. The article highlights (1) the local and personal character of bioweapons knowledge, specialized skills, and scientific know-how, which cannot be transferred easily from one person to another and from one location to another; (2) the importance of organization and management style in creating certain types of knowledge and skills and allowing or preventing the transfer of those skills to occur within and outside an organization; and (3) the differences that exist among various groups of former Soviet BW facilities in their ability to efficiently transfer bioweapons knowledge and laboratory skills. The article concludes with a discussion on the policy implications of these findings and provides guidance for constructing and implementing a more consistent and rigorous set of targeted nonproliferation interventions to address facility-specific "brain-drain" threats involving former bioweaponeers. PMID:20230229

  3. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization training implementation. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-05-19

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSO personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This Training Implementation document is applicable to all technical and managerial NCSO personnel, including temporary personnel, sub-contractors and/or LMES employees on loan to the NCSO, who are in a qualification program.

  4. Quality assurance implementation plan for spent nuclear fuel characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Horhota, M.J.; Lawrence, L.A.

    1997-07-10

    A plan was prepared to implement the Quality Assurance requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management RW-0333P to the Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization activities. The plan was based on an evaluation of the current characterization activities against the RW-0333P requirements.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance implementation of a quantum clock synchronization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingfu; Long, G.C; Liu Wenzhang; Deng Zhiwei; Lu Zhiheng

    2004-12-01

    The quantum clock synchronization (QCS) algorithm proposed by Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2006 (2000)] has been implemented in a three qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system. The time difference between two separated clocks can be determined by measuring the output states. The experimental realization of the QCS algorithm also demonstrates an application of the quantum phase estimation.

  6. Training implementation matrix, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP)

    SciTech Connect

    EATON, G.L.

    2000-06-08

    This Training Implementation Matrix (TIM) describes how the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.20A, Personnel Selection, Qualification, and Training Requirements for Reactor and Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. The TIM defines the application of the selection, qualification, and training requirements in DOE Order 5480.20A at the SNFP. The TIM also describes the organization, planning, and administration of the SNFP training and qualification program(s) for which DOE Order 5480.20A applies. Also included is suitable justification for exceptions taken to any requirements contained in DOE Order 5480.20A. The goal of the SNFP training and qualification program is to ensure employees are capable of performing their jobs safely and efficiently.

  7. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C.

    1994-05-01

    In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

  8. Challenge inspections in Arms Control treaties: Any lessons for strengthening NPT verification. [Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent revelations of an ongoing and sophisticated nuclear weapons development program in Iraq have lead to suggestions for strengthening International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Especially troubling was the realization that safeguards, as presently applied, could not possibly have detected such a program. It is clear that the inspections which have taken place in Iraq since the Gulf War could only have been imposed on a nation which had suffered a severe military defeat. It has, however, been argued that challenge or challenge like'' inspections already incorporated in or proposed for the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (the CFE Treaty) the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Treaty Between the United States and the USSR on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic offensive Arms (START) might serve as models for enhanced special inspections in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the NPT). The expectation that none of the challenge or challenge like inspections in the above treaties would provide a model for the NPT was confirmed although certain characteristics of these inspections do provide useful points of departure. Although the context of challenge inspections in CWC bears substantial similarity to the NPT, it is from the provisions for suspect-site'' and formerly declared site'', challenge like inspections in START that innovative ideas for strengthening special inspections in NPT may be derived.

  9. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, Marvin D

    1994-01-01

    To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

  10. Nuclear proliferation: Lessons learned from the Iraqi case. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The nuclear weapons inspection regime implemented in Iraq following the United Nations coalition victory in Desert Storm is the most intrusive in history. Important conclusions about the current non-proliferation regime can therefore be determined from a study of Iraq's progress. This thesis examines Iraq's efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. The supply side of the equation is also studied, with a concentration upon the contributions of NATO nations. The strategic culture of Iraq is discussed, in an effort to discover why Iraq sought nuclear weapons. Finally, policy prescriptions are advanced. The current non-proliferation regime needs to be improved if the spread of nuclear weapons is to be halted, or even slowed. The most promising way to improve this regime is to involve the U.N. Special Commission and the U.N. Security Council in the management of the problem of nuclear proliferation.... Iraq, Strategic culture, Non-Proliferation treaty, International atomic energy agency, Nuclear weapons, Middle east security, Nuclear suppliers group, United Nations.

  11. Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant implementation of improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, S.R.; Pendry, D.

    1994-12-31

    Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant consists of two General Electric boiling water reactor/4 units, with a common control room and a common refueling floor. In March 1993, Hatch began conversion of both units` technical specifications utilizing NUREG 1433. The technical specifications amendment request was submitted February 25, 1994. Issuance is scheduled for October 21, 1994, with implementation on March 15, 1994. The current unit-1 technical specifications are in the {open_quotes}custom{close_quotes} format, and the unit-2 technical specifications are in the old standard format. Hatch previously relocated the fire protection and radiological technical specifications requirements. The Hatch conversion will provide consistency between the two units, to the extent practicable.

  12. The non-proliferation experiment and gas sampling as an on-site inspection activity: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    The Non-proliferation Experiment (NPE) is contributing to the development of gas sampling methods and models that may be incorporated into future on-site inspection (OSI) activities. Surface gas sampling and analysis, motivated by nuclear test containment studies, have already demonstrated the tendency for the gaseous products of an underground nuclear test to flow hundreds of meters to the surface over periods ranging from days to months. Even in the presence of a uniform sinusoidal pressure variation, there will be a net flow of cavity gas toward the surface. To test this barometric pumping effect at Rainier Mesa, gas bottles containing sulfur hexaflouride and {sup 3}He were added to the pre-detonation cavity for the 1 kt chemical explosives test. Pre-detonation measurements of the background levels of both gases were obtained at selected sites on top of the mesa. The background levels of both tracers were found to be at or below mass spectrographic/gas chromatographic sensitivity thresholds in the parts-per-trillion range. Post-detonation, gas chromatographic analyses of samples taken during barometric pressure lows from the sampling sites on the mesa indicate the presence of significant levels (300--600 ppt) of sulfur hexaflouride. However, mass spectrographic analyses of gas samples taken to date do not show the presence of {sup 3}He. To explain these observations, several possibilities are being explored through additional sampling/analysis and numerical modeling. For the NPE, the detonation point was approximately 400 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa and the event did not produce significant fracturing or subsidence on the surface of the mesa. Thus, the NPE may ultimately represent an extreme, but useful example for the application and tuning of cavity gas detection techniques.

  13. Non-proliferation, safeguards, and security for the fissile materials disposition program immobilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Tolk, K.M.; Moore, L.R.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is analyzing long-term storage and disposition alternatives for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered. These include facilities for storage, conversion and stabilization of fissile materials, immobilization in glass or ceramic material, fabrication of fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use of reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and disposal of fissile material using geologic alternatives. This paper will focus on how the objectives of reducing security and proliferation risks are being considered, and the possible facility impacts. Some of the areas discussed in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threats, and (4) potential proliferation, safeguards, and security issues and impacts on the facilities. Issues applicable to all of the possible disposition alternatives will be discussed in this paper. However, particular attention is given to the plutonium immobilization alternatives.

  14. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Basis Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    TRAWINSKI, B.J.

    2000-02-08

    The objective of the Safety Basis Implementation is to ensure that implementation of activities is accomplished in order to support readiness to move spent fuel from K West Basin. Activities may be performed directly by the Safety Basis Implementation Team or they may be performed by other organizations and tracked by the Team. This strategy will focus on five key elements, (1) Administration of Safety Basis Implementation (general items), (2) Implementing documents, (3) Implementing equipment (including verification of operability), (4) Training, (5) SNF Project Technical Requirements (STRS) database system.

  16. Deterring Nuclear Proliferation: The Importance of IAEA Safeguards: A TEXTBOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Gallini, L.; Krass, A.; Kratzer, M.; Sanborn, J.; Ward, B.; Wulf, N. A.

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation are among the most pressing challenges to international peace and security that we face today. Iran and Syria remain in non-compliance with the safeguards requirements of the NPT, and the nuclear ambitions of North Korea remain unchecked. Despite these challenges, the NPT remains a cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and the safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the NPT play a critical role in deterring nuclear proliferation.How do they work? Where did they come from? And what is their future? This book answers these questions. Anyone studying the field of nuclear non-proliferation will benefit from reading this book, and for anyone entering the field, the book will enable them to get a running start. Part I describes the foundations of the international safeguards system: its origins in the 1930s - when new discoveries in physics made it clear immediately that nuclear energy held both peril and promise - through the entry into force in 1970 of the NPT, which codified the role of IAEA safeguards as a means to verify states NPT commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons. Part II describes the NPT safeguards system, which is based on a model safeguards agreement developed specifically for the NPT, The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been published by the IAEA as INFCIRC/153. Part III describes events, especially in South Africa, the DPRK, and Iraq in the early 1990s, that triggered a transformation in the way in which safeguards were conceptualized and implemented.

  17. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  18. Preparation, review, and approval of implementation plans for nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This standard describes an acceptable method to prepare, review, and approve implementation plans for DOE Nuclear Safety requirements. DOE requirements are identified in DOE Rules, Orders, Notices, Immediate Action Directives, and Manuals.

  19. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  20. NON-PROLIFERATION IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR GNEP: ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORTATION.

    SciTech Connect

    Radel, Ross; Rochau, Gary E.

    2008-03-01

    This report evaluates transportation issues for nuclear material in the proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) fuel cycle. Since many details of the GNEP program are yet to be determined, this document is intended only to identify general issues. The existing regulatory environment is determined to be largely prepared to incorporate the changes that the GNEP program will introduce. Nuclear material vulnerability and attractiveness are considered with respect to the various transport stages within the GNEP fuel cycle. Physical protection options are then outlined for the transportation of this nuclear material. It is determined that increased transportation security will be required for the GNEP fuel cycle, particularly for international transport. Finally, transportation considerations for several fuel cycle scenarios are discussed. These scenarios compare the current %22once-through%22 fuel cycle with various aspects of the proposed GNEP fuel cycle. 3

  1. The G1/S Specific Cyclin D2 Is a Regulator of HIV-1 Restriction in Non-proliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Badia, Roger; Pujantell, Maria; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Puig, Teresa; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ampudia, Rosa M.; Ballana, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population strongly influenced by differentiation stimuli that become susceptible to HIV-1 infection after inactivation of the restriction factor SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). Here, we have used primary human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated through different stimuli to evaluate macrophage heterogeneity on cell activation and proliferation and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Stimulation of monocytes with GM-CSF induces a non-proliferating macrophage population highly restrictive to HIV-1 infection, characterized by the upregulation of the G1/S-specific cyclin D2, known to control early steps of cell cycle progression. Knockdown of cyclin D2, enhances HIV-1 replication in GM-CSF macrophages through inactivation of SAMHD1 restriction factor by phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin D2 forms a complex with CDK4 and p21, a factor known to restrict HIV-1 replication by affecting the function of the downstream cascade that leads to SAMHD1 deactivation. Thus, we demonstrate that cyclin D2 acts as regulator of cell cycle proteins affecting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in non-proliferating macrophages. PMID:27541004

  2. The G1/S Specific Cyclin D2 Is a Regulator of HIV-1 Restriction in Non-proliferating Cells.

    PubMed

    Badia, Roger; Pujantell, Maria; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Puig, Teresa; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ampudia, Rosa M; Vives-Pi, Marta; Esté, José A; Ballana, Ester

    2016-08-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population strongly influenced by differentiation stimuli that become susceptible to HIV-1 infection after inactivation of the restriction factor SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). Here, we have used primary human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated through different stimuli to evaluate macrophage heterogeneity on cell activation and proliferation and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Stimulation of monocytes with GM-CSF induces a non-proliferating macrophage population highly restrictive to HIV-1 infection, characterized by the upregulation of the G1/S-specific cyclin D2, known to control early steps of cell cycle progression. Knockdown of cyclin D2, enhances HIV-1 replication in GM-CSF macrophages through inactivation of SAMHD1 restriction factor by phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin D2 forms a complex with CDK4 and p21, a factor known to restrict HIV-1 replication by affecting the function of the downstream cascade that leads to SAMHD1 deactivation. Thus, we demonstrate that cyclin D2 acts as regulator of cell cycle proteins affecting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in non-proliferating macrophages. PMID:27541004

  3. Comparison of the non-proliferation event aftershocks with other Nevada Test Site events

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.; Goldstein, P.; Zucca, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    As part of a larger effort to develop technology for on-site inspection of ambiguous underground seismic events, we have been working to identify phenomenology of aftershock seismicity which would be useful for discriminating between nuclear explosions, chemical explosions, earthquakes or other seismic events. Phenomenology we have investigated includes; the spatial distribution of aftershocks, the number of aftershocks as a function of time after the main event, the size of the aftershocks, and waveform frequency content. Our major conclusions are: (1) Depending on local geologic conditions, aftershock production rate two weeks after zero time ranges from 1 to 100 per day. (2) Aftershocks of concentrated chemical explosions such as the NPE are indistinguishable from aftershocks of nuclear explosions. (3) Earthquake and explosion aftershock sequences may be differentiated on the basis of depth, magnitude, and in some cases, frequency content of seismic signals.

  4. Redefining Interrelationship between Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    Since the beginning of this century, the so-called 3Ss (Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards) have become major regulatory areas for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In order to rationalize the allocation of regulatory resources, interrelationship of the 3Ss should be investigated. From the viewpoint of the number of the parties concerned in regulation, nuclear security is peculiar with having “aggressors” as the third party. From the viewpoint of final goal of regulation, nuclear security in general and safeguards share the goal of preventing non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy, though the goal of anti-sabotage within nuclear security is rather similar to nuclear safety. As often recognized, safeguards are representative of various policy tools for nuclear non-proliferation. Strictly speaking, it is not safeguards as a policy tool but nuclear non-proliferation as a policy purpose that should be parallel to other policy purposes (nuclear safety and nuclear security). That suggests “SSN” which stands for Safety, Security and Non-proliferation is a better abbreviation rather than 3Ss. Safeguards as a policy tool should be enumerated along with nuclear safety regulation, nuclear security measures and trade controls on nuclear-related items. Trade controls have been playing an important role for nuclear non-proliferation. These policy tools can be called “SSST” in which Trade controls are also emphasized along with Safety regulation, Security measures and Safeguards.

  5. 76 FR 78805 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... America Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.'' The present NRC action is necessary to relocate a...) published in the Federal Register a final rule (76 FR 69120) that amended the NRC's regulations to implement... action corrects the final rule published on November 8, 2011 (76 FR 69120). Specifically, the new...

  6. Implementation of IAEA /1/INT/054 Project in Nuclear Analytical Techniques Group of Argentina: Current State

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, Resnizky; Rita, Pla; Alba, Zaretzky

    2008-08-14

    This paper presents the implementation of the training received through the IAEA Project 'Preparation of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Tests Rounds' in the Nuclear Analytical (NAT) Group of CNEA. Special emphasis is done on those activities related to the first Proficiency Test being carried out by the NAT Group.

  7. Post-Cold War Effects on the Non-proliferation Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Carol E.

    2006-03-31

    This journal article analyzes nuclear and security related events of the past 15 years to illustrate the changes in geopolitics and the shifting balance of power following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Reflection upon these events establishes the context for strengthening the nonproliferation regime. The author concludes that post Soviet communism hastened the movement towards a unipolar system with hegemonic power vested in the United States, and this geopolitical imbalance fostered insecurities and greater threats. Multilateral cooperation and commitment from the US would help this leader achieve its goal of security through increased global confidence in the international system.

  8. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a Deliberate Operating'' mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a Use Every Time'' (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  9. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a ``Deliberate Operating`` mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a ``Use Every Time`` (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  10. Implementation Plan for the Office of Nuclear Energy Knowledge Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-12-01

    The primary purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Knowledge Management (KM) Program is to capture, share, disseminate, and ensure the ability to apply the knowledge created by the major nuclear energy Research and Development (R&D) programs. In support of the KM program, the Implementation Plan for the Office of NE KM Program outlines the knowledge management and distributed data environment that is required for its success. In addition to enumerating some strategic goals and objectives, this document characterizes the initial program and identifies computer-based areas of investment required for increased knowledge sharing and collaboration. It identifies and addresses investments already in existence and describes how these investments can be further enhanced and implemented to support a distributed KM program. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is leading the effort to identify and address these investments through the implementation of a distributed KM program that includes participants from ten of the major DOE national laboratories.

  11. Technology diffusion of a different nature: Applications of nuclear safeguards technology to the chemical weapons verification regime

    SciTech Connect

    Kadner, S.P.; Reisman, A.; Turpen, E.

    1996-10-01

    The following discussion focuses on the issue of arms control implementation from the standpoint of technology and technical assistance. Not only are the procedures and techniques for safeguarding nuclear materials undergoing substantial changes, but the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) will give rise to technical difficulties unprecedented in the implementation of arms control verification. Although these regimes present new challenges, an analysis of the similarities between the nuclear and chemical weapons non-proliferation verification regimes illustrates the overlap in technological solutions. Just as cost-effective and efficient technologies can solve the problems faced by the nuclear safeguards community, these same technologies offer solutions for the CWC safeguards regime. With this in mind, experts at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), who are responsible for verification implementation, need to devise a CWC verification protocol that considers the technology already available. The functional similarity of IAEA and the OPCW, in conjunction with the technical necessities of both verification regimes, should receive attention with respect to the establishment of a technical assistance program. Lastly, the advanced status of the nuclear and chemical regime vis-a-vis the biological non-proliferation regime can inform our approach to implementation of confidence building measures for biological weapons.

  12. Deployable Plume and Aerosol Release Prediction and Tracking System. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Task 1. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleppe, John; Norris, William; Etezadi, Mehdi

    2006-07-19

    This contract was awarded in response to a proposal in which a deployable plume and aerosol release prediction and tracking system would be designed, fabricated, and tested. The system would gather real time atmospheric data and input it into a real time atmospheric model that could be used for plume predition and tracking. The system would be able to be quickly deployed by aircraft to points of interest or positioned for deployment by vehicles. The system would provide three dimensional (u, v, and w) wind vector data, inversion height measurements, surface wind information, classical weather station data, and solar radiation. The on-board real time computer model would provide the prediction of the behavior of plumes and released aerosols.

  13. Implementation of an on-line monitoring system for transmitters in a CANDU nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, A.; Abdul-Nour, G.; Vaillancourt, R.; Komljenovic, D.

    2012-05-01

    Many transmitters (pressure, level and flow) are used in a nuclear power plant. It is necessary to calibrate them periodically to ensure that their measurements are accurate. These calibration tasks are time consuming and often contribute to worker radiation exposure. Human errors can also sometimes degrade their performance since the calibration involves intrusive techniques. More importantly, experience has shown that the majority of current calibration efforts are not necessary. These facts motivated the nuclear industry to develop new technologies for identifying drifting instruments. These technologies, well known as on-line monitoring (OLM) techniques, are non-intrusive and allow focusing the maintenance efforts on the instruments that really need a calibration. Although few OLM systems have been implemented in some PWR and BWR plants, these technologies are not commonly used and have not been permanently implemented in a CANDU plant. This paper presents the results of a research project that has been performed in a CANDU plant in order to validate the implementation of an OLM system. An application project, based on the ICMP algorithm developed by EPRI, has been carried out in order to evaluate the performance of an OLM system. The results demonstrated that the OLM system was able to detect the drift of an instrument in the majority of the studied cases. A feasibility study has also been completed and has demonstrated that the implementation of an OLM system at a CANDU nuclear power plant could be advantageous under certain conditions.

  14. Design and implementation of a nuclear weapons management system submodule: Shipboard security force system. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Settlemyer, S.R.

    1991-09-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Management System combines the strengths of an expert system with the flexibility of a database management system to assist the Weapons Officer, Security Officer, and the Personnel Reliability Program Officer in the performance of administrative duties associated with the nuclear weapons programs in the United States Navy. This thesis examines the need for, and ultimately the design of, a system that will assist the Security Officer in administrative duties associated with the Shipboard Self Defense Force. This system, designed and coded utilizing dBASE IV, can be implemented as a stand alone system. Furthermore, it interfaces with the expert system submodule that handles the PRP screening process.

  15. Programs that support non-proliferation and defense conversion funded by the US Government

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, H.L.

    1994-08-01

    The proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons is a serious problem for international security. Consequently the U.S. government has established an array of programs to fund activities that will inhibit this activity. The problem of proliferation and defense conversion, in general, is quite complicated. The most immediate concern is the actual diversion of weapons materials. In the long term; however, weapons of mass destruction must be destroyed in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Ultimately the solution of the proliferation problem lies in the redirection of the intellectual skills of weapons scientists and engineers to peaceful commercial activities. At the present time the economic conditions in the New Independent States create severe pressure on people with critical weapons knowledge to sell their skills to political entities that are dangerous. There are four programs to be discussed in this paper. The first is the {open_quotes}Nunn-Lugar{close_quotes} program which is the largest and is administered by the Department of Defense. Between FY92 and FY94 Congress authorized $1.2B for this activity which is aimed at weapons destruction, storage, and safeguards. The second is the International Science and Technology Center in Moscow and the Science Center about to open in Ukraine. These are joint efforts involving the U.S., the European Community, and Japan to fund projects to prevent proliferation and foster commercial technological activity in Russia, Georgia, and Ukraine. The New Independent States - Industrial Partnering Program is a $35M (FY94) program jointly administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of State.

  16. Project Hanford management contract quality assurance program implementation plan for nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bibb, E.K.

    1997-10-15

    During transition from the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Management and Operations (M and O) contract to the Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) Management and Integration (M and I) contract, existing WHC policies, procedures, and manuals were reviewed to determine which to adopt on an interim basis. Both WHC-SP-1131,Hanford Quality Assurance Program and Implementation Plan, and WHC-CM-4-2, Quality Assurance Manual, were adopted; however, it was recognized that revisions were required to address the functions and responsibilities of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC). This Quality Assurance Program Implementation Plan for Nuclear Facilities (HNF-SP-1228) supersedes the implementation portion of WHC-SP-1 13 1, Rev. 1. The revised Quality Assurance (QA) Program is documented in the Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD), HNF-MP-599. That document replaces the QA Program in WHC-SP-1131, Rev. 1. The scope of this document is limited to documenting the nuclear facilities managed by FDH and its Major Subcontractors (MSCS) and the status of the implementation of 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance Requirements, at those facilities. Since the QA Program for the nuclear facilities is now documented in the QAPD, future updates of the information provided in this plan will be by letter. The layout of this plan is similar to that of WHC-SP-1 13 1, Rev. 1. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 provide an overview of the Project Hanford QA Program. A list of Project Hanford nuclear facilities is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides the status of facility compliance to 10 CFR 830.120. Sections 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 provide requested exemptions, status of open items, and references, respectively. The four appendices correspond to the four projects that comprise Project Hanford.

  17. Integration of Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Development with UNSCR 1540 Implementation - Context and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, M; Essner, J

    2008-11-03

    On 28 April 2004, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1540 (2004), obliging States, inter alia, to refrain from supporting by any means non-State actors from developing, acquiring, manufacturing, possessing, transporting, transferring or using nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their delivery systems. It imposes binding obligations on all States to establish domestic controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, and their means of delivery, including by establishing appropriate controls over related materials. This mandate was extended an additional two years with the adoption of Resolution 1673 (2006) and an additional three years with the adoption of Resolution 1810 (2008). UNSCR 1540 is a key nonproliferation and counterterrorism tool that needs to be implemented well. Its obligations are a core part of nuclear infrastructure development.

  18. Bacterial senescence: protein oxidation in non-proliferating cells is dictated by the accuracy of the ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Manuel; Fredriksson, Åsa; Henriksson, Jaqueline; Nyström, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the causal factors behind the age-related oxidation of proteins during arrest of cell proliferation. A proteomic approach demonstrated that protein oxidation in non-proliferating cells is observed primarily for proteins being produced in a number of aberrant isoforms. Also, these cells exhibited a reduced translational fidelity as demonstrated by both proteomic analysis and genetic measurements of nonsense suppression. Mutants harboring hyperaccurate ribosomes exhibited a drastically attenuated protein oxidation during growth arrest. In contrast, oxidation was augmented in mutants with error-prone ribosomes. Oxidation increased concomitantly with a reduced rate of translation, indicating that the production of aberrant, and oxidized proteins, is not the result of titration of the co-translational folding machinery. The age-related accumulation of the chaperones, DnaK and GroEL, was drastically attenuated in the hyperaccurate rpsL mutant, demonstrating that the reduced translational fidelity in growth-arrested cells may also be a primary cause for the induction of the heat shock regulon. The data point to an alternative way of approaching the causal factors involved in protein oxidation in eukaryotic G0 cells. PMID:11566891

  19. Non-Proliferation Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalec, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses five kinds of cooperative agreements established by the College of Lake County (IL): those with other community colleges/technical institutes; the military; business, industry, and organizations; secondary schools; and community and special interest groups. Pays particular attention to two kinds of agreements with other colleges. (CAM)

  20. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  1. Implementation of external hazards in Probabilistic Safety Assessment for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manorma; Klug, Joakim; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The paper will focus on the discussion on implementation of external hazards in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods for the extreme external hazards mainly focused on Seismic, Flooding, Meteorological Hazards (e.g. Storm, Extreme temperature, snow pack), Biological infestation, Lightening hazards, Accidental Aircraft crash and man- made hazards including natural external fire and external explosion. This will include discussion on identification of some good practices on the implementation of external hazards in Level 1 PSA, with a perspective of development of extended PSA and introduction of relevant modelling for external hazards in an existing Level 1 PSA. This paper is associated to the European project ASAMPSAE (www.asampsa.eu) which gathers more than 30 organizations (industry, research, safety control) from Europe, US and Japan and which aims at identifying some meaningful practices to extend the scope and the quality of the existing probabilistic safety analysis developed for nuclear power plants.

  2. Seismic Interferometry and the Spatial Auto-Correlation Method on the Regional Coda of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, S.; Prieto, G. A.

    2008-12-01

    A seismic recording of the non-proliferation experiment (NPE), made by a petroleum-exploration company in Railroad Valley (Nevada), contains the first break of the regional P phases followed by a three minute long coda. The transverse orientation and sign-bit recording of the array, renders distinguishing phase arrival times difficult. This motivates the use of seismic interferometry. The geometry does not permit recovering the Green's function from the first break arrival times using the stationary phase theorem, however the coda contains sufficiently equipartitioned energy. We study the result of seismic interferometry in the frequency-domain. This procedure is analogous to the spatial auto-correlation (SPAC) method, devised for studying microtremors by Aki in 1957. Cross-correlating two receiver stations retrieves, under favorable circumstances, an approximation of the Green's function between these two stations. To first order, this Green's function consists of a direct event traveling between the receivers. In the frequency domain, the lowest mode in the Green's function is a weighted and scaled zero-order Bessel function of the first kind, J0. We fit the frequency-domain of the recovered Green's functions to damped J0 functions. to recover phase velocity and estimates of the attenuation coefficients. Only energy between 1-4 Hz can be fitted unambiguously with J0 functions, because higher frequencies contain too much spurious energy. This result shows the equivalence of the SPAC method and seismic interferometry for the lowest mode in the Green's function. This study also shows how the coda of a regional event, seemingly unfavorably positioned, can contains energy useful for seismic interferometry.

  3. Development, Application, and Implementation of RAMCAP to Characterize Nuclear Power Plant Risk From Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, John P.; Teagarden, Grant A.

    2006-07-01

    In response to increased interest in risk-informed decision making regarding terrorism, EPRI and ERIN Engineering were selected by U.S. DHS and ASME to develop and demonstrate the RAMCAP method for nuclear power plant (NPP) risk assessment. The objective is to characterize plant-specific NPP risk for risk management opportunities and to provide consistent information for DHS decision making. This paper is an update of this project presented at the American Nuclear Society (ANS) International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA05) in September, 2005. The method uses a characterization of risk as a function of Consequence, Vulnerability, and Threat. For each site, worst case scenarios are developed for each of sixteen benchmark threats. Nuclear RAMCAP hypothesizes that the intent of the perpetrator is to cause offsite radiological consequences. Specific targets are the reactor core, the spent fuel pool, and nuclear spent fuel in a dry storage facility (ISFSI). Results for each scenario are presented as conditional risk for financial loss, early fatalities and early injuries. Expected consequences for each scenario are quantified, while vulnerability is estimated on a relative likelihood scale. Insights for other societal risks are provided. Although threat frequencies are not provided, target attractiveness and threat deterrence are estimated. To assure efficiency, completeness, and consistency; results are documented using standard RAMCAP Evaluator software. Trial applications were successfully performed at four plant sites. Implementation at all other U.S. commercial sites is underway, supported by the Nuclear Sector Coordinating Council (NSCC). Insights from RAMCAP results at 23 U.S. plants completed to date have been compiled and presented to the NSCC. Results are site-specific. Physical security barriers, an armed security force, preparedness for design-basis threats, rugged design against natural hazards, multiple barriers between fuel and

  4. A practical approach for implementing risk-based inservice testing of pumps at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Maret, D.; Seniuk, P.; Smith, L.

    1996-12-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development`s (CRTD) Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inservice Testing has developed guidelines for risk-based inservice testing (IST) of pumps and valves. These guidelines are intended to help the ASME Operation and Maintenance (OM) Committee to enhance plant safety while focussing appropriate testing resources on critical components. This paper describes a practical approach for implementing those guidelines for pumps at nuclear power plants. The approach, as described in this paper, relies on input, direction, and assistance from several entities such as the ASME Code Committees, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the National Laboratories, as well as industry groups and personnel with applicable expertise. Key parts of the risk-based IST process that are addressed here include: identification of important failure modes, identification of significant failure causes, assessing the effectiveness of testing and maintenance activities, development of alternative testing and maintenance strategies, and assessing the effectiveness of alternative testing strategies with present ASME Code requirements. Finally, the paper suggests a method of implementing this process into the ASME OM Code for pump testing.

  5. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  6. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  7. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  8. Handbook for the implementation of IAEA inspection activities at Department of Energy nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, N.R.; Thomas, K.E.; Coady, K.J.; Desmond, W.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Nonproliferation Support Program (NSP) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) has responsibility for supporting and aiding implementation of international and multilateral programs, agreements, and treaties at domestic facilities. In late 1995, the {open_quotes}Readiness Planning Guide for Nonproliferation Visits{close_quotes} (DOE 470.1-1) was issued to assist DOE sites prepare for the host foreign delegations visiting DOE facilities. Since then, field and head-quarters programs have expressed a need for a document that addresses domestic safeguards and security activities, specifically planning for and hosting International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical visits and inspections. As a result, OSS/NSP conducted a workshop to prepare a handbook that would contain guidance on domestic safeguards and security preparation and follow-on activities to ensure that this handbook could be utilized by all facilities to improve operational efficiencies and reduce implementation problems. The handbook has been structured to provide detailed background and guidance concerning the obligation, negotiation, inspection, and reporting processes for IAEH safeguards activities in DOE nuclear facilities as well as the lessons-learned by currently inspected facilities and how-we-do-it implementation examples. This paper will present an overview of the preparation and content of this new Handbook.

  9. Assessing the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Ackland, L.; McGuire, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons and arms control. Topics considered include historical aspects, the arms race, nuclear power, flaws in the non-proliferation treaty, North-South issues, East-West confrontation, Soviet decision making with regard to national defense, US and Soviet perspectives on national security, ballistic missile defense (''Star Wars''), political aspects, nuclear winter, stockpiles, US foreign policy, and military strategy.

  10. 15 CFR 742.3 - Nuclear nonproliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear nonproliferation. 742.3...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.3 Nuclear nonproliferation. (a) License requirements. Section 309(c) of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 requires BIS to identify items subject to the EAR that could be...

  11. 15 CFR 742.3 - Nuclear nonproliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear nonproliferation. 742.3...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.3 Nuclear nonproliferation. (a) License requirements. Section 309(c) of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 requires BIS to identify items subject to the EAR that could be...

  12. [Implementing new technology in radiation oncology: The French agency for nuclear safety (ASN) report].

    PubMed

    Lartigau, É-F; Lisbona, A; Isambert, A; Cadot, P; Derreumaux, S; Dupuis, O; Gérard, J-P; Ledu, D; Mahé, M-A; Marchesi, V; Mazurier, J; De Oliveira, A; Phare, O; Aubert, B

    2015-10-01

    In August 2013, the French nuclear safety agency (ASN) requested the permanent group of experts in radiation protection in medicine (GPMED) to propose recommendations on the implementation of new technology and techniques in radiation oncology. These recommendations were finalized in February 2015 by the GPMED. In April 2015, the ASN sent a letter to the French ministry of health (DGS/DGOS), and its national health agencies (ANSM, INCa, HAS). In these letters, ASN proposed that, from the 12 recommendations made by the GPMED, an action plan should be established, whose control could be assigned to the French national cancer institute (INCa), as a pilot of the national committee for radiotherapy and that this proposal has to be considered at the next meeting of the national committee of radiotherapy. PMID:26278991

  13. The reference human nuclear mitochondrial sequences compilation validated and implemented on the UCSC genome browser

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic nuclear genomes contain fragments of mitochondrial DNA called NumtS (Nuclear mitochondrial Sequences), whose mode and time of insertion, as well as their functional/structural role within the genome are debated issues. Insertion sites match with chromosomal breaks, revealing that micro-deletions usually occurring at non-homologous end joining loci become reduced in presence of NumtS. Some NumtS are involved in recombination events leading to fragment duplication. Moreover, NumtS are polymorphic, a feature that renders them candidates as population markers. Finally, they are a cause of contamination during human mtDNA sequencing, leading to the generation of false heteroplasmies. Results Here we present RHNumtS.2, the most exhaustive human NumtSome catalogue annotating 585 NumtS, 97% of which were here validated in a European individual and in HapMap samples. The NumtS complete dataset and related features have been made available at the UCSC Genome Browser. The produced sequences have been submitted to INSDC databases. The implementation of the RHNumtS.2 tracks within the UCSC Genome Browser has been carried out with the aim to facilitate browsing of the NumtS tracks to be exploited in a wide range of research applications. Conclusions We aimed at providing the scientific community with the most exhaustive overview on the human NumtSome, a resource whose aim is to support several research applications, such as studies concerning human structural variation, diversity, and disease, as well as the detection of false heteroplasmic mtDNA variants. Upon implementation of the NumtS tracks, the application of the BLAT program on the UCSC Genome Browser has now become an additional tool to check for heteroplasmic artefacts, supported by data available through the NumtS tracks. PMID:22013967

  14. Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter; Metcalfe, Douglas; Blanchette, Marcia; Dolinar, George; Halpenny, Steven; Purdy, Chris; Smith, David; Kupferschmidt, William

    2008-01-15

    The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including several prototype and research reactors), a wide variety of buried and stored wastes, and contaminated lands. The shutdown buildings and contaminated lands need to be safely decommissioned to meet federal regulatory requirements, and long-term solutions need to be developed and implemented for management of the wastes. More than half of the liabilities are the result of Cold War activities during the 1940's, 50's and early 60's. The remaining liabilities stem from R and D for medical isotopes and nuclear reactor technology, as well as national science programs. About 70 percent of the liabilities are located at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, and a further 20 percent are located at AECL's shutdown Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba. The remaining 10 percent relate largely to three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec, which were key to the developmental stage of Canada's CANDU reactor technology. The inventory of legacy waste includes spent fuel, high-level, intermediate-level and low-level solid and liquid radioactive waste, and wastes (largely contaminated soils) from site clean-up work across Canada. Most of the wastes are in raw, unconditioned form, and limited characterization information is available for the wastes generated in past decades. In many cases unique and potentially costly solutions will be required to recover, handle and process the wastes. In conclusion: the Government of Canada has initiated a program to deal with nuclear legacy liabilities dating back to the Cold War and the birth of nuclear technologies and medicine in Canada. The 5

  15. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests. PMID:9041734

  16. Unified description of structure and reactions: implementing the nuclear field theory program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broglia, R. A.; Bortignon, P. F.; Barranco, F.; Vigezzi, E.; Idini, A.; Potel, G.

    2016-06-01

    The modern theory of the atomic nucleus results from the merging of the liquid drop model of Niels Bohr and Fritz Kalckar, and of the shell model of Marie Goeppert Meyer and Hans Jensen. The first model contributed the concepts of collective excitations. The second, those of independent-particle motion. The unification of these apparently contradictory views in terms of the particle-vibration and particle-rotation couplings carried out by Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson has allowed for an ever more complete, accurate and detailed description of nuclear structure. Nuclear field theory (NFT), developed by the Copenhagen–Buenos Aires collaboration, provided a powerful quantal embodiment of this unification. Reactions are not only at the basis of quantum mechanics (statistical interpretation, Max Born), but also the specific tools to probe the atomic nucleus. It is then natural that NFT is being extended to deal with processes which involve the continuum in an intrinsic fashion, so as to be able to treat them on an equal footing with those associated with bound states (structure). As a result, spectroscopic studies of transfer to continuum states could eventually make use of the NFT rules, properly extended to take care of recoil effects. In the present contribution we review the implementation of the NFT program of structure and reactions, setting special emphasis on open problems and outstanding predictions.

  17. Lessons learned in digital upgrade projects digital control system implementation at US nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, S.; Bolian, T. W.

    2006-07-01

    AREVA NP has gained significant experience during the past five years in digital upgrades at operating nuclear power stations in the US. Plants are seeking modernization with digital technology to address obsolescence, spare parts availability, vendor support, increasing age-related failures and diminished reliability. New systems offer improved reliability and functionality, and decreased maintenance requirements. Significant lessons learned have been identified relating to the areas of licensing, equipment qualification, software quality assurance and other topics specific to digital controls. Digital control systems have been installed in non safety-related control applications at many utilities within the last 15 years. There have also been a few replacements of small safety-related systems with digital technology. Digital control systems are proving to be reliable, accurate, and easy to maintain. Digital technology is gaining acceptance and momentum with both utilities and regulatory agencies based upon the successes of these installations. Also, new plants are being designed with integrated digital control systems. To support plant life extension and address obsolescence of critical components, utilities are beginning to install digital technology for primary safety-system replacement. AREVA NP analyzed operating experience and lessons learned from its own digital upgrade projects as well as industry-wide experience to identify key issues that should be considered when implementing digital controls in nuclear power stations.

  18. Export control guide: Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and preparation of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    The international Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also referred to as the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), states in Article III, paragraph 2(b) that {open_quotes}Each State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to provide . . . equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material to any non-nuclear-weapon State for peaceful purposes, unless the source or special fissionable material shall be subject to the safeguards required by this Article.{close_quotes} This guide was prepared to assist export control officials in the interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws and controls relating to the international Trigger List for irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, components, and materials. The guide also contains information related to the production of plutonium metal. Reprocessing and its place in the nuclear fuel cycle are described briefly; the standard procedure to prepare metallic plutonium is discussed; steps used to prepare Trigger List controls are cited; descriptions of controlled items are given; and special materials of construction are noted. This is followed by a comprehensive description of especially designed or prepared equipment, materials, and components of reprocessing and plutonium metal processes and includes photographs and/or pictorial representations. The nomenclature of the Trigger List has been retained in the numbered sections of this document for clarity.

  19. A Coordinated Research Project on the Implementation of Nuclear Techniques to Improve Food Traceability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, Russell; Cannavan, Andrew; Zandric, Zora; Maestroni, Britt; Abrahim, Aiman

    2013-04-01

    Traceability systems play a key role in assuring a safe and reliable food supply. Analytical techniques harnessing the spatial patterns in distribution of stable isotope and trace element ratios can be used for the determination of the provenance of food. Such techniques offer the potential to enhance global trade by providing an independent means of verifying "paper" traceability systems and can also help to prove authenticity, to combat fraudulent practices, and to control adulteration, which are important issues for economic, religious or cultural reasons. To address some of the challenges that developing countries face in attempting to implement effective food traceability systems, the IAEA, through its Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, has initiated a 5-year coordinated research project involving institutes in 15 developing and developed countries (Austria, Botswana, Chile, China, France, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Uganda, UK, USA). The objective is to help in member state laboratories to establish robust analytical techniques and databases, validated to international standards, to determine the provenance of food. Nuclear techniques such as stable isotope and multi-element analysis, along with complementary methods, will be applied for the verification of food traceability systems and claims related to food origin, production, and authenticity. This integrated and multidisciplinary approach to strengthening capacity in food traceability will contribute to the effective implementation of holistic systems for food safety and control. The project focuses mainly on the development of techniques to confirm product authenticity, with several research partners also considering food safety issues. Research topics encompass determination of the geographical origin of a variety of commodities, including seed oils, rice, wine, olive oil, wheat, orange juice, fish, groundnuts, tea, pork, honey and

  20. Strengthening IAEA safeguards in an era of nuclear cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, R.

    1995-11-01

    Since the end of the Cold War the world has witnessed a remarkable series of events demonstrating that universal adherence to the principles of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament are no longer utopian dreams. The author reviews the actions of various countries to terminate or reduce nuclear weapons programs and those that are resisting the non-proliferation efforts. The author addresses efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to safeguard declared nuclear material more cost-effectively and deal with the possibility of undeclared nuclear activities.

  1. The nuclear dilemma and the just war tradition

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, W.V.; Langan, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the concept of a ''just'' war, national defense, political aspects, religion and politics, the failure of deterrence, conventional warfare, nuclear deterrence and democratic politics, the future of the nuclear debate, non-proliferation policy, arms control, national security, and government policies.

  2. International Workshops to Foster Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Coates, Cameron W.; Bedke, Michael L.

    2003-07-14

    A country’s adherence to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Additional Protocol is an important statement to the world of that country’s commitment to nuclear nonproliferation. Without the Additional Protocol (AP) it is possible, as demonstrated in Iraq, for a country party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to clandestinely work toward nuclear weapons and be undetected by the IAEA. This is because classical safeguards under the NPT are directed at diversion of nuclear material from declared activities. But a country may instead build undeclared activities to produce weapons-grade nuclear material. The AP is directed at detecting those undeclared activities. As of May 2003, 73 countries had signed the AP, but only 35 have entered into force. To further adherence to the AP, the IAEA has held regional, high-level seminars in Japan, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Peru, Romania, and Malaysia to explain AP provisions. To supplement these policy-level seminars, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken to develop a set of modules of technical competencies required to implement the AP. The intent is to work closely with the IAEA by providing these technical competencies to countries as well as to complement the IAEA’s regional seminars and other outreach efforts. This paper briefly describes the technical competency modules.

  3. 77 FR 27113 - Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material; Export of International Atomic Energy Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...) part 110, ``Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material,'' to current nuclear non-proliferation... and import of nuclear materials and equipment. This rulemaking is necessary to reflect the nuclear non... OMB control number. Regulatory Analysis This rulemaking is necessary to reflect the nuclear...

  4. Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E

    2012-10-23

    In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the

  5. 76 FR 69120 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... of America Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy'' (the Agreement). The Agreement prohibits the... United States of America Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, dated 2010, Australian-obligated... by the Commission on June 30, 1997, and published in the Federal Register on September 3, 1997 (62...

  6. What's There to Debate about Nuclear Energy? Promoting Multidimensional Science Literacy by Implementing STS Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley, Elise; Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.; Stumpe, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In this lesson, the teacher begins by reviewing some key energy topics with the students. Next, students are asked to focus closely on nuclear energy as a viable resource by closely reading, highlighting, and annotating an article regarding the future of nuclear energy. The culminating activity and evaluation of students understanding of energy…

  7. Seminar on Aspects of Planning and Implementing a Nuclear Power Program: A Simulation-Based Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Apt, Kenneth E.; Bissani, Mo; Morris, Frederic A.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Mathews, Caroline E.; Kessler, Carol E.; Hund, Gretchen; Kreyling, Sean J.; Essner, Jonathan; Vergino, Eileen; Li, Sheng T.

    2008-07-17

    Countries worldwide are considering developing or expanding existing nuclear power programs to meet growing energy demand, to reduce reliance on declining domestic and foreign-based oil supplies, , and to limit the effects of climate change. Safe, secure and sustainable operation of these new reactors will require extensive planning and preparation, possibly as much as ten to 15 years before the first nuclear plant an be brought online, particularly in countries with little nuclear infrastructure in place. The planning and preparation will focus on development of the technical, legal, regulatory and human resources needed to support a nuclear power program. Countries and institutions that can provide technical assistance are already coordinating activities and leveraging resources to ensure these nascent nuclear needs are met cost-effectively. To this end, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is hosting seminars aimed at helping countries make more informed decisions about key nuclear safety, security and nonproliferation issues. This paper discusses the challenges associated with infrastructure development, particularly in countries with limited infrastructure, and summarizes the outcomes of the seminars NNSA has held to date .

  8. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  9. Nuclear proliferation: toward global restraint

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A year-long study by the United Nations Association of the USA (UNA-USA) on the problem of proliferation analyzed the policy issues and developed recommendations for US and international policy. The consensus report concludes that old approaches are no longer sufficient. Renewed efforts must avoid the spread of nuclear weapons to additional countries. Efforts must focus on raising the costs of and decreasing the incentives for acquiring nuclear weapons. The report defines five categories of feasible policy initiatives: (1) strengthen the International Atomic Energy Agency's credibility as a nuclear watchdog, (2) reaffirm US and international support for the Non-Proliferation Treaty, (3) develop a comprehensive US non-proliferation policy, (4) renew efforts to develop nuclear-weapons-free zones, and (5) develop nonproliferation confidence-building measures.

  10. Overview of implementing a project control system in the nuclear utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cooprider, D.H. )

    1994-03-01

    During the late 1980s, a metamorphosis began at Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). A strategic step in nuclear engineering's efforts to become more cost effective began in January 1990. A project control department was formed. The initial mission was to provide support for nuclear engineering design activities associated with FPL's two twin-unit nuclear power generation facilities - Turkey Point and St. Lucie. Later, the goal expanded to include the division's materials management, nuclear licensing, and information management departments. The project control group was organized along the lines of the organizations served. Separate dedicated groups were established for each plant. Since most engineering activity was based at the Juno Beach headquarters, the project control staff also was based there.

  11. Implementation of Methodology for Final Hazard Categorization of a DOE Nuclear Facility

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREWN

    2004-03-29

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities are categorized by the level of hazard they pose to workers, the general public, and the environment. This paper applies the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-1027-92 and interpreted in recent DOE guidance to a nuclear material storage facility at the Savannah River Site to reduce the category of the facility to below HC-3.

  12. International workshop on new developments in occupational dose control and ALARA implementation at nuclear power plants and similar facilities: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.; Kahn, T.A. )

    1990-02-01

    This report contains summaries of papers and discussions presented at the International Workshop on New Developments in Occupational Dose Control and ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants and Similar Facilities held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, September 18--21, 1989. The purpose of this workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, regulators, and administrators who are involved with occupational dose control at nuclear facilities to exchange information on recent developments from their countries. The eleven countries represented included: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The workshop was organized into seven sessions with 20-minute papers and four sessions with 5-minute discussions. The topics for the paper sessions included: Session 1, ALARA status, studies, and organization; Session 3, ALARA engineering in design and modifications; Session 5, system chemistry and water purification; Session 7, ALARA in operation I; Session 9, ALARA in operation II; Session 10, ALARA in operation III; and Session 11, the NEA Information System on Occupational Exposure. This workshop was sponsored jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency. Each individual paper has been catalogued separately.

  13. Experimental implementation of a three qubit quantum game with corrupt source using nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Avik; Sivapriya, K.; Kumar, Anil

    2007-08-01

    In a three player quantum 'Dilemma' game each player takes independent decisions to maximize his/her individual gain. The optimal strategy in the quantum version of this game has a higher payoff compared to its classical counterpart. However, this advantage is lost if the initial qubits provided to the players are from a noisy source. We have experimentally implemented the three player quantum version of the 'Dilemma' game as described by Johnson, [N.F. Johnson, Phys. Rev. A 63 (2001) 020302(R)] using nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor and have experimentally verified that the payoff of the quantum game for various levels of corruption matches the theoretical payoff.

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFETY BOARD RECOMMENDATION 2000-2 AT WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.; Wu, C.

    2002-02-26

    The Defense Nuclear Safeties Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 2000-2 on March 8, 2000, concerning the degrading conditions of vital safety systems, or systems important to nuclear safety, at DOE sites across the nation. The Board recommended that the DOE take action to assess the condition of its nuclear systems to ensure continued operational readiness of vital safety systems that are important for safely accomplishing the DOE's mission. To verify the readiness of vital safety systems, a two-phased approach was established. Phase I consisted of a qualitative assessment to approved criteria of the defined vital safety systems by operating contractor personnel, overseen by Federal field office personnel. Based on Phase I Assessment results, vital safety systems with significant deficiencies would be further assessed in Phase II, a more extensive quantitative assessment, by a contractor and Federal team, using a second set of criteria. In addition, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 2000-2 concluded that the degradation of confinement ventilation systems was of major concern, and issued a separate set of criteria to perform a Phase II Assessment on confinement ventilation systems.

  15. Controlling nuclear proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1981-07-17

    Nuclear non-proliferation policy depends on the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty, in which countries promise not to acquire nuclear weapons in exchange for open access to peaceful nuclear technology, and a system of international safeguards that are imposed on exported nuclear equipment and facilities operated by parties to the treaty. Critics have feared all along that non-nuclear countries might circumvent or exploit the system to obtain nuclear weapons and that the Atoms for Peace plan would spread the very technology it sought to control. The nuclear weapons states would like everyone else to believe that atomic bombs are undesirable, but they continue to rely on the bombs for their own defense. Israel's raid on Iraq's nuclear reactor focused world attention on the proliferation problem and helped to broaden and sterengthen its prospects. It also highlighted the weakness that there are no effective sanctions against violators. Until the international community can ageee on enforcement measures powerful enough to prevent nuclear proliferation, individual countries may be tempted to follow Israel's example, 19 references.

  16. Disposition of Nuclear Waste Using Subcritical Accelerator-Driven Systems: Technology Choices and Implementation Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, Francesco; Williamson, Mark A.; Li Ning; Houts, Michael G.; Morley, Richard A.; Beller, Denis E.; Sailor, William; Lawrence, George

    2000-10-15

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has led the development of accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) to provide an alternative technological solution to the disposition of nuclear waste. While ATW will not eliminate the need for a high-level waste repository, it offers a new technology option for altering the nature of nuclear waste and enhancing the capability of a repository. The basic concept of ATW focuses on reducing the time horizon for the radiological risk from hundreds of thousands of years to a few hundred years and on reducing the thermal loading. As such, ATW will greatly reduce the amount of transuranic elements that will be disposed of in a high-level waste repository. The goal of the ATW nuclear subsystem is to produce three orders of magnitude reduction in the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste sent to a repository, including losses through processing. If the goal is met, the radiotoxicity of ATW-treated waste after 300 yr would be less than that of untreated waste after 100 000 yr.These objectives can be achieved through the use of high neutron fluxes produced in accelerator-driven subcritical systems. While critical fission reactors can produce high neutron fluxes to destroy actinides and select fission products, the effectiveness of the destruction is limited by the criticality requirement. Furthermore, a substantial amount of excess reactivity would have to be supplied initially and compensated for by control poisons. To overcome these intrinsic limitations, we searched for solutions in subcritical systems freed from the criticality requirement by taking advantage of the recent breakthroughs in accelerator technology and the release of liquid lead/bismuth nuclear coolant technology from Russia. The effort led to the selection of an accelerator-driven subcritical system that results in the destruction of the actinides and fission products of concern as well as permitting easy operational control through the external control of the neutron

  17. The Science of Nuclear Materials: A Modular, Laboratory-based Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, C.L.; Feldman, G.; Briscoe, W.J.

    2014-06-15

    The development of a curriculum for nuclear materials courses targeting students pursuing Master of Arts degrees at The George Washington University is described. The courses include basic concepts such as radiation and radioactivity as well as more complex topics such the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear weapons, radiation detection and technological aspects of non-proliferation.

  18. The Science of Nuclear Materials: A Modular, Laboratory-based Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, C. L.; Feldman, G.; Briscoe, W. J.

    2014-06-01

    The development of a curriculum for nuclear materials courses targeting students pursuing Master of Arts degrees at The George Washington University is described. The courses include basic concepts such as radiation and radioactivity as well as more complex topics such the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear weapons, radiation detection and technological aspects of non-proliferation.

  19. 78 FR 33995 - Nuclear Proliferation Assessment in Licensing Process for Enrichment or Reprocessing Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... designed to minimize proliferation risks world-wide, including the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty, the U... nuclear nonproliferation goals and policies. The U.S. Department of State (DOS), working with the U.S... aligned with the broader national nuclear nonproliferation policies and goals established by the...

  20. Implementing Stakeholders' Access to Expertise: Experimenting on Nuclear Installations' Safety Cases - 12160

    SciTech Connect

    Gilli, Ludivine; Charron, Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    In 2009 and 2010, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (IRSN) led two pilot actions dealing with nuclear installations' safety cases. One concerned the periodical review of the French 900 MWe nuclear reactors, the other concerned the decommissioning of a workshop located on the site of Areva's La Hague fuel-reprocessing plant site in Northwestern France. The purpose of both these programs was to test ways for IRSN and a small number of stakeholders (Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) members, local elected officials, etc.) to engage in technical discussions. The discussions were intended to enable the stakeholders to review future applications and provide valuable input. The test cases confirmed there is a definite challenge in successfully opening a meaningful dialogue to discuss technical issues, in particular the fact that most expertise reports were not public and the conflict that exists between the contrary demands of transparency and confidentiality of information. The test case also confirmed there are ways to further improvement of stakeholders' involvement. (authors)

  1. Potential advantages associated with implementing a risk-based inspection program by a nuclear facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Alexander, III; Balkey, Kenneth R.

    1995-05-01

    The current inservice inspection activities at a U.S. nuclear facility are based upon the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI. The Code selects examination locations based upon a sampling criteria which includes component geometry, stress, and usage among other criteria. This can result in a significant number of required examinations. As a result of regulatory action each nuclear facility has conducted probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) or individual plant examinations (IPE), producing plant specific risk-based information. Several initiatives have been introduced to apply this new plant risk information. Among these initiatives is risk-based inservice inspection. A code case has been introduced for piping inspections based upon this new risk- based technology. This effort brought forward to the ASME Section XI Code committee, has been initiated and championed by the ASME Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inspection Guidelines -- LWR Nuclear Power Plant Application. Preliminary assessments associated with the code case have revealed that potential advantages exist in a risk-based inservice inspection program with regard to a number of exams, risk, personnel exposure, and cost.

  2. [Estimation of cost-saving for reducing radioactive waste from nuclear medicine facilities by implementing decay in storage (DIS) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    DIS has not yet been implemented in Japan as of 2011. Therefore, even if risk was negligible, medical institutions have to entrust radioactive temporal waste disposal to Japan Radio Isotopes Association (JRIA) in the current situation. To decide whether DIS should be implemented in Japan or not, cost-saving effect of DIS was estimated by comparing the cost that nuclear medical facilities pay. By implementing DIS, the total annual cost for all nuclear medical facilities in Japan is estimated to be decreased to 30 million yen or less from 710 million yen. DIS would save 680 million yen (96%) per year. PMID:22516599

  3. Barriers and solutions in implementing occupational health and safety services at a large nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Takaro, T K; Ertell, K; Salazar, M K; Beaudet, N; Stover, B; Hagopian, A; Omenn, G; Barnhart, S

    2000-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's largest nuclear weapons sites. The enormous changes experienced by Hanford over the last several years, as its mission has shifted from weapons production to cleanup, has profoundly affected its occupational health and safety services. Innovative programs and new initiatives hold promise for a safer workplace for the thousands of workers at Hanford and other DOE sites. However, occupational health and safety professionals continue to face multiple organizational, economic, and cultural challenges. A major problem identified during this review was the lack of coordination of onsite services. Because each health and safety program operates independently (albeit with the guidance of the Richland field operations office), many services are duplicative and the health and safety system is fragmented. The fragmentation is compounded by the lack of centralized data repositories for demographic and exposure data. Innovative measures such as a questionnaire-driven Employee Job Task Analysis linked to medical examinations has allowed the site to move from the inefficient and potentially dangerous administrative medical monitoring assignment to defensible risk-based assignments and could serve as a framework for improving centralized data management and service delivery. PMID:11186038

  4. Optimizing nuclear waste repository development by implementing experimental data on radiolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Hartmann, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    In a conceivable scenario of proposed geological salt repositories for nuclear waste within the time frame of 10,000 to 100,000 years being considered for performance assessment, groundwater intrusion leads to inundation of the repository and the formation of chloride-based brines. These brines will be exposed to {alpha}- radiation emitted by released transuranic waste constituents, mainly Pu, U, Am, and Np. In the absence of bromide, {alpha}-radiolysis causes the formation of radiolytic species such as hypochlorite (OCl{sup -}) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Natural brines contain at least traces of bromide ions to influence radiation chemical effects in the near-field of the nuclear disposal site. We are presenting new results on the irradiation-induced formation of two bromide species: ClBr{sub 2}{sup -} and Br{sub 3}{sup -} observed at 247 nm and 266 nm by spectrophotometry after irradiating synthetic NaCl based brine solutions, containing 1.13 g of NaBr, by 5.2 MeV He{sup ++} ions by using a 3 MV Tandem accelerator. The measured formation rates as G values (100 eV yields) are G(Br{sub 2}Cl{sup -}) = 3.51*10{sup -3} {+-} 0.04*10{sup -3} molecules per 100 eV, and G(Br{sub 3}{sup -}) = 2.67*10{sup -3} {+-} 0.04.10{sup -3} molecules per 100 eV radiation energy. (authors)

  5. A Novel Fuel/Reactor Cycle to Implement the 300 Years Nuclear Waste Policy Approach - 12377

    SciTech Connect

    Carelli, M.D.; Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Petrovic, B.

    2012-07-01

    A thorium-based fuel cycle system can effectively burn the currently accumulated commercial used nuclear fuel and move to a sustainable equilibrium where the actinide levels in the high level waste are low enough to yield a radiotoxicity after 300 years lower than that of the equivalent uranium ore. The second step of the Westinghouse approach to solving the waste 'problem' has been completed. The thorium fuel cycle has indeed the potential of burning the legacy TRU and achieve the waste objective proposed. Initial evaluations have been started for the third step, development and selection of appropriate reactors. Indications are that the probability of show-stoppers is rather remote. It is, therefore, believed that development of the thorium cycle and associated technologies will provide a permanent solution to the waste management. Westinghouse is open to the widest collaboration to make this a reality. (authors)

  6. Implementation status of the extreme light infrastructure - nuclear physics (ELI-NP) project

    SciTech Connect

    Gales, S. Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-02-24

    The Project Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is part of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) Roadmap. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  7. Verification of screening level for decontamination implemented after Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Haruyuki; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The screening level for decontamination that has been applied for the surface of the human body and contaminated handled objects after the Fukushima nuclear accident was verified by assessing the doses that arise from external irradiation, ingestion, inhalation and skin contamination. The result shows that the annual effective dose that arises from handled objects contaminated with the screening level for decontamination (i.e. 100 000 counts per minute) is <1 mSv y−1, which can be considered as the intervention exemption level in accordance with the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations. Furthermore, the screening level is also found to protect the skin from the incidence of a deterministic effect because the absorbed dose of the skin that arises from direct deposition on the surface of the human body is calculated to be lower than the threshold of the deterministic effect assuming a practical exposure duration. PMID:22228683

  8. Implementation status of the extreme light infrastructure - nuclear physics (ELI-NP) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    The Project Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is part of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) Roadmap. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  9. Implementing a Nuclear Power Plant Model for Evaluating Load-Following Capability on a Small Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arda, Samet Egemen

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) model is introduced into Positive Sequence Load Flow (PSLF) software by General Electric in order to evaluate the load-following capability of NPPs. The nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) consists of a reactor core, hot and cold legs, plenums, and a U-tube steam generator. The physical systems listed above are represented by mathematical models utilizing a state variable lumped parameter approach. A steady-state control program for the reactor, and simple turbine and governor models are also developed. Adequacy of the isolated reactor core, the isolated steam generator, and the complete PWR models are tested in Matlab/Simulink and dynamic responses are compared with the test results obtained from the H. B. Robinson NPP. Test results illustrate that the developed models represents the dynamic features of real-physical systems and are capable of predicting responses due to small perturbations of external reactivity and steam valve opening. Subsequently, the NSSS representation is incorporated into PSLF and coupled with built-in excitation system and generator models. Different simulation cases are run when sudden loss of generation occurs in a small power system which includes hydroelectric and natural gas power plants besides the developed PWR NPP. The conclusion is that the NPP can respond to a disturbance in the power system without exceeding any design and safety limits if appropriate operational conditions, such as achieving the NPP turbine control by adjusting the speed of the steam valve, are met. In other words, the NPP can participate in the control of system frequency and improve the overall power system performance.

  10. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+11B process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+11B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from 11B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+11B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+11B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+11B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  11. Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2012-09-01

    An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic α emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012. PMID:22843368

  12. Implementation and characterization of flow injection in dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsueh-Ying; Hilty, Christian

    2015-08-24

    The use of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) offers substantially increased signals in liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. A challenge in realizing this potential lies in the transfer of the hyperpolarized sample to the NMR detector without loss of hyperpolarization. Here, the use of a flow injection method using high-pressure liquid leads to improved performance compared to the more common gas-driven injection, by suppressing residual fluid motions during the NMR experiment while still achieving a short injection time. Apparent diffusion coefficients are determined from pulsed field gradient echo measurements, and are shown to fall below 1.5 times the value of a static sample within 0.8 s. Due to the single-scan nature of D-DNP, pulsed field gradients are often the only choice for coherence selection or encoding, but their application requires stationary fluid. Sample delivery driven by a high-pressure liquid will improve the applicability of these types of D-DNP advanced experiments. PMID:26139513

  13. Pipeline Implementation of Real Time Event Cross Correlation for Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junek, W. N.; Wehlen, J. A., III

    2014-12-01

    The United States National Data Center (US NDC) is responsible for monitoring international compliance to nuclear test ban treaties. This mission is performed through real time acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data acquired by a global network of seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasonic sensors. Automatic and human reviewed event solutions are stored in a data warehouse which contains over 15 years of alphanumeric information and waveform data. A significant effort is underway to employ the data warehouse in real time processing to improve the quality of automatic event solutions, reduce analyst burden, and supply decision makers with information regarding relevant historic events. To this end, the US NDC processing pipeline has been modified to automatically recognize events built in the past. Event similarity information and the most relevant historic solution are passed to the human analyst to assist their evaluation of automatically formed events. This is achieved through real time cross correlation of selected seismograms from automatically formed events against those stored in the data warehouse. Historic events used in correlation analysis are selected based on a set of user defined parameters, which are tuned to maintain pipeline timeliness requirements. Software architecture and database infrastructure were modified using a multithreaded design for increased processing speed, database connection pools for parallel queries, and Oracle spatial indexing to enhance query efficiency. This functionality allows the human analyst to spend more time studying anomalous events and less time rebuilding routine events.

  14. Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic α emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012. PMID:22843368

  15. A nuclear training simulator implementing a capability for multiple, concurrent-training sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Groeneveld, B.J.; Nannister, D.G.; Estes, K.R.; Johnsen, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Simulator at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has recently been upgraded to reflect plant installation of a distributed control system (DCS). The ATR Simulator re-design implements traditional needs for software extensibility and plant installation prototyping, but the driving force behind its new design was an instruction requirement for multiple, concurrent-training sessions. Support is provided for up to three concurrent, independent or interacting, training sessions of reactor, balance of plant, and experiment loop operators. This capability has been achieved by modifying the existing design to consistently apply client-server, parent-child, and peer-to-peer processing technologies, and then to encapsulate concurrency software into all interfaces. When the resulting component-oriented design is linked with build and runtime flexibility in a distributed computing environment, traditional needs for extensibility and parallel software and scenario development are satisfied with minimal additional effort. Sensible configuration management practices coupled with the ability to perform piecewise system builds also greatly facilitate prototyping of plant changes prior to installation.

  16. Implementation of a truncated cusp filter for real-time digital pulse processing in nuclear spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovac, M.; Csato, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work the transfer function for a truncated cusp infinite impulse response (IIR) filter has been derived. The truncated cusp filter, when given an exponential pulse in the presence of white noise, outputs a truncated cusp pulse which is optimum pulse shape under the constraint of finite pulse duration. However it features a pole outside of the unit-circle and is therefore inherently unstable. To overcome this instability a switching algorithm with two alternating poles has been applied. The filter has been simulated with MATLAB and Simulink and implemented on-board a FPGA. The pulses from a waveform generator and silicon drift detector (SDD) have been also processed by the filter and results compared with theory. We find that the simulation and measurements were in agreement and show that energy resolution due to electronic noise can be improved by up to 7.5% using a truncated cusp instead of triangular filter. An improvement of up to 2.8% in overall energy resolution was measured with a typical X-ray spectrometer based on a SDD detector with a nominal energy resolution of 150 eV at energies of MnKα line.

  17. 76 FR 36986 - Export Controls for High Performance Computers: Wassenaar Arrangement Agreement Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... a member of the regimes. Albania and Croatia are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty... been extended by successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 12, 2010, 75 FR.... 12938, 59 FR 59099, 3 CFR, 1994 Comp., p. 950; E.O. 13020, 61 FR 54079, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 219;...

  18. World nuclear fuel market. Eighteenth annual meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented at the eighteenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged separately. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: world uranium enrichment capacity and enriched uranium inventories; the impact of new enrichment technologies; predictions of future market trends; non-proliferation aspects of nuclear trade; and a debate as to whether uranium can be successfully traded on a commodities exchange.

  19. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended deterrence and cause a crisis in confidence

  20. Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, W H; Bernstein, A; Craig, W W; Johnson, M

    2007-05-29

    Solutions to problems in nuclear non-proliferation and counter-terrorism may be found at the forefront of modern physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments, dark matter searches, and high energy astrophysics, are based on technology advances that have may also have application to nuclear detection. The detection problems share many characteristics, including energy scales, time structures, particle-type, and, of course, the combination of high backgrounds and low signal levels. This convergence of basic and applied physics is realized in non-proliferation and homeland security projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Examples described here include reactor anti-neutrino monitoring, dual-phase noble liquid TPC development, gamma-ray telescopes, and nuclear resonance fluorescence.

  1. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  2. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Marcela Stacey; Steven Bakhtiar

    2011-05-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate – and should not be equated -with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. . Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R&D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  3. Development And Implementation Of A Strategic Technical Baseline Approach For Nuclear Decommissioning And Clean Up Programmes In The UK

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, M.; Ensor, B.

    2008-07-01

    The NDA mission as set out within the Energy Act 2004 and stated in the NDA strategy is clear: - 'to deliver a world class programme of safe, cost-effective, accelerated and environmentally responsible decommissioning of the UK's civil nuclear legacy in an open and transparent manner and with due regard to the socio-economic impacts on our communities. Critical to achieving the NDA main objective and overall mission is to accelerate and deliver clean-up programmes through the application of appropriate and innovative technology. The NDA remit also requires us to secure good practice by contractors and carry out and promote research into matters relating to the decommissioning and clean up of nuclear installations and sites. NDA have defined a strategic approach for the underpinning of operational and decommissioning activities where each nuclear site is required to write within the Life Time Plans (LTP) the proposed technical baseline for those activities. This enables the robustness of the activities to be assessed, the gaps and opportunities and accompanying Research and Developments (R and D) requirements to be highlighted and investment to be targeted at key technical issues. NDA also supports the development of a commercial framework where innovation is encouraged and improvements can be demonstrated against the technical baseline. In this paper we will present NDA's overall strategic approach, the benefits already realised and highlight the areas for continued development. In conclusion: The development and implementation of a strategic approach to robustly underpin the technical components of the lifetime plans for operational and decommissioning activities on NDA sites has been extremely successful. As well as showing how mature technology assumptions are and where the key gaps and risks are it has also provided a method for highlighting opportunities to improve on that baseline. The use of a common template across all NDA LTPs has enabled direct comparison

  4. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 5: Nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept design developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study is presented. The evolution of the NEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines, and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities and costs.

  5. Safeguards and Non-proliferation Issues as Related to Advanced Fuel Cycle and Advanced Fast Reactor Development with Processing of Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; Jerry D. Cole; Mark W. Drigert; Dee E. Vaden

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this work is to establish basic data and techniques to enable safeguards appropriate to a new generation of nuclear power systems that will be based on fast spectrum reactors and mixed actinide fuels containing significant quantities of "minor" actinides, possibly due to reprocessing, and determination of what new radiation signatures and parameters need to be considered. The research effort focuses on several problems associated with the use of fuel having significantly different actinide inventories that current practice and on the development of innovative techniques using new radiation signatures and other parameters useful for safeguards and monitoring. In addition, the development of new distinctive radiation signatures as an aid in controlling proliferation of nuclear materials has parallel applications to support Gen-IV and current advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) goals as well as the anticipated Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP).

  6. Management and non-supervisory perceptions surrounding the implementation and significance of high-performance work practices in a nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbridge, Gayle Ann

    Change management has become an imperative for organizations as they move into the 21st century; up to 75 percent of change initiatives fail. Nuclear power plants face the same challenges as industrial firms with the added challenge of deregulation. Faced with this challenge, restructuring the electric utility has raised a number of complex issues. Under traditional cost-of-service regulation, electric utilities were able to pass on their costs to consumers who absorbed them. In the new competitive environment, customers will now choose their suppliers based on the most competitive price. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of congruence between non-supervisory and supervisory personnel regarding the perceived implementation of high performance workplace practices at a nuclear power plant. This study used as its foundation the practices identified in the Road to High Performance Workplaces: A Guide to Better Jobs and Better Business Results by the U.S. Department of Labor's Office of the American Workplace (1994). The population for this study consisted of organizational members at one nuclear power plant. Over 300 individuals completed surveys on high performance workplace practices. Two surveys were administered, one to non-supervisory personnel and one to first line supervisors and above. The determination of implementation levels was accomplished through descriptive statistical analysis. Results of the study revealed 32 areas of noncongruence between non-supervisory and supervisory personnel in regard to the perceived implementation level of the high performance workplace practices. Factor analysis further revealed that the order in which the respondents place emphasis on the variables varies between the two groups. This study provides recommendations that may improve the nuclear power plants alignment of activities. Recommendations are also provided for additional research on high-performance work practices.

  7. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  8. A National Tracking Center for Monitoring Shipments of HEU, MOX, and Spent Nuclear Fuel: How do we implement?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear material safeguards specialists and instrument developers at US Department of Energy (USDOE) National Laboratories in the United States, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of NA-24, have been developing devices to monitor shipments of UF6 cylinders and other radioactive materials , . Tracking devices are being developed that are capable of monitoring shipments of valuable radioactive materials in real time, using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We envision that such devices will be extremely useful, if not essential, for monitoring the shipment of these important cargoes of nuclear material, including highly-enriched uranium (HEU), mixed plutonium/uranium oxide (MOX), spent nuclear fuel, and, potentially, other large radioactive sources. To ensure nuclear material security and safeguards, it is extremely important to track these materials because they contain so-called “direct-use material” which is material that if diverted and processed could potentially be used to develop clandestine nuclear weapons . Large sources could be used for a dirty bomb also known as a radioactive dispersal device (RDD). For that matter, any interdiction by an adversary regardless of intent demands a rapid response. To make the fullest use of such tracking devices, we propose a National Tracking Center. This paper describes what the attributes of such a center would be and how it could ultimately be the prototype for an International Tracking Center, possibly to be based in Vienna, at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  9. Developments in the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Engineering Degree Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    SciTech Connect

    Boiko, Vladimir I.; Demyanyuk, Dmitry G.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

    2009-10-06

    enterprises in the scientific and educational projects implemented through the Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation Center. This paper describes the development of the MPC&A engineering degree program and future goals of TPU in the field of nonproliferation education.

  10. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  11. Implementing New Methods of Laser Marking of Items in the Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System at SSC RF-IPPE: An Automated Laser Marking System

    SciTech Connect

    Regoushevsky, V I; Tambovtsev, S D; Dvukhsherstnov, V G; Efimenko, V F; Ilyantsev, A I; Russ III, G P

    2009-05-18

    For over ten years SSC RF-IPPE, together with the US DOE National Laboratories, has been working on implementing automated control and accountability methods for nuclear materials and other items. Initial efforts to use adhesive bar codes or ones printed (painted) onto metal revealed that these methods were inconvenient and lacked durability under operational conditions. For NM disk applications in critical stands, there is the additional requirement that labels not affect the neutron characteristics of the critical assembly. This is particularly true for the many stainless-steel clad disks containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium that are used at SSC RF-IPPE for modeling nuclear power reactors. In search of an alternate method for labeling these disks, we tested several technological options, including laser marking and two-dimensional codes. As a result, the method of laser coloring was chosen in combination with Data Matrix ECC200 symbology. To implement laser marking procedures for the HEU disks and meet all the nuclear material (NM) handling standards and rules, IPPE staff, with U.S. technical and financial support, implemented an automated laser marking system; there are also specially developed procedures for NM movements during laser marking. For the laser marking station, a Zenith 10F system by Telesis Technologies (10 watt Ytterbium Fiber Laser and Merlin software) is used. The presentation includes a flowchart for the automated system and a list of specially developed procedures with comments. Among other things, approaches are discussed for human-factor considerations. To date, markings have been applied to numerous steel-clad HEU disks, and the work continues. In the future this method is expected to be applied to other MC&A items.

  12. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 3: Nuclear thermal rocket vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document presents the nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) concept design developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study. The evolution of the NTR concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities and costs.

  13. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response; HHS Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise implementation plan for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats. Notice.

    PubMed

    2007-04-23

    The United States faces serious public health threats from the deliberate use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD)--chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN)--by hostile States or terrorists, and from naturally emerging infectious diseases that have a potential to cause illness on a scale that could adversely impact national security. Effective strategies to prevent, mitigate, and treat the consequences of CBRN threats is an integral component of our national security strategy. To that end, the United States must be able to rapidly develop, stockpile, and deploy effective medical countermeasures to protect the American people. The HHS Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE) has taken a holistic, end-to-end approach that considers multiple aspects of the medical countermeasures mission including research, development, acquisition, storage, maintenance, deployment, and guidance for utilization. Phase one of this approach established the HHS PHEMCE Strategy for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Threats (HHS PHEMCE Strategy). The HHS PHEMCE Strategy, published in the Federal Register on March 20, 2007, described a framework of strategic policy goals and objectives for identifying medical countermeasure requirements and establishing priorities for medical countermeasure evaluation, development and acquisition. These strategic policy goals and objectives were used to establish the Four Pillars upon which this HHS Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise Implementation Plan (HHS PHEMCE Implementation Plan) is based. The HHS PHEMCE Implementation Plan considers the full spectrum of medical countermeasures-related activities, including research, development, acquisition, storage/maintenance, deployment, and utilization. The HHS PHEMCE Implementation Plan is consistent with the President's Biodefense for the 21st Century and is aligned with the National Strategy for Medical Countermeasures against

  14. Implementation of the MPC and A Operations Monitoring (MOM) System at IRT-T FSRE Nuclear Power Institute (NPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Sitdikov,I.; Zenkov, A.; Tsibulnikov, Y.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Pratt, W.T.; Carbonaro, J.; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.

    2008-07-13

    The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program has been working since 1994 with nuclear sites in Russia to upgrade the physical protection (PP) and material control and accounting (MC&A) functions at facilities containing weapons usable nuclear material. In early 2001, the MPC&A program initiated the MPC&A Operations Monitoring (MOM) Project to monitor facilities where MPC&A upgrades have been installed to provide increased confidence that personnel are present and vigilant, provide confidence that security procedures are being properly performed and provide additional assurance that nuclear materials have not been stolen. The MOM project began as a pilot project at the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and a MOM system was successfully installed in October 2001. Following the success of the MEPhI pilot project, the MPC&A Program expanded the installation of MOM systems to several other Russian facilities, including the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) in Tomsk. The MOM system was made operational at NPI in October 2004. This paper is focused on the experience gained from operation of this system and the objectives of the MOM system. The paper also describes how the MOM system is used at NPI and, in particular, how the data is analyzed. Finally, potential expansion of the MOM system at NPI is described.

  15. CMBE v05-Implementation of a toy-model for chaos analysis of relativistic nuclear collisions at the present BNL energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossu, I. V.; Felea, D.; Jipa, Al.; Besliu, C.; Stan, E.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, C.; Calin, M.; Esanu, T.; Bordeianu, C.; Tuturas, N.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a new version of Chaos Many-Body Engine (CMBE) Grossu et al. (2014) [1]. Inspired by the Mean Free Path concept, we implemented a new parameter, namely the “Mean Free Time”, which is defined as the mean time between one particle’s creation and its stimulated decay. This new parameter should be understood as an effect of the nuclear environment and, as opposed to the particle lifetime, it has the advantage of not being affected by the relativistic dilation. In [2] we presented a toy-model for chaos analysis of relativistic nuclear collisions at 4.5 A GeV/c (the SKM 200 collaboration). In this work, we extended our model to 200 A GeV (the maximum BNL energy). Catalogue identifier: AEGH_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGH_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Microsoft Public License (Ms-PL) No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 638984 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15918340 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Visual C# .Net 2010 Computer: PC Operating system: .Net Framework 4.0 running on MS Windows RAM: 128 MB Classification: 24.60.Lz, 05.45.a Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGH_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Computer Physics Communications 185 (2014) 1339 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Toy-model for relativistic nuclear collisions at present BNL energies. Solution method: Relativistic many-body OOP engine, including a reactions module. Implementation of the “Mean Free Time” parameter; Implementation of a new example of use for relativistic nuclear collisions at present BNL energies. Implementation of a new parameter, namely the “Mean Free Time”, defined as the mean time between one particle’s creation and its stimulated decay. The Mean Free Time should be understood as an

  16. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a

  17. White paper on the proposed design, development, and implementation of a monitored retrievable storage module and the siting criteria for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Villarreal, B.; Knobeloch, D.

    1996-01-01

    Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy (NWP) Act in 1982 as comprehensive legislation for the DOE to locate, build, and operate repositories to permanently dispose of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level wastes. In 1987, Congress amended the NWP Act and authorized the DOE to site, construct, and operate one Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS facility was planned as a means to enhance the flexibility and reliability of the overall waste management system. This white paper presents a broad prospectus of the scientific and regulatory capabilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory and outlines the methodology to design and implement an MRS test module. This proposed module will incorporate the flexibility to store all types of spent nuclear fuel above or below ground level and will be fully monitored for the residence time of the spent fuel in the MRS module. The purpose of this test module is to define the parameters necessary to build a simple and economical MRS system. Demonstration of the proposed MRS test module will be important because it will form the basis for an integrated MRS site model.

  18. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE). PMID:23639690

  19. Stemming the spread of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.M.

    1987-08-01

    The author discusses what is being done to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. He says that two mechanisms need to be strengthened: international safeguards to ensure that civilian nuclear materials and technology are not diverted to military purposes, and controls on the export of such materials and technology. While 135 nations signed the 1970 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), it is not enough. Detecting diversion of nuclear materials to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or explosives is not easy. It is also difficult to enforce safeguard systems when countries are exporting nuclear technology and materials. The author says nuclear-weapon states need to agree to a complete test ban to convince other nations to give up trying to acquire nuclear weapons.

  20. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  1. Implementation of neutron counting techniques at US facilities for IAEA verification of excess materials from nuclear weapons production

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Reilly, T.D.; Theis, W.; Lemaire, R.J.; Xiao, J.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy, announced by President Clinton before the United Nations General Assembly on September 27, 1993, commits the U.S. to placing under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards excess nuclear materials no longer needed for the U.S. nuclear deterrent. As of July 1, 1995, the IAEA had completed Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) at two facilities: a storage vault in the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant containing highly enriched uranium (HOW) metal and another storage vault in the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) containing plutonium oxide and plutonium-bearing residues. Another plutonium- storage vault, located at Rocky Flats, is scheduled for the IPIV in the fall of 1995. Conventional neutron coincidence counting is one of the routinely applied IAEA nondestructive assay (ND) methods for verification of uranium and plutonium. However, at all three facilities mentioned above, neutron ND equipment had to be modified or developed for specific facility needs such as the type and configuration of material placed under safeguards. This document describes those modifications and developments.

  2. Measuring of fissile isotope partial antineutrino spectra in direct experiment at nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sinev, V. V.

    2009-11-15

    The direct measuring method is considered to get nuclear reactor antineutrino spectrum. We suppose to isolate partial spectra of the fissile isotopes by using the method of antineutrino spectrum extraction from the inverse beta-decay reaction positron spectrum applied at Rovno experiment. This admits to increase the accuracy of partial antineutrino spectra forming the total nuclear reactor spectrum. It is important for the analysis of the reactor core fuel composition and could be applied for non-proliferation purposes.

  3. Panel session on "safety, health and the environment: implications of nuclear power growth".

    PubMed

    Bilbao y León, Sama

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations and the insights offered by panelists John P. Winston, Robert Bernero, and Stephen LaMontagne during the Panel on Safety, Health and the Environment: Implications of Nuclear Power Growth that took place during the NCRP 2009 Annual Meeting. The paper describes the opportunities and the challenges faced in the areas of infrastructure development, radiation control, licensing and regulatory issues, and non-proliferation as a consequence of the forecasted growth in nuclear power capacity worldwide. PMID:21399405

  4. Development and Implementation of a High-Throughput High-Content Screening Assay to Identify Inhibitors of Androgen Receptor Nuclear Localization in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Paul A; Nguyen, Minh M; Dar, Javid A; Ai, Junkui; Wang, Yujuan; Masoodi, Khalid Z; Shun, Tongying; Shinde, Sunita; Camarco, Daniel P; Hua, Yun; Huryn, Donna M; Wilson, Gabriela Mustata; Lazo, John S; Nelson, Joel B; Wipf, Peter; Wang, Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) can be treated with abiraterone, a potent inhibitor of androgen synthesis, or enzalutamide, a second-generation androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, both targeting AR signaling. However, most patients relapse after several months of therapy and a majority of patients with relapsed CRPC tumors express the AR target gene prostate-specific antigen (PSA), suggesting that AR signaling is reactivated and can be targeted again to inhibit the relapsed tumors. Novel small molecules capable of inhibiting AR function may lead to urgently needed therapies for patients resistant to abiraterone, enzalutamide, and/or other previously approved antiandrogen therapies. Here, we describe a high-throughput high-content screening (HCS) campaign to identify small-molecule inhibitors of AR nuclear localization in the C4-2 CRPC cell line stably transfected with GFP-AR-GFP (2GFP-AR). The implementation of this HCS assay to screen a National Institutes of Health library of 219,055 compounds led to the discovery of 3 small molecules capable of inhibiting AR nuclear localization and function in C4-2 cells, demonstrating the feasibility of using this cell-based phenotypic assay to identify small molecules targeting the subcellular localization of AR. Furthermore, the three hit compounds provide opportunities to develop novel AR drugs with potential for therapeutic intervention in CRPC patients who have relapsed after treatment with antiandrogens, such as abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. PMID:27187604

  5. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B process

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-15

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from {sup 11}B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+{sup 11}B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+{sup 11}B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+{sup 11}B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  6. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2–36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10–11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1–1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  7. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors' code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  8. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  9. Management of Legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel Wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: The Challenges and Innovative Solutions Implemented - 13301

    SciTech Connect

    Schruder, Kristan; Goodwin, Derek

    2013-07-01

    AECL's Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) Project was initiated in 2004 to retrieve, transfer, and stabilize an identified inventory of degraded research reactor fuel that had been emplaced within in-ground 'Tile Hole' structures in Chalk River Laboratories' Waste Management Area in the 1950's and 60's. Ongoing monitoring of the legacy fuel storage conditions had identified that moisture present in the storage structures had contributed to corrosion of both the fuel and the storage containers. This prompted the initiation of the FPS Project which has as its objective to design, construct, and commission equipment and systems that would allow for the ongoing safe storage of this fuel until a final long-term management, or disposition, pathway was available. The FPS Project provides systems and technologies to retrieve and transfer the fuel from the Waste Management Area to a new facility that will repackage, dry, safely store and monitor the fuel for a period of 50 years. All equipment and the new storage facility are designed and constructed to meet the requirements for Class 1 Nuclear Facilities in Canada. (authors)

  10. Implementation of On-the-Fly Doppler Broadening in MCNP5 for Multiphysics Simulation of Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    William Martin

    2012-11-16

    A new method to obtain Doppler broadened cross sections has been implemented into MCNP, removing the need to generate cross sections for isotopes at problem temperatures. Previous work had established the scientific feasibility of obtaining Doppler-broadened cross sections "on-the-fly" (OTF) during the random walk of the neutron. Thus, when a neutron of energy E enters a material region that is at some temperature T, the cross sections for that material at the exact temperature T are immediately obtained by interpolation using a high order functional expansion for the temperature dependence of the Doppler-broadened cross section for that isotope at the neutron energy E. A standalone Fortran code has been developed that generates the OTF library for any isotope that can be processed by NJOY. The OTF cross sections agree with the NJOY-based cross sections for all neutron energies and all temperatures in the range specified by the user, e.g., 250K - 3200K. The OTF methodology has been successfully implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code and has been tested on several test problems by comparing MCNP with conventional ACE cross sections versus MCNP with OTF cross sections. The test problems include the Doppler defect reactivity benchmark suite and two full-core VHTR configurations, including one with multiphysics coupling using RELAP5-3D/ATHENA for the thermal-hydraulic analysis. The comparison has been excellent, verifying that the OTF libraries can be used in place of the conventional ACE libraries generated at problem temperatures. In addition, it has been found that using OTF cross sections greatly reduces the complexity of the input for MCNP, especially for full-core temperature feedback calculations with many temperature regions. This results in an order of magnitude decrease in the number of input lines for full-core configurations, thus simplifying input preparation and reducing the potential for input errors. Finally, for full-core problems with multiphysics

  11. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeev, K.V.; Zhidkov, V.V.; Martinez, B.J.; Perry, R.T.; Scott, S.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO{sub 2} storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued.

  12. [Nuclear arms and medical responsibility].

    PubMed

    Firket, H

    1999-01-01

    The medical profession would be unable to cope with the millions of simultaneous casualities of a nuclear war. Such a war between developed countries becomes less likely, but new countries equip themselves, with nuclear weapons, using the violation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty by the great powers as an excuse. The danger of nuclear war is spreading with the consequences one can imagine. A world movement, including military experts, political, moral and scientific leaders and representative national medical groups, among them the World Medical Association, press governments to negotiate a comprehensive abolition treaty. The "Académie royale de Médecine de Belgique" joining moral prestige to an authoritative expertise, should take a stand on the problem. PMID:10687249

  13. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress. Volume 1, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  14. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress. Volume 2, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  15. US-Euratom Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: The eleventh hour

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Issues involved in negotiations between the United States and Euratom for renewing the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement are discussed. The Agreement impacts exports to Euratom countries of nuclear material and technology, and US approval of third party transfers of US-origin material, including Japanese reprocessing, to Euratom countries. The US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act, requiring more stringent safeguards for US-origin materials, is described as a major issue preventing Euratom countries signing the Agreement. Potential impacts of allowing the Agreement to lapse are described, and actions required for renewal are outlined.

  16. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  17. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 2, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  18. The Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. program to support disposition of enriched uranium-bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schutt, Stephen M.; Jacob, Norman P.

    2007-07-01

    The disposition of surplus nuclear materials has become one of the most pressing issues of our time. Numerous agencies have invoked programs with the purpose of removing such materials from various international venues and disposing these materials in a manner that achieves non-proliferability. This paper describes the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc (NFS) Nuclear Material Disposition Program, which to date has focused on a variety of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), in particular uranium of various enrichments. The major components of this program are discussed, with emphasis on recycle and return of material to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors)

  19. Integration of the military and civilian nuclear fuel cycles in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O. )

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the close integration of the civil and military nuclear fuel cycles in Russia. Individual processing facilities, as well as the flow of nuclear material, are described as they existed in the 1980s and as they exist today. The end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union weakened the ties between the two nuclear fuel cycles, but did not separate them. Separation of the military and civilian nuclear fuel cycles would facilitate Russia's integration into the world's nuclear fuel cycle and its participation in international non-proliferation regimes.

  20. Nuclear obligations: Nuremberg law, nuclear weapons, and protest

    SciTech Connect

    Burroughs, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear weapons use and deployment and nonviolent anti-nuclear protests are evaluated. Use of nuclear weapons would constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity as defined in both the Nuremberg Charter and Allied Control Council Law No. 10 and applied by the International Military Tribunal and other Nuremberg courts. Strategic and atomic bombing during World War 2 did not set a precedent for use of nuclear weapons. The consequentialist argument for World War 2 bombing fails and the bombing has also been repudiated by codification of the law of war in Protocol 1 to the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The legality of deploying nuclear weapons as instruments of geopolitical policy is questionable when measured against the Nuremberg proscription of planning and preparation of aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity and the United Nations Charter's proscription of aggressive threat of force. While states' practice of deploying the weapons and the arms-control treaties that regulate but do not prohibit mere possession provide some support for legality, those treaties recognize the imperative of preventing nuclear war, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commits nuclear-armed states to good-faith negotiation of nuclear disarmament.

  1. Safeguards-by-Design: Early Integration of Physical Protection and Safeguardability into Design of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bean; S. DeMuth; P. Durst; M. Ehinger; M. Golay; D. Hebditch; J. Hockert; J. Morgan

    2009-09-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to minimize proliferation and security risks as the use of nuclear energy expands worldwide. This paper defines a generic SBD process and its incorporation from early design phases into existing design / construction processes and develops a framework that can guide its institutionalization. SBD could be a basis for a new international norm and standard process for nuclear facility design. This work is part of the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and is jointly sponsored by the Offices of Non-proliferation and Nuclear Energy.

  2. Nuclear relations in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1998-12-18

    The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.

  3. Nuclear Waste--Physics and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahearne, John H.

    1996-03-01

    Managing and disposing of radioactive waste are major policy and financial issues in the United States and many other countries. Low-level waste sites, once thought to be possible in many states, remain fixed at the few sites that have been operating for decades. High-level waste remains at former nuclear weapons facilities and at nuclear power plants, and the DOE estimates a repository is unlikely before 2010, at the earliest. Physics and chemistry issues relate to criticality, plutonium loading in glass, leach rates, and diffusion. The public policy issues concern non-proliferation, states' rights, stakeholder participation, and nuclear power. Cleaning up the legacy of cold war driven nuclear weapons production is estimated to cost at least $250 billion and take three-quarters of a century. Some possible steps towards resolution of these issues will be described.

  4. National Center for Nuclear Security - NCNS

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    As the United States embarks on a new era of nuclear arms control, the tools for treaty verification must be accurate and reliable, and must work at stand-off distances. The National Center for Nuclear Security, or NCNS, at the Nevada National Security Site, is poised to become the proving ground for these technologies. The center is a unique test bed for non-proliferation and arms control treaty verification technologies. The NNSS is an ideal location for these kinds of activities because of its multiple environments; its cadre of experienced nuclear personnel, and the artifacts of atmospheric and underground nuclear weapons explosions. The NCNS will provide future treaty negotiators with solid data on verification and inspection regimes and a realistic environment in which future treaty verification specialists can be trained. Work on warhead monitoring at the NCNS will also support future arms reduction treaties.

  5. National Center for Nuclear Security - NCNS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    As the United States embarks on a new era of nuclear arms control, the tools for treaty verification must be accurate and reliable, and must work at stand-off distances. The National Center for Nuclear Security, or NCNS, at the Nevada National Security Site, is poised to become the proving ground for these technologies. The center is a unique test bed for non-proliferation and arms control treaty verification technologies. The NNSS is an ideal location for these kinds of activities because of its multiple environments; its cadre of experienced nuclear personnel, and the artifacts of atmospheric and underground nuclear weapons explosions. The NCNS will provide future treaty negotiators with solid data on verification and inspection regimes and a realistic environment in which future treaty verification specialists can be trained. Work on warhead monitoring at the NCNS will also support future arms reduction treaties.

  6. REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON NUCLEAR FACILITY DESIGN INFORMATION EXAMINATION AND VERIFICATION FOR SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-10-01

    Executive Summary The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements nuclear safeguards and verifies countries are compliant with their international nuclear safeguards agreements. One of the key provisions in the safeguards agreement is the requirement that the country provide nuclear facility design and operating information to the IAEA relevant to safeguarding the facility, and at a very early stage. , This provides the opportunity for the IAEA to verify the safeguards-relevant features of the facility and to periodically ensure that those features have not changed. The national authorities (State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material - SSAC) provide the design information for all facilities within a country to the IAEA. The design information is conveyed using the IAEA’s Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) and specifies: (1) Identification of the facility’s general character, purpose, capacity, and location; (2) Description of the facility’s layout and nuclear material form, location, and flow; (3) Description of the features relating to nuclear material accounting, containment, and surveillance; and (4) Description of existing and proposed procedures for nuclear material accounting and control, with identification of nuclear material balance areas. The DIQ is updated as required by written addendum. IAEA safeguards inspectors examine and verify this information in design information examination (DIE) and design information verification (DIV) activities to confirm that the facility has been constructed or is being operated as declared by the facility operator and national authorities, and to develop a suitable safeguards approach. Under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), the National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Office of Non-Proliferation and International Security identified the need for more effective and efficient verification of design information by the IAEA for improving international safeguards

  7. Nuclear Theory for Astrophysics, Stockpile Stewardship, and Homeland Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Anna

    2004-10-01

    A large number of problems key to astrophysics, stockpile stewardship, and homeland defense rely on knowledge of nuclear physics in regimes inaccessible to experiment. In stellar and nuclear explosions unstable nuclei and nuclear isomers are produced in copious quantities and are used to diagnose the explosion. Similarly, analysis of the unstable nuclei from the debris will be key to attribution in the event of a terrorist domestic nuclear attack. In the case of nuclear non-proliferation a number of new schemes are being considered by the IAEA to address the ever greater needs, including neutrino monitoring of the plutonium content of reactors. For all of these problems detailed nuclear theory is required. In this talk I discuss the theoretical physics needs for the type of problems of overlapping interest to astrophysics and national security.

  8. The continuing risk of nuclear war.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Climate change and nuclear war are currently the most dangerous challenges to human civilisation and survival. The effects of climate change are now sufficient to persuade many governments to take effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Today there are about 27,000 nuclear warheads, many at least ten times more powerful than the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, and a meaningful medical response to a nuclear attack is impossible. Nevertheless, the threat of nuclear war does not raise public concern, and indeed the nuclear-weapon states are upgrading their capability. The only effective preventive measure is the abolition of nuclear weapons. Steps towards this include: a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, for the nuclear weapon states to observe their obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty to enter into force. The ultimate need is for a Nuclear Weapons Convention; International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War have launched an International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear weapons (ICAN) to promote a NWC. PMID:17987978

  9. Strenghtened nuclear controls - maintaining the confidence for expanding nuclear cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Burkart, A.R. )

    1992-01-01

    Events in the Gulf during 1990 and 1991 focused the world's attention on Iraq's challenge to the nuclear non-proliferation regime and the forceful response of the United Nations Security Council, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the coalition partners. The paper will examine recent efforts to strengthen the regime in response to this and other challenges: the upgrading of the nuclear trigger lists, the extension of the control regime to dual-use exports, a renewed use by the IAEA of its special inspection authority under NPT safeguards agreements, a broad review of means to improve the application of safeguards, and a significant expansion of the number of NPT adherents. These efforts recognize the critical role that an effective control regime plays in providing the fundamental underpinning for cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The paper will also look as such events as the continued internationalization of the nuclear industry, the unprecedented efforts in meeting the safety needs of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, the dramatic growth in technical assistance through the IAEA and other important demonstrations that nuclear cooperation remains an important part of the balance struck in 1953 with the Atoms for Peace initiative.

  10. On-site inspection: A brief overview and bibliography of techniques pertinent to assessing suspected nuclear test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a brief overview and bibliography of those techniques that may have application for the evaluation of a site to determine if a high energy release event is nuclear in nature. This effort is motivated by recognition of the changing world political climate and the perception that low yield and non-proliferation issues will grow in importance as countries become increasingly involved as signators to treaties that are intended to limit the development and testing of nuclear weapons. Along with an increasing interest in such issues is the awareness of the need to implement improved capabilities for treaty monitoring programs that must deal with assessing suspicious occurrences of high energy release events. In preparing this report, it is recognized that monitoring can take two main forms. The first involves the resolution of unidentified events detected by seismic and satellite National Technical Means. Events of an indeterminate nature could occur world-wide and could induce tension in neighboring countries. If an on-site measurement capability were available, a monitoring team could be sent to the suspected site of an event to take measurements that could confirm or disprove the occurrence of a clandestine nuclear test. The second monitoring form is the confirmation that a clandestine event is not masked by a declared event. For example, a large mining explosion could mask a decoupled nuclear explosion. On-site measurements before and during the test could confirm that a clandestine event did not occur and could provide assurance that the party carrying out the explosion is not taking advantage of clandestine testing opportunities. 48 refs.

  11. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensititive Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state’s perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with “symbiotic” links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the “Nuclear Materials Exchange” for identifying these opportunities.

  12. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. International Nuclear Safeguards Inspection Support Tool (INSIST)

    SciTech Connect

    St. Pierre, D.E.; Steinmaus, K.L.; Moon, B.D.

    1994-07-01

    DOE is committed to providing technologies to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to meet escalating monitoring and inspection requirements associated with the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). One example of technology provided to the IAEA is the information management and remote monitoring capabilities being customized for the IAEA by the International Safeguards Division of the Office of Non-Proliferation and National Security. The ongoing Safeguards Information Management Systems (SIMS) program is an interlaboratory effort providing the IAEA with a range of information management capabilities designed to enhance the effectiveness of their nuclear inspection activities. The initial commitment involved the customization of computer capabilities to provide IAEA with the basic capability to geographically organize, store, and retrieve the large quantity of information involved in their nuclear on site inspection activities in Iraq. This initial system, the International Nuclear Safeguards Inspection Support Tool (INSIST), was developed by DOE`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). To date, two INSIST workstations have been deployed at the IAEA. The first has been used to support the IAEA Action Team in the inspection of Iraqi nuclear facilities since August 1993. A second, and similar, workstation has been deployed to support environmental monitoring under the IAEA 93+2 Programme. Both INSIST workstations geographically integrate analog (video) and digital data to provide an easy to use and effective tool for storing retrieving and displaying multimedia site and facility information including world-wide maps, satellite and aerial imagery, on site photography, live inspection videos, and treaty and inspection textual information. The interactive, UNIX-based workstations have a variety of peripheral devices for information input and output. INSIST software includes commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) modules and application-specific code developed at PNL.

  14. 75 FR 54540 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ....3 and 744.2), which are, in part, implemented under section 309(c) of the Nuclear Non Proliferation... Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of Notice of August 12, 2010 (75 FR 50681 (August 16,...

  15. 77 FR 55183 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...-users (Sec. Sec. 742.3 and 744.2), in part, implementing section 309(c) of the Nuclear Non Proliferation... extended by successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 15, 2012 (77 FR...

  16. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  17. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  18. Nuclear threat on the Korean peninsula: The present and the future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.

    1994-04-01

    Forty years after they were divided by the Cold War, South and North Korea are closer to reunification than ever before. However, North Korea's nuclear weapons program might cause South Koreans to be much less sure about reunification. Today the Cold War is over, but the Korean peninsula is still divided into two Koreas despite the new era of reconciliation. Since December 1991 when a non-aggression pact was signed barring nuclear weapons, North Korea has pursued its nuclear weapon development. In March 1993, North Korea declared its intention to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and has been refusing a full inspection of its nuclear program. North Korea's nuclear issue is an international issue today. This paper discusses 'what threat we have today' and 'what should be done in the future.'.

  19. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  20. Methodology for developing and implementing alternative temperature-time curves for testing the fire resistance of barriers for nuclear power plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, L.Y.; Steckler, K.D.

    1996-08-01

    Advances in fire science over the past 40 years have offered the potential for developing technically sound alternative temperature-time curves for use in evaluating fire barriers for areas where fire exposures can be expected to be significantly different than the ASTM E-119 standard temperature-time exposure. This report summarizes the development of the ASTM E-119, standard temperature-time curve, and the efforts by the federal government and the petrochemical industry to develop alternative fire endurance curves for specific applications. The report also provides a framework for the development of alternative curves for application at nuclear power plants. The staff has concluded that in view of the effort necessary for the development of nuclear power plant specific temperature-time curves, such curves are not a viable approach for resolving the issues concerning Thermo-Lag fire barriers. However, the approach may be useful to licensees in the development of performance-based fire protection methods in the future.

  1. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress. Volume 2, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document is the second of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, various acts pertaining to low-level radioactive waste, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Licensing Statutes, and selected treaties, agreements, and executive orders. Other information provided pertains to Commissioner tenure, NRC appropriations, the Chief Financial Officers Act, information technology management reform, and Federal civil penalties.

  2. Extra-Territorial Siting of Nuclear Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Thomas E.; Morris, Frederic A.

    2009-10-07

    Arrangements might be created for siting nuclear installations on land ceded by a host State for administration by an international or multinational organization. Such arrangements might prove useful in terms of resolving suspicions of proliferation in troubled areas of the world, or as a means to introduce nuclear activities into areas where political, financial or technical capabilities might otherwise make such activities unsound, or as a means to enable global solutions to be instituted for major nuclear concerns (e.g., spent fuel management). The paper examines practical matters associated with the legal and programmatic aspects of siting nuclear installations, including diplomatic/political frameworks, engaging competent industrial bodies, protection against seizure, regulation to ensure safety and security, waste management, and conditions related to the dissolution of the extra-territorial provisions as may be agreed as the host State(s) achieve the capabilities to own and operate the installations. The paper considers the potential for using such a mechanism across the spectrum of nuclear power activities, from mining to geological repositories for nuclear waste. The paper considers the non-proliferation dimensions associated with such arrangements, and the pros and cons affecting potential host States, technology vendor States, regional neighbors and the international community. It considers in brief potential applications in several locations today.

  3. Nuclear Naval Propulsion: A Feasible Proliferation Pathway?

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Alicia L.

    2014-01-31

    There is no better time than now to close the loophole in Article IV of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) that excludes military uses of fissile material from nuclear safeguards. Several countries have declared their intention to pursue and develop naval reactor technology, including Argentina, Brazil, Iran, and Pakistan, while other countries such as China, India, Russia, and the United States are expanding their capabilities. With only a minority of countries using low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in their naval reactors, it is possible that a state could produce highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the guise of a nuclear navy while actually stockpiling the material for a nuclear weapon program. This paper examines the likelihood that non-nuclear weapon states exploit the loophole to break out from the NPT and also the regional ramifications of deterrence and regional stability of expanding naval forces. Possible solutions to close the loophole are discussed, including expanding the scope of the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, employing LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in naval reactors, amending the NPT, creating an export control regime for naval nuclear reactors, and forming individual naval reactor safeguards agreements.

  4. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palazzo, S.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Murari, A.; Mazon, D.; De Maack, A.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-08-15

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496x560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN - unlike software CNN implementations.

  5. U.S.-Russian cooperation in nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    The United States and Russia, the two largest nuclear powers, have a special obligation to provide leadership in nuclear disarmament and in strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime. In the past year the two countries made an effort to restart the arms control process by concluding a new treaty that would bring their legal disarmament obligations in line with the realities of their post-cold war relationships. The process of negotiating deeper nuclear reductions in the new environment turned out to be rather difficult, since the approaches that the countries used in the past are not well suited to dealing with issues like conversion of strategic nuclear delivery systems to conventional missions, tactical nuclear weapons, or dismantlement of nuclear warheads. This presentation considers the recent progress in U.S.-Russian arms control process and outlines the key issues at the negotiations. It also considers prospects for further progress in bilateral nuclear disarmament and issues that will be encountered at later stages of the process. The author argues that success of the arms reductions will depend on whether the United States and Russia will be able to build an institutional framework for cooperation on a range of issues - from traditional arms control to securing nuclear materials and from missile defense to strengthening the international nuclear safeguards. )

  6. Strategic Nuclear Research Collaboration - FY99 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    T. J. Leahy

    1999-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has created the Strategic Nuclear Research Collaboration. The SNRC brings together some of America's finest laboratory and university nuclear researchers in a carefully focused research program intended to produce ''breakthrough'' solutions to the difficult issues of nuclear economics, safety, non-proliferation, and nuclear waste. This integrated program aims to address obstacles that stand in the way of nuclear power development in the US These include fuel cycle concerns related to waste and proliferation, the need for more efficient regulatory practices, and the high cost of constructing and operating nuclear power plants. Funded at an FY99 level of $2.58M, the SNRC is focusing the efforts of scientists and engineers from the INEEL and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to solve complex nuclear energy challenges in a carefully chosen, integrated portfolio of research topics. The result of this collaboration will be research that serves as a catalyst for future direct-funded nuclear research and technology development and which preserves and enhances the INEEL's role as America's leading national laboratory for nuclear power research. In its first year, the SNRC has focused on four research projects each of which address one or more of the four issues facing further nuclear power development (economics, safety, waste disposition and proliferation-resistance). This Annual Report describes technical work and accomplishments during the first year of the SNRC's existence.

  7. Nuclear proliferation: The diplomatic role of non-weaponized programs

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has not seen the end of reliance on nuclear weapons for deterrence or diplomacy purposes. The use of nuclear weapons for such purposes is as evident in the threshold states as in the nuclear powers. The nuclear weapon states used their nuclear weapons for deterrence, bargaining, and blackmail, even during the early years of the Cold War when the US was essentially non-Weaponized. In the nuclear non-Weaponized states in Asia a non-Weaponized deterrent relationship is developing between India and Pakistan and North Korea has used its nuclear program to restore diplomatic relations with the international community. The role of nuclear weapons in the post Cold War world is determined by the role of non-Weaponized programs in proliferating states. This paper describes examples in South Asia and the Korean peninsula and show that while an increased reliance on nuclear weapons programs may be a threat to the current non-proliferation regime, the focus on non-Weaponized programs rather than on weapons themselves actually improves international security by reducing the threat of nuclear war.

  8. Generation IV nuclear energy system initiative. Pin core subassembly designfor the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Hoffman, E. A.; Pfeiffer, P. F.; Therios, I. U.

    2006-07-31

    The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of six systems selected for viability assessment in the Generation IV program. It features a closed nuclear fuel cycle, consisting of a high-temperature helium-cooled fast spectrum reactor, coupled to a direct-cycle helium turbine for electricity production. The GFR combines the advances of fast spectrum systems with those of high-temperature systems. It was clear from the very beginning that GFR design should be driven by the objective to offer a complementary approach to liquid metal cooling. On this basis, CEA and the US DOE decided to collaborate on the pre-conceptual design of a GFR. This reactor design will provide a high level of safety and full recycling of the actinides, and will also be highly proliferation resistant and economically attractive. The status of this collaborative project is that two unit sizes, 600 MWt and 2400 MWt were selected as the focus of the design and safety studies. Researchers studied fuel forms, fuel assembly/element designs, core configurations, primary and balance-of-plant layouts, and safety approaches for both of these unit sizes. Results regarding the feasibility of this GFR design are encouraging. For example, sustainability and non-proliferation goals can be met and the proposed concept has attractive safety features. These features take advantage of the helium in terms of its neutronic quasi-transparency as well as the enhanced Doppler effect in connection with candidate fuel and structural materials. The current design trend is to consider high unit power for the GFR (2400 MWt), an attractive level for the power density (100 MW/m{sup 3}), and the implementation of an innovative plate type fuel or pin type sub-assembly with carbide-based actinide compounds and SiC-based structural materials. Work is still needed to refine the safety approach, to select the main system options, and to more definitively establish economic parameters.

  9. Guidelines for an effective SPDS implementation program

    SciTech Connect

    Blanch, P.M.; Wilkinson, C.D.

    1984-03-01

    Guidelines developed by the Nuclear Utility Task Action Committee for the implementation of a safety parameter display system (SPDS) are summarized. These guidelines reflect the consensus of nuclear utilities on how SPDS requirements, as set up by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, could be met. This article includes a functional definition of SPDS and discussions of SPDS implementation plans, design bases, purchase specifications, training, integration and documentation, and verification and validation.

  10. Implementation Science

    PubMed Central

    Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a general introduction to implementation science—the discipline that studies the implementation process of research evidence—in the context of hospice and palliative care. By discussing how implementation science principles and frameworks can inform the design and implementation of intervention research, we aim to highlight how this approach can maximize the likelihood for translation and long-term adoption in clinical practice settings. We present 2 ongoing clinical trials in hospice that incorporate considerations for translation in their design and implementation as case studies for the implications of implementation science. This domain helps us better understand why established programs may lose their effectiveness over time or when transferred to other settings, why well-tested programs may exhibit unintended effects when introduced in new settings, or how an intervention can maximize cost-effectiveness with strategies for effective adoption. All these challenges are of significance to hospice and palliative care, where we seek to provide effective and efficient tools to improve care services. The emergence of this discipline calls for researchers and practitioners to carefully examine how to refine current and design new and innovative strategies to improve quality of care. PMID:23558847

  11. A parallel implementation of the analytic nuclear gradient for time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fenglai; Gan, Zhengting; Shao, Yihan; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Dreuw, Andreas; Head-Gordon, Martin; Miller, Benjamin T.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Yu, Jian-Guo; Furlani, Thomas R.; Kong, Jing

    2010-10-01

    We derived the analytic gradient for the excitation energies from a time-dependent density functional theory calculation within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDDFT/TDA) using Gaussian atomic orbital basis sets, and introduced an efficient serial and parallel implementation. Some timing results are shown from a B3LYP/6-31G**/SG-1-grid calculation on zincporphyrin. We also performed TDDFT/TDA geometry optimizations for low-lying excited states of 20 small molecules, and compared adiabatic excitation energies and optimized geometry parameters to experimental values using the B3LYP and ωB97 functionals. There are only minor differences between TDDFT and TDA optimized excited state geometries and adiabatic excitation energies. Optimized bond lengths are in better agreement with experiment for both functionals than either CC2 or SOS-CIS(D0), while adiabatic excitation energies are in similar or slightly poorer agreement. Optimized bond angles with both functionals are more accurate than CIS values, but less accurate than either CC2 or SOS-CIS(D0) ones.

  12. Development and implementation of a finite element solution of the coupled neutron transport and thermoelastic equations governing the behavior of small nuclear assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Stephen Christian

    Small, highly enriched reactors designed for weapons effects simulations undergo extreme thermal transients during pulsed operations. The primary shutdown mechanism of these reactors---thermal expansion of fuel material---experiences an inertial delay resulting in a different value for the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity during pulse operation as compared to the value appropriate for steady-state operation. The value appropriate for pulsed operation may further vary as a function of initial reactivity addition. Here we design and implement a finite element numerical method to predict the pulse operation behavior of Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR) II, SPR III, and a hypothetical spherical assembly with identical fuel properties without using operationally observed data in our model. These numerical results are compared to available SPR II and SPR III operational data. The numerical methods employed herein may be modified and expanded in functionality to provide both accurate characterization of the behavior of fast burst reactors of any common geometry or isotropic fuel material in the design phase, as well as a computational tool for general coupled thermomechanical-neutronics behavior in the solid state for any reactor type.

  13. 10 CFR 63.143 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation. 63.143 Section 63.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Quality Assurance § 63.143 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance...

  14. 10 CFR 63.143 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementation. 63.143 Section 63.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Quality Assurance § 63.143 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance...

  15. 10 CFR 63.143 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementation. 63.143 Section 63.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Quality Assurance § 63.143 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance...

  16. 10 CFR 63.143 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation. 63.143 Section 63.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Quality Assurance § 63.143 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance...

  17. 10 CFR 63.143 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementation. 63.143 Section 63.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Quality Assurance § 63.143 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance...

  18. 10 CFR 820.65 - Implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation plan. 820.65 Section 820.65 Energy... plan. With respect to a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement for which there is no regulatory provision for an implementation plan or schedule, an exemption may be granted to establish an implementation...

  19. 10 CFR 820.65 - Implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation plan. 820.65 Section 820.65 Energy... plan. With respect to a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement for which there is no regulatory provision for an implementation plan or schedule, an exemption may be granted to establish an implementation...

  20. 10 CFR 820.65 - Implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementation plan. 820.65 Section 820.65 Energy... plan. With respect to a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement for which there is no regulatory provision for an implementation plan or schedule, an exemption may be granted to establish an implementation...

  1. 10 CFR 820.65 - Implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementation plan. 820.65 Section 820.65 Energy... plan. With respect to a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement for which there is no regulatory provision for an implementation plan or schedule, an exemption may be granted to establish an implementation...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  4. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  6. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  7. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: IMPACTS OF FOREIGN OBLIGATIONS ON SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The US has a non-proliferation policy to receive foreign and domestic research reactor returns of spent fuel materials of US origin. These spent fuel materials are returned to the Department of Energy (DOE) and placed in storage in the L-area spent fuel basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The foreign research reactor returns fall subject to the 123 agreements for peaceful cooperation. These “123 agreements” are named after section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and govern the conditions of nuclear cooperation with foreign partners. The SRS management of these foreign obligations while planning material disposition paths can be a challenge.

  8. Use of open source information and commercial satellite imagery for nuclear nonproliferation regime compliance verification by a community of academics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, Alexander

    non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). This community analyzes all types of unclassified publicly and commercially available information to aid in detection of violations of the non-proliferation regime. INMAC shares all of this information with the IAEA and the public. Since INMAC is composed solely by members of the academic community, this organization would not demonstrate any biases in its investigations or reporting.

  9. The Gravest Danger:. Nuclear Weapons and Their Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drell, S.

    2005-02-01

    Nuclear weapons are unique in their terrifying potential. With an energy release a million times larger than that of previous explosives, mass destruction is inevitable. The prospect of the spread of nuclear weapons and other dangerous technologies into the hands of suicidal terrorists and rogue nations unrestrained by the norms of civilized behavior has led President Bush to remark that "the gravest danger our nation faces lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology." This talk will address what can and should be done, in the face of new challenges in times punctuated by terrorist threats, to sustain and strengthen the non-proliferation regime, taking into consideration technical realities, and the roles and limits of diplomatic initiatives and of military force.

  10. NAAQS IMPLEMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants (lead, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, ozone, and particulate matter). After setting NAAQS, there are several activities required to implement the st...

  11. Implementation Reviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The point of the implementation review is to prevent problems from occurring later by trying to get our arms around the planning from the start. fmplementation reviews set the tone for management of the project. They establish a teaming relationship (if they are run properly), and they level the playing field instead of setting up turf wars.

  12. An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

    2009-12-01

    event, we saw a very clear P arrival at 01:05:47 (GMT) at BRTR SP array. The result of the f-k analysis performed in Geotool software, installed at NDC facilities in 2008 and is in full use currently, was also indicating that the arrival belongs to the DPRK event. When comparing our f-k results (calculated at 1-2 Hz) with IDC-REB, however, we have noticed that our calculation and therefore corresponding residuals (calculated with reference to REB residuals) are much better in comparison to REB. The reasons of this ambiguity have been explored and for the first time a comprehensive seismological analysis of a Nuclear Test has been conducted in Turkey. CTBT has an important role for the implementation of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and it is a key element for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. In this study, we would like to reflect the technical and scientific aspects of the 25 May 2009 DPRK event analysis, together with our involvement in CTBT(O) affairs, which we believe it brings new dimensions to Turkey especially in the area of Geophysics.

  13. Nuclear nonproliferation policy issues in the 103rd Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Z.; Donnelly, W.H.

    1994-08-31

    Preventing the further proliferation of nuclear weapons has been a major goal of U.S. policy ever since the United States developed and used the atomic bomb against Japan in 1945. This goal has taken on new importance for U.S. national security in light of several post-Cold War events. One is the breakup of the Soviet Union; some of the new republics were reluctant to give up nuclear weapons stationed on their territory, and disorder in Russia raised questions about the safety and security of the former Soviet arsenal. The United States is providing assistance to prevent former Soviet nuclear weapons or the materials used to make them from falling into the wrong hands. Another post-Cold War nonproliferation event was Iraq`s success in clandestinely developing nuclear weapons despite being a member of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Third, North Korea apparently diverted plutonium to a secret bomb program, threatened to withdraw from the Treaty, and continues to block inspections. Other events tend to strengthen nonproliferation efforts. These include the agreement by Argentina and Brazil to allow inspection of their nuclear activities; South Africa`s joining the NPT after dismantling six nuclear weapons and agreeing to international inspection of all of its nuclear activities; France`s and China`s joining the Treaty as nuclear weapons states; and successful enforcement of nonproliferation commitments in Iraq.

  14. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  15. Multiphase, multicomponent flow and transport models for Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty monitoring and nuclear waste disposal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Amy

    opportunity for Xe-133 detection from a 1 kt UNE at Rainier Mesa, with and without matching the model to SF6 and He-3 data from the 1993 Non Proliferation Experiment. Results from the data-blind Monte Carlo simulations were similar, but were biased towards earlier arrival time and less likely to show detectable Xe-133. The second study, also related to nuclear nonproliferation compliance, considered the effect of barometric pumping on predicted Xe-133 breakthrough time in a Monte Carlo framework. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock was investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks for two rock types (granite and saturated tuff) and three depths of burial were integrated into a numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture had the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection. Differences in model sensitivity for granite and tuff simulations highlight the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. From Monte Carlo simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized probability of detection curves showed differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff. Granite breakthrough was earlier, as was breakthrough in realizations with greater variance of barometric pressure. Next, heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt during the first two years after waste emplacement was explored using numerical simulations tied to experiments of hydrous mineral dehydration. Heating impure salt samples to temperatures of 265°C released water in amounts greater than 20% by mass of hydrous minerals and clays. Experimental data for water loss at several temperatures were averaged to produce a water source model that was then implemented in FEHM. Simulations using this dehydration model were used to predict temperature

  16. Optimized Sampling Strategies For Non-Proliferation Monitoring: Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.; Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.

    2015-10-20

    Concentration data collected from the 2013 H-Canyon effluent reprocessing experiment were reanalyzed to improve the source term estimate. When errors in the model-predicted wind speed and direction were removed, the source term uncertainty was reduced to 30% of the mean. This explained the factor of 30 difference between the source term size derived from data at 5 km and 10 km downwind in terms of the time history of dissolution. The results show a path forward to develop a sampling strategy for quantitative source term calculation.

  17. Supporting Technology for Chain of Custody of Nuclear Weapons and Materials throughout the Dismantlement and Disposition Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Benz, Jacob M.; Denlinger, Laura Schmidt

    2014-05-04

    The ratification and ongoing implementation of the New START Treaty have been widely regarded as noteworthy global security achievements for both the Obama Administration and the Putin (formerly Medvedev) regime. But deeper cuts that move beyond the United States and Russia to engage the P-5 and other nuclear weapons possessor states are envisioned under future arms control regimes, and are indeed required for the P-5 in accordance with their Article VI disarmament obligations in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Future verification needs will include monitoring the cessation of production of new fissile material for weapons, monitoring storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondary stages, and other materials. A fundamental challenge to implementing a nuclear disarmament regime is the ability to thwart unauthorized material diversion throughout the dismantlement and disposition process through strong chain of custody implementation. Verifying the declared presence, or absence, of nuclear materials and weapons components throughout the dismantlement and disposition lifecycle is a critical aspect of the disarmament process. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under these future arms control regimes will require new solutions. Since any acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes to prevent the release of classified or other proliferation-sensitive information, non-nuclear non-sensitive modalities may provide significant new verification tools which do not require the use of additional information barriers. Alternative verification technologies based upon electromagnetic and acoustics could potentially play an important role in fulfilling the challenging requirements of future verification regimes. For example, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic

  18. Implementing NRF Physics in Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Warren, Glen A.

    2006-07-01

    The Geant4 radiation transport Monte Carlo code toolkit currently does not support nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). After a brief review of NRF physics, plans for implementing this physics process in Geant4, and validating the output of the code, are described. The plans will be executed as Task 3 of project 50799, "Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Signatures (NuRFS)".

  19. Nuclear Technology: Making Informed Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a unit on nuclear technology which is taught in a physics class. Explains the unit design, implementation process, demonstrations used, and topics of discussion that include light and optics, naturally and artificially produced sources of radioactivity, nuclear equations, isotopes and half-lives, and power-generating nuclear reactors.…

  20. Creating an educational consortium to support the recruitment and retention of expertise for the nuclear weapons complex

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Frank; Wells, Douglas P.; Hunt, Alan; Beller, Denis

    2006-12-13

    From FY 02-05 IAC has been a part of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and its predecessor organization Advanced Accelerator Applications. In the IAC program effort has been divided into three parts; Student Research, Accelerator Driven Nuclear Research and Materials Science. Within the three parts specific research and development activities have been undertaken in Student Research, which supported undergraduate and graduate students, post-docs, engineering staff, program administration, project infrastructure, visiting and summer faculty appointments, visiting scientists, and support of students and faculty at the University of Michigan, Texas A&M University, University of Texas and UNLV; Accelerator Driven Nuclear Research included the use of electron accelerators to study driven sub-critical nuclear systems (ADS) and to provide practical methods of monitoring and assaying nuclear materials for accountancy in non proliferation applications (Materials Accountability and Control, MA&C); and Materials Science research at IAC supported all AFC national technical areas.

  1. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  2. Environmental Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site's environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  3. Environmental Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site`s environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy`s Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  4. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  5. Japan`s nuclear weapons options and U.S. security interests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharman, C.H.

    1998-06-01

    Japan is a virtual nuclear weapons power. It has the scientific and technical ability to produce hundreds or even thousands of nuclear weapons, but has chosen not to do so for political reasons. This thesis examines the historical development of Japan`s nuclear energy and aerospace programs since the mid-1950s and considers the possibility that at various points in its history, Japan used these programs as a cover to insure that its nuclear weapons options remained open. This thesis analyzes internal and external factors that may have influenced Japan`s nuclear policies. External factors include regional threats, international pressures to join the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and distrust of US commitments to provide for Japan`s defense. Internal factors include Japan`s historical tradition of a strong military state and Japan`s unique nuclear allergy. While both external and internal factors have influenced the path of Japans nuclear energy and aerospace programs, internal factors will drive Japan to maintain its plutonium-based energy program and will allow Japan to remain a virtual nuclear power well into the twenty-first century.

  6. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Deborah J.

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  7. Microscopic studies of spherical particles for nuclear safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, D.; Ciurapinski, A.; Cliff, J., III; Rüdenauer, F.; Kuno, T.; Poths, J.

    2008-12-01

    A combination of micro-analytical techniques was used for the characterization of spherical particles in the size range 9-12 μm as a part of nuclear safeguards verification activities pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The particles were removed from cotton swipe samples taken in a nuclear facility under safeguards and examined first by scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). Particles of interest were then relocated under an optical microscope and manipulated. One such particle was subjected to destructive analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in order to determine if uranium was present in the core of the particle. A second particle was examined using focused ion beam (FIB) etching to allow an examination of the interior by SEM-EDX. The particle manipulation and relocation techniques presented here allow the sequential examination of a single particle of interest by a combination of analytical techniques, thus yielding surface morphological, elemental, isotopic and depth-profiling information. The objective of these investigations is to provide assurance of the absence of clandestine or undeclared nuclear activities in States coming under comprehensive safeguards obligations.

  8. A GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS TECHNOLOGY.

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE, L.; SISKIND, B.; PEPPER, S.

    2005-07-10

    While there are a number of university graduate-education programs that address non-proliferation and safeguards policy issues; there are none in the United States that train students in the specific technical aspects of nuclear safeguards. Formal education of this kind is necessary to sustain the flow of technically trained individuals to diverse programs in safeguards, nonproliferation, and national security. In response to this need, the University of Missouri-Columbia, with assistance from Brookhaven National Laboratory, is initiating a Graduate Certificate Program in Nuclear Safeguards Technology: Students seeking advanced degrees in a variety of technical areas will complete a required sequence of courses in order to receive the certification. Required course work covers topics such as Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A), Physical Protection (PP); nuclear measurements, and a variety of other relevant subjects. Laboratory-based instruction will be included which will utilize the University of Missouri Research Reactor(MURR). MURR is the largest university-based research reactor and has extensive laboratory resources including a Canberra Aquila MPC&A Operational Monitoring demonstration system.

  9. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  10. Nuclear energy cooperation with China. Hearing before the Special Subcommittee on US-Pacific Rim Trade of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, September 12, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Witnesses addressing the implications of expanding US nuclear trade with China included representatives of DOE, the Office of Technology Assessment, the Departments of State and Commerce, Library of Congress, and the Arms Control Agency. The purpose of the hearing was to seek a balanced approach between those who see expanded nuclear trade as a solution to the malaise of the US nuclear industry and the US balance of payments deficit and those who project the potential market at only five reactors at three sites. Among the topics raised were safeguards agreements and the impact on non-proliferation policy, the legal aspects of a nuclear cooperation agreement, and the possibility that nuclear trade might open up other areas for cooperation and trade. Additional material submitted by DOE, the State Department, and the Library of Congress follows the testimony of the 11 witnesses.