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1

Determining the Most Important Physiological and Agronomic Traits Contributing to Maize Grain Yield through Machine Learning Algorithms: A New Avenue in Intelligent Agriculture  

PubMed Central

Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features. PMID:24830330

Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

2

Seed traits and genes important for translational biology – highlights from recent discoveries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seeds provide foods, feeds, and fuels. They are also an important delivery system of genetic information, which is essential for the survival of wild species in ecosystems and the production of agricultural species. In this review, seed traits important for agriculture are discussed with an emphasis...

3

Economic importance of bats in agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

4

Linking agricultural practices, mycorrhizal fungi, and traits mediating plant-insect interactions.  

PubMed

Agricultural management has profound effects on soil communities. Activities such as fertilizer inputs can modify the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities, which form important symbioses with the roots of most crop plants. Intensive conventional agricultural management may select for less mutualistic AMF with reduced benefits to host plants compared to organic management, but these differences are poorly understood. AMF are generally evaluated based on their direct growth effects on plants. However, mycorrhizal colonization also may alter plant traits such as tissue nutrients, defensive chemistry, or floral traits, which mediate important plant-insect interactions like herbivory and pollination. To determine the effect of AMF from different farming practices on plant performance and traits that putatively mediate species interactions, we performed a greenhouse study by inoculating Cucumis sativus (cucumber, Cucurbitaceae) with AMF from conventional farms, organic farms, and a commercial AMF inoculum. We measured growth and a suite of plant traits hypothesized to be important predictors of herbivore resistance and pollinator attraction. Several leaf and root traits and flower production were significantly affected by AMF inoculum. Both conventional and organic AMF reduced leaf P content but increased Na content compared to control and commercial AMF. Leaf defenses were unaffected by AMF treatments, but conventional AMF increased root cucurbitacin C, the primary defensive chemical of C. sativus, compared to organic AMF. These effects may have important consequences for herbivore preference and population dynamics. AMF from both organic and conventional farms decreased flower production relative to commercial and control treatments, which may reduce pollinator attraction and plant reproduction. AMF from both farm types also reduced seed germination, but effects on plant growth were limited. Our results suggest that studies only considering AMF effects on growth may overlook changes in plant traits that have the potential to influence interactions, and hence yield, on farms. Given the effects of AMF on plant traits documented here, and the great importance of both herbivores and pollinators to wild and cultivated plants, we advocate for comprehensive assessments of mycorrhizal effects in complex community contexts, with the aim of incorporating multispecies interactions both above and below the soil surface. PMID:24261037

Barber, Nicholas A; Kiers, E Toby; Theis, Nina; Hazzard, Ruth V; Adler, Lynn S

2013-10-01

5

Value Traits Reinforcement and Perceived Importance: Does Context Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether business students' perception of value trait reinforcement and importance differ by their university\\u000a context. Student perceptions in coeducational religious, coeducational public and all-female religious schools were compared.\\u000a The results of this study indicate areas of similarity and differences among students in regard to the context of school type\\u000a and that reinforcement differences seemed to contribute to

John a. Ruhe; William R. Allen; James H. Davis; Virginia Geurin; Justin Longenecker

1998-01-01

6

Effect of scale on trait predictors of species responses to agriculture.  

PubMed

Species persistence in human-altered landscapes can depend on factors operating at multiple spatial scales. To understand anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity, it is useful to examine relationships between species traits and their responses to land-use change. A key knowledge gap concerns whether these relationships vary depending on the scale of response under consideration. We examined how local- and large-scale habitat variables influence the occupancy dynamics of a bird community in cloud forest zones in the Colombian Chocó-Andes. Using data collected across a continuum of forest and agriculture, we examined which traits best predict species responses to local variation in farmland and which traits best predict species responses to isolation from contiguous forest. Global range size was a strong predictor of species responses to agriculture at both scales; widespread species were less likely to decline as local habitat cover decreased and as distance from forest increased. Habitat specialization was a strong predictor of species responses only at the local scale. Open-habitat species were particularly likely to increase as pasture increased, but they were relatively insensitive to variation in distance to forest. Foraging plasticity and flocking behavior were strong predictors of species responses to distance from forest, but not their responses to local habitat. Species with lower plasticity in foraging behaviors and obligate flock-following species were more likely to decline as distance from contiguous forest increased. For species exhibiting these latter traits, persistence in tropical landscapes may depend on the protection of larger contiguous blocks of forest, rather than the integration of smaller-scale woodland areas within farmland. Species listed as threatened or near threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List were also more likely to decline in response to both local habitat quality and isolation from forest relative to least-concern species, underlining the importance of contiguous forests for threatened taxa. PMID:25395246

Gilroy, James J; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

2015-04-01

7

Biology: An Important Agricultural Engineering Mechanism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the field of bioengineering with particular emphasis on agricultural engineering, and presents the results of a survey of schools that combine biology and engineering in their curricula. (JR)

Henderson, S. M.

1974-01-01

8

Field Guide to of Agricultural Importance in  

E-print Network

of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Tech Tim FisherPoff, Graphic Designer Linda Burcham, Publications.............................................................................. 59 Tim FisherPoff ..............................................................Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 of the egg) are numerous and bend distinctly at the end; distinctively pure white until ready to hatch; egg

Liskiewicz, Maciej

9

The Importance of "Agriculture in the Middle" Farms Future Viability of New Jersey Agriculture  

E-print Network

The Importance of "Agriculture in the Middle" Farms to the Future Viability of New Jersey Agriculture Peggy Brennan, Brian Schilling, Jack Rabin, Rick VanVranken, Lucas Marxen, Kevin Sullivan #12 of agricultural products sold · 21% of estimated market value of farm land/buildings · 21% of estimated market

Goodman, Robert M.

10

The Importance of Agriculture Science Course Sequencing in High Schools: A View from Collegiate Agriculture Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of Agriculture Science course sequencing in high schools, as a preparatory factor for students enrolled in collegiate agriculture classes. With the variety of courses listed in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Agriculture Science, it has been possible for counselors,…

Wheelus, Robin P.

2009-01-01

11

Imported Fire Ants: An Agricultural Pest and a  

E-print Network

Imported Fire Ants: An Agricultural Pest and a Human Health Hazard Imported fire ants (Solenopsis. The black imported fire ant was brought to Mobile, AL, in 1918. The red imported fire ant arrived) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) for advice about how to manage imported fire ants

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

12

Importance of energy balance in agriculture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning, man has tried to control nature and the environment, and the use of energy, mainly from non-renewable sources providing the necessary power for that. The consequences of this long fight against nature has reached a critical state of unprecedented worldwide environmental degradation, as evidenced by the increasing erosion of fertile lands, the deforestation processes, the pollution of water, air and land by agrochemicals, the loss of plant and animal species, the progressive deterioration of the ozone layer and signs of global warming. This is exacerbated by the increasing population growth, implying a steady increase in consumption, and consequently, in the use of energy. Unfortunately, all these claims are resulting in serious economic and environmental problems worldwide. Because the economic and environmental future of the countries is interrelated, it becomes necessary to adopt sustainable development models based on the use of renewable and clean energies, the search for alternative resources and the use of productive systems more efficient from an energy standpoint, always with a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the agricultural sector, the question we ask is: how long can we keep the current energy-intensive agricultural techniques in developed countries? To analyze this aspect, energy balance is a very helpful tool because can lead to more efficient, sustainable and environment-friendly production systems for each agro-climatic region. This requires the identification of all the inputs and the outputs involved and their conversion to energy values by means of corresponding energy coefficients or equivalents (International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies). Energy inputs (EI) can be divided in direct (energy directly used in farms as fuel, machines, fertilizers, seeds, herbicides, human labor, etc.) and indirect (energy not consumed in the farm but in the elaboration, manufacturing or manipulation of inputs) ones. Energy outputs (EO) are considered as the calorific value of the harvested biomass (main products and sub-products), calculated from the total production (kg/ha) and its corresponding energy coefficient (strongly correlated to the biochemical composition of the products). Based on energy inputs and outputs, energy efficiency can be expressed as (i) net energy produced (NE) (also known as energy gain or energy balance, calculated as EI-EO and expressed as MJ/ha), (ii) the energy output/input ratio (also known as energy efficiency and calculated as EO/EI), and (iii) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI, expressed as kg/MJ). Funding provided by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

Meco, R.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Moreno, C.

2012-04-01

13

Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal mechanisms in community processes  

PubMed Central

All plants, including crop species, harbor a community of fungal endophyte species, yet we know little about the biotic factors that are important in endophyte community assembly. We suggest that the most direct route to understanding the mechanisms underlying community assembly is through the study of functional trait variation in the host and its fungal consortium. We review studies on crop endophytes that investigate plant and fungal traits likely to be important in endophyte community processes. We focus on approaches that could speed detection of general trends in endophyte community assembly: (i) use of the ‘assembly rules’ concept to identify specific mechanisms that influence endophyte community dynamics, (ii) measurement of functional trait variation in plants and fungi to better understand endophyte community processes and plant–fungal interactions, and (iii) investigation of microbe–microbe interactions, and fungal traits that mediate them. This approach is well suited for research in agricultural systems, where pair-wise host–fungus interactions and mechanisms of fungal–fungal competition have frequently been described. Areas for consideration include the possibility that human manipulation of crop phenotype and deployment of fungal biocontrol species can significantly influence endophyte community assembly. Evaluation of endophyte assembly rules may help to fine-tune crop management strategies. PMID:25567944

Saunders, Megan; Glenn, Anthony E; Kohn, Linda M

2010-01-01

14

Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal mechanisms in community processes.  

PubMed

All plants, including crop species, harbor a community of fungal endophyte species, yet we know little about the biotic factors that are important in endophyte community assembly. We suggest that the most direct route to understanding the mechanisms underlying community assembly is through the study of functional trait variation in the host and its fungal consortium. We review studies on crop endophytes that investigate plant and fungal traits likely to be important in endophyte community processes. We focus on approaches that could speed detection of general trends in endophyte community assembly: (i) use of the 'assembly rules' concept to identify specific mechanisms that influence endophyte community dynamics, (ii) measurement of functional trait variation in plants and fungi to better understand endophyte community processes and plant-fungal interactions, and (iii) investigation of microbe-microbe interactions, and fungal traits that mediate them. This approach is well suited for research in agricultural systems, where pair-wise host-fungus interactions and mechanisms of fungal-fungal competition have frequently been described. Areas for consideration include the possibility that human manipulation of crop phenotype and deployment of fungal biocontrol species can significantly influence endophyte community assembly. Evaluation of endophyte assembly rules may help to fine-tune crop management strategies. PMID:25567944

Saunders, Megan; Glenn, Anthony E; Kohn, Linda M

2010-09-01

15

Speed-Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Microarrays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Determining the genetic architecture of complex traits is important for human health, agriculture, and understanding adaptive evolution, but is challenging because high resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping requires evaluation of thousands of recombinant individuals for the trait and clo...

16

Perceptions of Vocational Agriculture Instructors Regarding Knowledge and Importance of Including Selected Agricultural Mechanics Units in the Vocational Agriculture Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of teachers in five northwestern states revealed that respondents in all states rated the units of arc welding and oxyacetylene welding as the most important units to be included in secondary vocational agriculture programs. (LRA)

Heimgartner, Dale C.; Foster, Richard M.

1981-01-01

17

Quantitative trait loci affecting oil content, oil composition, and other agronomically important traits in Oat (Avena sativa L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Groat oil content and composition are important determinants of oat quality. We investigated these traits in a population of 146 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between 'Dal' (high oil) and 'Exeter' (low oil). A linkage map consisting of 475 DArT markers spanning 1271.8 cM across 40 linkage gr...

18

APPLICATION OF GENOMICS TO IDENTIFY GENES INFLUENCING ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT TRAITS IN ANIMALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review focuses on identification of bovine chromosomal regions where genes influencing economically important traits reside. Regions where these genes reside are located throughout all chromosomes. Discussion focuses on methodology used to detect regions associated with meat tenderness. Mark...

19

Identification of variation in adaptively important traits and genome-wide analysis of trait-marker associations in Triticum monococcum.  

PubMed

Einkorn wheat Triticum monococcum (2n=2x=14, A(m)A(m)) is one of the earliest domesticated crops. However, it was abandoned for cultivation before the Bronze Age and has infrequently been used in wheat breeding. Little is known about the genetic variation in adaptively important biological traits in T. monococcum. A collection of 30 accessions of diverse geographic origins were characterized for phenotypic variation in various agro-morphological traits including grain storage proteins and endosperm texture, nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain profiles of resistance (R) genes and resistance gene analogues (RGAs), and germination under salt and drought stresses. Forty-six SSR (single sequence repeat) markers from bread wheat (T. aestivum, 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) A genome were used to establish trait-marker associations using linear mixed models. Multiple significant associations were identified, some of which were on chromosomal regions containing previously known genetic loci. It is concluded that T. monococcum possesses large genetic diversity in multiple traits. The findings also indicate that the efficiency of association mapping is much higher in T. monococcum than in other plant species. The use of T. monococcum as a reference species for wheat functional genomics is discussed. PMID:18057045

Jing, Hai-Chun; Kornyukhin, Dmitry; Kanyuka, Kostya; Orford, Simon; Zlatska, Anastasiya; Mitrofanova, Olga P; Koebner, Robert; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

2007-01-01

20

The Importance of Juvenile Root Traits for Crop Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic variation in root system architecture (RSA) is an under-exploited breeding resource. This is partly a consequence of difficulties in the rapid and accurate assessment of subterranean root systems. However, although the characterisation of root systems of large plants in the field are both time-consuming and labour-intensive, high-throughput (HTP) screens of root systems of juvenile plants can be performed in the field, glasshouse or laboratory. It is hypothesised that improving the root systems of juvenile plants can accelerate access to water and essential mineral elements, leading to rapid crop establishment and, consequently, greater yields. This presentation will illustrate how aspects of the juvenile root systems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) correlate with crop yields and examine the reasons for such correlations. It will first describe the significant positive relationships between early root system development, phosphorus acquisition, canopy establishment and eventual yield among potato genotypes. It will report the development of a glasshouse assay for root system architecture (RSA) of juvenile potato plants, the correlations between root system architectures measured in the glasshouse and field, and the relationships between aspects of the juvenile root system and crop yields under drought conditions. It will then describe the development of HTP systems for assaying RSA of OSR seedlings, the identification of genetic loci affecting RSA in OSR, the development of mathematical models describing resource acquisition by OSR, and the correlations between root traits recorded in the HTP systems and yields of OSR in the field.

White, Philip; Adu, Michael; Broadley, Martin; Brown, Lawrie; Dupuy, Lionel; George, Timothy; Graham, Neil; Hammond, John; Hayden, Rory; Neugebauer, Konrad; Nightingale, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Thomas, Catherine; Thompson, Jacqueline; Wishart, Jane; Wright, Gladys

2014-05-01

21

The soil microbial community predicts the importance of plant traits in plant-soil feedback.  

PubMed

Reciprocal interaction between plant and soil (plant-soil feedback, PSF) can determine plant community structure. Understanding which traits control interspecific variation of PSF strength is crucial for plant ecology. Studies have highlighted either plant-mediated nutrient cycling (litter-mediated PSF) or plant-microbe interaction (microbial-mediated PSF) as important PSF mechanisms, each attributing PSF variation to different traits. However, this separation neglects the complex indirect interactions between the two mechanisms. We developed a model coupling litter- and microbial-mediated PSFs to identify the relative importance of traits in controlling PSF strength, and its dependency on the composition of root-associated microbes (i.e. pathogens and/or mycorrhizal fungi). Results showed that although plant carbon: nitrogen (C : N) ratio and microbial nutrient acquisition traits were consistently important, the importance of litter decomposability varied. Litter decomposability was not a major PSF determinant when pathogens are present. However, its importance increased with the relative abundance of mycorrhizal fungi as nutrient released from the mycorrhizal-enhanced litter production to the nutrient-depleted soils result in synergistic increase of soil nutrient and mycorrhizal abundance. Data compiled from empirical studies also supported our predictions. We propose that the importance of litter decomposability depends on the composition of root-associated microbes. Our results provide new perspectives in plant invasion and trait-based ecology. PMID:25521190

Ke, Po-Ju; Miki, Takeshi; Ding, Tzung-Su

2015-04-01

22

Developing a web accessible integrated database and visualization tool for bovine quantitative trait loci  

E-print Network

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is the location of a gene that affects a trait that is measured on a quantitative (linear) scale. Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat in cattle...

Polineni, Pavana

2005-08-29

23

Agricultural Water Pollution Control - Important Factor for Sustainable Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European model of agriculture gives great opportunities for development of Polish agriculture. The model is based on multifunctional development of rural areas. It relates mainly to traditional environmental friendly tech- nologies of crop production and socio-cultural values. Integration with European Union is accelerating the proc- ess of qualitative changes in Polish agriculture. The key role of the transformation in

Katarzyna Wyporska; Józef Mosiej

24

Extending the Trait-State-Occasion Model: How Important Is Within-Wave Measurement Equivalence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) covariance models represent an important advance in methods for studying the longitudinal stability of latent constructs. Such models have only been examined under fairly restricted conditions (e.g., having only 2 tau-equivalent indicators per wave). In this study, Monte Carlo simulations revealed the effects of having 2…

Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Cole, David A.; Steiger, James H.

2007-01-01

25

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Economically Important Traits in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Cocoon related characteristics are economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). In this study a genetic linkage map was developed that identified QTL controlling the cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage using 161 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty PstI/TaqI primer combinations were employed to genotype 78 F2 progenies derived from a cross between P107 Japanese inbred line and Khorasan Lemon Iranian native strain. Among polymorphic markers, 159 AFLP markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups at the LOD threshold of 2.5 that varied in length from 4 to 299 cM. The total length of the linkage map was 2747 cM, giving an average marker resolution of 19.31 cM. A total of 21 AFLP markers were identified that were distributed over the ten linkage groups linked to the three studied traits using the composite interval mapping method. The explained variation rate by QTL controlling cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage ranged from 0.02% to 64.85%, 0.2% to 49.11%, and 0.04% to 84.20%, respectively. These QTL controlled by different actions as well as under dominance, additive, partial dominance, dominance, and over dominance. PMID:21070171

Mirhoseini, Seyed Z; Rabiei, Babak; Potki, Payam; Dalirsefat, Seyed B

2010-01-01

26

The Importance of Species Traits for Species Distribution on Oceanic Islands  

PubMed Central

Understanding species' ability to colonize new habitats is a key knowledge allowing us to predict species' survival in the changing landscapes. However, most studies exploring this topic observe distribution of species in landscapes which are under strong human influence being fragmented only recently and ignore the fact that the species distribution in these landscapes is far from equilibrium. Oceanic islands seem more appropriate systems for studying the relationship between species traits and its distribution as they are fragmented without human contribution and as they remained unchanged for a long evolutionary time. In our study we compared the values of dispersal as well as persistence traits among 18 species pairs from the Canary Islands differing in their distribution within the archipelago. The data were analyzed both with and without phylogenetic correction. The results demonstrate that no dispersal trait alone can explain the distribution of the species in the system. They, however, also suggest that species with better dispersal compared to their close relatives are better colonizers. Similarly, abundance of species in the archipelago seems to be an important predictor of species colonization ability only when comparing closely related species. This implies that analyses including phylogenetic correction may provide different insights than analyses without such a correction and both types of analyses should be combined to understand the importance of various plant traits for species colonization ability. PMID:25003737

Vaza?ová, Kristýna; Münzbergová, Zuzana

2014-01-01

27

Importance of riparian habitats for small mammal and herpetofaunal communities in agricultural landscapes of southern Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of adequate riparian strips in agricultural landscapes is generally recognized to contribute to the reduction of the impacts of agricultural practices on the water quality of streams, to regularize water temperature and to help in the creation of important wildlife habitats. This study aimed at determining the importance of riparian strips in agricultural landscapes of southern Québec for

Charles Maisonneuve; Stéphanie Rioux

2001-01-01

28

Plant acclimation to elevated CO? affects important plant functional traits, and concomitantly reduces plant colonization rates by an herbivorous insect.  

PubMed

Plants growing under elevated CO? concentration may acclimatize to this environmental change by modification of chemical, physiological, and/or morphological traits. As a consequence, not only plant functioning but also plant-insect interactions might be altered, with important consequences particularly for agricultural systems. Whereas most studies have focused on the plant acclimation effects of elevated CO? with regard to crop growth and productivity, acclimation effects on the behavioral response of insects associated with these plants have been largely neglected. In this study, we used a model system comprised of Brussels sprout Brassica oleraceae var. gemmifera and a specialized herbivorous insect, the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, to test for the effects of various periods of exposure to an elevated (2× ambient) CO? concentration on key plant functional traits and on host plant location behavior by the insect, assessed as plant colonization rates. Elevated CO? had no measurable effect on colonization rates or total plant volatile emissions after a 2-week exposure, but it led to 15 and 26 % reductions in plant colonization rates after 6- and 10-week exposures, respectively. This reduction in plant colonization was associated with significant decreases in leaf stomatal conductance and plant volatile emission. Terpene emission, in particular, exhibited a great reduction after the 10-week exposure to elevated CO?. Our results provide empirical evidence that plants might acclimatize to a future increase in CO?, and that these acclimation responses might affect host plant choice and colonization behavior by herbivorous insects, which might be advantageous from the plant's perspective. PMID:22968910

Klaiber, Jeannine; Najar-Rodriguez, Adriana J; Piskorski, Rafal; Dorn, Silvia

2013-01-01

29

Assortative mating in poison-dart frogs based on an ecologically important trait.  

PubMed

The origin of new species can be influenced by both deterministic and stochastic factors. Mate choice and natural selection may be important deterministic causes of speciation (as opposed to the essentially stochastic factors of geographic isolation and genetic drift). Theoretical models predict that speciation is more likely when mate choice depends on an ecologically important trait that is subject to divergent natural selection, although many authors have considered such mating/ecology pleiotropy, or "magic-traits" to be unlikely. However, phenotypic signals are important in both mate choice and ecological processes such as avoiding predation. In chemically defended species, it may be that the phenotypic characteristics influencing mate choice are the same signals being used to transmit a warning to potential predators, although few studies have demonstrated this in wild populations. We tested for assortative mating between two color morphs of the Strawberry Poison-Dart Frog, Dendrobates pumilio, a group with striking geographic variation in aposematic color patterns. We found that females significantly prefer individuals of their own morph under two different light treatments, indicating strong assortative mating based on multiple coloration cues that are also important ecological signals. This study provides a rare example of one phenotypic trait affecting both ecological viability and nonrandom mating, indicating that mating/ecology pleiotropy is plausible in wild populations, particularly for organisms that are aposematically colored and visually orienting. PMID:17767594

Reynolds, R Graham; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

2007-09-01

30

QTL mapping for economically important traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were analyzed for three economically important traits, i.e., body weight (BW), body length (BL), and body thickness (BT), in an F1 family of common carp holding the 190 progeny. A genetic linkage map spanning 3,301 cM in 50 linkage groups with 627 markers and an average distance of 5.6 cM was utilized for QTL mapping. Sixteen QTLs associated with all three growth-related traits were scattered across ten linkage groups, LG6, LG10, LG17, LG19, LG25, LG27, LG28, LG29, LG30, and LG39. Six QTLs for BW and five each for BL and BT explained phenotypic variance in the range 17.0-32.1%. All the nearest markers of QTLs were found to be significantly (p???0.05) related with the trait. Among these QTLs, a total of four, two (qBW30 and qBW39) related with BW, one (qBL39) associated with BL, and one (qBT29) related to BT, were found to be the major QTLs with a phenotypic variance of >20%. qBW30 and qBW39 with the nearest markers HLJ1691 and HLJ1843, respectively, show significant values of 0.0038 and 0.0031, correspondingly. QTLs qBL39 and qBT29 were found to have significant values of 0.0047 and 0.0015, respectively. Three QTLs (qBW27, qBW30, qBW39) of BW, two for BL (qBL19, qBL39), and two for BT (qBT6, qBT25) found in this study were similar to populations with different genetic backgrounds. In this study, the genomic region controlling economically important traits were located. These genomic regions will be the major sources for the discovery of important genes and pathways associated with growth-related traits in common carp. PMID:25078056

Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Lashari, Punhal; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Xin, Baoping; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Xiaowen

2015-02-01

31

Variation in heading date conceals quantitative trait loci for other traits of importance in breeding selection of rice  

PubMed Central

To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the primary target traits for selection in practical rice breeding programs, backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from crosses between temperate japonica rice cultivars Nipponbare and Koshihikari were evaluated for 50 agronomic traits at six experimental fields located throughout Japan. Thirty-three of the 50 traits were significantly correlated with heading date. Using a linkage map including 647 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a total of 122 QTLs for 38 traits were mapped on all rice chromosomes except chromosomes 5 and 9. Fifty-eight of the 122 QTLs were detected near the heading date QTLs Hd16 and Hd17 and the remaining 64 QTLs were found in other chromosome regions. QTL analysis of 51 BILs having homozygous for the Koshihikari chromosome segments around Hd16 and Hd17 allowed us to detect 40 QTLs associated with 27 traits; 23 of these QTLs had not been detected in the original analysis. Among the 97 QTLs for the 30 traits measured in multiple environments, the genotype-by-environment interaction was significant for 44 QTLs and not significant for 53 QTLs. These results led us to propose a new selection strategy to improve agronomic performance in temperate japonica rice cultivars. PMID:23226082

Hori, Kiyosumi; Kataoka, Tomomori; Miura, Kiyoyuki; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Saka, Norikuni; Nakahara, Takahiro; Sunohara, Yoshihiro; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro

2012-01-01

32

Investigating the beneficial traits of Trichoderma hamatum GD12 for sustainable agriculture—insights from genomics  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma hamatum strain GD12 is unique in that it can promote plant growth, activate biocontrol against pre- and post-emergence soil pathogens and can induce systemic resistance to foliar pathogens. This study extends previous work in lettuce to demonstrate that GD12 can confer beneficial agronomic traits to other plants, providing examples of plant growth promotion in the model dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana and induced foliar resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in the model monocot rice. We further characterize the lettuce-T. hamatum interaction to show that bran extracts from GD12 and an N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamindase-deficient mutant differentially promote growth in a concentration dependent manner, and these differences correlate with differences in the small molecule secretome. We show that GD12 mycoparasitises a range of isolates of the pre-emergence soil pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and that this interaction induces a further increase in plant growth promotion above that conferred by GD12. To understand the genetic potential encoded by T. hamatum GD12 and to facilitate its use as a model beneficial organism to study plant growth promotion, induced systemic resistance and mycoparasitism we present de novo genome sequence data. We compare GD12 with other published Trichoderma genomes and show that T. hamatum GD12 contains unique genomic regions with the potential to encode novel bioactive metabolites that may contribute to GD12's agrochemically important traits. PMID:23908658

Studholme, David J.; Harris, Beverley; Le Cocq, Kate; Winsbury, Rebecca; Perera, Venura; Ryder, Lauren; Ward, Jane L.; Beale, Michael H.; Thornton, Chris R.; Grant, Murray

2013-01-01

33

75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Labor in Imported Agricultural Products to develop...distribution of agricultural products or commodities...likelihood that agricultural products or commodities...institutions of higher education and research; one member...

2010-03-11

34

The declining importance of natural resources: lessons from agricultural land  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 20th Century a substantial decline in the economic importance of natural resources, especially farm land, has occurred. Views expressed by Schultz on the declining importance of land are emphasized. Grain yields in the United States were unchanged from 1800 to about 1940, but since then have increased dramatically. Increases in labor productivity occurred much earlier, starting in the

D. Gale Johnson

2002-01-01

35

Dicer-like 3 produces transposable element-associated 24-nt siRNAs that control agricultural traits in rice  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences make up over 35% of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. The host regulates the activity of different TEs by different epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone H3K9 methylation, and histone H3K4 demethylation. TEs can also affect the expression of host genes. For example, miniature inverted repeat TEs (MITEs), dispersed high copy-number DNA TEs, can influence the expression of nearby genes. In plants, 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are mainly derived from repeats and TEs. However, the extent to which TEs, particularly MITEs associated with 24-nt siRNAs, affect gene expression remains elusive. Here, we show that the rice Dicer-like 3 homolog OsDCL3a is primarily responsible for 24-nt siRNA processing. Impairing OsDCL3a expression by RNA interference caused phenotypes affecting important agricultural traits; these phenotypes include dwarfism, larger flag leaf angle, and fewer secondary branches. We used small RNA deep sequencing to identify 535,054 24-nt siRNA clusters. Of these clusters, ?82% were OsDCL3a-dependent and showed significant enrichment of MITEs. Reduction of OsDCL3a function reduced the 24-nt siRNAs predominantly from MITEs and elevated expression of nearby genes. OsDCL3a directly targets genes involved in gibberellin and brassinosteroid homeostasis; OsDCL3a deficiency may affect these genes, thus causing the phenotypes of dwarfism and enlarged flag leaf angle. Our work identifies OsDCL3a-dependent 24-nt siRNAs derived from MITEs as broadly functioning regulators for fine-tuning gene expression, which may reflect a conserved epigenetic mechanism in higher plants with genomes rich in dispersed repeats or TEs. PMID:24554078

Wei, Liya; Gu, Lianfeng; Song, Xianwei; Cui, Xiekui; Lu, Zhike; Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lulu; Hu, Fengyi; Zhai, Jixian; Meyers, Blake C.; Cao, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

36

Biodiversity of Aspergillus Species in Some Important Agricultural Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin-producing A. fl...

37

Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Core Collection of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) with SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Mining elite genes within rice landraces is of importance for the improvement of cultivated rice. An association mapping for 12 agronomic traits was carried out using a core collection of rice consisting of 150 landraces (Panel 1) with 274 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the mapping results were further verified using a Chinese national rice micro-core collection (Panel 2) and a collection from a global molecular breeding program (Panel 3). Our results showed that (1) 76 significant (P<0.05) trait-marker associations were detected using mixed linear model (MLM) within Panel 1 in two years, among which 32% were identical with previously mapped QTLs, and 11 significant associations had >10% explained ratio of genetic variation; (2) A total of seven aforementioned trait-marker associations were verified within Panel 2 and 3 when using a general linear model (GLM) and 55 SSR markers of the 76 significant trait-marker associations. However, no significant trait-marker association was found to be identical within three panels when using the MLM model; (3) several desirable alleles of the loci which showed significant trait-marker associations were identified. The research provided important information for further mining these elite genes within rice landraces and using them for rice breeding. PMID:25360796

Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xiangdong; Tong, Hanhua; Lu, Yonggen; Li, Jinquan

2014-01-01

38

Identification of major and minor QTL for ecologically important morphological traits in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).  

PubMed

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies of Pacific three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have uncovered several genomic regions controlling variability in different morphological traits, but QTL studies of Atlantic sticklebacks are lacking. We mapped QTL for 40 morphological traits, including body size, body shape, and body armor, in a F2 full-sib cross between northern European marine and freshwater three-spined sticklebacks. A total of 52 significant QTL were identified at the 5% genome-wide level. One major QTL explaining 74.4% of the total variance in lateral plate number was detected on LG4, whereas several major QTL for centroid size (a proxy for body size), and the lengths of two dorsal spines, pelvic spine, and pelvic girdle were mapped on LG21 with the explained variance ranging from 27.9% to 57.6%. Major QTL for landmark coordinates defining body shape variation also were identified on LG21, with each explaining ?15% of variance in body shape. Multiple QTL for different traits mapped on LG21 overlapped each other, implying pleiotropy and/or tight linkage. Thus, apart from providing confirmatory data to support conclusions born out of earlier QTL studies of Pacific sticklebacks, this study also describes several novel QTL of both major and smaller effect for ecologically important traits. The finding that many major QTL mapped on LG21 suggests that this linkage group might be a hotspot for genetic determinants of ecologically important morphological traits in three-spined sticklebacks. PMID:24531726

Liu, Jun; Shikano, Takahito; Leinonen, Tuomas; Cano, José Manuel; Li, Meng-Hua; Merilä, Juha

2014-04-01

39

Association mapping of four important traits using the USDA rice mini-core collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Classical quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in diploids reveals only a slice of the genetic architecture for a trait because only two alleles that differ between the two parental lines segregate. Association mapping provides an effective method to identify QTL that have effects across a broad sp...

40

Research review: the importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior.  

PubMed

The current paper reviews research suggesting that the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style designates an important subgroup of antisocial and aggressive youth. Specifically, callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt, absence of empathy, callous use of others) seem to be relatively stable across childhood and adolescence and they designate a group of youth with a particularly severe, aggressive, and stable pattern of antisocial behavior. Further, antisocial youth with CU traits show a number of distinct emotional, cognitive, and personality characteristics compared to other antisocial youth. These characteristics of youth with CU traits have important implications for causal models of antisocial and aggressive behavior, for methods used to study antisocial youth, and for assessing and treating antisocial and aggressive behavior in children and adolescents. PMID:18221345

Frick, Paul J; White, Stuart F

2008-04-01

41

QTL mapping and epistatic interaction analysis in asparagus bean for several characterized and novel horticulturally important traits  

PubMed Central

Background Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata. ssp sesquipedalis) is a subspecies and special vegetable type of cowpea (Vigna. unguiculata L. Walp.) important in Asia. Genetic basis of horticulturally important traits of asparagus bean is still poorly understood, hindering the utilization of targeted, DNA marker-assisted breeding in this crop. Here we report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic interactions for four horticultural traits, namely, days to first flowering (FLD), nodes to first flower (NFF), leaf senescence (LS) and pod number per plant (PN) using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of asparagus bean. Results A similar genetic mode of one major QTL plus a few minor QTLs was found to dominate each of the four traits, with the number of QTLs for individual traits ranging from three to four. These QTLs were distributed on 7 of the 11 chromosomes. Major QTLs for FLD, NFF and LS were co-localized on LG 11, indicative of tight linkage. Genome wide epistasis analysis detected two and one interactive locus pairs that significantly affect FLD and LS, respectively, and the epistatic QTLs for FLD appeared to work in different ways. Synteny based comparison of QTL locations revealed conservation of chromosome regions controlling these traits in related legume crops. Conclusion Major, minor, and epistatic QTLs were found to contribute to the inheritance of the FLD, NFF, LS, and PN. Positions of many of these QTLs are conserved among closely related legume species, indicating common mechanisms they share. To our best knowledge, this is the first QTL mapping report using an asparagus bean × asparagus bean intervarietal population and provides marker-trait associations for marker-assisted approaches to selection. PMID:23375055

2013-01-01

42

Speed-mapping quantitative trait loci  

E-print Network

from two inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains with known QTLs affecting lifespan, and hybridized DNA for traits important for human health, agriculture and adaptive evolution is typically genetically complex and the environment1,2. Determining the genetic architecture of complex traits is challenging. High- resolution QTL

Mackay, Trudy F.C.

43

Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations of beef cattle with extensive phenotypic records for economical-  

E-print Network

Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations efficiency and carcass merit, are a critical need in the post-genome sequencing era. Coupled with the availability of the 7.5x assembly of the bovine genome sequence and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP

44

Research Review: The Importance of Callous-Unemotional Traits for Developmental Models of Aggressive and Antisocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current paper reviews research suggesting that the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style designates an important subgroup of antisocial and aggressive youth. Specifically, callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt, absence of empathy, callous use of others) seem to be relatively stable across childhood and…

Frick, Paul J.; White, Stuart F.

2008-01-01

45

An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Professional Internships on Students' Perception of the Importance of Employment Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors measured the effects of a formal internship on students' perceptions of the importance of traits employees consider during the hiring process. Prior studies have reported that accounting firms perceive students with internship experience as better entry-level accountants. This perception may be related to changes in student beliefs…

Green, Brian Patrick; Graybeal, Patricia; Madison, Roland L.

2011-01-01

46

The importance of aboveground–belowground interactions on the evolution and maintenance of variation in plant defense traits  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades a growing body of empirical research has shown that many ecological processes are mediated by a complex array of indirect interactions occurring between rhizosphere-inhabiting organisms and those found on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground–belowground studies have thus far focused on elucidating processes and underlying mechanisms that mediate the behavior and performance of invertebrates in opposite ecosystem compartments. Less is known about genetic variation in plant traits such as defense as that may be driven by above- and belowground trophic interactions. For instance, although our understanding of genetic variation in aboveground plant traits and its effects on community-level interactions is well developed, little is known about the importance of aboveground–belowground interactions in driving this variation. Plant traits may have evolved in response to selection pressures from above- and below-ground interactions from antagonists and mutualists. Here, we discuss gaps in our understanding of genetic variation in plant-related traits as they relate to aboveground and belowground multitrophic interactions. When metabolic resources are limiting, multiple attacks by antagonists in both domains may lead to trade-offs. In nature, these trade-offs may critically depend upon their effects on plant fitness. Natural enemies of herbivores may also influence selection for different traits via top–down control. At larger scales these interactions may generate evolutionary “hotspots” where the expression of various plant traits is the result of strong reciprocal selection via direct and indirect interactions. The role of abiotic factors in driving genetic variation in plant traits is also discussed. PMID:24348484

van Geem, Moniek; Gols, Rieta; van Dam, Nicole M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Fortuna, Taiadjana; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

47

Pharmaceutical and Industrial Traits in Genetically Modified Crops: Co-Existence with Conventional Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the implications of using genetically modified crops to biomanufacture pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds from the perspective of their co-existence with conventional agriculture. Such plant-made pharmaceuticals and plant-made industrial products rely on exciting scientific and technological breakthroughs and promise new opportunities for the agricultural sector, but they also entail novel risks. The management of the externalities and of

GianCarlo Moschini

2006-01-01

48

Pharmaceutical and Industrial Traits in Genetically Modified Crops: Co-existence with Conventional Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the implications of using genetically modified crops to biomanufacture pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds from the perspective of their co-existence with conventional agriculture. Such plant-made pharmaceuticals and plant-made industrial products rely on exciting scientific and technological breakthroughs and promise new opportunities for the agricultural sector, but they also entail novel risks. The management of the externalities and of

GianCarlo Moschini

2006-01-01

49

An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)  

PubMed Central

Background Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Results Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. Conclusions The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over previous watermelon genetic maps. A large proportion of the markers in the integrated map are SSRs, InDels and SNPs, which are easily transferable across laboratories. Moreover, the populations used to construct the integrated map include all three watermelon subspecies, making this integrated map useful for the selection of breeding traits, identification of QTL, MAS, analysis of germplasm and commercial hybrid seed detection. PMID:24443961

2014-01-01

50

A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS). Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in a broad array of melon germplasm. Conclusions Even though relatively unsaturated genetic maps in a diverse set of melon market types have been published, the integrated saturated map presented herein should be considered the initial reference map for melon. Most of the mapped markers contained in the reference map are polymorphic in diverse collection of germplasm, and thus are potentially transferrable to a broad array of genetic experimentation (e.g., integration of physical and genetic maps, colinearity analysis, map-based gene cloning, epistasis dissection, and marker-assisted selection). PMID:21797998

2011-01-01

51

Anthropometric and physiological traits: age changes among the Oraon agricultural labourers of the Jalpaiguri District, northern West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Data on anthropometric and physiological parameters were collected as a part of an ongoing biomedical research project on 197 adult Oraon agricultural labourers of the Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India. The analysis of the present data focuses attention towards the nature and extent of changes in adulthood in respect of anthropometric and physiological traits. The results reveal that the height increases up to 35 years of age, then declines, weight decreases after 40 years of age, although males and females do not show similar results. Physiological parameters on the other hand reveal that the blood pressure increases with age and strength parameters i.e. grip strength and back strength declines after the age of 25 years or so. However, no generalization can be made out of this, because of the cross-sectional nature of the present study. PMID:14717537

Roy, Subrata K; Pal, Baidyanath

2003-12-01

52

Simple, rapid, and inexpensive cleanup method for quantitation of aflatoxins in important agricultural products by HPLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A simple, fast and cheap chemical cleanup procedure for low-level quantitative determination of aflatoxins in major economically important agricultural commodities using HPLC has been developed. Aflatoxins were extracted from a ground sample with methanol-water (80:20, v/v), and after a cleanup step...

53

Why measure snow mass? Snow is important as a source of water for agriculture, drinking and  

E-print Network

Why measure snow mass? Snow is important as a source of water for agriculture, drinking and power generation for large parts of the world. Siberian snow formation may be a factor in northern hemisphere atmospheric circulation. Global monitoring of snow mass from remote sensing carried out by satellites

54

Association of SSR markers with important fiber traits in Upland cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this research are to: 1) report on the diversity in agronomic and fiber traits of the selected cotton germplasm released by the public breeders and private industries, 2) detect the genetic diversity among these lines using SSR markers, and 3) identify the SSR markers association w...

55

HIGH-DENSITY MAPPING AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AGRONOMICALLY IMPORTANT TRAITS ON WHEAT CHROMOSOME 3A  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bread wheat chromosome 3A has been shown to contain genes/QTLs controlling grain yield and its component traits. The objectives of this study were to generate high-density physical and genetic linkage maps of wheat homoeologous group 3 chromosomes, reveal the physical location of genes/QTLs controll...

56

Genome Wide Association Study for Drought, Aflatoxin Resistance, and Important Agronomic Traits of Maize Hybrids in the Sub-Tropics  

PubMed Central

The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike

2015-01-01

57

Genetic parameters and correlations of collar rot resistance with important biochemical and yield traits in opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collar rot, caused byRhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most severe fungal diseases of opium poppy. In this study, heritability, genetic advance and correlation\\u000a for 10 agronomic, 1 physiological, 3 biochemical and 1 chemical traits with disease severity index (DSI) for collar rot were\\u000a assessed in 35 accessions of opium poppy. Most of the economically important characters, like seed

Mala Trivedi; Rajesh K. Tiwari; Om P. Dhawan

2006-01-01

58

Identification of QTLs affecting traits of agronomic importance in a recombinant inbred population derived from a subspecific rice cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect QTLs controlling traits of agronomic importance in rice, two elite homozygous lines 9024 and LH422, which represent the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa), were crossed. Subsequently a modified single-seed-descent procedure was employed to produce 194 recombinant inbred lines (F8). The 194 lines were genotyped at 141 RFLP marker loci and evaluated in a field trial

J. Xiao; J. Li; L. Yuan; S. D. Tanksley

1996-01-01

59

Genetic and heterosis analysis for important agronomic traits of Chinese vegetable mustard ( Brassica juncea ) in different environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic effects and genotype by environment (GE) interaction effects for some important agronomic traits of Chinese vegetable\\u000a mustard were analyzed by using a genetic model including additive, dominance, additive × additive effects and their interaction\\u000a effects with the environment. Four variations of Chinese vegetable mustard as parental lines and their F1s, F2s were evaluated in two locations. It was revealed that the

Xiao-Hua Qi; Jing-Hua Yang; Jing-Quan Yu; Ming-Fang Zhang

2009-01-01

60

Microbial diversity of vermicompost bacteria that exhibit useful agricultural traits and waste management potential.  

PubMed

Vermicomposting is a non-thermophilic, boioxidative process that involves earthworms and associated microbes. This biological organic waste decomposition process yields the biofertilizer namely the vermicompost. Vermicompost is a finely divided, peat like material with high porosity, good aeration, drainage, water holding capacity, microbial activity, excellent nutrient status and buffering capacity thereby resulting the required physiochemical characters congenial for soil fertility and plant growth. Vermicompost enhances soil biodiversity by promoting the beneficial microbes which inturn enhances plant growth directly by production of plant growth-regulating hormones and enzymes and indirectly by controlling plant pathogens, nematodes and other pests, thereby enhancing plant health and minimizing the yield loss. Due to its innate biological, biochemical and physiochemical properties, vermicompost may be used to promote sustainable agriculture and also for the safe management of agricultural, industrial, domestic and hospital wastes which may otherwise pose serious threat to life and environment. PMID:23961356

Pathma, Jayakumar; Sakthivel, Natarajan

2012-01-01

61

Importance of impacts scenarios for the adaptation of agriculture to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great possibility that the climate is already changing, and the most drastic way possible, increases the challenge of agricultural engineering, especially in environmentally vulnerable areas and in regions where agriculture has a high economic and social importance. Knowledge of potential impacts that may be caused by changes in water and thermal regimes in coming decades is increasingly strategic, as they allow the development of techniques to adapt agriculture to climate change and therefore minimizes the risk of undesirable impacts, for example, in food and nutritional security. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to describe a way to generate impacts scenarios caused by anomalies of precipitation and temperature in the definition of climate risk zoning of an agricultural crop very important in the tropics, such as the sugar cane, especially in central-southern Brazil, which is one of its main world producers. A key point here is the choice of the climate model to be used, considering that 23 different models were used in the fourth IPCC report published in 2007. The number and range of available models requires the definition of criteria for choosing the most suitable for the preparation of the impacts scenarios. One way proposed and used in this work is based on the definition of two groups of models according to 27 technical attributes of them. The clustering of 23 models in two groups, with a model representing each group (UKMO_HadCM3 and MIROC3.2_medres), assists the generation and comparison of impacts scenarios, making them more representative and useful. Another important aspect in the generation of impacts scenarios is the estimate of the relative importance of the anomalies of precipitation and temperature, which are the most commonly used. To assess the relative importance of the anomalies are generated scenarios considering an anomaly at a time and both together. The impacts scenarios for a high emission of greenhouse gases (A2), from 2010 to 2039, were more drastic for the sugar cane in central-southern Brazil using the UKMO_HadCM3 model than the MIROC3.2_medres model. These impacts scenarios, however, were less drastic than those generated for the arabica coffee in the same simulation conditions, reinforcing the increased vulnerability of this agricultural crop to climate change than the sugar cane. The inclusion of other restrictions on the climate risk zoning improves the quality of the generated scenarios and expands its usefulness for agricultural engineering.

Zullo, J.; Macedo, C.; Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Koga Vicente, A.

2012-12-01

62

Recovery of useful traits from isolates inhabiting an agricultural soil cultivated with herbicide-resistant poplars.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the culturable bacteria living in soil cultivated with Basta-tolerant transgenic white poplars (Populus alba L. 'Villafranca'). Plate Count Agar medium containing phosphinothricin, the active component of Basta, was used to isolate the herbicide-resistant bacteria (HRB). No significant changes in the size of the soil microbial flora following herbicide treatment were observed. The characterization of HRB isolates by 16S rDNA-based taxonomy revealed a predominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus species. The screening carried out on soil samples allowed for the recovery of isolates with useful properties for biotechnological and agronomical purposes, particularly in relation to root development. Among the tested isolates, only HRB-1b, HRB-1c, and HRB-7 showed remarkable swarming ability, a valuable trait supporting the beneficial plant-microbe interactions. HRB-1c was also characterized by consistent production of indoleacetic acid (17.8 +/- 0.09 microg x mL-1 x (OD600 unit)-1), and it was able to stimulate the in vitro growth of Villafranca explants. Since novel tools are constantly required to enhance productivity of perennial species and to expand their use for practical purposes, the availability of bacteria that support tree growth, such as the HRB-1c isolate, represents a significant advantage. PMID:18388991

Balestrazzi, Alma; Bonadei, Martina; Zelasco, Samanta; Quattrini, Emanuele; Calvio, Cinzia; Galizzi, Alessandro; Carbonera, Daniela

2008-03-01

63

The importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture around the periphery of the Amazon rainforest.  

PubMed

The unsustainable use of the soil of the deforested area at the Amazonian border is one of the greatest threats to the rainforest, because it is the predominant cause of shifting cultivation in the region. The sustainable management of soils with low natural fertility is a major challenge for smallholder agriculture in the humid tropics. In the periphery of Brazilian Amazonia, agricultural practices that are recommended for the Brazilian savannah, such as saturating soils with soluble nutrients do not ensure the sustainability of agroecosystems. Improvements in the tilled topsoil cannot be maintained if deterioration of the porous soil structure is not prevented and nutrient losses in the root zone are not curtailed. The information gleaned from experiments affirms that in the management of humid tropical agrosystems, the processes resulting from the interaction between climatic factors and indicators of soil quality must be taken into consideration. It must be remembered that these interactions manifest themselves in ways that cannot be predicted from the paradigm established in the other region like the southeast of Brazil, which is based only on improving the chemical indicators of soil quality. The physical indicators play important role in the sustainable management of the agrosystems of the region and for these reasons must be considered. Therefore, alley cropping is a potential substitute for slash and burn agriculture in the humid tropics with both environmental and agronomic advantages, due to its ability to produce a large amount of residues on the soil surface and its effect on the increase of economic crop productivity in the long term. The article presents some promising patents on the importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture. PMID:23305424

Moura, Emanoel G; Sena, Virley G L; Corrêa, Mariana S; Aguiar, Alana das C F

2013-04-01

64

Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

65

Importance of Behavior and Morphological Traits for Controlling Body Temperature in Littorinid Snails  

E-print Network

algal communities. We use a mechanistic heat-budget model to compare the effects of behavioral conditions. Model predictions and field experiments indicate that, for all five species, the relative and waves (Stephen- son and Stephenson, 1972; Denny, 2006; Denny et al., 2009). Changes in important

Denny, Mark

66

Relative importance of phenotypic trait matching and species' abundances in determining plant–avian seed dispersal interactions in a small insular community  

PubMed Central

Network theory has provided a general way to understand mutualistic plant–animal interactions at the community level. However, the mechanisms responsible for interaction patterns remain controversial. In this study we use a combination of statistical models and probability matrices to evaluate the relative importance of species morphological and nutritional (phenotypic) traits and species abundance in determining interactions between fleshy-fruited plants and birds that disperse their seeds. The models included variables associated with species abundance, a suite of variables associated with phenotypic traits (fruit diameter, bird bill width, fruit nutrient compounds), and the species identity of the avian disperser. Results show that both phenotypic traits and species abundance are important determinants of pairwise interactions. However, when considered separately, fruit diameter and bill width were more important in determining seed dispersal interactions. The effect of fruit compounds was less substantial and only important when considered together with abundance-related variables and/or the factor ‘animal species’. PMID:25750409

González-Castro, Aarón; Yang, Suann; Nogales, Manuel; Carlo, Tomás A.

2015-01-01

67

Conservation Agriculture: What Is It and Why Is It Important for Future Sustainable Food Production?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. The paper first introduces the reasons for tillage in agriculture and discusses how this age-old agricultural practice is responsible for natural resource and soil degradation. The paper goes on to

Peter R. Hobbs

68

Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

2014-01-01

69

Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

70

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with important agronomic traits in the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cross ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the genetic factors underlying agronomic traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to making gains from selection during the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’ mapping population was grown in two crop years at two loc...

71

Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Selection for Important Traits in Domestic Horse Breeds  

PubMed Central

Intense selective pressures applied over short evolutionary time have resulted in homogeneity within, but substantial variation among, horse breeds. Utilizing this population structure, 744 individuals from 33 breeds, and a 54,000 SNP genotyping array, breed-specific targets of selection were identified using an FST-based statistic calculated in 500-kb windows across the genome. A 5.5-Mb region of ECA18, in which the myostatin (MSTN) gene was centered, contained the highest signature of selection in both the Paint and Quarter Horse. Gene sequencing and histological analysis of gluteal muscle biopsies showed a promoter variant and intronic SNP of MSTN were each significantly associated with higher Type 2B and lower Type 1 muscle fiber proportions in the Quarter Horse, demonstrating a functional consequence of selection at this locus. Signatures of selection on ECA23 in all gaited breeds in the sample led to the identification of a shared, 186-kb haplotype including two doublesex related mab transcription factor genes (DMRT2 and 3). The recent identification of a DMRT3 mutation within this haplotype, which appears necessary for the ability to perform alternative gaits, provides further evidence for selection at this locus. Finally, putative loci for the determination of size were identified in the draft breeds and the Miniature horse on ECA11, as well as when signatures of selection surrounding candidate genes at other loci were examined. This work provides further evidence of the importance of MSTN in racing breeds, provides strong evidence for selection upon gait and size, and illustrates the potential for population-based techniques to find genomic regions driving important phenotypes in the modern horse. PMID:23349635

Petersen, Jessica L.; Mickelson, James R.; Rendahl, Aaron K.; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Andersson, Lisa S.; Axelsson, Jeanette; Bailey, Ernie; Bannasch, Danika; Binns, Matthew M.; Borges, Alexandre S.; Brama, Pieter; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cappelli, Katia; Cothran, E. Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Fox-Clipsham, Laura; Graves, Kathryn T.; Guérin, Gérard; Haase, Bianca; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hemmann, Karin; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lohi, Hannes; Lopes, Maria Susana; McGivney, Beatrice A.; Mikko, Sofia; Orr, Nicholas; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Piercy, Richard J.; Raekallio, Marja; Rieder, Stefan; Røed, Knut H.; Swinburne, June; Tozaki, Teruaki; Vaudin, Mark; Wade, Claire M.; McCue, Molly E.

2013-01-01

72

Ecological diversification in a group of Indomalayan pitvipers (Trimeresurus): convergence in taxonomically important traits has implications for species identification.  

PubMed

We analyse molecular and phenotypic evolution in a group of taxonomically problematic Indomalayan pitvipers, the Trimeresurus sumatranus group. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing provides a well-resolved phylogeny, with each species representing a distinct lineage. Multivariate morphological analysis reveals a high level of phenotypic differentiation, which is congruent between the sexes but does not reflect phylogenetic history. An adaptive explanation for the observed pattern of differentiation is supported by independent contrasts analysis, which shows significant correlations between current ecology and the characters that most account for the variation between taxa, including those that are presently used to identify the species. Reduced precipitation and altitude, and increased temperature, are correlated with higher numbers of scales on the head, body and tail. It is hypothesized that scale number plays an important role in heat and water exchange by influencing the area of exposed of interstitial skin, and that colour pattern variation reflects selection pressures involving camouflage and thermoregulation. Ecological convergence in traits used for classification is found to have important implications for species identification where taxa are distributed over varying environments. PMID:15271071

Sanders, K L; Malhotra, A; Thorpe, R S

2004-07-01

73

Survival in macaroni penguins and the relative importance of different drivers: individual traits, predation pressure and environmental variability  

PubMed Central

Understanding the demographic response of free-living animal populations to different drivers is the first step towards reliable prediction of population trends. Penguins have exhibited dramatic declines in population size, and many studies have linked this to bottom-up processes altering the abundance of prey species. The effects of individual traits have been considered to a lesser extent, and top-down regulation through predation has been largely overlooked due to the difficulties in empirically measuring this at sea where it usually occurs. For 10 years (2003–2012), macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) were marked with subcutaneous electronic transponder tags and re-encountered using an automated gateway system fitted at the entrance to the colony. We used multistate mark–recapture modelling to identify the different drivers influencing survival rates and a sensitivity analysis to assess their relative importance across different life stages. Survival rates were low and variable during the fledging year (mean = 0·33), increasing to much higher levels from age 1 onwards (mean = 0·89). We show that survival of macaroni penguins is driven by a combination of individual quality, top-down predation pressure and bottom-up environmental forces. The relative importance of these covariates was age specific. During the fledging year, survival rates were most sensitive to top-down predation pressure, followed by individual fledging mass, and finally bottom-up environmental effects. In contrast, birds older than 1 year showed a similar response to bottom-up environmental effects and top-down predation pressure. We infer from our results that macaroni penguins will most likely be negatively impacted by an increase in the local population size of giant petrels. Furthermore, this population is, at least in the short term, likely to be positively influenced by local warming. More broadly, our results highlight the importance of considering multiple causal effects across different life stages when examining the survival rates of seabirds. PMID:24846695

Horswill, Catharine; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Green, Jonathan A; Meredith, Michael P; Forcada, Jaume; Peat, Helen; Preston, Mark; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman

2014-01-01

74

Survival in macaroni penguins and the relative importance of different drivers: individual traits, predation pressure and environmental variability.  

PubMed

Understanding the demographic response of free-living animal populations to different drivers is the first step towards reliable prediction of population trends. Penguins have exhibited dramatic declines in population size, and many studies have linked this to bottom-up processes altering the abundance of prey species. The effects of individual traits have been considered to a lesser extent, and top-down regulation through predation has been largely overlooked due to the difficulties in empirically measuring this at sea where it usually occurs. For 10 years (2003-2012), macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) were marked with subcutaneous electronic transponder tags and re-encountered using an automated gateway system fitted at the entrance to the colony. We used multistate mark-recapture modelling to identify the different drivers influencing survival rates and a sensitivity analysis to assess their relative importance across different life stages. Survival rates were low and variable during the fledging year (mean = 0·33), increasing to much higher levels from age 1 onwards (mean = 0·89). We show that survival of macaroni penguins is driven by a combination of individual quality, top-down predation pressure and bottom-up environmental forces. The relative importance of these covariates was age specific. During the fledging year, survival rates were most sensitive to top-down predation pressure, followed by individual fledging mass, and finally bottom-up environmental effects. In contrast, birds older than 1 year showed a similar response to bottom-up environmental effects and top-down predation pressure. We infer from our results that macaroni penguins will most likely be negatively impacted by an increase in the local population size of giant petrels. Furthermore, this population is, at least in the short term, likely to be positively influenced by local warming. More broadly, our results highlight the importance of considering multiple causal effects across different life stages when examining the survival rates of seabirds. PMID:24846695

Horswill, Catharine; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Green, Jonathan A; Meredith, Michael P; Forcada, Jaume; Peat, Helen; Preston, Mark; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman

2014-05-21

75

The importance of managing the costs and benefits of bird activity for agricultural sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of wild animal species in agricultural landscapes may confer benefits to growers through the provision of ecosystem services (e.g. control of agricultural pests) or inflict costs through direct or indirect damage to crops or livestock. The literature on the costs that species inflict or the benefits they provide has evolved largely independently with few attempts to synthesize information

Shannon Triplett; Gary W. Luck; Peter Spooner

2012-01-01

76

How Important is Economic Geography for Rural Non-Agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

By paying particular attention to the local economic context, this paper analyzes rural non-agricultural employment and earnings in non-agricultural jobs. The empirical analysis is based on the Brazilian Demographic Census, allowing for disaggregated controls for the local economy. Education stands out as one of the key factor for shaping employment outcome and earnings potential. Failure to control for locational effects

Erik Jonasson; Steven M. Helfand

2009-01-01

77

Genetic parameters and correlations of collar rot resistance with important biochemical and yield traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).  

PubMed

Collar rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most severe fungal diseases of opium poppy. In this study, heritability, genetic advance and correlation for 10 agronomic, 1 physiological, 3 biochemical and 1 chemical traits with disease severity index (DSI) for collar rot were assessed in 35 accessions of opium poppy. Most of the economically important characters, like seed and capsule straw yield per plant, oil and protein content of seeds, peroxidase activity in leaves, morphine content of capsule straw and DSI for collar rot showed high heritability as well as genetic advance. Highly significant negative correlation between DSI and seed yield clearly shows that as the disease progresses in plants, seed yield declines, chiefly due to premature death of infected plants as well as low seed and capsule setting in the survived population of susceptible plants. Similarly, a highly significant negative correlation between peroxidase activity and DSI indicated that marker-assisted selection of disease-resistant plants based on high peroxidase activity would be effective and survived susceptible plants could be removed from the population to stop further spread. PMID:16424606

Trivedi, Mala; Tiwari, Rajesh K; Dhawan, Om P

2006-01-01

78

A reference consensus genetic map for molecular markers and economically important traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the earliest domesticated crops from the Near East. Today this legume is a key protein feed and food worldwide and continues to serve an important role in culinary traditions throughout Middle East, Mediterranean region, China and Ethiopia. Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the main faba bean breeding objectives are to improve yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and other agronomic traits. Genomic approaches aimed at enhancing faba bean breeding programs require high-quality genetic linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a reference consensus map in faba bean by joining the information from the most relevant maps reported so far in this crop. Results A combination of two approaches, increasing the number of anchor loci in diverse mapping populations and joining the corresponding genetic maps, was used to develop a reference consensus map in faba bean. The map was constructed from three main recombinant inbreed populations derived from four parental lines, incorporates 729 markers and is based on 69 common loci. It spans 4,602 cM with a range from 323 to 1041 loci in six main linkage groups or chromosomes, and an average marker density of one locus every 6 cM. Locus order is generally well maintained between the consensus map and the individual maps. Conclusion We have constructed a reliable and fairly dense consensus genetic linkage map that will serve as a basis for genomic approaches in faba bean research and breeding. The core map contains a larger number of markers than any previous individual map, covers existing gaps and achieves a wider coverage of the large faba bean genome as a whole. This tool can be used as a reference resource for studies in different genetic backgrounds, and provides a framework for transferring genetic information when using different marker technologies. Combined with syntenic approaches, the consensus map will increase marker density in selected genomic regions and will be useful for future faba bean molecular breeding applications. PMID:24377374

2013-01-01

79

Importance of wetland landscape structure to shorebirds wintering in an agricultural valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only recently has the influence of landscape structure on habitat use been a research focus in wetland systems. During non-breeding periods when food can be locally limited, wetland spatial pattern across a landscape may be of great importance in determining wetland use. We studied the influence of landscape structure on abundances of wintering Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) observed on wetlands in the agricultural Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA, during two winters (1999a??2000, 2000a??2001) of differing rainfall. We examined (1) shorebird use within a sample of 100 km2 regions differing in landscape structure (hectares of shorebird habitat [wet, unvegetated]) and (2) use of sites differing in landscape context (area of shorebird habitat within a species-defined radius). For use of sites, we also assessed the influence of two local characteristics: percent of soil exposed and area of wet habitat. We analyzed data using linear regression and information-theoretic modeling. During the dry winter (2000a??2001), Dunlin were attracted to regions with more wetland habitat and their abundances at sites increased with greater area of shorebird habitat within both the site and the surrounding landscape. In contrast, Dunlin abundances at sites were related to availability of habitat at only a local scale during the wet winter (1999a??2000). Regional habitat availability was of little importance in predicting Killdeer distributions, and Killdeer site use appeared unrelated to habitat distributions at both landscape and local scales. Results suggest prioritizing sites for conservation that are located in areas with high wetland coverage.

Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

2006-01-01

80

Sexual selection in the northern pintail ( Anas acuta ): the importance of female choice versus male-male competition in the evolution of sexually-selected traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally studied the relative importance of plumage, dominance status, and courtship behavior in determining male pairing success in the northern pintail Anas acuta and assessed whether these traits function in female choice, male-male competition or both. In an experiment (experiment IA) that eliminated the confounding effects of male-male competition and social courtship, females chose males with pure white breasts

Lisa G. Sorenson; Scott R. Derrickson

1994-01-01

81

The importance of instream habitat modifications for restoring channelized agricultural headwater streams  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Science based information on the influence of restoration practices on fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the Midwestern United States is currently lacking. Understanding fish-habitat relationships and fish responses to specific restoration practices will provide informatio...

82

Microsatellite diversity of the agriculturally important alpine grass Poa alpina in relation to land use and natural environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background and Aims: The Alpine Meadow,Grass Poa alpina is common in subalpine and alpine natural sites and agriculturally used land, where it is an important fodder grass. Natural factors and human,land use are supposed to have been shaping its genetic diversity for hundreds of years. The species comprises sexually and vegetatively reproducing plants. The aim of this study was

K Weyand; A Fischer; M Stöcklin

83

Microsatellite Diversity of the Agriculturally Important Alpine Grass Poa alpina in Relation to Land Use and Natural Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

†Background and Aims The Alpine Meadow Grass Poa alpina is common in subalpine and alpine natural sites and agriculturally used land, where it is an important fodder grass. Natural factors and human land use are supposed to have been shaping its genetic diversity for hundreds of years. The species comprises sexually and vegetatively reproducing plants. The aim of this study

KATRIN R UDMANN-MAURER; A NNE W EYAND; M ARKUS F ISCHER; J URG S TOCKLIN

2007-01-01

84

A design-constraint trade-off underpins the diversity in ecologically important traits in species Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Bacterial species are internally diverse in genomic and multi-locus gene comparisons. The ecological causes of phenotypic and genotypic diversity within species are far less well understood. Here, we focus on the competitive fitness for growth on nutrients within Escherichia coli, an internally rich species. Competition experiments in nutrient-limited chemostats revealed that members of the ECOR collection exhibited a wide continuum of competitive abilities, with some fitter and some less fit than the lab strain MG1655. We observed an inverse relationship between competitiveness and the resistance of strains to detergent and antibiotic, consistent with the notion that membrane permeability and competitive fitness are linked by a trade-off between self-preservation and nutritional competence (SPANC); high permeability has a postulated cost in antibacterial sensitivity whereas a low permeability has a cost in nutrient affinity. Isolates moved along the markedly nonlinear trade-off curve by mutational adaptation; an ECOR strain sensitive to antibacterials and a good competitor was easily converted by mutation into a mutant with higher resistance but poorer competition in the presence of low antibiotic concentrations. Conversely, a resistant ECOR strain changed into a better competitor after a short period of selection under nutrient limitation. In both directions, mutations can affect porin proteins and outer membrane permeability, as indicated by protein analysis, gene sequencing and an independent assay of outer membrane permeability. The extensive, species-wide diversity of E. coli in ecologically important traits can thus be explained as an evolutionary consequence of a SPANC trade-off driven by antagonistic pleiotropy. PMID:23677010

Phan, Katherine; Ferenci, Thomas

2013-01-01

85

Haplotyping a quantitative trait with a high-density map in experimental crosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The ultimate goal of genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is the positional cloning of genes involved in any agriculturally or medically important phenotype. However, only a small portion (# 1%) of the QTL detected have been characterized at the molecular level, despite the report of hundreds of thousands of QTL for different traits and populations. Methods\\/Results. We

Wei Hou; John Stephen F. Yap; Song Wu; Tian Liu; James M. Cheverud; Rongling Wu

2007-01-01

86

Intergeneric hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus containing traits of agronomic importance for oilseed rape breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus for transfer of valuable traits to oilseed rape resulted in 257 somatic hybrid plants. Hybridity was confirmed by morphological, cytological and molecular means. Symmetric fusions gave rise to 131 plants. Fifty eight of these plants had an intermediate morphology and contained nuclear DNA corresponding to the sum of the parental species. All

Q. Hu; L. N. Hansen; J. Laursen; C. Dixelius; S. B. Andersen

2002-01-01

87

The importance of rare species: a trait-based assessment of rare species contributions to functional diversity and  

E-print Network

Biodiversity­ecosystem functioning, community assembly, functional diversity, grassland, species loss, traits.1002/ece3.915 Abstract The majority of species in ecosystems are rare, but the ecosystem consequences of losing rare species are poorly known. To understand how rare species may influence ecosystem functioning

Weiblen, George D

88

Agricultural By-Products Turned into Important Materials with Adsorptive Properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

89

The three important traits for cooking and eating quality of rice grains are controlled by a single locus in an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooking and eating quality of the rice grain is one of the most serious problems in many rice-producing areas of the world.\\u000a In this study, we conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of three traits, amylose content (AC), gel consistency\\u000a (GC) and gelatinization temperature (GT), that are the most important constituents of the cooking and eating quality of rice

Y. F. Tan; J. X. Li; S. B. Yu; Y. Z. Xing; C. G. Xu; Qifa Zhang

1999-01-01

90

Assessing the importance of genotype × environment interaction for root traits in rice using a mapping population III: QTL analysis by mixed models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotypic analysis of field experiments includes information about the experimental design, the randomization structure\\u000a and a number of putative dependencies of environment and design factors on the trait investigated. In QTL studies, the genetic\\u000a correlation across environments, which arises when the same set of lines is tested in multiple environments, plays an important\\u000a role. This paper investigates the effect

Katharina Emrich; Adam Price; Hans Peter Piepho

2008-01-01

91

Importance of non CO2 fluxes for agricultural ecosystems - understanding the mechanisms and drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In agriculture, a large proportion (about 89%) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving potential may be achieved by means of soil C sequestration. Not surprising that exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been a main research objective during last decades. In spite of this, in agricultural ecosytems (i.e. grassland and croplands) a large proportion of total emissions (about 18% in CO2e worldwide) are linked to non CO2 fluxes (about 50% N2O, 40% CH4 in contraste to 10%CO2). Those emissions are however, diffuse, for example N2O, is emitted on almost all cultivated land, and all humid grasslands emit CH4 related to watertable. However, those emissions can vary largely from one site to another or from one farming system to another, while some studies even report a fixation of CH4 and N2O by grass- and croplands, not to mention the impacts of climate change on fluxes. Finally, given the large number of findings, along with their significant diversity, complicates both estimation of these emissions and the mechanism that the public authorities could implement to encourage their reduction. To determine effective mitigation options, a better knowledge on the drivers of CH4/N2O as well as their temporal and spatial variability are of particular interest. At present, more information is needed on i) the impact of agricultural practices and the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the GHG budgets within contrasting systems, ii) differences among climate regions and climate impacts, and iii) impact of managing soil microbial functioning (through plant diverstiy, litter inputs, etc). This presentation will review recent studies to highlight some new findings on the mentioned topics.

Klumpp, Katja

2014-05-01

92

Nutrient loading associated with agriculture land use dampens the importance of consumer-mediated niche construction.  

PubMed

The linkages between biological communities and ecosystem function remain poorly understood along gradients of human-induced stressors. We examined how resource provisioning (nutrient recycling), mediated by native freshwater mussels, influences the structure and function of benthic communities by combining observational data and a field experiment. We compared the following: (1) elemental and community composition (algal pigments and macroinvertebates) on live mussel shells and on nearby rocks across a gradient of catchment agriculture and (2) experimental colonisation of benthic communities on live vs. sham shells controlling for initial community composition and colonisation duration. We show that in near pristine systems, nutrient heterogeneity mediated by mussels relates to greater biodiversity of communities, which supports the notion that resource heterogeneity can foster biological diversity. However, with increased nutrients from the catchment, the relevance of mussel-provisioned nutrients was nearly eliminated. While species can persist in disturbed systems, their functional relevance may be diminished or lost. PMID:23848507

Spooner, Daniel E; Frost, Paul C; Hillebrand, Helmut; Arts, Michael T; Puckrin, Olivia; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

2013-09-01

93

The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

Gwata, E.

2012-04-01

94

Relative importance of water chemistry and habitat to fish communities in headwater streams influenced by agricultural land use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Channelized headwater streams are common throughout agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Understanding the relative impacts of agricultural contaminants and habitat degradation on the aquatic biota within agricultural headwater streams will provide information that can assist wi...

95

Macrophyte communities as an important seasonal sink for P and N in an urban and agricultural watershed in Southern Ontario.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverine macrophytes and macroalgae are important to riverine nutrient cycling processes, and can often reach nuisance levels of biomass in agriculturally and urban impacted streams. Elevated biomass can result in lowered dissolved oxygen conditions and enhanced anaerobic processes which create problems for riverine biota and for human uses of the water resource, as well may allow for enhancement of N2O and CH4 production. Controlling and removing macrophyte and macroalgal biomass has been an endeavor of river managers for several decades, however stands may represent a large seasonal sink for inorganic forms of N and P. Rivers are heterogeneous environments, which complicate studies of primary productivity, thus spatial variations within riverine systems are important to consider for developing an understanding of benthic vegetation and it's impact on oxygen, phosphorus and nitrogen cycling. Here we present multi-year spatial data on submersed macrophyte communties in the Grand River watershed (Southern Ontario), a heavily populated urban and agricultural watershed, and demonstrate that macrophyte communities represent an important seasonal sink for nutrients P and N. We also give a watershed wide estimate for the temporary nutrient storage capacity of nutrients by macrophyte communities in this system.

Hood, J. L.; Taylor, W. D.; Schiff, S.

2009-05-01

96

Intergeneric hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus containing traits of agronomic importance for oilseed rape breeding.  

PubMed

Protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus for transfer of valuable traits to oilseed rape resulted in 257 somatic hybrid plants. Hybridity was confirmed by morphological, cytological and molecular means. Symmetric fusions gave rise to 131 plants. Fifty eight of these plants had an intermediate morphology and contained nuclear DNA corresponding to the sum of the parental species. All 131 plants were sterile with no pollen grains observed upon flowering. Another 126 plants were derived from asymmetric fusions in which protoplasts of the donor parent O. violaceus were irradiated by 100 or 200-Gy X-rays prior to fusion. Morphologically these plants showed a larger variation compared to the plants regenerated from symmetric fusion experiments. In contrast to plants obtained from symmetric fusions, fertile hybrids were recovered among regenerants from the asymmetric fusions. Twenty four of these plants released viable pollen grains and 14 of the determined 17 plants set seeds after either selfing or backcrossing to B. napus. Fourteen male-sterile plants were identified with female fertility. This observed male sterility most-likely originated from alloplasmic recombination and would be of great potential for the development of a new cytoplasmic male sterility system. The fatty acid composition of the fertile hybrids and their progenies showed a biased distribution towards the B. napus parent, which has a high erucic acid-content type. However, increased levels of palmitic and linoleic acids compared to B. napus were found in subsequent generations, as well as a reduced level of erucic acid. PMID:12582907

Hu, Q.; Hansen, N.; Laursen, J.; Dixelius, C.; Andersen, B.

2002-11-01

97

U.S. Irrigation. Extent and Economic Importance. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 523.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data for the years 1974, 1978, 1982, and 1984 are used to identify the principal features of irrigated farming in the United States and to assess the importance of irrigation to the farm economy. Irrigation of U.S. acreage declined 5.6 million acres between 1978 and 1984 to 44.7 million acres. In 1982 irrigated acreage represented 6 percent of the…

Day, John C.; Horner, Gerald L.

98

Importance of Wetland Landscape Structure to Shorebirds Wintering in an Agricultural Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only recently has the influence of landscape structure on habitat use been a research focus in wetland systems. During non-breeding\\u000a periods when food can be locally limited, wetland spatial pattern across a landscape may be of great importance in determining\\u000a wetland use. We studied the influence of landscape structure on abundances of wintering Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)

Oriane W. Taft; Susan M. Haig

2006-01-01

99

The top 100 questions of importance to the future of global agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a significant growth in food production over the past half-century, one of the most important challenges facing society today is how to feed an expected population of some nine billion by the middle of the 20th century. To meet the expected demand for food without significant increases in prices, it has been estimated that we need to produce 70–100

Jules Pretty; William J. Sutherland; Jacqueline Ashby; Jill Auburn; David Baulcombe; Michael Bell; Jeffrey Bentley; Sam Bickersteth; Katrina Brown; Jacob Burke; Hugh Campbell; Kevin Chen; Eve Crowley; Ian Crute; Dirk Dobbelaere; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Fernando Funes-Monzote; H. Charles J. Godfray; Michel Griffon; Phrek Gypmantisiri; Lawrence Haddad; Siosiua Halavatau; Hans Herren; Mark Holderness; Anne-Marie Izac; Monty Jones; Parviz Koohafkan; Rattan Lal; Timothy Lang; Jeffrey McNeely; Alexander Mueller; Nicholas Nisbett; Andrew Noble; Prabhu Pingali; Yvonne Pinto; Rudy Rabbinge; N. H. Ravindranath; Agnes Rola; Niels Roling; Colin Sage; William Settle; J. M. Sha; Luo Shiming; Tony Simons; Pete Smith; Kenneth Strzepeck; Harry Swaine; Eugene Terry; Thomas P. Tomich; Camilla Toulmin; Eduardo Trigo; Stephen Twomlow; Jan Kees Vis; Jeremy Wilson; Sarah Pilgrim

2010-01-01

100

Microsatellite Diversity of the Agriculturally Important Alpine Grass Poa alpina in Relation to Land Use and Natural Environment  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Alpine Meadow Grass Poa alpina is common in subalpine and alpine natural sites and agriculturally used land, where it is an important fodder grass. Natural factors and human land use are supposed to have been shaping its genetic diversity for hundreds of years. The species comprises sexually and vegetatively reproducing plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use, environmental factors and the mode of reproduction on the distribution of its microsatellite diversity within and among populations and to analyse whether its genetic diversity is correlated with plant species diversity in grassland parcels. Methods Genetic diversity of P. alpina was assessed with five microsatellite markers for 569 plants originating from 20 natural sites and from 54 grassland parcels of different cultural tradition, land use and altitude in the Swiss Alps. Due to polyploidy and frequent aneuploidy of the species, data analyses were based on the presence of microsatellite bands. Key Results A low but significant differentiation was found in microsatellite bands among natural sites and agriculturally used parcels, while their microsatellite band diversity within populations did not differ. An increased differentiation was found in microsatellite bands with increasing geographic distance among parcels, and a differentiation among grazed and mown parcels, and among sexually and vegetatively reproducing populations. Band richness of sampled plants per village was higher for villages where parcels represented more different land-use types. Within populations, microsatellite band diversity was higher in grazed than in mown parcels. Conclusions The diversity of human land use in the Alps was associated with genetic diversity of P. alpina. Therefore, the ongoing socio-economically motivated land-use changes, which reduce the number of different land-use types, will affect the genetic diversity of P. alpina negatively. PMID:17901059

Rudmann-Maurer, Katrin; Weyand, Anne; Fischer, Markus; Stöcklin, Jürg

2007-01-01

101

Predicting the impacts of climate change on animal distributions: the importance of local adaptation and species' traits  

SciTech Connect

The geographic range limits of many species are strongly affected by climate and are expected to change under global warming. For species that are able to track changing climate over broad geographic areas, we expect to see shifts in species distributions toward the poles and away from the equator. A number of ecological and evolutionary factors, however, could restrict this shifting or redistribution under climate change. These factors include restricted habitat availability, restricted capacity for or barriers to movement, or reduced abundance of colonists due the perturbation effect of climate change. This research project examined the last of these constraints - that climate change could perturb local conditions to which populations are adapted, reducing the likelihood that a species will shift its distribution by diminishing the number of potential colonists. In the most extreme cases, species ranges could collapse over a broad geographic area with no poleward migration and an increased risk of species extinction. Changes in individual species ranges are the processes that drive larger phenomena such as changes in land cover, ecosystem type, and even changes in carbon cycling. For example, consider the poleward range shift and population outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle that has decimated millions of acres of Douglas fir trees in the western US and Canada. Standing dead trees cause forest fires and release vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere. The beetle likely shifted its range because it is not locally adapted across its range, and it appears to be limited by winter low temperatures that have steadily increased in the last decades. To understand range and abundance changes like the pine beetle, we must reveal the extent of adaptive variation across species ranges - and the physiological basis of that adaptation - to know if other species will change as readily as the pine beetle. Ecologists tend to assume that range shifts are the dominant response of species to climate change, but our experiments suggest that other processes may act in some species that reduce the likelihood of geographic range change. In the first part of our DOE grant (ending 2008) we argued that the process of local adaptation of populations within a species range, followed by climatic changes that occur too quickly for adaptive evolution, is an underappreciated mechanism by which climate change could affect biodiversity. When this process acts, species ranges may not shift readily toward the poles, slowing the rate of species and biome change. To test this claim, we performed an experiment comparing core and peripheral populations in a series of field observations, translocation experiments, and genetic analyses. The papers in Appendix A were generated from 2005-2008 funding. In the second part of the DOE grant (ending 2011) we studied which traits promote population differentiation and local adaptation by building genomic resources for our study species and using these resources to reveal differences in gene expression in peripheral and core populations. The papers in Appendix B were generated from 2008-2011 funding. This work was pursued with two butterfly species that have contrasting life history traits (body size and resource specialization) and occupy a common ecosystem and a latitudinal range. These species enabled us to test the following hypotheses using a single phylogenetic group.

HELLMANN, J. J.; LOBO, N. F.

2011-12-20

102

Association of N2-fixing cyanobacteria and plants: towards novel symbioses of agricultural importance  

SciTech Connect

Some nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are able to form symbioses with a wide variety of plants. Nostoc 2S9B is unusual in its ability to infect the roots of wheat, raising the prospect of a productive association with an important crop plant. The goal of the project was to lay the groundwork for the use of novel associations between Nostoc and crops of agronomic importance, thereby reducing our reliance on nitrogenous fertilizer. Nostoc 2S9B was found to enter roots through mechanical damage of roots and reside primarily in intercellular spaces. The strain could also be incorporated into wheat calli grown in tissue culture. In both cases, the rate of nitrogen fixation by the cyanobacterium was higher than that of the same strain grown with no plant present. Artificial nodules induced by the action of hormone 2,4D were readily infected by Nostoc 2S9B, and the cyanobacteria within such nodules fixed nitrogen under fully aerobic conditions. The nitrogen fixed was shown to be incorporated into the growing wheat seedlings. Nostoc thus differs from other bacteria in its ability to fix nitrogen in para-nodules without need for artificially microaerobic conditions. It would be useful to introduce foreign DNA into Nostoc 2S9B in order to make defined mutations to understand the genetic basis of its ability to infect wheat and to create strains that might facilitate the study of the infection process. Transfer of DNA into the cyanobacterium appears to be limited by the presence of four restriction enzymes, with recognition sequences the same as BamHI, BglI, BsaHI, and Tth111I. Genes encoding methyltransferases that protect DNA against these four enzymes have been cloned into helper plasmids to allow transfer of DNA from E. coli to Nostoc 2S9B.

Elhai, Jeff

2001-06-25

103

Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Restani, M.; Davies, J.M.; Newton, W.E.

2008-01-01

104

Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle and an emerging infectious disease of humans. Cow- and badger-based control strategies have failed to eradicate bTB from the British cattle herd, and the incidence is rising by about 18%?per year. The annual cost to taxpayers in Britain is currently £74 million. Research has focused on the badger as a potential bTB reservoir, with little attention being paid to other mammals common on farmland. We have conducted a systematic survey of wild mammals (n=4393 individuals) present on dairy farms to explore the role of species other than badgers in the epidemiology of bTB. Cultures were prepared from 10?397 samples (primarily faeces, urine and tracheal aspirates). One of the 1307 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) live-sampled, and three of the 43 badgers (Meles meles), yielded positive isolates of Mycobacterium bovis. This is the first time the bacterium has been isolated from the bank vole. The strain type was the same as that found in cattle and badgers on the same farm. However, our work indicates that the mean prevalence of infectious individuals among common farmland wildlife is extremely low (the upper 95% confidence interval is ?2.0 for all of the abundant species). Mathematical models illustrate that it is highly unlikely the disease could be maintained at such low levels. Our results suggest that these animals are relatively unimportant as reservoirs of bTB, having insufficient within-species (or within-group) transmission to sustain the infection, though occasional spill-overs from cattle or badgers may occur. PMID:16543179

Mathews, Fiona; Macdonald, David W; Taylor, G. Michael; Gelling, Merryl; Norman, Rachel A; Honess, Paul E; Foster, Rebecca; Gower, Charlotte M; Varley, Susan; Harris, Audrey; Palmer, Simonette; Hewinson, Glyn; Webster, Joanne P

2005-01-01

105

SEED DORMANCY, AGRICULTURAL IMPORTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Seed dormancy has been defined as the temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate, after a specific length of time, in a particular set of environmental conditions that later evoke germination when the restrictive state has been terminated by either natural or artificial conditions. S...

106

An Evaluation of Arabidopsis thaliana Hybrid Traits and Their Genetic Control  

PubMed Central

Heterosis is an important phenomenon in agriculture. However, heterosis often greatly varies among hybrids and among traits. To investigate heterosis across a large number of traits and numerous genotypes, we evaluated 12 life history traits on parents and hybrids derived from five Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Col, Ler-0, Cvi, Ws, and C24) by using a complete diallel analysis containing 20 hybrids. Parental contributions to heterosis were hybrid and trait specific with a few reciprocal differences. Most notably, C24 generated hybrids with flowering time, biomass, and reproductive traits that often exceeded high-parent values. However, reproductive traits of C24 and Col hybrids and flowering time traits of C24 and Ler hybrids had no heterosis. We investigated whether allelic variation at flowering time genes FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) could explain the genotype- and trait-specific contribution of C24 to hybrid traits. We evaluated both Col and Ler lines introgressed with various FRI and FLC alleles and hybrids between these lines and C24. Hybrids with functional FLC differed from hybrids with nonfunctional FLC for 21 of the 24 hybrid-trait combinations. In most crosses, heterosis was fully or partially explained by FRI and FLC. Our results describe the genetic diversity for heterosis within a sample of A. thaliana ecotypes and show that FRI and FLC are major factors that contribute to heterosis in a genotype and trait specific fashion. PMID:22384368

Moore, Siobhan; Lukens, Lewis

2011-01-01

107

Mapping forest patches and scattered trees from SPOT images and testing their ecological importance for woodland birds in a fragmented agricultural landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scattered trees represent an important element within the agricultural matrix for birds. The aims of this study were to develop methods for mapping isolated trees from satellite imagery and to assess the importance of isolated trees for bird species richness. Field sampling of birds and plants was conducted at 120 sites in south-east Australia. We mapped tree cover from Landsat

N. Levin; C. McAlpine; S. Phinn; B. Price; D. Pullar; R. P. Kavanagh; B. S. Law

2009-01-01

108

Predicting dangerousness with two Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory psychopathy scales: the importance of egocentric and callous traits.  

PubMed

Psychopathy in youth has received increased recognition as a critical clinical construct for the evaluation and management of adolescents who have come into contact with the law (e.g., Forth, Hare, & Hart, 1990; Frick, 1998; Lynam, 1996, 1998). Although considerable attention has been devoted to the adult construct of psychopathy and its relation to recidivism, psychopathy in adolescents has been less thoroughly researched. Recently, a psychopathy scale (Murrie and Cornell Psychopathy Scale; Murrie & Cornell, 2000) was developed from items of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon, 1993). This scale was found to be highly related to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 1991) and was judged to have demonstrated good criterion validity. A necessary step in the validation process of any psychopathy scale is establishing its predictive validity. With this in mind, we investigated the ability of the MACI Psychopathy Scale to predict recidivism with 55 adolescent offenders 2 years after they had been evaluated at a juvenile court evaluation unit. In addition, we devised a psychopathy scale from MACI items that aligned more closely with Cooke and Michie (2001) and Frick, Bodin, and Barry's (2001) recommendations for the refinement of psychopathy and tested its predictive validity. Results indicate that both scales had predictive utility. Interpersonal and affective components of the revised scale were particularly important in the prediction of both general and violent reoffending. PMID:12700018

Salekin, Randall T; Ziegler, Tracey A; Larrea, Maria A; Anthony, Virginia Lee; Bennett, Allyson D

2003-04-01

109

Toward understanding genetic mechanisms of complex traits in rice.  

PubMed

Rice is the primary carbohydrate staple cereal feeding the world population. Many genes, known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs), control most of the agronomically important traits in rice. The identification of QTLs controlling agricultural traits is vital to increase yield and meet the needs of the increasing human population, but the progress met with challenges due to complex QTL inheritance. To date, many QTLs have been detected in rice, including those responsible for yield and grain quality; salt, drought and submergence tolerance; disease and insect resistance; and nutrient utilization efficiency. Map-based cloning techniques have enabled scientists to successfully fine map and clone approximately seventeen QTLs for several traits. Additional in-depth functional analyses and characterizations of these genes will provide valuable assistance in rice molecular breeding. PMID:21035092

Hao, Wei; Lin, Hong-Xuan

2010-10-01

110

The Importance of the Regional Species Pool, Ecological Species Traits and Local Habitat Conditions for the Colonization of Restored River Reaches by Fish  

PubMed Central

It is commonly assumed that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish depends on the regional species pools; however, quantifications of the relationship between the composition of the regional species pool and restoration outcome are lacking. We analyzed data from 18 German river restoration projects and adjacent river reaches constituting the regional species pools of the restored reaches. We found that the ability of statistical models to describe the fish assemblages established in the restored reaches was greater when these models were based on ‘biotic’ variables relating to the regional species pool and the ecological traits of species rather than on ‘abiotic’ variables relating to the hydromorphological habitat structure of the restored habitats and descriptors of the restoration projects. For species presence in restored reaches, ‘biotic’ variables explained 34% of variability, with the occurrence rate of a species in the regional species pool being the most important variable, while ’abiotic’ variables explained only the negligible amount of 2% of variability. For fish density in restored reaches, about twice the amount of variability was explained by ‘biotic’ (38%) compared to ‘abiotic’ (21%) variables, with species density in the regional species pool being most important. These results indicate that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish is largely determined by the assemblages in the surrounding species pool. Knowledge of species presence and abundance in the regional species pool can be used to estimate the likelihood of fish species becoming established in restored reaches. PMID:24404187

Stoll, Stefan; Kail, Jochem; Lorenz, Armin W.; Sundermann, Andrea; Haase, Peter

2014-01-01

111

Trait stacking via targeted genome editing.  

PubMed

Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits. The current paradigm of randomly integrating and sorting independently segregating transgenes creates severe downstream breeding challenges. A versatile, generally applicable solution is hereby provided: the combination of high-efficiency targeted genome editing driven by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) with modular 'trait landing pads' (TLPs) that allow 'mix-and-match', on-demand transgene integration and trait stacking in crop plants. We illustrate the utility of nuclease-driven TLP technology by applying it to the stacking of herbicide resistance traits. We first integrated into the maize genome an herbicide resistance gene, pat, flanked with a TLP (ZFN target sites and sequences homologous to incoming DNA) using WHISKERS™-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures. We established a method for targeted transgene integration based on microparticle bombardment of immature embryos and used it to deliver a second trait precisely into the TLP via cotransformation with a donor DNA containing a second herbicide resistance gene, aad1, flanked by sequences homologous to the integrated TLP along with a corresponding ZFN expression construct. Remarkably, up to 5% of the embryo-derived transgenic events integrated the aad1 transgene precisely at the TLP, that is, directly adjacent to the pat transgene. Importantly and consistent with the juxtaposition achieved via nuclease-driven TLP technology, both herbicide resistance traits cosegregated in subsequent generations, thereby demonstrating linkage of the two independently transformed transgenes. Because ZFN-mediated targeted transgene integration is becoming applicable across an increasing number of crop species, this work exemplifies a simple, facile and rapid approach to trait stacking. PMID:23953646

Ainley, William M; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Welter, Mary E; Murray, Michael G; Zeitler, Bryan; Amora, Rainier; Corbin, David R; Miles, Rebecca R; Arnold, Nicole L; Strange, Tonya L; Simpson, Matthew A; Cao, Zehui; Carroll, Carley; Pawelczak, Katherine S; Blue, Ryan; West, Kim; Rowland, Lynn M; Perkins, Douglas; Samuel, Pon; Dewes, Cristie M; Shen, Liu; Sriram, Shreedharan; Evans, Steven L; Rebar, Edward J; Zhang, Lei; Gregory, Phillip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Webb, Steven R; Petolino, Joseph F

2013-12-01

112

Roles of UV-damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) in epigenetically modifying multiple traits of agronomic importance in tomato.  

PubMed

Epigenetic regulation participates broadly in many fundamentally cellular and physiological processes. In this study, we found that DDB1, a protein originally identified as a factor involved in DNA repairing, plays important roles in regulating organ size, growth habit and photosynthesis in tomato via an epigenetic manner. We generated transgenic tomato plants overexpressing an alternatively spliced DDB1 transcript (DDB1(F) , prevalently present in tomato tissues) and found the primary transformants displayed small-fruited "cherry tomato" in companion with strikingly enhanced shoot branching and biomass, dark-green leaves with elevated chlorophyll accumulation, and increased soluble solids in fruits. Significantly, these phenotypic alterations did not segregate with the DDB1(F) transgene in subsequent generations, suggesting that the effect of DDB1(F) on multiple agronomic traits is implemented via an epigenetic manner and is inheritable over generations. We speculate that DDB1, as a core subunit in the recently identified CUL4-based E3 ligase complex, mediates the 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of a large number of proteins, some of which might be required for perpetuating epigenetic marks on chromatins. PMID:23073016

Tang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jikai; Huang, Shengxiong; Shi, Wei; Miao, Min; Tang, Dan Feng; Niu, Xiangli; Xiao, Fangming; Liu, Yongsheng

2012-12-01

113

76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...distributing an agricultural product or commodity from its point...in industry in areas where product is sourced. ii. Consulting...Company should ensure that a safe and accessible channel is...that a third party operating a product or service certification...

2011-04-12

114

Importance of spatially structured environmental heterogeneity in controlling microbial community composition at small spatial scales in an agricultural field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial heterogeneity is an inherent feature of soils that has significant functional implications, particularly when the activities of soil microbial communities are considered. The main goal of this study was to determine the physical–chemical properties best correlated with changes in microbial community composition in an agricultural ecosystem, as part of an effort to better understand what environmental factors control the

Rima B. Franklin; Aaron L. Mills

2009-01-01

115

Crop Residue Management in Conservation Agriculture Systems in Zimbabwe Smallholder Farming Sector: Importance, Management Challenges and Possible Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation agriculture (CA) is promoted as a cropping system that has potential to alleviate poor crop yields in smallholder farming while protecting the environment. It involves maintenance of permanent soil cover, diverse crop rotations and\\/or interactions; and minimum soil disturbance. CA is associated with crop residue management challenges due to low crop biomass yields and crop-livestock interactions in Zimbabwean smallholder

Blessing Mhlanga; Tarirai Muoni

2014-01-01

116

Habitat use and movement patterns of Northern Pintails during spring in northern Japan: the importance of agricultural lands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 2006 to 2009, we marked 198 Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) with satellite transmitters on their wintering areas in Japan to study their migration routes and habitat use in spring staging areas. We hypothesized that the distribution of pintails during spring staging was influenced by patterns of land use and expected that the most frequently used areas would have more agricultural habitat than lesser-used areas. We obtained 3031 daily locations from 163 migrant pintails marked with satellite transmitters and identified 524 stopover sites. Based on a fixed kernel home range analysis of stopover utilization distribution (UD), core staging areas (areas within the 50% UD) were identified in northern Honshu and western Hokkaido, and were used by 71% of marked pintails. Core staging areas had a greater proportion of rice fields than peripheral (51–95% UD) and rarely used (outside the 95% UD) staging areas. Stopover sites also contained more rice fields and other agricultural land than were available at regional scales, indicating that pintails selected rice and other agricultural habitats at regional and local scales. Pintails remained at spring staging areas an average of 51 d. Prolonged staging in agricultural habitats of northern Japan was likely necessary for pintails to prepare for transoceanic migration to Arctic nesting areas in eastern Russia.

Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Shigeta, Yusuke; Shimada, Tetsuo; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

2012-01-01

117

The importance of the riparian zone and in-stream processes in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed and agricultural watersheds - A review of the scientific literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWe reviewed published studies from primarily glaciated regions in the United States, Canada, and Europe of the (1) transport of nitrate from terrestrial ecosystems to aquatic ecosystems, (2) attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone of undisturbed and agricultural watersheds, (3) processes contributing to nitrate attenuation in riparian zones, (4) variation in the attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone, and (5) importance of in-stream and hyporheic processes for nitrate attenuation in the stream channel. Our objectives were to synthesize the results of these studies and suggest methodologies to (1) monitor regional trends in nitrate concentration in undisturbed 1st order watersheds and (2) reduce nitrate loads in streams draining agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals that undisturbed headwater watersheds have been shown to be very retentive of nitrogen, but the importance of biogeochemical and hydrological riparian zone processes in retaining nitrogen in these watersheds has not been demonstrated as it has for agricultural watersheds. An understanding of the role of the riparian zone in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed watersheds is crucial because these watersheds are increasingly subject to stressors, such as changes in land use and climate, wildfire, and increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In general, understanding processes controlling the concentration and flux of nitrate is critical to identifying and mapping the vulnerability of watersheds to water quality changes due to a variety of stressors. In undisturbed and agricultural watersheds we propose that understanding the importance of riparian zone processes in 2nd order and larger watersheds is critical. Research is needed that addresses the relative importance of how the following sources of nitrate along any given stream reach might change as watersheds increase in size and with flow: (1) inputs upstream from the reach, (2) tributary inflow, (3) water derived from the riparian zone, (4) groundwater from outside the riparian zone (intermediate or regional sources), and (5) in-stream (hyporheic) processes.

Ranalli, Anthony J.; Macalady, Donald L.

2010-08-01

118

The Influence of Genetic Drift and Selection on Quantitative Traits in a Plant Pathogenic Fungus  

PubMed Central

Genetic drift and selection are ubiquitous evolutionary forces acting to shape genetic variation in populations. While their relative importance has been well studied in plants and animals, less is known about their relative importance in fungal pathogens. Because agro-ecosystems are more homogeneous environments than natural ecosystems, stabilizing selection may play a stronger role than genetic drift or diversifying selection in shaping genetic variation among populations of fungal pathogens in agro-ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a QST/FST analysis using agricultural populations of the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune. Population divergence for eight quantitative traits (QST) was compared with divergence at eight neutral microsatellite loci (FST) for 126 pathogen strains originating from nine globally distributed field populations to infer the effects of genetic drift and types of selection acting on each trait. Our analyses indicated that five of the eight traits had QST values significantly lower than FST, consistent with stabilizing selection, whereas one trait, growth under heat stress (22°C), showed evidence of diversifying selection and local adaptation (QST>FST). Estimates of heritability were high for all traits (means ranging between 0.55–0.84), and average heritability across traits was negatively correlated with microsatellite gene diversity. Some trait pairs were genetically correlated and there was significant evidence for a trade-off between spore size and spore number, and between melanization and growth under benign temperature. Our findings indicate that many ecologically and agriculturally important traits are under stabilizing selection in R. commune and that high within-population genetic variation is maintained for these traits. PMID:25383967

Stefansson, Tryggvi S.; McDonald, Bruce A.; Willi, Yvonne

2014-01-01

119

Construction of a genetic linkage map and identification of molecular markers associated with resistance to TSWV, leaf spot, and other important traits.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The limited DNA polymorphisms have impeded the application of marker assisted breeding in peanut. A high-density genetic linkage map for all chromosomes is necessary for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis and efficient marker-assisted breeding. Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such ...

120

Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. Methods Research was carried out in 5 villages of each of three Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks (AECD-Blocks) of the Forest Margin Benchmark Area (FMBA). In each village, a semi-structured survey was used; male and female groups of farmers were interviewed separately. Results Z. variegatus is present throughout the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, where it is ranked as the third most economically important insect pest of agriculture. In the farmers' opinion, Z. variegatus is a polyphagous insect with little impact on young perennial crops. The length of the pre-farming fallow does not affect Z. variegatus pest pressure in the following crops. The increased impact of the grasshopper observed today in the fields, compared to what existed 10 years ago is as a result of deforestation and increase in surface of herbaceous fallow. The damage caused by Z. variegatus is higher in fields adjacent to C. odorata and herbaceous fallows than in those adjacent to forests and shrubby fallows. The fight against this grasshopper is often done through physical methods carried out by hand, for human consumption. The farmers highlight low usage of the chemical methods and a total absence of biological and ecological methods. Conclusion Farmers' perception have contributed to understanding the status of Z. variegatus in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. The results are in general similar to those obtained in other countries. PMID:16573815

Kekeunou, Sévilor; Weise, Stephan; Messi, Jean; Tamò, Manuel

2006-01-01

121

Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Milk Production, Health, and Reproductive Traits in Holstein Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from two research groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Reposi- tory grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting economically important traits. Six families used by both groups had been genotyped for 367 microsatellite markers covering 2713.5 cM

M. S. Ashwell; D. W. Heyen; T. S. Sonstegard; C. P. Van Tassell; Y. Da; P. M. VanRaden; M. Ron; J. I. Weller; H. A. Lewin

2004-01-01

122

Heritability of drought resistance traits and correlation of drought resistance and agronomic traits in peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inheritance of traits is important for developing effective breeding schemes for improving desired traits. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) of drought resistance traits and the genotypic (rG) and phenotypic (rP) correlations between drought resistance traits under str...

123

DETECTION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION, HEALTH, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci affecting economically important traits. Six ...

124

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture  

E-print Network

's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the landOklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

125

The contribution and importance of vocational education in agriculture to the Cardinal principles of secondary education [of the N.E.A. Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education  

E-print Network

LIGRARy A & M COLLEGE OF TEXAS THE CONTRIBUTION AND IMPORTANCE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE TO THE CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION A Thesis by LEON TRAVIS BATES p JR, Ote Submitted to the Graduate School... Principal Secondary education Students 14 15 16 16 16 16 High school Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education II. THE CONTRIBUTION AND IMPORTANCE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE TO THE CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF 17 17 SECONDARY EDUCATION...

Bates, Leon Travis

1958-01-01

126

Landscape heterogeneity as an ecological filter of species traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape heterogeneity is a major driver of biodiversity in agricultural areas and represents an important parameter in conservation strategies. However, most landscape ecology studies measure gamma diversity of a single habitat type, despite the assessment of multiple habitats at a landscape scale being more appropriate. This study aimed to determine the effects of landscape composition and spatial configuration on life-history trait distribution in carabid beetle and herbaceous plant communities. Here, we assessed the gamma diversity of carabid beetles and plants by sampling three dominant habitats (woody habitats, grasslands and crops) across 20 landscapes in western France. RLQ and Fourth Corner three-table analyses were used to assess the association of dispersal, phenology, reproduction and trophic level traits with landscape characteristics. Landscape composition and configuration were both significant in explaining functional composition. Carabid beetles and plants showed similar response regarding phenology, i.e. open landscapes were associated with earlier breeding species. Carabid beetle dispersal traits exhibited the strongest relationship with landscape structure; for instance, large and apterous species preferentially inhabited woody landscapes, whereas small and macropterous species preferentially inhabited open landscapes. Heavy seeded plant species dominated in intensified agricultural landscapes (high % crops), possibly due to the removal of weeds (which are usually lightweight seeded species). The results of this study emphasise the roles of landscape composition and configuration as ecological filters and the importance of preserving a range of landscape types to maintain functional biodiversity at regional scales.

Duflot, Rémi; Georges, Romain; Ernoult, Aude; Aviron, Stéphanie; Burel, Françoise

2014-04-01

127

Interval Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Employing Correlated Trait Complexes  

PubMed Central

An approach to increase the resolution power of interval mapping of quantitative trait (QT) loci is proposed, based on analysis of correlated trait complexes. For a given set of QTs, the broad sense heritability attributed to a QT locus (QTL) (say, A/ a) is an increasing function of the number of traits. Thus, for some traits x and y, H(xy)(2) (A/ a) >/= H(x)(2) (A/ a). The last inequality holds even if y does not depend on A/ a at all, but x and y are correlated within the groups AA, Aa and aa due to nongenetic factors and segregation of genes from other chromosomes. A simple relationship connects H(2) (both in single trait and two-trait analysis) with the expected LOD value, ELOD = -1/2N log(1 - H(2)). Thus, situations could exist that from the inequality H(xy)(2) (A/ a) >/= H(x)(2) (A/ a) a higher resolution is provided by the two-trait analysis as compared to the single-trait analysis, in spite of the increased number of parameters. Employing LOD-score procedure to simulated backcross data, we showed that the resolution power of the QTL mapping model can be elevated if correlation between QTs is taken into account. The method allows us to test numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning manifold effects of genomic segments on the defined trait complex (means, variances and correlations). PMID:7672584

Korol, A. B.; Ronin, Y. I.; Kirzhner, V. M.

1995-01-01

128

Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... Cell Disease (SCD) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Sickle Cell Trait New: Sickle Cell Trait Toolkit People ... pass the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have ...

129

Interval mapping of quantitative trait loci employing correlated trait complexes  

SciTech Connect

An approach to increase the resolution power of interval mapping of quantitative trait (QT) loci is proposed, based on analysis of correlated trait complexes. For a given set of QTs, the broad sense heritablity attributed to a QT locus (QTL) (say, A/a) is an increasing function of the number of traits. Thus, for some traits x and y are correlated within the groups AA, Aa and aa due to nongenetic factors and segregation of genes from other chromosomes. A simple relationship connects H{sup 2} (both in single trait and two-trait analysis) with the expected LOD value, ELOD = -1/2Nlog(1-H{sup 2}). Thus, situations could exist that from the inequality H{sup 2}{sub xy}(A/a) {ge} H{sup 2}{sub x} (A/a) a higher resolution is provided by the two-trait analysis, in spite of the increased number of parameters. Employing LOD-score procedure to simulated backcross data, we showed that the resolution power of the QTL mapping model can be elevated if correlation between QTs is taken into account. The method allows us to test numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning manifold effects of genomic segments on the defined trait complex (means, variances and correlations). 33 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Korol, A.B.; Ronin, Y,I.; Kirzhner, V.M. [Univ. of Haifa (Israel)

1995-07-01

130

IncP-1? Plasmids are Important Vectors of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Agricultural Systems: Diversification Driven by Class 1 Integron Gene Cassettes  

PubMed Central

The role of broad-host range IncP-1? plasmids in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in agricultural systems has not yet been investigated. These plasmids were detected in total DNA from all of 16 manure samples and in arable soil based on a novel 5?-nuclease assay for real-time PCR. A correlation between IncP-1? plasmid abundance and antibiotic usage was revealed. In a soil microcosm experiment the abundance of IncP-1? plasmids was significantly increased even 127?days after application of manure containing the antibiotic compound sulfadiazine, compared to soil receiving only manure, only sulfadiazine, or water. Fifty IncP-1? plasmids that were captured in E. coli CV601gfp from bacterial communities of manure and arable soil were characterized by PCR and hybridization. All plasmids carried class 1 integrons with highly varying sizes of the gene cassette region and the sul1 gene. Three IncP-1? plasmids captured from soil bacteria and one from manure were completely sequenced. The backbones were nearly identical to that of the previously described IncP-1? plasmid pKJK5. The plasmids differed mainly in the composition of a Tn402-like transposon carrying a class 1 integron with varying gene cassettes, IS1326, and in three of the plasmids the tetracycline resistance transposon Tn1721 with various truncations. Diverse Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were revealed as hosts of one of the IncP-1? plasmids in soil microcosms. Our data suggest that IncP-1? plasmids are important vectors for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance in agricultural systems. PMID:22279444

Heuer, Holger; Binh, Chu T. T.; Jechalke, Sven; Kopmann, Christoph; Zimmerling, Ute; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Ledger, Thomas; González, Bernardo; Top, Eva; Smalla, Kornelia

2011-01-01

131

Association of puppies' behavioral reaction at five months of age assessed by questionnaire with their later 'Distraction' at 15 months of age, an important behavioral trait for guide dog qualification.  

PubMed

Guide dogs help visually impaired persons both physically and psychologically. More than half of all candidate dogs do not qualify, mainly for behavioral reasons. Improved training efficacy is desirable, and earlier prediction of qualification-related traits would be beneficial. In a previous study, we identified 'Distraction', assessed during the training period, as an important behavioral trait for judging the qualification of guide dogs at the Japan Guide Dog Association. As a second step, we aimed to develop an index that can predict during the puppy period. In this study, candidate guide dogs, 5-month-old Labrador retrievers, were assessed by puppy raisers using a newly developed questionnaire that consisted of 20 items. The same dogs were assessed later, at 15 months, by trainers to determine 'Distraction'. In principal components analysis, nine items, including excitability toward strangers, initiative while out for a walk, and exploration, composed the first principal component (PC1). When we compared PC1 points with 'Distraction' points, the two categories were positively correlated (n=110, r(s)=0.31, P=0.0009). Although the accuracy of the questionnaire should be increased, the results of the present study suggest that it may be possible to assess and predict 'Distraction', which is associated with disqualification for guide dogs, early in the puppy-raising period. PMID:22971667

Kobayashi, Natsuko; Arata, Sayaka; Hattori, Ai; Kohara, Yui; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2013-01-31

132

Spatial decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying dependences of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may strongly increase the number of people depending on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries.

Fader, Marianela; Gerten, Dieter; Krause, Michael; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang

2013-03-01

133

A linkage map of cultivated cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) with 248 microsatellite marker loci and seven genes for horticulturally important traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marker assisted selection (MAS) is playing an increasingly important role in expedite and increase the efficiency of classical plant breeding. In cucumber, MAS is lagging behind as compared with other field crops. In the present study, a genetic map was developed with microsatellite (or simple seque...

134

Root traits for infertile soils  

PubMed Central

Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

2013-01-01

135

Individual and multi-environment combined analyses identify QTLs for morphogenetic and reproductive development traits in white clover (Trifolium repens L.).  

PubMed

White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a key component legume of temperate pasture agriculture and an important target for molecular marker-assisted plant breeding. A genetic map of white clover has been used to assess genetic control of agronomically important traits that vary in the F2(I.4RxI.5J) mapping family. Phenotypic analysis was performed for a range of vegetative morphogenesis traits (such as leaf area, internode length, plant height and plant spread) and reproductive morphogenesis and development traits (such as flowering date, floral intensity and seed yield), with both spatial and temporal replication. A multi-environment combined analysis (combined analysis) has been performed for traits assessed across multiple experimental datasets in order to identify consistent genetic effects. Quantitative trait locus (QTLs) were detected for the majority of traits, and the locations and magnitudes of QTL effects were compared between individual and combined analyses. This molecular genetic dissection of agronomic traits in white clover provides the basis for equivalent studies in more complex populations, design of marker-assisted selection strategies and comparative genetics with model legume species. Selection for QTLs derived from the combined analysis will permit robust improvement of phenotypic traits over different environments. PMID:16699790

Cogan, N O I; Abberton, M T; Smith, K F; Kearney, G; Marshall, A H; Williams, A; Michaelson-Yeates, T P T; Bowen, C; Jones, E S; Vecchies, A C; Forster, J W

2006-05-01

136

Application of microRNA gene resources in the improvement of agronomic traits in rice.  

PubMed

microRNAs (miRNAs) are important nonprotein-coding genes that are involved in almost all biological processes, including cell differentiation and fate determination, developmental regulation, and immune responses. Investigations have shown that some miRNAs can highly affect plant agricultural traits, including virus resistance, nematode resistance, drought and salinity tolerance, heavy metal detoxification, biomass yield, grain yield, fruit development and flower development. Therefore, these miRNAs are considered a newly identified gene resource for the genetic improvement of crops. In this review, we will summarize the recent findings of the rice miRNA-directed regulatory network, which controls agronomic traits such as yield, quality and stress tolerance, and explore the outlook for the uses of these miRNA-associated traits in rice biotechnology. PMID:25583449

Zheng, Ling-Ling; Qu, Liang-Hu

2015-04-01

137

Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic. A digital data set.  

PubMed

We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of building reliable collections of ticks with specific references as to collection point, host and date of capture. The data set is freely downloadable. PMID:22843316

Estrada-Peña, A; Farkas, Robert; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Koenen, Frank; Madder, Maxime; Pascucci, Ilaria; Salman, Mo; Tarrés-Call, Jordi; Jongejan, Frans

2013-03-01

138

Geographic Variation in the Acoustic Traits of Greater Horseshoe Bats: Testing the Importance of Drift and Ecological Selection in Evolutionary Processes  

PubMed Central

Patterns of intraspecific geographic variation of signaling systems provide insight into the microevolutionary processes driving phenotypic divergence. The acoustic calls of bats are sensitive to diverse evolutionary forces, but processes that shape call variation are largely unexplored. In China, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum displays a diverse call frequency and inhabits a heterogeneous landscape, presenting an excellent opportunity for this kind of research. We quantified geographic variation in resting frequency (RF) of echolocation calls, estimated genetic structure and phylogeny of R. ferrumequinum populations, and combined this with climatic factors to test three hypotheses to explain acoustic variation: genetic drift, cultural drift, and local adaptation. Our results demonstrated significant regional divergence in frequency and phylogeny among the bat populations in China's northeast (NE), central-east (CE) and southwest (SW) regions. The CE region had higher frequencies than the NE and SW regions. Drivers of RF divergence were estimated in the entire range and just the CE/NE region (since these two regions form a clade). In both cases, RF divergence was not correlated with mtDNA or nDNA genetic distance, but was significantly correlated with geographic distance and mean annual temperature, indicating cultural drift and ecological selection pressures are likely important in shaping RF divergence among different regions in China. PMID:23950926

Sun, Keping; Luo, Li; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Wei, Xuewen; Jin, Longru; Jiang, Tinglei; Li, Guohong; Feng, Jiang

2013-01-01

139

Biotechnology and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

Kenney, Martin

140

All farming operations that land apply manure or agricultural process wastewater, whether they generate the manure or import it from another operation, must have a written Manure Management Plan. All farming operations that include an Animal Concentra-  

E-print Network

All farming operations that land apply manure or agricultural process wastewater, whether they generate the manure or import it from another operation, must have a written Manure Management Plan. All Management Plan. For farms not defined as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) or Concentrated

Guiltinan, Mark

141

Effects of mowing cessation and hydrology on plant trait distribution in natural fen meadows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional grasslands are often of high conservation value, but depend on non-intensive management like mowing for their preservation. During the 20th century, traditional agricultural usage was either heavily intensified or abandoned due to socio-economic reasons. In Eastern Europe, land abandonment mainly took place in regions with qualitatively bad soils. This large scale land use change lead to secondary succession. In fens and fen meadows, this may lead to a decrease in species richness and a replacement of specialist species by more generalist ones. The main objective of the present study is to examine if and how mowing cessation interacts with hydrology in determining species and trait distribution in a fen meadow. In the Upper Course of the Biebrza National Park, Poland, we selected 15 sites along four transects, with plots in mown and abandoned parcels. In these plots we measured plant abundance, aboveground biomass and relative light intensity, while plant traits were selected from different trait databases. The relationship between these plot characteristics and the different traits was assessed using concordance analysis. Mowing cessation resulted in reduced moss cover and light availability, while vegetation height increased and higher litter deposition and tussock development were observed. This altered environment not only resulted in decreased species richness and evenness in abandoned plots but also caused shifts in plant trait distribution. Most of the significantly linked traits responded more strongly to mowing cessation than to the hydrologic gradient. Traits related to light competition, such as light requirements, plant height and shoot growth form, especially responded to mowing cessation. This stresses the importance of light competition as a major factor determining species and trait distribution in fen systems.

Opdekamp, W.; Beauchard, O.; Backx, H.; Franken, F.; Cox, T. J. S.; van Diggelen, R.; Meire, P.

2012-02-01

142

Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

143

Pleiotropic Patterns of Quantitative Trait Loci for 70 Murine Skeletal Traits  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies of a skeletal trait or a few related skeletal components are becoming commonplace, but as yet there has been no investigation of pleiotropic patterns throughout the skeleton. We present a comprehensive survey of pleiotropic patterns affecting mouse skeletal morphology in an intercross of LG/J and SM/J inbred strains (N = 1040), using QTL analysis on 70 skeletal traits. We identify 798 single-trait QTL, coalescing to 105 loci that affect on average 7–8 traits each. The number of traits affected per locus ranges from only 1 trait to 30 traits. Individual traits average 11 QTL each, ranging from 4 to 20. Skeletal traits are affected by many, small-effect loci. Significant additive genotypic values average 0.23 standard deviation (SD) units. Fifty percent of loci show codominance with heterozygotes having intermediate phenotypic values. When dominance does occur, the LG/J allele tends to be dominant to the SM/J allele (30% vs. 8%). Over- and underdominance are relatively rare (12%). Approximately one-fifth of QTL are sex specific, including many for pelvic traits. Evaluating the pleiotropic relationships of skeletal traits is important in understanding the role of genetic variation in the growth and development of the skeleton. PMID:18430949

Kenney-Hunt, Jane P.; Wang, Bing; Norgard, Elizabeth A.; Fawcett, Gloria; Falk, Doug; Pletscher, L. Susan; Jarvis, Joseph P.; Roseman, Charles; Wolf, Jason; Cheverud, James M.

2008-01-01

144

Introduction Agriculture/Agricultural Science  

E-print Network

38 Introduction Guide Entrance Life Career Inquiries Agriculture/Agricultural Science Mission and goal of the Graduate School of Agricultural Science The mission of agricultural science organization which aims to realize this agricultural ideal, the Graduate School of Agricultural Science's basic

Banbara, Mutsunori

145

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Morphology Features Extracted Computationally From Images  

PubMed Central

Seeds are studied to understand dispersal and establishment of the next generation, as units of agricultural yield, and for other important reasons. Thus, elucidating the genetic architecture of seed size and shape traits will benefit basic and applied plant biology research. This study sought quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the size and shape of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds by computational analysis of seed phenotypes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the small-seeded Landsberg erecta × large-seeded Cape Verde Islands accessions. On the order of 103 seeds from each recombinant inbred line were automatically measured with flatbed photo scanners and custom image analysis software. The eight significant QTL affecting seed area explained 63% of the variation, and overlapped with five of the six major-axis (length) QTL and three of the five minor-axis (width) QTL, which accounted for 57% and 38% of the variation in those traits, respectively. Because the Arabidopsis seed is exalbuminous, lacking an endosperm at maturity, the results are relatable to embryo length and width. The Cvi allele generally had a positive effect of 2.6–4.0%. Analysis of variance showed heritability of the three traits ranged between 60% and 73%. Repeating the experiment with 2.2 million seeds from a separate harvest of the RIL population and approximately 0.5 million seeds from 92 near-isogenic lines confirmed the aforementioned results. Structured for download are files containing phenotype measurements, all sets of seed images, and the seed trait measuring tool. PMID:23316443

Moore, Candace R.; Gronwall, David S.; Miller, Nathan D.; Spalding, Edgar P.

2013-01-01

146

The spatiotemporal coupled measurement of CO2, CH4, and N2O in a semi-arid agricultural stream and the importance of intra-stream studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute the largest share of anthropogenic produced greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted to the atmosphere. Aquatic environments have been found to be supersaturated with GHGs and are therefore a source to the atmosphere. Studies that simultaneously measure CO2, CH4, and N2O in streams are limited in number, and in study duration. Here, we investigated GHG's coming from an agricultural stream in a set of nested catchments ranging in size from 600 ha. to 5000 ha. in the semi-arid Palouse region of eastern Washington State, USA over a duration of 13 months. Questions asked were: 1) how much CO2, CH4, and N2O is being transported downstream and at what rate are these gases being emitted to the atmosphere? 2) how does transport and emission rates of CO2, CH4, N2O fluctuate through the year and at what time of the year are minimum and maximum concentrations observed? Along the stream gradient, there were significant differences between the measured physiochemical and flow parameters through space and time. Highest yearly transport rates of CO2 and N2O were from February-May (2928.4 ± 146.4 ?g L-1 s-1 and 19.8 ± 0.9 ?g L-1 s-1, respectively) coinciding with highest seasonal discharge. Highest CH4 transport was during July-September, reaching 95.7 ± 4.8 ?g L-1 s-1, coinciding with lowest seasonal discharge and anoxic conditions in surface waters. On average, stream sites were supersaturated with CO2, CH4, and N2O, but this was not always the case. During July-October transport of N2O was low (0.76 ± 0.04 ?g L-1 s-1), but this was not consistent between sites during this time. Observed N2O transport at hydrologic minimum varied from upstream to downstream (1.8 ± 0.1, 0.76 ± 0.04 and 2.4 ± 0.1 ?g L-1 s-1, respectively). Evasion of CO2, CH4, and N2O from the stream surface is expected to be a rapid process, leaving the stream prior to convergence with a larger system. Within a given month, intra-stream GHG concentrations would vary up to an order of magnitude. Findings from this study indicate significant spatial and temporal variability within the stream at this scale. For stream studies, intra-stream variability may play an important role in understanding the dynamic nature of aquatic N and C cycling. The coupled measurement of CO2, CH4, and N2O in streams is an important component to reducing uncertainty in N and C budgetary and modeling efforts, and to understanding the amount of GHGs contribution from streams in the context of global climate change policy.

Moon Nielsen, L. G.; Orr, C. H.

2012-12-01

147

Water Conservation for Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water conservation for agriculture has been important for centuries and is becoming increasingly important due to competition among agricultural and other users. Our objectives were to review progress made in our understanding of factors affecting water conservation during the past 100 years and to ...

148

Generality of Leaf Trait Relationships: A Test across Six Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here we address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity,

Peter B. Reich; David S. Ellsworth; Michael B. Walters; James M. Vose; Charles Gresham; John C. Volin; William D. Bowman

1999-01-01

149

Agricultural Operations  

MedlinePLUS

... refers to any worker in the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (GP2AFH) industry. These numbers are the ... Profiles database queried by industry for Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (GP2AFH), Accessed June 2013. 2 Agricultural ...

150

Saskatchewan Agricultural  

E-print Network

Saskatchewan Agricultural Hall of Fame College of Agriculture and Bioresources Inductees 2014 Edition #12;"SALUTE TO SASKATCHEWAN FARM LEADERS" Photos courtesy of the Saskatchewan Agriculture Hall Williams 1941- Lorne Alan Babiuk 1946- #12;"SALUTE TO SASKATCHEWAN FARM LEADERS" Photos courtesy

Peak, Derek

151

U.S. Agricultural Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This briefing room from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (reviewed in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) provides general information and data on US agricultural trade with all of the countries and regions of the world. Data publications such as the US Agricultural Trade (FATUS), Agricultural Outlook, and US Agricultural Trade Balance are gathered here on a monthly or yearly basis with export and import values by commodity and country. Users will also find FATUS reference tools as well as special ERS articles covering topics such as agricultural export figures by state and the US agricultural trade's effect on the overall economy.

152

cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status.  

E-print Network

countries. sickle cell trait is not a disease. Sickle cell trait is the inheritance of one gene for sickle hemoglobin and one for normal hemoglobin. Sickle cell trait will not turn into the disease. Sickle cell traitWhat is sickle cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status. Engage in a slow and gradual

Devoto, Stephen H.

153

Agricultural Roots in the Biological Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A wide variety of careers related to agriculture and based on studies of the biological sciences are discussed. The importance of agriculture in our society as well as the educational means to an agricultural career are outlined. (MDR)

Laughlin, Charles W.; And Others

1978-01-01

154

[Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].  

PubMed

Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts. PMID:25757330

Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

2014-09-01

155

Generations of Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity students track and record the passage of colored pom-pom “traits” through three generations of gingerbread people. Students observe that traits are passed from parents to offspring, and that siblings each receive a different combination of traits from their parents.

2012-05-31

156

Agriculture and Water Availability Issues: An Overview Prepared for 2012 Florida Agricultural Commodity & Policy Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Agriculture and Water Availability Issues: An Overview Prepared for 2012 Florida Agricultural, University of Florida. Water and Agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is very important for both state agricultural water withdrawals (Marella 2008). Water availability will play an important role in the future

Hill, Jeffrey E.

157

Feral genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape from seed import spills: are concerns scientifically justified?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the concerns surrounding the import (for food and feed uses or processing) of genetically modified herbicide tolerant\\u000a (GMHT) oilseed rape is that, through seed spillage, the herbicide tolerance (HT) trait will escape into agricultural or semi-natural\\u000a habitats, causing environmental or economic problems. Based on these concerns, three EU countries have invoked national safeguard\\u000a clauses to ban the marketing

Yann DevosRosemary; Rosemary S. Hails; Antoine Messéan; Joe N. Perry; Geoffrey R. Squire

158

Evolution of the teachings of chemistry in the new degrees of School of Agricultural Engineering and its importance in the acquisition of competencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The academic year 2012-13 is the third year of implementation of the Bologna process in ETSI Agricultural for the subjects Chemistry I and Chemistry II in the new four Degrees: Graduate in Engineering and Agricultural Science, Food Engineering Graduate, Graduate in Engineering Environmental and Biotechnology graduate. We have implemented new interactive methodologies in the teaching-learning process based on the use of the virtual platform of the UPM, and teaching support materials and new laboratory practice developing has. It has also launched new continuous assessment systems that promote active student participation. A comparative study of academic achievements by students of the new grades in the subjects of chemistry during the last three academic years was performed to correlating the results obtained, the success rate and the drop out, and compare with the level of prior knowledge to those entering students. Possible solutions to try and fix these results in future courses are proposed Finally, the general competencies that contribute this course, how they are acquired and how they should be evaluated correctly are indicated. Acknowledgments: Innovation educative projects Nº IE02054-11/12 UPM. 2012

Arce, Augusto; Tarquis, Ana M.; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Requejo, Maria Isabel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

2014-05-01

159

Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances  

PubMed Central

Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

2015-01-01

160

Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances.  

PubMed

Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

2015-01-01

161

Zambia: Sustaining Agricultural Diversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zambia has a huge agricultural potential, which is still largely untapped, and could play a key role in growth and poverty eradication. Since the early 2000s, the government has implemented important reforms to promote privatisation and trade reforms, leading to higher investment and a strong growth in export crops such as cotton and horticulture. Despite this success, agricultural productivity, especially

Federico Bonaglia

2009-01-01

162

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

163

Complex trait architecture: the pleiotropic model revisited  

PubMed Central

There is currently much debate about how much the genetic heritability of complex traits is due to very rare alleles. This issue is important because it determines sampling strategies for genetic association studies. Several recent theoretical papers based on a pleiotropic model for trait evolution suggest that it is possible that a large proportion of the genetic variance could be explained by rare alleles. This model assumes that mutations with a large effect on fitness also tend to have large positive or negative effects on phenotypic traits. We show that conclusions based on standard diffusion results are generally applicable to simulations of whole genomes with overlapping generations in a finite population, although the variance contribution of rare alleles is somewhat smaller than theoretical predictions. We show that under many scenarios the pleiotropic model predicts trait distributions that are unrealistically leptokurtic. We argue that this imposes a limit on the relationship between fitness and trait effects. PMID:25792462

North, T.-L.; Beaumont, M. A.

2015-01-01

164

Complex trait architecture: the pleiotropic model revisited.  

PubMed

There is currently much debate about how much the genetic heritability of complex traits is due to very rare alleles. This issue is important because it determines sampling strategies for genetic association studies. Several recent theoretical papers based on a pleiotropic model for trait evolution suggest that it is possible that a large proportion of the genetic variance could be explained by rare alleles. This model assumes that mutations with a large effect on fitness also tend to have large positive or negative effects on phenotypic traits. We show that conclusions based on standard diffusion results are generally applicable to simulations of whole genomes with overlapping generations in a finite population, although the variance contribution of rare alleles is somewhat smaller than theoretical predictions. We show that under many scenarios the pleiotropic model predicts trait distributions that are unrealistically leptokurtic. We argue that this imposes a limit on the relationship between fitness and trait effects. PMID:25792462

North, T-L; Beaumont, M A

2015-01-01

165

A functional trait perspective on plant invasion  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

2012-01-01

166

AGRICULTURE FACT SHEET Food & Agriculture  

E-print Network

Haddad, UNH Cooperative Extension Food and Agriculture Field Specialist F or growers, it's a placeAGRICULTURE FACT SHEET June 2014 Food & Agriculture Selling Successfully at a Farmers Market Nada legal right to use it. Your name is or will become an invaluable asset to your agricultural business

New Hampshire, University of

167

Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural

Smith, Eddie; And Others

168

Species traits and environmental constraints: entomological research and the history of ecological theory.  

PubMed

The role that entomology has played in the historical (1800s-1970s) development of ecological theories that match species traits with environmental constraints is reviewed along three lineages originating from the ideas of a minister (Malthus TR. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: Johnson) and a chemist (Liebig J. 1840. Die Organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie. Braunschweig: Vieweg). Major developments in lineage 1 focus on habitat as a filter for species traits, succession, nonequilibrium and equilibrium conditions, and generalizations about the correlation of traits to environmental constraints. In lineage 2, we trace the evolution of the niche concept and focus on ecophysiological traits, biotic interactions, and environmental conditions. Finally, we describe the conceptual route from early demographic studies of human and animal populations to the r-K concept in lineage 3. In the 1970s, the entomologist Southwood merged these three lineages into the "habitat templet concept" (Southwood TRE. 1977. J. Anim. Ecol. 46:337-65), which has stimulated much subsequent research in entomology and general ecology. We conclude that insects have been a far more important resource for the development of ecological theory than previously acknowledged. PMID:11112171

Statzner, B; Hildrew, A G; Resh, V H

2001-01-01

169

The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no- till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage, considered synonymous in this paper, play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice

Peter R. Hobbs; Ken Sayre; Raj Gupta

2008-01-01

170

Broad and Narrow Personality Traits in Relation to the Job Performance of Camp Counselors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined personality traits important for the job performance of summer camp counselors, including several of the Big Five and narrow personality traits. Performance was based on two composite scales: social performance and task performance. The personality traits of work drive, extraversion, nurturance, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly related to the social performance measure, and the traits of customer service

James M. Loveland; Lucy W. Gibson; John W. Lounsbury; Beverly C. Huffstetler

2005-01-01

171

Grassland agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

172

Agricultural Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... based public meeting, please contact mgoldcamp@cdc.gov . Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries. Farmers are ... and illnesses experienced by workers and families in agriculture. NIOSH supports intramural research and funds extramural research ...

173

The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological factors (e.g. the plant growth) or the economical factors as a simple monetary calculation, but also their mutual influences. Finally, the ecological-economic model enables us to make a risk assessment or evaluate adaptation strategies.

Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

2014-05-01

174

Agriculture INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

impact on small and mar- ginal farmers. · Increased non-agricultural demand for land and water1 Agriculture INTRODUCTION 1.1 Although its share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has declined from over half at Independence to less than one-fifth currently, agriculture remains the predominant sector

Sohoni, Milind

175

Agricultural Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

176

Pennsylvania Agricultural  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Agricultural Environmental Requirements AmIInCompliance? Agricultural activities this involve me? Am I InAm I In Compliance? Pennsylvania Agricultural Environmental Requirements May 2012 FIRSTManagementPlanincludes... Winter application of manure: If applicable Manure storage facilities: If applicable #12;AmIincompliancewithPennsylvania

Guiltinan, Mark

177

Generalized Latent Trait Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

2000-01-01

178

Agriculture 21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To "promote food security and sustainable development into the next millennium," the Agriculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has recently created this new resource. An impressive and clearly arranged interface leads researchers to more than one gigabyte of data from various UN Agriculture Department sites. A detailed list of available software, databases, publication lists, and email conferences is provided via the Guides section of the site. Other services include Magazine, a monthly publication on international agricultural issues, and Gateway, a link pointing to UN Department of Agriculture divisional homepages.

179

Migration and dispersal may drive to high genetic variation and significant genetic mixing: the case of two agriculturally important, continental hoverflies (Episyrphus balteatus and Sphaerophoria scripta).  

PubMed

Population structure of pests and beneficial species is an important issue when designing management strategies to optimize ecosystem services. In this study, we investigated for the first time the population structure at a continental scale of two migratory species of hoverflies providing both pest regulation and pollination services [Episyrphus balteatus and Sphaerophoria scripta (Diptera: Syrphidae)]. To achieve this objective, we used two sets of 12 species-specific microsatellite markers on a large-scale sampling from all over Europe. Our findings showed a high level of genetic mixing resulting in a lack of genetic differentiation at a continental scale and a great genetic diversity in the two species. All the pairwise FST values between European localities were less 0.05 in the two species. These low values reflect a large-scale genetic mixing probably caused by the existence of frequent migratory movements in the two species. Mantel tests revealed isolation-by-distance pattern on the East-West axis, but not on the North-South axis. This isolation-by-distance pattern confirms the existence of North-South migratory movements in both directions and suggests an important step by step dispersal. Population features shown by this study are common in invasive species and pests, but are not often observed in beneficial species. They reflect great colonization abilities and a high adaptive potential when dealing with a changing environment. Our results highlight the two studied species as particularly interesting beneficial insects for pollination and pest predation in the current context of global change. PMID:24138027

Raymond, Lucie; Plantegenest, Manuel; Vialatte, Aude

2013-11-01

180

College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Agricultural Technology  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Agricultural Technology Applied Agricultural Management Option Checksheet for Students Graduating in Calendar Year 2013 Associate of Agriculture Degree Required Agricultural Technology Core Courses (31 credits) 3 AT 0104 Computer Applications 3 AT 0114 Applied

Virginia Tech

181

Location Model of Agricultural Product Distribution Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is one of the biggest countries, and the agriculture plays a very important role in the development of national economy. The bottleneck of agricultural development has been transferred from manufacturing to the circulation of commodities, which makes outstanding problems of the low level and high cost in logistic distribution of agricultural products. Developing logistic distribution of agricultural products would

Suo Zhi-lin; Wang Dong

2007-01-01

182

Mapping the genetic architecture of complex traits in experimental populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Understanding how interactions among set of genes affect diverse phenotypes is having a greater impact on biomedical research, agriculture and evolutionary biology. Mapping and characterizing the isolated effects of single quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a first step, but we also need to assemble networks of QTLs and define non-additive interactions (epistasis) together with a host of potential environmental

Jian Yang; Jun Zhu; Robert W. Williams

2007-01-01

183

SOURCE OF TRAIT DETERIORATION IN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES HETERORHABDITIS BACTERIOPHORA AND STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE DURING IN VIVO CULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The stability of traits important for biological control was studied in the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae. Five isolines of each species were subcultured for 20 passages in Galleria mellonella larvae to assess trait stability. Subculturing imp...

184

Similar traits, different genes/different traits, similar genes: examining parallel evolution 4 in related weedy rice populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Convergent phenotypic evolution may or may not be associated with parallel genotypic evolution. Agricultural weeds have repeatedly been selected for weed-adaptive traits such as rapid growth, increased seed dispersal and dormancy, thus providing an ideal system for the study of parallel evolution. H...

185

Agricultural Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

1978-01-01

186

Agricultural Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief summary of the state of agricultural research in the United States. The agricultural research system is finely attuned to the immediate needs of its clients, as evident in its response to the attack of corn blight in 1970. (JR)

Waggoner, Paul E.

1973-01-01

187

Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change.  

PubMed

Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority. PMID:25568040

Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

2012-02-01

188

Unraveling the complex trait of crop yield with quantitative trait loci mapping in Brassica napus.  

PubMed

Yield is the most important and complex trait for the genetic improvement of crops. Although much research into the genetic basis of yield and yield-associated traits has been reported, in each such experiment the genetic architecture and determinants of yield have remained ambiguous. One of the most intractable problems is the interaction between genes and the environment. We identified 85 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed yield along with 785 QTL for eight yield-associated traits, from 10 natural environments and two related populations of rapeseed. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed 401 consensus QTL, of which 82.5% were clustered and integrated into 111 pleiotropic unique QTL by meta-analysis, 47 of which were relevant for seed yield. The complexity of the genetic architecture of yield was demonstrated, illustrating the pleiotropy, synthesis, variability, and plasticity of yield QTL. The idea of estimating indicator QTL for yield QTL and identifying potential candidate genes for yield provides an advance in methodology for complex traits. PMID:19414564

Shi, Jiaqin; Li, Ruiyuan; Qiu, Dan; Jiang, Congcong; Long, Yan; Morgan, Colin; Bancroft, Ian; Zhao, Jianyi; Meng, Jinling

2009-07-01

189

Association analysis of candidate SNPs on reproductive traits in swine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Being able to identify young females with superior reproduction traits would have a large financial impact on commercial swine producers. Previous studies have discovered SNPs associated with economically important traits such as litter size, growth rate, fat deposition, and feed intake. The objecti...

190

Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

191

The Basic Path of Modern Agriculture with Chinese Characteristics-Industry Nurturing Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructing the modern agriculture with Chinese characteristics is the path and direction for solving issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers in China, the key to new village construction, the important measure for promoting overall agriculture production capacity, and the prerequisite and guarantee for coordinating urban-rural development. At present, the level of agriculture mechanization in China is promoted steadily; the science

Feng-yun Zhang

2011-01-01

192

Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits  

SciTech Connect

Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

1993-11-01

193

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture  

E-print Network

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture ­ Livestock, Crops and Land Use Report from a multidisciplinary research platform. Phase I (2009 ­ 2012) #12;Future Agriculture ­ Livestock Waldenström Utgivningsår: 2012, Uppsala Utgivare: SLU, Framtidens lantbruk/Future Agriculture Layout: Pelle

194

Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

195

QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR INFECTIOUS BOVINE KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an economically important disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in offspring from a Brahman x Hereford sire. The sire was mated to H...

196

Developing Curriculum Markers for Agricultural Extension Education in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sufficient changes have occurred in both the agricultural and educational sectors of South Africa to warrant a careful scrutiny of the agricultural education offerings in South Africa. Agricultural extension is identified as an important part of the intended transformation of the agricultural sector. Further, agricultural extension is essentially…

Worth, S. H.

2008-01-01

197

Agricultural Geophysics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

198

Agricultural Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

Brill, Winston J.

1981-01-01

199

Evaluating the fitness of human lysozyme transgenic dairy goats: growth and reproductive traits  

PubMed Central

While there are many reports in the literature describing the attributes of specific applications of transgenic animals for agriculture, there are relatively few studies focusing on the fitness of the transgenic animals themselves. This work was designed to gather information on genetically modified food animals to determine if the presence of a transgene can impact general animal production traits. More specifically, we used a line of transgenic dairy goats expressing human lysozyme in their mammary gland to evaluate the reproductive fitness and growth and development of these animals compared to their non-transgenic counterparts and the impact of consuming a transgenic food product, lysozyme-containing milk. In males, none of the parameters of semen quality, including semen volume and concentration, total sperm per ejaculate, sperm morphology, viability and motility, were significantly different between transgenic bucks and non-transgenic full-sib controls. Likewise, transgenic females of this line did not significantly differ in the reproductive traits of gestation length and litter size compared to their non-transgenic counterparts. To evaluate growth, transgenic and non-transgenic kid goats received colostrum and milk from either transgenic or non-transgenic does from birth until weaning. Neither the presence of the transgene nor the consumption of milk from transgenic animals significantly affected birth weight, weaning weight, overall gain and post-wean gain. These results indicate that the analyzed reproductive and growth traits were not regularly or substantially impacted by the presence or expression of the transgene. The evaluation of these general parameters is an important aspect of defining the safety of applying transgenic technology to animal agriculture. PMID:20135222

Jackson, Kathryn A.; Berg, Jolene M.; Murray, James D.

2010-01-01

200

Agricultural Market Access Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in early 1999, the Agricultural Market Access Database (AMAD) is a joint effort by Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, EU Commission - Agriculture Directorate-General, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, The World Bank, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and United States Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service. AMAD was created in order to "provide a common data set on tariffs, TRQs and imports, as well as the tools for researchers, policymakers, and others to use in analyzing levels of tariff protection in agriculture among WTO Members." Users begin by selecting a region on a map; from there they can narrow their search by country, and the database will generate a data set on that country. AMAD also provides a 30-page User's Guide which helps explain the purpose and uses of the database, as well as helping to decipher some of the information contained in AMAD. At present, not all countries worldwide can be accessed through this database. AMAD, however, promises to continue to expand.

201

AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY  

E-print Network

) (ms I) (ms J) Corn 2.8 3.0 2.09 0.60 0.20 crop Deciduous 23.0 5.5 0.90 0.42 0.15 forest Coniferous 16AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY ELSEVIER Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 68 (1994)201 212 Modelling the effect of mean pressure gradient on the mean flow within forests Xuhui Lee *'a, Roger H. Shaw

Lee, Xuhui

202

Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling adaptive traits in coastal Douglas fir. III. Quantitative trait loci-by-environment interactions.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in the woody perennial Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) for complex traits controlling the timing of growth initiation and growth cessation. QTL were estimated under controlled environmental conditions to identify QTL interactions with photoperiod, moisture stress, winter chilling, and spring temperatures. A three-generation mapping population of 460 cloned progeny was used for genetic mapping and phenotypic evaluations. An all-marker interval mapping method was used for scanning the genome for the presence of QTL and single-factor ANOVA was used for estimating QTL-by-environment interactions. A modest number of QTL were detected per trait, with individual QTL explaining up to 9.5% of the phenotypic variation. Two QTL-by-treatment interactions were found for growth initiation, whereas several QTL-by-treatment interactions were detected among growth cessation traits. This is the first report of QTL interactions with specific environmental signals in forest trees and will assist in the identification of candidate genes controlling these important adaptive traits in perennial plants. PMID:14668397

Jermstad, Kathleen D; Bassoni, Daniel L; Jech, Keith S; Ritchie, Gary A; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Neale, David B

2003-01-01

203

Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traits of Life, a new collection of exhibits and demonstrations at San Francisco's Exploratorium, offers a fascinating look at the "fundamental elements common to all living things." Culminating from 3 years of research and development, the Traits of Life collection follows four themes: cells and DNA; reproduction; evolution; and energy consumption. This companion Web site offers cool interactive features for each theme, as well as articles, movies, interviews with experts, and more. Overall, this well-designed site offers a engaging way to "see past the diversity of living things to the underlying unity connecting us all."

204

A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create a "DNA recipe" for a dog to learn how variations in DNA lead to the inheritance of different traits. Strips of paper (representing DNA) are randomly selected and used to assemble a DNA molecule. Students read the DNA recipe to create a drawing of their pet and compare it with others in the class to note similarities and differences. Through this activity, students will learn that every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits and heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

2006-01-01

205

Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

206

Privatising Agricultural Extension: Caveat Emptor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses forces promoting privatization of agricultural extension. Discusses experiences of privatization and commercialization of extension and related problems in various countries, particularly developing countries. Suggests that the state will continue to play an important role in agricultural extension in many countries and that…

Kidd, A. D.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Ficarelli, P. P.; Hoffmann, V.

2000-01-01

207

Managing the Tropical Agriculture Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial production of beef, soybeans, cotton, and biofuels is expanding into the tropical latitudes of South America and may soon reach tropical Africa in the most important agricultural transition since the Green Revolution. This shift is driven by the shortage of land suitable for expansion of cultivation and grazing in the temperate zone, increased global demands for agricultural commodities, the

Daniel C. Nepstad; Claudia M. Stickler

2008-01-01

208

Wisconsin Agriculture SPECIAL ARTICLE  

E-print Network

STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2009 · SPECIAL ARTICLE: Bioenergy and Agriculture in Wisconsin Economy Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2009 An annual report by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department

Radeloff, Volker C.

209

What is Sustainable Agriculture?  

E-print Network

What is Sustainable Agriculture? Sustainable agriculture is one that produces abundant food without. Sustainable agriculture is also the agriculture of social values, one whose suc- cess is indistinguishable, increased our dependence What is Sustainable Agriculture?...................... 1 How Do We Achieve

Wang, Changlu

210

Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality…

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

2013-01-01

211

Systems genetics approaches to understand complex traits  

PubMed Central

Systems genetics is an approach to understand the flow of biological information that underlies complex traits. It uses a range of experimental and statistical methods to quantitate and integrate intermediate phenotypes, such as transcript, protein or metabolite levels, in populations that vary for traits of interest. Systems genetics studies have provided the first global view of the molecular architecture of complex traits and are useful for the identification of genes, pathways and networks that underlie common human diseases. Given the urgent need to understand how the thousands of loci that have been identified in genome-wide association studies contribute to disease susceptibility, systems genetics is likely to become an increasingly important approach to understanding both biology and disease. PMID:24296534

Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J.

2014-01-01

212

Affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy.  

PubMed

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

Horan, William P; Blanchard, Jack J; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F

2008-09-01

213

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

2008-01-01

214

7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain Perishable Products Imported From Israel § 1540.24 Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. If the Secretary of Agriculture has reason to...

2011-01-01

215

7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain Perishable Products Imported From Israel § 1540.24 Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. If the Secretary of Agriculture has reason to...

2010-01-01

216

7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain Perishable Products Imported From Israel § 1540.24 Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. If the Secretary of Agriculture has reason to...

2014-01-01

217

7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain Perishable Products Imported From Israel § 1540.24 Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. If the Secretary of Agriculture has reason to...

2013-01-01

218

7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain Perishable Products Imported From Israel § 1540.24 Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. If the Secretary of Agriculture has reason to...

2012-01-01

219

AGRICULTURAL REPORT JANUARY 1998  

E-print Network

) for farm and ranch land is an important estate tax fea- ture with amendments in the TRA `97. The SUV law Inheritance tax law increased the exemption to $100,000 for each "Class A" beneficiary on July 1, 1997PURDUE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS REPORT JANUARY 1998 Estate and Gift Tax Changes in the Taxpayer

220

Reciprocal insights into adaptation from agricultural and evolutionary studies in tomato  

PubMed Central

Although traditionally separated by different aims and methodologies, research on agricultural and evolutionary problems shares a common goal of understanding the mechanisms underlying functionally important traits. As such, research in both fields offers potential complementary and reciprocal insights. Here, we discuss adaptive stress responses (specifically to water stress) as an example of potentially fruitful research reciprocity, where agricultural research has clearly produced advances that could benefit evolutionary studies, while evolutionary studies offer approaches and insights underexplored in crop studies. We focus on research on Solanum species that include the domesticated tomato and its wild relatives. Integrated approaches to understanding ecological adaptation are particularly attractive in tomato and its wild relatives: many presumptively adaptive phenotypic differences characterize wild species, and the physiological and mechanistic basis of many relevant traits and environmental responses has already been examined in the context of cultivated tomato and some wild species. We highlight four specific instances where these reciprocal insights can be combined to better address questions that are fundamental both to agriculture and evolution. PMID:25567935

Moyle, Leonie C; Muir, Christopher D

2010-01-01

221

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

222

Changes in stomatal traits and the covariation with other leaf traits along an altitude transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomatal traits and their responses to the external environment have been intensively studied for individual plant species. However, little is known about general stomatal patterns along environmental gradients in a broad, interspecific context or about the relationship between stomatal traits and other leaf traits. Here, we measured the stomatal and leaf traits, including stomatal density (SD), stomatal length (SL), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf area (LA), leaf thickness (LT) and nitrogen concentration (mass- and area- base, Nmass and Narea) of 158 plant species along an altitudinal gradient on Changbai Mountain, China. Our results revealed that SD decreased and SL increased significantly with altitude for tree species, although no clear elevational trends were observed in SD and SL across species (including tree, shrub, and herbaceous plants). Plant growth forms (PGFs) were the most important driver of variation in SD and SL, and the contributions of the mean annual temperature, precipitation and soil water content were weak. In addition, a covarying relationship between stomatal and other leaf traits was observed, although this relationship changed with elevation. These findings reflect that the adaptive strategies of plant ecophysiological traits may be complex for alpine environmental gradients, combining the short-term plasticity to environmental changes and long-term convergent evolution.

Wang, Ruili; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Ge, Jianping; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Zhiwei

2014-05-01

223

On the fate of sexual traits under asexuality.  

PubMed

Environmental shifts and life-history changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. In the absence of pleiotropy and other constraints, such traits may decay as a consequence of neutral mutation accumulation or selective processes, highlighting the importance of natural selection for adaptations. A suite of traits are expected to lose their adaptive function in asexual organisms derived from sexual ancestors, and the many independent transitions to asexuality allow for comparative studies of parallel trait maintenance versus decay. In addition, because certain traits, notably male-specific traits, are usually not exposed to selection under asexuality, their decay would have to occur as a consequence of drift. Selective processes could drive the decay of traits associated with costs, which may be the case for the majority of sexual traits expressed in females. We review the fate of male and female sexual traits in 93 animal lineages characterized by asexual reproduction, covering a broad taxon range including molluscs, arachnids, diplopods, crustaceans and eleven different hexapod orders. Many asexual lineages are still able occasionally to produce males. These asexually produced males are often largely or even fully functional, revealing that major developmental pathways can remain quiescent and functional over extended time periods. By contrast, for asexual females, there is a parallel and rapid decay of sexual traits, especially of traits related to mate attraction and location, as expected given the considerable costs often associated with the expression of these traits. The level of decay of female sexual traits, in addition to asexual females being unable to fertilize their eggs, would severely impede reversals to sexual reproduction, even in recently derived asexual lineages. More generally, the parallel maintenance versus decay of different trait types across diverse asexual lineages suggests that neutral traits display little or no decay even after extended periods under relaxed selection, while extensive decay for selected traits occurs extremely quickly. These patterns also highlight that adaptations can fix rapidly in natural populations of asexual organisms, in spite of their mode of reproduction. PMID:24443922

van der Kooi, Casper J; Schwander, Tanja

2014-11-01

224

Agricultural Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the Agricultural Outlook publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Agricultural Outlook, the monthly short and long term commodity outlook publication, long available via the USDA Economics and Statistics system at Cornell University's Mann Library, (discussed in the September 15, 1995 issue of the Scout Report) is now available with graphics and charts. Selected archives of the publication are available and articles can be downloaded individually. About the only drawback to this terrific addition to ERS's electronic holdings is that the separate statistical section that accompanies AO (over 20 pages of tables), is not available at this time. This is particularly unfortunate, as these tables are one of the most valuable aspects of the publication.

225

Transforming Agricultural Education for a Changing World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the next ten years, colleges of agriculture will be challenged to transform their role in higher education and their relationship to the evolving global food and agricultural enterprise. If successful, agriculture colleges will emerge as an important venue for scholars and stakeholders to address some of the most complex and urgent problems…

National Academies Press, 2009

2009-01-01

226

An Agricultural Reference Index for Drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of drought indices are available to quantify agricultural drought. But, no index exists that is simple, generic, and based on agriculturally important aspects, namely, soil, plant, and atmosphere (SPA). To account for these aspects, Agricultural Reference Index for Drought (ARID) was developed. Being generic and SPA-based, ARID is intended to work as a general indicator of water stress

P. Woli; J. W. Jones; K. T. Ingram

2009-01-01

227

Ethics and Agricultural Education: Determining Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a three-round Delphi (n=197, 109, 75), secondary teachers (61.5% in agriculture) identified important ethical issues regarding land and water use: conversion of agricultural land for urban development, water rights control, and public land used for agriculture. Nearly all addressed ethical issues in class. (SK)

Foster, Billye

2000-01-01

228

WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION - TURKISH CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the case in most developing and developed countries in the world, women play a vital role in rural areas of Turkey in contributing to agricultural activities in addition to household duties and non-agricultural activities such as industry and services. Women's role in the daily economic life in Turkey has always been very important especially in the agricultural

B. Özekici; O. Tekinel; S. Kiymaz

229

Genetics of complex traits in psychiatry.  

PubMed

Virtually all psychiatric traits are genetically complex. This article discusses the genetics of complex traits in psychiatry. The complexity is accounted for by numerous factors, including multiple risk alleles, epistasis, and epigenetic effects such as methylation. Risk alleles can individually be common or rare, and can include, for example, single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants that are transmitted or are new mutations, and other kinds of variation. Many different kinds of variation can be important for trait risk, either together in various proportions or as different factors in different subjects. Until more recently, approaches to complex traits were limited, and consequently only a few variants, usually of individually minor effect, were identified. At the present time, a much richer armamentarium exists that includes the routine application of genome-wide association studies and next-generation high-throughput sequencing and the combination of this information with other biologically relevant information, such as expression data. We have also seen the emergence of large meta-analysis and mega-analysis consortia. These developments are extremely important for psychiatric genetics, have advanced the field substantially, and promise formidable gains in the years to come as they are applied more widely. PMID:25444161

Gelernter, Joel

2015-01-01

230

A database of life-history traits of European amphibians  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the current context of climate change and landscape fragmentation, efficient conservation strategies require the explicit consideration of life history traits. This is particularly true for amphibians, which are highly threatened worldwide, composed by more than 7400 species, which is constitute one of the most species-rich vertebrate groups. The collection of information on life history traits is difficult due to the ecology of species and remoteness of their habitats. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge is limited, and missing information on certain life history traits are common for in this species group. We compiled data on amphibian life history traits from literature in an extensive database with morphological and behavioral traits, habitat preferences and movement abilities for 86 European amphibian species (50 Anuran and 36 Urodela species). When it were available, we reported data for males, females, juveniles and tadpoles. Our database may serve as an important starting point for further analyses regarding amphibian conservation. PMID:25425939

Moulherat, Sylvain; Calvez, Olivier; Stevens, Virginie M; Clobert, Jean; Schmeller, Dirk S

2014-01-01

231

Do personality traits predict work outcomes of certified nursing assistants?  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to describe personality traits of certified nursing assistants (CNAs) employed at nursing homes and explore relationships between personality traits, job satisfaction, and job performance. The sample included 177 CNAs providing direct care to residents in three nursing homes. CNAs with high and low job performance skills were distinguished by the cluster of traits associated with teamwork skills. Overall, 21.3% of the variance in job satisfaction was explained by the personality traits of Adjustment, Prudence, Likeability, Excitable, and Dutiful, F(8, 145) = 4.899, p < 0.001. The links found between personality, job satisfaction, and job performance provide important information about the personality traits of nursing staff who are most likely to enjoy and perform well in the nursing home setting. Knowledge of these links may be useful for hiring the appropriate person for direct care nursing home positions. PMID:20438048

Kovach, Christine R; Simpson, Michelle R; Reitmaier, Amy B; Johnson, Addie; Kelber, Sheryl T

2010-10-01

232

Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality  

PubMed Central

This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally.

Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

2015-01-01

233

The competitive environment for agricultural bankers in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of agricultural banks in the US identified several important competitive challenges for credit providers to agriculture. The importance of various factors to customer loyalty is investigated, as is the importance of various potential products and services toward maintaining a competitive agricultural lending position in future. Bankers stressed the importance of maintaining good, long term relationships with borrowers to

LeeAnn McEdwards Moss; Peter J. Barry; Paul N. Ellinger

1997-01-01

234

Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience.  

PubMed

Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g. novel association, conceptual integration and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual's trait creativity. PMID:24603022

Li, Wenfu; Li, Xueting; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Jia

2015-02-01

235

Agricultural Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

Postance, Jim

1998-01-01

236

CASESTUDIES AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

(Rosenzweig and Hillel 1998). A warmer climate is likely to induce shifts in the opti- mal zonation of crops. The resulting poleward shift of crop-growing and timber-growing regions could expand the potential productionCASESTUDIES AGRICULTURE CLIMATE CHANGE, CROP PESTS AND DISEASES Cynthia Rosenzweig X.B. Yang Pamela

237

Agricultural Bioterrorism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article warns that agricultural bioterrorism can be as devastating as other forms of terrorism because it: cripples the economy of a nation, can destroy the livelihood of many people puts food supply at risk, perhaps for a long time, and may not be detected before it reaches difficult-to-control levels.

Radford G. Davis (Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine; )

2001-10-01

238

Genomic distribution of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield-related traits in common wheat.  

PubMed

A major objective of quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies is to find genes/markers that can be used in breeding programs via marker assisted selection (MAS). We surveyed the QTLs for yield and yield-related traits and their genomic distributions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the available published reports. We then carried out a meta-QTL (MQTL) analysis to identify the major and consistent QTLs for these traits. In total, 55 MQTLs were identified, of which 12 significant MQTLs were located on wheat chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 2D, 3B, 4A, 4B, 4D and 5A. Our study showed that the genetic control of yield and its components in common wheat involved the important genes such as Rht and Vrn. Furthermore, several significant MQTLs were found in the chromosomal regions corresponding to several rice genomic locations containing important QTLs for yield related traits. Our results demonstrate that meta-QTL analysis is a powerful tool for confirming the major and stable QTLs and refining their chromosomal positions in common wheat, which may be useful for improving the MAS efficiency of yield related traits. PMID:20977657

Zhang, Li-Yi; Liu, Dong-Cheng; Guo, Xiao-Li; Yang, Wen-Long; Sun, Jia-Zhu; Wang, Dao-Wen; Zhang, Aimin

2010-11-01

239

Leaf trait-environment relationships in a subtropical broadleaved forest in South-East China.  

PubMed

Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most responsive ones. PMID:22539999

Kröber, Wenzel; Böhnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

2012-01-01

240

Leaf Trait-Environment Relationships in a Subtropical Broadleaved Forest in South-East China  

PubMed Central

Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most responsive ones. PMID:22539999

Kröber, Wenzel; Böhnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

2012-01-01

241

Discovery and application of insertion-deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms for QTL mapping of early life-history traits in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background For decades, linkage mapping has been one of the most powerful and widely used approaches for elucidating the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits of medical, agricultural and evolutionary importance. However, successful mapping of Mendelian and quantitative phenotypic traits depends critically on the availability of fast and preferably high-throughput genotyping platforms. Several array-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms have been developed for genetic model organisms during recent years but most of these methods become prohibitively expensive for screening large numbers of individuals. Therefore, inexpensive, simple and flexible genotyping solutions that enable rapid screening of intermediate numbers of loci (~75-300) in hundreds to thousands of individuals are still needed for QTL mapping applications in a broad range of organisms. Results Here we describe the discovery of and application of insertion-deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms for cost-efficient medium throughput genotyping that enables analysis of >75 loci in a single automated sequencer electrophoresis column with standard laboratory equipment. Genotyping of INDELs requires low start-up costs, includes few standard sample handling steps and is applicable to a broad range of species for which expressed sequence tag (EST) collections are available. As a proof of principle, we generated a partial INDEL linkage map in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rapidly identified a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting early life-history traits that are expected to have important fitness consequences in the natural environment. Conclusions The INDEL genotyping enabled fast coarse-mapping of chromosomal regions containing QTL, thus providing an efficient means for characterization of genetic architecture in multiple crosses and large pedigrees. This enables not only the discovery of larger number of QTLs with relatively smaller phenotypic effect but also provides a cost-effective means for evaluation of the frequency of segregating QTLs in outbred populations which is important for further understanding how genetic variation underlying phenotypic traits is maintained in the wild. PMID:20210987

2010-01-01

242

Preindustrial agriculture versus organic agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of traditional agrarian systems can provide useful knowledge for improving the sustainability of present-day agriculture. Nonetheless, with the loss of traditional agro-ecosystems and the rationale that guides them, as has happened in Europe, an historical research approach can have a decisive role to play in recapturing this knowledge. In this article we study the evolution of a typical

G. I. Guzmán Casado; M. González de Molina

2009-01-01

243

Peace Corps | Agriculture Agriculture Volunteers  

E-print Network

Volunteers contribute sustain- able solutions to a community's agricultural issues and help preserve natural conservation structures and practices · Raise trees in small nurseries and work in fruit tree production techniques · Share marketing techniques for products like meat, wool, and eggs · Promote vaccination against

Kaminsky, Werner

244

IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING PARASITE INDICATOR TRAITS IN A DOUBLE BACKCROSS POPULATION OF SHEEP.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The natural genetic variability of the ruminant immune system provides a feasible means to control gastro-intestinal (GI) parasite infection. To initiate explanation of important allelic differences, a genome-wide analysis for quantitative trait loci (QTL) was initiated in a double backcross populat...

245

LINKING ROOT TRAITS TO SHOOT TRAITS AND LIFE HISTORY IN 25 TEMPERATE FOREST SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite their important role in plant carbon budgets and carbon cycling, there is little information available on fine root characteristics of woody species. Comparative approaches were used to examine the roots of 25 diverse species collected from mature forests. Nine root traits were examined that...

246

Factors affecting agricultural journalists and agricultural communicators  

E-print Network

Agricultural journalism and agricultural communication have been researched in depth, identifying job skills, job satisfaction, educational backgrounds, and curriculum issues. However, a study examining the spheres (subjective, institutional...

Chenault, Edith Anne

2009-05-15

247

Trait-Specific Responses of Wild Bee Communities to Landscape Composition, Configuration and Local Factors  

PubMed Central

Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes). Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees) were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats). Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales. PMID:25137311

Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

2014-01-01

248

Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.  

PubMed

Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes). Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees) were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats). Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales. PMID:25137311

Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

2014-01-01

249

Boscawen Agricultural Commission  

E-print Network

.com Presenter: Dot Perkins, UNH Cooperative Extension, Food & Agriculture Dot has been raising meat, milk Boscawen Agricultural Commission presents their 2015 Winter Workshop Series CHICKENS: To register, contact the Boscawen Agricultural Commission at 7539188 x 301 or agriculture03303@gmail

New Hampshire, University of

250

Multi-Scale Associations between Vegetation Cover and Woodland Bird Communities across a Large Agricultural Region  

PubMed Central

Improving biodiversity conservation in fragmented agricultural landscapes has become an important global issue. Vegetation at the patch and landscape-scale is important for species occupancy and diversity, yet few previous studies have explored multi-scale associations between vegetation and community assemblages. Here, we investigated how patch and landscape-scale vegetation cover structure woodland bird communities. We asked: (1) How is the bird community associated with the vegetation structure of woodland patches and the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape? (2) Do species of conservation concern respond to woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover differently to other species in the community? And (3) Can the relationships between the bird community and the woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover be explained by the ecological traits of the species comprising the bird community? We studied 103 woodland patches (0.5 - 53.8 ha) over two time periods across a large (6,800 km2) agricultural region in southeastern Australia. We found that both patch vegetation and surrounding woody vegetation cover were important for structuring the bird community, and that these relationships were consistent over time. In particular, the occurrence of mistletoe within the patches and high values of woody vegetation cover within 1,000 ha and 10,000 ha were important, especially for bird species of conservation concern. We found that the majority of these species displayed similar, positive responses to patch and landscape vegetation attributes. We also found that these relationships were related to the foraging and nesting traits of the bird community. Our findings suggest that management strategies to increase both remnant vegetation quality and the cover of surrounding woody vegetation in fragmented agricultural landscapes may lead to improved conservation of bird communities. PMID:24830684

Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S.; Stirnemann, Ingrid A.; Stein, John R.; Michael, Damian; Crane, Mason; Okada, Sachiko; Lindenmayer, David B.

2014-01-01

251

Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. Methods In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Key Results Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. Conclusions The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level. PMID:21795278

Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphaël; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

2011-01-01

252

Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting lameness and leg conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Lameness is an important factor for culling animals. Strong legs and feet improve herd life of dairy cows. Therefore, many countries include leg and feet conformation traits in their breeding programs, often as early predictors of longevity. However, few countries directly measure lameness related traits to include these in a breeding program. Lameness indices in 3 different lactations and 5 leg conformation traits (rear legs side view, rear legs rear view, hock quality, bone quality, and foot angle) were measured on granddaughters of 19 Danish Holstein grandsires with 33 to 105 sons. A genome scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the 29 autosomes using microsatellite markers. Data were analyzed across and within families for QTL affecting lameness and leg conformation traits. A regression method and a variance component method were used for QTL detection. Two QTL each for lameness in the first [Bos taurus autosome (BTA); BTA5, BTA26] and second (BTA19, BTA22) lactations were detected. For the 5 different leg conformation traits, 7 chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected across families for rear legs side view, 5 for rear legs rear view, 4 for hock quality, 4 for bone quality, and 1 for foot angle. For those chromosomes where a QTL associated with 2 different traits was detected (BTA1, BTA11, BTA15, BTA26, and BTA27), a multitrait-1-QTL model and a multitrait-2-QTL model were performed to characterize these QTL as single QTL with pleiotropic effects or distinct QTL. PMID:17183116

Buitenhuis, A J; Lund, M S; Thomasen, J R; Thomsen, B; Nielsen, V Hunnicke; Bendixen, C; Guldbrandtsen, B

2007-01-01

253

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

254

Quantitative Trait Linkage Analysis Using Gaussian Copulas  

PubMed Central

Mapping and identifying variants that influence quantitative traits is an important problem for genetic studies. Traditional QTL mapping relies on a variance-components (VC) approach with the key assumption that the trait values in a family follow a multivariate normal distribution. Violation of this assumption can lead to inflated type I error, reduced power, and biased parameter estimates. To accommodate nonnormally distributed data, we developed and implemented a modified VC method, which we call the “copula VC method,” that directly models the nonnormal distribution using Gaussian copulas. The copula VC method allows the analysis of continuous, discrete, and censored trait data, and the standard VC method is a special case when the data are distributed as multivariate normal. Through the use of link functions, the copula VC method can easily incorporate covariates. We use computer simulations to show that the proposed method yields unbiased parameter estimates, correct type I error rates, and improved power for testing linkage with a variety of nonnormal traits as compared with the standard VC and the regression-based methods. PMID:16751671

Li, Mingyao; Boehnke, Michael; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Song, Peter X.-K.

2006-01-01

255

(Baron, 2009) Importance  

E-print Network

#12;(Baron, 2009) #12;Importance NOx pollution's affect on eastern Rocky Mountain wilderness and water NOx pollution from agriculture and vehicles/cities Runoff accounts for 80% of our water Nitrogen not used by plants is deposited into the water system (Rocky Mountain National Park) http

Toohey, Darin W.

256

Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2?0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

2014-01-01

257

Species identity influences belowground arthropod assemblages via functional traits  

PubMed Central

Plant species influence belowground communities in a variety of ways, ultimately impacting nutrient cycling. Functional plant traits provide a means whereby species identity can influence belowground community interactions, but little work has examined whether species identity influences belowground community processes when correcting for evolutionary history. Specifically, we hypothesized that closely related species would exhibit (i) more similar leaf and root functional traits than more distantly related species, and (ii) more similar associated soil arthropod communities. We found that after correcting for evolutionary history, tree species identity influenced belowground arthropod communities through plant functional traits. These data suggest that plant species structure may be an important predictor in shaping associated soil arthropod communities and further suggest the importance of better understanding the extended consequences of evolutionary history on ecological processes, as similarity in traits may not always reflect similar ecology.

Gorman, Courtney E.; Read, Quentin D.; Van Nuland, Michael E.; Bryant, Jessica A. M.; Welch, Jessica N.; Altobelli, Joseph T.; Douglas, Morgan J.; Genung, Mark A.; Haag, Elliot N.; Jones, Devin N.; Long, Hannah E.; Wilburn, Adam D.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

2013-01-01

258

Competition, traits and resource depletion in plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although of primary importance to explain plant community structure, general relationships between plant traits, resource\\u000a depletion and competitive outcomes remain to be quantified across species. Here, we used a comparative approach to test whether\\u000a instantaneous measurements of plant traits can capture both the amount of resources depleted under plant cover over time (competitive\\u000a effect) and the way competitors perceived this

Cyrille Violle; Eric Garnier; Jérémie Lecoeur; Catherine Roumet; Cécile Podeur; Alain Blanchard; Marie-Laure Navas

2009-01-01

259

FERTILITY TRAIT ECONOMICS AND CORRELATIONS WITH OTHER TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Correlations of fertility traits (heifer fertility, interval from calving to first insemination, cow nonreturn rate, and calving interval) with yield traits (milk, fat, and protein), longevity, and somatic cell score (SCS) were compared for 11 countries. Correlations were consistent and small but al...

260

Agricultural Pesticides: An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was developed as a guide for use by Kentucky teachers in planning and conducting young farmer/adult farmer classes in the use of agricultural pesticides. The unit contains seven lessons covering the following topics: understanding the importance of agricultural pesticides; using and handling agricultural pesticides safely; developing a…

Harrison, Kenneth M.; And Others

261

Insects Represent a Link between Food Animal Farms and the Urban Environment for Antibiotic Resistance Traits  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections result in higher patient mortality rates, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health care costs. Extensive use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the animal industry represents great pressure for evolution and selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on farms. Despite growing evidence showing that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance in food animals correlate with resistance in human pathogens, the proof for direct transmission of antibiotic resistance is difficult to provide. In this review, we make a case that insects commonly associated with food animals likely represent a direct and important link between animal farms and urban communities for antibiotic resistance traits. Houseflies and cockroaches have been shown to carry multidrug-resistant clonal lineages of bacteria identical to those found in animal manure. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated proliferation of bacteria and horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the insect digestive tract as well as transmission of resistant bacteria by insects to new substrates. We propose that insect management should be an integral part of pre- and postharvest food safety strategies to minimize spread of zoonotic pathogens and antibiotic resistance traits from animal farms. Furthermore, the insect link between the agricultural and urban environment presents an additional argument for adopting prudent use of antibiotics in the food animal industry. PMID:24705326

Ghosh, Anuradha

2014-01-01

262

Insects represent a link between food animal farms and the urban environment for antibiotic resistance traits.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections result in higher patient mortality rates, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health care costs. Extensive use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the animal industry represents great pressure for evolution and selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on farms. Despite growing evidence showing that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance in food animals correlate with resistance in human pathogens, the proof for direct transmission of antibiotic resistance is difficult to provide. In this review, we make a case that insects commonly associated with food animals likely represent a direct and important link between animal farms and urban communities for antibiotic resistance traits. Houseflies and cockroaches have been shown to carry multidrug-resistant clonal lineages of bacteria identical to those found in animal manure. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated proliferation of bacteria and horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the insect digestive tract as well as transmission of resistant bacteria by insects to new substrates. We propose that insect management should be an integral part of pre- and postharvest food safety strategies to minimize spread of zoonotic pathogens and antibiotic resistance traits from animal farms. Furthermore, the insect link between the agricultural and urban environment presents an additional argument for adopting prudent use of antibiotics in the food animal industry. PMID:24705326

Zurek, Ludek; Ghosh, Anuradha

2014-06-01

263

Kernel-based whole-genome prediction of complex traits: a review  

PubMed Central

Prediction of genetic values has been a focus of applied quantitative genetics since the beginning of the 20th century, with renewed interest following the advent of the era of whole genome-enabled prediction. Opportunities offered by the emergence of high-dimensional genomic data fueled by post-Sanger sequencing technologies, especially molecular markers, have driven researchers to extend Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright's models to confront new challenges. In particular, kernel methods are gaining consideration as a regression method of choice for genome-enabled prediction. Complex traits are presumably influenced by many genomic regions working in concert with others (clearly so when considering pathways), thus generating interactions. Motivated by this view, a growing number of statistical approaches based on kernels attempt to capture non-additive effects, either parametrically or non-parametrically. This review centers on whole-genome regression using kernel methods applied to a wide range of quantitative traits of agricultural importance in animals and plants. We discuss various kernel-based approaches tailored to capturing total genetic variation, with the aim of arriving at an enhanced predictive performance in the light of available genome annotation information. Connections between prediction machines born in animal breeding, statistics, and machine learning are revisited, and their empirical prediction performance is discussed. Overall, while some encouraging results have been obtained with non-parametric kernels, recovering non-additive genetic variation in a validation dataset remains a challenge in quantitative genetics. PMID:25360145

Morota, Gota; Gianola, Daniel

2014-01-01

264

Relationships between quantitative and reproductive fitness traits in animals  

PubMed Central

The relationships between quantitative and reproductive fitness traits in animals are of general biological importance for the development of population genetic models and our understanding of evolution, and of great direct economical importance in the breeding of farm animals. Two well investigated quantitative traits—body weight (BW) and litter size (LS)—were chosen as the focus of our review. The genetic relationships between them are reviewed in fishes and several mammalian species. We have focused especially on mice where data are most abundant. In mice, many individual genes influencing these traits have been identified, and numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) located. The extensive data on both unselected and selected mouse populations, with some characterized for more than 100 generations, allow a thorough investigation of the dynamics of this relationship during the process of selection. Although there is a substantial positive genetic correlation between both traits in unselected populations, caused mainly by the high correlation between BW and ovulation rate, that correlation apparently declines during selection and therefore does not restrict a relatively independent development of both traits. The importance of these findings for overall reproductive fitness and its change during selection is discussed. PMID:16048791

Bünger, Lutz; Lewis, Ronald M; Rothschild, Max F; Blasco, Agustin; Renne, Ulla; Simm, Geoff

2005-01-01

265

QTLs for Seed Vigor-Related Traits Identified in Maize Seeds Germinated under Artificial Aging Conditions  

PubMed Central

High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R2>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes. PMID:24651614

Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, ShuLei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

2014-01-01

266

Sherm Soils - Distribution, Importance, Variability, and Management.  

E-print Network

~5 . 7 13 herm Distribution, Importance, ~ Variability & Management The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Neville P. Clarke, Director, College Station, Texas In cooperation with United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural... listed in Table 3 are the average length and dates of the frost-free period, average daily maximum and mlllimum temperatures, and average annual precipitation in counties where ';Sherm soils occur. IContribution from USDA, Agricultural Research...

Unger, Paul W.; Pringle, Fred B.

1986-01-01

267

[Major domestication traits in Asian rice].  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding. PMID:23208135

Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

2012-11-01

268

Genetic analysis of root morphological traits in wheat.  

PubMed

Traits related to root architecture are of great importance for yield performance of crop species, although they remain poorly understood. The present study is aimed at identifying the genomic regions involved in the control of root morphological traits in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). A set of 123 recombinant inbred lines derived from the durum wheat cross of cvs. 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' were grown hydroponically to two growth stages, and were phenotypically evaluated for a number of root traits. In addition, meta-(M)QTL analysis was performed that considered the results of other root traits studies in wheat, to compare with the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' cross and to increase the QTL detection power. Eight quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits related to root morphology were identified on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 3A, 6A and 6B in the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' segregating population. Twenty-two MQTL that comprised from two to six individual QTL that had widely varying confidence intervals were found on 14 chromosomes. The data from the present study provide a detailed analysis of the genetic basis of morphological root traits in wheat. This study of the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' durum-wheat population has revealed some QTL that had not been previously identified. PMID:25416422

Petrarulo, Maria; Marone, Daniela; Ferragonio, Pina; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rubiales, Diego; De Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

2014-11-22

269

Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes.  

PubMed

The study of ecosystem functioning - the role which organisms play in an ecosystem - is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

Faulwetter, Sarah; Markantonatou, Vasiliki; Pavloudi, Christina; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Pafilis, Evangelos; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Dailianis, Thanos; Fanini, Lucia; Koulouri, Panayota; Arvanitidis, Christos

2014-01-01

270

Genetic mechanisms of floral trait correlations in a natural population.  

PubMed

Genetic correlations among traits are important in evolution, as they can constrain evolutionary change or reflect past selection for combinations of traits. Constraints and integration depend on whether the correlations are caused by pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium, but these genetic mechanisms underlying correlations remain largely unknown in natural populations. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies do not adequately address the mechanisms of within-population genetic correlations because they rely on crosses between distinct species, inbred lines or selected lines (see ref. 5), and they cannot distinguish moderate linkage disequilibrium from pleiotropy because they commonly rely on only one or two episodes of recombination. Here I report that after nine generations of enforced random mating (nine episodes of recombination), correlations between six floral traits in wild radish plants are unchanged, showing that pleiotropy generates the correlations. There is no evidence for linkage disequilibrium despite previous correlational selection acting on one functionally integrated pair of traits. This study provides direct evidence of the genetic mechanisms underlying correlations between quantitative traits in a natural population and suggests that there may be constraints on the independent evolution of pairs of highly correlated traits. PMID:12459781

Conner, Jeffrey K

2002-11-28

271

Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes  

PubMed Central

Abstract The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

2014-01-01

272

7 CFR 319.74-3 - Importations by the Department.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Cut Flowers § 319.74-3 Importations by the Department. The U.S. Department of Agriculture may import cut flowers for experimental or scientific purposes under such...

2013-01-01

273

7 CFR 319.74-3 - Importations by the Department.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Cut Flowers § 319.74-3 Importations by the Department. The U.S. Department of Agriculture may import cut flowers for experimental or scientific purposes under such...

2012-01-01

274

7 CFR 319.74-3 - Importations by the Department.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Cut Flowers § 319.74-3 Importations by the Department. The U.S. Department of Agriculture may import cut flowers for experimental or scientific purposes under such...

2011-01-01

275

7 CFR 319.74-3 - Importations by the Department.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Cut Flowers § 319.74-3 Importations by the Department. The U.S. Department of Agriculture may import cut flowers for experimental or scientific purposes under such...

2010-01-01

276

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Tanya Perrault

2012-02-20

277

Effect of Habitat Conditions and Plant Traits on Leaf Damage in the Carduoideae Subfamily  

PubMed Central

Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range. PMID:23717643

Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Ji?í

2013-01-01

278

An Examination of the Effects of the Texas Farm Bureau Mobile Learning Barn Agricultural Education Program on Youth's Perceptions and Knowledge of Agriculture  

E-print Network

Farm Bureau Mobile Learning Barn, strive to educate youth about the importance of agriculture. This study documented the agricultural perceptions and knowledge of youth who attended the Texas Farm Bureau Mobile Learning Barn agricultural education...

Howard, Joni Leigh

2013-12-03

279

Functional traits in parallel evolutionary radiations and trait-environment associations in the cape floristic region of South Africa.  

PubMed

Evolutionary radiations with extreme levels of diversity present a unique opportunity to study the role of the environment in plant evolution. If environmental adaptation played an important role in such radiations, we expect to find associations between functional traits and key climatic variables. Similar trait-environment associations across clades may reflect common responses, while contradictory associations may suggest lineage-specific adaptations. Here, we explore trait-environment relationships in two evolutionary radiations in the fynbos biome of the highly biodiverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. Protea and Pelargonium are morphologically and evolutionarily diverse genera that typify the CFR yet are substantially different in growth form and morphology. Our analytical approach employs a Bayesian multiple-response generalized linear mixed-effects model, taking into account covariation among traits and controlling for phylogenetic relationships. Of the pairwise trait-environment associations tested, 6 out of 24 were in the same direction and 2 out of 24 were in opposite directions, with the latter apparently reflecting alternative life-history strategies. These findings demonstrate that trait diversity within two plant lineages may reflect both parallel and idiosyncratic responses to the environment, rather than all taxa conforming to a global-scale pattern. Such insights are essential for understanding how trait-environment associations arise and how they influence species diversification. PMID:25811086

Mitchell, Nora; Moore, Timothy E; Mollmann, Hayley Kilroy; Carlson, Jane E; Mocko, Kerri; Martinez-Cabrera, Hugo; Adams, Christopher; Silander, John A; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D; Holsinger, Kent E

2015-04-01

280

Recording of direct health traits in Austria--experience report with emphasis on aspects of availability for breeding purposes.  

PubMed

A project to establish an Austria-wide health-monitoring system for cattle was launched in 2006. Veterinary diagnostic data subject to documentation by law [Law on the Control of Veterinary Medicinal Products (Tierarzneimittelkontrollgesetz)] are standardized, validated, and recorded in a central database. This Austria-wide project is a collaboration among agricultural and veterinary organizations as well as universities, and is also supported by the Austrian government. In addition to providing information for herd management and preventive measures, further objectives of the project include estimating breeding values for health traits and monitoring the overall health status of Austria's cattle. To ensure a high level of participation from farmers and veterinarians, data security issues are extremely important. Valid data are the prerequisite for the efficient use of health records. The challenge hereby is to distinguish between farms with low frequencies of diseases and incomplete documentation and recording. Measures were undertaken to establish a routine monitoring system for direct health traits. A routine genetic evaluation for direct health traits as part of the joint breeding value estimation program between Germany and Austria was introduced for Fleckvieh in December 2010, based on diagnostic data from 5,428 farms with 147,764 Fleckvieh cows. In 2010 to 2011, the reporting of direct health traits as a compulsory part of performance recording and the breeding program was introduced as well. The overall challenge is the availability of sufficient valid direct health data for reliable breeding values. Practical experience gained in Austria in setting up a health registration system, focusing mainly on the availability of direct health data for breeding purposes with its successes and difficulties, is described. PMID:22541507

Egger-Danner, C; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Obritzhauser, W; Fuerst, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Grassauer, B; Mayerhofer, M; Koeck, A

2012-05-01

281

Independent Evolution of Leaf and Root Traits within and among Temperate Grassland Plant Communities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used data from temperate grassland plant communities in Alberta, Canada to test two longstanding hypotheses in ecology: 1) that there has been correlated evolution of the leaves and roots of plants due to selection for an integrated whole-plant resource uptake strategy, and 2) that trait diversity in ecological communities is generated by adaptations to the conditions in different habitats. We tested the first hypothesis using phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evidence of correlated evolution of suites of leaf and root functional traits in these grasslands. There were consistent evolutionary correlations among traits related to plant resource uptake strategies within leaf tissues, and within root tissues. In contrast, there were inconsistent correlations between the traits of leaves and the traits of roots, suggesting different evolutionary pressures on the above and belowground components of plant morphology. To test the second hypothesis, we evaluated the relative importance of two components of trait diversity: within-community variation (species trait values relative to co-occurring species; ? traits) and among-community variation (the average trait value in communities where species occur; ? traits). Trait diversity was mostly explained by variation among co-occurring species, not among-communities. Additionally, there was a phylogenetic signal in the within-community trait values of species relative to co-occurring taxa, but not in their habitat associations or among-community trait variation. These results suggest that sorting of pre-existing trait variation into local communities can explain the leaf and root trait diversity in these grasslands. PMID:21687704

Kembel, Steven W.; Cahill, James F.

2011-01-01

282

Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle  

PubMed Central

A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments. PMID:18298935

Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S; Viitala, Sirja M; Vilkki, Johanna H

2008-01-01

283

Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.  

PubMed

Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits. PMID:19397522

Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

2009-08-01

284

Underdispersion and overdispersion of traits in terrestrial snail communities on islands  

PubMed Central

Understanding and disentangling different processes underlying the assembly and diversity of communities remains a key challenge in ecology. Species can assemble into communities either randomly or due to deterministic processes. Deterministic assembly leads to species being more similar (underdispersed) or more different (overdispersed) in certain traits than would be expected by chance. However, the relative importance of those processes is not well understood for many organisms, including terrestrial invertebrates. Based on knowledge of a broad range of species traits, we tested for the presence of trait underdispersion (indicating dispersal or environmental filtering) and trait overdispersion (indicating niche partitioning) and their relative importance in explaining land snail community composition on lake islands. The analysis of community assembly was performed using a functional diversity index (Rao's quadratic entropy) in combination with a null model approach. Regression analysis with the effect sizes of the assembly tests and environmental variables gave information on the strength of under- and overdispersion along environmental gradients. Additionally, we examined the link between community weighted mean trait values and environmental variables using a CWM-RDA. We found both trait underdispersion and trait overdispersion, but underdispersion (eight traits) was more frequently detected than overdispersion (two traits). Underdispersion was related to four environmental variables (tree cover, habitat diversity, productivity of ground vegetation, and location on an esker ridge). Our results show clear evidence for underdispersion in traits driven by environmental filtering, but no clear evidence for dispersal filtering. We did not find evidence for overdispersion of traits due to diet or body size, but overdispersion in shell shape may indicate niche differentiation between snail species driven by small-scale habitat heterogeneity. The use of species traits enabled us to identify key traits involved in snail community assembly and to detect the simultaneous occurrence of trait underdispersion and overdispersion. PMID:25360251

Astor, Tina; Strengbom, Joachim; Berg, Matty P; Lenoir, Lisette; Marteinsdóttir, Bryndís; Bengtsson, Jan

2014-01-01

285

A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

2006-01-01

286

Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural landscape to ensure resistance is not developing. USEPA is teaming with NASA to perform this monitoring using models and NASA earth observation imagery from airborne and satellite platforms. Using multiple spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions, the project is monitoring the entire Midwestern "Corn Belt". By applying these methods, the project has successfully delineated insect infestations in genetically modified corn fields. Insect resistance development is expected to present itself as infestations thus indicating potential identification of resistance if it develops in genetically modified crops. The USEPA and NASA are currently considering the development of plans to potentially extend this aircraft research to other crops and develop a micro-satellite application.

Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

287

Can traits predict species' vulnerability? A test with farmland passerines in two continents  

PubMed Central

Species' traits have been used both to explain and, increasingly, to predict species' vulnerability. Trait-based comparative analyses allow mechanisms causing vulnerability to be inferred and, ideally, conservation effort to be focused efficiently and effectively. However, empirical evidence of the predictive ability of trait-based approaches is largely wanting. I tested the predictive power of trait-based analyses on geographically replicated datasets of farmland bird population trends. I related the traits of farmland passerines with their long-term trends in abundance (an assessment of their response to agricultural intensification) in eight regions in two continents. These analyses successfully identified explanatory relationships in the regions, specifically: species faring badly tended to be medium-sized, had relatively short incubation and fledging periods, were longer distant migrants, had small relative brain sizes and were farmland specialists. Despite this, the models had poor ability to predict species' vulnerability in one region from trait–population trend relationships from a different region. In many cases, the explained variation was low (median R2 = 8%). The low predictive ability of trait-based analyses must therefore be considered if such trait-based models are used to inform conservation priorities. PMID:21047852

Pocock, Michael J. O.

2011-01-01

288

CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD MALUS POPULATIONS USING GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malus sieversii, a wild relative of domestic apple, represents an important source of genetic variation for several horticulturally important traits including fruit quality and disease resistance. Collections made by the USDA in Kazakhstan have now been analyzed to determine the extent of diversity...

289

Multiple Trait Selection for Pork Improvement Fact Sheet Number 10  

E-print Network

Gunsett, Genetic Improvement Services, Newton Grove, NC Introduction One of the most important decisions traits of economic importance and determine whether to improve performance a small amount in several to developing a financial budget when one has a limited amount of money to spend each month. One can buy one

290

Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.  

PubMed

How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes. PMID:23951712

Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

2013-07-01

291

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference Conference Information This conference will discuss the drivers of Missouri agricultural and bio-fuel markets and the implications for Missouri farmsDr.JonHagler, DirectoroftheMissouriDepartment ofAgriculture. · Outlookpresentationsderivedfrom thelatestbaselineresultsof

Noble, James S.

292

Agricultural Leadership, Education, & Communications  

E-print Network

Agricultural Leadership, Education, & Communications ALEC 102 Fall 2006 Course Title: Critical Issues in Agricultural Leadership and Education Credit: 1 Hour Instructors: Ms. Summer Felton; 119A! This introductory course is designed for students entering in the Agricultural Leadership & Development degree

293

Agricultural Station factsheet  

E-print Network

1 The Nevada Agricultural Experiment Station factsheet series is designed to provide information systems to enhance agriculture, community and economic vitality. INTRODUCTION Several publications sales of wine, wineries and vineyards generate tourism dollars. Traditionally, agricultural production

Cramer, Grant R.

294

Potential Analysis on Taiwan Agricultural Products Entering the International Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study probes into the trade exchange of Taiwan 's agricultural products, through structural analys is, to recognize the transformation of the import structur e of Taiwanese agricultural products; and analyzes the export potential of Taiwan's agricultural products by rela tive advantages of import and export values. The re search findings are generalized below: analysis on the trade change of

Meng-Long Shih

295

The impact of policy in African agriculture : an empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have witnessed a decline in Africa's agricultural exports and a sharp rise in the region's food imports. With over 70 percent of Africa's people dependent on agriculture for their livelihood, getting agriculture moving in Africa is one of the most important formidable challenges facing Africa in the 1990s. There is now wide recognition that government policies

William Jaeger

1991-01-01

296

7 CFR 57.930 - Imported eggs; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to inspection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Imported eggs; retention in customs custody... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...Imported eggs; retention in customs...

2011-01-01

297

Cultural modulation of self-referential brain activity for personality traits and social identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-cultural studies have shown that personality traits are less central and social identities are more important to the selfhood of collectivistic people. However, most cultural neuroscience studies using the self-reference effect (SRE) paradigm have only used personality traits to explore cultural differences in the neural circuits of self-referential processes. In the present study, we used both personality traits and social

Sunhae Sul; Incheol Choi; Pyungwon Kang

2011-01-01

298

Cultural modulation of self-referential brain activity for personality traits and social identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-cultural studies have shown that personality traits are less central and social identities are more important to the selfhood of collectivistic people. However, most cultural neuroscience studies using the self-reference effect (SRE) paradigm have only used personality traits to explore cultural differences in the neural circuits of self-referential processes. In the present study, we used both personality traits and social

Sunhae Sul; Incheol Choi; Pyungwon Kang

2012-01-01

299

Alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological traits but not chemical traits.  

PubMed

Leaves and fine roots are among the most important and dynamic components of terrestrial ecosystems. To what extent plants synchronize their resource capture strategies above- and belowground remains uncertain. Existing results of trait relationships between leaf and root showed great inconsistency, which may be partly due to the differences in abiotic environmental conditions such as climate and soil. Moreover, there is currently little evidence on whether and how the stringent environments of high-altitude alpine ecosystems alter the coordination between above- and belowground. Here we measured six sets of analogous traits for both leaves and fine roots of 139 species collected from Tibetan alpine grassland and Mongolian temperate grassland. N, P and N:P ratio of leaves and fine roots were positively correlated, independent of biogeographic regions, phylogenetic affiliation or climate. In contrast, leaves and fine roots seem to regulate morphological traits more independently. The specific leaf area (SLA)-specific root length (SRL) correlation shifted from negative at sites under low temperature to positive at warmer sites. The cold climate of alpine regions may impose different constraints on shoots and roots, selecting simultaneously for high SLA leaves for rapid C assimilation during the short growing season, but low SRL roots with high physical robustness to withstand soil freezing. In addition, there might be more community heterogeneity in cold soils, resulting in multidirectional strategies of root in resource acquisition. Thus our results demonstrated that alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological but not chemical traits. PMID:24633995

Geng, Yan; Wang, Liang; Jin, Dongmei; Liu, Huiying; He, Jin-Sheng

2014-06-01

300

Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca.  

PubMed

Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) resulting from three seed production environments. Significant QTL were identified for germination in darkness, germination at 25 and 35 degrees C, median maximum temperature of germination, hypocotyl length at 72 h post-imbibition, and plant (seedling) quality. Some QTL for germination and early seedling growth characteristics were co-located, suggestive of pleiotropic loci regulating these traits. A single QTL (Htg6.1) described 25 and 23% of the total phenotypic variation for high temperature germination in California- and Netherlands-grown populations, respectively, and was significant between 33 and 37 degrees C. Additionally, Htg6.1 showed significant epistatic interactions with other Htg QTL and a consistent effect across all the three seed production environments. L. serriola alleles increased germination at these QTL. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability (h2) of Htg6.1 was 0.84, indicating potential for L. serriola as a source of germination thermotolerance for lettuce introgression programs. PMID:16177902

Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Knapp, Steven J; Still, David W; Lenssen, Ger M; Schut, Johan W; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

2005-11-01

301

Maladaptive changes in multiple traits caused by fishing: impediments to population recovery  

E-print Network

LETTER Maladaptive changes in multiple traits caused by fishing: impediments to population recovery, Riverside, CA, USA 3 Department of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Abashiri 099-2493, Japan *Correspondence: E-mail: matthew.walsh@email.ucr.edu Abstract Some overharvested fish populations fail to recover

Hameed, Sultan

302

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for early growth traits in Emirati goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emirati goat is the most common native breed of the United Arab Emirates adapted to the harsh environment. The data used in the present study were collected from a conservation flock at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Experimental Station. The traits recorded were body weights at birth (BWT), 30 days (WT30) and weaning weight (WWT), and average daily gains

S. A Al-Shorepy; G. A Alhadrami; K Abdulwahab

2002-01-01

303

AgriculturAl 2013 Annual Report  

E-print Network

Dean of Agriculture and Natural Resources Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey ExecutiveNew Jersey AgriculturAl experimeNt stAtioN 2013 Annual Report #12;To enhance the vitality, health, sustainability, and overall quality of life in New Jersey by developing and delivering practical, effective

Goodman, Robert M.

304

Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

305

Modelling the ecological niche from functional traits  

PubMed Central

The niche concept is central to ecology but is often depicted descriptively through observing associations between organisms and habitats. Here, we argue for the importance of mechanistically modelling niches based on functional traits of organisms and explore the possibilities for achieving this through the integration of three theoretical frameworks: biophysical ecology (BE), the geometric framework for nutrition (GF) and dynamic energy budget (DEB) models. These three frameworks are fundamentally based on the conservation laws of thermodynamics, describing energy and mass balance at the level of the individual and capturing the prodigious predictive power of the concepts of ‘homeostasis’ and ‘evolutionary fitness’. BE and the GF provide mechanistic multi-dimensional depictions of climatic and nutritional niches, respectively, providing a foundation for linking organismal traits (morphology, physiology, behaviour) with habitat characteristics. In turn, they provide driving inputs and cost functions for mass/energy allocation within the individual as determined by DEB models. We show how integration of the three frameworks permits calculation of activity constraints, vital rates (survival, development, growth, reproduction) and ultimately population growth rates and species distributions. When integrated with contemporary niche theory, functional trait niche models hold great promise for tackling major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology. PMID:20921046

Kearney, Michael; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David; Helmuth, Brian

2010-01-01

306

Entomophagy and space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

307

Relationships between Nutrient-Related Plant Traits and Combinations of Soil N and P Fertility Measures  

PubMed Central

Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility–trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1) whether different elements (N or P) have contrasting or shared influences, (2) which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years) has better predictive power, and (3) if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy). The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility–trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P) were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations) but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration). The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared) and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric) effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly considering the roles of different elements to properly interpret fertility–trait relationships. PMID:24391815

Fujita, Yuki; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Witte, Jan-Philip M.

2013-01-01

308

Selected Students' Eurocentric Attitudes About Agriculture  

E-print Network

abroad influenced how they perceived other countries, and students? ethnocentrism increased as they aged. However, others (Persaud et al.) found that Eurocentric attitudes of students enrolled in agriculture programs diminished with age. Eurocentric..., 1995). The National Research Council (1996) noted that broadening and diversifying programs in colleges of agriculture is an important step, because it has a ?potential payoff for the colleges? traditional agricultural clientele, because expanding...

Rouse, Lauren Ashley

2010-10-12

309

Landscape Planning for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction I: A Geographical Allocation Framework  

E-print Network

understood, reducing agricultural NPS pollution and improving stream water quality has become an importantLandscape Planning for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction I: A Geographical+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Agricultural nonpoint source pollution remains a persistent environmental

Vander Zanden, Jake

310

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2010-04-01

311

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2011-04-01

312

Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Several Internal Organ Traits and Teat Number Trait in a Pig Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected for 8 internal organ traits, 3 carcass length traits, and teat number trait in 214 pigs in a resource population that included 180 F2 individuals. A total of 39 microsatellite markers were examined on SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13. The genetic traits included heart weight (HW), lung weight (LW), liver and gallbladder weight

Jinghu Zhang; Yuanzhu Xiong; Bo Zuo; Minggang Lei; Siwen Jiang; Feng'e Li; Rong Zheng; Jialian Li; Dequan Xu

2007-01-01

313

Effective monitoring of agriculture.  

PubMed

An opinion piece published in Nature proposed a global network for agricultural monitoring [J. Sachs, R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S. J. Andelman, K. G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L. E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Leemans, J. C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C. A. Palm, J. P. Reganold, D. D. Richter, S. J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T. P. Tomich and P. A. Sanchez, Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560.]. Whilst we agree with Sachs et al. that monitoring of agricultural systems is a critically important activity of global significance, especially given increasing problems with global food security and the potential impacts of agriculture on the environment [J. Cribb, The Coming Famine. The Global Food Crisis and What We Can Do to Avoid It, CSIRO Publishing and University of California Press, Melbourne and Oakland, 2010.], we argue in this paper that their generic, mandated monitoring framework has a high probability of failure or at best will be highly inefficient. We base this conclusion on our recently published examination of the factors influencing the success or failure of monitoring programs worldwide [D. B. Lindenmayer and G. E. Likens, Effective Ecological Monitoring, CSIRO Publishing and Earthscan, Melbourne and London, 2010.]. We briefly outline what we believe are three serious flaws in the monitoring framework proposed by Sachs et al. We then suggest an alternative approach that we argue would be more effective, more efficient, and have a greater chance of successfully addressing key issues in sustainable agriculture. PMID:21479312

Lindenmayer, David B; Likens, Gene E

2011-06-01

314

Agriculture and climate change  

SciTech Connect

How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

Abelson, P.H.

1992-07-03

315

Economic weights for performance and survival traits of growing pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to derive economic weights for performance and survival traits of growing pigs including feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily feed intake (DFI), ADG, postweaning survival of the growing pig (SG), and carcass fat depth at the P2 site (CFD). An independent model was developed for each trait to derive economic values directly based on a typical Australian production system. This flexible approach may be used to customize economic values for different production systems and alternative trait combinations in breeding objectives. Discounted genetic expressions were used as a means of taking into account differences in frequency and timing of expression of traits to obtain economic weights. Economic values for SG were derived based on a cost-saving and a lost-revenue approach. The correct formulation of the economic value of ADG depends on how feed cost is included in the breeding objective. If FCR is defined as a breeding objective trait, then savings in feed costs through earlier slaughter should not be counted in the economic value of ADG. In contrast, if DFI is included in the breeding objective instead of FCR, then feed-cost savings through earlier slaughter need to be attributed to the economic value for ADG, as a benefit from faster ADG. The paper also demonstrates that economic weightings in indexes for FCR can potentially be overestimated by 70% when it is assumed that DFI or FCR records taken from a limited duration test period reflect the corresponding trait over the full lifetime of the growing pig destined for slaughter. Postweaning survival of the growing pig was the most important breeding objective trait of growing pigs. The relative importance of each breeding objective trait in a sire-line index based on the genetic SD of each trait was 44.5, 27.0, 17.4, and 11.1% for SG, FCR, ADG, and CFD, respectively. Further studies to better clarify the extent of genetic variation that exists in SG under nucleus-farm and commercial-farm conditions are warranted, given the high economic importance of this survival trait of growing pigs. PMID:25367529

Hermesch, S; Ludemann, C I; Amer, P R

2014-12-01

316

Phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits in Helianthus.  

PubMed

Habitats that differ in soil resource availability are expected to differ for selection on resource-related plant traits. Here, we examined spatial and temporal variation in phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits for 10 Helianthus populations, including two species of hybrid origin, Helianthus anomalus and Helianthus deserticola, and artificial hybrids of their ancestral parents. Leaf traits assessed were leaf size, succulence, nitrogen (N) concentration and water-use efficiency (WUE). Biomass and leaf traits of artificial hybrids indicate that the actively moving dune habitat of H. anomalus was more growth limiting, with lower N availability but higher relative water availability than the stabilized dune habitat of H. deserticola. Habitats differed for direct selection on leaf N and WUE, but not size or succulence, for the artificial hybrids. However, within the H. anomalus habitat, direct selection on WUE also differed among populations. Across years, direct selection on leaf traits did not differ. Leaf N was the only trait for which direct selection differed between habitats but not within the H. anomalus habitat, suggesting that nutrient limitation is an important selective force driving adaptation of H. anomalus to the active dune habitat. PMID:19552693

Donovan, L A; Ludwig, F; Rosenthal, D M; Rieseberg, L H; Dudley, S A

2009-08-01

317

College of Agricultural Sciences College of Agricultural Sciences  

E-print Network

and maintaining a productive, safe, and sustainable environment. Agricultural programs integrate biologicalCollege of Agricultural Sciences College of Agricultural Sciences Office in Shepardson Building MAJORS Agricultural Business Agricultural Education Animal Science Environmental and Natural Resource

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

318

Agricultural and Biological Engineering College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension  

E-print Network

Agricultural and Biological Engineering College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension An Equal Opportunity University College of Agricultural Sciences, U.S. Department of Agriculture Engineering Robert E. Graves, Professor, Agricultural and Biological Engineering F-254 Introduction As liquid

Kaye, Jason P.

319

Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes  

SciTech Connect

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

Reich, P.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Walters, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Vose, J.M. [Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrological Lab.; Gresham, C. [Clemson Univ., Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Forest Inst.; Volin, J.C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Davie, FL (United States). Div. of Science; Bowman, W.D. [Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Mountain Research Station]|[Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Evolutionary, Population, and Organismic Biology

1999-09-01

320

The modulation of somatosensory resonance by psychopathic traits and empathy  

PubMed Central

A large number of neuroimaging studies have shown neural overlaps between first-hand experiences of pain and the perception of pain in others. This shared neural representation of vicarious pain is thought to involve both affective and sensorimotor systems. A number of individual factors are thought to modulate the cerebral response to other's pain. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of psychopathic traits on the relation between sensorimotor resonance to other's pain and self-reported empathy. Our group has previously shown that a steady-state response to non-painful stimulation is modulated by the observation of other people's bodily pain. This change in somatosensory response was interpreted as a form of somatosensory gating (SG). Here, using the same technique, SG was compared between two groups of 15 young adult males: one scoring very high on a self-reported measure of psychopathic traits [60.8 ± 4.98; Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP)] and one scoring very low (42.7 ± 2.94). The results showed a significantly greater reduction of SG to pain observation for the high psychopathic traits group compared to the low psychopathic traits group. SG to pain observation was positively correlated with affective and interpersonal facet of psychopathy in the whole sample. The high psychopathic traits group also reported lower empathic concern (EC) scores than the low psychopathic traits group. Importantly, primary psychopathy, as assessed by the LSRP, mediated the relation between EC and SG to pain observation. Together, these results suggest that increase somatosensory resonance to other's pain is not exclusively explained by trait empathy and may be linked to other personality dimensions, such as psychopathic traits. PMID:23801950

Marcoux, Louis-Alexandre; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Voisin, Julien I. A.; Lemelin, Sophie; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Jackson, Philip L.

2013-01-01

321

A cybernetic model of global personality traits.  

PubMed

Neurobehavioral studies of human and animal temperament have shed light on how individual personality traits influence human actions. This approach, however, leaves open questions about how the entire system of traits and temperaments function together to exercise control. To address this key issue, I describe a cybernetic model of control and then apply it to the Big Five (B5) personality traits. Employing evidence from descriptive trait terms, temperamental behavioral processes associated with traits, and empirical correlates of traits, I relate distinct cybernetic processes of self-regulation to the B5 traits. The B5 traits broadly parallel basic cybernetic self-regulation processes. For example, the core behavior activation property of the B5 Extraversion trait can be mapped onto the device output function of automated cybernetic control systems. Implications and limitations of interpreting personality traits in self-regulation terms are discussed. PMID:19351887

Van Egeren, Lawrence F

2009-05-01

322

7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal...

2013-01-01

323

7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal...

2014-01-01

324

7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal...

2012-01-01

325

7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term...

2010-01-01

326

7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term...

2012-01-01

327

7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term...

2013-01-01

328

7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term...

2014-01-01

329

7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term...

2011-01-01

330

Using phenotypic manipulations to study multivariate selection of floral trait associations  

PubMed Central

Background A basic theme in the study of plant–pollinator interactions is that pollinators select not just for single floral traits, but for associations of traits. Responses of pollinators to sets of traits are inherent in the idea of pollinator syndromes. In its most extreme form, selection on a suite of traits can take the form of correlational selection, in which a response to one trait depends on the value of another, thereby favouring floral integration. Despite the importance of selection for combinations of traits in the evolution of flowers, evidence is relatively sparse and relies mostly on observational approaches. Scope Here, methods for measuring selection on multivariate suites of floral traits are presented, and the studies to date are reviewed. It is argued that phenotypic manipulations present a powerful, but rarely used, approach to teasing apart the separate and combined effects of particular traits. The approach is illustrated with data from studies of alpine plants in Colorado and New Zealand, and recommendations are made about several features of the design of such experiments. Conclusions Phenotypic manipulations of two or more traits in combination provide a direct way of testing for selection of floral trait associations. Such experiments will be particularly valuable if rooted in hypotheses about differences between types of pollinators and tied to a proposed evolutionary history. PMID:19218579

Campbell, Diane R.

2009-01-01

331

Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects  

PubMed Central

Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the asexual lineages retained the capacity to produce males that display normal courtship behaviours and are able to fertilize eggs of females from related sexual species. The maintenance of male traits may stem from pleiotropy, or from these traits only regressing via drift, which may require millions of years to generate phenotypic effects. By contrast, we found parallel decay of sexual traits in females. Asexual females produced altered airborne and contact signals, had modified sperm storage organs, and lost the ability to fertilize their eggs, impeding reversals to sexual reproduction. Female sexual traits were decayed even in recently derived asexuals, suggesting that trait changes following the evolution of asexuality, when they occur, proceed rapidly and are driven by selective processes rather than drift. PMID:23782880

Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J.; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2013-01-01

332

St Vincent Youth and Careers in Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Given the ageing farming population in the Caribbean and the importance of agriculture to economy, there is cause for concern about the future of farming. This study seeks to explore the extent to which students pursuing agriculture in secondary schools in St Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) were likely to engage in farming as well as…

Webster, Nicole; Ganpat, Wayne

2014-01-01

333

Agricultural Accident Prevention--Problems and Accomplishments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Titles of bulletins, for persons who are interested in agricultural accident prevention, are listed as well as examples of farm machinery manufacturers who are making special efforts to produce valuable teaching aids and to inform all segments of agriculture about important safety development. (HD)

Bristol, Benton K.

1976-01-01

334

Improving Local Weather Forecasts for Agricultural Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For controlling agricultural systems, weather forecasts can be of substantial importance. Studies have shown that forecast errors can be reduced in terms of bias and standard deviation using forecasts and meteorological measurements from one specific meteorological station. For agricultural systems usually the forecasts of the nearest meteorological station are used whereas measurements are taken from the systems location. The objective

T. G. Doeswijk; K. J. Keesman

2005-01-01

335

WTO agricultural trade battles and food aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent agricultural trade battles at the WTO between the US and the EU have important implications for the Global South, in particular with respect to food aid. The current Doha round of trade talks hinges closely on agreement in the area of agriculture, and a key issue of disagreement between the US and the EU is the question of whether

Jennifer Clapp

2004-01-01

336

Agricultural and Life Sciences Building Speakers are  

E-print Network

;Delks: I don't know if you've seen our laboratories, but they need help. And so I think an importantAgricultural and Life Sciences Building Speakers are: Dr. Jay Akridge - Glenn W. Sample Dean industry in this state. This new Agricultural and Life Sciences building is intended to be a replacement

337

environment and agriculture  

E-print Network

environment and agriculture environmentagriculture.curtin.edu.au Bachelor of Science - majorS in agriculture, environmental Biology or coaStal Zone management Science and engineering #12;t he department of environment and agriculture caters for students who are passionate about agriculture, biology, conserving

338

Agriculture and Environmental Quality  

E-print Network

to minimize agricultural pollution and sustain food production adequate for the world's population Purpose: Understanding agriculture's role in the environment and in our lives is integral to the overall of agricultural production and processing industries as well as to those with a special interest in agricultural

Ma, Lena

339

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

340

Agricultural and Food Sciences  

E-print Network

Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences (FAFS) #12;82 Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences (FAFS) Undergraduate Catalogue 2013­14 Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences (FAFS) Officers Background Basic university-level courses in agriculture were offered by the School of Arts and Sciences

Shihadeh, Alan

341

Boscawen Agricultural presents their  

E-print Network

Cooperative Extension Field Specialist, Food & Agriculture By saving seed from your home vegetable or flowerBoscawen Agricultural Commission presents their 2014 Fall Workshop Series SEED SAVING FOR THE HOME Agricultural Commission at 753-9188 x 301 or agriculture03303@gmail.com Presenter: Amy Papineau, UNH

New Hampshire, University of

342

Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

343

Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) in a sample of 124 young women were correlated with interpersonal dysfunction as measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex. Results suggest that MPQ traits vary in their associations with interpersonal distress and in their coverage of specific kinds of interpersonal difficulties among women undergoing the transition to adulthood. PMID:22064504

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

2012-01-01

344

Genomewide Association Studies for 50 Agronomic Traits in Peanut Using the ‘Reference Set’ Comprising 300 Genotypes from 48 Countries of the Semi-Arid Tropics of the World  

PubMed Central

Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the ‘reference set’ of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K?=?3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15–20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (pvalue >2.1×10–6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81–90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

Pandey, Manish K.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V. Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S.; Khan, Aamir W.; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H. L.; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A.; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.

2014-01-01

345

Individuals Agricultural  

E-print Network

, the differences in diversity between years were not significant. We found Significant differences in Arthropod · Determine how differences in land use types may affect the taxonomic diversity of ground arthropod in arthropod species diversity in time and space emphasize the importance of a long term monitoring program

Hall, Sharon J.

346

Nitrogen mineralization in production agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the effects of N management and how it relates to the N cycle in soil ecosystems is essential to determining N availability. This manuscript describes the importance of N mineralization to production agriculture and introduces a special issue on “N Mineralization in Production Agricult...

347

Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

348

AGRICULTURAL EXCHANGE RATE DATA SHEET  

EPA Science Inventory

The ERS data set contains annual and monthly data for exchange rates important to U.S. agriculture. It includes both nominal and real exchange rates for 80 countries (plus the European Union) as well as real trade-weighted exchange rate indexes for many commodities and aggregatio...

349

RNA-Seq Identifies SNP Markers for Growth Traits in Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast growth is an important and highly desired trait, which affects the profitability of food animal production, with feed costs accounting for the largest proportion of production costs. Traditional phenotype-based selection is typically used to select for growth traits; however, genetic improvement is slow over generations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explain 90% of the genetic differences between individuals; therefore, they

Mohamed Salem; Roger L. Vallejo; Timothy D. Leeds; Yniv Palti; Sixin Liu; Annas Sabbagh; Caird E. Rexroad; Jianbo Yao

2012-01-01

350

Variation in resource limitation of plant reproduction influences natural selection on floral traits of Asclepias syriaca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of both pollen and resources can influence natural selection on floral traits, but their relative importance in shaping floral evolution is unclear. We experimentally manipulated pollinator and resource (fertilizer and water) availability in the perennial wildflower Asclepias syriaca L. Nine floral traits, one male fitness component (number of pollinia removed), and two female fitness components (number of pollinia

Christina M. Caruso; Davin L. D. Remington; Kate E. Ostergren

2005-01-01

351

Identity Processes and Personality Traits and Types in Adolescence: Directionality of Effects and Developmental Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are distinguished) are largely lacking. To gain more…

Luyckx, Koen; Teppers, Eveline; Klimstra, Theo A.; Rassart, Jessica

2014-01-01

352

QTLS FOR YIELD AND RELATED TRAITS IN THE WHEAT POPULATION, NING 7840 X CLARK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain yield and associated agronomic traits are important factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improvement. Knowledge regarding the number, genomic location, and effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) would facilitate marker-assisted selection and the development of cultivars with desirable cha...

353

Variation analysis for fiber quality traits among different positions in eight Upland cotton cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Equivalency of fiber quality within a plant of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is very important. There are several traits within a plant that can be used to measure fiber quality and five of those traits will be investigated. Eight representative upland cultivars were grown at the Plant Scien...

354

RNA-Seq identifies SNP markers for growth traits in rainbow trout  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fast growth is an important and highly desired trait, which affects the profitability of food animal production, with feed costs accounting for the largest proportion of production costs. Traditional phenotype-based selection is typically used to select for growth traits; however, genetic improveme...

355

Shifts and disruptions in resource-use trait syndromes during the evolution of herbaceous crops.  

PubMed

Trait-based ecology predicts that evolution in high-resource agricultural environments should select for suites of traits that enable fast resource acquisition and rapid canopy closure. However, crop breeding targets specific agronomic attributes rather than broad trait syndromes. Breeding for specific traits, together with evolution in high-resource environments, might lead to reduced phenotypic integration, according to predictions from the ecological literature. We provide the first comprehensive test of these hypotheses, based on a trait-screening programme of 30 herbaceous crops and their wild progenitors. During crop evolution plants became larger, which enabled them to compete more effectively for light, but they had poorly integrated phenotypes. In a subset of six herbaceous crop species investigated in greater depth, competitiveness for light increased during early plant domestication, whereas diminished phenotypic integration occurred later during crop improvement. Mass-specific leaf and root traits relevant to resource-use strategies (e.g. specific leaf area or tissue density of fine roots) changed during crop evolution, but in diverse and contrasting directions and magnitudes, depending on the crop species. Reductions in phenotypic integration and overinvestment in traits involved in competition for light may affect the chances of upgrading modern herbaceous crops to face current climatic and food security challenges. PMID:25185998

Milla, Rubén; Morente-López, Javier; Alonso-Rodrigo, J Miguel; Martín-Robles, Nieves; Chapin, F Stuart

2014-10-22

356

Educating About Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Farm Bureau Foundation for Agriculture (AFBFA) offers projects which include K-12 and some college agricultural education, consumer education, agricultural research, scholarships and farm safety programs. Topics covered include: educational activities; educational resources, including opportunities in agricultural careers; news and information; a calendar of events; a children\\'s page; a teachers\\' toolbox; recommended books and videos; and state and county agricultural statistics. Consumer and student education about biotechnology is emphasized.

357

Identification of Immune Traits Correlated with Dairy Cow Health, Reproduction and Productivity  

PubMed Central

Detailed biological analyses (e.g. epidemiological, genetic) of animal health and fitness in the field are limited by the lack of large-scale recording of individual animals. An alternative approach is to identify immune traits that are associated with these important functions and can be subsequently used in more detailed studies. We have used an experimental dairy herd with uniquely dense phenotypic data to identify a range of potentially useful immune traits correlated with enhanced (or depressed) health and fitness. Blood samples from 248 dairy cows were collected at two-monthly intervals over a 10-month period and analysed for a number of immune traits, including levels of serum proteins associated with the innate immune response and circulating leukocyte populations. Immune measures were matched to individual cow records related to productivity, fertility and disease. Correlations between traits were calculated using bivariate analyses based on animal repeatability and random regression models with a Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing. A number of significant correlations were found between immune traits and other recorded traits including: CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio and subclinical mastitis; % CD8+ lymphocytes and fertility; % CD335+ natural killer cells and lameness episodes; and serum haptoglobin levels and clinical mastitis. Importantly these traits were not associated with reduced productivity and, in the case of cellular immune traits, were highly repeatable. Moreover these immune traits displayed significant between-animal variation suggesting that they may be altered by genetic selection. This study represents the largest simultaneous analysis of multiple immune traits in dairy cattle to-date and demonstrates that a number of immune traits are associated with health events. These traits represent useful selection markers for future programmes aimed at improving animal health and fitness. PMID:23776543

Banos, Georgios; Wall, Eileen; Coffey, Michael P.; Bagnall, Ainsley; Gillespie, Sandra; Russell, George C.; McNeilly, Tom N.

2013-01-01

358

Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies  

PubMed Central

Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-01-01

359

7 CFR 319.59-2 - General import prohibitions; exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-2 General import prohibitions; exceptions. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

2011-01-01

360

7 CFR 319.59-2 - General import prohibitions; exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-2 General import prohibitions; exceptions. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

2014-01-01

361

7 CFR 319.59-2 - General import prohibitions; exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-2 General import prohibitions; exceptions. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

2013-01-01

362

7 CFR 319.59-2 - General import prohibitions; exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-2 General import prohibitions; exceptions. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

2010-01-01

363

7 CFR 319.59-2 - General import prohibitions; exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-2 General import prohibitions; exceptions. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

2012-01-01

364

Agricultural biotechnology and Indian newspapers  

E-print Network

would be buying seed every year thus creating a new market for the global seed industry.17 The fears that the multinational corporations will try and take over has been strengthen by the moves made by the moves by various biotechnology firms..., but we were anxious to avoid being drawn into a whirlpool of economic imperialism? 24 In the years after attaining independence India pursued a policy of import substitution industrialization (ISI). Although agriculture was acknowledged as important...

Sivakumar, Gayathri

2004-11-15

365

An application of industrial design in Large-scale Agricultural Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of agricultural modernization and mechanization, industrial design, as an important part of modern product, will play an important role in agricultural engineering and the design and product of agricultural machinery. At first the paper promotes the main three aspects of application of ID in agricultural engineering. Then based on the full design process of a self-propelled forage

Liu Sha

2008-01-01

366

Agricultural work safety efforts by Wisconsin extension agricultural agents.  

PubMed

This study investigated the agricultural work-related safety and health programming of county-level cooperative extension agents who work through land grant universities to provide a range of educational programs to agricultural producers. A questionnaire was designed and administered to all 89 Wisconsin agriculture and agribusiness extension county faculty. The questionnaire obtained valid responses from 98.9 percent of the agents. Ninety percent of all agents conducted some occupational safety and health promotion programming in the last year. These activities occupied an average of 4.8 days per agent per year. Most of the reported activities were group programs for the agricultural labor force that involved other extension agents and included the use of videotapes. The greatest barrier to more programming was lack of time on the part of both the agricultural work force and the agents. Most extension agents placed greater emphasis on training in how to work safely around hazards than on how to recognize and permanently correct hazards. For future programs agents requested more short format materials to use in programming, such as fact sheets, videotapes, and farm hazard inspection checklists. Agents are important training delivery resources for controlling farm-related injury and disease. Agents could be more effective with more time, better materials, and with more emphasis on hazard correction in workplace safety programs. PMID:10153689

Chapman, L J; Schuler, R T; Skjolaas, C A; Wilkinson, T L

1995-01-01

367

Genes Involved in Productive Traits in Beef Cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews and describes details on the identification of regions on the chromosomes where there is evidence that genes that influence economically important traits reside in beef cattle. The regions where these genes reside are located throughout all the chromosomes. Discussion foc...

368

DIVERSE TRAITS FOR PATHOGEN FITNESS IN GIBBERELLA ZEAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch is an important pathogen of wheat, maize, and other cereal crops worldwide. Pathogen fitness in G. zeae is the outcome of selection for traits that increase its ability to survive and reproduce in plant pathosystems. Current research on mechanisms of pathogen fitne...

369

QTL analysis of fruit quality traits in muscadine grapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) are an important native fruit crop grown in the southeastern United States. To facilitate the breeding of improved cultivars of muscadine grapes a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted on several flower and fruit characteristics of two segregatin...

370

Human genetic variation and its contribution to complex traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few years have seen extensive efforts to catalogue human genetic variation and correlate it with phenotypic differences. Most common SNPs have now been assessed in genome-wide studies for statistical associations with many complex traits, including many important common diseases. Although these studies have provided new biological insights, only a limited amount of the heritable component of any complex

Sarah S. Murray; Nicholas J. Schork; Eric J. Topol; Kelly A. Frazer

2009-01-01

371

CANDIDATE GENES FOR DOMESTICATION AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop species have experienced strong selection at genes controlling traits of agronomic importance during their domestication. These selection sweeps can markedly reduce genetic diversity in the target genes whereas non-selected genes retain higher levels of diversity. Maize (Zea mays spp. mays) a...

372

MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

373

Molecularly tagged genes and quantitative trait loci in cucumber  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the release of the cucumber draft genome, significant progress has been made in molecular mapping, tagging or cloning of horticulturally important genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in cucumber, which provides the foundation for practicing marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding. ...

374

Effector genes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria promote transmission and enhance other fitness traits in the field.  

PubMed Central

Establishing durable disease resistance in agricultural crops, where much of the plant defense is provided through effector-R gene interactions, is complicated by the ability of pathogens to overcome R gene resistance by losing the corresponding effector gene. Many proposed methods to maintain disease resistance in the field depend on the idea that effector gene loss results in a fitness cost to the pathogen. In this article we test for fitness costs of effector gene function loss. We created directed knockouts of up to four effector genes from the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (Xav) and examined the effect of the loss of a functional gene product on several important fitness parameters in the field. These traits included transmission, lesion development, and epiphytic survival. We found that the products of all four effector genes had significant and often additive effects on fitness traits. Additional greenhouse tests revealed costs of effector gene loss on in planta growth and further showed that the effects on lesion development were separable from the effects on growth. Observable fitness effects of the three plasmid-borne effector genes were dependent upon the loss of functional avrBs2, indicating that complex functional interactions exist among effector genes with Xav. PMID:15020460

Wichmann, Gale; Bergelson, Joy

2004-01-01

375

Association Mapping of Germination Traits in Arabidopsis thaliana Under Light and Nutrient Treatments: Searching for G×E Effects  

PubMed Central

In the natural world, genotype expression is influenced by an organism’s environment. Identifying and understanding the genes underlying phenotypes in different environments is important for making advances in fields ranging from evolution to medicine to agriculture. With the availability of genome-wide genetic-marker datasets, it is possible to look for genes that interact with the environment. Using the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana, we looked for genes underlying phenotypes as well as genotype-by-environment interactions in four germination traits under two light and two nutrient conditions. We then performed genome-wide association tests to identify candidate genes underlying the observed phenotypes and genotype-by-environment interactions. Of the four germination traits examined, only two showed significant genotype-by-environment interactions. While genome-wide association analyses did not identify any markers or genes explicitly linked to genotype-by-environment interactions, we did identify a total of 55 markers and 71 genes associated with germination differences. Of the 71 genes, four—ZIGA4, PS1, TOR, and TT12—appear to be strong candidates for further study of germination variation under different environments. PMID:24902604

Morrison, Ginnie D.; Linder, C. Randal

2014-01-01

376

Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

1993-01-01

377

138 Years of Agricultural Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When the millennium rolled over, numerous agencies across the country launched Websites telling the tale of that agency's progress, from inception until present. This site, from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), provides a concise timeline of agricultural research accomplishments in the US since the department was formed in 1862. The site features a chronological history by decade, a legislative history (of laws important to agriculture, food safety, nutrition, and the environment), and a complete history (without photographs). Each historical section contains a concise sketch of the major events (or laws) of that decade. Because the information presented here spans more than a century, in-depth coverage of particular events is not included. However, those interested in gaining a historical sketch of one of the most influential agencies in the US will find this resource informative.

378

Software for quantitative trait analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper provides a brief overview of software currently available for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits in humans. Programs that implement variance components, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Haseman-Elston (H-E) and penetrance model-based linkage analyses are discussed, as are programs for measured genotype association analyses and quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium tests. The software compared includes LINKAGE, FASTLINK, PAP, SOLAR, SEGPATH, ACT, Mx, MERLIN, GENEHUNTER, Loki, Mendel, SAGE, QTDT and FBAT. Where possible, the paper provides URLs for acquiring these programs through the internet, details of the platforms for which the software is available and the types of analyses performed. PMID:16197737

2005-01-01

379

Agricultural Chemicals and Radiation. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is designed to be used as a resource in teaching vocational agriculture high school students about the environment. Agricultural chemicals are the major focus, with some attention to radiation. The importance of safety in agricultural chemical use is stressed, with descriptions of the pesticide label; protective clothing; respiratory…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

380

Agriculture in Georgia Classrooms: Kindergarten through Second Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum resource guide is intended to assist K-2 teachers in Georgia in using updated agriculture content for teaching basic information about the importance of agriculture. The materials included have been selected to reinforce the following points: that the agricultural system is historically significant, basic to human needs,…

1987

381

Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

Moreira, M. A. (principal investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

1984-01-01

382

Organic Agriculture Supports Biodiversity and Sustainable Food Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity is vital to several important ecosystem services that ensure sustainability of food production. In organic agriculture, land management practices that promote biodiversity and soil quality are emphasized and the goal is to maintain a sustainable agricultural system. Soil quality or soil health is the foundation for all agriculture and natural plant communities and a primary indicator of sustainable land

Teri Underwood; Christine McCullum-Gomez; Alison Harmon; Susan Roberts

2011-01-01

383

Research progress in agricultural tillage: Ray Allmaras' legacy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The management of crop residues and soil organic carbon is of primary importance in maintaining soil fertility and productivity and for minimizing agriculture’s impact on the environment. Conservation agriculture aims to conserve, improve and make more efficient use of natural resources through int...

384

Identifying Technical Content Training Needs of Georgia Agriculture Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The continuing trend toward increasing diversity of curriculum offered within secondary agricultural education programs is driving a change in pre-service and in-service technical training for agriculture teachers. This study looks at agriculture teachers' perceived importance of, and competence in, traditional technical competencies such as…

Peake, Jason B.; Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

2007-01-01

385

Agricultural Outlook Forum '97  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Department of Agriculture has sponsored annual Agricultural Outlook conferences for 73 years, and those interested in the agricultural pulse of the nation can now download 23 presentations from the conference on all aspects of the agricultural economy. The site contains presentations on the outlook for various commodities, as well as other topics such as risk management, food security and food needs, the food Consumer Price Index, and "a farmer's experience with precision farming." The site also contains USDA data from its latest Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2005 dataset, 48 spreadsheets (in .wk1 format) covering agricultural commodities, trade, and aggregate income and price indicators.

Agricultural Outlook Forum (1997 : Washington. D.C.).

1997-01-01

386

Adaptive Traits, 1 Running Head: ADAPTIVE TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOPATHY  

E-print Network

associated with ASPD; this limited focus has, to a certain extent, come at the expense of the personality traits. Despite significant overlap, psychopathy and ASPD are two distinct disorders. Part of the reason for this blurring between ASPD and psychopathy and the consequent intuitive association between psychopathy

Scholl, Brian

387

Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

388

Interaction of leaf traits and soil fauna and their role for carbon sequestration in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litter traits are assumed as one of the most important factor true which plants affect biogeochemisty of the stand where they grow including soil formation and nutrient dynamic which affect substantially function of whole ecosystem. Relationships between potential decomposition and leaf litter traits were extensively studied. Despite importance of potential decomposition, we believe that effect of leaf traits on litter quality is more complex: 1) litter potential decomposability affect litter processing by soil fauna and intensity of consequent fragmentation bioturbation and incorporation into soil aggregates. 2) litter, when supplied into soil for longer period of time affect also soil formation and composition of decomposer community which consequently affect dynamic of litter decomposition. In addition interactions between leaf traits and litter trait may nod be also quite complex. We will demonstrate several examples showing that litter with higher potential decomposability may sequeterr more in soil that les decomposable litter because is in larger extend stabilized by soil fauna.

Frouz, J.

2012-04-01

389

Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders. PMID:24930576

Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

2014-10-30

390

Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants.  

PubMed

The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties. PMID:24296899

Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K

2013-12-01

391

Appearance traits in fish farming: progress from classical genetics to genomics, providing insight into current and potential genetic improvement  

PubMed Central

Appearance traits in fish, those external body characteristics that influence consumer acceptance at point of sale, have come to the forefront of commercial fish farming, as culture profitability is closely linked to management of these traits. Appearance traits comprise mainly body shape and skin pigmentation. Analysis of the genetic basis of these traits in different fish reveals significant genetic variation within populations, indicating potential for their genetic improvement. Work into ascertaining the minor or major genes underlying appearance traits for commercial fish is emerging, with substantial progress in model fish in terms of identifying genes that control body shape and skin colors. In this review, we describe research progress to date, especially with regard to commercial fish, and discuss genomic findings in model fish in order to better address the genetic basis of the traits. Given that appearance traits are important in commercial fish, the genomic information related to this issue promises to accelerate the selection process in coming years. PMID:25140172

Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

2014-01-01

392

Appearance traits in fish farming: progress from classical genetics to genomics, providing insight into current and potential genetic improvement.  

PubMed

Appearance traits in fish, those external body characteristics that influence consumer acceptance at point of sale, have come to the forefront of commercial fish farming, as culture profitability is closely linked to management of these traits. Appearance traits comprise mainly body shape and skin pigmentation. Analysis of the genetic basis of these traits in different fish reveals significant genetic variation within populations, indicating potential for their genetic improvement. Work into ascertaining the minor or major genes underlying appearance traits for commercial fish is emerging, with substantial progress in model fish in terms of identifying genes that control body shape and skin colors. In this review, we describe research progress to date, especially with regard to commercial fish, and discuss genomic findings in model fish in order to better address the genetic basis of the traits. Given that appearance traits are important in commercial fish, the genomic information related to this issue promises to accelerate the selection process in coming years. PMID:25140172

Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

2014-01-01

393

Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

2004-12-01

394

1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

395

Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

396

Agriculture and the Property Tax: A Forward Look Based on a Historical Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 392.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing the property tax in terms of agriculture, this report analyzes the following in an historical sense in order to draw implications for the future: (1) the importance of the property tax to the agricultural sector; (2) the horizontal equity of the property tax for the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in terms of income and wealth;…

Stam, Jerome M.; Sibold, Ann G.

397

What makes organic agriculture move: protest, meaning or market? A polyocular approach to the dynamics and governance of organic agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different actors have hopes and aspirations for the future of organic agriculture. They have different perspectives on organic agriculture with different understandings of what it is and what makes it move. Each perspective entails a certain understanding of organic agriculture featuring certain concepts and values and a particular logic or rationality. It is important to acknowledge this heterogeneity when

Hugo Fjelsted Alroe; Egon Noe

2008-01-01

398

Personality Traits and Comorbidity in Adults With ADHD.  

PubMed

Objective: To assess personality traits using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a group of 63 previously diagnosed ADHD patients and 68 population controls and investigate the impact of common comorbid psychiatric disorders on these personality measures. Method: Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus and personality traits by the TCI. Results: The patient group had significantly higher scores on the TCI dimensions Harm avoidance and Novelty seeking compared with the control group. However, when adjusting for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder, the ADHD group no longer showed higher Harm avoidance than the control group. The difference in Novelty seeking between the patient and control groups was correlated with lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Conclusion: It is important to take comorbid psychiatric disorders into account while investigating personality traits in ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24271945

Instanes, Johanne Telnes; Haavik, Jan; Halmøy, Anne

2013-11-22

399

A 2-step strategy for detecting pleiotropic effects on multiple longitudinal traits  

PubMed Central

Genetic pleiotropy refers to the situation in which a single gene influences multiple traits and so it is considered as a major factor that underlies genetic correlation among traits. To identify pleiotropy, an important focus in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is on finding genetic variants that are simultaneously associated with multiple traits. On the other hand, longitudinal designs are often employed in many complex disease studies, such that, traits are measured repeatedly over time within the same subject. Performing genetic association analysis simultaneously on multiple longitudinal traits for detecting pleiotropic effects is interesting but challenging. In this paper, we propose a 2-step method for simultaneously testing the genetic association with multiple longitudinal traits. In the first step, a mixed effects model is used to analyze each longitudinal trait. We focus on estimation of the random effect that accounts for the subject-specific genetic contribution to the trait; fixed effects of other confounding covariates are also estimated. This first step enables separation of the genetic effect from other confounding effects for each subject and for each longitudinal trait. Then in the second step, we perform a simultaneous association test on multiple estimated random effects arising from multiple longitudinal traits. The proposed method can efficiently detect pleiotropic effects on multiple longitudinal traits and can flexibly handle traits of different data types such as quantitative, binary, or count data. We apply this method to analyze the 16th Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW16) Framingham Heart Study (FHS) data. A simulation study is also conducted to validate this 2-step method and evaluate its performance. PMID:25368629

Wang, Weiqiang; Feng, Zeny; Bull, Shelley B.; Wang, Zuoheng

2014-01-01

400

Intraspecific Trait Variation Driven by Plasticity and Ontogeny in Hypochaeris radicata  

PubMed Central

The importance of intraspecific variation in plant functional traits for structuring communities and driving ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, but mechanisms governing this variation are less studied. Variation could be due to adaptation to local conditions, plasticity in observed traits, or ontogeny. We investigated 1) whether abiotic stress caused individuals, maternal lines, and populations to exhibit trait convergence, 2) whether trait variation was primarily due to ecotypic differences or trait plasticity, and 3) whether traits varied with ontogeny. We sampled three populations of Hypochaeris radicata that differed significantly in rosette diameter and specific leaf area (SLA). We grew nine maternal lines from each population (27 lines total) under three greenhouse conditions: ambient conditions (control), 50% drought, or 80% shade. Plant diameter and relative chlorophyll content were measured throughout the experiment, and leaf shape, root?shoot ratio, and SLA were measured after five weeks. We used hierarchical mixed-models and variance component analysis to quantify differences in treatment effects and the contributions of population of origin and maternal line to observed variation. Observed variation in plant traits was driven primarily by plasticity. Shade significantly influenced all measured traits. Plant diameter was the only trait that had a sizable proportion of trait variation (30%) explained by population of origin. There were significant ontogenetic differences for both plant diameter and relative chlorophyll content. When subjected to abiotic stress in the form of light or water limitation, Hypochaeris radicata exhibited significant trait variability. This variation was due primarily to trait plasticity, rather than to adaptation to local conditions, and also differed with ontogeny. PMID:25333738

Mitchell, Rachel M.; Bakker, Jonathan D.

2014-01-01

401

A 2-step strategy for detecting pleiotropic effects on multiple longitudinal traits.  

PubMed

Genetic pleiotropy refers to the situation in which a single gene influences multiple traits and so it is considered as a major factor that underlies genetic correlation among traits. To identify pleiotropy, an important focus in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is on finding genetic variants that are simultaneously associated with multiple traits. On the other hand, longitudinal designs are often employed in many complex disease studies, such that, traits are measured repeatedly over time within the same subject. Performing genetic association analysis simultaneously on multiple longitudinal traits for detecting pleiotropic effects is interesting but challenging. In this paper, we propose a 2-step method for simultaneously testing the genetic association with multiple longitudinal traits. In the first step, a mixed effects model is used to analyze each longitudinal trait. We focus on estimation of the random effect that accounts for the subject-specific genetic contribution to the trait; fixed effects of other confounding covariates are also estimated. This first step enables separation of the genetic effect from other confounding effects for each subject and for each longitudinal trait. Then in the second step, we perform a simultaneous association test on multiple estimated random effects arising from multiple longitudinal traits. The proposed method can efficiently detect pleiotropic effects on multiple longitudinal traits and can flexibly handle traits of different data types such as quantitative, binary, or count data. We apply this method to analyze the 16th Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW16) Framingham Heart Study (FHS) data. A simulation study is also conducted to validate this 2-step method and evaluate its performance. PMID:25368629

Wang, Weiqiang; Feng, Zeny; Bull, Shelley B; Wang, Zuoheng

2014-01-01

402

Trait cheerfulness modulates BOLD response in lateral cortical but not limbic brain areas—A pilot fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having a good “sense of humor” is an important personality characteristic that significantly influences social communication and may represent an important coping strategy. To take things “with humor” does not only represent a state characteristic but also a personality trait that can reliably be assessed with questionnaires like the “state–trait–cheerfulness–inventory” (STCI) by Ruch [Ruch et al., Assessing the “humorous temperament”:

Alexander M. Rapp; Barbara Wild; Michael Erb; Frank A. Rodden; Willibald Ruch; Wolfgang Grodd

2008-01-01

403

Neural Basis of Emotional Decision Making in Trait Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Although trait anxiety has been associated with risk decision making, whether it is related to risk per se or to the feeling of the risk, as well as the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, remains unclear. Using a decision-making task with a manipulation of frame (i.e., written description of options as a potential gain or loss) and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive relationship between trait anxiety and decision making. The classic framing effect was observed: participants chose the safe option when it was described as a potential gain, but they avoided the same option when it was described as a potential loss. Most importantly, trait anxiety was positively correlated with this behavioral bias. Trait anxiety was also positively correlated with amygdala-based “emotional” system activation and its coupling with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) when decisions were consistent with the framing effect, but negatively correlated with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)-based “analytic” system activation and its connectivity to the vmPFC when decisions ran counter to the framing effect. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety is not associated with subjective risk preference but an evaluative bias of emotional information in decision making, underpinned by a hyperactive emotional system and a hypoactive analytic system in the brain. PMID:24259585

Xu, Pengfei; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S.; Wu, Runguo; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Jiang, Yang; Fan, Jin

2013-01-01

404

Genome scan for meat quality traits in Nelore beef cattle.  

PubMed

Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle. PMID:24022219

Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A

2013-11-01

405

Linking Post-Translational Modifications and Variation of Phenotypic Traits*  

PubMed Central

Enzymes can be post-translationally modified, leading to isoforms with different properties. The phenotypic consequences of the quantitative variability of isoforms have never been studied. We used quantitative proteomics to dissect the relationships between the abundances of the enzymes and isoforms of alcoholic fermentation, metabolic traits, and growth-related traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the enzymatic pool allocated to the fermentation proteome was constant over the culture media and the strains considered, there was variation in abundance of individual enzymes and sometimes much more of their isoforms, which suggests the existence of selective constraints on total protein abundance and trade-offs between isoforms. Variations in abundance of some isoforms were significantly associated to metabolic traits and growth-related traits. In particular, cell size and maximum population size were highly correlated to the degree of N-terminal acetylation of the alcohol dehydrogenase. The fermentation proteome was found to be shaped by human selection, through the differential targeting of a few isoforms for each food-processing origin of strains. These results highlight the importance of post-translational modifications in the diversity of metabolic and life-history traits. PMID:23271801

Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Bely, Marina; Aigle, Michel; Bourgais, Aurélie; Langella, Olivier; Balliau, Thierry; Chevret, Didier; Valot, Benoît; da Silva, Telma; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

2013-01-01

406

Flood adaptive traits and processes: an overview.  

PubMed

57 I. 58 II. 60 III. 62 IV. 64 V. 65 VI. 67 VII. 68 VIII. 69 69 References 69 SUMMARY: Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial tissues. This includes insights into processes that enhance ventilation of submerged organs. At the intersection between metabolism and growth, submergence survival strategies have evolved involving an ethylene-driven and gibberellin-enhanced module that regulates growth of submerged organs. Opposing regulation of this pathway is facilitated by a subgroup of ethylene-response transcription factors (ERFs), which include members that require low O2 or low nitric oxide (NO) conditions for their stabilization. These transcription factors control genes encoding enzymes required for anaerobic metabolism as well as proteins that fine-tune their function in transcription and turnover. Other mechanisms that control metabolism and growth at seed, seedling and mature stages under flooding conditions are reviewed, as well as findings demonstrating that true endurance of submergence includes an ability to restore growth following the deluge. Finally, we highlight molecular insights obtained from natural variation of domesticated and wild species that occupy different hydrological niches, emphasizing the value of understanding natural flooding survival strategies in efforts to stabilize crop yields in flood-prone environments. PMID:25580769

Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Bailey-Serres, Julia

2015-04-01

407

Genetic Analyses of Age at Onset Traits   

E-print Network

The identification of factors underlying complex trait variation is a major goal in the field of genetics. For normally distributed, fully observed trait data there are many well established statistical methods for ...

Anderson, Carl

2007-01-01

408

Intraspecific variability in functional traits matters: case study of Scots pine.  

PubMed

Although intraspecific trait variability is an important component of species ecological plasticity and niche breadth, its implications for community and functional ecology have not been thoroughly explored. We characterized the intraspecific functional trait variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to (1) compare it to the interspecific trait variability of trees in the same region, (2) explore the relationships among functional traits and the relationships between them and stand and climatic variables, and (3) study the role of functional trait variability as a determinant of radial growth. We considered five traits: wood density (WD), maximum tree height (H max), leaf nitrogen content (Nmass), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf biomass-to-sapwood area ratio (B L:A S). A unique dataset was obtained from the Ecological and Forest Inventory of Catalonia (IEFC), including data from 406 plots. Intraspecific trait variation was substantial for all traits, with coefficients of variation ranging between 8% for WD and 24% for B L:A S. In some cases, correlations among functional traits differed from those reported across species (e.g., H max and WD were positively related, whereas SLA and Nmass were uncorrelated). Overall, our model accounted for 47% of the spatial variability in Scots pine radial growth. Our study emphasizes the hierarchy of factors that determine intraspecific variations in functional traits in Scots pine and their strong association with spatial variability in radial growth. We claim that intraspecific trait variation is an important determinant of responses of plants to changes in climate and other environmental factors, and should be included in predictive models of vegetation dynamics. PMID:24850418

Laforest-Lapointe, Isabelle; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Retana, Javier

2014-08-01

409

Strategies for Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

1989-01-01

410

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

411

Limitations to Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pie chart showing the percentage of land without limitations to agriculture (11%) and the reasons that the other land is of limited agriculture usefulness. With a timeplot showing the (slight) increase in arable land over the period 1960-2000

AAAS Atlas of Population and Environment

412

Validity in Personal Trait Attribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of this study provide strong evidence for the position that social aggressiveness can accurately be considered as a personality trait; that is, peer ratings of aggressiveness describe a recognizable component of a person's behavior which is consistent across situations. (Author)

Gormly, John; Edelberg, Walter

1974-01-01

413

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment GEN General Agriculture  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment GEN General Agriculture KEY: # = new course * = course IN AGRICULTURE. (3) Anintroductorycourserequiringcriticalanalysisofthemajorsocial. Prereq: Students enrolled in the College of Agriculture; freshmen only in fall semesters and transfers

MacAdam, Keith

414

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEC Agricultural Economics  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEC Agricultural Economics KEY: # = new course THE ECONOMICS OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE. (3 of agriculture in both a national and international dimension. Students who have completed ECO 201

MacAdam, Keith

415

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural and Biological Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural and Biological Engineering Cooperative Extension Biodiesel: A Renewable, Domestic Energy Resource Dennis E. Buffington, Professor, Agricultural to the agricultural sector. Biofuels are derived from biological materials such as food crops, crop residues, forest

Lee, Dongwon

416

Microarray-assisted fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci for cold tolerance in rice.  

PubMed

Many important agronomic traits, including cold stress resistance, are complex and controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Isolation of these QTLs will greatly benefit the agricultural industry but it is a challenging task. This study explored an integrated strategy by combining microarray with QTL-mapping in order to identify cold-tolerant QTLs from a cold-tolerant variety IL112 at early-seedling stage. All the early seedlings of IL112 survived normally for 9 d at 4-5°C, while Guichao2 (GC2), an indica cultivar, died after 4 d under the same conditions. Using the F2:3 population derived from the progeny of GC2 and IL112, we identified seven QTLs for cold tolerance. Furthermore, we performed Affymetrix rice whole-genome array hybridization and obtained the expression profiles of IL112 and GC2 under both low-temperature and normal conditions. Four genes were selected as cold QTL-related candidates, based on microarray data mining and QTL-mapping. One candidate gene, LOC_Os07g22494, was shown to be highly associated with cold tolerance in a number of rice varieties and in the F2:3 population, and its overexpression transgenic rice plants displayed strong tolerance to low temperature at early-seedling stage. The results indicated that overexpression of this gene (LOC_Os07g22494) could increase cold tolerance in rice seedlings. Therefore, this study provides a promising strategy for identifying candidate genes in defined QTL regions. PMID:23267004

Liu, Fengxia; Xu, Wenying; Song, Qian; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Jiayong; Zhu, Zuofeng; Fu, Yongcai; Su, Zhen; Sun, Chuanqing

2013-05-01

417

SFRSF: Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses sustainable agriculture in southern Florida. Issues include: land managers and farmers working together to support habitat restoration; providing the agricultural and hydrologic science and technology needed to sustain agricultural production and a quality environment; reducing phosphorus and restoring natural hydrology in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA); and Best Management Practices developed to address these issues. There are links provided for additional information on this topic.

418

Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests  

PubMed Central

Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

Lasky, Jesse R.; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K.; Chazdon, Robin L.

2014-01-01

419

Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests.  

PubMed

Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

Lasky, Jesse R; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K; Chazdon, Robin L

2014-04-15

420

A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait

Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

2013-01-01

421

Human nature and culture: A trait perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of the individual to society has always been a central concern of personality psychologists. Building on recent empirical and conceptual advances in trait psychology, I propose a new approach to personality and culture. The fact that trait structure, age and gender differences, and cross-observer agreement are all universal supports the view that traits are biologically based characteristics of

Robert R. McCrae

2004-01-01

422

QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AND METABOLIC PATHWAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of molecular markers for crop plants has enabled research on the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, despite more than a decade of these studies, called quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, the molecular basis for variation in most agronomic traits is still largely unk...

423

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION Curriculum Checksheet  

E-print Network

\\ AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION Curriculum Checksheet 123 Credits This checksheet describes the curricular requirements for both the Bachelor of Science degree in Agricultural Education with a concentration in "Teaching" and for the teacher licensing program in agricultural education. The courses listed are courses

Rutledge, Steven

424

International Programs in Agriculture  

E-print Network

International Programs in Agriculture MessagefromtheDirector­ Staying Ahead of Globalization and more prosperous place for all. Fortunately, Purdue International Programs in Agriculture (IPIA) has natural disasters caution us to remember the power of nature. The United Nations Food and Agriculture

425

Growing Hawaii's agriculture industry,  

E-print Network

Program Overview Growing Hawaii's agriculture industry, one business at a time Website: http-3547 agincubator@ctahr.hawaii.edu Grow Your Business If you are looking to start an agriculture-related business with our program · Positively impact the agriculture industry in Hawaii with their success

426

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference Conference Information Join us to discuss the drivers of Missouri agricultural and bio-fuels markets and participate in a special review of international policy implications for Missouri agriculture. Registration Deadline To guarantee space availability, please register

Noble, James S.

427

Division of Agriculture,  

E-print Network

DAFVM Division of Agriculture, Forestry, and Veterinary M e d i c i n e Visit us online at www to the Mississippi State University Division of Agriculture, Forestry, and Veterinary Medicine. Discrimination based-3-14) Mississippi State University's Division of Agriculture, Forestry, and Veterinary Medicine, or DAFVM

Ray, David

428

Agriculture KENNETH L. KOONCE  

E-print Network

COLLEGE OF Agriculture KENNETH L. KOONCE Dean M. E. GARRISON Associate Dean JACQUELINE M. MALLET BAKER Recruitment Coordinator 104 Agricultural Administration Building 225/578-2362 FAX 225/578-2526 Student Services 138 Agricultural Administration Building 225/578-2065 FAX 225/578-2526 The College

Harms, Kyle E.

429

Agriculture Business and Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

Seperich, George; And Others

430

AGRICULTURAL REPORT MAY 2008  

E-print Network

in the market because of inadequate transportation/logistics and refining capacity to move the product blame on increased use of agricultural products for the energy rather than the nutrition marketsPURDUE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS REPORT MAY 2008 ithout a doubt, crop agriculture is experienc- ing

431

Roadmap for Agriculture  

E-print Network

for Food and Agriculture," November 2010. To obtain additional copies contact: Daniel Rossi rossiA Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture A Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture Prepared and Policy (ESCOP)-- Science and Technology Committee November 2010 #12;2 pA Science Roadmap for Food

Buckel, Jeffrey A.

432

Agricultural Structures, Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

433

Cooperative Extension System Agricultural  

E-print Network

1 Cooperative Extension System Agricultural and Food Policy Issues Bulletin No. 772 Idaho ...................................................................................................................................35 About the Authors: Linette Fox is an Extension research associate and Neil Meyer is an agricultural economist at the UI Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology. Credits: The Idaho

O'Laughlin, Jay

434

Boscawen Agricultural Commission  

E-print Network

Extension, Food & Agriculture Dot has been raising meat, milk and eggs for her family for over 30 years Boscawen Agricultural Commission presents their 2015 Winter Workshop Series CHICKENS: Free and open to the public. TO REGISTER: To register, contact the Boscawen Agricultural

New Hampshire, University of

435

Boscawen Agricultural presents their  

E-print Network

Boscawen Agricultural Commission presents their 2014 Summer Workshop Series WHAT MAKES TICKS: To register, contact the Boscawen Agricultural Commission at 753-9188 x 301 or agriculture03303@gmail.com Presenter: Alan Eaton, UNH Cooperative Extension Professor/Specialist, Entomology Alan Eaton has been

New Hampshire, University of

436

Division of Agriculture,  

E-print Network

was established in 1878 as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of the State of Mississippi. Its mission was to educate students in "agriculture, horticulture, and the mechanic arts." Although the university has of the Division include college students, agriculture and forestry producers, agribusiness firms, industrial firms

Ray, David

437

The Relationship between Biodiversity and Organic Agriculture Defining Appropriate Policies and Approaches for Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of the EU's total land area is used for agricultural production, which over the centuries has produced an impressive diversity of landscapes. The importance of maintaining the biodiversity associated with these agricultural areas is a high priority for the conservation of nature in Europe as a whole. However, these traditional farming methods are now increasingly being superseded

Sue Stolton

438

Montana State University 1 College of Agriculture  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 College of Agriculture Graduate Programs Available Agricultural Education Program (http:// catalog.montana.edu/graduate/agriculture/agricultural- education) · M.S. in Agricultural Education (http://catalog.montana.edu/graduate/ agriculture/agricultural-education) Department

Lawrence, Rick L.

439

Modeling the genealogy of a cultural trait.  

PubMed

The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of individuals, a cultural common ancestor does not necessarily exist. We then introduce a related concept: the most recent unique ancestor (MRUA), i.e., the most recent single individual who is the earliest cultural ancestor of the sample. We show that, under neutral evolution, the time to the MRUA can be staggeringly larger than the time to MRCA in a single ancestor model, except when the average number of learning opportunities per individuals is small. Our results point out that the properties of cultural genealogies may be very different from those of genetic genealogies, with potential implications for reconstructing the histories of cultural traits. PMID:25575942

Aguilar, Elliot; Ghirlanda, Stefano

2015-05-01

440

Associate Dean Agricultural Experiment Station  

E-print Network

Cooperative Extension Edwin J. Jones Director Operations Martin Daniel 12 Agricultural Research & Extension/City/ District Extension Offices Agricultural & Extension Education Rick Rudd Agricultural & Applied EconomicsAssociate Dean & Director Agricultural Experiment Station Research & Graduate Studies Saied

Liskiewicz, Maciej

441

Assessing Youth Perceptions and Knowledge of Agriculture: The Impact of Participating in an AgVenture Program  

E-print Network

Agriculture touches the lives of individuals every day, and some do not even realize it. As a means to educate society, agricultural education programs, such as "AgVenture," have been established to educate youth about the importance of agriculture...

Luckey, Alisa

2012-07-16

442

Intraspecific variation in root and leaf traits and leaf-root trait linkages in eight aspen demes (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides)  

PubMed Central

Leaf and fine root morphology and physiology have been found to vary considerably among tree species, but not much is known about intraspecific variation in root traits and their relatedness to leaf traits. Various aspen progenies (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides) with different growth performance are used in short-rotation forestry. Hence, a better understanding of the link between root trait syndromes and the adaptation of a deme to a particular environment is essential in order to improve the match between planted varieties and their growth conditions. We examined the between-deme (genetic) and within-deme (mostly environmental) variation in important fine root traits [mean root diameter, specific root area (SRA) and specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD), root tip abundance, root N concentration] and their co-variation with leaf traits [specific leaf area (SLA), leaf size, leaf N concentration] in eight genetically distinct P. tremula and P. tremuloides demes. Five of the six root traits varied significantly between the demes with largest genotypic variation in root tip abundance and lowest in mean root diameter and RTD (no significant difference). Within-deme variation in root morphology was as large as between-deme variation suggesting a relatively low genetic control. Significant relationships existed neither between SLA and SRA nor between leaf N and root N concentration in a plant. Contrary to expectation, high aboveground relative growth rates (RGR) were associated with large, and not small, fine root diameters with low SRA and SRL. Compared to leaf traits, the influence of root traits on RGR was generally low. We conclude that aspen exhibits large intraspecific variation in leaf and also in root morphological traits which is only partly explained by genetic distances. A root order-related analysis might give deeper insights into intraspecific root trait variation. PMID:24155751

Hajek, Peter; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

2013-01-01

443

TRY – a global database of plant traits  

PubMed Central

Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.

Kattge, J; Díaz, S; Lavorel, S; Prentice, I C; Leadley, P; Bönisch, G; Garnier, E; Westoby, M; Reich, P B; Wright, I J; Cornelissen, J H C; Violle, C; Harrison, S P; Van Bodegom, P M; Reichstein, M; Enquist, B J; Soudzilovskaia, N A; Ackerly, D D; Anand, M; Atkin, O; Bahn, M; Baker, T R; Baldocchi, D; Bekker, R; Blanco, C C; Blonder, B; Bond, W J; Bradstock, R; Bunker, D E; Casanoves, F; Cavender-Bares, J; Chambers, J Q; Chapin, F S; Chave, J; Coomes, D; Cornwell, W K; Craine, J M; Dobrin, B H; Duarte, L; Durka, W; Elser, J; Esser, G; Estiarte, M; Fagan, W F; Fang, J; Fernández-Méndez, F; Fidelis, A; Finegan, B; Flores, O; Ford, H; Frank, D; Freschet, G T; Fyllas, N M; Gallagher, R V; Green, W A; Gutierrez, A G; Hickler, T; Higgins, S I; Hodgson, J G; Jalili, A; Jansen, S; Joly, C A; Kerkhoff, A J; Kirkup, D; Kitajima, K; Kleyer, M; Klotz, S; Knops, J M H; Kramer, K; Kühn, I; Kurokawa, H; Laughlin, D; Lee, T D; Leishman, M; Lens, F; Lenz, T; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Llusià, J; Louault, F; Ma, S; Mahecha, M D; Manning, P; Massad, T; Medlyn, B E; Messier, J; Moles, A T; Müller, S C; Nadrowski, K; Naeem, S; Niinemets, Ü; Nöllert, S; Nüske, A; Ogaya, R; Oleksyn, J; Onipchenko, V G; Onoda, Y; Ordoñez, J; Overbeck, G; Ozinga, W A; Patiño, S; Paula, S; Pausas, J G; Peñuelas, J; Phillips, O L; Pillar, V; Poorter, H; Poorter, L; Poschlod, P; Prinzing, A; Proulx, R; Rammig, A; Reinsch, S; Reu, B; Sack, L; Salgado-Negret, B; Sardans, J; Shiodera, S; Shipley, B; Siefert, A; Sosinski, E; Soussana, J-F; Swaine, E; Swenson, N; Thompson, K; Thornton, P; Waldram, M; Weiher, E; White, M; White, S; Wright, S J; Yguel, B; Zaehle, S; Zanne, A E; Wirth, C

2011-01-01

444

Fine Mapping and Candidate Gene Search of Quantitative Trait Loci for Growth and Obesity Using Mouse Intersubspecific Subcongenic Intercrosses and Exome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Although growth and body composition traits are quantitative traits of medical and agricultural importance, the genetic and molecular basis of those traits remains elusive. Our previous genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses in an intersubspecific backcross population between C57BL/6JJcl (B6) and wild Mus musculus castaneus mice revealed a major growth QTL (named Pbwg1) on a proximal region of mouse chromosome 2. Using the B6.Cg-Pbwg1 intersubspecific congenic strain created, we revealed 12 closely linked QTLs for body weight and body composition traits on an approximately 44.1-Mb wild-derived congenic region. In this study, we narrowed down genomic regions harboring three (Pbwg1.12, Pbwg1.3 and Pbwg1.5) of the 12 linked QTLs and searched for possible candidate genes for the QTLs. By phenotypic analyses of F2 intercross populations between B6 and each of four B6.Cg-Pbwg1 subcongenic strains with overlapping and non-overlapping introgressed regions, we physically defined Pbwg1.12 affecting body weight to a 3.8-Mb interval (61.5–65.3 Mb) on chromosome 2. We fine-mapped Pbwg1.3 for body length to an 8.0-Mb interval (57.3–65.3) and Pbwg1.5 for abdominal white fat weight to a 2.1-Mb interval (59.4–61.5). The wild-derived allele at Pbwg1.12 and Pbwg1.3 uniquely increased body weight and length despite the fact that the wild mouse has a smaller body size than that of B6, whereas it decreased fat weight at Pbwg1.5. Exome sequencing and candidate gene prioritization suggested that Gcg and Grb14 are putative candidate genes for Pbwg1.12 and that Ly75 and Itgb6 are putative candidate genes for Pbwg1.5. These genes had nonsynonymous SNPs, but the SNPs were predicted to be not harmful to protein functions. These results provide information helpful to identify wild-derived quantitative trait genes causing enhanced growth and resistance to obesity. PMID:25398139

Ishikawa, Akira; Okuno, Sin-ichiro

2014-01-01

445

The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human physical attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of traits have been proposed to be important in human mate choice decisions. However, relatively little work has been conducted to determine the relative importance of these traits. In this study, we assessed the relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human physical attractiveness. One hundred twenty-seven men and 133 women were shown images of

Thomas E. Currie; Anthony C. Little

2009-01-01

446

Genetic tools to improve reproduction traits in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Fertility is a major concern in the dairy cattle industry and has been the subject of numerous studies over the past 20 years. Surprisingly, most of these studies focused on rough female phenotypes and, despite their important role in reproductive success, male- and embryo-related traits have been poorly investigated. In recent years, the rapid and important evolution of technologies in genetic research has led to the development of genomic selection. The generalisation of this method in combination with the achievements of the AI industry have led to the constitution of large databases of genotyping and sequencing data, as well as refined phenotypes and pedigree records. These resources offer unprecedented opportunities in terms of fundamental and applied research. Here we present five such examples with a focus on reproduction-related traits: (1) detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male fertility and semen quality traits; (2) detection of QTL for refined phenotypes associated with female fertility; (3) identification of recessive embryonic lethal mutations by depletion of homozygous haplotypes; (4) identification of recessive embryonic lethal mutations by mining whole-genome sequencing data; and (5) the contribution of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism chips, whole-genome sequencing and imputation to increasing the power of QTL detection methods and to the identification of causal variants. PMID:25472040

Capitan, A; Michot, P; Baur, A; Saintilan, R; Hozé, C; Valour, D; Guillaume, F; Boichon, D; Barbat, A; Boichard, D; Schibler, L; Fritz, S

2014-12-01

447

The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture.  

PubMed

The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till, NT) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice that was borne out of the American dust bowl of the 1930s. The paper then describes the benefits of CA, a suggested improvement on CT, where NT, mulch and rotations significantly improve soil properties and other biotic factors. The paper concludes that CA is a more sustainable and environmentally friendly management system for cultivating crops. Case studies from the rice-wheat areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia and the irrigated maize-wheat systems of Northwest Mexico are used to describe how CA practices have been used in these two environments to raise production sustainably and profitably. Benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global warming are also discussed. The paper concludes that agriculture in the next decade will have to sustainably produce more food from less land through more efficient use of natural resources and with minimal impact on the environment in order to meet growing population demands. Promoting and adopting CA management systems can help meet this goal. PMID:17720669

Hobbs, Peter R; Sayre, Ken; Gupta, Raj

2008-02-12

448

An introduction to markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection for crop improvement: The basic concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing the enormous potential of DNA markers in plant breeding, many agricultural research centers and plant breeding institutes have adopted the capacity for marker development and marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, due to rapid developments in marker technology, statistical methodology for identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the jargon used by molecular biologists, the utility of DNA markers in plant breeding

B. C. Y. Collard; M. Z. Z. Jahufer; J. B. Brouwer; E. C. K. Pang

2005-01-01

449

Root traits and soil properties in harvested perennial grassland, annual wheat, and never-tilled annual wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and aims: Root functional traits are determinants of soil carbon storage; plant productivity; and ecosystemproperties. However, few studies look at both annual and perennial roots, soil properties, and productivity in the context of field scale agricultural systems. Methods: In Long Term...

450

Morphological Correlates of a Combat Performance Trait in the Forked Fungus Beetle, Bolitotherus cornutus  

PubMed Central

Combat traits are thought to have arisen due to intense male-male competition for access to females. While large and elaborate weapons used in attacking other males have often been the focus of sexual selection studies, defensive traits (both morphological and performance) have received less attention. However, if defensive traits help males restrict access to females, their role in the process of sexual selection could also be important. Here we examine the morphological correlates of grip strength, a defensive combat trait involved in mate guarding, in the tenebrionid beetle Bolitotherus cornutus. We found that grip strength was repeatable and differed between the sexes. However, these differences in performance were largely explained by body size and a non-additive interaction between size and leg length that differed between males and females. Our results suggest that leg size and body size interact as part of an integrated suite of defensive combat traits. PMID:22916153

Benowitz, Kyle M.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Formica, Vincent A.

2012-01-01

451

The role of trait and ability emotional intelligence in bulimic symptoms.  

PubMed

Bulimia is characterized by poor affect regulation, yet the role of emotional intelligence (EI) is little understood. This study examined associations between EI and bulimic symptoms using 235 women from community and student populations. They completed measures of trait and ability EI, and the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale. Results showed that deficiencies in different aspects of trait EI and/or ability EI are a function of symptom type: binge eating, compensatory behaviours or weight and shape concerns. Consistent with affect regulation models, self-regulatory aspects of trait EI were related to two bulimic symptoms: binge eating and weight and shape concerns. Ability-based self-emotion management was not important, and explanatory power of lower-level EI facets (traits or abilities) was not superior to more broadly defined EI factors. Results support the conclusion that trait and ability EI may maintain subclinical levels of bulimic symptoms but have different paths. PMID:24854810

Gardner, Kathryn Jane; Quinton, Stephanie; Qualter, Pamela

2014-04-01

452

Natural selection on floral traits of Lobelia (Lobeliaceae): spatial and temporal variation.  

PubMed

The strength and direction of natural selection on floral traits can vary spatially and temporally because of variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. High spatial variation in selection should lead to differentiation of floral traits among populations. In contrast, high temporal variation in selection should retard the evolution of population-specific floral phenotypes. To determine the relative importance of spatial vs. temporal variation in natural selection, we measured phenotypic selection on seven floral traits of the wildflowers Lobelia cardinalis and L. siphilitica in 1999 and 2000. Lobelia cardinalis experienced significant temporal variation in selection, whereas L. siphilitica experienced spatial variation in selection on the same traits. This variation in selection on floral traits was associated with spatial and temporal differences in the soil microenvironment. Although few studies of natural selection include spatial or temporal replicates, our results suggest that such replication is critical for understanding the distribution of phenotypes in nature. PMID:21659233

Caruso, Christina M; Peterson, S Brook; Ridley, Caroline E

2003-09-01

453

Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Relations Between Personality Traits and Social Well-being in Adulthood.  

PubMed

Past work has demonstrated that Big Five personality traits both predict relationship success and respond to changes in relationship status. The current study extends this work by examining how developments on the Big Five traits correspond to another important social outcome in adulthood, social well-being. Using the Mid-Life Development in the U.S. longitudinal data sample of adults, the authors examined traits and social well-being at two time points, roughly 9 years apart. Results find support for two primary claims. First, initial levels of social well-being correlated positively with initial standing on extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness. Second, changes in social well-being over time coincided with changes on these traits, in the same directions. Taken together, these findings provide broad support that trait development and social well-being development coincide during adulthood. PMID:23526708

Hill, Patrick L; Turiano, Nicholas A; Mroczek, Daniel K; Roberts, Brent W

2012-11-01

454

Oligonucleotide-mediated gene modification and its promise for animal agriculture.  

PubMed

One of the great aspirations in modern biology is the ability to utilise the expanding knowledge of the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity through the purposeful tailoring of the mammalian genome. A number of technologies are emerging which have the capacity to modify genes in their chromosomal context. Not surprisingly, the major thrust in this area has come from the evaluation of gene therapy applications to correct mutations implicated in human genetic diseases. The recent development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) provides access to these technologies for the purposeful modification of livestock animals. The enormous phenotypic variety existent in contemporary livestock animals has in many cases been linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their underlying point mutations, often referred to as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, the ability for the targeted genetic modification of livestock animals constitutes an attractive opportunity for future agricultural applications. In this review, we will summarize attempts and approaches for oligonucleotide-mediated gene modification (OGM) strategies for the site-specific modification of the genome, with an emphasis on chimeric RNA-DNA oligonucleotides (RDOs) and single-stranded oligonucletides (ssODNs). The potential of this approach for the directed genetic improvement of livestock animals is illustrated through examples, outlining the effects of point mutations on important traits, including meat and milk production, reproductive performance, disease resistance and superior models of human diseases. Current technological hurdles and potential strategies that might remove these barriers in the future are discussed. PMID:16330159

Laible, Götz; Wagner, Stefan; Alderson, Jon

2006-01-17

455

Stereotypes and the confirmability of trait concepts.  

PubMed

Two studies tested the hypothesis that rules of trait inference may differ depending on trait stereotypicality and the social group membership of the target being judged. Specifically, traits that are stereotypic of a group were expected to instantiate lower evidentiary standards (require fewer behaviors to confirm), but only in members of that group. Study 1 focused on race and found that across 180 traits, trait stereotypicality was associated with fewer behaviors required to confirm and more to disconfirm in outgroup targets (in Black actors for White judges and in White actors for Black judges). Study 2 focused on gender and again found that stereotypic traits were tied to low evidentiary standards only when judging outgroup targets. The findings are discussed with reference to the literatures on trait inference, stereotyping, and shifting judgment standards. PMID:15743983

Biernat, Monica; Ma, Jennifer E

2005-04-01

456

7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order...importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum forage,...

2011-01-01

457

7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order...importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum forage,...

2010-01-01

458

7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order...importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum forage,...

2014-01-01

459

7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order...importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum forage,...

2013-01-01