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1

Inheritance of agriculturally important traits in mango  

Microsoft Academic Search

High heterozygosity on the one hand, and the inability to carry out successful hand pollinations on the other hand, have limited the amount of systematic work which has been done in mango breeding. In studying the inheritance of important horticultural traits we must first analyse the distribution of different traits in seedlings derived from open pollination. We studied correlations between

U. Lavi; E. Tomer; S. Gazit

1989-01-01

2

Competencies and Traits of Successful Agricultural Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify the required competencies and traits of successful agricultural science teachers. Data was collected from focus groups of agricultural science teachers and a content analysis of existing research. Results identified 47 unique traits or competencies that were divided into the categories of…

Roberts, T. Grady; Dooley, Kim E.; Harlin, Julie F.; Murphrey, Theresa P.

2006-01-01

3

Importance of energy balance in agriculture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning, man has tried to control nature and the environment, and the use of energy, mainly from non-renewable sources providing the necessary power for that. The consequences of this long fight against nature has reached a critical state of unprecedented worldwide environmental degradation, as evidenced by the increasing erosion of fertile lands, the deforestation processes, the pollution of water, air and land by agrochemicals, the loss of plant and animal species, the progressive deterioration of the ozone layer and signs of global warming. This is exacerbated by the increasing population growth, implying a steady increase in consumption, and consequently, in the use of energy. Unfortunately, all these claims are resulting in serious economic and environmental problems worldwide. Because the economic and environmental future of the countries is interrelated, it becomes necessary to adopt sustainable development models based on the use of renewable and clean energies, the search for alternative resources and the use of productive systems more efficient from an energy standpoint, always with a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the agricultural sector, the question we ask is: how long can we keep the current energy-intensive agricultural techniques in developed countries? To analyze this aspect, energy balance is a very helpful tool because can lead to more efficient, sustainable and environment-friendly production systems for each agro-climatic region. This requires the identification of all the inputs and the outputs involved and their conversion to energy values by means of corresponding energy coefficients or equivalents (International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies). Energy inputs (EI) can be divided in direct (energy directly used in farms as fuel, machines, fertilizers, seeds, herbicides, human labor, etc.) and indirect (energy not consumed in the farm but in the elaboration, manufacturing or manipulation of inputs) ones. Energy outputs (EO) are considered as the calorific value of the harvested biomass (main products and sub-products), calculated from the total production (kg/ha) and its corresponding energy coefficient (strongly correlated to the biochemical composition of the products). Based on energy inputs and outputs, energy efficiency can be expressed as (i) net energy produced (NE) (also known as energy gain or energy balance, calculated as EI-EO and expressed as MJ/ha), (ii) the energy output/input ratio (also known as energy efficiency and calculated as EO/EI), and (iii) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI, expressed as kg/MJ). Funding provided by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

Meco, R.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Moreno, C.

2012-04-01

4

Value Traits Reinforcement and Perceived Importance: Does Context Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether business students' perception of value trait reinforcement and importance differ by their university\\u000a context. Student perceptions in coeducational religious, coeducational public and all-female religious schools were compared.\\u000a The results of this study indicate areas of similarity and differences among students in regard to the context of school type\\u000a and that reinforcement differences seemed to contribute to

John a. Ruhe; William R. Allen; James H. Davis; Virginia Geurin; Justin Longenecker

1998-01-01

5

Molecular Diversity of Agriculturally Important Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Aspergillus species are not usually considered as serious plant pathogens, Aspergilli are frequently encountered in plant products. The most important consequence of their presence is mycotoxin contamination. The main mycotoxins produced by Aspergilli are the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and patulin, which are produced by a variety of Aspergillus species in different plant commodities. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the

János Varga; Ákos Juhász; Ferenc Kevei; Zofia Kozakiewicz

2004-01-01

6

Taiwan: Agricultural Situation. Taiwan's New Regulations for Imported Organic Agricultural Products 2008. GAIN Report Number TW8051.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Taiwan's Council of Agriculture began developing new regulations for Imported Organic Agricultural Product and Organic Agricultural Processed Products in 2007 and will implement them on January 29, 2009. From this date, both domestic and imported raw and ...

K. Lee

2008-01-01

7

The Importance of Agricultural Weather Information: A Michigan Survey.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey was conducted across Michigan in early 1986 in an attempt to better understand the needs of the agricultural community for weather information. The sample analyzed represented 318 respondents in agricultural professions. A smaller sample (227 respondents) representing four major groups of growers was also studied: field crops, fruit, vegetables, and livestock. The survey indicates the importance of accurate and timely agricultural weather information. A vast majority (88%) use such information on a daily basis, and most (71%) indicate potential annual savings in excess of $1000 through using such information. A variety of weather and weather-related variables were seen as important. Although some of the important variables, such as precipitation and air temperature, are included in public forecasts, many of them, such as degree days, humidity, and evaporation, are not. The existence of agricultural forecasts and advisories thus remains essential. Commercial radio and television are the two top current and preferred means of receiving agricultural weather information, but there is increasing desire to utilize such specialized modes as NOAA Weather Radio, telephone recordings, and computerized information-delivery systems. The overall message is that agricultural weather information is crucial and that every effort should be made to generate what is needed and then to disseminate it in a timely and preferred manner.

Carlson, J. D.

1989-04-01

8

Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the com- mercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in trans- genic research, rather than on the health and welfare

M. Greger

2010-01-01

9

Perceptions of Vocational Agriculture Instructors Regarding Knowledge and Importance of Including Selected Agricultural Mechanics Units in the Vocational Agriculture Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of teachers in five northwestern states revealed that respondents in all states rated the units of arc welding and oxyacetylene welding as the most important units to be included in secondary vocational agriculture programs. (LRA)|

Heimgartner, Dale C.; Foster, Richard M.

1981-01-01

10

Physiological traits and cereal germplasm for sustainable agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeding is not a discipline that readily comes to mind when agricultural sustainability is being considered. Sustainability\\u000a is normally associated with farming practices such as stubble retention, direct-drilling, or amelioration practices such as\\u000a contour farming or liming, or rotation practices for nutrient management and disease control. The contribution of plant breeding\\u000a will be in providing germplasm for these changed

R. A. Richards; M. Watt; G. J. Rebetzke

2007-01-01

11

Genetic engineering of cytokinin metabolism: prospective way to improve agricultural traits of crop plants.  

PubMed

Cytokinins (CKs) are ubiquitous phytohormones that participate in development, morphogenesis and many physiological processes throughout plant kingdom. In higher plants, mutants and transgenic cells and tissues with altered activity of CK metabolic enzymes or perception machinery, have highlighted their crucial involvement in different agriculturally important traits, such as productivity, increased tolerance to various stresses and overall plant morphology. Furthermore, recent precise metabolomic analyses have elucidated the specific occurrence and distinct functions of different CK types in various plant species. Thus, smooth manipulation of active CK levels in a spatial and temporal way could be a very potent tool for plant biotechnology in the future. This review summarises recent advances in cytokinin research ranging from transgenic alteration of CK biosynthetic, degradation and glucosylation activities and CK perception to detailed elucidation of molecular processes, in which CKs work as a trigger in model plants. The first attempts to improve the quality of crop plants, focused on cereals are discussed, together with proposed mechanism of action of the responses involved. PMID:22198203

Zalabák, David; Pospíšilová, Hana; Šmehilová, Mária; Mrízová, Katarína; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2011-12-16

12

Animal trait ontology: The importance and usefulness of a unified trait vocabulary for animal species  

PubMed Central

Ontologies help to identify and formally define the entities and relationships in specific domains of interest. Bio-ontologies, in particular, play a central role in the annotation, integration, analysis, and interpretation of biological data. Missing from the number of bio-ontologies is one that includes phenotypic trait information found in livestock species. As a result, the Animal Trait Ontology (ATO) project being carried out under the auspices of the USDA-National Animal Genome Research Program is aimed at the development of a standardized trait ontology for farm animals and software tools to assist the research community in collaborative creation, editing, maintenance, and use of such an ontology. The ATO is currently inclusive of cattle, pig, and chicken species, and will include other livestock species in the future. The ATO will eventually be linked to other species (e.g., human, rat, mouse) so that comparative analysis can be efficiently performed between species.

Hughes, L. M.; Bao, J.; Hu, Z.-L.; Honavar, V.; Reecy, J. M.

2008-01-01

13

Breeding objectives and the relative importance of traits in plant and animal breeding: a comparative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding objectives always involve consideration of multiple traits, even in situations where output of a single trait is\\u000a dominant. We review literature dealing with formal definition of breeding objectives. Involvement of farmers in the process\\u000a of setting up breeding objectives is also considered. In the optimal selection index, the relative importance of a trait is\\u000a scaled by its economic value,

Johann Sölkner; Heinrich Grausgruber; Ally Mwai Okeyo; Peter Ruckenbauer; Maria Wurzinger

2008-01-01

14

Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. sclerotioniger, A. lacticoffeatus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius, and A. aculeatinus. The genetic diversity within A. flavus populations has been widely studied in relation to their potential aflatoxigenicity and morphological variants L- and S-strains. Within A. flavus and other Aspergillus species capable of aflatoxin production, considerable diversity is found. We summarise the main recent achievements in the diversity of the aflatoxin gene cluster in A. flavus populations, A. parasiticus and the non-toxigenic A. oryzae. Studies are needed in order to characterise the aflatoxin biosynthetic genes in the new related taxa A. minisclerotigenes and A. arachidicola. PMID:18490950

Perrone, G; Susca, A; Cozzi, G; Ehrlich, K; Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Meijer, M; Noonim, P; Mahakarnchanakul, W; Samson, R A

2007-01-01

15

How Important is Agriculture in China's Economic Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has achieved spectacular growth since 1949. Rapid growth in the nonagricultural sectors has been assisted by massive resource transfers out of agriculture. Prior to economic reforms before 1978, agriculture was heavily taxed by the state to subsidize urban and industrial development. Economic reforms since 1978 have reduced the burden on agriculture, but lack of state investments still remains a

Shujie Yao

2000-01-01

16

Quantitative trait loci affecting oil content, oil composition, and other agronomically important traits in Oat (Avena sativa L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Groat oil content and composition are important determinants of oat quality. We investigated these traits in a population of 146 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between 'Dal' (high oil) and 'Exeter' (low oil). A linkage map consisting of 475 DArT markers spanning 1271.8 cM across 40 linkage gr...

17

Bayesian mapping of multiple traits in maize: the importance of pleiotropic effects in studying the inheritance of quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Pleiotropy has played an important role in understanding quantitative traits. However, the extensiveness of this effect in the genome and its consequences for plant improvement have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to identify pleiotropic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in maize using Bayesian multiple interval mapping. Additionally, we sought to obtain a better understanding of the inheritance, extent and distribution of pleiotropic effects of several components in maize production. The design III procedure was used from a population derived from the cross of the inbred lines L-14-04B and L-08-05F. Two hundred and fifty plants were genotyped with 177 microsatellite markers and backcrossed to both parents giving rise to 500 backcrossed progenies, which were evaluated in six environments for grain yield and its components. The results of this study suggest that mapping isolated traits limits our understanding of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits. This architecture can be better understood by using pleiotropic networks that facilitate the visualization of the complexity of quantitative inheritance, and this characterization will help to develop new selection strategies. It was also possible to confront the idea that it is feasible to identify QTLs for complex traits such as grain yield, as pleiotropy acts prominently on its subtraits and as this "trait" can be broken down and predicted almost completely by the QTLs of its components. Additionally, pleiotropic QTLs do not necessarily signify pleiotropy of allelic interactions, and this indicates that the pervasive pleiotropy does not limit the genetic adaptability of plants. PMID:22437491

Balestre, Marcio; Von Pinho, Renzo Garcia; de Souza, Claudio Lopes; Bueno Filho, Júlio Sílvio de Sousa

2012-03-22

18

The relative importance of genetic and nongenetic inheritance in relation to trait plasticity in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

A trait's response to natural selection will reflect the nature of the inheritance mechanisms that mediate the transmission of variation across generations. The relative importance of genetic and nongenetic mechanisms of inheritance is predicted to be related to the degree of trait plasticity, with nongenetic inheritance playing a greater role in the cross-generational transmission of more plastic traits. However, this prediction has never been tested. We investigated the influence of genetic effects and nongenetic parental effects in two morphological traits differing in degree of plasticity by manipulating larval diet quality within a cross-generational split-brood experiment using the seed beetle Callososbuchus maculatus. In line with predictions, we found that the more plastic trait (elytron length) is strongly influenced by both maternal and paternal effects whereas genetic variance is undetectable. In contrast, the less plastic trait (first abdominal sternite length) is not influenced by parental effects but exhibits abundant genetic variance. Our findings support the hypothesis that environment-dependent parental effects may play a particularly important role in highly plastic traits and thereby affect the evolutionary response of such traits. PMID:23163327

Hallsson, L R; Chenoweth, S F; Bonduriansky, R

2012-12-01

19

Importance of riparian habitats for small mammal and herpetofaunal communities in agricultural landscapes of southern Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of adequate riparian strips in agricultural landscapes is generally recognized to contribute to the reduction of the impacts of agricultural practices on the water quality of streams, to regularize water temperature and to help in the creation of important wildlife habitats. This study aimed at determining the importance of riparian strips in agricultural landscapes of southern Québec for

Charles Maisonneuve; Stéphanie Rioux

2001-01-01

20

Maturity is explicit: Self-importance of traits in humanitarian moral identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of humanitarian moral identity may correspond with the growing self-importance of moral traits. This study considered the extent to which moral traits become explicit in novice and expert humanitarian moral identity narratives. Eighty humanitarian caregivers from L’Arche communities were given self-understanding interview prompts to assess temporal (i.e., past, present, and future) and relational expectations. Humanitarian responses were compared to

Kevin S. Reimer; Christina Young; Brandon Birath; Michael L. Spezio; Gregory Peterson; James Van Slyke; Warren S. Brown

2012-01-01

21

Maturity is explicit: Self-importance of traits in humanitarian moral identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of humanitarian moral identity may correspond with the growing self-importance of moral traits. This study considered the extent to which moral traits become explicit in novice and expert humanitarian moral identity narratives. Eighty humanitarian caregivers from L’Arche communities were given self-understanding interview prompts to assess temporal (i.e., past, present, and future) and relational expectations. Humanitarian responses were compared to

Kevin S. Reimer; Christina Young; Brandon Birath; Michael L. Spezio; Gregory Peterson; James Van Slyke; Warren S. Brown

2011-01-01

22

Elucidating the Effects of Cortisol and Stress on Economically Important Traits in Channel Catfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are an important aquaculture species in the United States and have received considerable research attention in efforts to improve production. Three traits of considerable importance to the Farm-Raised Catfish industry are disease resistance, growth, and reproduc...

23

Importance of plant traits and herbivory for invasiveness of Phragmites australis (Poaceae).  

PubMed

Biological invasions change native plant communities, but theory predicting whether introductions create naturalized or invasive species is lacking. Focusing on either plant traits or interactions of introduced plants with native biota creates unreliable results, and improvements may require integration of trait- and interaction-based approaches. To assess the importance of plant traits and herbivory on invasiveness, we incorporated herbivore effects in comparisons of growth and phenology of invasive Phragmites australis and its native congener P. australis subsp. americanus. Our results were influenced by venue (field or common garden), with extended life span and optimized leaf-age structure of introduced P. australis indicating greater potential for resource capture. Attack by introduced gallflies affected expression of plant traits, but we found no consistent effect of aphid attack. Origin did not affect leaf emergence or stem height, but preferential gallfly attack stunted native P. australis and delayed senescence. Greater resource capture and lower attack by nonnative herbivores could give introduced P. australis an advantage over the native subspecies. Our results demonstrating the importance of plant traits as well as their modification by interactions with natural enemies questions whether the outcome of plant introductions can be predicted. PMID:21628163

Park, Mia G; Blossey, Bernd

2008-12-01

24

Assessing the Importance and Inclusion of Emotional Intelligence in Agricultural Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the importance and inclusion of emotional intelligence by agricultural education instructors. Although much research has been conducted about the importance of emotional intelligence in the realm of education, research in the area of emotional intelligence in the agricultural education program is limited. The concept of incorporating emotional intelligence into the agri-science curriculum

Cindy Akers

25

Combining population genomics and quantitative genetics: finding the genes underlying ecologically important traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central challenge in evolutionary biology is to identify genes underlying ecologically important traits and describe the fitness consequences of naturally occurring variation at these loci. To address this goal, several novel approaches have been developed, including ‘population genomics,’ where a large number of molecular markers are scored in individuals from different environments with the goal of identifying markers showing

J R Stinchcombe; H E Hoekstra; JR Stinchcombe

2008-01-01

26

Amplified fragment length polymorphism mapping of quantitative trait loci for economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Cocoon related characteristics are economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). In this study a genetic linkage map was developed that identified QTL controlling the cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage using 161 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty PstI/TaqI primer combinations were employed to genotype 78 F(2) progenies derived from a cross between P107 Japanese inbred line and Khorasan Lemon Iranian native strain. Among polymorphic markers, 159 AFLP markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups at the LOD threshold of 2.5 that varied in length from 4 to 299 cM. The total length of the linkage map was 2747 cM, giving an average marker resolution of 19.31 cM. A total of 21 AFLP markers were identified that were distributed over the ten linkage groups linked to the three studied traits using the composite interval mapping method. The explained variation rate by QTL controlling cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage ranged from 0.02% to 64.85%, 0.2% to 49.11%, and 0.04% to 84.20%, respectively. These QTL controlled by different actions as well as under dominance, additive, partial dominance, dominance, and over dominance. PMID:21070171

Mirhoseini, Seyed Z; Rabiei, Babak; Potki, Payam; Dalirsefat, Seyed B

2010-01-01

27

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Economically Important Traits in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Cocoon related characteristics are economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). In this study a genetic linkage map was developed that identified QTL controlling the cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage using 161 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty PstI/TaqI primer combinations were employed to genotype 78 F2 progenies derived from a cross between P107 Japanese inbred line and Khorasan Lemon Iranian native strain. Among polymorphic markers, 159 AFLP markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups at the LOD threshold of 2.5 that varied in length from 4 to 299 cM. The total length of the linkage map was 2747 cM, giving an average marker resolution of 19.31 cM. A total of 21 AFLP markers were identified that were distributed over the ten linkage groups linked to the three studied traits using the composite interval mapping method. The explained variation rate by QTL controlling cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage ranged from 0.02% to 64.85%, 0.2% to 49.11%, and 0.04% to 84.20%, respectively. These QTL controlled by different actions as well as under dominance, additive, partial dominance, dominance, and over dominance.

Mirhoseini, Seyed Z; Rabiei, Babak; Potki, Payam; Dalirsefat, Seyed B

2010-01-01

28

Importation route of the sickle cell trait into Portugal: contribution of molecular epidemiology.  

PubMed

To elucidate the origin and spread of the sickle cell trait into the Portuguese population, we examined nine polymorphic DNA markers within the beta globin gene cluster defining the haplotype. The population sample included 64 sickle-cell-gene-bearing individuals from defined Portuguese-speaking white, black, and Asian Indian populations. The nature and geographic distribution of the different beta S haplotypes in Portugal suggest that the sickle cell trait has been imported twice: between the eighth and the thirteenth centuries from the Mediterranean basin (in association with the Benin haplotype) and after the fifteenth century from black Africa over an Atlantic route (Senegal and Bantu haplotypes). PMID:1427745

Lavinha, J; Gonçalves, J; Faustino, P; Romăo, L; Osório-Almeida, L; Peres, M J; Picanço, I; Martins, M C; Ducrocq, R; Labie, D

1992-12-01

29

U.S. Agricultural Trade Update: August U.S. Agricultural Exports Fall While Imports Grow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of U.S. agricultural exports fell 5 percent from July to August, with bulk products falling nearly 20 percent. In contrast, high-value products rose by 4 percent. With only one month remaining in fiscal 2006, fiscal-year-to-date exports are $63....

N. Brooks

2006-01-01

30

Importance of behavior and morphological traits for controlling body temperature in littorinid snails.  

PubMed

For organisms living in the intertidal zone, temperature is an important selective agent that can shape species distributions and drive phenotypic variation among populations. Littorinid snails, which occupy the upper limits of rocky shores and estuaries worldwide, often experience extreme high temperatures and prolonged aerial emersion during low tides, yet their robust physiology--coupled with morphological and behavioral traits--permits these gastropods to persist and exert strong grazing control over algal communities. We use a mechanistic heat-budget model to compare the effects of behavioral and morphological traits on the body temperatures of five species of littorinid snails under natural weather conditions. Model predictions and field experiments indicate that, for all five species, the relative contribution of shell color or sculpturing to temperature regulation is small, on the order of 0.2-2 °C, while behavioral choices such as removing the foot from the substratum or reorienting the shell can lower body temperatures by 2-4 °C on average. Temperatures in central California rarely exceeded the thermal tolerance limits of the local littorinid species during the study period, but at sites where snails are regularly exposed to extreme high temperatures, the functional significance of the tested traits may be important. The mechanistic approach used here provides the ability to gauge the importance of behavioral and morphological traits for controlling body temperature as species approach their physiological thresholds. PMID:21712229

Miller, Luke P; Denny, Mark W

2011-06-01

31

Plant acclimation to elevated CO? affects important plant functional traits, and concomitantly reduces plant colonization rates by an herbivorous insect.  

PubMed

Plants growing under elevated CO? concentration may acclimatize to this environmental change by modification of chemical, physiological, and/or morphological traits. As a consequence, not only plant functioning but also plant-insect interactions might be altered, with important consequences particularly for agricultural systems. Whereas most studies have focused on the plant acclimation effects of elevated CO? with regard to crop growth and productivity, acclimation effects on the behavioral response of insects associated with these plants have been largely neglected. In this study, we used a model system comprised of Brussels sprout Brassica oleraceae var. gemmifera and a specialized herbivorous insect, the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, to test for the effects of various periods of exposure to an elevated (2× ambient) CO? concentration on key plant functional traits and on host plant location behavior by the insect, assessed as plant colonization rates. Elevated CO? had no measurable effect on colonization rates or total plant volatile emissions after a 2-week exposure, but it led to 15 and 26 % reductions in plant colonization rates after 6- and 10-week exposures, respectively. This reduction in plant colonization was associated with significant decreases in leaf stomatal conductance and plant volatile emission. Terpene emission, in particular, exhibited a great reduction after the 10-week exposure to elevated CO?. Our results provide empirical evidence that plants might acclimatize to a future increase in CO?, and that these acclimation responses might affect host plant choice and colonization behavior by herbivorous insects, which might be advantageous from the plant's perspective. PMID:22968910

Klaiber, Jeannine; Najar-Rodriguez, Adriana J; Piskorski, Rafal; Dorn, Silvia

2012-09-12

32

Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits: importance in the life history of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Helicidae) in a recently colonized habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive traits of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller were investigated under artificial conditions from two samples, one collected from a population exposed to unpredictable human pressures in its natural environment, i.e. a recently created polders area with intensive agriculture, and the other from a snail farm in which animals were reared under constant conditions defined as 'optimal' for growth

LUC MADEC; CHRISTOPHE DESBUQUOIS; MARIE-AGNES COUTELLEC-VRETO

2000-01-01

33

Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits: importance in the life history of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Helicidae) in a recently colonized habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive traits of the land snail Helix aspersa Müller were investigated under artificial conditions from two samples, one collected from a population exposed to unpredictable human pressures in its natural environment, i.e. a recently created polders area with intensive agriculture, and the other from a snail farm in which animals were reared under constant conditions defined as Ťoptimalť for growth

LUC MADEC; CHRISTOPHE DESBUQUOIS; MARIE-AGNES COUTELLEC-VRETO

2000-01-01

34

Interactions between alien plant species traits and habitat characteristics in agricultural landscapes in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival and success of alien plant species is determined by species traits (i.e., invasiveness) and the characteristics\\u000a of the habitats in the region of introduction (i.e., invasibility). However, little is known about species traits as related\\u000a to habitat characteristics. We assessed the characteristics of successful invaders and the interaction of environmental factors\\u000a and life-history traits for alien plant species.

Miia Jauni; Terho Hyvönen

35

Variation in heading date conceals quantitative trait loci for other traits of importance in breeding selection of rice  

PubMed Central

To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the primary target traits for selection in practical rice breeding programs, backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from crosses between temperate japonica rice cultivars Nipponbare and Koshihikari were evaluated for 50 agronomic traits at six experimental fields located throughout Japan. Thirty-three of the 50 traits were significantly correlated with heading date. Using a linkage map including 647 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a total of 122 QTLs for 38 traits were mapped on all rice chromosomes except chromosomes 5 and 9. Fifty-eight of the 122 QTLs were detected near the heading date QTLs Hd16 and Hd17 and the remaining 64 QTLs were found in other chromosome regions. QTL analysis of 51 BILs having homozygous for the Koshihikari chromosome segments around Hd16 and Hd17 allowed us to detect 40 QTLs associated with 27 traits; 23 of these QTLs had not been detected in the original analysis. Among the 97 QTLs for the 30 traits measured in multiple environments, the genotype-by-environment interaction was significant for 44 QTLs and not significant for 53 QTLs. These results led us to propose a new selection strategy to improve agronomic performance in temperate japonica rice cultivars.

Hori, Kiyosumi; Kataoka, Tomomori; Miura, Kiyoyuki; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Saka, Norikuni; Nakahara, Takahiro; Sunohara, Yoshihiro; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro

2012-01-01

36

Selected historic agricultural data important to environmental quality in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report and the accompanying tables summarize some of the important changes in American agriculture in the form of a timeline and a compilation of selected annual time-series data that can be broadly related to environmental quality. Although these changes have been beneficial for increasing agricultural production, some of them have resulted in environmental concerns. The agriculture timeline is divided into four categories (1) crop and animal changes, (2) mechanical changes, (3) biological and chemical changes, and (4) regulatory and societal changes. The timeline attempts to compile events that have had a lasting impact on agriculture in the United States. The events and data presented in this report may help to improve the connections between agricultural activist and environmental concerns.

Grey, Katia M.; Capel, Paul D.; Baker, Nancy T.; Thelin, Gail P.

2012-01-01

37

Traits as Goal-Based Categories: The Importance of Goals in the Coherence of Dispositional Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that goals are central to the meaning and structure of many traits and help define the prototypicality structure of those traits. Partly on the basis of Barsalou's (1985) work on goal-derived categories, it was predicted that goals help define the judged prototypicality of many trait-related behaviors and the confidence with which people make trait inferences from those

Stephen J. Read; David K. Jones; Lynn C. Miller

1990-01-01

38

Water use in agriculture in China: importance, challenges, and implications for policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation is too important for China to live without. With 75% of grain production of China coming from irrigated land, irrigation plays a major role in food security and poverty alleviation in China, and even in stabilizing the world grain market due to the potential significance of China's gain imports. Yet, water use in China's agriculture faces ever-increasing challenges. These

Leshan Jin; Warren Young

2001-01-01

39

Costly Traits and e-Collaboration: The Importance of Oral Speech in Electronic Knowledge Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is argued here that oral speech\\u000a is a costly trait evolved by our human ancestors to enable effective knowledge communication. Costly traits are phenotypic traits\\u000a that evolved in spite of imposing a fitness cost, often in the form of a survival handicap\\u000a . In non-human animals, the classic example of costly trait is the peacock’s train\\u000a , used by

Ned Kock

40

Habitat effects on the relative importance of trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions.  

PubMed

Classical views of trophic cascades emphasize the primacy of consumptive predator effects on prey populations to the transmission of indirect effects [density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)]. However, trophic cascades can also emerge without changes in the density of interacting species because of non-consumptive predator effects on prey traits such as foraging behaviour [trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs)]. Although ecologists appreciate this point, measurements of the relative importance of each indirect predator effect are rare. Experiments with a three-level, rocky shore food chain containing an invasive predatory crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the snail, Nucella lapillus) and a basal resource (the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides) revealed that the strength of TMIIs is comparable with, or exceeds, that of DMIIs. Moreover, the sign and strength of each indirect predator effect depends on whether it is measured in risky or refuge habitats. Because habitat shifts are often responsible for the emergence of TMIIs, attention to the sign and strength of these interactions in both habitats will improve our understanding of the link between individual behaviour and community dynamics. PMID:17040327

Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ewanchuk, Patrick J; Matassa, Catherine M

2006-11-01

41

AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE AND THE FOOD SECTOR TO THE MICHIGAN ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of workers on farms and in food processing represents about 16 percent of total employment in basic industries in Michigan. Converting farm labor to full time equivalents, however, reduces the proportion to about 11 percent. The industries dependent upon agriculture and food processing enhance the importance of this sector. Adding backward linked industries increases the total employment from

John N. Ferris

2000-01-01

42

The Missing Food Problem: How Low Agricultural Imports Contribute to International Income and Productivity Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper finds an important relationship between the international food trade and cross-country income and productivity differences. Poor countries have low labour productivity in agriculture relative to other sectors, yet predominantly consume domestically-produced food. To understand these observations, I describe and exploit a general equilibrium model of international trade to: (1) measure sectoral productivity and trade costs across countries; and

Trevor Tombe

2010-01-01

43

Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal temperature at birth, 2 h after birth, and 24 h after birth; cordal plasma lactate; and latency to first suckle. Based on autopsy, causes of mortality were divided into stillborn, bitten to death, starvation, crushed, disease, and other causes. Potential risk factors of dying were estimated using a GLM with a logit link function. No significant effect (NS) of housing was observed on the odds of a piglet being stillborn (F(1,73) = 0.1, NS), being crushed (F(1,53) = 1.4, NS), or dying of starvation (F(1,53) = 0.3, NS). No significant differences were observed between the 2 genetic groups for any category of mortality. Piglet traits for pre- and postnatal survival were the same for CT and PN. The odds of being stillborn were increased in piglets born late in the birth order (F(1,1061) = 33.5, P < 0.0001), after a long interbirth interval (F(1,1061) = 19.2, P < 0.0001), and with a lighter birth weight (F(1,1061) = 9.2, P = 0.003). The lighter the birth weight of the piglets, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 18, P < 0.0001) and dying of starvation (F(1,1050) = 19, P < 0.0001). The lower the rectal temperature 2 h after birth, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 4.6, P = 0.03), starving (F(1,1050) = 16.6, P < 0.0001), or dying of diseases (F(1,1050) = 4.9, P = 0.03). Increased cordal plasma lactate increased the odds of dying from starvation (F(1,1050) = 18, P < 0.0001). In both CT and PN, the birth weight, body temperature 2 h after birth, and birth process were important traits related to crushing, starvation, and disease. Neither housing nor breeding value influenced mortality or traits of importance for the inborn viability of piglets. The results emphasize that the microclimate in the PN for newborn piglets and its heat-preserving properties are more important for survival than whether the sow is crated or penned. PMID:21148785

Pedersen, L J; Berg, P; Jřrgensen, G; Andersen, I L

2010-12-10

44

Evaluating the Importance of Plant Functional Traits: the Subalpine and Alpine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several decades, researchers have attempted to characterize plant groups according to traits that are considered functional, i.e. contributing significantly to fitness. Due to the complexity of measuring fitness, the capability for photosynthetic carbon gain is often used as a proxy. Thus, this approach correlates structural differences to photosynthetic performance, especially those differences that are known to be associated with photosynthesis, are easily measured and inexpensive. At the often sharp boundary between the subalpine forest and alpine community (treeline ecotone), plant structural traits change dramatically, i.e. tall evergreen trees give way abruptly to low-stature shrubs, grasses, forbs, and herbs. Yet, the differences in functional traits, so abundant in the literature for a variety of species and communities, have not been compared contiguous communities such as the subalpine forest and alpine. Can differences in functional traits already identified in the literature also be used to characterize species of these two contrasting communities? Or are there other traits that are most functional and/or, possibly, unique to each community and not the most popular traits reported so far in the literature. Also, does the community structure itself help determine functional traits? For example, the top ten most frequently studied traits (145 total papers from approximately 63 different refereed journals) considered functional include the following (% of the 145 publications): specific leaf area or mass (SLA or SLM 39%), plant height (36%), leaf nitrogen content (34%), leaf size (19%), leaf area (16%), leaf photosynthetic performance (15%), leaf dry matter content (LDMC 15%), leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA 15%), leaf thickness (15%), and seed mass (14%). In addition, another 120 traits were mentioned as functional, although all fell below a 14% citation rate. Particular focus was placed on this group due to the possibility that they might be new, potentially revealing traits with regard to function and fitness of a particular plant community. The most frequently studied traits (above) are evaluated here for their potential in predicting fitness in these distinctly different communities, i.e. new functional traits that may most relevant for predicting successful growth and reproduction. Also, additional traits are proposed that are absent from the literature, but are hypothesized as critical to fitness in each community. This association between specific plant traits, or suites of traits, for these two adjacent communities will be valuable for identifying future spatial shifts according to a changing global environment. The future role of climate change in altering global treelines might be predicted based on differences in the most critical functional traits possessed by subalpine versus alpine species.

Sanchez, A.; Smith, W. K.

2011-12-01

45

Microbial diversity of vermicompost bacteria that exhibit useful agricultural traits and waste management potential.  

PubMed

Vermicomposting is a non-thermophilic, boioxidative process that involves earthworms and associated microbes. This biological organic waste decomposition process yields the biofertilizer namely the vermicompost. Vermicompost is a finely divided, peat like material with high porosity, good aeration, drainage, water holding capacity, microbial activity, excellent nutrient status and buffering capacity thereby resulting the required physiochemical characters congenial for soil fertility and plant growth. Vermicompost enhances soil biodiversity by promoting the beneficial microbes which inturn enhances plant growth directly by production of plant growth-regulating hormones and enzymes and indirectly by controlling plant pathogens, nematodes and other pests, thereby enhancing plant health and minimizing the yield loss. Due to its innate biological, biochemical and physiochemical properties, vermicompost may be used to promote sustainable agriculture and also for the safe management of agricultural, industrial, domestic and hospital wastes which may otherwise pose serious threat to life and environment. PMID:23961356

Pathma, Jayakumar; Sakthivel, Natarajan

2012-10-04

46

Importance of health and environment as quality traits in the buying decision of organic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to explore consumer preference for fresh vegetables labelled as organic in combination with health and environment related quality traits. The study decomposes organic farming into its main quality aspects and measures consumers' preference structure for organic, in general, and for specific organic quality traits in particular. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – By means of stated choice preference modelling,

Koen Mondelaers; Wim Verbeke; Guido Van Huylenbroeck

2009-01-01

47

Non-lactational traits of importance in dairy cows and applications for emerging biotechnologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy cattle have traditionally been selected for their ability to produce milk and milk components. The traditional single-minded approach to selection of dairy cattle has now changed and secondary traits are being included in selection indices by decreasing the emphasis on production. Greater emphasis on non-production traits reflects the industry's desire for functional dairy cattle. Six broad categories of non-lactational

MC Lucy

2005-01-01

48

An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Professional Internships on Students' Perception of the Importance of Employment Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors measured the effects of a formal internship on students' perceptions of the importance of traits employees consider during the hiring process. Prior studies have reported that accounting firms perceive students with internship experience as better entry-level accountants. This perception may be related to changes in student beliefs…

Green, Brian Patrick; Graybeal, Patricia; Madison, Roland L.

2011-01-01

49

A Comparative Analysis of Perceived Importance of Teacher Activities Associated with the Program Components of Vocational Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comparison of vocational agriculture teachers' and secondary school principals' perceptions of the importance of teacher activities associated with agricultural education revealed that teachers rated supervised occupational experience activities, budget management, use of summer time, and involvement in community and professional activities…

Cox, David E.; Zurbrick, Phillip R.

1986-01-01

50

HIGH-DENSITY MAPPING AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AGRONOMICALLY IMPORTANT TRAITS ON WHEAT CHROMOSOME 3A  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bread wheat chromosome 3A has been shown to contain genes/QTLs controlling grain yield and its component traits. The objectives of this study were to generate high-density physical and genetic linkage maps of wheat homoeologous group 3 chromosomes, reveal the physical location of genes/QTLs controll...

51

Leaf Physiological Traits and their Importance for Species Success in a Mediterranean Grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We related leaf physiological traits of four grassland species (Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne, Festuca valida, and Taraxacum officinale), dominant in a Mediterranean grassland, to their origin and success at community level. From early May to mid-June 1999, four leaf samplings were done. Species originating from poor environments (P. pratensis, F. valida) had low carbon isotope discrimination (?), specific leaf area

J. T. Tsialtas; T. S. Pritsa; D. S. Veresoglou

2004-01-01

52

Diallel analysis for traits of economic importance in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breeding strategy for globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is suggested after General and Specific Combining Ability between several clones were estimated to determine the gene action for yield?related and morphological traits. Two sets of diallel crosses, without parents, using four selected clones in each were developed. A completely randomised design with three replications for each diallel cross was used. Significant

V. P. Cravero; F. S. Lopez Anido; P. D. Asprelli; E. L. Cointry

2004-01-01

53

Currency Substitution: A Test of Its Importance for the United States and Implications for Agricultural Trade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agricultural economists are concerned with effects of domestic and foreign monetary events on U.S. agriculture. Much attention has recently focused on the theory of currency substitution. The report explains the theory and evaluates evidence for the theor...

S. Haley

1986-01-01

54

High-density mapping and comparative analysis of agronomically important traits on wheat chromosome 3A.  

PubMed

Bread wheat chromosome 3A has been shown to contain genes/QTLs controlling grain yield and other agronomic traits. The objectives of this study were to generate high-density physical and genetic-linkage maps of wheat homoeologous group 3 chromosomes and reveal the physical locations of genes/QTLs controlling yield and its component traits, as well as agronomic traits, to obtain a precise estimate of recombination for the corresponding regions and to enrich the QTL-containing regions with markers. Physical mapping was accomplished by 179 DNA markers mostly representing expressed genes using 41 single-break deletion lines. Polymorphism survey of cultivars Cheyenne (CNN) and Wichita (WI), and a substitution line of CNN carrying chromosome 3A from WI [CNN(WI3A)], with 142 RFLP probes and 55 SSR markers revealed that the extent of polymorphism is different among various group 3 chromosomal regions as well as among the homoeologs. A genetic-linkage map for chromosome 3A was developed by mapping 17 QTLs for seven agronomic traits relative to 26 RFLP and 15 SSR chromosome 3A-specific markers on 95 single-chromosome recombinant inbred lines. Comparison of the physical maps with the 3A genetic-linkage map localized the QTLs to gene-containing regions and accounted for only about 36% of the chromosome. Two chromosomal regions containing 9 of the 17 QTLs encompassed less than 10% of chromosome 3A but accounted for almost all of the arm recombination. To identify rice chromosomal regions corresponding to the particular QTL-containing wheat regions, 650 physically mapped wheat group 3 sequences were compared with rice genomic sequences. At an E value of E < or = 10(-5), 82% of the wheat group 3 sequences identified rice homologs, of which 54% were on rice chromosome 1. The rice chromosome 1 region collinear with the two wheat regions that contained 9 QTLs was about 6.5 Mb. PMID:16624516

Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Erayman, Mustafa; Campbell, B Todd; Randhawa, Harpinder S; Baenziger, P Stephen; Dweikat, Ismail; Gill, Kulvinder S

2006-04-19

55

Identification of QTLs affecting traits of agronomic importance in a recombinant inbred population derived from a subspecific rice cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect QTLs controlling traits of agronomic importance in rice, two elite homozygous lines 9024 and LH422, which represent the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa), were crossed. Subsequently a modified single-seed-descent procedure was employed to produce 194 recombinant inbred lines (F8). The 194 lines were genotyped at 141 RFLP marker loci and evaluated in a field trial

J. Xiao; J. Li; L. Yuan; S. D. Tanksley

1996-01-01

56

EM Algorithm for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in Multivalent Tetraploids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multivalent tetraploids that include many plant species, such as potato, sugarcane and rose, are of paramount importance to agricultural production and biological research. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in multivalent tetraploids is challenged by their unique cytogenetic properties, such ...

57

An application of belief-importance theory with reference to trait emotional intelligence, mood, and somatic complaints.  

PubMed

This article describes the basic principles of belief-importance (belimp) theory and tests them in two empirical studies. Belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences and divergences between our belief that we can attain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. Four distinct quadrants can be identified within the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression and Apathy), broadly corresponding to the personality dimensions of trait emotional intelligence, conscientiousness, neuroticism and introversion. Study 1 (N=365) defines the four quadrants in relation to goals about financial security and shows that they score differently on trait emotional intelligence, mood and somatic complaints. Study 2 (N=230) defines the quadrants in relation to goals about appearance and, separately, in relation to goals about popularity, and replicates the findings of the first study. Strategies and requirements for testing belimp theory are presented, as are a number of theoretical and practical advantages that it can potentially offer. PMID:20602738

Petrides, K V

2011-04-01

58

Conservation Agriculture: What Is It and Why Is It Important for Future Sustainable Food Production?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. The paper first introduces the reasons for tillage in agriculture and discusses how this age-old agricultural practice is responsible for natural resource and soil degradation. The paper goes on to

Peter R. Hobbs

59

ESTIMATION OF HETEROSIS FOR SOME IMPORTANT TRAITS IN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the estimation of mid-parent and better-parent heterosis in Brassica juncea L. genotypes an experiment was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2004-05 and 2005-06 using 8 x 8 full diallel. All the 56 F1 hybrids and their parents were planted in a randomized complete block design with two replications. Out of 56 hybrids, negative mid-parent and better-parent heterosis

Naushad Ali Turi; S. Salim Shah; Sardar Ali

60

Brain vasopressin is an important regulator of maternal behavior independent of dams' trait anxiety  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) is arguably among the most potent regulators of social behaviors in mammals identified to date. However, only the related neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to promote maternal behavior. Here, we assess the role of AVP in maternal care, in particular in arched back nursing, pup retrieval, and pup contact by using complementary pharmacological and genetic approaches. Also, experiments were performed in rat dams with differences in trait anxiety, i.e., rats bred for either high (HAB) or low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior as well as nonselected (NAB) dams. Viral vector-mediated up-regulation of AVP V1a receptors (AVP-Rs) within the medial preoptic area of lactating NAB rats and chronic central AVP treatment of NAB and LAB dams improved, whereas local blockade of AVP-R expression by means of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or central AVP-R antagonism impaired, maternal care in NAB dams. Also, in HAB rats with a genetically determined elevated brain AVP activity, intrinsically high levels of maternal care were reversed by blockade of AVP-R actions. Treatment-induced impairment of AVP-mediated maternal behavior increased adult emotionality and impaired social interactions in male offspring of NAB dams. These findings provide direct evidence for an essential and highly potent role of brain AVP in promoting maternal behavior, which seems to be independent of the dam's trait anxiety.

Bosch, Oliver J.; Neumann, Inga D.

2008-01-01

61

Conservation of Traditional Rice Varieties in a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS): Rice-Fish Co-Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional rice-fish farming system is selected as a “globally important agricultural heritage system” (GIAHS) by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and Global Environment Facility (GEF), etc. In Zhejiang Province of China, where the pilot site for this GIAHS farming system is located, we compared the use of traditional rice varieties in rice-fish co-culture

Jian XIE; Xue WU; Jian-jun TANG; Jia-en ZHANG; Shi-ming LUO; Xin CHEN

2011-01-01

62

Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.  

PubMed

Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes. PMID:18833660

Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

2008-01-01

63

The evolution of costly traits through selection and the importance of oral speech in e-collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes code for the expression of phenotypic traits, such as behavioral (e.g., aggressiveness) and morpho- logical (e.g., opposing thumbs) traits. Costly traits are phenotypic traits that evolved in spite of imposing a fitness cost, often in the form of a survival handicap. In non-human animals, the classic example of costly trait is the peacock's train, used by males to signal

Ned Kock

2009-01-01

64

How Important Are Non-Tariff Barriers to Agricultural Trade within ECOWAS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that the countries of Africa trade relatively little with the outside world, and among themselves, despite an extensive network of regional trade agreements. We examine this proposition by focusing on agricultural trade. Specifically, we ask whether non-tariff barriers (NTBs) are stunting agricultural trade within ECOWAS, a grouping of 15 countries in West Africa that has removed

Abdoulaye Seck; Lassana Cissokho; Kossi Makpayo; Jonathan Haughton

2010-01-01

65

Using wetlands for water quality improvement in agricultural watersheds; the importance of a watershed scale approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural applications of fertilizers and pesticides have increased dramatically since the middle 1960s, and agrochemical contamination of surface and groundwater has become a serious environmental concern. Since the mid-1980s, a variety of state and federal programs have been used to promote wetland restoration, and these continuing efforts provide a unique opportunity for water quality improvement in agricultural watersheds. However, wetland

W. G. Crumpton

66

The importance of managing the costs and benefits of bird activity for agricultural sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of wild animal species in agricultural landscapes may confer benefits to growers through the provision of ecosystem services (e.g. control of agricultural pests) or inflict costs through direct or indirect damage to crops or livestock. The literature on the costs that species inflict or the benefits they provide has evolved largely independently with few attempts to synthesize information

Shannon Triplett; Gary W. Luck; Peter Spooner

2012-01-01

67

Biorational agents--mechanism and importance in IPM and IRM programs for controlling agricultural pests.  

PubMed

Among the new approaches for controlling agricultural pests is the development of novel compounds affecting specific processes in insects such as chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone mimics and ecdysone agonists. In addition, efforts have been made to develop compounds acting selectively on groups of insects by inhibiting or enhancing biochemical sites such as respiration (diafenthiuron), the nicotinyl acetylcholine receptors (imidacloprid and acetamiprid), the GABA receptors (avermectins), the salivary glands of sucking pests (pymetrozine) and others. Among the most recent novel insecticides with selective properties are novaluron, thiamethoxam, emamectin and spinosad. Novaluron (Rimon) is a novel chitin synthesis inhibitor that acts by both ingestion and contact. It is a powerful suppressor of lepidopteran larvae such as Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera (by ingestion) and of whiteflies such as Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (by contact). Thiamethoxam (Actarn), a novel neonicotinoid acts specifically on aphids and whiteflies. Emamectin (Proclaim), an avermectin derivative acts on GABA receptor affecting diversity of insects such as mites, lepidopterans and thrips. Spinosad (Tracer) seems to act on both acetylcholine and GABA receptors affecting diversity of insect species and is considered an important agent for controlling the western flower thrips. PMID:12425057

Ishaaya, I; Kontsedalov, S; Mazirov, D; Horowitz, A R

2001-01-01

68

Co-cultivation of N 2-fixing cyanobacteria and some agriculturally important plants in liquid and sand cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, there is a great interest in establishing novel associations between higher plants and a variety of N2-fixing microorganisms. In this paper, we present data obtained during the co-cultivation of cyanobacterial isolates (Nostoc and Anabaena strains) previously isolated from different soil types and the following plant species of agricultural importance: wheat, corn, bean, sugar beat and rice (2 cvs.).

I. Tamas; P. Nenin; A. Drobac

1997-01-01

69

Using wetlands for water quality improvement in agricultural watersheds; the importance of a watershed scale approach.  

PubMed

Agricultural applications of fertilizers and pesticides have increased dramatically since the middle 1960s, and agrochemical contamination of surface and groundwater has become a serious environmental concern. Since the mid-1980s, a variety of state and federal programs have been used to promote wetland restoration, and these continuing efforts provide a unique opportunity for water quality improvement in agricultural watersheds. However, wetland restorations have been motivated primarily by concern over waterfowl habitat loss, and model simulations suggest that commonly used site selection criteria for wetland restorations may be inadequate for water quality purposes. This does not lessen the promise of wetlands for water quality improvement in agricultural watersheds, but rather emphasizes the need for watershed scale approaches to wetland siting and design. Water quality is best viewed from a watershed perspective, and watershed scale endpoints should be explicitly considered in site selection for wetland restoration. PMID:11804150

Crumpton, W G

2001-01-01

70

Climate impacts on European agriculture and water management in the context of adaptation and mitigation—The importance of an integrated approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review and qualitatively assess the importance of interactions and feedbacks in assessing climate change impacts on water and agriculture in Europe. We focus particularly on the impact of future hydrological changes on agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and adaptation options. Future projected trends in European agriculture include northward movement of crop suitability zones and increasing crop productivity in Northern

Pete Falloon; Richard Betts

2010-01-01

71

Why regionality is an important value in or- ganic agriculture: the case of the Netherlands J. de Wit, H. Verhoog and U. Prins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture is a system of produc- tion and consumption in which values play a prom i- nent role. The new IFOAM principles reflect the cur- rent worldwide consensus on the most important values of organic agriculture. Regionality or proximity is not explicitly mentioned in these principles. Also in the present EU-regulation on organic agriculture hardly any standards are formulated

J. de Wit; H. Verhoog

72

Bacterial traits, organism mass, and numerical abundance in the detrital soil food web of Dutch agricultural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares responses to environmental stress of the ecophysiological traits of organisms in the detrital soil food webs of grasslands in the Netherlands, using the relationship between average body mass M and numerical abundance N. The microbial biomass and biodiversity of belowground fauna were measured in 110 grasslands on sand, 85 of them farmed under organic, conventional and intensive

Christian Mulder; Joel E. Cohen; Heikki Setala

73

Consumer concerns about industrialized agriculture and food safety:importance, origin and possible solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern agriculture and the food industry throughout western Europe, especially in France, have become the subject of consumer criticism. The concern is focussed mainly on product quality and safety, and on environmental impact. It has therefore appeared interesting to analyse the concern along with the answers offered by the various actors concerned. First, a global review of the good and

Sylvie Bonny

2000-01-01

74

THE IMPORTANCE OF IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDIES FOR THE BRAZILIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEM1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last three decades, a large number of impact assessment studies have been developed in the world showing the contributions of agricultural research to the improvement of productivity, profitability and sustainability of the agribusiness. Brazil is one of the countries where this kind of study frequently appears, particularly at Embrapa - a government research company which is responsible for

Antonio Flavio; Dias Avila

75

Adaptation to climate change and climate variability: The importance of understanding agriculture as performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most climate change studies that address potential impacts and potential adaptation strategies are largely based on modelling technologies. While models are useful for visualizing potential future outcomes and pathways and evaluating options for potential adaptation, they do not adequately represent and integrate adaptive human agency. Richards’ concept of ‘agriculture as performance’ is useful in counterbalancing the modelling approach to adaptation

T. A. Crane; C. Roncoli; G. Hoogenboom

2011-01-01

76

Agricultural By-Products Turned into Important Materials with Adsorptive Properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

77

Atrazine and metolachlor losses in runoff events from an agricultural watershed: the importance of runoff components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Losses of atrazine and metolachlor in runoff events were investigated at the outlet of an agricultural watershed. The streamflow hydrographs were decomposed into surface runoff, interflow, and baseflow. The majority of losses of the applied herbicides occurred in surface runoff and interflow. The combined losses in surface runoff and interflow accounted for up to 75% of atrazine and 65% of

H. Y. F. Ng; S. B. Clegg

1997-01-01

78

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and quality traits of fossil cereal grains provide clues on sustainability at the beginnings of Mediterranean agriculture.  

PubMed

We present a novel approach to study the sustainability of ancient Mediterranean agriculture that combines the measurement of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C) and nitrogen isotope composition (delta(15)N) along with the assessment of quality traits in fossil cereal grains. Charred grains of naked wheat and barley were recovered in Los Castillejos, an archaeological site in SE Spain, with a continuous occupation of ca. 1500 years starting soon after the origin of agriculture (ca. 4000 BCE) in the region. Crop water status and yield were estimated from Delta(13)C and soil fertility and management practices were assessed from the delta(15)N and N content of grains. The original grain weight was inferred from grain dimensions and grain N content was assessed after correcting N concentration for the effect of carbonisation. Estimated water conditions (i.e. rainfall) during crop growth remained constant for the entire period. However, the grain size and grain yield decreased progressively during the first millennium after the onset of agriculture, regardless of the species, with only a slight recovery afterwards. Minimum delta(15)N values and grain N content were also recorded in the later periods of site occupation. Our results indicate a progressive loss of soil fertility, even when the amount of precipitation remained steady, thereby indicating the unsustainable nature of early agriculture at this site in the Western Mediterranean Basin. In addition, several findings suggest that barley and wheat were cultivated separately, the former being restricted to marginal areas, coinciding with an increased focus on wheat cultivation. PMID:18438779

Aguilera, Mňnica; Araus, José Luis; Voltas, Jordi; Rodríguez-Ariza, Maria Oliva; Molina, Fernando; Rovira, Núria; Buxó, Ramon; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

2008-06-01

79

Dietary effects on life history traits in a terrestrial isopod: the importance of evaluating maternal effects and trade-offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of life history aim to explain patterns in the evolution of reproductive investment, growth, and survival. Trade-offs between traits are a fundamental component of life history theory. In herbivorous arthropods life history traits are often responsive to variation in numerous environmental factors, especially diet quality. Using three artificial diets under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined changes in life history

Marco A. Lardies; Mauricio J. Carter; Francisco Bozinovic

2004-01-01

80

Relative importance of water chemistry and habitat to fish communities in headwater streams influenced by agricultural land use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Channelized headwater streams are common throughout agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Understanding the relative impacts of agricultural contaminants and habitat degradation on the aquatic biota within agricultural headwater streams will provide information that can assist wi...

81

The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

Gwata, E.

2012-04-01

82

Identification of Species, Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs), and Hybrids Important for Low-Input Biomass Production and Hetersis in Semiarid Cold-Growing Environments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interspecific hybrids of tall caespitose Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love and strongly rhizomatous Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilg. display a heterotic combination of traits important for perennial grass biomass production. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare seasonal biomas...

83

Sexual selection in the northern pintail ( Anas acuta ): the importance of female choice versus male-male competition in the evolution of sexually-selected traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally studied the relative importance of plumage, dominance status, and courtship behavior in determining male pairing success in the northern pintail Anas acuta and assessed whether these traits function in female choice, male-male competition or both. In an experiment (experiment IA) that eliminated the confounding effects of male-male competition and social courtship, females chose males with pure white breasts

Lisa G. Sorenson; Scott R. Derrickson

1994-01-01

84

A design-constraint trade-off underpins the diversity in ecologically important traits in species Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Bacterial species are internally diverse in genomic and multi-locus gene comparisons. The ecological causes of phenotypic and genotypic diversity within species are far less well understood. Here, we focus on the competitive fitness for growth on nutrients within Escherichia coli, an internally rich species. Competition experiments in nutrient-limited chemostats revealed that members of the ECOR collection exhibited a wide continuum of competitive abilities, with some fitter and some less fit than the lab strain MG1655. We observed an inverse relationship between competitiveness and the resistance of strains to detergent and antibiotic, consistent with the notion that membrane permeability and competitive fitness are linked by a trade-off between self-preservation and nutritional competence (SPANC); high permeability has a postulated cost in antibacterial sensitivity whereas a low permeability has a cost in nutrient affinity. Isolates moved along the markedly nonlinear trade-off curve by mutational adaptation; an ECOR strain sensitive to antibacterials and a good competitor was easily converted by mutation into a mutant with higher resistance but poorer competition in the presence of low antibiotic concentrations. Conversely, a resistant ECOR strain changed into a better competitor after a short period of selection under nutrient limitation. In both directions, mutations can affect porin proteins and outer membrane permeability, as indicated by protein analysis, gene sequencing and an independent assay of outer membrane permeability. The extensive, species-wide diversity of E. coli in ecologically important traits can thus be explained as an evolutionary consequence of a SPANC trade-off driven by antagonistic pleiotropy. PMID:23677010

Phan, Katherine; Ferenci, Thomas

2013-05-16

85

Incorporation of covariates in multipoint model-free linkage analysis of binary traits: how important are unaffecteds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the mode of inheritance is unknown, genetic linkage analysis of binary trait is commonly performed using affected-sib-pair approaches. When there is evidence that some covariates influence the phenotype, incorporation of this information is expected to increase the power of the analysis since it allows (1) a better specification of the phenotype and (2) to take into account unaffected subjects.

Alexandre Alcaďs; Laurent Abel

2001-01-01

86

The IgA nephropathy Biobank. An important starting point for the genetic dissection of a complex trait  

PubMed Central

Background IgA nephropathy (IgAN) or Berger's disease, is the most common glomerulonephritis in the world diagnosed in renal biopsied patients. The involvement of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of the IgAN is evidenced by ethnic and geographic variations in prevalence, familial clustering in isolated populations, familial aggregation and by the identification of a genetic linkage to locus IGAN1 mapped on 6q22–23. This study seems to imply a single major locus, but the hypothesis of multiple interacting loci or genetic heterogeneity cannot be ruled out. The organization of a multi-centre Biobank for the collection of biological samples and clinical data from IgAN patients and relatives is an important starting point for the identification of the disease susceptibility genes. Description The IgAN Consortium organized a Biobank, recruiting IgAN patients and relatives following a common protocol. A website was constructed to allow scientific information to be shared between partners and to divulge obtained data (URL: ). The electronic database, the core of the website includes data concerning the subjects enrolled. A search page gives open access to the database and allows groups of patients to be selected according to their clinical characteristics. DNA samples of IgAN patients and relatives belonging to 72 multiplex extended pedigrees were collected. Moreover, 159 trios (sons/daughters affected and healthy parents), 1068 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN and 1040 healthy subjects were included in the IgAN Consortium Biobank. Some valuable and statistically productive genetic studies have been launched within the 5th Framework Programme 1998–2002 of the European project No. QLG1-2000-00464 and preliminary data have been published in "Technology Marketplace" website: . Conclusion The first world IgAN Biobank with a readily accessible database has been constituted. The knowledge gained from the study of Mendelian diseases has shown that the genetic dissection of a complex trait is more powerful when combined linkage-based, association-based, and sequence-based approaches are performed. This Biobank continuously expanded contains a sample size of adequately matched IgAN patients and healthy subjects, extended multiplex pedigrees, parent-child trios, thus permitting the combined genetic approaches with collaborative studies.

Schena, Francesco P; Cerullo, Giuseppina; Torres, Diletta D; Scolari, Francesco; Foramitti, Marina; Amoroso, Antonio; Pirulli, Doroti; Floege, Jurgen; Mertens, Peter R; Zerres, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Efstathios; Kirmizis, Dimitrios; Zelante, Leopoldo; Bisceglia, Luigi; Ghiggeri, Gian M; Frasca, Giovanni M

2005-01-01

87

Cadmium contamination in Tianjin agricultural soils and sediments: relative importance of atmospheric deposition from coal combustion.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) in coal, fly ash, slag, atmospheric deposition, soils and sediments collected from Tianjin, northern China, were measured to provide baseline information and determine possible Cd sources and potential risk. The concentrations of Cd in coal, fly ash and atmospheric deposition were much higher than the soil background values. Fallout from coal-fired thermal power plants, heating boilers and industrial furnaces has increased the Cd concentration in soils and sediments in Tianjin. The concentrations of Cd in soils of suburban areas were significantly higher than in rural areas, suggesting that coal burning in Tianjin may have an important impact on the local physical environment. Cd from coal combustion is readily mobilized in soils. It is soluble and can form aqueous complexes and permeate river sediments. The high proportion of mobile Cd affects the migration of Cd in soils and sediments, which may pose an environmental threat in Tianjin due to the exposure to Cd and Cd compounds via the food chain. This study may provide a window for understanding and tracing sources of Cd in the local environment and the risk associated with Cd bioaccessibility. PMID:23212535

Wu, Guanghong; Yang, Cancan; Guo, Lan; Wang, Zhongliang

2012-12-02

88

A linkage map of cultivated cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) with 248 microsatellite marker loci and seven genes for horticulturally important traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic map was developed with microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers and 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs)\\u000a derived from a cross between two cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) inbred lines 9110Gt and 9930, which was also segregating for seven horticulturally important traits including bitterfree\\u000a foliage (bi), gynoecious sex expression (F), uniform immature fruit color (u), glossy fruit skin (d),

Han Miao; Shengping Zhang; Xiaowu Wang; Zhonghua Zhang; Man Li; Shengqi Mu; Zhouchao Cheng; Ruowei Zhang; Sanwen Huang; Bingyan Xie; Zhiyuan Fang; Zhenxian Zhang; Yiqun Weng; Xingfang Gu

89

The three important traits for cooking and eating quality of rice grains are controlled by a single locus in an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooking and eating quality of the rice grain is one of the most serious problems in many rice-producing areas of the world.\\u000a In this study, we conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of three traits, amylose content (AC), gel consistency\\u000a (GC) and gelatinization temperature (GT), that are the most important constituents of the cooking and eating quality of rice

Y. F. Tan; J. X. Li; S. B. Yu; Y. Z. Xing; C. G. Xu; Qifa Zhang

1999-01-01

90

Climate impacts on European agriculture and water management in the context of adaptation and mitigation--the importance of an integrated approach.  

PubMed

We review and qualitatively assess the importance of interactions and feedbacks in assessing climate change impacts on water and agriculture in Europe. We focus particularly on the impact of future hydrological changes on agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and adaptation options. Future projected trends in European agriculture include northward movement of crop suitability zones and increasing crop productivity in Northern Europe, but declining productivity and suitability in Southern Europe. This may be accompanied by a widening of water resource differences between the North and South, and an increase in extreme rainfall events and droughts. Changes in future hydrology and water management practices will influence agricultural adaptation measures and alter the effectiveness of agricultural mitigation strategies. These interactions are often highly complex and influenced by a number of factors which are themselves influenced by climate. Mainly positive impacts may be anticipated for Northern Europe, where agricultural adaptation may be shaped by reduced vulnerability of production, increased water supply and reduced water demand. However, increasing flood hazards may present challenges for agriculture, and summer irrigation shortages may result from earlier spring runoff peaks in some regions. Conversely, the need for effective adaptation will be greatest in Southern Europe as a result of increased production vulnerability, reduced water supply and increased demands for irrigation. Increasing flood and drought risks will further contribute to the need for robust management practices. The impacts of future hydrological changes on agricultural mitigation in Europe will depend on the balance between changes in productivity and rates of decomposition and GHG emission, both of which depend on climatic, land and management factors. Small increases in European soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks per unit land area are anticipated considering changes in climate, management and land use, although an overall reduction in the total stock may result from a smaller agricultural land area. Adaptation in the water sector could potentially provide additional benefits to agricultural production such as reduced flood risk and increased drought resilience. The two main sources of uncertainty in climate impacts on European agriculture and water management are projections of future climate and their resulting impacts on water and agriculture. Since changes in climate, agricultural ecosystems and hydrometeorology depend on complex interactions between the atmosphere, biosphere and hydrological cycle there is a need for more integrated approaches to climate impacts assessments. Methods for assessing options which "moderate" the impact of agriculture in the wider sense will also need to consider cross-sectoral impacts and socio-economic aspects. PMID:19501386

Falloon, Pete; Betts, Richard

2009-06-05

91

Mapping forest patches and scattered trees from SPOT images and testing their ecological importance for woodland birds in a fragmented agricultural landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scattered trees represent an important element within the agricultural matrix for birds. The aims of this study were to develop methods for mapping isolated trees from satellite imagery and to assess the importance of isolated trees for bird species richness. Field sampling of birds and plants was conducted at 120 sites in south-east Australia. We mapped tree cover from Landsat

N. Levin; C. McAlpine; S. Phinn; B. Price; D. Pullar; R. P. Kavanagh; B. S. Law

2009-01-01

92

Epistasis dominates the genetic architecture of Drosophila quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Epistasis-nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci-is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one epistatic interaction in the DGRP. Despite apparent additive effects at largely distinct loci in the two populations, the epistatic interactions perturbed common, biologically plausible, and highly connected genetic networks. Our analysis underscores the importance of epistasis as a principal factor that determines variation for quantitative traits and provides a means to uncover genetic networks affecting these traits. Knowledge of epistatic networks will contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of evolutionarily and clinically important traits and enhance predictive ability at an individualized level in medicine and agriculture. PMID:22949659

Huang, Wen; Richards, Stephen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Zhu, Dianhui; Anholt, Robert R H; Ayroles, Julien F; Duncan, Laura; Jordan, Katherine W; Lawrence, Faye; Magwire, Michael M; Warner, Crystal B; Blankenburg, Kerstin; Han, Yi; Javaid, Mehwish; Jayaseelan, Joy; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Yiqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Stone, Eric A; Gibbs, Richard A; Mackay, Trudy F C

2012-09-04

93

76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fas.usda.gov/info/Child_labor/Childlabor.asp...labor and the worst forms of child labor in agricultural supply...May 6, 2011. No electronic media coverage will be allowed. Press...with the use of forced labor or child labor. Section I. below...

2011-04-12

94

Vegetated biofilters: The relative importance of infiltration and adsorption in reducing loads of water-soluble herbicides in agricultural runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff from cropland containing agricultural pesticides is the main contributor to poor water quality on the Liverpool Plains, Australia. The potential for vegetated biofilters to reduce the loads of two moderately soluble herbicides (atrazine and metolachlor) in runoff water was studied in grassed filter strips (1.25m×4m) on cracking vertisol soil. Run-on with known concentrations of herbicide and sediment was introduced

V. H. Popov; P. S. Cornish; H. Sun

2006-01-01

95

An Evaluation of Arabidopsis thaliana Hybrid Traits and Their Genetic Control  

PubMed Central

Heterosis is an important phenomenon in agriculture. However, heterosis often greatly varies among hybrids and among traits. To investigate heterosis across a large number of traits and numerous genotypes, we evaluated 12 life history traits on parents and hybrids derived from five Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Col, Ler-0, Cvi, Ws, and C24) by using a complete diallel analysis containing 20 hybrids. Parental contributions to heterosis were hybrid and trait specific with a few reciprocal differences. Most notably, C24 generated hybrids with flowering time, biomass, and reproductive traits that often exceeded high-parent values. However, reproductive traits of C24 and Col hybrids and flowering time traits of C24 and Ler hybrids had no heterosis. We investigated whether allelic variation at flowering time genes FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) could explain the genotype- and trait-specific contribution of C24 to hybrid traits. We evaluated both Col and Ler lines introgressed with various FRI and FLC alleles and hybrids between these lines and C24. Hybrids with functional FLC differed from hybrids with nonfunctional FLC for 21 of the 24 hybrid-trait combinations. In most crosses, heterosis was fully or partially explained by FRI and FLC. Our results describe the genetic diversity for heterosis within a sample of A. thaliana ecotypes and show that FRI and FLC are major factors that contribute to heterosis in a genotype and trait specific fashion.

Moore, Siobhan; Lukens, Lewis

2011-01-01

96

Predicting dangerousness with two Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory psychopathy scales: the importance of egocentric and callous traits.  

PubMed

Psychopathy in youth has received increased recognition as a critical clinical construct for the evaluation and management of adolescents who have come into contact with the law (e.g., Forth, Hare, & Hart, 1990; Frick, 1998; Lynam, 1996, 1998). Although considerable attention has been devoted to the adult construct of psychopathy and its relation to recidivism, psychopathy in adolescents has been less thoroughly researched. Recently, a psychopathy scale (Murrie and Cornell Psychopathy Scale; Murrie & Cornell, 2000) was developed from items of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon, 1993). This scale was found to be highly related to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 1991) and was judged to have demonstrated good criterion validity. A necessary step in the validation process of any psychopathy scale is establishing its predictive validity. With this in mind, we investigated the ability of the MACI Psychopathy Scale to predict recidivism with 55 adolescent offenders 2 years after they had been evaluated at a juvenile court evaluation unit. In addition, we devised a psychopathy scale from MACI items that aligned more closely with Cooke and Michie (2001) and Frick, Bodin, and Barry's (2001) recommendations for the refinement of psychopathy and tested its predictive validity. Results indicate that both scales had predictive utility. Interpersonal and affective components of the revised scale were particularly important in the prediction of both general and violent reoffending. PMID:12700018

Salekin, Randall T; Ziegler, Tracey A; Larrea, Maria A; Anthony, Virginia Lee; Bennett, Allyson D

2003-04-01

97

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits.

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jerome; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

98

Assessing the importance of genotype x environment interaction for root traits in rice using a mapping population. I: a soil-filled box screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altering root system architecture is considered a method of improving crop water and soil nutrient capture. The analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root traits has revealed inconsistency in the same population evaluated in different environments. It must be clarified if this is due to genotype × environment interaction or considerations of statistics if the value of QTLs for marker-assisted breeding

K. MacMillan; K. Emrich; H.-P. Piepho; C. E. Mullins; A. H. Price

2006-01-01

99

U.S. Food and Agricultural Imports: Safeguards and Selected Issues. CRS Report for Congress (Updated January 2, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. officials continue to assert that the U.S. food supply, including the portion provided through imports, is among the safest in the world. One challenge has been how to keep it safe in the face of rapidly rising imports, a result of globalization and ...

G. S. Becker

2008-01-01

100

State and trait anxiety revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

State and trait anxiety theory and assessment are reviewed. The person (trait anxiety) and the situation are important in determining levels of state anxiety. The facet of trait anxiety and the stressful situation must be congruent in order to evoke increases in state anxiety. The multidimensional interaction model is reviewed and empirical research is presented. A discussion of anxiety viewed

Norman S Endler; Nancy L Kocovski

2001-01-01

101

Genetic variation of metabolite and hormone concentration in UK Holstein-Friesian calves and the genetic relationship with economically important traits.  

PubMed

The decline of dairy cattle fertility worldwide remains a major concern, with conception rates to first service commonly below 40%. The length and severity of negative energy balance postpartum are unfavorably correlated with fertility, suggesting that the length and severity of negative energy balance and fertility are linked via several hormones or metabolites. These compounds therefore have the potential to predict fertility at a genetic level. The addition of a predictor trait for fertility into present fertility indices would accelerate genetic gain, particularly if it was expressed before adulthood. The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic variation in several metabolites and hormones in calves, and to determine their genetic relationships with fertility and production through sire predicted transmitting abilities (PTA; sires of calves sampled). Circulating concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (average age +/- SD; 126 +/- 12.7 d) were analyzed during 2 studies: data set 1 (n = 496 females; 1996-2001; 7 commercial dairy herds) and data set 2 (n = 326 females, n = 256 males; 2002-2006; multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding scheme). Univariate mixed models were fitted to the data using ASREML. Basal concentrations of FFA, glucose, GH, insulin and total IGF-1 were all moderately heritable in both sexes (heritability range +/- SE; 0.09 +/- 0.05 to 0.66 +/- 0.14). The sire PTA for protein percentage had significant regression coefficients and approximate genetic correlations with FFA and insulin, and the sire PTA for calving interval had significant regression coefficients and approximate genetic correlations with GH. Additive genetic variance seems responsible for a moderate proportion of the phenotypic variation in important metabolites and regulatory hormones in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves, therefore supporting further investigation into their use as juvenile predictors for fertility in the mature female. PMID:19620683

Hayhurst, C; Flint, A P F; Lřvendahl, P; Woolliams, J A; Royal, M D

2009-08-01

102

75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported...with the use of forced labor or child labor. Recommendations developed...with expertise on international child labor and forced labor issues...March 22, 2010. No electronic media coverage will be allowed....

2010-03-11

103

Review of rice–fish-farming systems in China — One of the Globally Important Ingenious Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice–fish-farming systems constitute a unique agro-landscape across the world, especially in tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Rice is a globally important staple food crop, with a wide distribution and constituting diversified varieties. The introduction of fish rearing to rice farming creates an integrated agro-ecological system. China boasts a history of 1700 years in rice–fish-farming practice. It is no longer a sole agro-production

Jianbo Lu; Xia Li

2006-01-01

104

Men's Attitudes Toward Race and Gender Equity: The Importance of Masculinity Ideology, Gender-Related Traits, and Reference Group Identity Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined masculinity ideology, gender-related traits, and male identity as they relate to men's attitudes toward racial diversity, women's equality, and sexual harassment. Un- dergraduate men completed measures of these constructs. The findings suggest that men who endorse a traditional masculinity ideology and\\/or who are dependent on a male reference group for their gender role self-concept are also likely

Jay C. Wade; Chris Brittan-Powell

2001-01-01

105

Beneficial bacteria of agricultural importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhizosphere is the soil–plant root interphase and in practice consists of the soil adhering to the root besides the loose\\u000a soil surrounding it. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are potential agents for the biological control of plant\\u000a pathogens. A biocontrol strain should be able to protect the host plant from pathogens and fulfill the requirement for strong\\u000a colonization. Numerous compounds

Olubukola Oluranti Babalola

2010-01-01

106

IncP-1? Plasmids are Important Vectors of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Agricultural Systems: Diversification Driven by Class 1 Integron Gene Cassettes  

PubMed Central

The role of broad-host range IncP-1? plasmids in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in agricultural systems has not yet been investigated. These plasmids were detected in total DNA from all of 16 manure samples and in arable soil based on a novel 5?-nuclease assay for real-time PCR. A correlation between IncP-1? plasmid abundance and antibiotic usage was revealed. In a soil microcosm experiment the abundance of IncP-1? plasmids was significantly increased even 127?days after application of manure containing the antibiotic compound sulfadiazine, compared to soil receiving only manure, only sulfadiazine, or water. Fifty IncP-1? plasmids that were captured in E. coli CV601gfp from bacterial communities of manure and arable soil were characterized by PCR and hybridization. All plasmids carried class 1 integrons with highly varying sizes of the gene cassette region and the sul1 gene. Three IncP-1? plasmids captured from soil bacteria and one from manure were completely sequenced. The backbones were nearly identical to that of the previously described IncP-1? plasmid pKJK5. The plasmids differed mainly in the composition of a Tn402-like transposon carrying a class 1 integron with varying gene cassettes, IS1326, and in three of the plasmids the tetracycline resistance transposon Tn1721 with various truncations. Diverse Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were revealed as hosts of one of the IncP-1? plasmids in soil microcosms. Our data suggest that IncP-1? plasmids are important vectors for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance in agricultural systems.

Heuer, Holger; Binh, Chu T. T.; Jechalke, Sven; Kopmann, Christoph; Zimmerling, Ute; Krogerrecklenfort, Ellen; Ledger, Thomas; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Top, Eva; Smalla, Kornelia

2011-01-01

107

IncP-1? Plasmids are Important Vectors of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Agricultural Systems: Diversification Driven by Class 1 Integron Gene Cassettes.  

PubMed

The role of broad-host range IncP-1? plasmids in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in agricultural systems has not yet been investigated. These plasmids were detected in total DNA from all of 16 manure samples and in arable soil based on a novel 5'-nuclease assay for real-time PCR. A correlation between IncP-1? plasmid abundance and antibiotic usage was revealed. In a soil microcosm experiment the abundance of IncP-1? plasmids was significantly increased even 127?days after application of manure containing the antibiotic compound sulfadiazine, compared to soil receiving only manure, only sulfadiazine, or water. Fifty IncP-1? plasmids that were captured in E. coli CV601gfp from bacterial communities of manure and arable soil were characterized by PCR and hybridization. All plasmids carried class 1 integrons with highly varying sizes of the gene cassette region and the sul1 gene. Three IncP-1? plasmids captured from soil bacteria and one from manure were completely sequenced. The backbones were nearly identical to that of the previously described IncP-1? plasmid pKJK5. The plasmids differed mainly in the composition of a Tn402-like transposon carrying a class 1 integron with varying gene cassettes, IS1326, and in three of the plasmids the tetracycline resistance transposon Tn1721 with various truncations. Diverse Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were revealed as hosts of one of the IncP-1? plasmids in soil microcosms. Our data suggest that IncP-1? plasmids are important vectors for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance in agricultural systems. PMID:22279444

Heuer, Holger; Binh, Chu T T; Jechalke, Sven; Kopmann, Christoph; Zimmerling, Ute; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Ledger, Thomas; González, Bernardo; Top, Eva; Smalla, Kornelia

2012-01-18

108

Fostering Agriculture Environmental Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is important to any society, but its activity often has negative impact in the environment. We propose a game, implemented in the on-line virtual world platform Open-Simulator, that gives the opportunity to players to experience the potential effects of agriculture in the environment. The game was built with the purpose of promoting the awareness of agriculture issues, such as,

Rui Prada; Daniel Dias; Helmut Prendinger; Arturo Nakasone

2010-01-01

109

Biotechnology and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

Kenney, Martin

110

Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

111

Spatial decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying dependences of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may strongly increase the number of people depending on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries.

Fader, Marianela; Gerten, Dieter; Krause, Michael; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang

2013-03-01

112

Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of concepts of sustainable agriculture and possible methods of attaining sustainability of agricultural yields and production. Reasons are given as to why modern industrialised agriculture might be less sustainable in terms of yields than traditional agriculture. The question of whether organic agriculture is likely to be more sustainable than non-organic agriculture is considered as well

Clement A. Tisdell

2005-01-01

113

Multiple-Interval Mapping for Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Endosperm Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal

Chen-Hung Kao

2004-01-01

114

Science Findings, Issue 127, November 2010. Looking at the Big Picture: The Importance of Landbase Interactions Among Forests, Agriculture, and Climate Mitigation Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Land use change is a key part of global change. Deforestation, urban sprawl, agriculture, and other human influences have substantially altered natural ecosystems and fragmented the global landscape. Slowing down deforestation and afforesting environmenta...

R. Alig

2010-01-01

115

Water Conservation for Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water conservation for agriculture has been important for centuries and is becoming increasingly important due to competition among agricultural and other users. Our objectives were to review progress made in our understanding of factors affecting water conservation during the past 100 years and to ...

116

Genetic relationship among Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus) genotypes cultivars from different races based on quantitative traits and random amplified polymorphic DNA marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic improvement of the thirty Hyacinth bean cultivars from different races were evaluated using RAPD markers which is essential to enhance the crop for economically and agriculturally important traits. RAPD markers were efficient in separating cultivars according to different races. Twenty six decamer primers could generate a total number of 148 bands out which 70.27% (104) were polymorphic. The number

Ashish Kumar; M. Rai; Gandhi Nagar Naria; P. O. BHU

2010-01-01

117

Freshwater Biological Traits Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Freshwater Biological Traits Database currently contains traits data for 3,857 North American macroinvertebrate taxa and includes habitat, life history, mobility, morphology, and ecological trait data. Species traits are the characteristics that expla...

2012-01-01

118

The Role of Electricity in Pacific Northwest Irrigated Agriculture, 1979-1987 : A Study of Irrigation Price Elasticity of Demand, the Importance of Irrigated Agriculture to Rural Communities, and an Evaluation of Alternative Targeted Rate Discount Options for Irrigation Consumers, Volume 1.  

SciTech Connect

Increased regional pressure for and against the wholesale rate discount has prompted BPA to evaluate the quantitative, qualitative, economic, and policy issues associated with an irrigation rate discount. BPA determined that more information was required in the following areas: Irrigation price elasticities at the subregional level (utility, group of utilities and/or production areas), importance of irrigated agriculture to local and regional economies, issues related to targeting an irrigation rate discount, and the role of BPA wholesale rates and rate discounts on Pacific Northwest sprinkler irrigation and the supporting economies. In response to this request for additional information, the analysis in the present study is conducted in four parts: Document the importance of irrigated agriculture, particularly sprinkler irrigated agriculture, to the Pacific Northwest economy and quantify the impact of the rate discount on regional agriculture and local communities; Estimate irrigation price elasticities for BPA customers at a subregional level, so that load impacts associated with the rate discount can be evaluated at a more localized level; Identify the economic, policy, and practical application issues associated with targeting a rate discount to groups of utilities or irrigators; and Review the short-term economic and policy outlook for irrigated agriculture in the Pacific Northwest and draw implications regarding the impact on producer response to electricity rates. 40 refs., 1 fig., 24 tabs.

Northwest Economic Associates.

1989-05-01

119

Interval mapping of quantitative trait loci employing correlated trait complexes  

SciTech Connect

An approach to increase the resolution power of interval mapping of quantitative trait (QT) loci is proposed, based on analysis of correlated trait complexes. For a given set of QTs, the broad sense heritablity attributed to a QT locus (QTL) (say, A/a) is an increasing function of the number of traits. Thus, for some traits x and y are correlated within the groups AA, Aa and aa due to nongenetic factors and segregation of genes from other chromosomes. A simple relationship connects H{sup 2} (both in single trait and two-trait analysis) with the expected LOD value, ELOD = -1/2Nlog(1-H{sup 2}). Thus, situations could exist that from the inequality H{sup 2}{sub xy}(A/a) {ge} H{sup 2}{sub x} (A/a) a higher resolution is provided by the two-trait analysis, in spite of the increased number of parameters. Employing LOD-score procedure to simulated backcross data, we showed that the resolution power of the QTL mapping model can be elevated if correlation between QTs is taken into account. The method allows us to test numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning manifold effects of genomic segments on the defined trait complex (means, variances and correlations). 33 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Korol, A.B.; Ronin, Y,I.; Kirzhner, V.M. [Univ. of Haifa (Israel)

1995-07-01

120

A linkage map of cultivated cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) with 248 microsatellite marker loci and seven genes for horticulturally important traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marker assisted selection (MAS) is playing an increasingly important role in expedite and increase the efficiency of classical plant breeding. In cucumber, MAS is lagging behind as compared with other field crops. In the present study, a genetic map was developed with microsatellite (or simple seque...

121

Methods of assessment of transfer of a gentamycin-resistance gene ( aacC1 ) from genetically engineered microorganisms into agriculturally important soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the risk associated with the deliberate release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) into the agricultural environment, the transfer of plasmids between bacterial strains was investigated under laboratory conditions. Genetically modified Rhizobium leguminosarum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains carrying the gentamycin acetyltransferase resistance gene (aacC1) on various plasmids were investigated for their ability to transfer the aacC1 gene

Ilias Tirodimos; Inge-M. Pretorius-Güth; Ursula Priefer; Athanasios Tsaftaris; Asterios S. Tsiftsoglou

1993-01-01

122

Agriculture in the Midwest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

123

Environmental Effects on the Expression of Quantitative Trait Loci and Implications for Phenotypic Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience magazine is about the use of mapping quantitative trait loci in evolutionary studies. Organisms in natural populations experience environmental heterogeneity over a range of temporal and spatial scales, and this heterogeneity has significant evolutionary implications. By affecting patterns of selection and the expression of genetic variation, environmental heterogeneity can play an important role in determining the evolutionary dynamics of phenotypic traits and the maintenance of genetic variation. Although mapping quantitative trait loci (the loci that underlie continuously varying quantitative traits) has a long history in agricultural and applied studies, the technique has only recently been applied to evolutionary studies. This application has made it possible to identify the specific loci underlying trait variation in different environments, to measure environmental variation in natural selection on those loci, and to test assumptions of models regarding the maintenance of genetic variation under environmentally heterogeneous selection. Here we review recent studies that have examined interactions between quantitative trait loci and ecologically relevant environments to address evolutionary questions.

CYNTHIA WEINIG and JOHANNA SCHMITT (;)

2004-07-01

124

Agricultural Operations  

MedlinePLUS

... associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure. Agriculture ranks among the most dangerous industries. Between 2003 ... by several Occupational Safety and Health standards including Agriculture ( 29 CFR 1928 ), General Industry ( 29 CFR 1910 ), ...

125

Variation and selection of quantitative traits in plant pathogens.  

PubMed

The first section presents the quantitative traits of pathogenicity that are most commonly measured by plant pathologists, how the expression of those traits is influenced by environmental factors, and why the traits must be taken into account for understanding pathogen evolution in agricultural systems. Particular attention is given to the shared genetic control of these traits by the host and the pathogen. Next, the review discusses how quantitative traits account for epidemic development and how they can be related to pathogen fitness. The main constraints that influence the evolution of quantitative traits in pathogen populations are detailed. Finally, possible directions for research on the management of pathogen virulence (as defined by evolutionists) and host quantitative resistance are presented. The review evaluates how the theoretical corpus developed by epidemiologists and evolutionists may apply to plant pathogens in the context of agriculture. The review also analyzes theoretical papers and compares the modeling hypotheses to the biological characteristics of plant pathogens. PMID:22702351

Lannou, Christian

2012-06-11

126

Agricultural Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

127

The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no- till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage, considered synonymous in this paper, play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice

Peter R. Hobbs; Ken Sayre; Raj Gupta

2008-01-01

128

Mapping of quantitative trait loci for flesh colour and growth traits in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Flesh colour and growth related traits in salmonids are both commercially important and of great interest from a physiological and evolutionary perspective. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting flesh colour and growth related traits in an F2 population derived from an isolated, landlocked wild population in Norway (Byglands Bleke) and a commercial

Matthew Baranski; Thomas Moen; Dag Inge Vĺge

2010-01-01

129

Geographic Variation in the Acoustic Traits of Greater Horseshoe Bats: Testing the Importance of Drift and Ecological Selection in Evolutionary Processes  

PubMed Central

Patterns of intraspecific geographic variation of signaling systems provide insight into the microevolutionary processes driving phenotypic divergence. The acoustic calls of bats are sensitive to diverse evolutionary forces, but processes that shape call variation are largely unexplored. In China, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum displays a diverse call frequency and inhabits a heterogeneous landscape, presenting an excellent opportunity for this kind of research. We quantified geographic variation in resting frequency (RF) of echolocation calls, estimated genetic structure and phylogeny of R. ferrumequinum populations, and combined this with climatic factors to test three hypotheses to explain acoustic variation: genetic drift, cultural drift, and local adaptation. Our results demonstrated significant regional divergence in frequency and phylogeny among the bat populations in China's northeast (NE), central-east (CE) and southwest (SW) regions. The CE region had higher frequencies than the NE and SW regions. Drivers of RF divergence were estimated in the entire range and just the CE/NE region (since these two regions form a clade). In both cases, RF divergence was not correlated with mtDNA or nDNA genetic distance, but was significantly correlated with geographic distance and mean annual temperature, indicating cultural drift and ecological selection pressures are likely important in shaping RF divergence among different regions in China.

Sun, Keping; Luo, Li; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Wei, Xuewen; Jin, Longru; Jiang, Tinglei; Li, Guohong; Feng, Jiang

2013-01-01

130

Agriculture 21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To "promote food security and sustainable development into the next millennium," the Agriculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has recently created this new resource. An impressive and clearly arranged interface leads researchers to more than one gigabyte of data from various UN Agriculture Department sites. A detailed list of available software, databases, publication lists, and email conferences is provided via the Guides section of the site. Other services include Magazine, a monthly publication on international agricultural issues, and Gateway, a link pointing to UN Department of Agriculture divisional homepages.

131

Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program. Advanced hulled and hulless lines (329 total) were screened using 3,072 SNPs as a part of the US. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP). Phenotypic data collected over 4 years for agronomic and food quality traits and resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal], net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres), and spot blotch [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur] were analyzed with SNP genotypic data in a GWAS to determine marker-trait associations. Significant SNPs associated with previously described quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes were identified for heading date on chromosome 3H, test weight on 2H, yield on 7H, grain protein on 5H, polyphenol oxidase activity on 2H and resistance to leaf rust on 2H and 3H, powdery mildew on 1H, 2H and 4H, net blotch on 5H, and spot blotch on 7H. Novel QTL also were identified for agronomic, quality, and disease resistance traits. These SNP-trait associations provide the opportunity to directly select for QTL contributing to multiple traits in breeding programs. PMID:23139143

Berger, Gregory L; Liu, Shuyu; Hall, Marla D; Brooks, Wynse S; Chao, Shiaoman; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Baik, B-K; Steffenson, Brian; Griffey, Carl A

2012-11-09

132

Effects of mowing cessation and hydrology on plant trait distribution in natural fen meadows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional grasslands are often of high conservation value, but depend on non-intensive management like mowing for their preservation. During the 20th century, traditional agricultural usage was either heavily intensified or abandoned due to socio-economic reasons. In Eastern Europe, land abandonment mainly took place in regions with qualitatively bad soils. This large scale land use change lead to secondary succession. In fens and fen meadows, this may lead to a decrease in species richness and a replacement of specialist species by more generalist ones. The main objective of the present study is to examine if and how mowing cessation interacts with hydrology in determining species and trait distribution in a fen meadow. In the Upper Course of the Biebrza National Park, Poland, we selected 15 sites along four transects, with plots in mown and abandoned parcels. In these plots we measured plant abundance, aboveground biomass and relative light intensity, while plant traits were selected from different trait databases. The relationship between these plot characteristics and the different traits was assessed using concordance analysis. Mowing cessation resulted in reduced moss cover and light availability, while vegetation height increased and higher litter deposition and tussock development were observed. This altered environment not only resulted in decreased species richness and evenness in abandoned plots but also caused shifts in plant trait distribution. Most of the significantly linked traits responded more strongly to mowing cessation than to the hydrologic gradient. Traits related to light competition, such as light requirements, plant height and shoot growth form, especially responded to mowing cessation. This stresses the importance of light competition as a major factor determining species and trait distribution in fen systems.

Opdekamp, W.; Beauchard, O.; Backx, H.; Franken, F.; Cox, T. J. S.; van Diggelen, R.; Meire, P.

2012-02-01

133

The Trait in Latent Trait Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant to a latent trait or item response theory analysis of a mental test is the determination of exactly what is being quantified. The following are practical problems to be considered in the formulation of a good theory: (1) deciding whether two tests measure the same trait or traits; (2) analyzing the relative contributions of a pair of…

Levine, Michael V.

134

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

135

Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Purdue University's Sustainable Agriculture program provides electronic and print resources for farmers who wish to incorporate environmentally-sustainable farming techniques. Topics include community supported agriculture, enhancement of natural resources, and innovative marketing strategies. The site also provides links to farmer networks, professional development and research topics.

2007-02-09

136

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Morphology Features Extracted Computationally From Images  

PubMed Central

Seeds are studied to understand dispersal and establishment of the next generation, as units of agricultural yield, and for other important reasons. Thus, elucidating the genetic architecture of seed size and shape traits will benefit basic and applied plant biology research. This study sought quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the size and shape of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds by computational analysis of seed phenotypes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the small-seeded Landsberg erecta × large-seeded Cape Verde Islands accessions. On the order of 103 seeds from each recombinant inbred line were automatically measured with flatbed photo scanners and custom image analysis software. The eight significant QTL affecting seed area explained 63% of the variation, and overlapped with five of the six major-axis (length) QTL and three of the five minor-axis (width) QTL, which accounted for 57% and 38% of the variation in those traits, respectively. Because the Arabidopsis seed is exalbuminous, lacking an endosperm at maturity, the results are relatable to embryo length and width. The Cvi allele generally had a positive effect of 2.6–4.0%. Analysis of variance showed heritability of the three traits ranged between 60% and 73%. Repeating the experiment with 2.2 million seeds from a separate harvest of the RIL population and approximately 0.5 million seeds from 92 near-isogenic lines confirmed the aforementioned results. Structured for download are files containing phenotype measurements, all sets of seed images, and the seed trait measuring tool.

Moore, Candace R.; Gronwall, David S.; Miller, Nathan D.; Spalding, Edgar P.

2013-01-01

137

Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits…

Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

1992-01-01

138

Characterizing invertebrate traits in wadeable streams of the contiguous US: differences among ecoregions and land uses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Much is known about invertebrate community traits in basins across Europe, but no comprehensive description of traits exists for the continental US. Little is known about the trait composition of invertebrates in reference or least-disturbed basins of the US, how trait composition varies among ecoregions, or how consistently traits respond to land use. These elements are essential to development of trait-based tools for conservation and assessment of biological integrity. We compared invertebrate traits of least-disturbed basins among ecoregions of the US. Benthic invertebrate data (presence/absence) from 1987 basins were translated into 56 binary traits (e.g., bivoltine, clinger). Basins were classified as least-disturbed, agricultural, or urban, and grouped into 9 ecoregions. Landuse, climatic, physiographic, and hydrologic data were used to describe ecoregions and to evaluate least-disturbed basin quality. The unique habitat template of each ecoregion selected for trait compositions in least-disturbed basins that differed among ecoregions. Among the traits examined, life-history (e.g., voltinism, development) and ecological traits (e.g., rheophily, thermal preference) differed most among ecoregions. Agricultural and urban land uses selected for trait compositions that differed from least-disturbed, but the extent of the differences depended on ecoregion and quality of the least-disturbed basins. No trait compositions unique to specific land uses were found. However, a disturbance syndrome was observed in that the magnitude and direction of trait responses to urban and agricultural land uses were consistent among ecoregions. Each ecoregion had a unique trait composition, but trait compositions could be used to aggregate ecoregions into 3 broad regions: Western Mountains, Plains and Lowlands, and Eastern Highlands. Our results indicate that large-scale trait-based assessment tools for the US will require calibration to account for regional differences in the trait composition of basins and in the quality of least-disturbed basins.

Zuellig, Robert E.; Schmidt, Travis S.

2012-01-01

139

Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

140

Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

Crank, Ron

141

Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

Crank, Ron

142

Policies and Measures for Multifunctional Agriculture: Experts' Insight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multifunctionality of agriculture is with the growing importance in agricultural policies. The main argument behind multifunctionality is that agricultural production and thus, the whole agricultural sector has multiple roles, not just to produce food and fiber, but also to provide several non-market commodities. Although agricultural policies in Europe set more and more emphasis on the importance of these non-commodity outputs

Kyosti Arovuori; Jukka Kola

2005-01-01

143

Quantitative trait loci in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic variation for quantitative traits results from the simultaneous segregation of alleles at multiple quantitative trait loci. Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits begins with mapping quantitative trait loci to broad genomic regions and ends with the molecular definition of quantitative trait loci alleles. This has been accomplished for some quantitative trait loci in Drosophila. Drosophila quantitative trait loci

Trudy F. C. Mackay

2001-01-01

144

Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

2004-01-01

145

Agricultural Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)|

Brill, Winston J.

1981-01-01

146

Migration and dispersal may drive to high genetic variation and significant genetic mixing: the case of two agriculturally important, continental hoverflies (Episyrphus balteatus and Sphaerophoria scripta).  

PubMed

Population structure of pests and beneficial species is an important issue when designing management strategies to optimize ecosystem services. In this study, we investigated for the first time the population structure at a continental scale of two migratory species of hoverflies providing both pest regulation and pollination services [Episyrphus balteatus and Sphaerophoria scripta (Diptera: Syrphidae)]. To achieve this objective, we used two sets of 12 species-specific microsatellite markers on a large-scale sampling from all over Europe. Our findings showed a high level of genetic mixing resulting in a lack of genetic differentiation at a continental scale and a great genetic diversity in the two species. All the pairwise FST values between European localities were less 0.05 in the two species. These low values reflect a large-scale genetic mixing probably caused by the existence of frequent migratory movements in the two species. Mantel tests revealed isolation-by-distance pattern on the East-West axis, but not on the North-South axis. This isolation-by-distance pattern confirms the existence of North-South migratory movements in both directions and suggests an important step by step dispersal. Population features shown by this study are common in invasive species and pests, but are not often observed in beneficial species. They reflect great colonization abilities and a high adaptive potential when dealing with a changing environment. Our results highlight the two studied species as particularly interesting beneficial insects for pollination and pest predation in the current context of global change. PMID:24138027

Raymond, Lucie; Plantegenest, Manuel; Vialatte, Aude

2013-09-24

147

Why Do We Test Multiple Traits in Genetic Association Studies?  

PubMed

In studies of complex disorders such as nicotine dependence, it is common that researchers assess multiple variables related to a disorder as well as other disorders that are potentially correlated with the primary disorder of interest. In this work, we refer to those variables and disorders broadly as multiple traits. The multiple traits may or may not have a common causal genetic variant. Intuitively, it may be more powerful to accommodate multiple traits in genetic traits, but the analysis of multiple traits is generally more complicated than the analysis of a single trait. Furthermore, it is not well documented as to how much power we may potentially gain by considering multiple traits. Our aim is to enhance our understanding on this important and practical issue. We considered a variety of correlation structures between traits and the disease locus. To focus on the effect of accommodating multiple traits, we examined genetic models that are relatively simple so that we can pinpoint the factors affecting the power. We conducted simulation studies to explore the performance of testing multiple traits simultaneously and the performance of testing a single trait at a time in family-based association studies. Our simulation results demonstrated that the performance of testing multiple traits simultaneously is better than that of testing each trait individually for almost models considered. We also found that the power of association tests varies among the underlying models. The advantage of conducting a multiple traits test is minimized when some traits are influenced by the gene only through other traits; and it is maximized when there are causal relations between the traits and the gene, and among the traits themselves or when there are extraneous traits. PMID:19655045

Zhu, Wensheng; Zhang, Heping

2009-01-01

148

Agriculture and Provincial Reconstruction Teams: Assessing the Effectiveness of Agricultural Advisor Projects in Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Government states that agriculture is its most important nonsecurity priority in Afghanistan and emphasizes the importance of agricultural development in Afghanistan's long-term process of stabilization and reconstruction. The extent to which U.S...

K. L. Kuypers

2010-01-01

149

Personal Traits and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group peer rating technique is employed to develop highly reliable measures of 16 personality traits for 445 adult workers and 237 high school seniors. Several of these traits are found to have high predictive validity for pay differentials, supervisor's ratings, and school grades. Dimensions derived from multidimensional scaling of the traits explain between 19 and 43 percent of the

Richard C. Edwards

1977-01-01

150

Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce\\u000a (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci\\u000a (QTL) resulting from three seed production

Jason Argyris; María José Truco; Oswaldo Ochoa; Steven J. Knapp; David W. Still; Ger M. Lenssen; Johan W. Schut; Richard W. Michelmore; Kent J. Bradford

2005-01-01

151

Improved Agronomic and Quality Traits in Transgenic Crops: Recent Advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for genetic engineering of plants to produce new and useful traits in crops has now been confirmed. Although numerous examples exist in the literature of agronomically important traits, the examples of quality improvements are rare but increasing. This article describes several new agronomic and quality traits produced at the Monsanto Plant Science Division. Tomatoes have been produced that

Michael E. Fromm; David M. Stark; Glenn D. Austin; Frederick J. Perlak

1993-01-01

152

Assessing the Importance of Incorporating Spatial and Temporal Variability of Soil and Plant Parameters into Local Water Balance Models for Precision Agriculture: Investigations within a California Vineyard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due Due to the high cash crop nature of premium winegrapes, recent research has focused on developing a better understanding of the factors that influence winegrape spatial and temporal variability. Precision grapevine irrigation schemes require consideration of the factors that regulate vineyard water use such as (1) plant parameters, (2) climatic conditions, and (3) water availability in the soil as a function of soil texture. The inability to sample soil and plant parameters accurately, at a dense enough resolution, and over large enough areas has limited previous investigations focused on understanding the influences of soil water and vegetation on water balance at the local field scale. We have acquired several novel field data sets to describe the small scale (decimeters to a hundred meters) spatial variability of soil and plant parameters within a 4 acre field study site at the Robert Mondavi Winery in Napa County, California. At this site, we investigated the potential of ground penetrating radar data (GPR) for providing estimates of near surface water content. Calibration of grids of 900 MHz GPR groundwave data with conventional soil moisture measurements revealed that the GPR volumetric water content estimation approach was valid to within 1 percent accuracy, and that the data grids provided unparalleled density of soil water content over the field site as a function of season. High-resolution airborne multispectral remote sensing data was also collected at the study site, which was converted to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and correlated to leaf area index (LAI) using plant-based measurements within a parallel study. Meteorological information was available from a weather station of the California Irrigation management Information System, located less than a mile from our study area. The measurements were used within a 2-D Vineyard Soil Irrigation Model (VSIM), which can incorporate the spatially variable, high-resolution soil and plant-based information. VSIM, which is based on the concept that equilibrium exists between climate, soils, and LAI, was used to simulate vine water stress, water use, and irrigation requirements during a single year for the site. Using the simple water-balance model with the dense characterization data, we will discuss: (1) the ability to predict vineyard soil water content at the small scales of soil heterogeneity that are observed in nature at the local-scale, (2) the relative importance of plant, climate, and soil information to predictions of the soil water balance at the site, (3) the influence of crop cover in the water balance predictions.

Hubbard, S.; Pierce, L.; Grote, K.; Rubin, Y.

2003-12-01

153

Importance of rhizobia in Agriculture: potential of the commercial inoculants and native strains for improving legume yields in different land-use systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legumes play an important role in the traditional diets of many regions throughout the world because they provide a multitude of benefits to both the soil and other crops grown in combination with them or following them in several cropping systems. The ability of legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen in association with rhizobia gives them the capacity to grow in very degraded soils. But do we have to systematically inoculate legumes? For example our results suggested that the systematic inoculation of both cowpea and green gram in Kenya with commercial inoculants to improve yields is not really justified, native strains performing better than inoculated strains. But when native rhizobia nodulating legumes are not naturally present, application of rhizobial inoculants is very commonly used. Our results showed that the utilization of effective good-quality rhizobial inoculants by farmers have a real potential to improve legume yields in unfertile soils requesting high applications of mineral fertilizers. For example an effective soybean commercial inoculants was tested in different locations in Kenya (in about 150 farms in 3 mandate areas presenting different soil characteristics and environmental conditions). Application of the rhizobial inoculant significantly increased the soybean yields in all mandate areas (about 75% of the farms). Nodule occupancy analysis showed that a high number of nodules occupied by the inoculated strain did not obviously lead to an increase of soybean production. Soil factors (pH, P, C, N…) seemed to affect the inoculant efficiency whether the strain is occupying the nodules or not. Our statistic analysis showed that soil pH significantly affected nodulation and yield, though the effect was variable depending on the region. We concluded that the competitiveness of rhizobial strains might not be the main factor explaining the effect (or lack of) of legumes inoculation in the field. Another study was aiming to assess if several factors such as cropping systems, N fertilization and application of crop residues affect the genetic diversity of native strains of rhizobia nodulating soybean in Kenya without any inoculation. Results showed that nodulation was not significantly affected by the different factors except N fertilization, regardless the season. Nodule occupancy revealed only 3 main profiles representing 93.6% and 92.5% of all the RFLP profiles obtained from 2008 and 2009 nodules respectively. This suggested a low diversity of native rhizobial strains capable to nodulate the promiscuous variety. The cropping system, Nitrogen and Residue applications didn't increase the diversity of the rhizobia but results indicated an effect on the distribution of the 3 profiles within the nodules of the plants. Within same treatments, significant differences were found between the two seasons in term of strains occupying the nodules. It could be explained by the shorter rainfall received in 2008 compared to 2009. Results suggest that cropping systems and both N and crop residues applications affect more specifically plant growth and grain yields than the diversity of the native rhizobia nodulating promiscuous soybean variety. Our work shows how diverse are the factors influencing the success of the field rhizobial inoculation of legumes.

Lesueur, D.; Atieno, M.; Mathu, S.; Herrmann, L.

2012-04-01

154

Educating the Next Generation of Agricultural Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the importance of educating doctoral candidates in the agricultural, food, and related sciences. The National Research Council Board on Agricultures established a committee to analyze issues relating to the next generation of agricult...

1988-01-01

155

Agricultural Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the Agricultural Outlook publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Agricultural Outlook, the monthly short and long term commodity outlook publication, long available via the USDA Economics and Statistics system at Cornell University's Mann Library, (discussed in the September 15, 1995 issue of the Scout Report) is now available with graphics and charts. Selected archives of the publication are available and articles can be downloaded individually. About the only drawback to this terrific addition to ERS's electronic holdings is that the separate statistical section that accompanies AO (over 20 pages of tables), is not available at this time. This is particularly unfortunate, as these tables are one of the most valuable aspects of the publication.

1996-01-01

156

Genome-wide identification of quantitative trait loci in a cross between Hampshire and Landrace II: Meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Meat quality traits are important in pig breeding programs, but they are difficult to include in a traditional selection program. Marker assisted selection (MAS) of meat quality traits is therefore of interest in breeding programs and a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis is the key to identifying markers that can be used in MAS. In this study, Landrace and

Ellen Markljung; Martin H Braunschweig; Peter Karlskov-Mortensen; Camilla S Bruun; Milena Sawera; In-Cheol Cho; Ingela Hedebro-Velander; Ĺsa Josell; Kerstin Lundström; Gertrud von Seth; Claus B Jřrgensen; Merete Fredholm; Leif Andersson

2008-01-01

157

Reforming Hungarian agricultural trade policy : a quantitative evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors quantitatively assess the consequences of Hungary for three types of policies: removing quantitative import restraints in agriculture, both for all of agriculture and for each of five separate agricultural products; removing the export subsidy program in agriculture; and adopting a European Community type common agricultural policy (CAP) system in Hungary. The authors estimate the consequences of all policies

Morris Morkre; David G. Tarr

1993-01-01

158

Teaching Values in Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public high school agriculture teachers (n=141) identified the following as the most important values to teach: responsibility, honesty, courtesy, and respect. Future Farmers of America was rated the best way to teach values, but they could also be taught in the classroom, laboratory, and supervised agricultural experience program. (SK)

Lockaby, Jacqui; Vaughn, Paul

1999-01-01

159

Agriculture's 'multifunctionality' and the WTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are the agricultural policy reforms embodied in the Uruguay Round consistent with meeting domestic policy objectives such as providing adequate food security, environmental protection and viability of rural areas? This article examines the claim that agriculture deserves more price support and import protection than other sectors because of the non?marketed externalities and public goods it produces jointly with marketable food

Kym Anderson

2000-01-01

160

Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

161

Agricultural Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

Postance, Jim

1998-01-01

162

Nonparametric modeling of longitudinal covariance structure in functional mapping of quantitative trait loci.  

PubMed

Estimation of the covariance structure of longitudinal processes is a fundamental prerequisite for the practical deployment of functional mapping designed to study the genetic regulation and network of quantitative variation in dynamic complex traits. We present a nonparametric approach for estimating the covariance structure of a quantitative trait measured repeatedly at a series of time points. Specifically, we adopt Huang et al.'s (2006, Biometrika 93, 85-98) approach of invoking the modified Cholesky decomposition and converting the problem into modeling a sequence of regressions of responses. A regularized covariance estimator is obtained using a normal penalized likelihood with an L(2) penalty. This approach, embedded within a mixture likelihood framework, leads to enhanced accuracy, precision, and flexibility of functional mapping while preserving its biological relevance. Simulation studies are performed to reveal the statistical properties and advantages of the proposed method. A real example from a mouse genome project is analyzed to illustrate the utilization of the methodology. The new method will provide a useful tool for genome-wide scanning for the existence and distribution of quantitative trait loci underlying a dynamic trait important to agriculture, biology, and health sciences. PMID:19302406

Yap, John Stephen; Fan, Jianqing; Wu, Rongling

2009-12-01

163

Species traits and environmental constraints: entomological research and the history of ecological theory.  

PubMed

The role that entomology has played in the historical (1800s-1970s) development of ecological theories that match species traits with environmental constraints is reviewed along three lineages originating from the ideas of a minister (Malthus TR. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: Johnson) and a chemist (Liebig J. 1840. Die Organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie. Braunschweig: Vieweg). Major developments in lineage 1 focus on habitat as a filter for species traits, succession, nonequilibrium and equilibrium conditions, and generalizations about the correlation of traits to environmental constraints. In lineage 2, we trace the evolution of the niche concept and focus on ecophysiological traits, biotic interactions, and environmental conditions. Finally, we describe the conceptual route from early demographic studies of human and animal populations to the r-K concept in lineage 3. In the 1970s, the entomologist Southwood merged these three lineages into the "habitat templet concept" (Southwood TRE. 1977. J. Anim. Ecol. 46:337-65), which has stimulated much subsequent research in entomology and general ecology. We conclude that insects have been a far more important resource for the development of ecological theory than previously acknowledged. PMID:11112171

Statzner, B; Hildrew, A G; Resh, V H

2001-01-01

164

Cold-Tolerant Agriculturally Important Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cold-tolerant microorganisms are endowed with the ability to grow at 0°C, though their growth optima lie in the mesophilic\\u000a range. To overcome the stress induced by low temperatures they have evolved a variety of adaptive responses at the cellular\\u000a and molecular levels. Multiple cell membrane modifications ensure that solute transport is not impaired at low temperatures.\\u000a Other mechanisms include the

Pankaj Kumar Mishra; Piyush Joshi; Shekhar Bisht; Jaideep Bisht; Govindan Selvakumar

165

Genetic engineering in insects of agricultural importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past five years have witnessed the extension of genetic transformation techniques into 11 insect species covering four orders within the Insecta. While the robustness of these transformation systems can be improved, there is now a highly likely probability that transformation of a given insect species will ensue, provided transposable element-containing plasmid DNA can be effectively delivered to the embryo

Peter W Atkinson

2002-01-01

166

LINKAGE MAPPING OF QTLS FOR MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN RYEGRASS: SEED TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ryegrasses (Lolium spp.) are cool-season grasses used for both turf and pasture. Knowledge of genes controlling morphological traits important in seed production would help in understanding relationships among species and assist breeders in plant improvement. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for a num...

167

Selection for production and reproduction traits in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction<\\/u>Reproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations is important, because these populations determine the performance in all levels of the breeding pyramid, including the piglet production and fattening herds.Optimization of selection in pigs

Vries de A. G

1989-01-01

168

Hunt for the Hidden Trait  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the efficacy of a peripheral smear examination as a screening tool for ?-thalassemia trait. Materials and Methods: 17 623 Leishman-stained peripheral smears were evaluated during the period from July 2006 to September 2007. The following parameters were studied: hemoglobin, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width. All the cases that showed microcytosis, hypochromia, erythrocytosis and absence of anisopoikilocytosis were suspected of having the thalassemia trait (TT), and all these cases were further evaluated with Alkaline Hemoglobin Electrophoresis for confirmation. Results: Of the 17 623 smears examined, 60 cases were considered suspicious of having TT. Alkaline hemoglobin electrophoresis carried out on all these cases revealed an elevated HbA2 (Mean = 7.5%). Five cases evaluated were found to have other hemoglobinopathies (1 Sickle cell trait, 3 Hb-E, 1 thalassemia intermedia). Conclusion: Careful screening of peripheral smear is an invaluable screening tool for thalassemia trait (PPV - 95%). There must be awareness among the peripheral centers about the importance of peripheral smear screening and the affected persons should be counseled.

Alwar, Vanamala; Kavdia, Reeti; Singh, Nandini; Rameshkumar, Karuna

2009-01-01

169

California Agricultural Direct Marketing Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The California Agricultural Direct Marketing Survey (CADMS) represents a first step by the California Institute for Rural Studies to build a more solid foundation for understanding the relative importance of direct marketing (DM) for California's farmers,...

C. L. Shelley K. M. Kambara

2002-01-01

170

WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION - TURKISH CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the case in most developing and developed countries in the world, women play a vital role in rural areas of Turkey in contributing to agricultural activities in addition to household duties and non-agricultural activities such as industry and services. Women's role in the daily economic life in Turkey has always been very important especially in the agricultural

B. Özekici; O. Tekinel; S. Kiymaz

171

Ethics and Agricultural Education: Determining Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a three-round Delphi (n=197, 109, 75), secondary teachers (61.5% in agriculture) identified important ethical issues regarding land and water use: conversion of agricultural land for urban development, water rights control, and public land used for agriculture. Nearly all addressed ethical issues in class. (SK)

Foster, Billye

2000-01-01

172

Dispersal strategies of phytophagous insects at a local scale: adaptive potential of aphids in an agricultural environment  

PubMed Central

Background The spread of agriculture greatly modified the selective pressures exerted by plants on phytophagous insects, by providing these insects with a high-level resource, structured in time and space. The life history, behavioural and physiological traits of some insect species may have evolved in response to these changes, allowing them to crowd on crops and to become agricultural pests. Dispersal, which is one of these traits, is a key concept in evolutionary biology but has been over-simplified in most theoretical studies. We evaluated the impact of the local-scale dispersal strategy of phytophagous insects on their fitness, using an individual-based model to simulate population dynamics and dispersal between leaves and plants, by walking and flying, of the aphid Aphis gossypii, a major agricultural pest, in a melon field. We compared the optimal values for dispersal parameters in the model with the corresponding observed values in experimental trials. Results We show that the rates of walking and flying disperser production on leaves were the most important traits determining the fitness criteria, whereas dispersal distance and the clustering of flying dispersers on the target plant had no effect. We further show that the effect of dispersal parameters on aphid fitness depended strongly on plant characteristics. Conclusion Parameters defining the dispersal strategies of aphids at a local scale are key components of the fitness of these insects and may thus be essential in the adaptation to agricultural environments that are structured in space and time. Moreover, the fact that the effect of dispersal parameters on aphid fitness depends strongly on plant characteristics suggests that traits defining aphid dispersal strategies may be a cornerstone of host-plant specialization.

Lombaert, Eric; Boll, Roger; Lapchin, Laurent

2006-01-01

173

Role of Agriculture in Ecuador's Economic Development: An Assessment of Ecuador's Agricultural Sector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ecuador's macroeconomic policies have largely discriminated against the agricultural sector, favoring instead import substitution industrialization. Agriculture in Ecuador identifies the sector's major constraints and recommends future steps for improved ...

M. D. Whitaker D. Colyer J. Alzamora R. L. Blumberg D. Greene

1990-01-01

174

Energy and agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on farm energy management. Topics considered at the conference included economic impacts of energy prices on agriculture, energy analysis of the environmental role in agriculture, genetic engineering, energy sources for agriculture, agricultural labor, the food-producing sector of the Common Market, energy in Australian agriculture, and energy management in U.S. agriculture.

Stanhill, G.

1984-01-01

175

QUANTITATIVE GENOMICS: EXPLORING THE GENETIC ARCHITECTURE OF COMPLEX TRAIT PREDISPOSITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most phenotypes with agricultural or biomedical relevance are multifactorial traits controlled by complex contributions of genetics and environment. Genetic predisposition results from combinations of relatively small effects due to variations within a large number of genes, known as QTL. Well over...

176

The competitive environment for agricultural bankers in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of agricultural banks in the US identified several important competitive challenges for credit providers to agriculture. The importance of various factors to customer loyalty is investigated, as is the importance of various potential products and services toward maintaining a competitive agricultural lending position in future. Bankers stressed the importance of maintaining good, long term relationships with borrowers to

LeeAnn McEdwards Moss; Peter J. Barry; Paul N. Ellinger

1997-01-01

177

Reciprocal insights into adaptation from agricultural and evolutionary studies in tomato  

PubMed Central

Although traditionally separated by different aims and methodologies, research on agricultural and evolutionary problems shares a common goal of understanding the mechanisms underlying functionally important traits. As such, research in both fields offers potential complementary and reciprocal insights. Here, we discuss adaptive stress responses (specifically to water stress) as an example of potentially fruitful research reciprocity, where agricultural research has clearly produced advances that could benefit evolutionary studies, while evolutionary studies offer approaches and insights underexplored in crop studies. We focus on research on Solanum species that include the domesticated tomato and its wild relatives. Integrated approaches to understanding ecological adaptation are particularly attractive in tomato and its wild relatives: many presumptively adaptive phenotypic differences characterize wild species, and the physiological and mechanistic basis of many relevant traits and environmental responses has already been examined in the context of cultivated tomato and some wild species. We highlight four specific instances where these reciprocal insights can be combined to better address questions that are fundamental both to agriculture and evolution.

Moyle, Leonie C; Muir, Christopher D

2010-01-01

178

Overlapping chromosomal regions for fertility traits and production traits in the Danish Holstein population.  

PubMed

Before implementing selection based on quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility, it is important to determine the existence of correlated effects between the fertility QTL and QTL with effects on production traits. When a QTL is detected for a trait that is a composite of subtraits, it is of interest to validate which of the subtraits are affected by the QTL. Phenotypic and marker data were collected from 34 grandsire families from the Danish Holstein population. First, the trait data for "fertility treatments" were separated into their underlying subtraits: uterine infections, antibiotics placed in the placenta, and abortions. In addition, retained placenta was selected for analysis because it is related to uterine infections. A genome scan was performed using 416 microsatellite markers for the fertility treatment subtraits and retained placenta, and an additional genome scan for milk production traits conditional on the QTL regions for the subtraits and retained placenta was conducted. Second, we selected 24 genomic regions harboring QTL for fertility traits from a previous study. A QTL scan for milk production traits conditional on the selected regions was conducted. We found that 16 selected genomic regions containing a QTL for fertility (including the fertility treatment subtraits and retained placenta) also harbored QTL for milk yield or milk composition traits. Furthermore, 12 QTL regions corresponding to 9 different fertility traits (including the fertility treatment subtraits) did not harbor a QTL for milk production or milk composition traits; that is, the region was specific for the fertility trait. The genome scan for the fertility treatment subtraits did not correspond to the QTL found for fertility treatments. No QTL were detected for the subtrait abortion, however genome scans for retained placenta revealed 4 different QTL. PMID:19841231

Höglund, J K; Buitenhuis, A J; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G; Thomsen, B; Lund, M S

2009-11-01

179

Similar traits, different genes/different traits, similar genes: examining parallel evolution 4 in related weedy rice populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Convergent phenotypic evolution may or may not be associated with parallel genotypic evolution. Agricultural weeds have repeatedly been selected for weed-adaptive traits such as rapid growth, increased seed dispersal and dormancy, thus providing an ideal system for the study of parallel evolution. H...

180

Goal and Personality Trait Development in Emerging Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined continuity and change in the importance of major life goals and the relation between change in goals and change in personality traits over the course of college (N = 298). Participants rated the importance of their life goals 6 times over a 4-year period and completed a measure of the Big Five personality traits at the

Brent W. Roberts; Megan ODonnell; Richard W. Robins

2004-01-01

181

Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.  

PubMed Central

Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science. The triploid MIM FORTRAN program for mapping endosperm traits is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/).

Kao, Chen-Hung

2004-01-01

182

Debt Crisis in Developing Countries Hurts U.S. Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developing countries must be able to increase their exports if they are to generate revenue to retire their debts and increase agricultural imports. Most developing countries are net exporters of agricultural products, but they have also been major import...

M. Shane D. Stallings

1988-01-01

183

“Safety for Agricultural Educators”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety for Agricultural Educators (SAGE) is a two-sided fact sheet on agricultural hazards that has been distributed by the New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health (NYCAMH) to Northeastern high school agriculture educators over the past six years. It was intended to supplement and stimulate the teaching of safety principles in agricultural education classes and thus enhance the awareness

John J. May; Sharon Scofield

2005-01-01

184

Programs in Animal Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)|

Herring, Don R.; And Others

1980-01-01

185

Agricultural Pesticides: An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit was developed as a guide for use by Kentucky teachers in planning and conducting young farmer/adult farmer classes in the use of agricultural pesticides. The unit contains seven lessons covering the following topics: understanding the importance of agricultural pesticides; using and handling agricultural pesticides safely; developing a…

Harrison, Kenneth M.; And Others

186

The Trait Psychology Controversy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

Morgan, William P.

1980-01-01

187

Dilution of genetic traits  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Undesirable genetic traits, such as resistance to toxin, can be inhibited or reversed by introducing sexually compatible individuals substantially homozygous for the sensitive allele, such as the wild type, into the target population.

2011-08-16

188

Attitudes of Arkansas Daily Newspaper Editors Toward Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to determine Arkansas daily newspaper editors' attitudes toward agriculture that might affect their decision to print, or not to print, agricultural news. Specifically, this study sought to describe the demographic characteristics of editors of Arkansas daily newspapers; determine editors' self-reported knowledge level of agriculture, experience in agriculture, and perception of the importance of

D. Dwayne Cartmell; James E. Dyer; Robert J. Birkenholz

2001-01-01

189

Agricultural Outlook, April 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Agricultural Economy (U.S. Agricultural Outlook for 1998); Briefs (Specialty Crops: Rains and Freezing Temperatures Damage Horticultural Crops); Commodity Spotlight (U.S. Horticultural Trade: Long- & Short-Term Factors); World Agriculture and Tr...

1998-01-01

190

China: Agriculture in 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses agricultural production in 1978 and the outlook for early 1979. The paper also reports on developments in agricultural trade, and examines the new policies that will guide agricultural development in China in the future. The report con...

1979-01-01

191

7 CFR 657.5 - Identification of important farmlands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification...important farmlands. 657.5 Section 657.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION...

2013-01-01

192

The long and the short of it: SD1 polymorphism and the evolution of growth trait divergence in U.S. weedy rice.  

PubMed

Growth-related traits, such as greater height, greater biomass, faster growth rate and early flowering, are thought to enhance competitiveness of agricultural weeds. However, weedy rice, a conspecific weed of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), displays variation for growth traits. In the United States, separately evolved weedy rice groups have been shown to share genomic identity with exotic domesticated cultivars. Through a common garden experiment, we investigated whether growth trait divergence has occurred among U.S. weeds and their putative cultivated progenitors. We also determined polymorphism patterns in the growth candidate gene, SD1, to assess its possible role in the evolution of divergent phenotypes. We found considerable growth trait variation among weed groups, suggesting that growth trait convergence is not evident among weedy populations. Phenotypic divergence of weedy rice from cultivated ancestors is most apparent for flowering time. Introgression of a chromosomal block containing the SD1 allele from tropical japonica, the predominant U.S. rice cultivar, was detected in one weedy rice population and is associated with a change in growth patterns in this group. This study demonstrates the role of introgressive hybridization in evolutionary divergence of an important weed. PMID:21854475

Reagon, Michael; Thurber, Carrie S; Olsen, Kenneth M; Jia, Yulin; Caicedo, Ana L

2011-08-19

193

Highly automated agricultural production system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a highly automated agricultural production system which comprises, as essential components: 1. A sensing subsystem comprising direct and indirect sensing means in an agricultural production area. The direct sensing means are generally ground or plant mounted. The indirect sensing means are remote from the area being sensed. The direct and indirect sensing means are adapted to jointly generate data on all important parameters in the homogeneous agricultural production area; 2. A data transmitting subsystem for forwarding data generated by the direct and indirect sensing means to computing means and for transmitting instructions from the computing means via interfacing means (controllers) to various devices (field effectors) in the agricultural area to perform various functions; 3. A computing subsystem linked by way of said data transmitting subsystem to said indirect and direct sensing means in a pattern of many feedback loops. The computing means is programmed to enable correlation of data received from the indirect and direct sensing means and to generate appropriate instructions to accomplish a substantive number of functions required for the operation of the automated agricultural production system of the present invention as will be later described in detail, including, but not limited to, the control of the following subsystems. 4. A fluid delivery subsystem which provides: means for delivering water, chemicals in liquid or gaseous form, air, and the like to various parts of the agricultural production area; and means for providing power to various peripheral devices which utilize the power of moving liquid and/or gases-for example, a water powered (hydromotor) platform. 5. A field operations subsystem which, in a highly preferred embodiment, comprises means to harvest agricultural products, convey the agricultural products, grade the agricultural products, store the agricultural products, and pack the agricultural products. In addition to the above means which are essentially concerned with presenting the agricultural products in a form amenable for marketing, additionally means are provided for plant care, e.g., pruning, thinning and the like. A field operations subsystem which accomplishes the functions of fruit harvesting, fruit conveying, fruit grading and fruit storage which, in a most preferred embodiment of the present invention, accomplishes the above functions utilizing fluid received from the fluid delivery subsystem of the present invention. It is also highly preferred that such fluid powered means be utilized in the agricultural system of the present invention for tree care, e.g., pruning of trees, thinning of trees and the like. The field operations can be accomplished, if desired, utilizing a vehicle which is powered by fluid, typically water, derived from the fluid delivery subsystem of the present invention by means of a water-to-mechanical torque converter (hereafter often called a hydromotor platform).

1982-09-07

194

Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

195

7 CFR 1210.314 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions... Importer means any person who imports watermelons into the United States as a...

2013-01-01

196

SOURCE OF TRAIT DETERIORATION IN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES HETERORHABDITIS BACTERIOPHORA AND STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE DURING IN VIVO CULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The stability of traits important for biological control was studied in the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae. Five isolines of each species were subcultured for 20 passages in Galleria mellonella larvae to assess trait stability. Subculturing imp...

197

7 CFR 1210.502 - Importer members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations General § 1210.502 Importer members. Pursuant to §...

2013-01-01

198

Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change  

PubMed Central

Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority.

Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

2012-01-01

199

Entomophagy and space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

200

Unraveling the Complex Trait of Crop Yield With Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica napus  

PubMed Central

Yield is the most important and complex trait for the genetic improvement of crops. Although much research into the genetic basis of yield and yield-associated traits has been reported, in each such experiment the genetic architecture and determinants of yield have remained ambiguous. One of the most intractable problems is the interaction between genes and the environment. We identified 85 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed yield along with 785 QTL for eight yield-associated traits, from 10 natural environments and two related populations of rapeseed. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed 401 consensus QTL, of which 82.5% were clustered and integrated into 111 pleiotropic unique QTL by meta-analysis, 47 of which were relevant for seed yield. The complexity of the genetic architecture of yield was demonstrated, illustrating the pleiotropy, synthesis, variability, and plasticity of yield QTL. The idea of estimating indicator QTL for yield QTL and identifying potential candidate genes for yield provides an advance in methodology for complex traits.

Shi, Jiaqin; Li, Ruiyuan; Qiu, Dan; Jiang, Congcong; Long, Yan; Morgan, Colin; Bancroft, Ian; Zhao, Jianyi; Meng, Jinling

2009-01-01

201

First impressions: gait cues drive reliable trait judgements.  

PubMed

Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances. Across three studies, we assessed the reliability of trait judgements of point-light walkers and identified motion-related visual cues driving observers' judgements. The findings confirm that observers make reliable, albeit inaccurate, trait judgements, and these were linked to a small number of motion components derived from a Principal Component Analysis of the motion data. Parametric manipulation of the motion components linearly affected trait ratings, providing strong evidence that the visual cues captured by these components drive observers' trait judgements. Subsequent analyses suggest that reliability of trait ratings was driven by impressions of emotion, attractiveness and masculinity. PMID:22717166

Thoresen, John C; Vuong, Quoc C; Atkinson, Anthony P

2012-06-18

202

Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural landscape to ensure resistance is not developing. USEPA is teaming with NASA to perform this monitoring using models and NASA earth observation imagery from airborne and satellite platforms. Using multiple spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions, the project is monitoring the entire Midwestern "Corn Belt". By applying these methods, the project has successfully delineated insect infestations in genetically modified corn fields. Insect resistance development is expected to present itself as infestations thus indicating potential identification of resistance if it develops in genetically modified crops. The USEPA and NASA are currently considering the development of plans to potentially extend this aircraft research to other crops and develop a micro-satellite application.

Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

203

Association analysis of candidate SNPs on reproductive traits in swine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Being able to identify young females with superior reproduction traits would have a large financial impact on commercial swine producers. Previous studies have discovered SNPs associated with economically important traits such as litter size, growth rate, fat deposition, and feed intake. The objecti...

204

Neuronal traits are required for glucose-induced insulin secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional repressor RE1 silencer transcription factor (REST) is an important factor that restricts some neuronal traits to neurons. Since these traits are also present in pancreatic ?-cells, we evaluated their role by generating a model of insulin-secreting cells that express REST. The presence of REST led to a decrease in expression of its known target genes, whereas insulin expression

Amar Abderrahmani; Guy Niederhauser; Valérie Plaisance; Jacques-Antoine Haefliger; Romano Regazzi; Gérard Waeber

2004-01-01

205

The Research of Vertical Search Engine for Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following rapid expansion of huge Agriculture information body on the Web, the efficient Agriculture information gathering on specified top becomes more and more important in search engine research. Through the statement of the developing trend of search engine and sharing agriculture information resource, this paper discusses the necessity of building search engine for agriculture information. The author clarifies the working principles of professional search engine for agriculture and finally analyses the improvement of searching technique of agriculture and proposes a model for agriculture - focused search.

Li, Weiying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiang

206

Handbook of Agricultural Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter surveys studies that have used the methods of mechanism design, optimal taxation, nonlinear pricing, and principal-agent analyses in the analysis of agricultural policy. The optimal design and reform of agricultural policy are studied under the presumption that agricultural producers are better informed about their technology or their actions than agricultural policy makers. The existence of these information asymmetries

Robert G. Chambers

207

7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944.503...AGRICULTURE FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to...

2010-01-01

208

7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 8 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944.503...AGRICULTURE FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to...

2009-01-01

209

THE GENETIC BASIS OF FLORAL TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH MATING SYSTEM EVOLUTION IN LEPTOSIPHON (POLEMONIACEAE): AN ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) was used to investigate the genetic architecture of divergence in floral characters associated with the mating system, an important adaptive trait in angiosperms. Two species of Leptosiphon (Polemoniaceae), one strongly self-fertilizing (L. bicolor) and the other partially outcrossing (L. jepsonii), were crossed to produce F2 and both backcross progenies. For each crossing population, a

Carol Goodwillie; Carol Ritland; Kermit Ritland

2006-01-01

210

Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling adaptive traits in coastal Douglas fir. III. Quantitative trait loci-by-environment interactions.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in the woody perennial Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) for complex traits controlling the timing of growth initiation and growth cessation. QTL were estimated under controlled environmental conditions to identify QTL interactions with photoperiod, moisture stress, winter chilling, and spring temperatures. A three-generation mapping population of 460 cloned progeny was used for genetic mapping and phenotypic evaluations. An all-marker interval mapping method was used for scanning the genome for the presence of QTL and single-factor ANOVA was used for estimating QTL-by-environment interactions. A modest number of QTL were detected per trait, with individual QTL explaining up to 9.5% of the phenotypic variation. Two QTL-by-treatment interactions were found for growth initiation, whereas several QTL-by-treatment interactions were detected among growth cessation traits. This is the first report of QTL interactions with specific environmental signals in forest trees and will assist in the identification of candidate genes controlling these important adaptive traits in perennial plants.

Jermstad, Kathleen D; Bassoni, Daniel L; Jech, Keith S; Ritchie, Gary A; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Neale, David B

2003-01-01

211

Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

212

Occurrence of Agriotes wireworms in Austrian agricultural land.  

PubMed

Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are abundant soil-dwelling herbivores which can inflict considerable damage to field crops. In Europe up to 40 species occur, differing in their ecology and pest status. Their distribution in the larval stage, however, has rarely been assessed because of the considerable effort in collecting wireworms and the difficulties in identifying them to species-level. Here, we examined the occurrence of Agriotes wireworms in Austrian agricultural land with regard to their association with climatic and soil parameters. Using a molecular identification system, 1348 field-collected larvae from 85 sites were identified to species-level. Three species, Agriotes obscurus, Agriotes brevis, Agriotes ustulatus, and two that could not be discerned molecularly (Agriotes lineatus and Agriotes proximus), were assigned to two ecological groups: (i) A. brevis/A. ustulatus, found in areas with a warmer, drier climate and alkaline soils, and (ii) A. obscurus/A. lineatus/proximus which occur mainly at higher altitude characterised by lower temperatures, higher precipitation and acidic, humus-rich soils. Agriotes sputator was abundant throughout Austria, confirming its euryoecious nature. Only one larva of Agriotes litigiosus was found, prohibiting further analysis. These data contribute to a characterisation of species-specific traits in Agriotes larvae in agricultural land, an important prerequisite to develop efficient control strategies for these wireworms. PMID:23459669

Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Pitterl, Peter; Wallinger, Corinna; Brunner, Nina; Landl, Marion; Kromp, Bernhard; Glauninger, Johann; Traugott, Michael

2011-10-13

213

Agriculture and water quality. Agriculture Information Bulletin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the Nation's water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural-chemical or land-use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface waterways in runoff; some leach through soil into ground water. Because surface-water

B. M. Crowder; M. O. Ribaudo; C. E. Young

1988-01-01

214

Agricultural Development Policies in Honduras: A Consumption Perspective,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Honduras' agricultural economy is assessed from a consumption perspective in the study, which examines in turn the structure of Honduran agriculture; trends in production, exports, imports, and prices; the structure of farm incomes; the availability of nu...

M. Garcia U R. D. Norton M. P. Cambar R. van Haeften

1988-01-01

215

Agricultural Biodiversity Is Essential for a Sustainable Improvement in Food and Nutrition Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural biodiversity has hitherto been valued almost exclusively as a source of traits that can be used in scientific breeding programs to improve the productivity of crop varieties and livestock breeds. We argue that it can make a far greater contribution to increased productivity. In particular, a wider deployment of agricultural biodiversity is an essential component in the sustainable delivery

Emile A. Frison; Jeremy Cherfas; Toby Hodgkin

2011-01-01

216

Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds  

PubMed Central

Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the estimation of genetic parameters that control body weight, body composition, meat quality traits and parameters that shape the growth curve in turkey birds. Results The average heritability estimate for body weight traits was 0.38, except for early weights that were strongly affected by maternal effects. This study showed that body weight traits, upper asymptote (a growth curve trait), percent breast meat and redness of meat had high heritability whereas heritabilities of breast length, breast width, percent drip loss, ultimate pH, lightness and yellowness of meat were medium to low. We found high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weight, upper asymptote, most breast meat yield traits and percent drip loss but percent drip loss was found strongly negatively correlated with ultimate pH. Percent breast meat, however, showed genetic correlations close to zero with body weight traits and upper asymptote. Conclusion The results of this analysis and the growth curve from the studied population of turkey birds suggest that the turkey birds could be selected for breeding between 60 and 80 days of age in order to improve overall production and the production of desirable cuts of meat. The continuous selection of birds within this age range could promote high growth rates but specific attention to meat quality would be needed to avoid a negative impact on the quality of meat.

2011-01-01

217

Accuracy of multi-trait genomic selection using different methods  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic selection has become a very important tool in animal genetics and is rapidly emerging in plant genetics. It holds the promise to be particularly beneficial to select for traits that are difficult or expensive to measure, such as traits that are measured in one environment and selected for in another environment. The objective of this paper was to develop three models that would permit multi-trait genomic selection by combining scarcely recorded traits with genetically correlated indicator traits, and to compare their performance to single-trait models, using simulated datasets. Methods Three (SNP) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism based models were used. Model G and BC?0 assumed that contributed (co)variances of all SNP are equal. Model BSSVS sampled SNP effects from a distribution with large (or small) effects to model SNP that are (or not) associated with a quantitative trait locus. For reasons of comparison, model A including pedigree but not SNP information was fitted as well. Results In terms of accuracies for animals without phenotypes, the models generally ranked as follows: BSSVS > BC?0 > G > > A. Using multi-trait SNP-based models, the accuracy for juvenile animals without any phenotypes increased up to 0.10. For animals with phenotypes on an indicator trait only, accuracy increased up to 0.03 and 0.14, for genetic correlations with the evaluated trait of 0.25 and 0.75, respectively. Conclusions When the indicator trait had a genetic correlation lower than 0.5 with the trait of interest in our simulated data, the accuracy was higher if genotypes rather than phenotypes were obtained for the indicator trait. However, when genetic correlations were higher than 0.5, using an indicator trait led to higher accuracies for selection candidates. For different combinations of traits, the level of genetic correlation below which genotyping selection candidates is more effective than obtaining phenotypes for an indicator trait, needs to be derived considering at least the heritabilities and the numbers of animals recorded for the traits involved.

2011-01-01

218

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy.

Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

2008-01-01

219

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2013-04-01

220

Bayesian analysis for genetic architecture of dynamic traits.  

PubMed

The dissection of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, including the number and locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their main and epistatic effects, has been an important topic in current QTL mapping. We extend the Bayesian model selection framework for mapping multiple epistatic QTL affecting continuous traits to dynamic traits in experimental crosses. The extension inherits the efficiency of Bayesian model selection and the flexibility of the Legendre polynomial model fitting to the change in genetic and environmental effects with time. We illustrate the proposed method by simultaneously detecting the main and epistatic QTLs for the growth of leaf age in a doubled-haploid population of rice. The behavior and performance of the method are also shown by computer simulation experiments. The results show that our method can more quickly identify interacting QTLs for dynamic traits in the models with many numbers of genetic effects, enhancing our understanding of genetic architecture for dynamic traits. Our proposed method can be treated as a general form of mapping QTL for continuous quantitative traits, being easier to extend to multiple traits and to a single trait with repeat records. PMID:20332806

Min, L; Yang, R; Wang, X; Wang, B

2010-03-24

221

Local versus regional intraspecific variability in regeneration traits.  

PubMed

Intraspecific trait variability has a fundamental contribution to the overall trait variability. However, little is known concerning the relative role of local (e.g. disturbances and species interaction) and regional (biogeographical) processes in generating this intraspecific trait variability. While biogeographical processes enhance plant trait variability between distant populations, in fire-prone ecosystems, recurrent fires may have a preponderant role in generating variability at a local scale. We hypothesize that plants respond to the local spatio-temporal heterogeneity generated by fire by having a relatively large local variability in regeneration traits in such a way that overrides the variability at a broader biogeographical scale. We test this hypothesis by assessing the intraspecific variability in fire-related regeneration traits of two species (Cistus salviifolius and Lavandula stoechas) growing in fire-prone ecosystems of the Mediterranean Basin. For each species, we selected six populations in two distant regions, three in the east (Anatolian Peninsula) and three in the west (Iberian Peninsula). For each species and population, we analysed the following regeneration traits: seed size, seed dormancy and stimulated germination by fire-related cues (heat and smoke). To evaluate the distribution of the variability in these traits, we decomposed the variability of trait values at each level, between regions (regional) and between population within region (local), using linear mixed-effect models. Despite the biogeographical and climatic differences between regions, for the two species, intraspecific variability in regeneration traits was higher at a local (within regions) than at a regional scale (between regions). Our results suggest that, in Mediterranean ecosystems, fire is an important source of intraspecific variability in regeneration traits. This supports the prominent role of fire as an ecological and evolutionary process, producing trait variability and shaping biodiversity in fire-prone ecosystems. PMID:21935664

Moreira, B; Tavsanoglu, C; Pausas, J G

2011-09-21

222

WTO agricultural trade battles and food aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent agricultural trade battles at the WTO between the US and the EU have important implications for the Global South, in particular with respect to food aid. The current Doha round of trade talks hinges closely on agreement in the area of agriculture, and a key issue of disagreement between the US and the EU is the question of whether

Jennifer Clapp

2004-01-01

223

The National Security Argument for Agricultural Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural support is often advocated as a means to national security. This is misguided. At current levels of consumption there is considerable scope for substitution away from food without catastrophic welfare losses, and even in the total absence of imports the United Kingdom could feed itself. Oil and chemical inputs into agriculture are probably more vulnerable to embargo than food,

L. Alan Winters

1988-01-01

224

Genetic and environmental effects on secondary sex traits in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exhibit extreme phenotypic and genetic variability for several traits that are important to male fitness, and several lines of evidence suggest that resource level affects phenotypic expression of these traits in nature. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation for male secondary sex traits could be maintained by genotype-specific effects of variable resource levels (genotype-environment interaction).

K. A. HUGHES; F. H. RODD; D. N. REZNICK

2004-01-01

225

Traits Can Be Powerful, but Are Not Enough: Lessons from Subjective Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of subjective well-being (SWB), Mischel's (1968) critique of personality is flipped on its head: personality traits strongly predict SWB, whereas situations often have only a small influence. Thus, the field of SWB is used to explore under what circumstances personality traits are likely to be important. Because of the strong influence of traits on SWB and a

Ed Diener

1996-01-01

226

Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality…

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

2013-01-01

227

Stagnation and innovation before agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the roughly 190,000 years between the emergence of anatomically modern humans and the transition to agriculture, sustained economic progress was rare. Although there were important innovations in the Upper Paleolithic, evidence from paleodemography indicates that population densities were driven more by climatic conditions than by technological innovations in food acquisition. We develop a model in which technological knowledge is

Gregory K. Dow; Clyde G. Reed

2011-01-01

228

Trends in Agriculture and Agribusiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a major shift from agriculture to agribusiness. Trade liberalization, deregulation, consumerization, market homogeneity, vertical integration, genetically modified crops (GMCs), frankenfood, stewardship, decommodification interdependence, and sophistication are current trends that have reshaped the industry. This paper outlines these key changes illustrating that information is important and can provide a powerful competitive edge. An annotated list of Web resources

Hazel M. G. Cameron

2006-01-01

229

Radioisotopes In Biology And Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highlights a lecture by Dr. Howard Curtis of Brookhaven National Laboratory, who touches on some of the up-to-date applications of atomic energy to biology and agriculture. Shows the importance of radioisotopic tracers in the determination of the structur...

1994-01-01

230

Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas,…

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

231

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Longitudinal Traits in Line Crosses  

PubMed Central

Quantitative traits whose phenotypic values change over time are called longitudinal traits. Genetic analyses of longitudinal traits can be conducted using any of the following approaches: (1) treating the phenotypic values at different time points as repeated measurements of the same trait and analyzing the trait under the repeated measurements framework, (2) treating the phenotypes measured from different time points as different traits and analyzing the traits jointly on the basis of the theory of multivariate analysis, and (3) fitting a growth curve to the phenotypic values across time points and analyzing the fitted parameters of the growth trajectory under the theory of multivariate analysis. The third approach has been used in QTL mapping for longitudinal traits by fitting the data to a logistic growth trajectory. This approach applies only to the particular S-shaped growth process. In practice, a longitudinal trait may show a trajectory of any shape. We demonstrate that one can describe a longitudinal trait with orthogonal polynomials, which are sufficiently general for fitting any shaped curve. We develop a mixed-model methodology for QTL mapping of longitudinal traits and a maximum-likelihood method for parameter estimation and statistical tests. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is applied to search for the maximum-likelihood estimates of parameters. The method is verified with simulated data and demonstrated with experimental data from a pseudobackcross family of Populus (poplar) trees.

Yang, Runqing; Tian, Quan; Xu, Shizhong

2006-01-01

232

Mapping quantitative trait loci for longitudinal traits in line crosses.  

PubMed

Quantitative traits whose phenotypic values change over time are called longitudinal traits. Genetic analyses of longitudinal traits can be conducted using any of the following approaches: (1) treating the phenotypic values at different time points as repeated measurements of the same trait and analyzing the trait under the repeated measurements framework, (2) treating the phenotypes measured from different time points as different traits and analyzing the traits jointly on the basis of the theory of multivariate analysis, and (3) fitting a growth curve to the phenotypic values across time points and analyzing the fitted parameters of the growth trajectory under the theory of multivariate analysis. The third approach has been used in QTL mapping for longitudinal traits by fitting the data to a logistic growth trajectory. This approach applies only to the particular S-shaped growth process. In practice, a longitudinal trait may show a trajectory of any shape. We demonstrate that one can describe a longitudinal trait with orthogonal polynomials, which are sufficiently general for fitting any shaped curve. We develop a mixed-model methodology for QTL mapping of longitudinal traits and a maximum-likelihood method for parameter estimation and statistical tests. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is applied to search for the maximum-likelihood estimates of parameters. The method is verified with simulated data and demonstrated with experimental data from a pseudobackcross family of Populus (poplar) trees. PMID:16751670

Yang, Runqing; Tian, Quan; Xu, Shizhong

2006-06-04

233

Trait emotional intelligence and the dark triad traits of personality.  

PubMed

This study presents the first behavioral genetic investigation of the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) and the Dark Triad traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. In line with trait EI theory, the construct correlated positively with narcissism, but negatively with the other two traits. Generally, the correlations were consistent across the 4 factors and 15 facets of the construct. Cholesky decomposition analysis revealed that the phenotypic associations were primarily due to correlated genetic factors and secondarily due to correlated nonshared environmental factors, with shared environmental factors being nonsignificant in all cases. Results are discussed from the perspective of trait EI theory with particular reference to the issue of adaptive value. PMID:21314254

Petrides, K V; Vernon, Philip A; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Veselka, Livia

2011-02-01

234

7 CFR 57.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...make application for inspection of imported eggs. 57.920 Section 57.920 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

2013-01-01

235

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting growth and carcass traits in F2 intercross chickens.  

PubMed

We constructed a chicken F(2) resource population to facilitate the genetic improvement of economically important traits, particularly growth and carcass traits. An F(2) population comprising 240 chickens obtained by crossing a Shamo (lean, lightweight Japanese native breed) male and White Plymouth Rock breed (fat, heavyweight broiler) females was measured for BW, carcass weight (CW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), breast muscle weight (BMW), and thigh muscle weight (TMW) and was used for genome-wide linkage and QTL analysis, using a total of 240 microsatellite markers. A total of 14 QTL were detected at a 5% chromosome-wide level, and 7 QTL were significant at a 5% experiment-wide level for the traits evaluated in the F(2) population. For growth traits, significant and suggestive QTL affecting BW (measured at 6 and 9 wk) and average daily gain were identified on similar regions of chromosomes 1 and 3. For carcass traits, the QTL effects on CW were detected on chromosomes 1 and 3, with the greatest F-ratio of 15.0 being obtained for CW on chromosome 3. Quantitative trait loci positions affecting BMW and TMW were not detected at the same loci as those detected for BMW percentage of CW and TMW percentage of CW. For AFW, QTL positions were detected at the same loci as those detected for AFW percentage of CW. The present study identified significant QTL affecting BW, CW, and AFW. PMID:19211515

Uemoto, Y; Sato, S; Odawara, S; Nokata, H; Oyamada, Y; Taguchi, Y; Yanai, S; Sasaki, O; Takahashi, H; Nirasawa, K; Kobayashi, E

2009-03-01

236

Quantitative trait loci affecting eggshell traits in an F(2) population.  

PubMed

Good eggshell quality is important for both table egg quality and chicken reproductive performance. Weak eggshells cause economic losses in all production steps. Poor eggshell quality also poses increased risk for Salmonella infections. Eggshell quality has been a difficult trait to improve by traditional breeding, as it can be measured only for females and it is difficult and expensive to measure. Breeding for improved shell quality may therefore benefit from the use of marker-assisted selection. In an effort to find markers linked to eggshell quality, we have used an F(2) population of 668 females to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting eggshell traits (eggshell deformation, breaking force, weight). By using 160 microsatellite markers on 27 chromosomes, we found 11 genome-wide and 15 suggestive QTL for shell traits measured at different times during production. Loci affecting the deformation were found on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 14 and Z. Loci affecting the breaking force were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 10, 12 and Z. Loci affecting the shell weight were detected on chromosomes 6, 12, 24 and Z. Each QTL explains between 1.5% and 4.6% of the phenotypic variance, adding up to 10-15% of total phenotypic variance explained for the different traits. No epistatic effects were observed between loci affecting eggshell traits. Because the effects for quality are mainly additive, these results provide a basis for further characterization of the loci to identify closely linked markers to be used in marker-assisted selection. PMID:21054450

Tuiskula-Haavisto, M; Honkatukia, M; Preisinger, R; Schmutz, M; de Koning, D J; Wei, W H; Vilkki, J

2010-11-04

237

Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

238

1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

239

Agriculture: NIOSH Research Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Grants; Cooperative Agreements; NIOSH-Supported Centers for Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention; NIOSH-Supported Educational Resource Centers (ERC) Agricultural Training Programs; Sentinel Event Notification Syste...

1997-01-01

240

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

241

Limitations to Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pie chart showing the percentage of land without limitations to agriculture (11%) and the reasons that the other land is of limited agriculture usefulness. With a timeplot showing the (slight) increase in arable land over the period 1960-2000

Environment, Aaas A.

242

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

243

Childhood Agricultural Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... dollars) 11 2012 Blueprint for Protecting Children in Agriculture Lee BC, Gallager SS, Liebman AK, Miller ME and ... B (Eds.) (2012). Blueprint for Protecting Children in Agriculture: The 2012 National Action Plan. Marshfield, WI: Marshfield ...

244

Quantitative trait loci and metabolic pathways  

PubMed Central

The interpretation of quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies is limited by the lack of information on metabolic pathways leading to most economic traits. Inferences about the roles of the underlying genes with a pathway or the nature of their interaction with other loci are generally not possible. An exception is resistance to the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) in maize (Zea mays L.) because of maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone synthesized in silks via a branch of the well characterized flavonoid pathway. Our results using flavone synthesis as a model QTL system indicate: (i) the importance of regulatory loci as QTLs, (ii) the importance of interconnecting biochemical pathways on product levels, (iii) evidence for “channeling” of intermediates, allowing independent synthesis of related compounds, (iv) the utility of QTL analysis in clarifying the role of specific genes in a biochemical pathway, and (v) identification of a previously unknown locus on chromosome 9S affecting flavone level. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of maysin synthesis and associated corn earworm resistance should lead to improved breeding strategies. More broadly, the insights gained in relating a defined genetic and biochemical pathway affecting a quantitative trait should enhance interpretation of the biological basis of variation for other quantitative traits.

McMullen, M. D.; Byrne, P. F.; Snook, M. E.; Wiseman, B. R.; Lee, E. A.; Widstrom, N. W.; Coe, E. H.

1998-01-01

245

Determinants of Fashion Attributes' Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

What determines the importance of fashion attributes in the purchase of clothing? The present study attempts to answer one question. Can values, demographics, and personality traits be combined in one model to predict the importance of fashion attributes to consumers? It explores a framework that proceeds from demographics (age and gender) and social values to role relaxation to conformity to

Aviv Shoham

2003-01-01

246

Agricultural Structures, Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing…

Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

247

Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

248

Agriculture Business and Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

Seperich, George; And Others

249

Genetic parameters for fitness and neonatal behavior traits in sheep.  

PubMed

Poor neonatal survival constrains productivity and good welfare. The heritability of survival in sheep is very low, suggesting that genetic progress will be slow. Previously we have shown that a difficult birth and low neonatal lamb vigor are important predictors of future survival. In this study we investigated the heritability of these traits, and their relationship to production traits, as an alternative indirect route to improve lamb survival. Neonatal lamb data from 11,092 animals were collected over 2 years from 290 commercial sheep flocks, using previously developed methods to rapidly assess three traits (birth assistance, lamb vigor, sucking ability) on farm. Heritabilities for neonatal traits were moderate: birth assistance (mean ą standard error; 0.26 ą 0.03), lamb vigor (0.40 ą 0.04) and sucking ability (0.32 ą 0.03). Genetic correlations between neonatal traits were moderate to high, and positive. Heritabilities for production traits were also moderate: 8-week weight (0.27 ą 0.06), 20-week weight (0.39 ą 0.07), ultrasound muscle depth (0.37 ą 0.06). Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the neonatal traits and production traits were not significantly different from zero. However, lambs that were scored as of poor vigor at birth were less likely to be recorded at 8 or 20 weeks, indicating that they may have died. The data demonstrate that the neonatal survival traits of birth assistance, lamb vigor and sucking assistance are moderately heritable when treated as a lamb trait, indicating that selection to target these lamb traits would successfully, and efficiently, improve survival without influencing productivity. PMID:23053733

Matheson, S M; Bünger, L; Dwyer, C M

2012-09-15

250

Discovery and application of insertion-deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms for QTL mapping of early life-history traits in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background For decades, linkage mapping has been one of the most powerful and widely used approaches for elucidating the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits of medical, agricultural and evolutionary importance. However, successful mapping of Mendelian and quantitative phenotypic traits depends critically on the availability of fast and preferably high-throughput genotyping platforms. Several array-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms have been developed for genetic model organisms during recent years but most of these methods become prohibitively expensive for screening large numbers of individuals. Therefore, inexpensive, simple and flexible genotyping solutions that enable rapid screening of intermediate numbers of loci (~75-300) in hundreds to thousands of individuals are still needed for QTL mapping applications in a broad range of organisms. Results Here we describe the discovery of and application of insertion-deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms for cost-efficient medium throughput genotyping that enables analysis of >75 loci in a single automated sequencer electrophoresis column with standard laboratory equipment. Genotyping of INDELs requires low start-up costs, includes few standard sample handling steps and is applicable to a broad range of species for which expressed sequence tag (EST) collections are available. As a proof of principle, we generated a partial INDEL linkage map in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rapidly identified a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting early life-history traits that are expected to have important fitness consequences in the natural environment. Conclusions The INDEL genotyping enabled fast coarse-mapping of chromosomal regions containing QTL, thus providing an efficient means for characterization of genetic architecture in multiple crosses and large pedigrees. This enables not only the discovery of larger number of QTLs with relatively smaller phenotypic effect but also provides a cost-effective means for evaluation of the frequency of segregating QTLs in outbred populations which is important for further understanding how genetic variation underlying phenotypic traits is maintained in the wild.

2010-01-01

251

Bacteriocin Production: a Probiotic Trait?  

PubMed Central

Bacteriocins are an abundant and diverse group of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria and archaea. Traditionally, bacteriocin production has been considered an important trait in the selection of probiotic strains, but until recently, few studies have definitively demonstrated the impact of bacteriocin production on the ability of a strain to compete within complex microbial communities and/or positively influence the health of the host. Although research in this area is still in its infancy, there is intriguing evidence to suggest that bacteriocins may function in a number of ways within the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. Here we review the role of bacteriocin production in complex microbial communities and their potential to enhance human health.

Dobson, Alleson; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin

2012-01-01

252

7 CFR 319.74-3 - Importations by the Department.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Cut Flowers § 319.74-3 Importations by the Department. The U.S. Department of Agriculture may import cut flowers for experimental or scientific purposes under such...

2013-01-01

253

Human behavioral ecology, phenotypic (developmental) plasticity, and agricultural origins: insights from the emerging evolutionary synthesis.  

PubMed

The fields of human behavioral ecology (HBE) and evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) both stand to make significant contributions to our understanding of agricultural origins. These two approaches share a concern with phenotypic-plasticity and its evolutionary significance. HBE considers the adaptive plasticity of the human phenotype in response to resource distribution in time and space and has helped to advance understanding of the economic costs and benefits of food production. However, evo-devo and the associated subject of phenotypic (developmental) plasticity have so far been largely neglected as sources of insight into the domestication of plants, despite growing evidence for their evolutionary importance in nature and their roles in the origins of novel traits. We argue that it is important to consider environmentally induced phenotypic variation resulting directly from both natural- and human-induced ecological change as a source of the distinctive morphologies of domesticated plants. PMID:20642147

Gremillion, Kristen J; Piperno, Dolores R

2009-10-01

254

Distinct evolutionary patterns of morphometric sperm traits in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

The striking diversity of sperm shape across the animal kingdom is still poorly understood. Postcopulatory sexual selection is an important factor driving the evolution of sperm size and shape. Interestingly, morphometric sperm traits, such as the length of the head, midpiece and flagellum, exhibit a strong positive phenotypic correlation across species. Here we used recently developed comparative methods to investigate how such phenotypic correlations between morphometric sperm traits may evolve. We compare allometric relationships and evolutionary trajectories of three morphometric sperm traits (length of head, midpiece and flagellum) in passerine birds. We show that these traits exhibit strong phenotypic correlations but that allometry varies across families. In addition, the evolutionary trajectories of the midpiece and flagellum are similar while the trajectory for head length differs. We discuss our findings in the light of three scenarios accounting for correlated trait evolution: (i) genetic correlation; (ii) concerted response to selection acting simultaneously on different traits; and (iii) phenotypic correlation between traits driven by mechanistic constraints owing to selection on sperm performance. Our results suggest that concerted response to selection is the most likely explanation for the phenotypic correlation between morphometric sperm traits.

Immler, Simone; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Birkhead, Tim R.

2012-01-01

255

The Role of Libraries in Technology Transfer for Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economic situation of the Nation and agriculture's use of technology transfer to improve its competitiveness in the global marketplace. Information is viewed as an economic resource and thus the roles of libraries and information professionals are perceived to be important to the technology transfer process. The National Agricultural Library, U.S. Department of Agriculture, is examining its

Kathleen C. Hayes

1991-01-01

256

The Satoyama Index: A biodiversity indicator for agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural development to meet rapidly growing demands for food and biofuel and the abandonment of traditional land use have had major impacts on biodiversity. Habitat diversity is one of the most important factors influencing biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. In this study we propose an ecological index of ecosystem or habitat diversity in agricultural landscapes – the Satoyama Index (SI) –

Taku Kadoya; Izumi Washitani

2011-01-01

257

Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation and Emission Intensities in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions are closely linked. This paper reviews agricultural options to reduce energy intensities and their impacts, discusses important accounting issues related to system boundaries, land scarcity, and measurement units, and compares agricultural energy intensities and improvement potentials on an international level. Agricultural development in the past decades, while increasing yields, led to lower average energy

Uwe A. Schneider; Pete Smith

2008-01-01

258

Nitrogen Leaching in Ecological Agriculture: Summary and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1993 an international workshop on nitrogen leaching in ecological agriculture was held at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in Copenhagen, Denmark. This paper summarizes the discussion at the workshop and outlines recommendations and conclusions. The paper identifies key factors of major importance to a consideration of nitrogen leaching from ecological agriculture. These are: the farming systems approach:

L. Kristensen; C. Stopes; P. Křlster; A. Granstedt

1995-01-01

259

Organic Agriculture Supports Biodiversity and Sustainable Food Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity is vital to several important ecosystem services that ensure sustainability of food production. In organic agriculture, land management practices that promote biodiversity and soil quality are emphasized and the goal is to maintain a sustainable agricultural system. Soil quality or soil health is the foundation for all agriculture and natural plant communities and a primary indicator of sustainable land

Teri Underwood; Christine McCullum-Gomez; Alison Harmon; Susan Roberts

2011-01-01

260

7 CFR 1210.314 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importer. 1210.314 Section 1210.314 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.314 Importer. Importer means any...

2012-01-01

261

7 CFR 1212.11 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...means any person who imports for sale honey or honey products into the United...

2013-01-01

262

National Agricultural Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) is part of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The library is a major international source for agriculture and related information. The website provides access to NAL's many resources which include: a Web Gateway to AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access), the catalog of the library and its cooperator's resources; the Agriculture Network Information Center (AgNIC), a guide to quality agricultural information on the Internet; and many other databases such as the AGROS Research Data Directory, which is a collection of dataset descriptions from the USDA's environmental research. Users may also find publications, services and programs, and links to other information centers.

263

Leaf Trait-Environment Relationships in a Subtropical Broadleaved Forest in South-East China  

PubMed Central

Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most responsive ones.

Krober, Wenzel; Bohnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

2012-01-01

264

Leaf trait-environment relationships in a subtropical broadleaved forest in South-East China.  

PubMed

Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most responsive ones. PMID:22539999

Kröber, Wenzel; Böhnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

2012-04-23

265

76 FR 65411 - Specialty Crops; Import Regulations; Proposed Pistachio Import Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Crops; Import Regulations; Proposed Pistachio Import Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural...minimum quality regulation for lots of pistachios imported into the United States. The...proposal, aflatoxin levels in imported pistachios could not exceed 15 parts per...

2011-10-21

266

What makes organic agriculture move: protest, meaning or market? A polyocular approach to the dynamics and governance of organic agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different actors have hopes and aspirations for the future of organic agriculture. They have different perspectives on organic agriculture with different understandings of what it is and what makes it move. Each perspective entails a certain understanding of organic agriculture featuring certain concepts and values and a particular logic or rationality. It is important to acknowledge this heterogeneity when

Hugo Fjelsted Alroe; Egon Noe

2008-01-01

267

Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

268

Anxiety traits among medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetive: To evaluate the presence and intensity of anxiety traits among medical students. Method: The Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory was applied to 603 regularly matriculated students at ABC Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Results: 86.9% (524) of all six grades students answered the Inven- tory, 20.1% had scored 49 or more anxiety-traits symptoms, suggesting a high level of a anxiety

Sergio Baldassin; Lourdes Conceiçăo Martins; Arthur Guerra de Andrade

2006-01-01

269

Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. Methods In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Key Results Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. Conclusions The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level.

Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphael; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

2011-01-01

270

Quantitative trait locus analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity in the model legume Lotus japonicus.  

PubMed

Many legumes form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. An elevation of nitrogen fixation in such legumes would have significant implications for plant growth and biomass production in agriculture. To identify the genetic basis for the regulation of nitrogen fixation, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Miyakojima MG-20 × Gifu B-129 in the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and grown for 14 days in pods containing vermiculite. Phenotypic data were collected for acetylene reduction activity (ARA) per plant (ARA/P), ARA per nodule weight (ARA/NW), ARA per nodule number (ARA/NN), NN per plant, NW per plant, stem length (SL), SL without inoculation (SLbac-), shoot dry weight without inoculation (SWbac-), root length without inoculation (RLbac-), and root dry weight (RWbac-), and finally 34 QTLs were identified. ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL showed strong correlations and QTL co-localization, suggesting that several plant characteristics important for symbiotic nitrogen fixation are controlled by the same locus. QTLs for ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL, co-localized around marker TM0832 on chromosome 4, were also co-localized with previously reported QTLs for seed mass. This is the first report of QTL analysis for symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity traits. PMID:22009016

Tominaga, Akiyoshi; Gondo, Takahiro; Akashi, Ryo; Zheng, Shao-Hui; Arima, Susumu; Suzuki, Akihiro

2011-10-19

271

Learning Communities and Agricultural Youth Organizations: Their Influence on College Agriculture Students' Academic Performance and Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important challenges facing colleges of agriculture today involves recruiting, retaining, and educating high caliber individuals who are academically prepared to function in a rapidly changing food, fiber, and natural resource industry. This study compared the influence of participation in a learning community called a Freshman Interest Group (FIG) and participation in agricultural youth organizations (4-H\\/FFA) on

Anna L. Ball; Bryan L. Garton; James E. Dyer

272

The Relationship between Biodiversity and Organic Agriculture Defining Appropriate Policies and Approaches for Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of the EU's total land area is used for agricultural production, which over the centuries has produced an impressive diversity of landscapes. The importance of maintaining the biodiversity associated with these agricultural areas is a high priority for the conservation of nature in Europe as a whole. However, these traditional farming methods are now increasingly being superseded

Sue Stolton

273

The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture.  

PubMed

The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till, NT) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice that was borne out of the American dust bowl of the 1930s. The paper then describes the benefits of CA, a suggested improvement on CT, where NT, mulch and rotations significantly improve soil properties and other biotic factors. The paper concludes that CA is a more sustainable and environmentally friendly management system for cultivating crops. Case studies from the rice-wheat areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia and the irrigated maize-wheat systems of Northwest Mexico are used to describe how CA practices have been used in these two environments to raise production sustainably and profitably. Benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global warming are also discussed. The paper concludes that agriculture in the next decade will have to sustainably produce more food from less land through more efficient use of natural resources and with minimal impact on the environment in order to meet growing population demands. Promoting and adopting CA management systems can help meet this goal. PMID:17720669

Hobbs, Peter R; Sayre, Ken; Gupta, Raj

2008-02-12

274

Traits and Trade-Offs Are an Important Tier  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Replies to comments by K. M. Sheldon et al on the author's original article on evolution and personality variation. Sheldon et al concurred with the thrust of that article that the way natural selection shapes or gives rise to interindividual variation is a worthy topic for evolutionary psychologists to consider, so at a broad level Sheldon et al…

Nettle, Daniel

2007-01-01

275

Agricultural Statistics 1994  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has made full text of "Agricultural Statistics 1994" available via its Web site. Agricultural Statistics is an annual compendium of data (and selected charts) relating to all aspects of the U.S. agricultural economy. Subject coverage includes all major crop and livestock sectors, farm income and credit, stabilization and price support, agricultural conservation and forestry statistics, and fertilizers and pesticides, among others. Tables include both state and national breakdowns, and most national tables include between two and ten year time series. The book is available as one large Adobe Acrobat .PDF file (about 5 megabytes), so you'll need a fast connection to get it. You'll also need a free Acrobat Reader, which can be obtained at the same page. Acrobat allows selective searching for specific tables, as well as selective printing of those tables. (See Network Tools, below.)

1994-01-01

276

The short and the long of it: SD1 polymorphism and the evolution of growth trait divergence in U.S. weedy rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth related traits are thought to enhance competitiveness of agricultural weeds. U.S. weedy rice, a major conspecific weed of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), displays variation for growth traits. Prior studies have shown that major U.S. weedy rice populations likely evolved from domesticated grou...

277

Autotoxicity in Agriculture and Forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant allelochemicals might interfere with growth of conspecific individuals (known as autotoxicity) when high concentrations\\u000a are accumulated in soil. Autotoxicity is ubiquitous in both natural and manipulated ecosystems and may have important ecological\\u000a implications. This chapter reviewed the role and management of autotoxicity in agriculture and forestry. It also discussed\\u000a the mode of action of autotoxicity and its controlling factors.

Ying Hu Liu; Ren Sen Zeng; Min An; Azim U. Mallik; Shi Ming Luo

278

Agricultural land reform in Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

During transition, Moldova has pursued a policy of small-scale land privatisiation and a sucession of decollectivisation initiatives. Small-scale land reform has been important for bolstering the real incomes of rural households but living standards have continued to fall. While initial political resistance to decollectivisation has been overcome, serious challenges remain for co-ordinating agricultural production, procurement and marketing from a newly

Matthew Gorton

2001-01-01

279

Water and Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Irrigated agriculture is a vital component of total agriculture that supplies many of the fruits, vegetables, and cereal foods,\\u000a the grains fed to animals used as human food, and the feed to sustain work animals in many parts of the world. Consequently,\\u000a agriculture is the largest user of fresh water globally, and irrigation practices sometimes are biologically, economically,\\u000a and socially

Iván Francisco García-Tejero; Víctor Hugo Durán-Zuazo; José Luis Muriel-Fernández; Carmen Rocío Rodríguez-Pleguezuelo

280

Agriculture: access to technology limited.  

PubMed

From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

1997-01-01

281

Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3 -, N2, Cl, SO4 2-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3 -, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

Böhlke, John-Karl

2002-02-01

282

Mapping of quantitative trait loci for flesh colour and growth traits in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Background Flesh colour and growth related traits in salmonids are both commercially important and of great interest from a physiological and evolutionary perspective. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting flesh colour and growth related traits in an F2 population derived from an isolated, landlocked wild population in Norway (Byglands Bleke) and a commercial production population. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight informative microsatellite loci distributed across all 29 linkage groups in Atlantic salmon were genotyped in individuals from four F2 families that were selected from the ends of the flesh colour distribution. Genotyping of 23 additional loci and two additional families was performed on a number of linkage groups harbouring putative QTL. QTL analysis was performed using a line-cross model assuming fixation of alternate QTL alleles and a half-sib model with no assumptions about the number and frequency of QTL alleles in the founder populations. Results A moderate to strong phenotypic correlation was found between colour, length and weight traits. In total, 13 genome-wide significant QTL were detected for all traits using the line-cross model, including three genome-wide significant QTL for flesh colour (Chr 6, Chr 26 and Chr 4). In addition, 32 suggestive QTL were detected (chromosome-wide P < 0.05). Using the half-sib model, six genome-wide significant QTL were detected for all traits, including two for flesh colour (Chr 26 and Chr 4) and 41 suggestive QTL were detected (chromosome-wide P < 0.05). Based on the half-sib analysis, these two genome-wide significant QTL for flesh colour explained 24% of the phenotypic variance for this trait. Conclusions A large number of significant and suggestive QTL for flesh colour and growth traits were found in an F2 population of Atlantic salmon. Chr 26 and Chr 4 presented the strongest evidence for significant QTL affecting flesh colour, while Chr 10, Chr 5, and Chr 4 presented the strongest evidence for significant QTL affecting growth traits (length and weight). These QTL could be strong candidates for use in marker-assisted selection and provide a starting point for further characterisation of the genetic components underlying flesh colour and growth.

2010-01-01

283

Mapping of quantitative trait locus associated with maize tolerance to high seed drying temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

quantitative trait locus (qTL) mapping and identification of traits of agronomic importance is important in the process of molecu- lar marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. The molecular map of maize is well saturated and qTL and simple sequence repeat (SSR) mark- ers have been identified, whereas few markers linked to seed quality traits are included. The present study aimed to

K. C. P. C. Salgado; E. V. R. Von Pinho; C. T. Guimaraes; R. G. Von Pinho; C. A. Ferreira; V. Andrade

2008-01-01

284

Traits, states, situations, and uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shift of paradigm from psychodynamic therapy to behavior modification has changed the views of assessment and challenged traditional broad trait concepts. Behavioral assessment has used narrow, situation-specific trait tests, state self-report tests given in situations, and behavioral observations and performance ratings. Comparison of these types of measures are reported from a study of fear reactions in three situations. Narrow

Marvin Zuckerman

1979-01-01

285

Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.  

PubMed

How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes. PMID:23951712

Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

2013-07-01

286

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting.

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

287

Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle.  

PubMed

A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments. PMID:18298935

Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S; Viitala, Sirja M; Vilkki, Johanna H

2008-02-27

288

Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle  

PubMed Central

A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments.

Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S; Viitala, Sirja M; Vilkki, Johanna H

2008-01-01

289

Quantitative trait diversity in tef [ Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] germplasm from Central and Northern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One thousand and eighty tef, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter, entries representing 36 populations collected from six central and northern regions of Ethiopia were evaluated at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center during the 1995 main season to assess the quantitative trait diversity in the germplasm with respect to collection regions and altitude zones. Hierarchical analysis of variance showed large (p =

Kebebew Assefa; Hailu Tefera; Arnulf Merker; Tiruneh Kefyalew; Fufa Hundera

2001-01-01

290

Genetic improvement in grain yield potential and associated agronomic traits of tef ( Eragrostis tef )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yield potential experiment was conducted with one farmers’ variety and 10 improved varieties released over the periods 1960–1995 to estimate the progress made in improving grain yield potential and to determine changes produced on agronomic traits associated with genetic yield potential improvement. The experiment was conducted at the Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, on two soil

Yifru Teklu; Hailu Tefera

2005-01-01

291

POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION AND FRUIT PRODUCTION OF PAGE CITRUS ON A PUNSIRUS ROOTSTOCK: QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE TRAITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of optimum rates of potassium (K) for high citrus production with great qualitative traits is of both agricultural and economical significance, particularly when performing long–term experiments. A five–year field experiment was conducted in the Citrus Research Center of Tonekabon, Iran in a silty clay loam. The objectives were to: 1) to apply different rates of K fertilizer and determine

A. Ashkevari; S. H. Hossein Zadeh; M. Miransari

2010-01-01

292

Protected Agriculture in the State of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the country's harsh climate, scarce water resources and poor-quality land resources, protected agriculture (PA) has a significant role in Kuwait's agricultural development. Despite difficulties, PA made spectacular progress during the 1980s (area increased from 3.5 ha in 1979\\/80 to 425 ha in 1989\\/90) and was beginning to establish an important niche in the national economy just prior to

Afaf Y. Al-Nasser; N. R. Bhat

293

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in Agricultural Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable biological potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils but many factors prevent\\u000a the full biological potential being realized. When considering greenhouse gas mitigation, it is important to consider all\\u000a of the greenhouse gases together as a management practice suitable for reducing one gas may increase emissions of another.\\u000a Successful greenhouse gas mitigation options for agricultural

Pete Smith; Pete Falloon; Uwe Franko; Martin Körschens; Rattan Lal; Keith Paustian; David Powlson; Vladimir Romanenkov; Ludmila Shevtsova; Jo Smith

294

Functional traits explain light and size response of growth rates in tropical tree species.  

PubMed

Relationships between functional traits and average or potential demographic rates have provided insight into the functional constraints and trade-offs underlying life-history strategies of tropical tree species. We have extended this framework by decomposing growth rates of -130 000 trees of 171 Neotropical tree species into intrinsic growth and the response of growth to light and size. We related these growth characteristics to multiple functional traits (wood density, adult stature, seed mass, leaf traits) in a hierarchical Bayesian model that accounted for measurement error and intraspecific variability of functional traits. Wood density was the most important trait determining all three growth characteristics. Intrinsic growth rates were additionally strongly related to adult stature, while all traits contributed to light response. Our analysis yielded a predictive model that allows estimation of growth characteristics for rare species on the basis of a few easily measurable morphological traits. PMID:23431593

Rüger, Nadja; Wirth, Christian; Wright, S Joseph; Condit, Richard

2012-12-01

295

Predator-driven trait diversification in a dragonfly genus: covariation in behavioral and morphological antipredator defense.  

PubMed

Proof for predation as an agent shaping evolutionary trait diversification is accumulating, however, our understanding how multiple antipredator traits covary due to phenotypic differentiation is still scarce. Species of the dragonfly genus Leucorrhinia underwent shifts from lakes with fish as top predators to fishless lakes with large dragonfly predators. This move to fishless lakes was accompanied by a partial loss and reduction of larval spines. Here, we show that Leucorrhinia also reduced burst swimming speed and its associated energy fuelling machinery, arginine kinase activity, when invading fishless lakes. This results in patterns of positive phylogenetic trait covariation between behavioral and morphological antipredator defense (trait cospecialization) and between behavioral antipredator defense and physiological machinery (trait codependence). Across species patterns of trait covariation between spine status, burst swimming speed and arginine kinase activity also matched findings within the phenotypically plastic L. dubia. Our results highlight the importance of predation as a factor affecting patterns of multiple trait covariation during phenotypic diversification. PMID:20624175

Mikolajewski, Dirk J; De Block, Marjan; Rolff, Jens; Johansson, Frank; Beckerman, Andrew P; Stoks, Robby

2010-11-01

296

Agriculture and Rural Viability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

297

Greening of Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consolidation of farms, agricultural input supply companies, and commodity businesses over the past several decades have led to a concentration of ownership and control. There is growing concern by society about the environmental impacts of agriculture and the food system, and companies are eager to exploit this concern by advertising products that are environmentally friendly. When there is a greening

Charles Francis; Roger Elmore; John Ikerd; Mike Duffy

2007-01-01

298

Argentine Agriculture under GATT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argentina is the world's second largest exporter of grains, oilseeds, and oilseed products. Traditionally, Argentina's economic policies have taxed the agricultural sector, which produces goods for exports, to subsidize the mostly insulated industrial sector. Despite this unfavorable treatment, the agricultural sector has remained Argentina's economic mainstay and competes successfully in world markets. Recurrent economic crises have led to substantial changes

Sergio H. Lence

1994-01-01

299

Personal Achievement Reading: Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exercises are provided in a set of five workbooks designed to aid students in agricultural programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from terminology of agriculture to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on the ability to determine word…

Rozeboom, Deborah A.

300

IS RANGELAND AGRICULTURE SUSTAINABLE?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural enterprise sustainability is most often assessed by examining long-term ecological sustainability, short- and long-term economic viability, and social acceptance. From an ecological perspective, rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) is deemed fully sustainable providing the rang...

301

Agricultural Outlook, November 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the November 2002 issue of the 'Agricultural Outlook'. This publication addresses a broad spectrum of agriculture-related issues and provides short-term outlook articles on commodity markets and food prices. It also presents in-depth analyses of U...

2002-01-01

302

Vocational Agriculture I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

303

Agricultural robotics [TC Spotlight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is just one step in the supply chain that leads to the table of the consumer. Just as automation has brought down the price of electrical goods by reducing the manpower involved, so is the price of agricultural production being reduced. Although electronic games are a luxury, food is a necessity that must be produced at all costs. We

John Billingsley; Denny Oetomo; John Reid

2009-01-01

304

Effect of Habitat Conditions and Plant Traits on Leaf Damage in the Carduoideae Subfamily  

PubMed Central

Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range.

Munzbergova, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Jiri

2013-01-01

305

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

306

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

307

Vocational Agriculture Education: Agricultural Livestock Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten units of instruction are provided in this curriculum guide on agricultural livestock skills. Unit topics are as follow: (1) restraining, (2) vaccination, (3) livestock castration, (4) dehorning, (5) docking, (6) growth stimulants, (7) identification, (8) shearing, (9) hoof trimming, and (10) birth assistance. Each instructional unit generally…

Pierce, Greg

308

Genetic and Phenotypic Relationships Among Locomotion Type Traits, Profit, Production, Longevity, and Fertility in Spanish Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotypic and genetic relationships of 3 locomo- tion traits with profit, production, longevity, and fertil- ity traits were studied to determine the importance of locomotion traits for dairy producers. Two data sets including official milk records and type classification scores of 62,293 cows, and reproductive records of 24,561 cows from the Basque and Navarra Autonomous Regions were analyzed. Higher

M. A. Pérez-Cabal; C. García; O. González-Recio; R. Alenda

2006-01-01

309

Relation of porcine myogenin gene PCR\\/RFLP MspI and reproduction traits of the Czech Large White sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction traits are highly important for pigs producers because of effect on economic efficiency. Hence, breeders as well as geneticists try to find the way to improve the reproduction traits. Because the protein coded by the myogenin gene (MYOG) is necessary for regulation of skeletal muscles development during embryogenesis, many authors have studied its influence on the meat traits of

P. Humpolí?ek; T. Urban; Z. Tvrdo?

2007-01-01

310

Quantitative trait loci affecting growth and carcass composition of cattle segregating alternate forms of myostatin1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the bovine myostatin gene on chromosome 2 on birth and carcass traits have been previously assessed. The objective of this study was to identify additional quantitative trait loci (QTL) for economically important traits in two families segregat- ing an inactive copy of myostatin. Two half-sib families were developed from Belgian Blue × MARC III (n = 246)

E. Casas; S. D. Shackelford; J. W. Keele; R. T. Stone; S. M. Kappes; M. Koohmaraie

311

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Agriculture in the Classroom initiative is designed to "improve agricultural literacy." The organization's work is supported by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which works to develop the classroom programs, including fact sheets, lesson plans, and interactive activities. Visitors can make their way through five sections on the homepage, including State Programs, Teacher Center, and Student Center. In the Teacher Center, visitors will find lesson plans, state agricultural facts, and current and back issues of "AgroWorld." This publication brings together helpful information for students and teachers seeking to learn about integrated science, Earth systems, and family and consumer science. Moving along, the Student Center includes fun activities for younger children in the Kids' Zone, such as games that allow students to learn about farm activities and the world of agricultural science.

312

Pakistan Agricultural Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) works at the highest national level to coordinate and support research being conducted at universities, provincial institutions, and federal institutions. The four main PARC research divisions are: Crop Sciences, Natural Resources, Animal Sciences, and Social Sciences. The PARC website contains summary information about these main research areas, as well as information about a variety of crops, research staff, publications, and more. From the PARC site, visitors can also learn about regional research efforts by linking to one the seven major PARC centers including the Sugar Crops Research Institute in Thatta; the National Agricultural Research Centre in Islamabad; the Himalayan Agricultural Research Institute in Kaghan, and the Arid Zone Research Centre in Quetta. Various databases are also available including Plant Genetic Resources with over 15,000 records searchable by species and/or genus; and Pakistan Agriculture--a bibliographic database with more than 32,000 records regarding agriculture in Pakistan.

313

Women Participation in Agricultural Production: A Probit Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women play a very significant role in agricultural production in Nigeria. They are however accorded little attention. Inadequate information on the level of women participation in agriculture has helped to under estimate their importance in the economy and hence led to their neglect in policy issues. This study therefore employed the Probit analysis to investigate the determinants of women participation in agricultural production. It was found that the level of the disposable income, perception, tenure rights and the level of the contribution of the women to agriculture had significant impact on the women participation in agricultural production.

Damisa, M. A.; Samndi, R.; Yohanna, M.

314

7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal...

2013-01-01

315

7 CFR 1210.502 - Importer members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importer members. 1210.502 Section 1210.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations General § 1210.502 Importer members. Pursuant to §...

2012-01-01

316

7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions...Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the...

2012-01-01

317

7 CFR 1230.609 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of... The term Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2012-01-01

318

7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term...

2012-01-01

319

7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term...

2013-01-01

320

GATEKEEPING DECISIONS OF ARKANSAS DAILY NEWSPAPER EDITORS IN PUBLISHING AGRICULTURAL NEWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to determine how Arkansas daily newspaper editors make the decision to print, or not print, agricultural news. Specifically, this study sought to describe the demographic characteristics of editors of Arkansas daily newspapers; determine editors' self-reported knowledge level of agriculture, experience in agriculture, and perception of the importance of agricultural issues; and determine the

D. Dwayne Cartmell; James E. Dyer; Robert J. Birkenholz

321

Agriculture and national welfare around the world: causality and international heterogeneity since 1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of marginal welfare effects suggest that agricultural development has had important positive effects on national welfare, especially in developing countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries have also benefited from agricultural growth, but non-agricultural production has had marginal welfare effects that are greater in magnitude than those provided by agricultural activities. In contrast, the industrialized, high-income countries experienced marginal welfare

Claudio Bravo-Ortega; Daniel Lederman

2005-01-01

322

Research on Institutional Innovation of Agricultural Development Using Overseas Investment in Zhejiang Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

To acclimatize to the modern agricultural developing tendency, making use of overseas investment effectively is still an important means to relieve the lack of fund for agricultural development. Now, the agricultural development in Zhejiang province faces an intractable problem: how to use the overseas investment reasonably and effectively. Based upon the actuality of the agricultural utilizing of overseas investment in

Sun Huaping

2010-01-01

323

Independent Evolution of Leaf and Root Traits within and among Temperate Grassland Plant Communities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used data from temperate grassland plant communities in Alberta, Canada to test two longstanding hypotheses in ecology: 1) that there has been correlated evolution of the leaves and roots of plants due to selection for an integrated whole-plant resource uptake strategy, and 2) that trait diversity in ecological communities is generated by adaptations to the conditions in different habitats. We tested the first hypothesis using phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evidence of correlated evolution of suites of leaf and root functional traits in these grasslands. There were consistent evolutionary correlations among traits related to plant resource uptake strategies within leaf tissues, and within root tissues. In contrast, there were inconsistent correlations between the traits of leaves and the traits of roots, suggesting different evolutionary pressures on the above and belowground components of plant morphology. To test the second hypothesis, we evaluated the relative importance of two components of trait diversity: within-community variation (species trait values relative to co-occurring species; ? traits) and among-community variation (the average trait value in communities where species occur; ? traits). Trait diversity was mostly explained by variation among co-occurring species, not among-communities. Additionally, there was a phylogenetic signal in the within-community trait values of species relative to co-occurring taxa, but not in their habitat associations or among-community trait variation. These results suggest that sorting of pre-existing trait variation into local communities can explain the leaf and root trait diversity in these grasslands.

Kembel, Steven W.; Cahill, James F.

2011-01-01

324

Inheritance and linkage map positions of genes conferring agromorphological traits in Lens culinaris Medik  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agromorphological traits have immense importance in breeding lentils for higher yield and stability. We studied the genetics and identified map positions of some important agro-morphological traits including days to 50% flowering, plant height, seed diameter, 100 seed weight, cotyledon color, and gr...

325

Species' traits predict phenological responses to climate change in butterflies.  

PubMed

How do species' traits help identify which species will respond most strongly to future climate change? We examine the relationship between species' traits and phenology in a well-established model system for climate change, the U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Most resident U.K. butterfly species have significantly advanced their dates of first appearance during the past 30 years. We show that species with narrower larval diet breadth and more advanced overwintering stages have experienced relatively greater advances in their date of first appearance. In addition, species with smaller range sizes have experienced greater phenological advancement. Our results demonstrate that species' traits can be important predictors of responses to climate change, and they suggest that further investigation of the mechanisms by which these traits influence phenology may aid in understanding species' responses to current and future climate change. PMID:21661561

Diamond, Sarah E; Frame, Alicia M; Martin, Ryan A; Buckley, Lauren B

2011-05-01

326

7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260.121 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research...

2012-01-01

327

7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260.121 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research...

2013-01-01

328

7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

2013-01-01

329

USDA Agricultural Projections to 2020.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides projections for the agricultural sector through 2020. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices. The projections are based on specific a...

2011-01-01

330

Modeling agricultural air quality: Current status, major challenges, and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural air quality is an important emerging area of atmospheric sciences that represents significant challenges in many aspects of research including measurements, modeling, regulations, emission control, and operation managements. This work presents a review of current status, major challenges, and future research needs and opportunities of several important aspects of agricultural air quality modeling including chemical species, concentration and deposition

Yang Zhang; Shiang-Yuh Wu; Srinath Krishnan; Kai Wang; Ashley Queen; Viney P. Aneja; S. Pal Arya

2008-01-01

331

Assessing and Mitigating N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural cropping and animal production systems are important sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The assessment of the importance of N fertilization from synthetic fertilizer, animal wastes used as fertilizers and from N incorporated into the soil through biological N fixation, to global N2O emissions presented in this paper suggests that this source has been underestimated. We estimate that agricultural

A. R. Mosier; J. M. Duxbury; J. R. Freney; O. Heinemeyer; K. Minami

1998-01-01

332

CRITICAL CURRICULAR NEEDS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the importance and inclusion of emotional intelligence in the existing curriculum by agricultural education instructors. Although much research has been conducted about the importance of emotional intelligence in the realm of education, research in the area of emotional intelligence in the agricultural education program is limited. The concept of incorporating emotional intelligence into the agriscience curriculum is

Cindy Akers; Jacqui D. Haygood

333

CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD MALUS POPULATIONS USING GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malus sieversii, a wild relative of domestic apple, represents an important source of genetic variation for several horticulturally important traits including fruit quality and disease resistance. Collections made by the USDA in Kazakhstan have now been analyzed to determine the extent of diversity...

334

Agriculture and the Community: The Sociological Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emergence of a dual agricultural system, need for sophisticated knowledge and equipment, declining importance of labor, and geographic and organizational concentration of the production and processing of certain commodities are creating changes in rural communities. While some changes will have negative social/economic impacts, the importance of…

Heffernan, William D.; Campbell, Rex R.

335

Explaining the heritability of an ecologically significant trait in terms of individual quantitative trait loci  

PubMed Central

Most natural populations display substantial genetic variation in behaviour, morphology, physiology, life history and the susceptibility to disease. A major challenge is to determine the contributions of individual loci to variation in complex traits. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has identified genomic regions affecting ecologically significant traits of many species. In nearly all cases, however, the importance of these QTLs to population variation remains unclear. In this paper, we apply a novel experimental method to parse the genetic variance of floral traits of the annual plant Mimulus guttatus into contributions of individual QTLs. We first use QTL-mapping to identify nine loci and then conduct a population-based breeding experiment to estimate VQ, the genetic variance attributable to each QTL. We find that three QTLs with moderate effects explain up to one-third of the genetic variance in the natural population. Variation at these loci is probably maintained by some form of balancing selection. Notably, the largest effect QTLs were relatively minor in their contribution to heritability.

Scoville, Alison G.; Lee, Young Wha; Willis, John H.; Kelly, John K.

2011-01-01

336

Explaining the heritability of an ecologically significant trait in terms of individual quantitative trait loci.  

PubMed

Most natural populations display substantial genetic variation in behaviour, morphology, physiology, life history and the susceptibility to disease. A major challenge is to determine the contributions of individual loci to variation in complex traits. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has identified genomic regions affecting ecologically significant traits of many species. In nearly all cases, however, the importance of these QTLs to population variation remains unclear. In this paper, we apply a novel experimental method to parse the genetic variance of floral traits of the annual plant Mimulus guttatus into contributions of individual QTLs. We first use QTL-mapping to identify nine loci and then conduct a population-based breeding experiment to estimate V(Q), the genetic variance attributable to each QTL. We find that three QTLs with moderate effects explain up to one-third of the genetic variance in the natural population. Variation at these loci is probably maintained by some form of balancing selection. Notably, the largest effect QTLs were relatively minor in their contribution to heritability. PMID:21653565

Scoville, Alison G; Lee, Young Wha; Willis, John H; Kelly, John K

2011-06-08

337

Modelling the ecological niche from functional traits  

PubMed Central

The niche concept is central to ecology but is often depicted descriptively through observing associations between organisms and habitats. Here, we argue for the importance of mechanistically modelling niches based on functional traits of organisms and explore the possibilities for achieving this through the integration of three theoretical frameworks: biophysical ecology (BE), the geometric framework for nutrition (GF) and dynamic energy budget (DEB) models. These three frameworks are fundamentally based on the conservation laws of thermodynamics, describing energy and mass balance at the level of the individual and capturing the prodigious predictive power of the concepts of ‘homeostasis’ and ‘evolutionary fitness’. BE and the GF provide mechanistic multi-dimensional depictions of climatic and nutritional niches, respectively, providing a foundation for linking organismal traits (morphology, physiology, behaviour) with habitat characteristics. In turn, they provide driving inputs and cost functions for mass/energy allocation within the individual as determined by DEB models. We show how integration of the three frameworks permits calculation of activity constraints, vital rates (survival, development, growth, reproduction) and ultimately population growth rates and species distributions. When integrated with contemporary niche theory, functional trait niche models hold great promise for tackling major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology.

Kearney, Michael; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David; Helmuth, Brian

2010-01-01

338

Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Several Internal Organ Traits and Teat Number Trait in a Pig Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected for 8 internal organ traits, 3 carcass length traits, and teat number trait in 214 pigs in a resource population that included 180 F2 individuals. A total of 39 microsatellite markers were examined on SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13. The genetic traits included heart weight (HW), lung weight (LW), liver and gallbladder weight

Jinghu Zhang; Yuanzhu Xiong; Bo Zuo; Minggang Lei; Siwen Jiang; Feng'e Li; Rong Zheng; Jialian Li; Dequan Xu

2007-01-01

339

Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence.  

PubMed

Concerns about sustainability in agricultural systems centre on the need to develop technologies and practices that do not have adverse effects on environmental goods and services, are accessible to and effective for farmers, and lead to improvements in food productivity. Despite great progress in agricultural productivity in the past half-century, with crop and livestock productivity strongly driven by increased use of fertilizers, irrigation water, agricultural machinery, pesticides and land, it would be over-optimistic to assume that these relationships will remain linear in the future. New approaches are needed that will integrate biological and ecological processes into food production, minimize the use of those non-renewable inputs that cause harm to the environment or to the health of farmers and consumers, make productive use of the knowledge and skills of farmers, so substituting human capital for costly external inputs, and make productive use of people's collective capacities to work together to solve common agricultural and natural resource problems, such as for pest, watershed, irrigation, forest and credit management. These principles help to build important capital assets for agricultural systems: natural; social; human; physical; and financial capital. Improving natural capital is a central aim, and dividends can come from making the best use of the genotypes of crops and animals and the ecological conditions under which they are grown or raised. Agricultural sustainability suggests a focus on both genotype improvements through the full range of modern biological approaches and improved understanding of the benefits of ecological and agronomic management, manipulation and redesign. The ecological management of agroecosystems that addresses energy flows, nutrient cycling, population-regulating mechanisms and system resilience can lead to the redesign of agriculture at a landscape scale. Sustainable agriculture outcomes can be positive for food productivity, reduced pesticide use and carbon balances. Significant challenges, however, remain to develop national and international policies to support the wider emergence of more sustainable forms of agricultural production across both industrialized and developing countries. PMID:17652074

Pretty, Jules

2008-02-12

340

Inheritance and Natural Selection on Functional Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed the literature published since 1985 for evidence of natural selection and heritability in vegetative functional traits and performance. Our goals were to (1) review patterns of selection on specific functional traits and (2) assess general evolutionary questions about selection and heritability for broad classes of traits. While generalizations about the functional significance of specific traits are premature, several

Monica A. Geber; Lauren R. Griffen

2003-01-01

341

Work and technological innovation in organic agriculture.  

PubMed

Organic agriculture is a sustainable cultivation ecologically, economically and socially. Several researches in organic agriculture have been made from technical perspectives, economic traits or related to ecological aspects. There are practically no investigations into the nature of the technology used in organic agriculture, especially from an ergonomic perspective. From the activity analysis, this study aimed to map the technology used in the production of organic vegetables. Properties producing organic vegetables were selected representing the State of Săo Paulo. It was applied an instrument (questionnaire and semi-structured interview) with their managers and it was made visual records to identify adaptations, innovations and technological demands that simultaneously minimize the workload and the difficulties in performing the tasks and increase work productivity. For some of the technological innovations a digital scanner was used to generate a virtual solid model to facilitate its redesign and virtual prototyping. The main results show that organic farmers have little technology in product form. The main innovations that enable competitive advantage or allow higher labor productivity occur in the form of processes, organization and marketing. PMID:22317490

Tereso, M J A; Abrahăo, R F; Gemma, S F B; Montedo, U B; Menegon, N L; Guarneti, J E; Ribeiro, I A V

2012-01-01

342

Breeding for organic agriculture: the example of winter wheat in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding for organic agriculture (BFOA) is a strategy for a commercial breeding company based on the exploitation of the frequently\\u000a observed high correlation for many traits between conventional, low input (LI) and organic agriculture (ORG). Indirect selection\\u000a under LI can be useful to roughly divide the germplasm into the genotypes better adapted to high input and those better adapted\\u000a to

Franziska Löschenberger; Andreas Fleck; Heinrich Grausgruber; Herbert Hetzendorfer; Gerhard Hof; Julia Lafferty; Marion Marn; Anton Neumayer; Georg Pfaffinger; Johann Birschitzky

2008-01-01

343

Agriculture and Food  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text VersionPage 1. Agriculture and Food Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan* as input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense

344

Respirators for Agricultural Work  

MedlinePLUS

... a t o r s People involved in agriculture work around substances that can cause breathing problems. Choosing ... choose the right type of respirator for their work. In July of 1998, respirators coded with N, ...

345

Agricultural Education and OSHA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture teachers should be interested in and become familiar with the implications of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 for their own benefit, for their students, and for their students' future employers. (AG)

Brown, Ronald A.

1974-01-01

346

GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

347

Agricultural Research Service  

MedlinePLUS

... Island Guarding the country against foreign animal diseases USDA's science magazine View online version of Agricultural Research ... 3D Fighting pecan scab Nickel and phosphate New USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map ARS Timeline: History of ...

348

Agricultural robots in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional mechanism of agricultural robots and their utilizations are introduced. The robots discussed include: the tangerine orange harvesting robot, the robotic fertilizer applicator, the robotic law tractor, the fully automated combine harvester, the transplanter, the driverless tractor, etc

Nobutaka Ito

1990-01-01

349

Agricultural Development Policy Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper sets forth the major policy implications and issues for A.I.D. of a broadly participatory, employment-oriented agricultural production strategy for developing countries. The 'broadly participatory' strategy reflects the major U.S. development a...

1978-01-01

350

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about the Agricultural Heath Study, begun In 1993 by scientists from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

351

Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

Bohlke, J. -K.

2002-01-01

352

Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

Iwaniszewski, S.

353

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

This study explores potential causes of cancer and other diseases among farmers and their families and among commercial pesticide applicators. Current medical research suggests that while agricultural workers are generally healthier than the general U.S. population, they may have higher rates of some cancers, including leukemia, myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, skin, brain, and prostate. Other conditions, like asthma, neurologic disease, and adverse reproductive outcomes may also be related to agricultural exposures.

354

Sociology of Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sustainability is the core element of government policies, university research projects, and extension organizations worldwide.\\u000a Yet, the results of several decades of attempt to achieve sustainable agriculture have not been satisfactory. Despite some\\u000a improvement still conventional agriculture is the dominant paradigm. Pollution of water, soil, and air, degradation of environmental\\u000a resources, and loss of biodiversity are still the by-product of

Ezatollah Karami; Marzieh Keshavarz

355

Oligonucleotide-mediated gene modification and its promise for animal agriculture.  

PubMed

One of the great aspirations in modern biology is the ability to utilise the expanding knowledge of the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity through the purposeful tailoring of the mammalian genome. A number of technologies are emerging which have the capacity to modify genes in their chromosomal context. Not surprisingly, the major thrust in this area has come from the evaluation of gene therapy applications to correct mutations implicated in human genetic diseases. The recent development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) provides access to these technologies for the purposeful modification of livestock animals. The enormous phenotypic variety existent in contemporary livestock animals has in many cases been linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their underlying point mutations, often referred to as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, the ability for the targeted genetic modification of livestock animals constitutes an attractive opportunity for future agricultural applications. In this review, we will summarize attempts and approaches for oligonucleotide-mediated gene modification (OGM) strategies for the site-specific modification of the genome, with an emphasis on chimeric RNA-DNA oligonucleotides (RDOs) and single-stranded oligonucletides (ssODNs). The potential of this approach for the directed genetic improvement of livestock animals is illustrated through examples, outlining the effects of point mutations on important traits, including meat and milk production, reproductive performance, disease resistance and superior models of human diseases. Current technological hurdles and potential strategies that might remove these barriers in the future are discussed. PMID:16330159

Laible, Götz; Wagner, Stefan; Alderson, Jon

2005-12-05

356

QTL analysis for some quantitative traits in bread wheat*  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted in bread wheat for 14 important traits utilizing data from four different mapping populations involving different approaches of QTL analysis. Analysis for grain protein content (GPC) suggested that the major part of genetic variation for this trait is due to environmental interactions. In contrast, pre-harvest sprouting tolerance (PHST) was controlled mainly by main effect QTL (M-QTL) with very little genetic variation due to environmental interactions; a major QTL for PHST was detected on chromosome arm 3AL. For grain weight, one QTL each was detected on chromosome arms 1AS, 2BS and 7AS. QTL for 4 growth related traits taken together detected by different methods ranged from 37 to 40; nine QTL that were detected by single-locus as well as two-locus analyses were all M-QTL. Similarly, single-locus and two-locus QTL analyses for seven yield and yield contributing traits in two populations respectively allowed detection of 25 and 50 QTL by composite interval mapping (CIM), 16 and 25 QTL by multiple-trait composite interval mapping (MCIM) and 38 and 37 QTL by two-locus analyses. These studies should prove useful in QTL cloning and wheat improvement through marker aided selection.

Pushpendra, Kumar Gupta; Harindra, Singh Balyan; Pawan, Laxminarayan Kulwal; Neeraj, Kumar; Ajay, Kumar; Reyazul, Rouf Mir; Amita, Mohan; Jitendra, Kumar

2007-01-01

357

Candidate genes for production traits in Nelore beef cattle.  

PubMed

Meat quality is an important trait for the beef industry. Backfat thickness, ribeye area, and shear force are traits measured late in life, and the investigation of molecular markers associated with these traits can help breeding programs. In cattle, some polymorphisms have been related to production traits. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the presence of polymorphisms in the candidate genes insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and peroxisome proliferative active receptor gamma coactivator 1 A (PPARGC1A) and associate them with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. We used 270 steers descendent from 20 sires that were chosen to represent variability in this breed. The investigation of marker effects on the traits was performed using a mixed model under the restricted maximum likelihood method. A significant allele substitution effect was found for IGF1 and yearling weight (P ? 0.017). The mean allele substitution effect was 6.9 kg, with the 229 allele associated with reduced yearling weight in this Nelore population. PMID:23079978

Tizioto, P C; Meirelles, S L; Tulio, R R; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Medeiros, S R; Siqueira, F; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres Junior, R A A; Regitano, L C A

2012-12-03

358

The modulation of somatosensory resonance by psychopathic traits and empathy.  

PubMed

A large number of neuroimaging studies have shown neural overlaps between first-hand experiences of pain and the perception of pain in others. This shared neural representation of vicarious pain is thought to involve both affective and sensorimotor systems. A number of individual factors are thought to modulate the cerebral response to other's pain. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of psychopathic traits on the relation between sensorimotor resonance to other's pain and self-reported empathy. Our group has previously shown that a steady-state response to non-painful stimulation is modulated by the observation of other people's bodily pain. This change in somatosensory response was interpreted as a form of somatosensory gating (SG). Here, using the same technique, SG was compared between two groups of 15 young adult males: one scoring very high on a self-reported measure of psychopathic traits [60.8 ą 4.98; Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP)] and one scoring very low (42.7 ą 2.94). The results showed a significantly greater reduction of SG to pain observation for the high psychopathic traits group compared to the low psychopathic traits group. SG to pain observation was positively correlated with affective and interpersonal facet of psychopathy in the whole sample. The high psychopathic traits group also reported lower empathic concern (EC) scores than the low psychopathic traits group. Importantly, primary psychopathy, as assessed by the LSRP, mediated the relation between EC and SG to pain observation. Together, these results suggest that increase somatosensory resonance to other's pain is not exclusively explained by trait empathy and may be linked to other personality dimensions, such as psychopathic traits. PMID:23801950

Marcoux, Louis-Alexandre; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Voisin, Julien I A; Lemelin, Sophie; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Jackson, Philip L

2013-06-19

359

Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes  

SciTech Connect

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

Reich, P.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Walters, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Vose, J.M. [Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrological Lab.; Gresham, C. [Clemson Univ., Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Forest Inst.; Volin, J.C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Davie, FL (United States). Div. of Science; Bowman, W.D. [Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Mountain Research Station]|[Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Evolutionary, Population, and Organismic Biology

1999-09-01

360

High-Value Agriculture in India: Past Trends and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the declining share of traditional agricultural commodities in production, consumption and trade, horticulture and other non-traditional high-value agriculture represent an important area of potential income growth in rural areas. The high-value agriculture-led-growth strategy also provides significant scope for achieving greater commercialization of smallholder agriculture. Despite the potential, the contribution of high-value agricultural exports is still small but increasing. This

Vijay Paul Sharma; Dinesh Jain

361

Multiparent intercross populations in analysis of quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Most traits of interest to medical, agricultural and animal scientists show continuous variation and complex mode of inheritance. DNA-based markers are being deployed to analyse such complex traits, that are known as quantitative trait loci (QTL). In conventional QTL analysis, F2, backcross populations, recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines and double haploids from biparental crosses are commonly used. Introgression lines and near isogenic lines are also being used for QTL analysis. However, such populations have major limitations like predominantly relying on the recombination events taking place in the F1 generation and mapping of only the allelic pairs present in the two parents. The second generation mapping resources like association mapping, nested association mapping and multiparent intercross populations potentially address the major limitations of available mapping resources. The potential of multiparent intercross populations in gene mapping has been discussed here. In such populations both linkage and association analysis can be conductted without encountering the limitations of structured populations. In such populations, larger genetic variation in the germplasm is accessed and various allelic and cytoplasmic interactions are assessed. For all practical purposes, across crop species, use of eight founders and a fixed population of 1000 individuals are most appropriate. Limitations with multiparent intercross populations are that they require longer time and more resource to be generated and they are likely to show extensive segregation for developmental traits, limiting their use in the analysis of complex traits. However, multiparent intercross population resources are likely to bring a paradigm shift towards QTL analysis in plant species. PMID:22546834

Rakshit, Sujay; Rakshit, Arunita; Patil, J V

2012-01-01

362

Theme: Changes in Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Changes in Agricultural Education in Tennessee" (Byerley, Todd); "Evolving Focus for Agricultural Education Graduates?" (Schlink); "Researching Adult Organizations in Agricultural Education" (Seevers, Dormody); "Past 25 Years" (Klein, Luft); "Agricultural Education" (Sibiga, Mannebach); "Don't Look Back" (Butcher); "Changes in…

Agricultural Education Magazine, 1997

1997-01-01

363

Module Directory for Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A modular design approach for agricultural education has been developed. As part of its development, over 200 modules were produced and tested, and are described in this volume. The modules are categorized as modules of instruction in agricultural production, in agricultural supplies and services, in agricultural mechanics, in ornamental…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

364

Sustainable Agriculture in Ancient Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable agriculture discourse describes agricultural practices and techniques used to maintain land fertility. At its broadest definition, sustainable agriculture aims to make land hospitable to cultivated crops for an indefinite amount of time. The discourse itself has only arisen in response to increased industrialization of world food production, but practices included in, and ideals behind sustainable agriculture have existed for

Hannah L Savio

2011-01-01

365

Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and

Pete Smith; Daniel Martino; Zucong Cai; Daniel Gwary; Henry Janzen; Pushpam Kumar; Bruce McCarl; Stephen Ogle; Frank O'Mara; Charles Rice; Bob Scholes; Oleg Sirotenko; Mark Howden; Tim McAllister; Genxing Pan; Vladimir Romanenkov; Uwe Schneider; Sirintornthep Towprayoon; Martin Wattenbach; Jo Smith

2009-01-01

366

Technological Change And Canadian Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian agriculture is economically vulnerable in the short-term and unsustainable in the long-term. Substantial policy changes are needed to redirect our agricultural system and harness science and technology in a manner appropriate to existing natural and human resources. The case for restructuring our agricultural colleges and the setting of research priorities illustrates a wider need. Agriculture is one of Canada's

William Smith

1991-01-01

367

Using phenotypic manipulations to study multivariate selection of floral trait associations  

PubMed Central

Background A basic theme in the study of plant–pollinator interactions is that pollinators select not just for single floral traits, but for associations of traits. Responses of pollinators to sets of traits are inherent in the idea of pollinator syndromes. In its most extreme form, selection on a suite of traits can take the form of correlational selection, in which a response to one trait depends on the value of another, thereby favouring floral integration. Despite the importance of selection for combinations of traits in the evolution of flowers, evidence is relatively sparse and relies mostly on observational approaches. Scope Here, methods for measuring selection on multivariate suites of floral traits are presented, and the studies to date are reviewed. It is argued that phenotypic manipulations present a powerful, but rarely used, approach to teasing apart the separate and combined effects of particular traits. The approach is illustrated with data from studies of alpine plants in Colorado and New Zealand, and recommendations are made about several features of the design of such experiments. Conclusions Phenotypic manipulations of two or more traits in combination provide a direct way of testing for selection of floral trait associations. Such experiments will be particularly valuable if rooted in hypotheses about differences between types of pollinators and tied to a proposed evolutionary history.

Campbell, Diane R.

2009-01-01

368

Fluctuating Asymmetry and Environmental Stress: Understanding the Role of Trait History  

PubMed Central

While fluctuating asymmetry (FA; small, random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits) is widely regarded as a proxy for environmental and genetic stress effects, empirical associations between FA and stress are often weak or heterogeneous among traits. A conceptually important source of heterogeneity in relationships with FA is variation in the selection history of the trait(s) under study, i.e. traits that experienced a (recent) history of directional change are predicted to be developmentally less stable, potentially through the loss of canalizing modifiers. Here we applied X-ray photography on museum specimens and live captures to test to what extent the magnitude of FA and FA-stress relationships covary with directional shifts in traits related to the flight apparatus of four East-African rainforest birds that underwent recent shifts in habitat quality and landscape connectivity. Both the magnitude and direction of phenotypic change varied among species, with some traits increasing in size while others decreased or maintained their original size. In three of the four species, traits that underwent larger directional changes were less strongly buffered against random perturbations during their development, and traits that increased in size over time developed more asymmetrically than those that decreased. As we believe that spurious relationships due to biased comparisons of historic (museum specimens) and current (field captures) samples can be ruled out, these results support the largely untested hypothesis that directional shifts may increase the sensitivity of developing traits to random perturbations of environmental or genetic origin.

De Coster, Greet; Van Dongen, Stefan; Malaki, Phillista; Muchane, Muchai; Alcantara-Exposito, Angelica; Matheve, Hans; Lens, Luc

2013-01-01

369

Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects.  

PubMed

Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the asexual lineages retained the capacity to produce males that display normal courtship behaviours and are able to fertilize eggs of females from related sexual species. The maintenance of male traits may stem from pleiotropy, or from these traits only regressing via drift, which may require millions of years to generate phenotypic effects. By contrast, we found parallel decay of sexual traits in females. Asexual females produced altered airborne and contact signals, had modified sperm storage organs, and lost the ability to fertilize their eggs, impeding reversals to sexual reproduction. Female sexual traits were decayed even in recently derived asexuals, suggesting that trait changes following the evolution of asexuality, when they occur, proceed rapidly and are driven by selective processes rather than drift. PMID:23782880

Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2013-06-19

370

Political Economy of Distortions to Agricultural Incentives: Introduction and Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1960s and 1970s most developing countries imposed anti-agricultural policies, while many high-income countries restricted agricultural imports and subsidized their farmers. Both sets of policies inhibited economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries, while doing little to assist small farmers in high-income countries. Since the 1980s, however, many developing countries began to reduce the anti-agricultural bias of sectoral

Kym Anderson

2009-01-01

371

U.S.CHINA AGRICULTURAL TRADE: CONSTRAINTS AND POTENTIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's agricultural trade expanded rapidly following economic reforms and the open-door policy adopted in the late 1970s. The composition of agricultural trade with China follows its labor-abundant and land-scarce resource endowment with imports of bulk and processed intermediates and exports of consumer-ready and processed goods. Constraints on U.S.-China agricultural trade include tariffs, state trading, food security policies, and other nontariff

Eric J. Wailes; Cheng Fang; Francis C. Tuan

1998-01-01

372

Energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission mitigation in global agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions are closely linked. This paper reviews agricultural options to reduce energy\\u000a intensities and their impacts, discusses important accounting issues related to system boundaries, land scarcity, and measurement\\u000a units and compares agricultural energy intensities and improvement potentials on an international level. Agricultural development\\u000a in recent decades, while increasing yields, has led to lower average energy

Uwe A. Schneider; Pete Smith

2009-01-01

373

Similar traits, different genes? Examining convergent evolution in related weedy rice populations.  

PubMed

Convergent phenotypic evolution may or may not be associated with convergent genotypic evolution. Agricultural weeds have repeatedly been selected for weed-adaptive traits such as rapid growth, increased seed dispersal and dormancy, thus providing an ideal system for the study of convergent evolution. Here, we identify QTL underlying weedy traits and compare their genetic architecture to assess the potential for convergent genetic evolution in two distinct populations of weedy rice. F(2) offspring from crosses between an indica cultivar and two individuals from genetically differentiated U.S. weedy rice populations were used to map QTL for four quantitative (heading date, seed shattering, plant height and growth rate) and two qualitative traits. We identified QTL on nine of the twelve rice chromosomes, yet most QTL locations do not overlap between the two populations. Shared QTL among weed groups were only seen for heading date, a trait for which weedy groups have diverged from their cultivated ancestors and from each other. Sharing of some QTL with wild rice also suggests a possible role in weed evolution for genes under selection during domestication. The lack of overlapping QTL for the remaining traits suggests that, despite a close evolutionary relationship, weedy rice groups have adapted to the same agricultural environment through different genetic mechanisms. PMID:23205731

Thurber, Carrie S; Jia, Melissa H; Jia, Yulin; Caicedo, Ana L

2012-12-03

374

78 FR 46565 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2013-08-01

375

75 FR 53271 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2010-08-31

376

77 FR 51751 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2012-08-27

377

76 FR 60801 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2011-09-30

378

Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus  

PubMed Central

Background Many agricultural contaminants disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife. However, evidence of endocrine disruption in wild amphibians living in agricultural areas has been controversial. Typically, studies on the effects of pollutants on wildlife attempt to compare polluted with unpolluted sites. Objectives We took a novel approach to address this question by explicitly quantifying the relationship between gonadal abnormalities and habitats characterized by differing degrees of agricultural activity. Methods We quantified the occurrence of gonadal abnormalities and measures of gonadal function in at least 20 giant toads (Bufo marinus) from each of five sites that occur along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use from 0 to 97%. Results The number of abnormalities and frequency of intersex gonads increased with agriculture in a dose-dependent fashion. These gonadal abnormalities were associated with altered gonadal function. Testosterone, but not 17?-estradiol, concentrations were altered and secondary sexual traits were either feminized (increased skin mottling) or demasculinized (reduced forearm width and nuptial pad number) in intersex toads. Based on the end points we examined, female morphology and physiology did not differ across sites. However, males from agricultural areas had hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits that were intermediate between intersex toads and non-agricultural male toads. Skin coloration at the most agricultural site was not sexually dimorphic; males had female coloration. Conclusions Steroid hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits correlate with reproductive activity and success, so affected toads likely have reduced reproductive success. These reproductive abnormalities could certainly contribute to amphibian population declines occurring in areas exposed to agricultural contaminants.

McCoy, Krista A.; Bortnick, Lauriel J.; Campbell, Chelsey M.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.; St. Mary, Colette M.

2008-01-01

379

Factors affecting dairy farmers' utilization of agricultural supports in Erzurum, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the nature and strategic importance of agriculture, governments in whole world somehow support agricultural sector. This sector plays an important role in Turkish economy despite the share of industry and services are rising constantly. The sector has basic structural problems such as poor mechanization, small farm size and uncoordinated and unplanned agricultural production. Although Turkey has developed substantial

H. Bayram; Adem Aksoy; Fahri Yavuz

380

Emerging Price Support Systems in Central European Agriculture: Examples from Hungary and Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional wisdom on agricultural trade has been that trade barriers are primarily determined by domestic agricultural and food price policies. For example, European Union (EU) import levies and export subsidies were determined by intervention and threshold prices, and U.S. sugar import quotas were driven by the domestic price support level. This is why agricultural trade barriers escaped General Agreement

William H. Meyers; Natalija Kazlauskiene

1996-01-01

381

Sounds different: inbreeding depression in sexually selected traits in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus  

Microsoft Academic Search

If male sexual signalling is honest because it captures genetic variation in condition then traits that are important mate choice cues should be disproportionately affected by inbreeding relative to other traits. To test this, we investigated the effect of brother-sister mating on advertisement calling by male field crickets Teleogryllus commodus. We quantified the effect of one generation of inbreeding on

J. M. DRAYTON; J. HUNT; R. BROOKS; M. D. JENNIONS

2007-01-01

382

Herb abundance and life-history traits in two contrasting alpine habitats in southern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonisation is often a critical stage in the life history of plants, and recruitment success is expected to have a strong impact on plant frequencies especially among herbs. Several plant traits (seed size, plant height, leaf dry weight and specific leaf area) are suggested to be functionally important in early life stages, and the impact of such traits is expected

Gunnar Austrheim; Marianne Evju; Atle Mysterud

2005-01-01

383

Study on the Trait Sport-confidence of the collegiate basketball athletes and its influence factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important component of the athletes' comprehensive abilities; sport-confidence impacts on the athletic performance whether before or during the event. By means of documental data method, survey method, psychological measurement, and statistical method, the research had directed on the trait sport-confidence (SC- Trait) of collegiate basketball athletes who had participated in college basketball matches of shanghai, china and its

Lu Tianfeng; Wang Enfeng

2011-01-01

384

Examining Socioaffective Processing Biases in Cigarette Smokers with High Versus Low Trait Hostility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing measures of socioaffective processing is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying emotional-interpersonal traits relevant to health, such as hostility. In this study, cigarette smokers with low (LH; n = 49) and high (HH; n = 43) trait hostility completed the Emotional Interference Gender Identification Task (EIGIT), a newly developed behavioral measure of socioaffective processing biases toward facial affect. The

Adam M. Leventhal; Christopher W. Kahler

2010-01-01

385

NATURAL SELECTION ON FLORAL TRAITS OF LOBELIA (LOBELIACEAE): SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength and direction of natural selection on floral traits can vary spatially and temporally because of variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. High spatial variation in selection should lead to differentiation of floral traits among populations. In contrast, high temporal variation in selection should retard the evolution of population-specific floral phenotypes. To determine the relative importance of spatial

CHRISTINA M. CARUSO; S. BROOK PETERSON; CAROLINE E. RIDLEY

386

Creativity and Certain Personality Traits: Understanding the Mediating Effect of Intrinsic Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creativity is a topic of ever-increasing interest, given its importance and applicability to literally every field. Personality traits have been frequently and predictably related to creative achievement. Amabile (1983) pointed out that individuals may have certain traits and abilities that are favorable for creativity, but whether these will actually result in achieving creative results depends on their intrinsic motivation. Additionally,

Veena Prabhu; Charlotte Sutton; William Sauser

2008-01-01

387

Quantitative Genetic Dissection of Shoot Architecture Traits in Maize: Towards a Functional Genomics Approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the total number of leaves (TNOL) made prior to flowering and the number of leaves below the ear (NLBE) were mapped and characterized in order to dissect the genetic regulatory components of these agronomically important traits of corn. The full set of interm...

388

Children’s reasoning about norms and traits as motives for behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two important sources of information for social judgments are personality dispositions (traits) and social norms. Existing research suggests that young children do not find traits salient. To what extent might they rely on a different source of information? Two experiments explored how information about preferences (what someone likes) and rules (what is allowed or forbidden) affected social judgments. Five-year-olds predicted

Charles W. Kalish; Sean M. Shiverick

2004-01-01

389

Characterization, Genetic Variation, and Combining Ability of Maize Traits Relevant to the Production of Cellulosic Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as an important feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Our objectives were to measure hybrid effect and combining ability patterns of traits related to cellulosic ethanol production, determine if germplasm and mutations used for silage production would also be beneficial for feedstock production, and examine relationships between traits that are relevant

A. J. Lorenz; J. G. Coors; N. de Leon; E. J. Wolfrum; B. R. Hames; A. D. Sluiter; P. J. Weimer

2009-01-01

390

Food Labels: Implications for U.S. Agricultural Imports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labels have been used to make food attributes transparent and to satisfy the increasing consumer demand for information about food credence values. Several types of prevalent U.S. food labels, their contributions, and the regulatory agencies behind them are examined in this paper. Additionally, studies dealing with the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for labeled products and the use of food labels as nontariff

Shida Rastegari Henneberry; Joao E. Mutondo

2007-01-01

391

Toxicity of several important agricultural antibiotics to Artemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible effects of antibiotic drug contamination in marine and brackish systems were evaluated using a new methodological approach. Five drugs, namely aminosidine (A), bacitracin (B), erythromycin (E), flumequine (F) and lincomycin (L), were subjected to toxicity tests using nauplii and cysts of Artemia as a model of drug contamination from intensive farming. Tests on nauplii were performed by the

Luciana Migliore; Cinzia Civitareale; Gianfranco Brambilla; Gianluigi Dojmi Di Delupis

1997-01-01

392

Yemen Arab Republic: Farm Prices and Incentives. Agricultural Policy Analysis Project, Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the Yeman Arab Republic's (YAR's) potential for agricultural development, with emphasis on farm prices and incentives. Two major objectives are to explore the effects of agricultural import restrictions on the pricing structure and to ...

L. Tweeten B. Rassas T. Earley

1989-01-01

393

Adaptation of an ambient ion monitor for detection of amines in gas and particulate agricultural emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile amines are emitted from many sources including agricultural facilities. Recent work has shown that amines may be important players in secondary aerosol formation. Because amine emissions are significantly lower than ammonia, previous measurements and emission studies at agricultural facilit...

394

Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (FATUS), Calendar Year 1992 Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statistical reference summarizes current and historical data on U.S. foreign trade in agricultural products. The tables highlight commodity and country information, including values, quantities, principal markets for agricultural exports, and import s...

T. A. Warden

1993-01-01

395

Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies.  

PubMed

Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-06-05

396

Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies  

PubMed Central

Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits.

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-01-01

397

7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar...

2013-01-01

398

7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar...

2012-01-01

399

7 CFR 1207.312 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions ...person who imports tablestock, frozen or processed potatoes for ultimate consumption by humans, or...

2012-01-01

400

7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order...associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to receive...

2012-01-01

401

7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order...associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to receive...

2013-01-01

402

7 CFR 1218.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information...person who imports fresh or processed blueberries into the United States as a...

2013-01-01

403

7 CFR 1218.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information...person who imports fresh or processed blueberries into the United States as a...

2012-01-01

404

Development of sensor systems for precision agriculture in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Precision agriculture (PA) is an information-based technology, using detailed information within an agricultural field to optimize production inputs on a spatially variable basis, maximize farm profit, and minimize environmental impact. Information collection and processing plays a very important ro...

405

SPACE AGRICULTURE FOR MANNED SPACE EXPLORATION ON MARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concept of space agriculture is discussed for habitation on Mars. Space agriculture enables human to live and survive comfortably with biological and ecological functions. Water and gas are revitalized by photosynthetic process of plants. Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria drive recycling loop of metabolic waste of human and inedible biomass to cultivate plants. Trees and insects play important role in space

Masamichi Yamashita; Yoji Ishikawa; Makoto Nagatomo; Tairo Oshima

406

Agricultural Price Distortion and Stabilization: Stylized facts and Hypothesis Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes agricultural policy choices and tests some predictions of political economy theories. It begins with three broad stylized facts: governments tend to tax agriculture in poorer countries, and subsidize it in richer ones, tax both imports and exports more than nontradables, and tax more and subsidize less where there is more land per capita. We test a variety

William A. Masters; Andres F. Garcia

2009-01-01

407

Changing external conditions require high levels of entrepreneurship in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society including markets and policies rapidly changes. Farmers or agricultural entrepreneurs need to become more flexible and develop strategies to pro-actively adapt their farm, product portfolio, networks, partnerships, knowledge systems, personal skills and competences to the changing external conditions. Entrepreneurship is an important research theme of the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) in the Netherlands. Some of the aspects studied

A. B. Smit

2004-01-01

408

Fossil energy use in agriculture: an international comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at assessing the comparative importance of constraints in land and labour endowment for energy balance in agriculture, when assessed at the level of national crop production systems. The relation between output\\/input energy ratio of agriculture (output: food energy in crops; input: commercial energy embodied in technical inputs), average labour productivity (food energy (in Joules) produced per

Piero Conforti; Mario Giampietro

1997-01-01

409

Agricultural 'Crisis' in Pakistan: Some Explanations and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is about public policy and agricultural growth in Pakistan. The author takes the position that, in a historical perspective, public policy has been a large part of the erratic, maybe unsustainable, growth of agriculture in Pakistan. The most important policy issue, therefore, is to radically restructure the existing bureaucratic, patronage-ridden, rent-seeking, and wasteful system of institutions and services.

Mahmood Hasan Khan

1997-01-01

410

Risky Business: Temporal and Spatial Variation in Preindustrial Dryland Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional dryland agriculture in the Pacific island was often labor-intensive and risky, yet settlement and farming in dry areas played an important role in the development of Polynesian societies. We investigate how temporal and spatial climatic fluctuations shape variation in agricultural production across dryland landscapes. We use a model that couples plant growth, climate, and soil organic matter dynamics, together

Charlotte T. Lee; Shripad Tuljapurkar; Peter M. Vitousek

2006-01-01

411

DIVERSE TRAITS FOR PATHOGEN FITNESS IN GIBBERELLA ZEAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch is an important pathogen of wheat, maize, and other cereal crops worldwide. Pathogen fitness in G. zeae is the outcome of selection for traits that increase its ability to survive and reproduce in plant pathosystems. Current research on mechanisms of pathogen fitne...

412

First Impressions: Gait Cues Drive Reliable Trait Judgements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances.…

Thoresen, John C.; Vuong, Quoc C.; Atkinson, Anthony P.

2012-01-01

413

Human genetic variation and its contribution to complex traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few years have seen extensive efforts to catalogue human genetic variation and correlate it with phenotypic differences. Most common SNPs have now been assessed in genome-wide studies for statistical associations with many complex traits, including many important common diseases. Although these studies have provided new biological insights, only a limited amount of the heritable component of any complex

Sarah S. Murray; Nicholas J. Schork; Eric J. Topol; Kelly A. Frazer

2009-01-01

414

MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

415

Dispositional Attribution: Multiple Inferences About Motive-Related Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research views dispositional inference as a process whereby perceivers integrate multiple inferences about a target person's motives and traits. The findings suggest that although perceived motives may stimulate extra attributional processing (S. Fein, 1996), the content of the inferred motive is important as well. Perceivers learned about situational forces implying that a target person had free choice, no choice,

Glenn D. Reeder; Roos Vonk; Marla J. Ronk; Jaap Ham; Melissa Lawrence

2004-01-01

416

Quantitative trait loci for glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica rapa leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Glucosinolates and their breakdown products have been recognized for their effects on plant defense, human health, flavor and taste of cruciferous vegetables. Despite this importance, little is known about the regulation of the biosynthesis and degradation in Brassica rapa.  Here, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for glucosinolate accumulation in B. rapa leaves in two novel

Ping Lou; Hongju He; Corrie Hanhart; Dunia Pino Del Carpio; Ruud Verkerk; Jan Custers; Maarten Koornneef; Guusje Bonnema

2008-01-01

417

First Impressions: Gait Cues Drive Reliable Trait Judgements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances.…

Thoresen, John C.; Vuong, Quoc C.; Atkinson, Anthony P.

2012-01-01

418

Microarray-assisted fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci for cold tolerance in rice.  

PubMed

Many important agronomic traits, including cold stress resistance, are complex and controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Isolation of these QTLs will greatly benefit the agricultural industry but it is a challenging task. This study explored an integrated strategy by combining microarray with QTL-mapping in order to identify cold-tolerant QTLs from a cold-tolerant variety IL112 at early-seedling stage. All the early seedlings of IL112 survived normally for 9 d at 4-5°C, while Guichao2 (GC2), an indica cultivar, died after 4 d under the same conditions. Using the F2:3 population derived from the progeny of GC2 and IL112, we identified seven QTLs for cold tolerance. Furthermore, we performed Affymetrix rice whole-genome array hybridization and obtained the expression profiles of IL112 and GC2 under both low-temperature and normal conditions. Four genes were selected as cold QTL-related candidates, based on microarray data mining and QTL-mapping. One candidate gene, LOC_Os07g22494, was shown to be highly associated with cold tolerance in a number of rice varieties and in the F2:3 population, and its overexpression transgenic rice plants displayed strong tolerance to low temperature at early-seedling stage. The results indicated that overexpression of this gene (LOC_Os07g22494) could increase cold tolerance in rice seedlings. Therefore, this study provides a promising strategy for identifying candidate genes in defined QTL regions. PMID:23267004

Liu, Fengxia; Xu, Wenying; Song, Qian; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Jiayong; Zhu, Zuofeng; Fu, Yongcai; Su, Zhen; Sun, Chuanqing

2012-12-23

419

Wind characteristics for agricultural wind energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy utilization in agriculture can provide a potentially significant savings in fuel oil consumption and ultimately a cost savings to the farmer. A knowledge of the wind characteristics within a region and at a location can contribute greatly to a more efficient and cost-effective use of this resource. Current research indicates that the important wind characteristics include mean annual

Renne

1979-01-01

420

Can the WTO reduce agricultural trade distortions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earnings from farming in many developing countries have been depressed by anti-agricultural biases in own-country price and trade policies, as well as by governments of richer countries favoring local farmers with import barriers and subsidies. Both sets of policies reduce national and global economic welfare, add to global inequality and poverty, and are mostly the result of trade restrictions. Yet

Kym Anderson

2010-01-01

421

Austria: precautionary blockage of agricultural biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austria has interpreted the precautionary principle and Directive 90\\/220 in a more stringent way than other EU member states. It continues to ban the import of Bt maize despite the Commission's recurrent warnings. The Austrian standard of GMO risk assessment emphasizes a broad deénition of adverse effects beyond a purely technical account of risk, including effects of agricultural practices. Boundaries

HELGE TORGERSEN; FRANZ SEIFERT

422

Austria: precautionary blockage of agricultural biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austria has interpreted the precautionary principle and Directive 90\\/220 in a more stringent way than other EU member states. It continues to ban the import of Bt maize despite the Commission’s recurrent warnings. The Austrian standard of GMO risk assessment emphasizes a broad definition of adverse effects beyond a purely technical account of risk, including effects of agricultural practices. Boundaries

HelgeFranz Torgersen; Franz Seifert

2000-01-01

423

Fuel Ethanol from Agricultural Crops. A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For oil-importing countries with surplus capacity for production of agricultural crops, the conversion of sugar or starch containing biomass to ethanol for fuel use appears to be a sensible supplement to other ways of reducing the strain on trade balance ...

1981-01-01

424

Nuclear Energy and Ecuadorian Agriculture Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission has elaborated a plan for development of nuclear energy, the construction of a 1-3 MW Nuclear Reactor for Research and production of radioisotopes and of the related laboratories. Agriculture is a very important par...

J. Molineros Andrade

1979-01-01

425

Agricultural Labor Needs in the 1980's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The changing structure of agriculture has had important effects on labor use and the composition of the farm work force. The number of family workers has consistently declined since the early 1900s, but hired farm employment stabilized during the 1970s af...

L. W. Smith R. Coltrane

1981-01-01

426

Solar drying of agricultural products in Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the current situation of solar drying of agricultural products in Europe. This technique is mainly used in Northern Europe because of the substantial needs of drying in countries where the use of fossil fuels has been important. Thi...

1992-01-01

427

TRANSGENIC CROPS FOR LATIN AMERICAN AGRICULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Latin American countries face very important food-production challenges due primarily to the constant population growth, deterioration of the environment, shortage of irrigation water and limited arable land. In particular, Mexico, with slightly more than 1.5% of its peoples devoted to agricultural ...

428

Investigating associations between milk metabolite profiles and milk traits of Holstein cows.  

PubMed

In the field of dairy cattle research, it is of great interest to improve the detection and prevention of diseases (e.g., mastitis and ketosis) and monitor specific traits related to the state of health and management. During the standard milk performance test, traditional milk traits are monitored, and quality and quantity are screened. In addition to the standard test, it is also now possible to analyze milk metabolites in a high-throughput manner and to consider them in connection with milk traits to identify functionally important metabolites that can also serve as biomarker candidates. We present a study in which 190 milk metabolites and 14 milk traits of 1,305 Holstein cows on 18 commercial farms were investigated to characterize interrelations of milk metabolites between each other, to milk traits from the milk standard performance test, and to influencing factors such as farm and sire effect (half-sib structure). The effect of influencing factors (e.g., farm) varied among metabolites and traditional milk traits. The investigations of associations between metabolites and milk traits revealed groups of metabolites that show, for example, positive correlations to protein and casein, and negative correlations to lactose and pH. On the other hand, groups of metabolites jointly associated with the investigated milk traits can be identified and functionally discussed. To enable a multivariate investigation, 2 machine learning methods were applied to detect important metabolites that are highly correlated with the investigated traditional milk traits. For somatic cell score, uracil, lactic acid, and 9 other important metabolites were detected. Lactic acid has already been proposed as a biomarker candidate for mastitis in the recent literature. In conclusion, we found sets of metabolites eligible to predict milk traits, enabling the analysis of milk traits from a metabolic perspective and discussion of the possible functional background for some of the detected associations. PMID:23438684

Melzer, N; Wittenburg, D; Hartwig, S; Jakubowski, S; Kesting, U; Willmitzer, L; Lisec, J; Reinsch, N; Repsilber, D

2013-03-01

429

7 CFR 361.2 - General restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 General...

2009-01-01

430

Estimation in Latent Trait Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Estimation of ability and item parameters in latent trait models is discussed. When both ability and item parameters are considered fixed but unknown, the method of maximum likelihood for the logistic or probit models is well known. Discussed are techniques for estimating ability and item parameters when the ability parameters or item parameters…

Rigdon, Steven E.; Tsutakawa, Robert K.

431

Hematuria in Sickle Cell Trait.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hematuria in patients with sickle cell trait might be related to sickling in the medullary vessels of the kidney. In vitro, hypertonicity, acidity, and anoxia may cause, sickling. These conditions may also exist in the renal medulla of man. In two patient...

J. P. Knochel

1968-01-01

432

Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

433

Agriculture Education. Horticulture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in ornamental horticulture. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) horticulture and job opportunities, (2) preparing soil mixtures, (3) control, (4) plant propagation, (5) plant…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

434

Agrometeorology and sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns with the sustainability of agroecosystems in different parts of the world have hightened the awareness for careful use of the natural resource base on which agriculture depends. For proper and efficient use of soils and plant\\/animal genetic material, knowledge of the role of climate is an essential precondition. Several elements of the chapters in Agenda 21, a global

M. V. K. Sivakumar; R. Gommes; W. Baier

2000-01-01

435

COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL employees at the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, are sharing in a unique community agriculture program that supports EPA environmental goals?off the job as well as on. Every Wednesday afternoon, bags of farm-fresh org...

436

Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

437

TRANSITION AND AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objectives of our proposed paper is to: (a) systematically document the post-reform trends in agricultural performance in Asia, Europe, and the Former Soviet Union; (b) identify the main reform strategies and institutional innovations that have contributed to the successes and failures of the sector; (c) analyze the mechanisms by which reform policies and initial conditions have affected the

Scott Rozelle; Johan F. M. Swinnen

2000-01-01

438

Intensive Agriculture Unit (Hydroponics).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field test of Hydroponic Units was conducted at the US Naval Facility, Argentina, Newfoundland under United States Navy Requirement USN 5-4, Intensive Agriculture Unit. Hydroponics is the growing of plants without soil using a nutrient solution. The uni...

A. R. Rahman J. A. Ayoub

1982-01-01

439

AGRICULTURAL SIMULATION MODEL (AGSIM)  

EPA Science Inventory

AGSIM is a large-scale econometric simulation model of regional crop and national livestock production in the United States. The model was initially developed to analyze the aggregate economic impacts of a wide variety issues facing agriculture, such as technological change, pest...

440

Madagascar Agricultural Sector Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an analysis of the agricultural sector in Madagascar and provides a series of recommendations regarding the optimal role for the U.S. Agency for International Development/Madagascar (USAID/M) during 1990-1997. Maintaining soil fertilit...

L. Dash C. Steedman

1990-01-01

441

The Agricultural Satellite Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agricultural satellite Corporation (AG*SAT) is a consortium of 43 land-grant universities and two agencies of the USDA joined together to produce and share educational programming via satellite, computer, and other technologies. Sparked by the opportunity to receive Federal funding for satellite receive and transmit facilities, the institutions have invested financial and personnal resources in the purchase and installation of

Randall G. Bretz

1993-01-01

442

Weather and Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will research, discuss, and write reports on the relationship between climate and agriculture. They will pretend that they have just purchased farms in specific parts of the United States and will investigate the weather and climate of that region in order to maximize the chances that their farms will succeed.

443

Risk governance in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies and assesses the efficiency of major modes for risk governance in agriculture on the base of Bulgarian dairy farming. Firstly, the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics is incorporated and a framework for analysis of the governance of natural, market, private, and social (institutional) risks presented. Next, the pace and challenges of the dairy farming development during

Hrabrin Bachev

2008-01-01

444

Lunar outpost agriculture.  

PubMed

America's long-term commitment to a new Space Exploration Initiative has focused attention on the basic requirements for establishing a permanently manned lunar outpost and, ultimately, a martian one. High among these is the development of Regenerative Life Support Systems--with lunar agriculture an essential component--to provide a high level of self-sufficiency. PMID:11537088

Hossner, L R; Ming, D W; Henninger, D L; Allen, E R

1991-01-01

445

Agricultural Aviation Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long ...

H. L. Chevalier L. F. Bouse

1977-01-01

446

Vocational Agriculture II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was developed for second-year courses in vocational agriculture in Oklahoma. The curriculum contains 5 sections organized in 16 instructional units. The units follow a standard format established in 1970 for development of instructional materials for all Oklahoma vocational teachers. This format includes eight basic…

Harp, Keith; Steward, Jim

447

Transition and agricultural labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reforms have strongly affected agricultural employment in transition countries but in remarkably different ways. We present a theoretical model and an empirical analysis to explain differences in labor adjustment during transition. We show that the differences are due to a combination of variations in initial conditions and differences in reform policies and effects. The removal of price distortions and subsidies

Johan F. M. Swinnen; Liesbeth Dries; Karen Macours

2005-01-01

448

Quantitative Trait Loci in Brassica rapa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper briefly examines current methodology for developing genetic linkage maps and using them to find loci for quantitative traits (QTL). Maximum likelihood interval mapping is viewed as an extension of classical least squares methods when the trait ...

B. S. Yandell

1992-01-01

449

Agricultural Youth Organizations and University Learning Communities: The Impact On Agriculture Students' Academic Performance and Degree Completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important challenges facing colleges of agriculture today involves recruiting and educating high caliber individuals who are academically prepared to function in a rapidly changing food, fiber, and natural resource industry. This study compared the impact of participation in agricultural youth organizations (4-H\\/FFA) and participation in a university learning community, Freshman Interest Group (FIG), on academic performance

Anna L. Ball; Bryan L. Garton

450

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

451

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

452

Linking post-translational modifications and variation of phenotypic traits.  

PubMed

Enzymes can be post-translationally modified, leading to isoforms with different properties. The phenotypic consequences of the quantitative variability of isoforms have never been studied. We used quantitative proteomics to dissect the relationships between the abundances of the enzymes and isoforms of alcoholic fermentation, metabolic traits, and growth-related traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the enzymatic pool allocated to the fermentation proteome was constant over the culture media and the strains considered, there was variation in abundance of individual enzymes and sometimes much more of their isoforms, which suggests the existence of selective constraints on total protein abundance and trade-offs between isoforms. Variations in abundance of some isoforms were significantly associated to metabolic traits and growth-related traits. In particular, cell size and maximum population size were highly correlated to the degree of N-terminal acetylation of the alcohol dehydrogenase. The fermentation proteome was found to be shaped by human selection, through the differential targeting of a few isoforms for each food-processing origin of strains. These results highlight the importance of post-translational modifications in the diversity of metabolic and life-history traits. PMID:23271801

Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Bely, Marina; Aigle, Michel; Bourgais, Aurélie; Langella, Olivier; Balliau, Thierry; Chevret, Didier; Valot, Benoît; da Silva, Telma; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

2012-12-27

453

An integrative approach for the identification of quantitative trait loci.  

PubMed

The genetic dissection of complex traits is one of the most difficult and most important challenges facing science today. We discuss here an integrative approach to quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in mice. This approach makes use of the wealth of genetic tools available in mice, as well as the recent advances in genome sequence data already available for a number of inbred mouse strains. We have developed mapping strategies that allow a stepwise narrowing of a QTL mapping interval, prioritizing candidate genes for further analysis with the potential of identifying the most probable candidate gene for the given trait. This approach integrates traditional mapping tools, fine mapping tools, sequence-based analysis, bioinformatics and gene expression. PMID:16886995

Arbilly, M; Pisanté, A; Devor, M; Darvasi, A

2006-08-01

454

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci onto a Phylogenetic Tree  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in genetic mapping of quantitative traits and in phylogenetic comparative approaches, these two perspectives are rarely combined. The joint consideration of multiple crosses among related taxa (whether species or strains) not only allows more precise mapping of the genetic loci (called quantitative trait loci, QTL) that contribute to important quantitative traits, but also offers the opportunity to identify the origin of a QTL allele on the phylogenetic tree that relates the taxa. We describe a formal method for combining multiple crosses to infer the location of a QTL on a tree. We further discuss experimental design issues for such endeavors, such as how many crosses are required and which sets of crosses are best. Finally, we explore the method’s performance in computer simulations, and we illustrate its use through application to a set of four mouse intercrosses among five inbred strains, with data on HDL cholesterol.

Broman, Karl W.; Kim, Sungjin; Sen, Saunak; Ane, Cecile; Payseur, Bret A.

2012-01-01

455

Imported malaria*  

PubMed Central

There have been 4 waves of imported malaria in the USA. They occurred during the colonization of the country and during the Second World War, the UN Police Action in Korea, and the Viet-Nam conflict. The first 3 episodes are briefly described and the data on imported malaria from Viet-Nam are discussed in detail. Endemic malaria is resurgent in many tropical countries and international travel is also on the rise. This increases the likelihood of malaria being imported from an endemic area and introduced into a receptive area. The best defence for countries threatened by imported malaria is a vigorous surveillance programme. The principles of surveillance are discussed and an example of their application is provided by a description of the methods used to conduct surveillance of malaria in the USA.

Schultz, Myron G.

1974-01-01

456

Heparin Importation  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... order to ensure that batches of imported heparin continue to meet regulatory standards, FDA is requiring that all lots of Heparin Sodium be required ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/importsandexportscompliance

457

Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

458

Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

459

Estimating the power of a proposed linkage study for a complex genetic trait.  

PubMed Central

Many genetic traits have complex modes of inheritance; they may exhibit incomplete or age-dependent penetrance or fail to show any clear Mendelian inheritance pattern. As primary linkage maps for the human genome near completion, it is becoming increasingly possible to map these traits. Prior to undertaking a linkage study, it is important to consider whether the pedigrees available for the proposed study are likely to provide sufficient information to demonstrate linkage, assuming a linked marker is tested. In the current paper, we describe a computer simulation method to estimate the power of a proposed study to detect linkage for a complex genetic trait, given a hypothesized genetic model for the trait. Our method simulates trait locus genotypes consistent with observed trait phenotypes, in such a way that the probability to detect linkage can be estimated by sample statistics of the maximum lod score distribution. The method uses terms available when calculating the likelihood of the trait phenotypes for the pedigree and is applicable to any trait determined by one or a few genetic loci; individual-specific environmental effects can also be dealt with. Our method provides an objective answer to the question, Will these pedigrees provide sufficient information to map this complex genetic trait?

Ploughman, L M; Boehnke, M

1989-01-01

460

Mapping of mouse obesity genes: A generic approach to a complex trait.  

PubMed

Identification of genes underlying any complex trait such as obesity is an important and difficult problem in genetics. Traditional candidate gene approaches cannot be relied on to identify all of the genes influencing a complex trait, and positional cloning is very laborious. With the advent of new tools and methods, however, comprehensive approaches to the identification of any genes underlying complex traits are now available. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is a general technique to map Mendelian factors influencing complex traits. The QTL approach involves the crossing of two strains that differ in the trait of interest to produce F2 or back-cross progeny, individually phenotyping and genotyping each progeny, and statistically associating the typed markers and the phenotype. QTL mapping has been used in the last 4 years to map genes for a wide variety of traits, including body weight and growth, obesity, atherosclerosis and susceptibility to cancer in the mouse, and hypertension, hyperactivity and arthritis in the rat. QTL mapping has also been used to map genes in pigs, poultry, cows, fish and plants. Once a trait has been located in a chromosomal subregion, identifying the underlying gene remains a significant problem. A monogenic model must be developed, isolating one gene influencing a trait from other genes affecting the same phenotype. Then the positional candidate strategy, which relies on a combination of mapping to a chromosomal subregion followed by a survey of the interval to see if attractive candidates reside there, becomes practical. PMID:9278581

Fisler, J S; Warden, C H

1997-09-01

461

Oil imports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of oil-import policy focuses on world pressure for the U.S. to reduce its import level in exchange for which six participants at the economic summit meeting promised to try to improve the market for U.S. exports by stimulating their own economies. The author reviews, in addition to these pressures, problems of legislative barriers, the effects of the

1978-01-01

462

Quantitative trait loci for flowering time and morphological traits in multiple populations of Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Bras- sica rapa and the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. Here is a report on quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flowering time, seed and pod traits, growth-related traits, leaf morphol- ogy, and turnip formation in B. rapa using multiple populations. The populations resulted from crosses between the following

Ping Lou; Jung Sun Kim; Shuxing Shen; Dunia Pino Del Carpio; Xiaofei Song; Mina Jin; Dick Vreugdenhil; Xiaowu Wang; Maarten Koornneef; Guusje Bonnema

2010-01-01

463

Quantitative trait loci for flowering time and morphological traits in multiple populations of Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Brassica rapa and the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. Here is a report on quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flowering time, seed and pod traits, growth-related traits, leaf morphology, and turnip formation in B. rapa using multiple populations. The populations resulted from crosses between the following accessions: Rapid

P. Lou; Jianjun Zhao; J. S. Kim; Shuxing Shen; D. Pino del Carpio; Xiaofei Song; M. Jin; D. Vreugdenhil; Xiaowu Wang; M. Koornneef; A. B. Bonnema

2007-01-01

464

Trait Aggressiveness and Situational Provocation: A Test of the Traits as Situational Sensitivities (TASS) Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors propose and test an interactionist model of personality functioning. The model maintains that many traits function in a threshold-like manner, such that less situational strength is needed to evoke a trait-relevant response in people who are high on the trait than in those who are low on the trait. Because of these different sensitivities, people

Margaret A. Marshall; Jonathon D. Brown

2006-01-01

465

QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AND METABOLIC PATHWAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of molecular markers for crop plants has enabled research on the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, despite more than a decade of these studies, called quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, the molecular basis for variation in most agronomic traits is still largely unk...

466

QTL affecting conformation traits in Angora goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting conformation traits was performed by genotyping 288 Angora goats offspring from 8 half-sub families with 76 microsatellite markers. The following traits were recorded: weaning weight (WW, Kg); stature (S, cm); chest depth (CD, cm); shoulder width (SW, cm); rump length (RL, cm); rump width (RW, cm); head length (HL, cm); head

G. Marrube; E. M. Cano; D. L. Roldan; F. Bidinost; M. Abad; D. Allain; D. Vaiman; H. Taddeo; M. A. Poli

2006-01-01

467

Let the concept of trait be functional!  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its simplest definition, a trait is a surrogate of organismal performance, and this meaning of the term has been used by evolutionists for a long time. Over the last three decades, developments in community and ecosystem ecology have forced the concept of trait beyond these original boundaries, and trait-based approaches are now widely used in studies ranging from the

Cyrille Violle; Marie-Laure Navas; Denis Vile; Elena Kazakou; Claire Fortunel; Irčne Hummel; Eric Garnier

2007-01-01

468

MARYLAND AGRICULTURE AND YOUR WATERSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

Using primarily 1995 State of Maryland agricultural statistics data, a new methodology was demonstrated with which State natural resource managers can analyze the areal extent of agricultural lands and production data on a watershed basis. The report organized major crop ...

469

Agricultural Extension in East Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the status of agricultural extension in the AF2 countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Mauritius and Uganda). The report discusses key problems and makes recommendations on how to make agricultural extension services to small-scale...

L. A. Schwartz J. Kampen

1992-01-01

470

PERMITTIVITY MEASUREMENTS AND AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Permittivity and dielectric properties are defined and the measurement techniques used for determining the dielectric properties of agricultural products are briefly reviewed. Sources of available data on the permittivities or dielectric properties of agricultural products are identified and data u...

471

Image processing in precision agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of our signal and image processing application in precision agriculture is presented. A method for determining sampling frequency for agriculture data is proposed, and some initial results based on data simulation and image processing are reported

Dragoljub Pokrajac; A. Lazarevic; S. Vucetic; T. Fiez; Z. Obradovic

1999-01-01

472

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2009-01-01

473

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2010-01-01

474

7 CFR 1210.404 - Importer member nomination and selection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Importer member nomination and selection. 1210.404 Section 1210.404 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...PLAN Nominating Procedures Importer Members § 1210.404 Importer member nomination and...

2012-01-01

475

7 CFR 1205.336 - âImporter Reimbursementsâ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Expenses and Assessments...1205.336 âImporter Reimbursementsâ. Any cotton importer against whose imports any...

2012-01-01

476

7 CFR 1212.12 - Importer-Handler Representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...who must import at least 75 percent of the honey they market in the United States and...

2012-01-01

477

7 CFR 1212.12 - Importer-Handler Representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...who must import at least 75 percent of the honey they market in the United States and...

2013-01-01

478

7 CFR 1210.404 - Importer member nomination and selection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Nominating...Secretary from nominations submitted by watermelon importers. Importers' representation...production, first handling or importing of watermelons is considered a person and as...

2013-01-01

479

Economic weights of production and functional traits for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary.  

PubMed

A bio-economic model was used to estimate economic values of 15 milk production, functional, growth and carcass traits for Hungarian Holstein-Friesian cattle. The calculations were carried out for the situation in Hungary from 2000 to 2007, assuming no production quotas. The marginal economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a production system with dairy cow herds and with sales of surplus male calves. The economic weights for maternal and direct components of traits were calculated multiplying the marginal economic values by the number of discounted expression summed over a 25-year investment period for 2-year-old bulls (candidates for selection). The standardized economic weight (economic weight x genetic standard deviation) of the trait or trait component expressed as percentage of the sum of the standardized economic weights for all traits and trait components represented the relative economic importance of this trait or trait component. The highest relative economic importance was obtained for milk yield (25%), followed by productive lifetime of cows (23%), protein yield and the direct component of a cow's total conception rate (9% each), the maternal effect of the total conception rate of cows and the somatic cell score (approximately 7% each), fat yield (5%) and mature weight of cows and daily gain in rearing of calves (approximately 4% each). Other functional traits (clinical mastitis incidence, calving difficulty score, total conception rate of heifers and calf mortality) reached a relative economic importance between 0.5% and 2%. Birth weight and dressing percentage were least important (<0.5%). Based on these results, the inclusion of productive lifetime and cow fertility in the breeding programme for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary is advisable. PMID:20433523

Komlósi, I; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Farkas, B; Szendrei, Z; Béri, B

2010-04-01

480

The Core Historical Literature of Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How did people raise pigs in the 19th century? What were people talking about in the journal of Agricultural History in 1965? These are but a few of the questions answered in the documents contained within The Core Historical Literature of Agriculture website. Created by staff members at the Albert R. Mann Library at Cornell University, the site contains important agricultural texts from the nineteenth century to the late twentieth century. Visitors can learn more about the collection in the "About" section, and then move along to the "Browse" area. Here visitors can browse all of the titles alphabetically or chronologically. Also, visitors can find the recent additions here underneath the main browsing area. New visitors might want to peruse the 1827 volume "The Honey Bee: its natural history, physiology and management" or the 1921 work, "The Marketing of Whole Milk".