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1

Seed traits and genes important for translational biology – highlights from recent discoveries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seeds provide foods, feeds, and fuels. They are also an important delivery system of genetic information, which is essential for the survival of wild species in ecosystems and the production of agricultural species. In this review, seed traits important for agriculture are discussed with an emphasis...

2

The agricultural importance of loess  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loess soils are among the most fertile in the world, principally because the abundance of silt particles ensures a good supply of plant-available water, good soil aeration, extensive penetration by plant roots, and easy cultivation and seedbed production. Also micaceous minerals in the silt and clay fractions provide an adequate supply of potassium for most crops, and the large amounts of total nitrogen in chernozems can maintain moderate yields of cereals without fertilizer additions. However, loess soils often contain little clay, which leads to loss of organic matter from soil types other than chernozems under arable cultivation; the resulting structural instability of the surface soil causes problems of crusting, poor germination of crops and erosion. This paper reviews early opinions of the fertility of loess, and summarises later scientific assessments of loess soils in USA, China, eastern Europe and Britain. In regions of thin but fairly extensive loess deposits, such as UK and parts of USA, loess probably plays an important role in maintaining yields of arable crops, and needs special measures to protect it from the increasing erosion noted in recent decades.

Catt, J. A.

2001-06-01

3

RNAi in agriculturally-important arthropods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our aim in this chapter is to provide an overview of the profound knowledge accumulated in recent years from invertebrate RNAi studies, but with a focus on agriculturally important arthropods. We start with a brief discussion of the RNAi mechanism to introduce readers to key concepts that underlie t...

4

Economic importance of bats in agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

5

Effect of scale on trait predictors of species responses to agriculture.  

PubMed

Species persistence in human-altered landscapes can depend on factors operating at multiple spatial scales. To understand anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity, it is useful to examine relationships between species traits and their responses to land-use change. A key knowledge gap concerns whether these relationships vary depending on the scale of response under consideration. We examined how local- and large-scale habitat variables influence the occupancy dynamics of a bird community in cloud forest zones in the Colombian Chocó-Andes. Using data collected across a continuum of forest and agriculture, we examined which traits best predict species responses to local variation in farmland and which traits best predict species responses to isolation from contiguous forest. Global range size was a strong predictor of species responses to agriculture at both scales; widespread species were less likely to decline as local habitat cover decreased and as distance from forest increased. Habitat specialization was a strong predictor of species responses only at the local scale. Open-habitat species were particularly likely to increase as pasture increased, but they were relatively insensitive to variation in distance to forest. Foraging plasticity and flocking behavior were strong predictors of species responses to distance from forest, but not their responses to local habitat. Species with lower plasticity in foraging behaviors and obligate flock-following species were more likely to decline as distance from contiguous forest increased. For species exhibiting these latter traits, persistence in tropical landscapes may depend on the protection of larger contiguous blocks of forest, rather than the integration of smaller-scale woodland areas within farmland. Species listed as threatened or near threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List were also more likely to decline in response to both local habitat quality and isolation from forest relative to least-concern species, underlining the importance of contiguous forests for threatened taxa. PMID:25395246

Gilroy, James J; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

2014-11-13

6

Identification of quantitative trait loci for agronomically important traits and their association with genic-microsatellite markers in sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting agronomically important traits enable to understand their underlying\\u000a genetic mechanisms and genetic basis of their complex interactions. The aim of the present study was to detect QTLs for 12\\u000a agronomic traits related to staygreen, plant early development, grain yield and its components, and some growth characters\\u000a by analyzing replicated phenotypic datasets from

G. Srinivas; K. Satish; R. Madhusudhana; R. Nagaraja Reddy; S. Murali Mohan; N. Seetharama

2009-01-01

7

The Importance of "Agriculture in the Middle" Farms Future Viability of New Jersey Agriculture  

E-print Network

The Importance of "Agriculture in the Middle" Farms to the Future Viability of New Jersey Agriculture Peggy Brennan, Brian Schilling, Jack Rabin, Rick VanVranken, Lucas Marxen, Kevin Sullivan #12 of agricultural products sold · 21% of estimated market value of farm land/buildings · 21% of estimated market

Goodman, Robert M.

8

Imported Fire Ants: An Agricultural Pest and a  

E-print Network

Imported Fire Ants: An Agricultural Pest and a Human Health Hazard Imported fire ants (Solenopsis. The black imported fire ant was brought to Mobile, AL, in 1918. The red imported fire ant arrived) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) for advice about how to manage imported fire ants

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

9

Importance of energy balance in agriculture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning, man has tried to control nature and the environment, and the use of energy, mainly from non-renewable sources providing the necessary power for that. The consequences of this long fight against nature has reached a critical state of unprecedented worldwide environmental degradation, as evidenced by the increasing erosion of fertile lands, the deforestation processes, the pollution of water, air and land by agrochemicals, the loss of plant and animal species, the progressive deterioration of the ozone layer and signs of global warming. This is exacerbated by the increasing population growth, implying a steady increase in consumption, and consequently, in the use of energy. Unfortunately, all these claims are resulting in serious economic and environmental problems worldwide. Because the economic and environmental future of the countries is interrelated, it becomes necessary to adopt sustainable development models based on the use of renewable and clean energies, the search for alternative resources and the use of productive systems more efficient from an energy standpoint, always with a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the agricultural sector, the question we ask is: how long can we keep the current energy-intensive agricultural techniques in developed countries? To analyze this aspect, energy balance is a very helpful tool because can lead to more efficient, sustainable and environment-friendly production systems for each agro-climatic region. This requires the identification of all the inputs and the outputs involved and their conversion to energy values by means of corresponding energy coefficients or equivalents (International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies). Energy inputs (EI) can be divided in direct (energy directly used in farms as fuel, machines, fertilizers, seeds, herbicides, human labor, etc.) and indirect (energy not consumed in the farm but in the elaboration, manufacturing or manipulation of inputs) ones. Energy outputs (EO) are considered as the calorific value of the harvested biomass (main products and sub-products), calculated from the total production (kg/ha) and its corresponding energy coefficient (strongly correlated to the biochemical composition of the products). Based on energy inputs and outputs, energy efficiency can be expressed as (i) net energy produced (NE) (also known as energy gain or energy balance, calculated as EI-EO and expressed as MJ/ha), (ii) the energy output/input ratio (also known as energy efficiency and calculated as EO/EI), and (iii) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI, expressed as kg/MJ). Funding provided by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

Meco, R.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Moreno, C.

2012-04-01

10

Perceptions of Vocational Agriculture Instructors Regarding Knowledge and Importance of Including Selected Agricultural Mechanics Units in the Vocational Agriculture Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of teachers in five northwestern states revealed that respondents in all states rated the units of arc welding and oxyacetylene welding as the most important units to be included in secondary vocational agriculture programs. (LRA)

Heimgartner, Dale C.; Foster, Richard M.

1981-01-01

11

Challenges of modifying root traits in crops for agriculture.  

PubMed

Roots play an essential role in the acquisition of water and minerals from soils. Measuring crop root architecture and assaying for changes in function can be challenging, but examples have emerged showing that modifications to roots result in higher yield and increased stress tolerance. In this review, we focus mainly on the molecular genetic advances that have been made in altering root system architecture and function in crop plants, as well as phenotyping methods. The future for the modification of crop plant roots looks promising based on recent advances, but there are also important challenges ahead. PMID:25239776

Meister, Robert; Rajani, M S; Ruzicka, Daniel; Schachtman, Daniel P

2014-12-01

12

Inbreeding depression for economically important traits of Mazandaran native fowls.  

PubMed

Abstract 1. The objective was to investigate inbreeding depression for some economic traits of Mazandaran native fowls using data collected from 1992 to 2012 (21 generations) using a REML animal model of significant fixed and random effects with inbreeding of birds and dams as covariates. 2. The mean inbreeding coefficient (F) for the whole population and dams was 4.67% and 4.12%, respectively, and the most of inbred birds (75.79%) and inbred dams (72.58%) had F< 12.5%. 3. Individual and dam inbreeding trends were 0.55% and 0.53% per year. 4. Inbreeding depression for body weight at hatch, at 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age, age at sexual maturity, weight at sexual maturity, egg weight at 1st d of laying and average egg weight at weeks 28th, 30th, and 32nd weeks of laying due to 1% increase in individual inbreeding were -0.11 g,-3.1 g, -1.3 g, 0.15 d, 0.59 g, -0.05 g and -0.03 g, respectively. 5. A 1% increase in maternal inbreeding resulted in reduction of 0.06, 0.6 and 3.6 g in body weight at hatch, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age. PMID:25410984

Rahmanian, A; Hafezian, H; Rahimi, Gh; Farhadi, A; Baneh, H

2014-11-20

13

The Importance of Juvenile Root Traits for Crop Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic variation in root system architecture (RSA) is an under-exploited breeding resource. This is partly a consequence of difficulties in the rapid and accurate assessment of subterranean root systems. However, although the characterisation of root systems of large plants in the field are both time-consuming and labour-intensive, high-throughput (HTP) screens of root systems of juvenile plants can be performed in the field, glasshouse or laboratory. It is hypothesised that improving the root systems of juvenile plants can accelerate access to water and essential mineral elements, leading to rapid crop establishment and, consequently, greater yields. This presentation will illustrate how aspects of the juvenile root systems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) correlate with crop yields and examine the reasons for such correlations. It will first describe the significant positive relationships between early root system development, phosphorus acquisition, canopy establishment and eventual yield among potato genotypes. It will report the development of a glasshouse assay for root system architecture (RSA) of juvenile potato plants, the correlations between root system architectures measured in the glasshouse and field, and the relationships between aspects of the juvenile root system and crop yields under drought conditions. It will then describe the development of HTP systems for assaying RSA of OSR seedlings, the identification of genetic loci affecting RSA in OSR, the development of mathematical models describing resource acquisition by OSR, and the correlations between root traits recorded in the HTP systems and yields of OSR in the field.

White, Philip; Adu, Michael; Broadley, Martin; Brown, Lawrie; Dupuy, Lionel; George, Timothy; Graham, Neil; Hammond, John; Hayden, Rory; Neugebauer, Konrad; Nightingale, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Thomas, Catherine; Thompson, Jacqueline; Wishart, Jane; Wright, Gladys

2014-05-01

14

Relationships Among Ecologically Important Dimensions of Plant Trait Variation in Seven Neotropical Forests  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims When ecologically important plant traits are correlated they may be said to constitute an ecological ‘strategy’ dimension. Through identifying these dimensions and understanding their inter-relationships we gain insight into why particular trait combinations are favoured over others and into the implications of trait differences among species. Here we investigated relationships among several traits, and thus the strategy dimensions they represented, across 2134 woody species from seven Neotropical forests. Methods Six traits were studied: specific leaf area (SLA), the average size of leaves, seed and fruit, typical maximum plant height, and wood density (WD). Trait relationships were quantified across species at each individual forest as well as across the dataset as a whole. ‘Phylogenetic’ analyses were used to test for correlations among evolutionary trait-divergences and to ascertain whether interspecific relationships were biased by strong taxonomic patterning in the traits. Key Results The interspecific and phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent results. Seed and fruit size were expected, and confirmed, to be tightly related. As expected, plant height was correlated with each of seed and fruit size, albeit weakly. Weak support was found for an expected positive relationship between leaf and fruit size. The prediction that SLA and WD would be negatively correlated was not supported. Otherwise the traits were predicted to be largely unrelated, being representatives of putatively independent strategy dimensions. This was indeed the case, although WD was consistently, negatively related to leaf size. Conclusions The dimensions represented by SLA, seed/fruit size and leaf size were essentially independent and thus conveyed largely independent information about plant strategies. To a lesser extent the same was true for plant height and WD. Our tentative explanation for negative WD–leaf size relationships, now also known from other habitats, is that the traits are indirectly linked via plant hydraulics. PMID:16595553

Wright, Ian J.; Ackerly, David D.; Bongers, Frans; Harms, Kyle E.; Ibarra-Manriquez, Guillermo; Martinez-Ramos, Miguel; Mazer, Susan J.; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Paz, Horacio; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Poorter, Lourens; Silman, Miles R.; Vriesendorp, Corine F.; Webb, Cam O.; Westoby, Mark; Wright, S. Joseph

2007-01-01

15

Agricultural Water Pollution Control - Important Factor for Sustainable Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European model of agriculture gives great opportunities for development of Polish agriculture. The model is based on multifunctional development of rural areas. It relates mainly to traditional environmental friendly tech- nologies of crop production and socio-cultural values. Integration with European Union is accelerating the proc- ess of qualitative changes in Polish agriculture. The key role of the transformation in

Katarzyna Wyporska; Józef Mosiej

16

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Economically Important Traits in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Cocoon related characteristics are economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). In this study a genetic linkage map was developed that identified QTL controlling the cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage using 161 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty PstI/TaqI primer combinations were employed to genotype 78 F2 progenies derived from a cross between P107 Japanese inbred line and Khorasan Lemon Iranian native strain. Among polymorphic markers, 159 AFLP markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups at the LOD threshold of 2.5 that varied in length from 4 to 299 cM. The total length of the linkage map was 2747 cM, giving an average marker resolution of 19.31 cM. A total of 21 AFLP markers were identified that were distributed over the ten linkage groups linked to the three studied traits using the composite interval mapping method. The explained variation rate by QTL controlling cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage ranged from 0.02% to 64.85%, 0.2% to 49.11%, and 0.04% to 84.20%, respectively. These QTL controlled by different actions as well as under dominance, additive, partial dominance, dominance, and over dominance. PMID:21070171

Mirhoseini, Seyed Z; Rabiei, Babak; Potki, Payam; Dalirsefat, Seyed B

2010-01-01

17

The Importance of Species Traits for Species Distribution on Oceanic Islands  

PubMed Central

Understanding species' ability to colonize new habitats is a key knowledge allowing us to predict species' survival in the changing landscapes. However, most studies exploring this topic observe distribution of species in landscapes which are under strong human influence being fragmented only recently and ignore the fact that the species distribution in these landscapes is far from equilibrium. Oceanic islands seem more appropriate systems for studying the relationship between species traits and its distribution as they are fragmented without human contribution and as they remained unchanged for a long evolutionary time. In our study we compared the values of dispersal as well as persistence traits among 18 species pairs from the Canary Islands differing in their distribution within the archipelago. The data were analyzed both with and without phylogenetic correction. The results demonstrate that no dispersal trait alone can explain the distribution of the species in the system. They, however, also suggest that species with better dispersal compared to their close relatives are better colonizers. Similarly, abundance of species in the archipelago seems to be an important predictor of species colonization ability only when comparing closely related species. This implies that analyses including phylogenetic correction may provide different insights than analyses without such a correction and both types of analyses should be combined to understand the importance of various plant traits for species colonization ability. PMID:25003737

Vaza?ová, Kristýna; Münzbergová, Zuzana

2014-01-01

18

Importance of riparian habitats for small mammal and herpetofaunal communities in agricultural landscapes of southern Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of adequate riparian strips in agricultural landscapes is generally recognized to contribute to the reduction of the impacts of agricultural practices on the water quality of streams, to regularize water temperature and to help in the creation of important wildlife habitats. This study aimed at determining the importance of riparian strips in agricultural landscapes of southern Québec for

Charles Maisonneuve; Stéphanie Rioux

2001-01-01

19

QTL mapping for economically important traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were analyzed for three economically important traits, i.e., body weight (BW), body length (BL), and body thickness (BT), in an F1 family of common carp holding the 190 progeny. A genetic linkage map spanning 3,301 cM in 50 linkage groups with 627 markers and an average distance of 5.6 cM was utilized for QTL mapping. Sixteen QTLs associated with all three growth-related traits were scattered across ten linkage groups, LG6, LG10, LG17, LG19, LG25, LG27, LG28, LG29, LG30, and LG39. Six QTLs for BW and five each for BL and BT explained phenotypic variance in the range 17.0-32.1 %. All the nearest markers of QTLs were found to be significantly (p???0.05) related with the trait. Among these QTLs, a total of four, two (qBW30 and qBW39) related with BW, one (qBL39) associated with BL, and one (qBT29) related to BT, were found to be the major QTLs with a phenotypic variance of >20 %. qBW30 and qBW39 with the nearest markers HLJ1691 and HLJ1843, respectively, show significant values of 0.0038 and 0.0031, correspondingly. QTLs qBL39 and qBT29 were found to have significant values of 0.0047 and 0.0015, respectively. Three QTLs (qBW27, qBW30, qBW39) of BW, two for BL (qBL19, qBL39), and two for BT (qBT6, qBT25) found in this study were similar to populations with different genetic backgrounds. In this study, the genomic region controlling economically important traits were located. These genomic regions will be the major sources for the discovery of important genes and pathways associated with growth-related traits in common carp. PMID:25078056

Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Lashari, Punhal; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Xin, Baoping; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Xiaowen

2015-02-01

20

Population structure and association mapping studies for important agronomic traits in soybean.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out with a set of 96 diverse soybean genotypes with the objectives of analysing the population structure and to identify molecular markers associated with important agronomic traits. Large phenotypic variability was observed for the agronomic traits under study indicating suitability of the genotypes for association studies. The maximum values for plant height, pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant were approximately two and half to three times more than the minimum values for the genotypes. Seed yield per plant was found to be significantly correlated with pods per plant (r = 0.77), 100-seed weight (r = 0.35) and days to maturity (r = 0.23). The population structure studies depicted the presence of seven subpopulations which nearly corresponded with the source of geographical origin of the genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the linked markers decreased with the increased distance, and a substantial drop in LD decay values was observed between 30 and 35 cM. Genomewide marker-traits association analysis carried out using general linear (GLM) and mixed linear models (MLM) identified six genomic regions (two of them were common in both) on chromosomes 6, 7, 8, 13, 15 and 17, which were found to be significantly associated with various important traits viz., plant height, pods per plant, 100-seed weight, plant growth habit, average number of seeds per pod, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. The phenotypic variation explained by these loci ranged from 6.09 to 13.18% and 4.25 to 9.01% in the GLM and MLM studies, respectively. In conclusion, association mapping (AM) in soybean could be a viable alternative to conventional QTL mapping approach. PMID:25572236

Kumar, Bhupender; Talukdar, Akshay; Bala, Indu; Verma, Khushbu; Lal, Sanjay Kumar; Sapra, Ramesh Lal; Namita, B; Chander, Subhash; Tiwari, Reshu

2014-12-01

21

Importance of Respiratory Exposure to Pesticides Among Agricultural Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the majority of cases, respiratory exposure accounts for a small fraction of total body exposure to pesticides; however, higher volatility pesticides pose a greater risk for exposure, particularly in enclosed spaces and near application sites. In 2000, nearly 22 million pounds of activeingredients designated as toxic air contaminants (TACs) were applied as pesticides in California (combined agricultural and reportable

Kathryn C. Dowling; James N. Seiber

2002-01-01

22

Investigating the beneficial traits of Trichoderma hamatum GD12 for sustainable agriculture—insights from genomics  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma hamatum strain GD12 is unique in that it can promote plant growth, activate biocontrol against pre- and post-emergence soil pathogens and can induce systemic resistance to foliar pathogens. This study extends previous work in lettuce to demonstrate that GD12 can confer beneficial agronomic traits to other plants, providing examples of plant growth promotion in the model dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana and induced foliar resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in the model monocot rice. We further characterize the lettuce-T. hamatum interaction to show that bran extracts from GD12 and an N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamindase-deficient mutant differentially promote growth in a concentration dependent manner, and these differences correlate with differences in the small molecule secretome. We show that GD12 mycoparasitises a range of isolates of the pre-emergence soil pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and that this interaction induces a further increase in plant growth promotion above that conferred by GD12. To understand the genetic potential encoded by T. hamatum GD12 and to facilitate its use as a model beneficial organism to study plant growth promotion, induced systemic resistance and mycoparasitism we present de novo genome sequence data. We compare GD12 with other published Trichoderma genomes and show that T. hamatum GD12 contains unique genomic regions with the potential to encode novel bioactive metabolites that may contribute to GD12's agrochemically important traits. PMID:23908658

Studholme, David J.; Harris, Beverley; Le Cocq, Kate; Winsbury, Rebecca; Perera, Venura; Ryder, Lauren; Ward, Jane L.; Beale, Michael H.; Thornton, Chris R.; Grant, Murray

2013-01-01

23

Interactions between alien plant species traits and habitat characteristics in agricultural landscapes in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival and success of alien plant species is determined by species traits (i.e., invasiveness) and the characteristics\\u000a of the habitats in the region of introduction (i.e., invasibility). However, little is known about species traits as related\\u000a to habitat characteristics. We assessed the characteristics of successful invaders and the interaction of environmental factors\\u000a and life-history traits for alien plant species.

Miia Jauni; Terho Hyvönen

24

Airborne remote sensing has important applications in agriculture monitoring because of the flexibility of system  

E-print Network

-effective in agricultural studies, since it can provide useful image data with greatly reduced data collection cost for farmers. The processed images (after registration and mosaicking) are also very useful for disasterAbstract Airborne remote sensing has important applications in agriculture monitoring because

Du, Jenny (Qian)

25

Dicer-like 3 produces transposable element-associated 24-nt siRNAs that control agricultural traits in rice  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences make up over 35% of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. The host regulates the activity of different TEs by different epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone H3K9 methylation, and histone H3K4 demethylation. TEs can also affect the expression of host genes. For example, miniature inverted repeat TEs (MITEs), dispersed high copy-number DNA TEs, can influence the expression of nearby genes. In plants, 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are mainly derived from repeats and TEs. However, the extent to which TEs, particularly MITEs associated with 24-nt siRNAs, affect gene expression remains elusive. Here, we show that the rice Dicer-like 3 homolog OsDCL3a is primarily responsible for 24-nt siRNA processing. Impairing OsDCL3a expression by RNA interference caused phenotypes affecting important agricultural traits; these phenotypes include dwarfism, larger flag leaf angle, and fewer secondary branches. We used small RNA deep sequencing to identify 535,054 24-nt siRNA clusters. Of these clusters, ?82% were OsDCL3a-dependent and showed significant enrichment of MITEs. Reduction of OsDCL3a function reduced the 24-nt siRNAs predominantly from MITEs and elevated expression of nearby genes. OsDCL3a directly targets genes involved in gibberellin and brassinosteroid homeostasis; OsDCL3a deficiency may affect these genes, thus causing the phenotypes of dwarfism and enlarged flag leaf angle. Our work identifies OsDCL3a-dependent 24-nt siRNAs derived from MITEs as broadly functioning regulators for fine-tuning gene expression, which may reflect a conserved epigenetic mechanism in higher plants with genomes rich in dispersed repeats or TEs. PMID:24554078

Wei, Liya; Gu, Lianfeng; Song, Xianwei; Cui, Xiekui; Lu, Zhike; Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lulu; Hu, Fengyi; Zhai, Jixian; Meyers, Blake C.; Cao, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

26

Identification of major and minor QTL for ecologically important morphological traits in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).  

PubMed

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies of Pacific three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have uncovered several genomic regions controlling variability in different morphological traits, but QTL studies of Atlantic sticklebacks are lacking. We mapped QTL for 40 morphological traits, including body size, body shape, and body armor, in a F2 full-sib cross between northern European marine and freshwater three-spined sticklebacks. A total of 52 significant QTL were identified at the 5% genome-wide level. One major QTL explaining 74.4% of the total variance in lateral plate number was detected on LG4, whereas several major QTL for centroid size (a proxy for body size), and the lengths of two dorsal spines, pelvic spine, and pelvic girdle were mapped on LG21 with the explained variance ranging from 27.9% to 57.6%. Major QTL for landmark coordinates defining body shape variation also were identified on LG21, with each explaining ?15% of variance in body shape. Multiple QTL for different traits mapped on LG21 overlapped each other, implying pleiotropy and/or tight linkage. Thus, apart from providing confirmatory data to support conclusions born out of earlier QTL studies of Pacific sticklebacks, this study also describes several novel QTL of both major and smaller effect for ecologically important traits. The finding that many major QTL mapped on LG21 suggests that this linkage group might be a hotspot for genetic determinants of ecologically important morphological traits in three-spined sticklebacks. PMID:24531726

Liu, Jun; Shikano, Takahito; Leinonen, Tuomas; Cano, José Manuel; Li, Meng-Hua; Merilä, Juha

2014-04-01

27

Identification of Major and Minor QTL for Ecologically Important Morphological Traits in Three-Spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies of Pacific three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have uncovered several genomic regions controlling variability in different morphological traits, but QTL studies of Atlantic sticklebacks are lacking. We mapped QTL for 40 morphological traits, including body size, body shape, and body armor, in a F2 full-sib cross between northern European marine and freshwater three-spined sticklebacks. A total of 52 significant QTL were identified at the 5% genome-wide level. One major QTL explaining 74.4% of the total variance in lateral plate number was detected on LG4, whereas several major QTL for centroid size (a proxy for body size), and the lengths of two dorsal spines, pelvic spine, and pelvic girdle were mapped on LG21 with the explained variance ranging from 27.9% to 57.6%. Major QTL for landmark coordinates defining body shape variation also were identified on LG21, with each explaining ?15% of variance in body shape. Multiple QTL for different traits mapped on LG21 overlapped each other, implying pleiotropy and/or tight linkage. Thus, apart from providing confirmatory data to support conclusions born out of earlier QTL studies of Pacific sticklebacks, this study also describes several novel QTL of both major and smaller effect for ecologically important traits. The finding that many major QTL mapped on LG21 suggests that this linkage group might be a hotspot for genetic determinants of ecologically important morphological traits in three-spined sticklebacks. PMID:24531726

Liu, Jun; Shikano, Takahito; Leinonen, Tuomas; Cano, José Manuel; Li, Meng-Hua; Merilä, Juha

2014-01-01

28

Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Core Collection of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) with SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Mining elite genes within rice landraces is of importance for the improvement of cultivated rice. An association mapping for 12 agronomic traits was carried out using a core collection of rice consisting of 150 landraces (Panel 1) with 274 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the mapping results were further verified using a Chinese national rice micro-core collection (Panel 2) and a collection from a global molecular breeding program (Panel 3). Our results showed that (1) 76 significant (P<0.05) trait-marker associations were detected using mixed linear model (MLM) within Panel 1 in two years, among which 32% were identical with previously mapped QTLs, and 11 significant associations had >10% explained ratio of genetic variation; (2) A total of seven aforementioned trait-marker associations were verified within Panel 2 and 3 when using a general linear model (GLM) and 55 SSR markers of the 76 significant trait-marker associations. However, no significant trait-marker association was found to be identical within three panels when using the MLM model; (3) several desirable alleles of the loci which showed significant trait-marker associations were identified. The research provided important information for further mining these elite genes within rice landraces and using them for rice breeding. PMID:25360796

Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xiangdong; Tong, Hanhua; Lu, Yonggen; Li, Jinquan

2014-01-01

29

Selected historic agricultural data important to environmental quality in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report and the accompanying tables summarize some of the important changes in American agriculture in the form of a timeline and a compilation of selected annual time-series data that can be broadly related to environmental quality. Although these changes have been beneficial for increasing agricultural production, some of them have resulted in environmental concerns. The agriculture timeline is divided into four categories (1) crop and animal changes, (2) mechanical changes, (3) biological and chemical changes, and (4) regulatory and societal changes. The timeline attempts to compile events that have had a lasting impact on agriculture in the United States. The events and data presented in this report may help to improve the connections between agricultural activist and environmental concerns.

Grey, Katia M.; Capel, Paul D.; Baker, Nancy T.; Thelin, Gail P.

2012-01-01

30

Importance and location of instruction for sixty-eight energy competencies for Kansas agriculture  

SciTech Connect

The two primary objectives of this study were: to identify which energy competencies had improtance to Kansas agriculture and to determine how appropiate each competency was for three levels of instruction: high school, Area Vocational-Technical School or Community College, or four year college. An energy questionnaire, comprised of 68 competencies, was completed by 140 individuals and provided data to meet the studys primary objectives. Thirty-five returns were recieved from each of four groups: Young Farmers/Young Farm Wives, High School Vo-Ag teachers, Postsecondary AVTS-CC Agricultural teachers, and County Extension Directors. Of the 68 energy competencies, 36 were rated very important, 28 important, and 4 as having some important to Kansas agriculture. All competencies in category six, energy saving technology for farm vehicles, tractors, machinery and crop production, were rated very important. Category six was the highest-rated category importance to Kansas ariculture, and category eleven other alternate energy sources and storage systems was rated the least important. Because energy technology was important to Kansas agriculture it was recommended educational curricula and materials be developed based on the 68 competencies in this study, and be made available to agriculture instructors at all teaching levels.

French, B.T.

1982-01-01

31

Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations of beef cattle with extensive phenotypic records for economical-  

E-print Network

Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations efficiency and carcass merit, are a critical need in the post-genome sequencing era. Coupled with the availability of the 7.5x assembly of the bovine genome sequence and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP

32

An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Professional Internships on Students' Perception of the Importance of Employment Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors measured the effects of a formal internship on students' perceptions of the importance of traits employees consider during the hiring process. Prior studies have reported that accounting firms perceive students with internship experience as better entry-level accountants. This perception may be related to changes in student beliefs…

Green, Brian Patrick; Graybeal, Patricia; Madison, Roland L.

2011-01-01

33

The importance of aboveground–belowground interactions on the evolution and maintenance of variation in plant defense traits  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades a growing body of empirical research has shown that many ecological processes are mediated by a complex array of indirect interactions occurring between rhizosphere-inhabiting organisms and those found on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground–belowground studies have thus far focused on elucidating processes and underlying mechanisms that mediate the behavior and performance of invertebrates in opposite ecosystem compartments. Less is known about genetic variation in plant traits such as defense as that may be driven by above- and belowground trophic interactions. For instance, although our understanding of genetic variation in aboveground plant traits and its effects on community-level interactions is well developed, little is known about the importance of aboveground–belowground interactions in driving this variation. Plant traits may have evolved in response to selection pressures from above- and below-ground interactions from antagonists and mutualists. Here, we discuss gaps in our understanding of genetic variation in plant-related traits as they relate to aboveground and belowground multitrophic interactions. When metabolic resources are limiting, multiple attacks by antagonists in both domains may lead to trade-offs. In nature, these trade-offs may critically depend upon their effects on plant fitness. Natural enemies of herbivores may also influence selection for different traits via top–down control. At larger scales these interactions may generate evolutionary “hotspots” where the expression of various plant traits is the result of strong reciprocal selection via direct and indirect interactions. The role of abiotic factors in driving genetic variation in plant traits is also discussed. PMID:24348484

van Geem, Moniek; Gols, Rieta; van Dam, Nicole M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Fortuna, Taiadjana; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

34

NON-TARIFF MEASURES AND INDUSTRIAL NATION IMPORTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade coverage ratios were calculated to assess the 1989 incidence of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on imports of agricultural products by major industrial nations. Overall, 36 percent of all food items were found to be covered by one or more NTM in the European Community. Corresponding figures for Japan and the United States were 59 and 17 percent, respectively. Imports of

Don P. Clark

1992-01-01

35

AN INSECT PEST FOR AGRICULTURAL, URBAN, AND WILDLIFE AREAS: THE RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), is an insect pest of particular importance in California due to its potential impact on public health, agriculture, and wildlife. In 1997, RIFAs hitchhiked to the Central Valley on honeybee hives brought in from Texas for pollination of a...

36

An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)  

PubMed Central

Background Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Results Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. Conclusions The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over previous watermelon genetic maps. A large proportion of the markers in the integrated map are SSRs, InDels and SNPs, which are easily transferable across laboratories. Moreover, the populations used to construct the integrated map include all three watermelon subspecies, making this integrated map useful for the selection of breeding traits, identification of QTL, MAS, analysis of germplasm and commercial hybrid seed detection. PMID:24443961

2014-01-01

37

A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS). Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in a broad array of melon germplasm. Conclusions Even though relatively unsaturated genetic maps in a diverse set of melon market types have been published, the integrated saturated map presented herein should be considered the initial reference map for melon. Most of the mapped markers contained in the reference map are polymorphic in diverse collection of germplasm, and thus are potentially transferrable to a broad array of genetic experimentation (e.g., integration of physical and genetic maps, colinearity analysis, map-based gene cloning, epistasis dissection, and marker-assisted selection). PMID:21797998

2011-01-01

38

Why measure snow mass? Snow is important as a source of water for agriculture, drinking and  

E-print Network

Why measure snow mass? Snow is important as a source of water for agriculture, drinking and power generation for large parts of the world. Siberian snow formation may be a factor in northern hemisphere atmospheric circulation. Global monitoring of snow mass from remote sensing carried out by satellites

39

Simple, fast and cheap cleanup method for quantitation of aflatoxins in important agricultural products by HPLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A simple, fast and cheap chemical cleanup procedure for low-level quantitative determination of aflatoxins in major economically important agricultural commodities using HPLC has been developed. Aflatoxins were extracted from a ground sample with methanol-water (80:20, v/v), and after a cleanup step...

40

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENTS OF RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT ON TEXAS' URBAN AND AGRICULTURAL SECTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red imported fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta ) has become a major economic pest to various sectors of the Texas economy. In order to determin e the economic cost and benefits of this pest on selected urban areas and on agriculture, tw o surveys were conducted. In 1998-1999, the estimated costs of controlling and managing fir e ants in

Curtis Lard; David B. Willis; Victoria Salin

41

Microbial diversity of vermicompost bacteria that exhibit useful agricultural traits and waste management potential.  

PubMed

Vermicomposting is a non-thermophilic, boioxidative process that involves earthworms and associated microbes. This biological organic waste decomposition process yields the biofertilizer namely the vermicompost. Vermicompost is a finely divided, peat like material with high porosity, good aeration, drainage, water holding capacity, microbial activity, excellent nutrient status and buffering capacity thereby resulting the required physiochemical characters congenial for soil fertility and plant growth. Vermicompost enhances soil biodiversity by promoting the beneficial microbes which inturn enhances plant growth directly by production of plant growth-regulating hormones and enzymes and indirectly by controlling plant pathogens, nematodes and other pests, thereby enhancing plant health and minimizing the yield loss. Due to its innate biological, biochemical and physiochemical properties, vermicompost may be used to promote sustainable agriculture and also for the safe management of agricultural, industrial, domestic and hospital wastes which may otherwise pose serious threat to life and environment. PMID:23961356

Pathma, Jayakumar; Sakthivel, Natarajan

2012-01-01

42

Importance of impacts scenarios for the adaptation of agriculture to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great possibility that the climate is already changing, and the most drastic way possible, increases the challenge of agricultural engineering, especially in environmentally vulnerable areas and in regions where agriculture has a high economic and social importance. Knowledge of potential impacts that may be caused by changes in water and thermal regimes in coming decades is increasingly strategic, as they allow the development of techniques to adapt agriculture to climate change and therefore minimizes the risk of undesirable impacts, for example, in food and nutritional security. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to describe a way to generate impacts scenarios caused by anomalies of precipitation and temperature in the definition of climate risk zoning of an agricultural crop very important in the tropics, such as the sugar cane, especially in central-southern Brazil, which is one of its main world producers. A key point here is the choice of the climate model to be used, considering that 23 different models were used in the fourth IPCC report published in 2007. The number and range of available models requires the definition of criteria for choosing the most suitable for the preparation of the impacts scenarios. One way proposed and used in this work is based on the definition of two groups of models according to 27 technical attributes of them. The clustering of 23 models in two groups, with a model representing each group (UKMO_HadCM3 and MIROC3.2_medres), assists the generation and comparison of impacts scenarios, making them more representative and useful. Another important aspect in the generation of impacts scenarios is the estimate of the relative importance of the anomalies of precipitation and temperature, which are the most commonly used. To assess the relative importance of the anomalies are generated scenarios considering an anomaly at a time and both together. The impacts scenarios for a high emission of greenhouse gases (A2), from 2010 to 2039, were more drastic for the sugar cane in central-southern Brazil using the UKMO_HadCM3 model than the MIROC3.2_medres model. These impacts scenarios, however, were less drastic than those generated for the arabica coffee in the same simulation conditions, reinforcing the increased vulnerability of this agricultural crop to climate change than the sugar cane. The inclusion of other restrictions on the climate risk zoning improves the quality of the generated scenarios and expands its usefulness for agricultural engineering.

Zullo, J.; Macedo, C.; Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Koga Vicente, A.

2012-12-01

43

Genomic signatures reveal new evidences for selection of important traits in domestic cattle.  

PubMed

We investigated diverse genomic selections using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data of five distinct cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-known genes such as KIT, MC1R, ASIP, GHR, LCORL, NCAPG, WIF1, and ABCA12, we found evidence for a variety of novel and less-known genes under selection in cattle, such as LAP3, SAR1B, LRIG3, FGF5, and NUDCD3. Selective sweeps near LAP3 were then validated by next-generation sequencing. Genome-wide association analysis involving 26,362 Holsteins confirmed that LAP3 and SAR1B were related to milk production traits, suggesting that our candidate regions were likely functional. In addition, haplotype network analyses further revealed distinct selective pressures and evolution patterns across these five cattle breeds. Our results provided a glimpse into diverse genomic selection during cattle domestication, breed formation, and recent genetic improvement. These findings will facilitate genome-assisted breeding to improve animal production and health. PMID:25431480

Xu, Lingyang; Bickhart, Derek M; Cole, John B; Schroeder, Steven G; Song, Jiuzhou; Tassell, Curtis P Van; Sonstegard, Tad S; Liu, George E

2015-03-01

44

Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

2014-01-01

45

Conservation Agriculture: What Is It and Why Is It Important for Future Sustainable Food Production?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. The paper first introduces the reasons for tillage in agriculture and discusses how this age-old agricultural practice is responsible for natural resource and soil degradation. The paper goes on to

Peter R. Hobbs

46

Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Selection for Important Traits in Domestic Horse Breeds  

PubMed Central

Intense selective pressures applied over short evolutionary time have resulted in homogeneity within, but substantial variation among, horse breeds. Utilizing this population structure, 744 individuals from 33 breeds, and a 54,000 SNP genotyping array, breed-specific targets of selection were identified using an FST-based statistic calculated in 500-kb windows across the genome. A 5.5-Mb region of ECA18, in which the myostatin (MSTN) gene was centered, contained the highest signature of selection in both the Paint and Quarter Horse. Gene sequencing and histological analysis of gluteal muscle biopsies showed a promoter variant and intronic SNP of MSTN were each significantly associated with higher Type 2B and lower Type 1 muscle fiber proportions in the Quarter Horse, demonstrating a functional consequence of selection at this locus. Signatures of selection on ECA23 in all gaited breeds in the sample led to the identification of a shared, 186-kb haplotype including two doublesex related mab transcription factor genes (DMRT2 and 3). The recent identification of a DMRT3 mutation within this haplotype, which appears necessary for the ability to perform alternative gaits, provides further evidence for selection at this locus. Finally, putative loci for the determination of size were identified in the draft breeds and the Miniature horse on ECA11, as well as when signatures of selection surrounding candidate genes at other loci were examined. This work provides further evidence of the importance of MSTN in racing breeds, provides strong evidence for selection upon gait and size, and illustrates the potential for population-based techniques to find genomic regions driving important phenotypes in the modern horse. PMID:23349635

Petersen, Jessica L.; Mickelson, James R.; Rendahl, Aaron K.; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Andersson, Lisa S.; Axelsson, Jeanette; Bailey, Ernie; Bannasch, Danika; Binns, Matthew M.; Borges, Alexandre S.; Brama, Pieter; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cappelli, Katia; Cothran, E. Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Fox-Clipsham, Laura; Graves, Kathryn T.; Guérin, Gérard; Haase, Bianca; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hemmann, Karin; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lohi, Hannes; Lopes, Maria Susana; McGivney, Beatrice A.; Mikko, Sofia; Orr, Nicholas; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Piercy, Richard J.; Raekallio, Marja; Rieder, Stefan; Røed, Knut H.; Swinburne, June; Tozaki, Teruaki; Vaudin, Mark; Wade, Claire M.; McCue, Molly E.

2013-01-01

47

The relative importance of microbial nitrate reduction processes in an agriculturally-impacted estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities are increasing reactive nitrogen levels worldwide. Reactive nitrogen exists largely as nitrate and may be ecologically harmful to nutrient-limited systems. Nitrate loadings to the environment may be transformed by the microbial nitrate reduction processes of denitrification (converting nitrate to dinitrogen gas), or of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) (allowing reactive nitrogen to persist). The predominant nitrate reduction pathway largely determines the nitrogen removal capacity of the estuary. Therefore, identifying the relative importance of denitrification and DNRA in a given system provides insight into how much nitrate is transformed to dinitrogen and ammonium. Estuary sediments often have high nitrate reduction rates, but the environmental factors that determine which process prevails are underexplored. Nitrate availability and salinity are thought to influence which nitrate reduction process predominates. Elkhorn Slough is a small California estuary that experiences a range of nitrate concentrations (0 to over 2,000 ?M) and salinities (0 to 33.5) depending on the agricultural runoff introduced through the Old Salinas River and the tidal influence. This study investigates how the fluctuating nutrient and salinity conditions found over the diel cycle at the interface of the Old Salinas River and Elkhorn Slough influences the nitrogen transformation rates observed. Benthic denitrification and DNRA are evaluated using whole sediment core incubations amended with an overlying 15NO3- labeled pool. Rates of denitrification and DNRA in the sediment are calculated using the isotope pairing technique. The results of this research will help elucidate the relative importance of dissimilatory nitrate removal pathways in an agriculturally-impacted estuary and ultimately reveal whether anthropogenic nitrate inputs are preserved or removed from the system.

Cardarelli, E.; Francis, C. A.

2013-12-01

48

Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.  

PubMed

Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes. PMID:18833660

Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

2008-01-01

49

Survival in macaroni penguins and the relative importance of different drivers: individual traits, predation pressure and environmental variability  

PubMed Central

Understanding the demographic response of free-living animal populations to different drivers is the first step towards reliable prediction of population trends. Penguins have exhibited dramatic declines in population size, and many studies have linked this to bottom-up processes altering the abundance of prey species. The effects of individual traits have been considered to a lesser extent, and top-down regulation through predation has been largely overlooked due to the difficulties in empirically measuring this at sea where it usually occurs. For 10 years (2003–2012), macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) were marked with subcutaneous electronic transponder tags and re-encountered using an automated gateway system fitted at the entrance to the colony. We used multistate mark–recapture modelling to identify the different drivers influencing survival rates and a sensitivity analysis to assess their relative importance across different life stages. Survival rates were low and variable during the fledging year (mean = 0·33), increasing to much higher levels from age 1 onwards (mean = 0·89). We show that survival of macaroni penguins is driven by a combination of individual quality, top-down predation pressure and bottom-up environmental forces. The relative importance of these covariates was age specific. During the fledging year, survival rates were most sensitive to top-down predation pressure, followed by individual fledging mass, and finally bottom-up environmental effects. In contrast, birds older than 1 year showed a similar response to bottom-up environmental effects and top-down predation pressure. We infer from our results that macaroni penguins will most likely be negatively impacted by an increase in the local population size of giant petrels. Furthermore, this population is, at least in the short term, likely to be positively influenced by local warming. More broadly, our results highlight the importance of considering multiple causal effects across different life stages when examining the survival rates of seabirds. PMID:24846695

Horswill, Catharine; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Green, Jonathan A; Meredith, Michael P; Forcada, Jaume; Peat, Helen; Preston, Mark; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman

2014-01-01

50

The importance of managing the costs and benefits of bird activity for agricultural sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of wild animal species in agricultural landscapes may confer benefits to growers through the provision of ecosystem services (e.g. control of agricultural pests) or inflict costs through direct or indirect damage to crops or livestock. The literature on the costs that species inflict or the benefits they provide has evolved largely independently with few attempts to synthesize information

Shannon Triplett; Gary W. Luck; Peter Spooner

2012-01-01

51

Sexual selection in the northern pintail ( Anas acuta ): the importance of female choice versus male-male competition in the evolution of sexually-selected traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally studied the relative importance of plumage, dominance status, and courtship behavior in determining male pairing success in the northern pintail Anas acuta and assessed whether these traits function in female choice, male-male competition or both. In an experiment (experiment IA) that eliminated the confounding effects of male-male competition and social courtship, females chose males with pure white breasts

Lisa G. Sorenson; Scott R. Derrickson

1994-01-01

52

A design-constraint trade-off underpins the diversity in ecologically important traits in species Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Bacterial species are internally diverse in genomic and multi-locus gene comparisons. The ecological causes of phenotypic and genotypic diversity within species are far less well understood. Here, we focus on the competitive fitness for growth on nutrients within Escherichia coli, an internally rich species. Competition experiments in nutrient-limited chemostats revealed that members of the ECOR collection exhibited a wide continuum of competitive abilities, with some fitter and some less fit than the lab strain MG1655. We observed an inverse relationship between competitiveness and the resistance of strains to detergent and antibiotic, consistent with the notion that membrane permeability and competitive fitness are linked by a trade-off between self-preservation and nutritional competence (SPANC); high permeability has a postulated cost in antibacterial sensitivity whereas a low permeability has a cost in nutrient affinity. Isolates moved along the markedly nonlinear trade-off curve by mutational adaptation; an ECOR strain sensitive to antibacterials and a good competitor was easily converted by mutation into a mutant with higher resistance but poorer competition in the presence of low antibiotic concentrations. Conversely, a resistant ECOR strain changed into a better competitor after a short period of selection under nutrient limitation. In both directions, mutations can affect porin proteins and outer membrane permeability, as indicated by protein analysis, gene sequencing and an independent assay of outer membrane permeability. The extensive, species-wide diversity of E. coli in ecologically important traits can thus be explained as an evolutionary consequence of a SPANC trade-off driven by antagonistic pleiotropy. PMID:23677010

Phan, Katherine; Ferenci, Thomas

2013-10-01

53

Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

54

Agricultural effects on amphibian parasitism: importance of general habitat perturbations and parasite life cycles.  

PubMed

Agricultural activity can alter host-parasite interactions through associated contaminants and habitat perturbations. It is critical to determine whether agricultural effects are widespread or limited to specific types of agriculture. We examined influences of soybean agriculture on trematode parasitism of larval amphibians (grey tree frogs; Hyla versicolor) to assess the potential effects of a commonly applied pesticide (glyphosate) and landscape factors relative to previous field studies focusing on the herbicide atrazine. Overall, trematode parasite infection did not differ between soybean-adjacent and nonagricultural ponds (87.7% and 72.6% mean infection, respectively). However, host-generalist echinostome species were more common in tadpoles from soybean-associated ponds (86.3% mean infection versus 36.2% in nonagricultural ponds) as well as sites with large or short average distances to forest cover and roads, respectively. In contrast, the occurrence of a host-specialist (Alaria sp.) group was greater in nonagricultural ponds (50.3% mean infection versus 9.8% in soybean-associated ponds) and increased with shorter distances to the closest forest patch and smaller average forest distance. Because glyphosate was not detected at any site and landscape influences were parasite-specific, we suggest that agriculture may have broad effects on wildlife diseases through habitat alterations that affect pathogen transmission via host habitat suitability. Notably, nonagricultural ponds had a lower mean distance to the nearest forest patch and lower mean forest distance compared with soybean-adjacent ponds. As a result, we emphasize the need for wider investigations of habitat perturbations generally associated with agriculture for host-pathogen interactions, and consequently, wildlife conservation and management strategies. PMID:23060494

Koprivnikar, Janet; Redfern, Julia C

2012-10-01

55

Agricultural By-Products Turned into Important Materials with Adsorptive Properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

56

The Importance of Public-Private Partnerships in Agricultural Insurance in China: based on Analysis for Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a healthy and sustainable policy-driven agricultural insurance scheme, a discussion of the importance of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) is timely in light of the challenges that governments are facing against the backdrop of increasing scale and frequency of major agro-related natural disasters across the globe. Most recently in 2008, it is reported a total of 137 natural catastrophes led

Li Xing; Kaiyu Lu

2010-01-01

57

Importance of non CO2 fluxes for agricultural ecosystems - understanding the mechanisms and drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In agriculture, a large proportion (about 89%) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving potential may be achieved by means of soil C sequestration. Not surprising that exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been a main research objective during last decades. In spite of this, in agricultural ecosytems (i.e. grassland and croplands) a large proportion of total emissions (about 18% in CO2e worldwide) are linked to non CO2 fluxes (about 50% N2O, 40% CH4 in contraste to 10%CO2). Those emissions are however, diffuse, for example N2O, is emitted on almost all cultivated land, and all humid grasslands emit CH4 related to watertable. However, those emissions can vary largely from one site to another or from one farming system to another, while some studies even report a fixation of CH4 and N2O by grass- and croplands, not to mention the impacts of climate change on fluxes. Finally, given the large number of findings, along with their significant diversity, complicates both estimation of these emissions and the mechanism that the public authorities could implement to encourage their reduction. To determine effective mitigation options, a better knowledge on the drivers of CH4/N2O as well as their temporal and spatial variability are of particular interest. At present, more information is needed on i) the impact of agricultural practices and the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the GHG budgets within contrasting systems, ii) differences among climate regions and climate impacts, and iii) impact of managing soil microbial functioning (through plant diverstiy, litter inputs, etc). This presentation will review recent studies to highlight some new findings on the mentioned topics.

Klumpp, Katja

2014-05-01

58

The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?  

PubMed

We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p?0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

2014-11-10

59

Nutrient loading associated with agriculture land use dampens the importance of consumer-mediated niche construction.  

PubMed

The linkages between biological communities and ecosystem function remain poorly understood along gradients of human-induced stressors. We examined how resource provisioning (nutrient recycling), mediated by native freshwater mussels, influences the structure and function of benthic communities by combining observational data and a field experiment. We compared the following: (1) elemental and community composition (algal pigments and macroinvertebates) on live mussel shells and on nearby rocks across a gradient of catchment agriculture and (2) experimental colonisation of benthic communities on live vs. sham shells controlling for initial community composition and colonisation duration. We show that in near pristine systems, nutrient heterogeneity mediated by mussels relates to greater biodiversity of communities, which supports the notion that resource heterogeneity can foster biological diversity. However, with increased nutrients from the catchment, the relevance of mussel-provisioned nutrients was nearly eliminated. While species can persist in disturbed systems, their functional relevance may be diminished or lost. PMID:23848507

Spooner, Daniel E; Frost, Paul C; Hillebrand, Helmut; Arts, Michael T; Puckrin, Olivia; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

2013-09-01

60

The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

Gwata, E.

2012-04-01

61

Epistasis dominates the genetic architecture of Drosophila quantitative traits  

PubMed Central

Epistasis—nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci—is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one epistatic interaction in the DGRP. Despite apparent additive effects at largely distinct loci in the two populations, the epistatic interactions perturbed common, biologically plausible, and highly connected genetic networks. Our analysis underscores the importance of epistasis as a principal factor that determines variation for quantitative traits and provides a means to uncover genetic networks affecting these traits. Knowledge of epistatic networks will contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of evolutionarily and clinically important traits and enhance predictive ability at an individualized level in medicine and agriculture. PMID:22949659

Huang, Wen; Richards, Stephen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Zhu, Dianhui; Anholt, Robert R. H.; Ayroles, Julien F.; Duncan, Laura; Jordan, Katherine W.; Lawrence, Faye; Magwire, Michael M.; Warner, Crystal B.; Blankenburg, Kerstin; Han, Yi; Javaid, Mehwish; Jayaseelan, Joy; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Yiqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Stone, Eric A.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

2012-01-01

62

Screening of plant growth-promoting traits in arsenic-resistant bacteria isolated from agricultural soil and their potential implication for arsenic bioremediation.  

PubMed

Twelve arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 10 to 30mM and 150 to 320mM for As(III) and As(V), respectively) were isolated from the agricultural soil of the Chianan Plain in southwestern Taiwan using enrichment techniques. Eight isolates capable of oxidizing As(III) (rate of oxidation from 0.029 to 0.059?Mh(-1) 10(-9) cell) and exhibiting As(III)-oxidase enzyme activity belong to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella and Comamonas genera, whereas four isolates that did not show As(III)-oxidizing activity belong to Geobacillus, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Enterobacter genera. Assessment of the parameters of plant growth promotion revealed that Pseudomonas sp. ASR1, ASR2 and ASR3, Geobacillus sp. ASR4, Bacillus sp. ASR5, Paenibacillus sp. ASR6, Enterobacter sp. ASR10 and Comamonas sp. ASR11, and ASR12 possessed some or all of the studied plant growth-promoting traits, including phosphate-solubilization, siderophore, IAA-like molecules and ACC deaminase production. In addition, the ability of As-resistant isolates to grow over wide ranges of pH and temperatures signify their potential application for sustainable bioremediation of As in the environment. PMID:24685527

Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Chou, Mon-Lin; Chen, Chien-Yen

2014-05-15

63

Microsatellite Diversity of the Agriculturally Important Alpine Grass Poa alpina in Relation to Land Use and Natural Environment  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Alpine Meadow Grass Poa alpina is common in subalpine and alpine natural sites and agriculturally used land, where it is an important fodder grass. Natural factors and human land use are supposed to have been shaping its genetic diversity for hundreds of years. The species comprises sexually and vegetatively reproducing plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use, environmental factors and the mode of reproduction on the distribution of its microsatellite diversity within and among populations and to analyse whether its genetic diversity is correlated with plant species diversity in grassland parcels. Methods Genetic diversity of P. alpina was assessed with five microsatellite markers for 569 plants originating from 20 natural sites and from 54 grassland parcels of different cultural tradition, land use and altitude in the Swiss Alps. Due to polyploidy and frequent aneuploidy of the species, data analyses were based on the presence of microsatellite bands. Key Results A low but significant differentiation was found in microsatellite bands among natural sites and agriculturally used parcels, while their microsatellite band diversity within populations did not differ. An increased differentiation was found in microsatellite bands with increasing geographic distance among parcels, and a differentiation among grazed and mown parcels, and among sexually and vegetatively reproducing populations. Band richness of sampled plants per village was higher for villages where parcels represented more different land-use types. Within populations, microsatellite band diversity was higher in grazed than in mown parcels. Conclusions The diversity of human land use in the Alps was associated with genetic diversity of P. alpina. Therefore, the ongoing socio-economically motivated land-use changes, which reduce the number of different land-use types, will affect the genetic diversity of P. alpina negatively. PMID:17901059

Rudmann-Maurer, Katrin; Weyand, Anne; Fischer, Markus; Stöcklin, Jürg

2007-01-01

64

Cadmium contamination in Tianjin agricultural soils and sediments: relative importance of atmospheric deposition from coal combustion.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) in coal, fly ash, slag, atmospheric deposition, soils and sediments collected from Tianjin, northern China, were measured to provide baseline information and determine possible Cd sources and potential risk. The concentrations of Cd in coal, fly ash and atmospheric deposition were much higher than the soil background values. Fallout from coal-fired thermal power plants, heating boilers and industrial furnaces has increased the Cd concentration in soils and sediments in Tianjin. The concentrations of Cd in soils of suburban areas were significantly higher than in rural areas, suggesting that coal burning in Tianjin may have an important impact on the local physical environment. Cd from coal combustion is readily mobilized in soils. It is soluble and can form aqueous complexes and permeate river sediments. The high proportion of mobile Cd affects the migration of Cd in soils and sediments, which may pose an environmental threat in Tianjin due to the exposure to Cd and Cd compounds via the food chain. This study may provide a window for understanding and tracing sources of Cd in the local environment and the risk associated with Cd bioaccessibility. PMID:23212535

Wu, Guanghong; Yang, Cancan; Guo, Lan; Wang, Zhongliang

2013-06-01

65

An Evaluation of Arabidopsis thaliana Hybrid Traits and Their Genetic Control  

PubMed Central

Heterosis is an important phenomenon in agriculture. However, heterosis often greatly varies among hybrids and among traits. To investigate heterosis across a large number of traits and numerous genotypes, we evaluated 12 life history traits on parents and hybrids derived from five Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Col, Ler-0, Cvi, Ws, and C24) by using a complete diallel analysis containing 20 hybrids. Parental contributions to heterosis were hybrid and trait specific with a few reciprocal differences. Most notably, C24 generated hybrids with flowering time, biomass, and reproductive traits that often exceeded high-parent values. However, reproductive traits of C24 and Col hybrids and flowering time traits of C24 and Ler hybrids had no heterosis. We investigated whether allelic variation at flowering time genes FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) could explain the genotype- and trait-specific contribution of C24 to hybrid traits. We evaluated both Col and Ler lines introgressed with various FRI and FLC alleles and hybrids between these lines and C24. Hybrids with functional FLC differed from hybrids with nonfunctional FLC for 21 of the 24 hybrid-trait combinations. In most crosses, heterosis was fully or partially explained by FRI and FLC. Our results describe the genetic diversity for heterosis within a sample of A. thaliana ecotypes and show that FRI and FLC are major factors that contribute to heterosis in a genotype and trait specific fashion. PMID:22384368

Moore, Siobhan; Lukens, Lewis

2011-01-01

66

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

67

The Importance of the Regional Species Pool, Ecological Species Traits and Local Habitat Conditions for the Colonization of Restored River Reaches by Fish  

PubMed Central

It is commonly assumed that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish depends on the regional species pools; however, quantifications of the relationship between the composition of the regional species pool and restoration outcome are lacking. We analyzed data from 18 German river restoration projects and adjacent river reaches constituting the regional species pools of the restored reaches. We found that the ability of statistical models to describe the fish assemblages established in the restored reaches was greater when these models were based on ‘biotic’ variables relating to the regional species pool and the ecological traits of species rather than on ‘abiotic’ variables relating to the hydromorphological habitat structure of the restored habitats and descriptors of the restoration projects. For species presence in restored reaches, ‘biotic’ variables explained 34% of variability, with the occurrence rate of a species in the regional species pool being the most important variable, while ’abiotic’ variables explained only the negligible amount of 2% of variability. For fish density in restored reaches, about twice the amount of variability was explained by ‘biotic’ (38%) compared to ‘abiotic’ (21%) variables, with species density in the regional species pool being most important. These results indicate that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish is largely determined by the assemblages in the surrounding species pool. Knowledge of species presence and abundance in the regional species pool can be used to estimate the likelihood of fish species becoming established in restored reaches. PMID:24404187

Stoll, Stefan; Kail, Jochem; Lorenz, Armin W.; Sundermann, Andrea; Haase, Peter

2014-01-01

68

Trait stacking via targeted genome editing.  

PubMed

Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits. The current paradigm of randomly integrating and sorting independently segregating transgenes creates severe downstream breeding challenges. A versatile, generally applicable solution is hereby provided: the combination of high-efficiency targeted genome editing driven by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) with modular 'trait landing pads' (TLPs) that allow 'mix-and-match', on-demand transgene integration and trait stacking in crop plants. We illustrate the utility of nuclease-driven TLP technology by applying it to the stacking of herbicide resistance traits. We first integrated into the maize genome an herbicide resistance gene, pat, flanked with a TLP (ZFN target sites and sequences homologous to incoming DNA) using WHISKERS™-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures. We established a method for targeted transgene integration based on microparticle bombardment of immature embryos and used it to deliver a second trait precisely into the TLP via cotransformation with a donor DNA containing a second herbicide resistance gene, aad1, flanked by sequences homologous to the integrated TLP along with a corresponding ZFN expression construct. Remarkably, up to 5% of the embryo-derived transgenic events integrated the aad1 transgene precisely at the TLP, that is, directly adjacent to the pat transgene. Importantly and consistent with the juxtaposition achieved via nuclease-driven TLP technology, both herbicide resistance traits cosegregated in subsequent generations, thereby demonstrating linkage of the two independently transformed transgenes. Because ZFN-mediated targeted transgene integration is becoming applicable across an increasing number of crop species, this work exemplifies a simple, facile and rapid approach to trait stacking. PMID:23953646

Ainley, William M; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Welter, Mary E; Murray, Michael G; Zeitler, Bryan; Amora, Rainier; Corbin, David R; Miles, Rebecca R; Arnold, Nicole L; Strange, Tonya L; Simpson, Matthew A; Cao, Zehui; Carroll, Carley; Pawelczak, Katherine S; Blue, Ryan; West, Kim; Rowland, Lynn M; Perkins, Douglas; Samuel, Pon; Dewes, Cristie M; Shen, Liu; Sriram, Shreedharan; Evans, Steven L; Rebar, Edward J; Zhang, Lei; Gregory, Phillip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Webb, Steven R; Petolino, Joseph F

2013-12-01

69

Roles of UV-damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) in epigenetically modifying multiple traits of agronomic importance in tomato.  

PubMed

Epigenetic regulation participates broadly in many fundamentally cellular and physiological processes. In this study, we found that DDB1, a protein originally identified as a factor involved in DNA repairing, plays important roles in regulating organ size, growth habit and photosynthesis in tomato via an epigenetic manner. We generated transgenic tomato plants overexpressing an alternatively spliced DDB1 transcript (DDB1(F) , prevalently present in tomato tissues) and found the primary transformants displayed small-fruited "cherry tomato" in companion with strikingly enhanced shoot branching and biomass, dark-green leaves with elevated chlorophyll accumulation, and increased soluble solids in fruits. Significantly, these phenotypic alterations did not segregate with the DDB1(F) transgene in subsequent generations, suggesting that the effect of DDB1(F) on multiple agronomic traits is implemented via an epigenetic manner and is inheritable over generations. We speculate that DDB1, as a core subunit in the recently identified CUL4-based E3 ligase complex, mediates the 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of a large number of proteins, some of which might be required for perpetuating epigenetic marks on chromatins. PMID:23073016

Tang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jikai; Huang, Shengxiong; Shi, Wei; Miao, Min; Tang, Dan Feng; Niu, Xiangli; Xiao, Fangming; Liu, Yongsheng

2012-12-01

70

Human Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate variations in human traits. This allows learners' natural curiosity about their identity to draw them into the study of heredity. Learners can investigate traits such as earlobe attachment, tongue rolling, hair and eye color, and hair texture. Through these traits, learners get an introduction to different inheritance patterns such as simple and incomplete dominance. Activity is usually done over multiple days to give learners time to survey people about their traits.

Irene Salter

2012-06-26

71

Modeling the Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits With Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the genetic control of quantitatively inherited traits is fundamental to agricultural, evolutionary and biomedical genetic research. A detailed picture of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits can be elucidated with a well-saturated genetic map of molecular markers. The parameters that quantify the genetic architecture of a trait include the number of individual quantitative trait loci (QTL), their genomic positions,

Rongling Wu; Wei Hou; Yuehua Cui; Hongying Li; Tian Liu; Song Wu; Chang-Xing Ma; Yanru Zeng

2007-01-01

72

Localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for agronomic important characters by the use of a RFLP map in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Two hundred and fifty doubled haploid lines were studied from a cross between two 2-row winter barley varieties. The lines were evaluated for several characters in a field experiment for 3 years on two locations with two replications. From a total of 431 RFLP probes 50 were found to be polymorphic and subsequently used to construct a linkage map. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were determined and localized for resistance against Rhynchosporium secalis and Erysiphe graminis, for lodging, stalk breaking and ear breaking tendency, for the physical state before harvest, plant height, heading date, several kernel parameters and kernel yield. The heritability of the traits ranged from 0.56 to 0.89. For each trait except for kernel thickness, QTLs have been localized that explain 5-52% of the genetic variance. Transgressive segregation occurred for all of the traits studied. PMID:24173906

Backes, G; Graner, A; Foroughi-Wehr, B; Fischbeck, G; Wenzel, G; Jahoor, A

1995-02-01

73

The importance of context to the genetic architecture of diabetes-related traits is revealed in a genome-wide scan of a LG/J x SM/J murine model  

PubMed Central

Variations in diabetic phenotypes are caused by complex interactions of genetic effects, environmental factors, and the interplay between the two. We tease apart these complex interactions by examining genome-wide genetic and epigenetic effects on diabetes-related traits among different sex, diet, and sex-by-diet cohorts in a Mus musculus model. We conducted a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting serum glucose and insulin levels and response to glucose stress in an F16 Advanced Intercross Line of the LG/J and SM/J intercross (Wustl:LG, SM-G16). Half of each sibship was fed a high-fat diet and half was fed a relatively low-fat diet. Context-dependent genetic (additive and dominance) and epigenetic (parent-of-origin imprinting) effects were characterized by partitioning animals into sex, diet, and sex-by-diet cohorts. We find that different cohorts often have unique genetic effects at the same loci, and that genetic signals can be masked or erroneously assigned to specific cohorts if they are not considered individually. Our data demonstrate that the effects of genes on complex trait variation are highly context dependent, and that the same genomic sequence can affect traits differently depending on an individual’s sex and/or dietary environment. Our results have important implications for studies of complex traits in humans. PMID:21210123

Lawson, Heather A.; Lee, Arthur; Fawcett, Gloria L.; Wang, Bing; Pletscher, L. Susan; Maxwell, Taylor J.; Ehrich, Thomas H.; Kenney-Hunt, Jane P.; Wolf, Jason B.; Semenkovich, Clay F.; Cheverud, James M.

2013-01-01

74

The importance of context to the genetic architecture of diabetes-related traits is revealed in a genome-wide scan of a LG/J × SM/J murine model.  

PubMed

Variations in diabetic phenotypes are caused by complex interactions of genetic effects, environmental factors, and the interplay between the two. We tease apart these complex interactions by examining genome-wide genetic and epigenetic effects on diabetes-related traits among different sex, diet, and sex-by-diet cohorts in a Mus musculus model. We conducted a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci that affect serum glucose and insulin levels and response to glucose stress in an F(16) Advanced Intercross Line of the LG/J and SM/J intercross (Wustl:LG,SM-G16). Half of each sibship was fed a high-fat diet and half was fed a relatively low-fat diet. Context-dependent genetic (additive and dominance) and epigenetic (parent-of-origin imprinting) effects were characterized by partitioning animals into sex, diet, and sex-by-diet cohorts. We found that different cohorts often have unique genetic effects at the same loci, and that genetic signals can be masked or erroneously assigned to specific cohorts if they are not considered individually. Our data demonstrate that the effects of genes on complex trait variation are highly context-dependent and that the same genomic sequence can affect traits differently depending on an individual's sex and/or dietary environment. Our results have important implications for studies of complex traits in humans. PMID:21210123

Lawson, Heather A; Lee, Arthur; Fawcett, Gloria L; Wang, Bing; Pletscher, L Susan; Maxwell, Taylor J; Ehrich, Thomas H; Kenney-Hunt, Jane P; Wolf, Jason B; Semenkovich, Clay F; Cheverud, James M

2011-04-01

75

Habitat use and movement patterns of Northern Pintails during spring in northern Japan: the importance of agricultural lands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 2006 to 2009, we marked 198 Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) with satellite transmitters on their wintering areas in Japan to study their migration routes and habitat use in spring staging areas. We hypothesized that the distribution of pintails during spring staging was influenced by patterns of land use and expected that the most frequently used areas would have more agricultural habitat than lesser-used areas. We obtained 3031 daily locations from 163 migrant pintails marked with satellite transmitters and identified 524 stopover sites. Based on a fixed kernel home range analysis of stopover utilization distribution (UD), core staging areas (areas within the 50% UD) were identified in northern Honshu and western Hokkaido, and were used by 71% of marked pintails. Core staging areas had a greater proportion of rice fields than peripheral (51–95% UD) and rarely used (outside the 95% UD) staging areas. Stopover sites also contained more rice fields and other agricultural land than were available at regional scales, indicating that pintails selected rice and other agricultural habitats at regional and local scales. Pintails remained at spring staging areas an average of 51 d. Prolonged staging in agricultural habitats of northern Japan was likely necessary for pintails to prepare for transoceanic migration to Arctic nesting areas in eastern Russia.

Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Shigeta, Yusuke; Shimada, Tetsuo; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

2012-01-01

76

Crop Residue Management in Conservation Agriculture Systems in Zimbabwe Smallholder Farming Sector: Importance, Management Challenges and Possible Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation agriculture (CA) is promoted as a cropping system that has potential to alleviate poor crop yields in smallholder farming while protecting the environment. It involves maintenance of permanent soil cover, diverse crop rotations and\\/or interactions; and minimum soil disturbance. CA is associated with crop residue management challenges due to low crop biomass yields and crop-livestock interactions in Zimbabwean smallholder

Blessing Mhlanga; Tarirai Muoni

2014-01-01

77

The Influence of Genetic Drift and Selection on Quantitative Traits in a Plant Pathogenic Fungus  

PubMed Central

Genetic drift and selection are ubiquitous evolutionary forces acting to shape genetic variation in populations. While their relative importance has been well studied in plants and animals, less is known about their relative importance in fungal pathogens. Because agro-ecosystems are more homogeneous environments than natural ecosystems, stabilizing selection may play a stronger role than genetic drift or diversifying selection in shaping genetic variation among populations of fungal pathogens in agro-ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a QST/FST analysis using agricultural populations of the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune. Population divergence for eight quantitative traits (QST) was compared with divergence at eight neutral microsatellite loci (FST) for 126 pathogen strains originating from nine globally distributed field populations to infer the effects of genetic drift and types of selection acting on each trait. Our analyses indicated that five of the eight traits had QST values significantly lower than FST, consistent with stabilizing selection, whereas one trait, growth under heat stress (22°C), showed evidence of diversifying selection and local adaptation (QST>FST). Estimates of heritability were high for all traits (means ranging between 0.55–0.84), and average heritability across traits was negatively correlated with microsatellite gene diversity. Some trait pairs were genetically correlated and there was significant evidence for a trade-off between spore size and spore number, and between melanization and growth under benign temperature. Our findings indicate that many ecologically and agriculturally important traits are under stabilizing selection in R. commune and that high within-population genetic variation is maintained for these traits. PMID:25383967

Stefansson, Tryggvi S.; McDonald, Bruce A.; Willi, Yvonne

2014-01-01

78

The influence of genetic drift and selection on quantitative traits in a plant pathogenic fungus.  

PubMed

Genetic drift and selection are ubiquitous evolutionary forces acting to shape genetic variation in populations. While their relative importance has been well studied in plants and animals, less is known about their relative importance in fungal pathogens. Because agro-ecosystems are more homogeneous environments than natural ecosystems, stabilizing selection may play a stronger role than genetic drift or diversifying selection in shaping genetic variation among populations of fungal pathogens in agro-ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a QST/FST analysis using agricultural populations of the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune. Population divergence for eight quantitative traits (QST) was compared with divergence at eight neutral microsatellite loci (FST) for 126 pathogen strains originating from nine globally distributed field populations to infer the effects of genetic drift and types of selection acting on each trait. Our analyses indicated that five of the eight traits had QST values significantly lower than FST, consistent with stabilizing selection, whereas one trait, growth under heat stress (22°C), showed evidence of diversifying selection and local adaptation (QST>FST). Estimates of heritability were high for all traits (means ranging between 0.55-0.84), and average heritability across traits was negatively correlated with microsatellite gene diversity. Some trait pairs were genetically correlated and there was significant evidence for a trade-off between spore size and spore number, and between melanization and growth under benign temperature. Our findings indicate that many ecologically and agriculturally important traits are under stabilizing selection in R. commune and that high within-population genetic variation is maintained for these traits. PMID:25383967

Stefansson, Tryggvi S; McDonald, Bruce A; Willi, Yvonne

2014-01-01

79

Genomic imprinting and parent-of-origin effects on complex traits  

PubMed Central

Parent-of-origin effects occur when the phenotypic effect of an allele depends on whether it is inherited from an individual’s mother or father. Several phenomena can cause parent-of-origin effects, with the best characterized being parent-of-origin dependent gene expression associated with genomic imprinting. Imprinting plays a critical role in a diversity of biological processes and in certain contexts it structures epigenetic relationships between DNA sequence and phenotypic variation. The development of new mapping approaches applied to the growing abundance of genomic data has demonstrated that imprinted genes can be important contributors to complex trait variation. Therefore, to understand the genetic architecture and evolution of complex traits, including complex diseases and traits of agricultural importance, it is crucial to account for these parent-of-origin effects. Here we discuss patterns of phenotypic variation associated with imprinting, evidence supporting its role in complex trait variation, and approaches for identifying its molecular signatures. PMID:23917626

Lawson, Heather A.; Cheverud, James M.

2014-01-01

80

Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. Methods Research was carried out in 5 villages of each of three Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks (AECD-Blocks) of the Forest Margin Benchmark Area (FMBA). In each village, a semi-structured survey was used; male and female groups of farmers were interviewed separately. Results Z. variegatus is present throughout the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, where it is ranked as the third most economically important insect pest of agriculture. In the farmers' opinion, Z. variegatus is a polyphagous insect with little impact on young perennial crops. The length of the pre-farming fallow does not affect Z. variegatus pest pressure in the following crops. The increased impact of the grasshopper observed today in the fields, compared to what existed 10 years ago is as a result of deforestation and increase in surface of herbaceous fallow. The damage caused by Z. variegatus is higher in fields adjacent to C. odorata and herbaceous fallows than in those adjacent to forests and shrubby fallows. The fight against this grasshopper is often done through physical methods carried out by hand, for human consumption. The farmers highlight low usage of the chemical methods and a total absence of biological and ecological methods. Conclusion Farmers' perception have contributed to understanding the status of Z. variegatus in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. The results are in general similar to those obtained in other countries. PMID:16573815

Kekeunou, Sévilor; Weise, Stephan; Messi, Jean; Tamò, Manuel

2006-01-01

81

Soil and geography are more important determinants of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities than management practices in Swiss agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous AMF varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous AMF communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real-time PCR with taxon-specific markers for six widespread AMF species. To identify the key determinants of AMF community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well-supported dependencies between abundances of certain AMF taxa and soil properties such as pH, soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the AMF community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected AMF communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the AMF communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied. PMID:24611988

Jansa, Jan; Erb, Angela; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Smilauer, Petr; Egli, Simon

2014-04-01

82

Seeds' physicochemical traits and mucilage protection against aluminum effect during germination and root elongation as important factors in a biofuel seed crop (Ricinus communis).  

PubMed

We determined the length, volume, dry biomass, and density in seeds of five castor bean cultivars and verified notable physicochemical trait differences. Seeds were then subjected to different toxic aluminum (Al) concentrations to evaluate germination, relative root elongation, and the role of root apices' rhizosphere mucilage layer. Seeds' physicochemical traits were associated with Al toxicity responses, and the absence of Al in cotyledons near to the embryo was revealed by Al-hematoxylin staining, indicating that Al did not induce significant germination reduction rates between cultivars. However, in the more sensitive cultivar, Al was found around the embryo, contributing to subsequent growth inhibition. After this, to investigate the role of mucilage in Al tolerance, an assay was conducted using NH4Cl to remove root mucilage before or after exposure to different Al concentrations. Sequentially, the roots were stained with hematoxylin and a quantitative analysis of staining intensity was obtained. These results revealed the significant contribution of the mucilage layer to Al toxicity responses in castor bean seedlings. Root growth elongation under Al toxicity confirmed the role of the mucilage layer, which jointly indicated the differential Al tolerance between cultivars and an efficient Al-exclusion mechanism in the tolerant cultivar. PMID:25028322

Silva, Giovanni Eustáquio Alves; Ramos, Flávia Toledo; de Faria, Ana Paula; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

2014-10-01

83

Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas. PMID:8933199

Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

1996-11-01

84

Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease (SCD) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Sickle Cell Trait New: Sickle Cell Trait Toolkit People who ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

85

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma well-being of our communities and the counties in which they are located. Oklahoma State University Resources Oklahoma State University #12;Farm Operations · 86,600 farms; 4th in the nation · Average age

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

86

Beneficial bacteria of agricultural importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhizosphere is the soil–plant root interphase and in practice consists of the soil adhering to the root besides the loose\\u000a soil surrounding it. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are potential agents for the biological control of plant\\u000a pathogens. A biocontrol strain should be able to protect the host plant from pathogens and fulfill the requirement for strong\\u000a colonization. Numerous compounds

Olubukola Oluranti Babalola

2010-01-01

87

Spatial decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying dependences of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may strongly increase the number of people depending on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries.

Fader, Marianela; Gerten, Dieter; Krause, Michael; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang

2013-03-01

88

Geographic Variation in the Acoustic Traits of Greater Horseshoe Bats: Testing the Importance of Drift and Ecological Selection in Evolutionary Processes  

PubMed Central

Patterns of intraspecific geographic variation of signaling systems provide insight into the microevolutionary processes driving phenotypic divergence. The acoustic calls of bats are sensitive to diverse evolutionary forces, but processes that shape call variation are largely unexplored. In China, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum displays a diverse call frequency and inhabits a heterogeneous landscape, presenting an excellent opportunity for this kind of research. We quantified geographic variation in resting frequency (RF) of echolocation calls, estimated genetic structure and phylogeny of R. ferrumequinum populations, and combined this with climatic factors to test three hypotheses to explain acoustic variation: genetic drift, cultural drift, and local adaptation. Our results demonstrated significant regional divergence in frequency and phylogeny among the bat populations in China's northeast (NE), central-east (CE) and southwest (SW) regions. The CE region had higher frequencies than the NE and SW regions. Drivers of RF divergence were estimated in the entire range and just the CE/NE region (since these two regions form a clade). In both cases, RF divergence was not correlated with mtDNA or nDNA genetic distance, but was significantly correlated with geographic distance and mean annual temperature, indicating cultural drift and ecological selection pressures are likely important in shaping RF divergence among different regions in China. PMID:23950926

Sun, Keping; Luo, Li; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Wei, Xuewen; Jin, Longru; Jiang, Tinglei; Li, Guohong; Feng, Jiang

2013-01-01

89

Biotechnology and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

Kenney, Martin

90

Effects of mowing cessation and hydrology on plant trait distribution in natural fen meadows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional grasslands are often of high conservation value, but depend on non-intensive management like mowing for their preservation. During the 20th century, traditional agricultural usage was either heavily intensified or abandoned due to socio-economic reasons. In Eastern Europe, land abandonment mainly took place in regions with qualitatively bad soils. This large scale land use change lead to secondary succession. In fens and fen meadows, this may lead to a decrease in species richness and a replacement of specialist species by more generalist ones. The main objective of the present study is to examine if and how mowing cessation interacts with hydrology in determining species and trait distribution in a fen meadow. In the Upper Course of the Biebrza National Park, Poland, we selected 15 sites along four transects, with plots in mown and abandoned parcels. In these plots we measured plant abundance, aboveground biomass and relative light intensity, while plant traits were selected from different trait databases. The relationship between these plot characteristics and the different traits was assessed using concordance analysis. Mowing cessation resulted in reduced moss cover and light availability, while vegetation height increased and higher litter deposition and tussock development were observed. This altered environment not only resulted in decreased species richness and evenness in abandoned plots but also caused shifts in plant trait distribution. Most of the significantly linked traits responded more strongly to mowing cessation than to the hydrologic gradient. Traits related to light competition, such as light requirements, plant height and shoot growth form, especially responded to mowing cessation. This stresses the importance of light competition as a major factor determining species and trait distribution in fen systems.

Opdekamp, W.; Beauchard, O.; Backx, H.; Franken, F.; Cox, T. J. S.; van Diggelen, R.; Meire, P.

2012-02-01

91

Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

92

Introduction Agriculture/Agricultural Science  

E-print Network

38 Introduction Guide Entrance Life Career Inquiries Agriculture/Agricultural Science Mission and goal of the Graduate School of Agricultural Science The mission of agricultural science organization which aims to realize this agricultural ideal, the Graduate School of Agricultural Science's basic

Banbara, Mutsunori

93

PRESENT FRAMEWORK OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international agricultural insurance market has an important dimension. The experience of economically developed countries revealed the fact that without a stable development of agricultural insurances, there is no chance for high performance agriculture. This will require the establishment of a framework for responding to severe systemic events affecting agricultural production, and establishing an appropriate regulatory environment to foster private

Narcis Eduard Mitu

2007-01-01

94

Generality of Leaf Trait Relationships: A Test across Six Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here we address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity,

Peter B. Reich; David S. Ellsworth; Michael B. Walters; James M. Vose; Charles Gresham; John C. Volin; William D. Bowman

1999-01-01

95

Saskatchewan Agricultural  

E-print Network

Saskatchewan Agricultural Hall of Fame College of Agriculture and Bioresources Inductees 2014 Edition #12;"SALUTE TO SASKATCHEWAN FARM LEADERS" Photos courtesy of the Saskatchewan Agriculture Hall Williams 1941- Lorne Alan Babiuk 1946- #12;"SALUTE TO SASKATCHEWAN FARM LEADERS" Photos courtesy

Peak, Derek

96

U.S. Agricultural Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This briefing room from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (reviewed in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) provides general information and data on US agricultural trade with all of the countries and regions of the world. Data publications such as the US Agricultural Trade (FATUS), Agricultural Outlook, and US Agricultural Trade Balance are gathered here on a monthly or yearly basis with export and import values by commodity and country. Users will also find FATUS reference tools as well as special ERS articles covering topics such as agricultural export figures by state and the US agricultural trade's effect on the overall economy.

1999-01-01

97

Evolution of the teachings of chemistry in the new degrees of School of Agricultural Engineering and its importance in the acquisition of competencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The academic year 2012-13 is the third year of implementation of the Bologna process in ETSI Agricultural for the subjects Chemistry I and Chemistry II in the new four Degrees: Graduate in Engineering and Agricultural Science, Food Engineering Graduate, Graduate in Engineering Environmental and Biotechnology graduate. We have implemented new interactive methodologies in the teaching-learning process based on the use of the virtual platform of the UPM, and teaching support materials and new laboratory practice developing has. It has also launched new continuous assessment systems that promote active student participation. A comparative study of academic achievements by students of the new grades in the subjects of chemistry during the last three academic years was performed to correlating the results obtained, the success rate and the drop out, and compare with the level of prior knowledge to those entering students. Possible solutions to try and fix these results in future courses are proposed Finally, the general competencies that contribute this course, how they are acquired and how they should be evaluated correctly are indicated. Acknowledgments: Innovation educative projects Nº IE02054-11/12 UPM. 2012

Arce, Augusto; Tarquis, Ana M.; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Requejo, Maria Isabel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

2014-05-01

98

Agricultural Roots in the Biological Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A wide variety of careers related to agriculture and based on studies of the biological sciences are discussed. The importance of agriculture in our society as well as the educational means to an agricultural career are outlined. (MDR)

Laughlin, Charles W.; And Others

1978-01-01

99

A functional trait perspective on plant invasion  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

2012-01-01

100

Agriculture in the Midwest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

101

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

102

AGRICULTURAL SPRING 2005  

E-print Network

. The MSU Plant Transformation Center (PTC), one of nine such centers around the country, is helping to ease to insert the genes into economically important agricultural crop plants. The history of Michigan StateMICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION SPRING 2005 VOL. 23 NO. 1 Plant Breeding and Genetics

103

FishTraits Database  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

2009-01-01

104

Broad and Narrow Personality Traits in Relation to the Job Performance of Camp Counselors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined personality traits important for the job performance of summer camp counselors, including several of the Big Five and narrow personality traits. Performance was based on two composite scales: social performance and task performance. The personality traits of work drive, extraversion, nurturance, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly related to the social performance measure, and the traits of customer service

James M. Loveland; Lucy W. Gibson; John W. Lounsbury; Beverly C. Huffstetler

2005-01-01

105

Species traits and environmental constraints: entomological research and the history of ecological theory.  

PubMed

The role that entomology has played in the historical (1800s-1970s) development of ecological theories that match species traits with environmental constraints is reviewed along three lineages originating from the ideas of a minister (Malthus TR. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: Johnson) and a chemist (Liebig J. 1840. Die Organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie. Braunschweig: Vieweg). Major developments in lineage 1 focus on habitat as a filter for species traits, succession, nonequilibrium and equilibrium conditions, and generalizations about the correlation of traits to environmental constraints. In lineage 2, we trace the evolution of the niche concept and focus on ecophysiological traits, biotic interactions, and environmental conditions. Finally, we describe the conceptual route from early demographic studies of human and animal populations to the r-K concept in lineage 3. In the 1970s, the entomologist Southwood merged these three lineages into the "habitat templet concept" (Southwood TRE. 1977. J. Anim. Ecol. 46:337-65), which has stimulated much subsequent research in entomology and general ecology. We conclude that insects have been a far more important resource for the development of ecological theory than previously acknowledged. PMID:11112171

Statzner, B; Hildrew, A G; Resh, V H

2001-01-01

106

Genome-enabled predictions for binomial traits in sugar beet populations  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic information can be used to predict not only continuous but also categorical (e.g. binomial) traits. Several traits of interest in human medicine and agriculture present a discrete distribution of phenotypes (e.g. disease status). Root vigor in sugar beet (B. vulgaris) is an example of binomial trait of agronomic importance. In this paper, a panel of 192 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used to genotype 124 sugar beet individual plants from 18 lines, and to classify them as showing “high” or “low” root vigor. Results A threshold model was used to fit the relationship between binomial root vigor and SNP genotypes, through the matrix of genomic relationships between individuals in a genomic BLUP (G-BLUP) approach. From a 5-fold cross-validation scheme, 500 testing subsets were generated. The estimated average cross-validation error rate was 0.000731 (0.073%). Only 9 out of 12326 test observations (500 replicates for an average test set size of 24.65) were misclassified. Conclusions The estimated prediction accuracy was quite high. Such accurate predictions may be related to the high estimated heritability for root vigor (0.783) and to the few genes with large effect underlying the trait. Despite the sparse SNP panel, there was sufficient within-scaffold LD where SNPs with large effect on root vigor were located to allow for genome-enabled predictions to work. PMID:25053450

2014-01-01

107

cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status.  

E-print Network

What is sickle cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status. Engage in a slow and gradual experiencing unusual physical distress. People at high risk for having sickle cell trait are those whose countries. sickle cell trait is not a disease. Sickle cell trait is the inheritance of one gene for sickle

Devoto, Stephen H.

108

Going underground: root traits as drivers of ecosystem processes.  

PubMed

Ecologists are increasingly adopting trait-based approaches to understand how community change influences ecosystem processes. However, most of this research has focussed on aboveground plant traits, whereas it is becoming clear that root traits are important drivers of many ecosystem processes, such as carbon (C) and nutrient cycling, and the formation and structural stability of soil. Here, we synthesise emerging evidence that illustrates how root traits impact ecosystem processes, and propose a pathway to unravel the complex roles of root traits in driving ecosystem processes and their response to global change. Finally, we identify research challenges and novel technologies to address them. PMID:25459399

Bardgett, Richard D; Mommer, Liesje; De Vries, Franciska T

2014-12-01

109

The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no- till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage, considered synonymous in this paper, play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice

Peter R. Hobbs; Ken Sayre; Raj Gupta

2008-01-01

110

Market distortions and technological progress in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that price policies have contributed to low rates of productivity growth in agriculture, but there has been little progress to date in work on the relationship between price distortions and agricultural productivity or agricultural research. Given the importance of technological change in agriculture, it is important to know whether price policies impede investments in R&D and

J. M. Alston; P. G. Pardey

1993-01-01

111

Selection and evolution of causally covarying traits.  

PubMed

When traits cause variation in fitness, the distribution of phenotype, weighted by fitness, necessarily changes. The degree to which traits cause fitness variation is therefore of central importance to evolutionary biology. Multivariate selection gradients are the main quantity used to describe components of trait-fitness covariation, but they quantify the direct effects of traits on (relative) fitness, which are not necessarily the total effects of traits on fitness. Despite considerable use in evolutionary ecology, path analytic characterizations of the total effects of traits on fitness have not been formally incorporated into quantitative genetic theory. By formally defining "extended" selection gradients, which are the total effects of traits on fitness, as opposed to the existing definition of selection gradients, a more intuitive scheme for characterizing selection is obtained. Extended selection gradients are distinct quantities, differing from the standard definition of selection gradients not only in the statistical means by which they may be assessed and the assumptions required for their estimation from observational data, but also in their fundamental biological meaning. Like direct selection gradients, extended selection gradients can be combined with genetic inference of multivariate phenotypic variation to provide quantitative prediction of microevolutionary trajectories. PMID:24611949

Morrissey, Michael B

2014-06-01

112

The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological factors (e.g. the plant growth) or the economical factors as a simple monetary calculation, but also their mutual influences. Finally, the ecological-economic model enables us to make a risk assessment or evaluate adaptation strategies.

Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

2014-05-01

113

Agricultural Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

114

Session introduction: characterizing the importance of environmental exposures, interactions between the environment and genetic architecture, and genetic interactions: new methods for understanding the etiology of complex traits and disease.  

PubMed

While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) [1] have identified the genetic underpinning of a number of complex traits, large portions of the heritability of common, complex diseases are still unknown [2-6]. Beyond the association between genetic variation and outcomes, the impact of environment exposure, as well as gene-gene (G×G) and gene-environment (G×E) interactions, are undoubtedly fundamental mechanisms involved in the development of complex traits. Novel methods tailored to detect these predictors have the potential to (1) reveal the impact of multiple variations in biological pathways and (2) identify genes that are only associated with a particular disease in the presence of a given environmental exposure (e.g. smoking). Such knowledge could be used to assess personal risk and to choose suitable medical interventions, based on an individual's genotype and environmental exposures. Further, a more complete picture of the genetic and environmental aspects that impact complex disease can be used to inform environmental regulations to protect vulnerable populations… PMID:25592577

Hall, Molly A; Verma, Shefali Setia; Wall, Dennis P; Moore, Jason H; Keating, Brendan; Campbell, Daniel B; Gibson, Gregory; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Pendergrass, Sarah

2015-01-01

115

Personality traits and personal values: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Personality traits and personal values are important psychological characteristics, serving as important predictors of many outcomes. Yet, they are frequently studied separately, leaving the field with a limited understanding of their relationships. We review existing perspectives regarding the nature of the relationships between traits and values and provide a conceptual underpinning for understanding the strength of these relationships. Using 60 studies, we present a meta-analysis of the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and the Schwartz values, and demonstrate consistent and theoretically meaningful relationships. However, these relationships were not generally large, demonstrating that traits and values are distinct constructs. We find support for our premise that more cognitively based traits are more strongly related to values and more emotionally based traits are less strongly related to values. Findings also suggest that controlling for personal scale-use tendencies in values is advisable. PMID:24963077

Parks-Leduc, Laura; Feldman, Gilad; Bardi, Anat

2015-02-01

116

High-Tech Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, created by ATETV and presented by WGBH, takes a look at agricultural technology as a career choice. This video provides a basic overview of the field and its growing importance. In the video, several students give their opinions of an agricultural technology program, and instructors discuss how they feel the field will only grow in the future. This video is helpful for anyone looking to get into a more technical area of agriculture. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 2:46.

117

Assessing the Importance of Incorporating Spatial and Temporal Variability of Soil and Plant Parameters into Local Water Balance Models for Precision Agriculture: Investigations within a California Vineyard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due Due to the high cash crop nature of premium winegrapes, recent research has focused on developing a better understanding of the factors that influence winegrape spatial and temporal variability. Precision grapevine irrigation schemes require consideration of the factors that regulate vineyard water use such as (1) plant parameters, (2) climatic conditions, and (3) water availability in the soil as a function of soil texture. The inability to sample soil and plant parameters accurately, at a dense enough resolution, and over large enough areas has limited previous investigations focused on understanding the influences of soil water and vegetation on water balance at the local field scale. We have acquired several novel field data sets to describe the small scale (decimeters to a hundred meters) spatial variability of soil and plant parameters within a 4 acre field study site at the Robert Mondavi Winery in Napa County, California. At this site, we investigated the potential of ground penetrating radar data (GPR) for providing estimates of near surface water content. Calibration of grids of 900 MHz GPR groundwave data with conventional soil moisture measurements revealed that the GPR volumetric water content estimation approach was valid to within 1 percent accuracy, and that the data grids provided unparalleled density of soil water content over the field site as a function of season. High-resolution airborne multispectral remote sensing data was also collected at the study site, which was converted to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and correlated to leaf area index (LAI) using plant-based measurements within a parallel study. Meteorological information was available from a weather station of the California Irrigation management Information System, located less than a mile from our study area. The measurements were used within a 2-D Vineyard Soil Irrigation Model (VSIM), which can incorporate the spatially variable, high-resolution soil and plant-based information. VSIM, which is based on the concept that equilibrium exists between climate, soils, and LAI, was used to simulate vine water stress, water use, and irrigation requirements during a single year for the site. Using the simple water-balance model with the dense characterization data, we will discuss: (1) the ability to predict vineyard soil water content at the small scales of soil heterogeneity that are observed in nature at the local-scale, (2) the relative importance of plant, climate, and soil information to predictions of the soil water balance at the site, (3) the influence of crop cover in the water balance predictions.

Hubbard, S.; Pierce, L.; Grote, K.; Rubin, Y.

2003-12-01

118

Trait Attribution to a Described Action as a Function of Changes in Salient Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a preliminary attempt to examine the nature of statements expressing traits as qualities of actions. It investigates the relative importance of five different variables in determining the trait attribution made to a described act. (Author)

Marston, Barbara J.

1976-01-01

119

SOURCE OF TRAIT DETERIORATION IN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES HETERORHABDITIS BACTERIOPHORA AND STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE DURING IN VIVO CULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The stability of traits important for biological control was studied in the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae. Five isolines of each species were subcultured for 20 passages in Galleria mellonella larvae to assess trait stability. Subculturing imp...

120

Developing Leadership Traits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines six leadership traits that are necessary to and fostered by editing a college newspaper: delegating authority, developing subordinates, motivating others, being approachable, commanding respect, and bringing out optimum performances in others. (TJ)

Hall, Susan King

1980-01-01

121

7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain Perishable Products Imported From Israel...that the perishable product(s) which is...

2014-01-01

122

7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain Perishable Products Imported From Israel...that the perishable product(s) which is...

2011-01-01

123

7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain Perishable Products Imported From Israel...that the perishable product(s) which is...

2012-01-01

124

7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain Perishable Products Imported From Israel...that the perishable product(s) which is...

2013-01-01

125

7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain Perishable Products Imported From Israel...that the perishable product(s) which is...

2010-01-01

126

Importance of rhizobia in Agriculture: potential of the commercial inoculants and native strains for improving legume yields in different land-use systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legumes play an important role in the traditional diets of many regions throughout the world because they provide a multitude of benefits to both the soil and other crops grown in combination with them or following them in several cropping systems. The ability of legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen in association with rhizobia gives them the capacity to grow in very degraded soils. But do we have to systematically inoculate legumes? For example our results suggested that the systematic inoculation of both cowpea and green gram in Kenya with commercial inoculants to improve yields is not really justified, native strains performing better than inoculated strains. But when native rhizobia nodulating legumes are not naturally present, application of rhizobial inoculants is very commonly used. Our results showed that the utilization of effective good-quality rhizobial inoculants by farmers have a real potential to improve legume yields in unfertile soils requesting high applications of mineral fertilizers. For example an effective soybean commercial inoculants was tested in different locations in Kenya (in about 150 farms in 3 mandate areas presenting different soil characteristics and environmental conditions). Application of the rhizobial inoculant significantly increased the soybean yields in all mandate areas (about 75% of the farms). Nodule occupancy analysis showed that a high number of nodules occupied by the inoculated strain did not obviously lead to an increase of soybean production. Soil factors (pH, P, C, N…) seemed to affect the inoculant efficiency whether the strain is occupying the nodules or not. Our statistic analysis showed that soil pH significantly affected nodulation and yield, though the effect was variable depending on the region. We concluded that the competitiveness of rhizobial strains might not be the main factor explaining the effect (or lack of) of legumes inoculation in the field. Another study was aiming to assess if several factors such as cropping systems, N fertilization and application of crop residues affect the genetic diversity of native strains of rhizobia nodulating soybean in Kenya without any inoculation. Results showed that nodulation was not significantly affected by the different factors except N fertilization, regardless the season. Nodule occupancy revealed only 3 main profiles representing 93.6% and 92.5% of all the RFLP profiles obtained from 2008 and 2009 nodules respectively. This suggested a low diversity of native rhizobial strains capable to nodulate the promiscuous variety. The cropping system, Nitrogen and Residue applications didn't increase the diversity of the rhizobia but results indicated an effect on the distribution of the 3 profiles within the nodules of the plants. Within same treatments, significant differences were found between the two seasons in term of strains occupying the nodules. It could be explained by the shorter rainfall received in 2008 compared to 2009. Results suggest that cropping systems and both N and crop residues applications affect more specifically plant growth and grain yields than the diversity of the native rhizobia nodulating promiscuous soybean variety. Our work shows how diverse are the factors influencing the success of the field rhizobial inoculation of legumes.

Lesueur, D.; Atieno, M.; Mathu, S.; Herrmann, L.

2012-04-01

127

Association mapping for morphological and physiological traits in Populus simonii  

PubMed Central

Background To optimize marker-assisted selection programs, knowledge of the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits is very important for breeders. Generally, most phenotypes, e.g. morphological and physiological traits, are quantitatively inherited, and thus detection of the genes underlying variation for these traits is difficult. Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium has recently become a powerful approach to map genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) in plants. Results In this study, association analysis using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was performed to detect the marker loci linked to 13 morphological traits and 10 physiological traits in a wild P. simonii population that consisted of 528 individuals sampled from 16 sites along the Yellow River in China. Based on a model controlling for both population structure (Q) and relative kinship (K), three SSR markers (GCPM_616-1 in 31.2 Mb on LG I, GCPM_4055-2 in 5.7 Mb on LG XV, and GCPM_3142 of unknown location) were identified for seven traits. GCPM_616-1 was associated with five morphological traits (R2 = 5.14-10.09%), whereas GCPM_3142 (15.03%) and GCPM_4055-2 (13.26%) were associated with one morphological trait and one physiological trait, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that this wild population is suitable for association mapping and the identified markers will be suitable for marker-assisted selection breeding or detection of target genes or QTL in the near future. PMID:25079290

2014-01-01

128

Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change  

PubMed Central

Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority.

Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

2012-01-01

129

Quantitative trait locus analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus.  

PubMed

The first quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus was performed with a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129. Thirteen agronomic traits were evaluated in 2004 and 2005: traits of vegetative parts (plant height, stem thickness, leaf length, leaf width, plant regrowth, plant shape, and stem color), flowering traits (flowering time and degree), and pod and seed traits (pod length, pod width, seeds per pod, and seed mass). A total of 40 QTLs were detected that explained 5%-69% of total variation. The QTL that explained the most variation was that for stem color, which was detected in the same region of chromosome 2 in both years. Some QTLs were colocated, especially those for pod and seed traits. Seed mass QTLs were located at 5 locations that mapped to the corresponding genomic positions of equivalent QTLs in soybean, pea, chickpea, and mung bean. This study provides fundamental information for breeding of agronomically important legume crops. PMID:17893740

Gondo, Takahiro; Sato, Shusei; Okumura, Kenji; Tabata, Satoshi; Akashi, Ryo; Isobe, Sachiko

2007-07-01

130

Rational association of genes with traits using a genome-scale gene network for Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Plants are essential sources of food, fiber and renewable energy. Effective methods for manipulating plant traits have important agricultural and economic consequences. We introduce a rational approach for associating genes with plant traits by combined use of a genome-scale functional network and targeted reverse genetic screening. We present a probabilistic network (AraNet) of functional associations among 19,647 (73%) genes of the reference flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. AraNet associations have measured precision greater than literature-based protein interactions (21%) for 55% of genes, and are highly predictive for diverse biological pathways. Using AraNet, we found a 10-fold enrichment in identifying early seedling development genes. By interrogating network neighborhoods, we identify At1g80710 (now Drought sensitive 1; Drs1) and At3g05090 (now Lateral root stimulator 1; Lrs1) as novel regulators of drought sensitivity and lateral root development, respectively. AraNet (http://www.functionalnet.org/aranet/) provides a global resource for plant gene function identification and genetic dissection of plant traits. PMID:20118918

Lee, Insuk; Ambaru, Bindu; Thakkar, Pranjali; Marcotte, Edward M.; Rhee, Seung Y.

2010-01-01

131

Environmental heterogeneity and spatiotemporal variability in plant defense traits  

E-print Network

452 Environmental heterogeneity and spatiotemporal variability in plant defense traits Alyssa S of plant defenses. If environmental heterogeneity is an important mechanism influ- encing plant defense in our system. This study highlights the context dependence of plant defense trait levels, which may

Cronin, James T.

132

Multifunctional crop trait ontology for breeders' data: field book, annotation, data discovery and semantic enrichment of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Agricultural crop databases maintained in gene banks of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) are valuable sources of information for breeders. These databases provide comparative phenotypic and genotypic information that can help elucidate functional aspects of plant and agricultural biology. To facilitate data sharing within and between these databases and the retrieval of information, the crop ontology (CO) database was designed to provide controlled vocabulary sets for several economically important plant species. Methodology Existing public ontologies and equivalent catalogues of concepts covering the range of crop science information and descriptors for crops and crop-related traits were collected from breeders, physiologists, agronomists, and researchers in the CGIAR consortium. For each crop, relationships between terms were identified and crop-specific trait ontologies were constructed following the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) format standard using the OBO-Edit tool. All terms within an ontology were assigned a globally unique CO term identifier. Principal results The CO currently comprises crop-specific traits for chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), potato (Solanum tuberosum), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum spp.) and wheat (Triticum spp.). Several plant-structure and anatomy-related terms for banana (Musa spp.), wheat and maize are also included. In addition, multi-crop passport terms are included as controlled vocabularies for sharing information on germplasm. Two web-based online resources were built to make these COs available to the scientific community: the ‘CO Lookup Service’ for browsing the CO; and the ‘Crops Terminizer’, an ontology text mark-up tool. Conclusions The controlled vocabularies of the CO are being used to curate several CGIAR centres' agronomic databases. The use of ontology terms to describe agronomic phenotypes and the accurate mapping of these descriptions into databases will be important steps in comparative phenotypic and genotypic studies across species and gene-discovery experiments. PMID:22476066

Shrestha, Rosemary; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Mauleon, Ramil; Senger, Martin; Davenport, Guy F.; Hancock, David; Morrison, Norman; Bruskiewich, Richard; McLaren, Graham

2010-01-01

133

Cold-Tolerant Agriculturally Important Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cold-tolerant microorganisms are endowed with the ability to grow at 0°C, though their growth optima lie in the mesophilic\\u000a range. To overcome the stress induced by low temperatures they have evolved a variety of adaptive responses at the cellular\\u000a and molecular levels. Multiple cell membrane modifications ensure that solute transport is not impaired at low temperatures.\\u000a Other mechanisms include the

Pankaj Kumar Mishra; Piyush Joshi; Shekhar Bisht; Jaideep Bisht; Govindan Selvakumar

134

Field Guide to of Agricultural Importance in  

E-print Network

Jeremy Greene, Clemson University.......... 8, 10, 31, 32, 63, 84, 87 Joyce Gross, 70 David R. Lance, USDA, APHIS PPQ, www.insectimages.org...... 26, 97 Deepak Matadha, 88 David Owens, Virginia Tech................................................1, 2, 48, 74 Herb

Liskiewicz, Maciej

135

Dispersal strategies of phytophagous insects at a local scale: adaptive potential of aphids in an agricultural environment  

PubMed Central

Background The spread of agriculture greatly modified the selective pressures exerted by plants on phytophagous insects, by providing these insects with a high-level resource, structured in time and space. The life history, behavioural and physiological traits of some insect species may have evolved in response to these changes, allowing them to crowd on crops and to become agricultural pests. Dispersal, which is one of these traits, is a key concept in evolutionary biology but has been over-simplified in most theoretical studies. We evaluated the impact of the local-scale dispersal strategy of phytophagous insects on their fitness, using an individual-based model to simulate population dynamics and dispersal between leaves and plants, by walking and flying, of the aphid Aphis gossypii, a major agricultural pest, in a melon field. We compared the optimal values for dispersal parameters in the model with the corresponding observed values in experimental trials. Results We show that the rates of walking and flying disperser production on leaves were the most important traits determining the fitness criteria, whereas dispersal distance and the clustering of flying dispersers on the target plant had no effect. We further show that the effect of dispersal parameters on aphid fitness depended strongly on plant characteristics. Conclusion Parameters defining the dispersal strategies of aphids at a local scale are key components of the fitness of these insects and may thus be essential in the adaptation to agricultural environments that are structured in space and time. Moreover, the fact that the effect of dispersal parameters on aphid fitness depends strongly on plant characteristics suggests that traits defining aphid dispersal strategies may be a cornerstone of host-plant specialization. PMID:17014710

Lombaert, Eric; Boll, Roger; Lapchin, Laurent

2006-01-01

136

Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits  

SciTech Connect

Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

1993-11-01

137

Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

138

A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this genetics activity, learners create and decode a âDNA recipeâ for a dog by randomly selecting strips of paper that represent DNA. Then, learners decode the DNA recipe to reveal the physical traits of their dog and create a final drawing of the organism. Learners discover that differences in the DNA recipe lead to different traits by comparing their DNA recipes and dog drawings with the rest of the group to note similarities and differences. This guide features handouts for learners in English and Spanish.

Malone, Molly; Mitchell, April; Kiger, Steven

2006-01-01

139

Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traits of Life, a new collection of exhibits and demonstrations at San Francisco's Exploratorium, offers a fascinating look at the "fundamental elements common to all living things." Culminating from 3 years of research and development, the Traits of Life collection follows four themes: cells and DNA; reproduction; evolution; and energy consumption. This companion Web site offers cool interactive features for each theme, as well as articles, movies, interviews with experts, and more. Overall, this well-designed site offers a engaging way to "see past the diversity of living things to the underlying unity connecting us all."

140

Agricultural Trade and the U.S. Economy  

E-print Network

As U.S. government support to agriculture declines, understanding the economic impacts of agricultural trade and how markets and competition are affected will take on added importance for farmers, agribusinesses, policy makers, and agricultural...

McCorkle, Dean; Taylor, Timothy G.; Fairchild, Gary F.; Harris, Harold M.; Rosson, C. Parr

1999-06-23

141

Evaluating the fitness of human lysozyme transgenic dairy goats: growth and reproductive traits.  

PubMed

While there are many reports in the literature describing the attributes of specific applications of transgenic animals for agriculture, there are relatively few studies focusing on the fitness of the transgenic animals themselves. This work was designed to gather information on genetically modified food animals to determine if the presence of a transgene can impact general animal production traits. More specifically, we used a line of transgenic dairy goats expressing human lysozyme in their mammary gland to evaluate the reproductive fitness and growth and development of these animals compared to their non-transgenic counterparts and the impact of consuming a transgenic food product, lysozyme-containing milk. In males, none of the parameters of semen quality, including semen volume and concentration, total sperm per ejaculate, sperm morphology, viability and motility, were significantly different between transgenic bucks and non-transgenic full-sib controls. Likewise, transgenic females of this line did not significantly differ in the reproductive traits of gestation length and litter size compared to their non-transgenic counterparts. To evaluate growth, transgenic and non-transgenic kid goats received colostrum and milk from either transgenic or non-transgenic does from birth until weaning. Neither the presence of the transgene nor the consumption of milk from transgenic animals significantly affected birth weight, weaning weight, overall gain and post-wean gain. These results indicate that the analyzed reproductive and growth traits were not regularly or substantially impacted by the presence or expression of the transgene. The evaluation of these general parameters is an important aspect of defining the safety of applying transgenic technology to animal agriculture. PMID:20135222

Jackson, Kathryn A; Berg, Jolene M; Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

2010-12-01

142

Agricultural Geophysics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

143

Agricultural Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... on injuries associated with agriculture, as well as pesticide exposure, pulmonary disease, musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, and stress. ... Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & ... Injury Surveillance NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z ...

144

AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY  

E-print Network

) (ms I) (ms J) Corn 2.8 3.0 2.09 0.60 0.20 crop Deciduous 23.0 5.5 0.90 0.42 0.15 forest Coniferous 16AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY ELSEVIER Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 68 (1994)201 212 Modelling the effect of mean pressure gradient on the mean flow within forests Xuhui Lee *'a, Roger H. Shaw

Lee, Xuhui

145

Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality…

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

2013-01-01

146

Direct and maternal genetic effects for ascites-related traits in broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities for ascites-related traits in broilers and to assess the importance of maternal genetic effects for these traits. Several traits related to ascites were measured on more than 4,000 broilers kept under cold conditions. Heritabilities were estimated using an animal model with a direct genetic effect and a model with direct

A. Pakdel; Arendonk van J. A. M; A. L. J. Vereijken; H. Bovenhuis

2002-01-01

147

Agricultural Market Access Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in early 1999, the Agricultural Market Access Database (AMAD) is a joint effort by Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, EU Commission - Agriculture Directorate-General, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, The World Bank, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and United States Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service. AMAD was created in order to "provide a common data set on tariffs, TRQs and imports, as well as the tools for researchers, policymakers, and others to use in analyzing levels of tariff protection in agriculture among WTO Members." Users begin by selecting a region on a map; from there they can narrow their search by country, and the database will generate a data set on that country. AMAD also provides a 30-page User's Guide which helps explain the purpose and uses of the database, as well as helping to decipher some of the information contained in AMAD. At present, not all countries worldwide can be accessed through this database. AMAD, however, promises to continue to expand.

148

The Evaluation of Agriculture Products Wholesale Market Modernization Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture products wholesale market is an important part in agriculture circulation system. It plays a significant role in improving agriculture circulation efficiency, developing China's rural economy and promoting the process of agricultural modernization. Agricultural products wholesale market, with diversified circulation main bodies, linked urban and rural, agriculture and commerce, domestic and foreign trade together effectively, in the central of agricultural

Libing Tang; Ping Zhang

2011-01-01

149

7 CFR 1230.609 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures...Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2012-01-01

150

7 CFR 1230.609 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures...Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2013-01-01

151

7 CFR 1230.609 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures...Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2010-01-01

152

7 CFR 1230.609 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures...Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2011-01-01

153

7 CFR 1230.609 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures...Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2014-01-01

154

Identification of trait-improving quantitative trait loci alleles from a wild rice relative, Oryza rufipogon.  

PubMed Central

Wild species are valued as a unique source of genetic variation, but they have rarely been used for the genetic improvement of quantitative traits. To identify trait-improving quantitative trait loci (QTL) alleles from exotic species, an accession of Oryza rufipogon, a relative of cultivated rice, was chosen on the basis of a genetic diversity study. An interspecific BC2 testcross population (V20A/O. rufipogon//V20B///V20B////Ce64) consisting of 300 families was evaluated for 12 agronomically important quantitative traits. The O. rufipogon accession was phenotypically inferior for all 12 traits. However, transgressive segregants that outperformed the original elite hybrid variety, V20A/Ce64, were observed for all traits examined. A set of 122 RFLP and microsatellite markers was used to identify QTL. A total of 68 significant QTL were identified, and of these, 35 (51%) had beneficial alleles derived from the phenotypically inferior O. rufipogon parent. Nineteen (54%) of these beneficial QTL alleles were free of deleterious effects on other characters. O. rufipogon alleles at two QTL on chromosomes 1 and 2 were associated with an 18 and 17% increase in grain yield per plant, respectively, without delaying maturity or increasing plant height. This discovery suggests that the innovative use of molecular maps and markers can alter the way geneticists utilize wild and exotic germplasm. PMID:9755218

Xiao, J; Li, J; Grandillo, S; Ahn, S N; Yuan, L; Tanksley, S D; McCouch, S R

1998-01-01

155

Changes in stomatal traits and the covariation with other leaf traits along an altitude transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomatal traits and their responses to the external environment have been intensively studied for individual plant species. However, little is known about general stomatal patterns along environmental gradients in a broad, interspecific context or about the relationship between stomatal traits and other leaf traits. Here, we measured the stomatal and leaf traits, including stomatal density (SD), stomatal length (SL), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf area (LA), leaf thickness (LT) and nitrogen concentration (mass- and area- base, Nmass and Narea) of 158 plant species along an altitudinal gradient on Changbai Mountain, China. Our results revealed that SD decreased and SL increased significantly with altitude for tree species, although no clear elevational trends were observed in SD and SL across species (including tree, shrub, and herbaceous plants). Plant growth forms (PGFs) were the most important driver of variation in SD and SL, and the contributions of the mean annual temperature, precipitation and soil water content were weak. In addition, a covarying relationship between stomatal and other leaf traits was observed, although this relationship changed with elevation. These findings reflect that the adaptive strategies of plant ecophysiological traits may be complex for alpine environmental gradients, combining the short-term plasticity to environmental changes and long-term convergent evolution.

Wang, Ruili; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Ge, Jianping; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Zhiwei

2014-05-01

156

Quantitative Genetic Mapping of Life History Traits in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

uses the elite model system Drosophila melanogaster to perform quantitative genetic mapping on two important life history traits: the morphology of the posterior lobe of the genital arch and the length of time flies resist death due to starvation stress...

McNeil, Casey Lee

2012-08-31

157

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

158

Agricultural Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the Agricultural Outlook publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Agricultural Outlook, the monthly short and long term commodity outlook publication, long available via the USDA Economics and Statistics system at Cornell University's Mann Library, (discussed in the September 15, 1995 issue of the Scout Report) is now available with graphics and charts. Selected archives of the publication are available and articles can be downloaded individually. About the only drawback to this terrific addition to ERS's electronic holdings is that the separate statistical section that accompanies AO (over 20 pages of tables), is not available at this time. This is particularly unfortunate, as these tables are one of the most valuable aspects of the publication.

1996-01-01

159

Genetics of Complex Traits in Psychiatry.  

PubMed

Virtually all psychiatric traits are genetically complex. This article discusses the genetics of complex traits in psychiatry. The complexity is accounted for by numerous factors, including multiple risk alleles, epistasis, and epigenetic effects such as methylation. Risk alleles can individually be common or rare, and can include, for example, single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants that are transmitted or are new mutations, and other kinds of variation. Many different kinds of variation can be important for trait risk, either together in various proportions or as different factors in different subjects. Until more recently, approaches to complex traits were limited, and consequently only a few variants, usually of individually minor effect, were identified. At the present time, a much richer armamentarium exists that includes the routine application of genome-wide association studies and next-generation high-throughput sequencing and the combination of this information with other biologically relevant information, such as expression data. We have also seen the emergence of large meta-analysis and mega-analysis consortia. These developments are extremely important for psychiatric genetics, have advanced the field substantially, and promise formidable gains in the years to come as they are applied more widely. PMID:25444161

Gelernter, Joel

2015-01-01

160

Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services. PMID:25599106

Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

2015-02-17

161

A database of life-history traits of European amphibians  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the current context of climate change and landscape fragmentation, efficient conservation strategies require the explicit consideration of life history traits. This is particularly true for amphibians, which are highly threatened worldwide, composed by more than 7400 species, which is constitute one of the most species-rich vertebrate groups. The collection of information on life history traits is difficult due to the ecology of species and remoteness of their habitats. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge is limited, and missing information on certain life history traits are common for in this species group. We compiled data on amphibian life history traits from literature in an extensive database with morphological and behavioral traits, habitat preferences and movement abilities for 86 European amphibian species (50 Anuran and 36 Urodela species). When it were available, we reported data for males, females, juveniles and tadpoles. Our database may serve as an important starting point for further analyses regarding amphibian conservation. PMID:25425939

Moulherat, Sylvain; Calvez, Olivier; Stevens, Virginie M; Clobert, Jean; Schmeller, Dirk S

2014-01-01

162

AGRICULTURAL INSURANCES - MEANS OF DEVELOPPING THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE AMONG THE E.U. COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of the developed countries has shown that it is completely delusional to try and create a modern agriculture without the powerful development of agricultural insurances. Agriculture has always been one of the most important economic branches in Romania, as it has the highest value of all European countries by GDP (8-12%). This field represents an important direction in

Nan Anca; Borza Georgiana

2010-01-01

163

Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience.  

PubMed

Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g. novel association, conceptual integration and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual's trait creativity. PMID:24603022

Li, Wenfu; Li, Xueting; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Jia

2015-02-01

164

Clines in polygenic traits.  

PubMed

This article outlines theoretical models of clines in additive polygenic traits, which are maintained by stabilizing selection towards a spatially varying optimum. Clines in the trait mean can be accurately predicted, given knowledge of the genetic variance. However, predicting the variance is difficult, because it depends on genetic details. Changes in genetic variance arise from changes in allele frequency, and in linkage disequilibria. Allele frequency changes dominate when selection is weak relative to recombination, and when there are a moderate number of loci. With a continuum of alleles, gene flow inflates the genetic variance in the same way as a source of mutations of small effect. The variance can be approximated by assuming a Gaussian distribution of allelic effects; with a sufficiently steep cline, this is accurate even when mutation and selection alone are better described by the 'House of Cards' approximation. With just two alleles at each locus, the phenotype changes in a similar way: the mean remains close to the optimum, while the variance changes more slowly, and over a wider region. However, there may be substantial cryptic divergence at the underlying loci. With strong selection and many loci, linkage disequilibria are the main cause of changes in genetic variance. Even for strong selection, the infinitesimal model can be closely approximated by assuming a Gaussian distribution of breeding values. Linkage disequilibria can generate a substantial increase in genetic variance, which is concentrated at sharp gradients in trait means. PMID:10689800

Barton, N H

1999-12-01

165

Data and Theory Point to Mainly Additive Genetic Variance for Complex Traits  

PubMed Central

The relative proportion of additive and non-additive variation for complex traits is important in evolutionary biology, medicine, and agriculture. We address a long-standing controversy and paradox about the contribution of non-additive genetic variation, namely that knowledge about biological pathways and gene networks imply that epistasis is important. Yet empirical data across a range of traits and species imply that most genetic variance is additive. We evaluate the evidence from empirical studies of genetic variance components and find that additive variance typically accounts for over half, and often close to 100%, of the total genetic variance. We present new theoretical results, based upon the distribution of allele frequencies under neutral and other population genetic models, that show why this is the case even if there are non-additive effects at the level of gene action. We conclude that interactions at the level of genes are not likely to generate much interaction at the level of variance. PMID:18454194

Hill, William G.; Goddard, Michael E.; Visscher, Peter M.

2008-01-01

166

WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION - TURKISH CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the case in most developing and developed countries in the world, women play a vital role in rural areas of Turkey in contributing to agricultural activities in addition to household duties and non-agricultural activities such as industry and services. Women's role in the daily economic life in Turkey has always been very important especially in the agricultural

B. Özekici; O. Tekinel; S. Kiymaz

167

Transforming Agricultural Education for a Changing World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the next ten years, colleges of agriculture will be challenged to transform their role in higher education and their relationship to the evolving global food and agricultural enterprise. If successful, agriculture colleges will emerge as an important venue for scholars and stakeholders to address some of the most complex and urgent problems…

National Academies Press, 2009

2009-01-01

168

Improving Purchase Prices on Agricultural Output  

Microsoft Academic Search

The further improvement of purchase prices on agricultural output is one of the most important prerequisites for the successful implementation of the economic reform, strengthening the principles of cost accounting, strengthening economic incentives for raising agricultural production, and increasing its effectiveness. As we know, economically substantiated purchase prices should compensate socially necessary expenditures on the production of agricultural products and

A. Bazlova

1973-01-01

169

Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies  

PubMed Central

Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and untangle the forces driving divergence in these sexually selected traits. Using an experimental approach, we found that male size, area of orange coloration, number of sperm per ejaculate and linear sexual selection gradients for male traits differed among populations. Within populations, a large mismatch between the direction of selection and male traits suggests that constraints may be important in preventing male traits from evolving in the direction of selection. Among populations, however, variation in sexual selection explained more than half of the differences in trait variation, suggesting that, despite within-population constraints, sexual selection has contributed to population divergence of male traits. Differences in sexual traits were also associated with predation risk and neutral genetic distance. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection in trait divergence in introduced populations, despite the presence of constraining factors such as predation risk and evolutionary history. PMID:24456226

Lindholm, A K; Head, M L; Brooks, R C; Rollins, L A; Ingleby, F C; Zajitschek, S R K

2014-01-01

170

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

FARQUHAR, R.N.

171

Pennsylvania Agricultural  

E-print Network

to minimize accelerated soil loss on fields with less than 25% plant cover or crop residue and within 100 feet, and $2 Billion from crops. There are more than 63,000 farms, and 98% are family owned. Agriculture has the soil and making the most of all their natural resources. There are rules, laws and regulations

Guiltinan, Mark

172

Agricultural Bioterrorism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article warns that agricultural bioterrorism can be as devastating as other forms of terrorism because it: cripples the economy of a nation, can destroy the livelihood of many people puts food supply at risk, perhaps for a long time, and may not be detected before it reaches difficult-to-control levels.

Radford G. Davis (Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine;)

2001-10-01

173

Distinct evolutionary patterns of morphometric sperm traits in passerine birds.  

PubMed

The striking diversity of sperm shape across the animal kingdom is still poorly understood. Postcopulatory sexual selection is an important factor driving the evolution of sperm size and shape. Interestingly, morphometric sperm traits, such as the length of the head, midpiece and flagellum, exhibit a strong positive phenotypic correlation across species. Here we used recently developed comparative methods to investigate how such phenotypic correlations between morphometric sperm traits may evolve. We compare allometric relationships and evolutionary trajectories of three morphometric sperm traits (length of head, midpiece and flagellum) in passerine birds. We show that these traits exhibit strong phenotypic correlations but that allometry varies across families. In addition, the evolutionary trajectories of the midpiece and flagellum are similar while the trajectory for head length differs. We discuss our findings in the light of three scenarios accounting for correlated trait evolution: (i) genetic correlation; (ii) concerted response to selection acting simultaneously on different traits; and (iii) phenotypic correlation between traits driven by mechanistic constraints owing to selection on sperm performance. Our results suggest that concerted response to selection is the most likely explanation for the phenotypic correlation between morphometric sperm traits. PMID:22896646

Immler, Simone; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Birkhead, Tim R

2012-10-22

174

Distinct evolutionary patterns of morphometric sperm traits in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

The striking diversity of sperm shape across the animal kingdom is still poorly understood. Postcopulatory sexual selection is an important factor driving the evolution of sperm size and shape. Interestingly, morphometric sperm traits, such as the length of the head, midpiece and flagellum, exhibit a strong positive phenotypic correlation across species. Here we used recently developed comparative methods to investigate how such phenotypic correlations between morphometric sperm traits may evolve. We compare allometric relationships and evolutionary trajectories of three morphometric sperm traits (length of head, midpiece and flagellum) in passerine birds. We show that these traits exhibit strong phenotypic correlations but that allometry varies across families. In addition, the evolutionary trajectories of the midpiece and flagellum are similar while the trajectory for head length differs. We discuss our findings in the light of three scenarios accounting for correlated trait evolution: (i) genetic correlation; (ii) concerted response to selection acting simultaneously on different traits; and (iii) phenotypic correlation between traits driven by mechanistic constraints owing to selection on sperm performance. Our results suggest that concerted response to selection is the most likely explanation for the phenotypic correlation between morphometric sperm traits. PMID:22896646

Immler, Simone; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Birkhead, Tim R.

2012-01-01

175

Leaf Trait-Environment Relationships in a Subtropical Broadleaved Forest in South-East China  

PubMed Central

Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most responsive ones. PMID:22539999

Kröber, Wenzel; Böhnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

2012-01-01

176

A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting growth-related traits in an F1 family of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Body weight and length are economically important traits in foodfish species influenced by quantitative trait loci (QTL) and environmental factors. It is usually difficult to dissect the genetic and environmental effects. Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is an important marine foodfish species with a compact genome (~700 Mb). The recent construction of a first generation linkage map of Asian seabass

Chun Ming Wang; Loong Chueng Lo; Ze Yuan Zhu; Gen Hua Yue

2006-01-01

177

LINKING ROOT TRAITS TO SHOOT TRAITS AND LIFE HISTORY IN 25 TEMPERATE FOREST SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite their important role in plant carbon budgets and carbon cycling, there is little information available on fine root characteristics of woody species. Comparative approaches were used to examine the roots of 25 diverse species collected from mature forests. Nine root traits were examined that...

178

IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING PARASITE INDICATOR TRAITS IN A DOUBLE BACKCROSS POPULATION OF SHEEP.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The natural genetic variability of the ruminant immune system provides a feasible means to control gastro-intestinal (GI) parasite infection. To initiate explanation of important allelic differences, a genome-wide analysis for quantitative trait loci (QTL) was initiated in a double backcross populat...

179

Explaining Africa agricultural and food trade deficits  

E-print Network

Why has Africa become a net food importer? Explaining Africa agricultural and food trade deficits WhyhasAfricabecomeanetfoodimporter? #12;WHY HAS AFRICA BECOME A NET FOOD IMPORTER? Explaining Africa 2012 #12;ABSTRACT iii That Africa has become a net importer of food and of agricultural products

180

Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. Methods In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Key Results Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. Conclusions The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level. PMID:21795278

Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphaël; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

2011-01-01

181

Trait-Specific Responses of Wild Bee Communities to Landscape Composition, Configuration and Local Factors  

PubMed Central

Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes). Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees) were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats). Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales. PMID:25137311

Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

2014-01-01

182

Characterizing psychopathy using DSM-5 personality traits.  

PubMed

Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets. PMID:23620353

Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

2013-06-01

183

Multi-scale associations between vegetation cover and woodland bird communities across a large agricultural region.  

PubMed

Improving biodiversity conservation in fragmented agricultural landscapes has become an important global issue. Vegetation at the patch and landscape-scale is important for species occupancy and diversity, yet few previous studies have explored multi-scale associations between vegetation and community assemblages. Here, we investigated how patch and landscape-scale vegetation cover structure woodland bird communities. We asked: (1) How is the bird community associated with the vegetation structure of woodland patches and the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape? (2) Do species of conservation concern respond to woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover differently to other species in the community? And (3) Can the relationships between the bird community and the woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover be explained by the ecological traits of the species comprising the bird community? We studied 103 woodland patches (0.5 - 53.8 ha) over two time periods across a large (6,800 km(2)) agricultural region in southeastern Australia. We found that both patch vegetation and surrounding woody vegetation cover were important for structuring the bird community, and that these relationships were consistent over time. In particular, the occurrence of mistletoe within the patches and high values of woody vegetation cover within 1,000 ha and 10,000 ha were important, especially for bird species of conservation concern. We found that the majority of these species displayed similar, positive responses to patch and landscape vegetation attributes. We also found that these relationships were related to the foraging and nesting traits of the bird community. Our findings suggest that management strategies to increase both remnant vegetation quality and the cover of surrounding woody vegetation in fragmented agricultural landscapes may lead to improved conservation of bird communities. PMID:24830684

Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S; Stirnemann, Ingrid A; Stein, John R; Michael, Damian; Crane, Mason; Okada, Sachiko; Lindenmayer, David B

2014-01-01

184

Multi-Scale Associations between Vegetation Cover and Woodland Bird Communities across a Large Agricultural Region  

PubMed Central

Improving biodiversity conservation in fragmented agricultural landscapes has become an important global issue. Vegetation at the patch and landscape-scale is important for species occupancy and diversity, yet few previous studies have explored multi-scale associations between vegetation and community assemblages. Here, we investigated how patch and landscape-scale vegetation cover structure woodland bird communities. We asked: (1) How is the bird community associated with the vegetation structure of woodland patches and the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape? (2) Do species of conservation concern respond to woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover differently to other species in the community? And (3) Can the relationships between the bird community and the woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover be explained by the ecological traits of the species comprising the bird community? We studied 103 woodland patches (0.5 - 53.8 ha) over two time periods across a large (6,800 km2) agricultural region in southeastern Australia. We found that both patch vegetation and surrounding woody vegetation cover were important for structuring the bird community, and that these relationships were consistent over time. In particular, the occurrence of mistletoe within the patches and high values of woody vegetation cover within 1,000 ha and 10,000 ha were important, especially for bird species of conservation concern. We found that the majority of these species displayed similar, positive responses to patch and landscape vegetation attributes. We also found that these relationships were related to the foraging and nesting traits of the bird community. Our findings suggest that management strategies to increase both remnant vegetation quality and the cover of surrounding woody vegetation in fragmented agricultural landscapes may lead to improved conservation of bird communities. PMID:24830684

Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S.; Stirnemann, Ingrid A.; Stein, John R.; Michael, Damian; Crane, Mason; Okada, Sachiko; Lindenmayer, David B.

2014-01-01

185

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

186

Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) mapping for growth traits in the mouse: A review  

PubMed Central

The attainment of a specific mature body size is one of the most fundamental differences among species of mammals. Moreover, body size seems to be the central factor underlying differences in traits such as growth rate, energy metabolism and body composition. An important proportion of this variability is of genetic origin. The goal of the genetic analysis of animal growth is to understand its "genetic architecture", that is the number and position of loci affecting the trait, the magnitude of their effects, allele frequencies and types of gene action. In this review, the different strategies developed to identify and characterize genes involved in the regulation of growth in the mouse are described, with emphasis on the methods developed to map loci contributing to the regulation of quantitative traits (QTLs). PMID:11333830

Corva, Pablo M; Medrano, Juan F

2001-01-01

187

The convergent structure of DSM-5 personality trait facets and five-factor model trait domains.  

PubMed

The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorder Work Group have proposed diagnosing personality disorder based in part on 25 pathological traits. Initial research suggests that five factors explain the covariance among these traits and that these factors reflect the domains of the well-validated Five-Factor Model (FFM) of normative personality. This finding is important because it signifies the potential to apply normative trait research to personality disorder classification in the DSM-5. In this study, trait scale scores on the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and domain scores from the FFM Rating Form (FFMRF) were subjected to a conjoint exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to test the higher-order convergence of the DSM-5 pathological trait model and the FFM in a nonclinical sample (N = 808). Results indicate that the five higher-order factors of the conjoint EFA reflect the domains of the FFM. The authors briefly discuss implications of this correspondence between the normative FFM and the pathological PID-5. PMID:22946103

Thomas, Katherine M; Yalch, Matthew M; Krueger, Robert F; Wright, Aidan G C; Markon, Kristian E; Hopwood, Christopher J

2013-06-01

188

A Tree of Genetic Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners mark their traits for tongue rolling, PTC tasting (a harmless, bitter chemical), and earlobe attachment on tree leaf cut-outs. They then place their leaves on a large tree with branches, in which each each branch represents a different combination of traits. When completed, the tree forms a visual representation of the frequency of trait combinations within the group. Included are handouts in English and Spanish. This resource also contains information about PTC safety.

Molly Malone

2006-01-01

189

Species identity influences belowground arthropod assemblages via functional traits  

PubMed Central

Plant species influence belowground communities in a variety of ways, ultimately impacting nutrient cycling. Functional plant traits provide a means whereby species identity can influence belowground community interactions, but little work has examined whether species identity influences belowground community processes when correcting for evolutionary history. Specifically, we hypothesized that closely related species would exhibit (i) more similar leaf and root functional traits than more distantly related species, and (ii) more similar associated soil arthropod communities. We found that after correcting for evolutionary history, tree species identity influenced belowground arthropod communities through plant functional traits. These data suggest that plant species structure may be an important predictor in shaping associated soil arthropod communities and further suggest the importance of better understanding the extended consequences of evolutionary history on ecological processes, as similarity in traits may not always reflect similar ecology.

Gorman, Courtney E.; Read, Quentin D.; Van Nuland, Michael E.; Bryant, Jessica A. M.; Welch, Jessica N.; Altobelli, Joseph T.; Douglas, Morgan J.; Genung, Mark A.; Haag, Elliot N.; Jones, Devin N.; Long, Hannah E.; Wilburn, Adam D.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

2013-01-01

190

Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there are quite a few cases of the use of woodland valuable in recreational and forestry respects for dacha or country-cottage construction. From fast change the pattern of ownership on ground is necessary urgent inventory of being available ground resources, including with the purposes of creation of new especially protected territories. It is important to emphasise, that to guards should be subject not only sites so-called quot.; untouched quot.; a nature, but also area with different overgrowth succession stages agricultural lands, where biodiversity raises.

Guzel, N.

2012-04-01

191

All farming operations that land apply manure or agricultural process wastewater, whether they generate the manure or import it from another operation, must have a written Manure Management Plan. All farming operations that include an Animal Concentra-  

E-print Network

All farming operations that land apply manure or agricultural process wastewater, whether farming operations that include an Animal Concentra- tion Area (ACA) or pasture must have a written Manure Management Plan. For farms not defined as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) or Concentrated

Guiltinan, Mark

192

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture  

E-print Network

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture ­ Livestock, Crops and Land Use Report from a multidisciplinary research platform. Phase I (2009 ­ 2012) #12;Future Agriculture ­ Livestock Waldenström Utgivningsår: 2012, Uppsala Utgivare: SLU, Framtidens lantbruk/Future Agriculture Layout: Pelle

193

Insects represent a link between food animal farms and the urban environment for antibiotic resistance traits.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections result in higher patient mortality rates, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health care costs. Extensive use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the animal industry represents great pressure for evolution and selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on farms. Despite growing evidence showing that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance in food animals correlate with resistance in human pathogens, the proof for direct transmission of antibiotic resistance is difficult to provide. In this review, we make a case that insects commonly associated with food animals likely represent a direct and important link between animal farms and urban communities for antibiotic resistance traits. Houseflies and cockroaches have been shown to carry multidrug-resistant clonal lineages of bacteria identical to those found in animal manure. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated proliferation of bacteria and horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the insect digestive tract as well as transmission of resistant bacteria by insects to new substrates. We propose that insect management should be an integral part of pre- and postharvest food safety strategies to minimize spread of zoonotic pathogens and antibiotic resistance traits from animal farms. Furthermore, the insect link between the agricultural and urban environment presents an additional argument for adopting prudent use of antibiotics in the food animal industry. PMID:24705326

Zurek, Ludek; Ghosh, Anuradha

2014-06-01

194

Kernel-based whole-genome prediction of complex traits: a review  

PubMed Central

Prediction of genetic values has been a focus of applied quantitative genetics since the beginning of the 20th century, with renewed interest following the advent of the era of whole genome-enabled prediction. Opportunities offered by the emergence of high-dimensional genomic data fueled by post-Sanger sequencing technologies, especially molecular markers, have driven researchers to extend Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright's models to confront new challenges. In particular, kernel methods are gaining consideration as a regression method of choice for genome-enabled prediction. Complex traits are presumably influenced by many genomic regions working in concert with others (clearly so when considering pathways), thus generating interactions. Motivated by this view, a growing number of statistical approaches based on kernels attempt to capture non-additive effects, either parametrically or non-parametrically. This review centers on whole-genome regression using kernel methods applied to a wide range of quantitative traits of agricultural importance in animals and plants. We discuss various kernel-based approaches tailored to capturing total genetic variation, with the aim of arriving at an enhanced predictive performance in the light of available genome annotation information. Connections between prediction machines born in animal breeding, statistics, and machine learning are revisited, and their empirical prediction performance is discussed. Overall, while some encouraging results have been obtained with non-parametric kernels, recovering non-additive genetic variation in a validation dataset remains a challenge in quantitative genetics. PMID:25360145

Morota, Gota; Gianola, Daniel

2014-01-01

195

Quantitative trait locus analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity in the model legume Lotus japonicus.  

PubMed

Many legumes form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. An elevation of nitrogen fixation in such legumes would have significant implications for plant growth and biomass production in agriculture. To identify the genetic basis for the regulation of nitrogen fixation, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Miyakojima MG-20 × Gifu B-129 in the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and grown for 14 days in pods containing vermiculite. Phenotypic data were collected for acetylene reduction activity (ARA) per plant (ARA/P), ARA per nodule weight (ARA/NW), ARA per nodule number (ARA/NN), NN per plant, NW per plant, stem length (SL), SL without inoculation (SLbac-), shoot dry weight without inoculation (SWbac-), root length without inoculation (RLbac-), and root dry weight (RWbac-), and finally 34 QTLs were identified. ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL showed strong correlations and QTL co-localization, suggesting that several plant characteristics important for symbiotic nitrogen fixation are controlled by the same locus. QTLs for ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL, co-localized around marker TM0832 on chromosome 4, were also co-localized with previously reported QTLs for seed mass. This is the first report of QTL analysis for symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity traits. PMID:22009016

Tominaga, Akiyoshi; Gondo, Takahiro; Akashi, Ryo; Zheng, Shao-Hui; Arima, Susumu; Suzuki, Akihiro

2012-05-01

196

QTLs for Seed Vigor-Related Traits Identified in Maize Seeds Germinated under Artificial Aging Conditions  

PubMed Central

High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R2>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes. PMID:24651614

Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, ShuLei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

2014-01-01

197

7 CFR 57.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...make application for inspection of imported eggs. 57.920 Section 57.920 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

2010-01-01

198

7 CFR 57.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...make application for inspection of imported eggs. 57.920 Section 57.920 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

2011-01-01

199

Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes  

PubMed Central

Abstract The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

2014-01-01

200

Genetic analysis of root morphological traits in wheat.  

PubMed

Traits related to root architecture are of great importance for yield performance of crop species, although they remain poorly understood. The present study is aimed at identifying the genomic regions involved in the control of root morphological traits in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). A set of 123 recombinant inbred lines derived from the durum wheat cross of cvs. 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' were grown hydroponically to two growth stages, and were phenotypically evaluated for a number of root traits. In addition, meta-(M)QTL analysis was performed that considered the results of other root traits studies in wheat, to compare with the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' cross and to increase the QTL detection power. Eight quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits related to root morphology were identified on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 3A, 6A and 6B in the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' segregating population. Twenty-two MQTL that comprised from two to six individual QTL that had widely varying confidence intervals were found on 14 chromosomes. The data from the present study provide a detailed analysis of the genetic basis of morphological root traits in wheat. This study of the 'Creso' × 'Pedroso' durum-wheat population has revealed some QTL that had not been previously identified. PMID:25416422

Petrarulo, Maria; Marone, Daniela; Ferragonio, Pina; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rubiales, Diego; De Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

2014-11-22

201

An Inventory of My Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this genetics meets math activity, learners take inventories of their own easily-observable genetic traits and compare those inventories with other learners in groups. Then, learners make data tables and bar graphs showing the most and least common traits in their group. This guide features activity sheets in English and Spanish.

Malone, Molly; Mitchell, April; Stark, Louisa; Starr, Harmony

2006-01-01

202

The Agricultural Product's Trade Mode in Electronic Commerce Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural electronic commerce, as an advanced producing force, whose potential advantages are immeasurable. As a main form of modern agriculture, the speed of its development and the degree of its ripeness are important to increase circulate efficiency and international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products. Firstly, this article compared typical models of agriculture product's online trade mode, and then made a

Guan Hai-ling; Chen Jian-cheng; Liu Xiao-yong

2009-01-01

203

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Perrault, Tanya

2012-02-20

204

Genetic Heteroscedasticity for Domestic Animal Traits  

E-print Network

Genetic Heteroscedasticity for Domestic Animal Traits Majbritt Felleki Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics Uppsala Doctoral Thesis Swedish #12;Genetic Heteroscedasticity for Domestic Animal Traits Abstract Animal traits differ not only

205

Agricultural Pesticides: An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was developed as a guide for use by Kentucky teachers in planning and conducting young farmer/adult farmer classes in the use of agricultural pesticides. The unit contains seven lessons covering the following topics: understanding the importance of agricultural pesticides; using and handling agricultural pesticides safely; developing a…

Harrison, Kenneth M.; And Others

206

The number of queens: An important trait in ant evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive social and ecological differences between ant colonies that have a single queen and those that have multiple queens are defined. The evolutionary tendencies which lead to polygyny and the adaptive significance of multiple queens are examined. The discussion of the ecological consequences of polygyny and monogyny leads to a deeper understanding of territoriality, spacing and species packing in

Bert Hölldobler; Edward O. Wilson

1977-01-01

207

Exaggerated trait growth in insects.  

PubMed

Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait. PMID:25341090

Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

2015-01-01

208

Inheritance and linkage map positions of genes conferring agromorphological traits in Lens culinaris Medik  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agromorphological traits have immense importance in breeding lentils for higher yield and stability. We studied the genetics and identified map positions of some important agro-morphological traits including days to 50% flowering, plant height, seed diameter, 100 seed weight, cotyledon color, and gr...

209

7 CFR 1260.117 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions ...Importer. Importer means any person who imports cattle, beef, or beef products from outside the United...

2011-01-01

210

7 CFR 1260.117 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions ...Importer. Importer means any person who imports cattle, beef, or beef products from outside the United...

2010-01-01

211

7 CFR 1212.11 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...means any person who imports for sale honey or honey products into the United...

2010-01-01

212

Independent Evolution of Leaf and Root Traits within and among Temperate Grassland Plant Communities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used data from temperate grassland plant communities in Alberta, Canada to test two longstanding hypotheses in ecology: 1) that there has been correlated evolution of the leaves and roots of plants due to selection for an integrated whole-plant resource uptake strategy, and 2) that trait diversity in ecological communities is generated by adaptations to the conditions in different habitats. We tested the first hypothesis using phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evidence of correlated evolution of suites of leaf and root functional traits in these grasslands. There were consistent evolutionary correlations among traits related to plant resource uptake strategies within leaf tissues, and within root tissues. In contrast, there were inconsistent correlations between the traits of leaves and the traits of roots, suggesting different evolutionary pressures on the above and belowground components of plant morphology. To test the second hypothesis, we evaluated the relative importance of two components of trait diversity: within-community variation (species trait values relative to co-occurring species; ? traits) and among-community variation (the average trait value in communities where species occur; ? traits). Trait diversity was mostly explained by variation among co-occurring species, not among-communities. Additionally, there was a phylogenetic signal in the within-community trait values of species relative to co-occurring taxa, but not in their habitat associations or among-community trait variation. These results suggest that sorting of pre-existing trait variation into local communities can explain the leaf and root trait diversity in these grasslands. PMID:21687704

Kembel, Steven W.; Cahill, James F.

2011-01-01

213

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting. PMID:21385637

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

214

Underdispersion and overdispersion of traits in terrestrial snail communities on islands.  

PubMed

Understanding and disentangling different processes underlying the assembly and diversity of communities remains a key challenge in ecology. Species can assemble into communities either randomly or due to deterministic processes. Deterministic assembly leads to species being more similar (underdispersed) or more different (overdispersed) in certain traits than would be expected by chance. However, the relative importance of those processes is not well understood for many organisms, including terrestrial invertebrates. Based on knowledge of a broad range of species traits, we tested for the presence of trait underdispersion (indicating dispersal or environmental filtering) and trait overdispersion (indicating niche partitioning) and their relative importance in explaining land snail community composition on lake islands. The analysis of community assembly was performed using a functional diversity index (Rao's quadratic entropy) in combination with a null model approach. Regression analysis with the effect sizes of the assembly tests and environmental variables gave information on the strength of under- and overdispersion along environmental gradients. Additionally, we examined the link between community weighted mean trait values and environmental variables using a CWM-RDA. We found both trait underdispersion and trait overdispersion, but underdispersion (eight traits) was more frequently detected than overdispersion (two traits). Underdispersion was related to four environmental variables (tree cover, habitat diversity, productivity of ground vegetation, and location on an esker ridge). Our results show clear evidence for underdispersion in traits driven by environmental filtering, but no clear evidence for dispersal filtering. We did not find evidence for overdispersion of traits due to diet or body size, but overdispersion in shell shape may indicate niche differentiation between snail species driven by small-scale habitat heterogeneity. The use of species traits enabled us to identify key traits involved in snail community assembly and to detect the simultaneous occurrence of trait underdispersion and overdispersion. PMID:25360251

Astor, Tina; Strengbom, Joachim; Berg, Matty P; Lenoir, Lisette; Marteinsdóttir, Bryndís; Bengtsson, Jan

2014-06-01

215

A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

2006-01-01

216

The contribution and importance of vocational education in agriculture to the Cardinal principles of secondary education [of the N.E.A. Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education  

E-print Network

Education in a Free ~Societ (Cambridge, Massachuesetts: Harvard University Press, 1945), p. xiii. 86Caswell, Coreyp Cottrell, Forkner, French, Leonard, MacKenzie, and Spears, The American ~Hi h School, Eighth Yearbook of the John Dewey Society, (New York..., " "scientific understanding, " and 37Harold Spears, The ~Hi h School for ~Toda , (New York: The American Book Company, 1950), p, 43. 3SJohn Robert Williams, Abstracts of Doctoral Disseration Vol. XVI, 1953, "The Contribution of Vocational Agriculture Toward...

Bates, Leon Travis

1958-01-01

217

7 CFR 319.74-3 - Importations by the Department.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Cut Flowers § 319.74-3 Importations by the Department. The U.S. Department of Agriculture may import cut flowers for experimental or scientific purposes under such...

2010-01-01

218

Child physical abuse risk moderates spontaneously inferred traits from ambiguous child behaviors?  

PubMed Central

The present study examined whether parents at high-risk for child physical abuse (CPA) differed from low-risk parents in their tendency to infer positive traits and negative traits from children’s behaviors. The final sample consisted of 58 (25 low CPA risk and 33 high CPA risk) parents. Parents completed a false-recognition task, which involved viewing behavior descriptions paired with child photographs. Half of the behavior descriptions vaguely/strongly implied a trait and half of the implied traits were positive/negative. The contributions of automatic processes and controlled processes to task performance were examined using process dissociation procedures. Low CPA risk parents were significantly less likely to indicate negative traits were present in behavioral descriptions of children when negative traits were vaguely (compared to strongly) implied. In contrast, high CPA risk parents were equally likely to indicate negative traits were present regardless of whether the traits were vaguely or strongly implied. For low (but not high) CPA risk parents, automatic processes contributed significantly less to task performance when negative traits were vaguely implied compared to when the same traits were strongly implied. Given that parenting involves negotiating a seemingly endless series of ambiguous behaviors as children grow and develop, the capacity to refrain from automatically attributing negative traits to children when they exhibit vaguely negative behaviors may serve an important function in reducing risk of aggressive parenting behavior. PMID:23790508

McCarthy, Randy J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Hiraoka, Regina; Rutledge, Ericka; Jenkins, Jade

2014-01-01

219

The use of GMOs (genetically modified organisms): agricultural biotechnology or agricultural biopolitics?  

PubMed

Agricultural biotechnologies embrace a large array of conventional and modern technologies, spanning from composting organic by-products of agriculture to innovative improvement of quality traits of about twenty out of the mostly cultivated plants. In EU a rather restrictive legislative framework has been installed for GMOs, requiring a risk assessment disproportionate with respect to conventional agriculture and organic farming products. The latter are far from being proved safe for human and animal health, and for the environment. Biotechnology of GMOs has been overtaken by biopolitics. On one side there are biotechnological challenges to be tackled, on another side there is plenty of ground for biopolitical decisions about GMOs. Perhaps the era of harsh confrontation could be fruitfully replaced by sensible cooperation, in order to get a sustainable agricultural development. PMID:17987558

Nuti, Marco; Felici, Cristiana; Agnolucci, Monica

2007-01-01

220

Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural landscape to ensure resistance is not developing. USEPA is teaming with NASA to perform this monitoring using models and NASA earth observation imagery from airborne and satellite platforms. Using multiple spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions, the project is monitoring the entire Midwestern "Corn Belt". By applying these methods, the project has successfully delineated insect infestations in genetically modified corn fields. Insect resistance development is expected to present itself as infestations thus indicating potential identification of resistance if it develops in genetically modified crops. The USEPA and NASA are currently considering the development of plans to potentially extend this aircraft research to other crops and develop a micro-satellite application.

Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

221

Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.  

PubMed

How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes. PMID:23951712

Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

2013-07-01

222

Cultural modulation of self-referential brain activity for personality traits and social identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-cultural studies have shown that personality traits are less central and social identities are more important to the selfhood of collectivistic people. However, most cultural neuroscience studies using the self-reference effect (SRE) paradigm have only used personality traits to explore cultural differences in the neural circuits of self-referential processes. In the present study, we used both personality traits and social

Sunhae Sul; Incheol Choi; Pyungwon Kang

2012-01-01

223

Cultural modulation of self-referential brain activity for personality traits and social identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-cultural studies have shown that personality traits are less central and social identities are more important to the selfhood of collectivistic people. However, most cultural neuroscience studies using the self-reference effect (SRE) paradigm have only used personality traits to explore cultural differences in the neural circuits of self-referential processes. In the present study, we used both personality traits and social

Sunhae Sul; Incheol Choi; Pyungwon Kang

2011-01-01

224

Alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological traits but not chemical traits.  

PubMed

Leaves and fine roots are among the most important and dynamic components of terrestrial ecosystems. To what extent plants synchronize their resource capture strategies above- and belowground remains uncertain. Existing results of trait relationships between leaf and root showed great inconsistency, which may be partly due to the differences in abiotic environmental conditions such as climate and soil. Moreover, there is currently little evidence on whether and how the stringent environments of high-altitude alpine ecosystems alter the coordination between above- and belowground. Here we measured six sets of analogous traits for both leaves and fine roots of 139 species collected from Tibetan alpine grassland and Mongolian temperate grassland. N, P and N:P ratio of leaves and fine roots were positively correlated, independent of biogeographic regions, phylogenetic affiliation or climate. In contrast, leaves and fine roots seem to regulate morphological traits more independently. The specific leaf area (SLA)-specific root length (SRL) correlation shifted from negative at sites under low temperature to positive at warmer sites. The cold climate of alpine regions may impose different constraints on shoots and roots, selecting simultaneously for high SLA leaves for rapid C assimilation during the short growing season, but low SRL roots with high physical robustness to withstand soil freezing. In addition, there might be more community heterogeneity in cold soils, resulting in multidirectional strategies of root in resource acquisition. Thus our results demonstrated that alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological but not chemical traits. PMID:24633995

Geng, Yan; Wang, Liang; Jin, Dongmei; Liu, Huiying; He, Jin-Sheng

2014-06-01

225

Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca.  

PubMed

Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) resulting from three seed production environments. Significant QTL were identified for germination in darkness, germination at 25 and 35 degrees C, median maximum temperature of germination, hypocotyl length at 72 h post-imbibition, and plant (seedling) quality. Some QTL for germination and early seedling growth characteristics were co-located, suggestive of pleiotropic loci regulating these traits. A single QTL (Htg6.1) described 25 and 23% of the total phenotypic variation for high temperature germination in California- and Netherlands-grown populations, respectively, and was significant between 33 and 37 degrees C. Additionally, Htg6.1 showed significant epistatic interactions with other Htg QTL and a consistent effect across all the three seed production environments. L. serriola alleles increased germination at these QTL. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability (h2) of Htg6.1 was 0.84, indicating potential for L. serriola as a source of germination thermotolerance for lettuce introgression programs. PMID:16177902

Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Knapp, Steven J; Still, David W; Lenssen, Ger M; Schut, Johan W; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

2005-11-01

226

Integrated Agricultural Systems Workgroup  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Integrated Agricultural Systems Workgroup is conducting research to developing principles of sustainable integrated agricultural systems. The Integrated Agriculture Systems (IAS) workgroup hosts producer focused workshops to examine crop and animal production practices. At each workshop, several...

227

Department of Agriculture  

MedlinePLUS

... Growth EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research MARKETING AND TRADE ... land management, sustainable land management... Research, Education and Economics U.S. food and fibers system, library, statistics, research, ...

228

Agricultural Leadership, Education, & Communications  

E-print Network

Agricultural Leadership, Education, & Communications ALEC 102 Fall 2006 Course Title: Critical Issues in Agricultural Leadership and Education Credit: 1 Hour Instructors: Ms. Summer Felton; 119A! This introductory course is designed for students entering in the Agricultural Leadership & Development degree

229

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference Conference Information This conference will discuss the drivers of Missouri agricultural and bio-fuel markets and the implications for Missouri farmsDr.JonHagler, DirectoroftheMissouriDepartment ofAgriculture. · Outlookpresentationsderivedfrom thelatestbaselineresultsof

Noble, James S.

230

An optimal strategy for functional mapping of dynamic trait loci.  

PubMed

As an emerging powerful approach for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for dynamic traits, functional mapping models the time-dependent mean vector with biologically meaningful equations and are likely to generate biologically relevant and interpretable results. Given the autocorrelation nature of a dynamic trait, functional mapping needs the implementation of the models for the structure of the covariance matrix. In this article, we have provided a comprehensive set of approaches for modelling the covariance structure and incorporated each of these approaches into the framework of functional mapping. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values are used as a model selection criterion to choose the optimal combination of the submodels for the mean vector and covariance structure. In an example for leaf age growth from a rice molecular genetic project, the best submodel combination was found between the Gaussian model for the correlation structure, power equation of order 1 for the variance and the power curve for the mean vector. Under this combination, several significant QTLs for leaf age growth trajectories were detected on different chromosomes. Our model can be well used to study the genetic architecture of dynamic traits of agricultural values. PMID:20196894

Jin, Tianbo; Li, Jiahan; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Xiaojing; Yang, Runqing; Wu, Rongling

2010-02-01

231

Potential Analysis on Taiwan Agricultural Products Entering the International Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study probes into the trade exchange of Taiwan 's agricultural products, through structural analys is, to recognize the transformation of the import structur e of Taiwanese agricultural products; and analyzes the export potential of Taiwan's agricultural products by rela tive advantages of import and export values. The re search findings are generalized below: analysis on the trade change of

Meng-Long Shih

232

Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

233

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agriculture in the Classroom is a grassroots program coordinated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). This site contains state information about agriculture, a kids page with games and information, agriculture science project topics, lesson plans for agriculture and geography, quizzes to test agriculture literacy and links for more information. The goal of this program is to help students gain a greater awareness of the role of agriculture in the economy and society, so that they may become citizens who support wise agricultural policies. The program is carried out in each state, according to state needs and interests, by individuals representing farm organizations, agribusiness, education and government.

234

Entomophagy and space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

235

Agricultural biosecurity.  

PubMed

The prevention and control of new pest and disease introductions is an agricultural challenge which is attracting growing public interest. This interest is in part driven by an impression that the threat is increasing, but there has been little analysis of the changing rates of biosecurity threat, and existing evidence is equivocal. Traditional biosecurity systems for animals and plants differ substantially but are beginning to converge. Bio-economic modelling of risk will be a valuable tool in guiding the allocation of limited resources for biosecurity. The future of prevention and management systems will be strongly influenced by new technology and the growing role of the private sector. Overall, today's biosecurity systems are challenged by changing national priorities regarding trade, by new concerns about environmental effects of biological invasions and by the question 'who pays?'. Tomorrow's systems may need to be quite different to be effective. We suggest three changes: an integration of plant and animal biosecurity around a common, proactive, risk-based approach; a greater focus on international cooperation to deal with threats at source; and a commitment to refocus biosecurity on building resilience to invasion into agroecosystems rather than building walls around them. PMID:17761470

Waage, J K; Mumford, J D

2008-02-27

236

Paraquat and sustainable agriculture.  

PubMed

Sustainable agriculture is essential for man's survival, especially given our rapidly increasing population. Expansion of agriculture into remaining areas of natural vegetation is undesirable, as this would reduce biodiversity on the planet. Maintaining or indeed improving crop yields on existing farmed land, whether on a smallholder scale or on larger farms, is thus necessary. One of the limiting factors is often weed control; biological control of weeds is generally of limited use and mechanical control is either often difficult with machinery or very laborious by hand. Thus the use of herbicides has become very important. Minimum cultivation can also be important, as it reduces the power required to work the soil, limits erosion and helps to maintain the organic matter content of the soil. This last aspect helps preserve both the structure of soil and its populations of organisms, and also sustains the Earth's soil as a massive sink for carbon, an important consideration in the light of global warming. The introduction of the bipyridinium herbicide paraquat in the early 1960s greatly facilitated weed control in many crops. Paraquat has the unusual property of being active only by direct spray onto plants and not by uptake from soil in which strong binding deactivates it. Together with its rapid action in light in killing green plant tissue, such properties allow paraquat to be used in many crops, including those grown by low-tillage methods. This paper reviews the ways in which agricultural systems have been and are being developed to make use of these properties, and provides a risk/benefit analysis of the world-wide use of paraquat over nearly 40 years. PMID:15119596

Bromilow, Richard H

2004-04-01

237

Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes  

SciTech Connect

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

Reich, P.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Walters, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Vose, J.M. [Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrological Lab.; Gresham, C. [Clemson Univ., Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Forest Inst.; Volin, J.C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Davie, FL (United States). Div. of Science; Bowman, W.D. [Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Mountain Research Station]|[Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Evolutionary, Population, and Organismic Biology

1999-09-01

238

Agriculture and climate change  

SciTech Connect

How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

Abelson, P.H.

1992-07-03

239

De novo assembly of soybean wild relatives for pan-genome analysis of diversity and agronomic traits.  

PubMed

Wild relatives of crops are an important source of genetic diversity for agriculture, but their gene repertoire remains largely unexplored. We report the establishment and analysis of a pan-genome of Glycine soja, the wild relative of cultivated soybean Glycine max, by sequencing and de novo assembly of seven phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions. Intergenomic comparisons identified lineage-specific genes and genes with copy number variation or large-effect mutations, some of which show evidence of positive selection and may contribute to variation of agronomic traits such as biotic resistance, seed composition, flowering and maturity time, organ size and final biomass. Approximately 80% of the pan-genome was present in all seven accessions (core), whereas the rest was dispensable and exhibited greater variation than the core genome, perhaps reflecting a role in adaptation to diverse environments. This work will facilitate the harnessing of untapped genetic diversity from wild soybean for enhancement of elite cultivars. PMID:25218520

Li, Ying-hui; Zhou, Guangyu; Ma, Jianxin; Jiang, Wenkai; Jin, Long-guo; Zhang, Zhouhao; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Jinbo; Sui, Yi; Zheng, Liangtao; Zhang, Shan-shan; Zuo, Qiyang; Shi, Xue-hui; Li, Yan-fei; Zhang, Wan-ke; Hu, Yiyao; Kong, Guanyi; Hong, Hui-long; Tan, Bing; Song, Jian; Liu, Zhang-xiong; Wang, Yaoshen; Ruan, Hang; Yeung, Carol K L; Liu, Jian; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Li-juan; Guan, Rong-xia; Wang, Ke-jing; Li, Wen-bin; Chen, Shou-yi; Chang, Ru-zhen; Jiang, Zhi; Jackson, Scott A; Li, Ruiqiang; Qiu, Li-juan

2014-10-01

240

7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief...Imports of Perishable Products From Certain Andean...that the perishable product(s) which is...

2013-01-01

241

7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief...Imports of Perishable Products From Certain Andean...that the perishable product(s) which is...

2011-01-01

242

7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief...Imports of Perishable Products From Certain Andean...that the perishable product(s) which is...

2012-01-01

243

7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief...Imports of Perishable Products From Certain Andean...that the perishable product(s) which is...

2010-01-01

244

7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief...Imports of Perishable Products From Certain Andean...that the perishable product(s) which is...

2014-01-01

245

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2013-04-01

246

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2014-04-01

247

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2010-04-01

248

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2012-04-01

249

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2011-04-01

250

Landscape Planning for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction I: A Geographical Allocation Framework  

E-print Network

understood, reducing agricultural NPS pollution and improving stream water quality has become an importantLandscape Planning for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction I: A Geographical+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Agricultural nonpoint source pollution remains a persistent environmental

Vander Zanden, Jake

251

Using phenotypic manipulations to study multivariate selection of floral trait associations  

PubMed Central

Background A basic theme in the study of plant–pollinator interactions is that pollinators select not just for single floral traits, but for associations of traits. Responses of pollinators to sets of traits are inherent in the idea of pollinator syndromes. In its most extreme form, selection on a suite of traits can take the form of correlational selection, in which a response to one trait depends on the value of another, thereby favouring floral integration. Despite the importance of selection for combinations of traits in the evolution of flowers, evidence is relatively sparse and relies mostly on observational approaches. Scope Here, methods for measuring selection on multivariate suites of floral traits are presented, and the studies to date are reviewed. It is argued that phenotypic manipulations present a powerful, but rarely used, approach to teasing apart the separate and combined effects of particular traits. The approach is illustrated with data from studies of alpine plants in Colorado and New Zealand, and recommendations are made about several features of the design of such experiments. Conclusions Phenotypic manipulations of two or more traits in combination provide a direct way of testing for selection of floral trait associations. Such experiments will be particularly valuable if rooted in hypotheses about differences between types of pollinators and tied to a proposed evolutionary history. PMID:19218579

Campbell, Diane R.

2009-01-01

252

Fluctuating Asymmetry and Environmental Stress: Understanding the Role of Trait History  

PubMed Central

While fluctuating asymmetry (FA; small, random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits) is widely regarded as a proxy for environmental and genetic stress effects, empirical associations between FA and stress are often weak or heterogeneous among traits. A conceptually important source of heterogeneity in relationships with FA is variation in the selection history of the trait(s) under study, i.e. traits that experienced a (recent) history of directional change are predicted to be developmentally less stable, potentially through the loss of canalizing modifiers. Here we applied X-ray photography on museum specimens and live captures to test to what extent the magnitude of FA and FA-stress relationships covary with directional shifts in traits related to the flight apparatus of four East-African rainforest birds that underwent recent shifts in habitat quality and landscape connectivity. Both the magnitude and direction of phenotypic change varied among species, with some traits increasing in size while others decreased or maintained their original size. In three of the four species, traits that underwent larger directional changes were less strongly buffered against random perturbations during their development, and traits that increased in size over time developed more asymmetrically than those that decreased. As we believe that spurious relationships due to biased comparisons of historic (museum specimens) and current (field captures) samples can be ruled out, these results support the largely untested hypothesis that directional shifts may increase the sensitivity of developing traits to random perturbations of environmental or genetic origin. PMID:23472123

De Coster, Greet; Van Dongen, Stefan; Malaki, Phillista; Muchane, Muchai; Alcántara-Exposito, Angelica; Matheve, Hans; Lens, Luc

2013-01-01

253

Analyzing global carbon uptake patterns using plant trait data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environment and climate are two important factors in determining global terrestrial CO2 flux patterns, as well as vegetation type and structure. At the moment, in many global CO2 flux analyses the vegetation is represented by plant functional types (PFTs). However, the variance in plant traits within PFTs is as large as between them, suggesting that PFTs do not necessary represent patterns of plant traits as found world wide. And while the correlations between plant traits (e.g. foliar nutrients, leaf mass per area) and CO2 uptake are well established at plant level, this is not the case at ecosystem level. The recently established plant trait database TRY (www.TRY-db.org), together with FLUXNET data give us now new opportunities to analyze ecosystem CO2fluxes at global scale using species plant traits rather than PFTs. Analyzing worldwide CO2 flux data with plant traits comes with some challenges regarding the different spatio-and temporal nature of both data types. Therefore, rather than directly using CO2 fluxes (for which each FLUXNET sites has a different seasonality and different diurnal pattern), we can derive so called ecosystem functional properties (EFPs), which are emergent properties of the ecosystem in response to environmental drivers and are influenced by the structural and physiological properties of the ecosystem. The plant traits in turn are scaled up in a way they become an average representative value for the sites in the analysis, and become suitable to compare to EFPs. Here we present the results of a first study that analyzed global patterns of the EFP GPP1000 max (the maximum gross primary productivity at light saturation) with plant traits measured in situ and derived from the TRY database. In addition to presenting the results we discuss the importance of differences in data origins and data quality (e.g. in situ traits vs. database derived traits, leaf area index (LAI) data from auxiliary FLUXNET data vs remotely sensed LAI, etc.) for this type of analysis.

van de Weg, M. J.; Musavi, T. S.; Van Bodegom, P.; Kattge, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.

2013-12-01

254

7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal...

2013-01-01

255

7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal...

2014-01-01

256

7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal...

2012-01-01

257

Sexual variation in heritability and genetic correlations of morphological traits in house sparrow (Passer domesticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of genetic components are important for our understanding of how individual characteristics are transferred between generations. We show that the level of heritability varies between 0.12 and 0.68 in six morphological traits in house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.) in northern Norway. Positive and negative genetic correlations were present among traits, suggesting evolu- tionary constraints on the evolution of some

H. Jensen; B.-E. Saether; T. H. Ringsby; J. Tufto; S. C. Griffith; H. Ellegren

2003-01-01

258

RNA-Seq Identifies SNP Markers for Growth Traits in Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast growth is an important and highly desired trait, which affects the profitability of food animal production, with feed costs accounting for the largest proportion of production costs. Traditional phenotype-based selection is typically used to select for growth traits; however, genetic improvement is slow over generations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explain 90% of the genetic differences between individuals; therefore, they

Mohamed Salem; Roger L. Vallejo; Timothy D. Leeds; Yniv Palti; Sixin Liu; Annas Sabbagh; Caird E. Rexroad; Jianbo Yao

2012-01-01

259

NATURAL SELECTION ON FLORAL TRAITS OF LOBELIA (LOBELIACEAE): SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength and direction of natural selection on floral traits can vary spatially and temporally because of variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. High spatial variation in selection should lead to differentiation of floral traits among populations. In contrast, high temporal variation in selection should retard the evolution of population-specific floral phenotypes. To determine the relative importance of spatial

CHRISTINA M. CARUSO; S. BROOK PETERSON; CAROLINE E. RIDLEY

260

Regression Models for Linkage: Issues of Traits, Covariates, Heterogeneity, and Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression methods offer a common framework to analyze linkage for quantitative trait loci as well as linkage for affection status using affected sib-pairs. Although numerous papers on regression methods for linkage have been published, some common themes and important caveats tend to be scattered across the literature. For example, the typical approach is to regress a function of traits on

Daniel J. Schaid; Jane M. Olson; W. James Gauderman; Robert C. Elston

2003-01-01

261

Carbon cycling traits of plant species are linked with mycorrhizal strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem carbon cycling depends strongly on the productivity of plant species and the decomposition rates of the litter they produce. We tested the hypothesis that classifying plant functional types according to mycorrhizal association explains important interspecific variation in plant carbon cycling traits, particularly in those traits that feature in a hypothesized feedback between vegetation productivity and litter turnover. We compared

J. H. C. Cornelissen; R. Aerts; B. Cerabolini; M. J. A. Werger; M. G. A. van der Heijden

2001-01-01

262

vol. 182, no. 2 the american naturalist august 2013 Phenotypic Selection Favors Missing Trait Combinations  

E-print Network

, redundant traits. In a Sonoran Desert community of winter annual plants, we have identified a trade: trade-offs, phenotypic selection analysis, Sonoran Desert, winter annual plants, relative growth rate.c8c58. abstract: Trade-offs among traits are important for maintaining biodiversity, but the role

Kimball, Sarah

263

RNA-Seq identifies SNP markers for growth traits in rainbow trout  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fast growth is an important and highly desired trait, which affects the profitability of food animal production, with feed costs accounting for the largest proportion of production costs. Traditional phenotype-based selection is typically used to select for growth traits; however, genetic improveme...

264

Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

265

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

266

environment and agriculture  

E-print Network

environment and agriculture environmentagriculture.curtin.edu.au Bachelor of Science - majorS in agriculture, environmental Biology or coaStal Zone management Science and engineering #12;t he department of environment and agriculture caters for students who are passionate about agriculture, biology, conserving

267

Shifts and disruptions in resource-use trait syndromes during the evolution of herbaceous crops.  

PubMed

Trait-based ecology predicts that evolution in high-resource agricultural environments should select for suites of traits that enable fast resource acquisition and rapid canopy closure. However, crop breeding targets specific agronomic attributes rather than broad trait syndromes. Breeding for specific traits, together with evolution in high-resource environments, might lead to reduced phenotypic integration, according to predictions from the ecological literature. We provide the first comprehensive test of these hypotheses, based on a trait-screening programme of 30 herbaceous crops and their wild progenitors. During crop evolution plants became larger, which enabled them to compete more effectively for light, but they had poorly integrated phenotypes. In a subset of six herbaceous crop species investigated in greater depth, competitiveness for light increased during early plant domestication, whereas diminished phenotypic integration occurred later during crop improvement. Mass-specific leaf and root traits relevant to resource-use strategies (e.g. specific leaf area or tissue density of fine roots) changed during crop evolution, but in diverse and contrasting directions and magnitudes, depending on the crop species. Reductions in phenotypic integration and overinvestment in traits involved in competition for light may affect the chances of upgrading modern herbaceous crops to face current climatic and food security challenges. PMID:25185998

Milla, Rubén; Morente-López, Javier; Alonso-Rodrigo, J Miguel; Martín-Robles, Nieves; Chapin, F Stuart

2014-10-22

268

New Zealand freshwater management and agricultural impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, it is increasingly recognised, including by government, that water resource allocation and water quality are issues of national importance. Agriculture is frequently portrayed by public media as a major user of water and a major contributor to worsening water quality. We outline the water management systems in New Zealand, and the use of water by agriculture. Official

Ross Cullen; Kenneth F. D. Hughey; Geoffrey N. Kerr

2006-01-01

269

St Vincent Youth and Careers in Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Given the ageing farming population in the Caribbean and the importance of agriculture to economy, there is cause for concern about the future of farming. This study seeks to explore the extent to which students pursuing agriculture in secondary schools in St Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) were likely to engage in farming as well as…

Webster, Nicole; Ganpat, Wayne

2014-01-01

270

Remotely Sensed Mapping of Agricultural Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying vulnerable agricultural production areas is essential for any sustainable development\\/farming plan. Climate is among the most important factors that determine the agricultural potential of a region and the suitability of an area for a specific crop or land management, followed by soil characteristics and geomorphology. Temperature and rainfall in terms of quantity and spatiotemporal variability are the two climatic

E. Tsiros; C. Domenikiotis; N. R. Dalezios; N. G. Danalatos

2009-01-01

271

Agricultural Accident Prevention--Problems and Accomplishments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Titles of bulletins, for persons who are interested in agricultural accident prevention, are listed as well as examples of farm machinery manufacturers who are making special efforts to produce valuable teaching aids and to inform all segments of agriculture about important safety development. (HD)

Bristol, Benton K.

1976-01-01

272

Agriculture for Little People. Publication No. 0004.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a collection of teacher guides to sample units introducing agriculture at the primary level; part or all of the units can be used along with the regular curriculum during the school year. Intended to acquaint K-3 students with agriculture's important role, the purpose of the course is to impart basic knowledge of materials, tools,…

Gasior, Albert G.

273

Emerging technologies in favour of sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

European agricultural systems are going through a modernisation process involving radical structural changes. To tackle these important challenges, technology foresight has been employed as a systematic, participatory, intelligence gathering exercise focusing on future R&D investments in sustainable agricultural systems and green technologies. Because reliable data on emerging technology are scarce, any assessment has to be based to a large extent

Kristian Borch

2007-01-01

274

Identification of Immune Traits Correlated with Dairy Cow Health, Reproduction and Productivity  

PubMed Central

Detailed biological analyses (e.g. epidemiological, genetic) of animal health and fitness in the field are limited by the lack of large-scale recording of individual animals. An alternative approach is to identify immune traits that are associated with these important functions and can be subsequently used in more detailed studies. We have used an experimental dairy herd with uniquely dense phenotypic data to identify a range of potentially useful immune traits correlated with enhanced (or depressed) health and fitness. Blood samples from 248 dairy cows were collected at two-monthly intervals over a 10-month period and analysed for a number of immune traits, including levels of serum proteins associated with the innate immune response and circulating leukocyte populations. Immune measures were matched to individual cow records related to productivity, fertility and disease. Correlations between traits were calculated using bivariate analyses based on animal repeatability and random regression models with a Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing. A number of significant correlations were found between immune traits and other recorded traits including: CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio and subclinical mastitis; % CD8+ lymphocytes and fertility; % CD335+ natural killer cells and lameness episodes; and serum haptoglobin levels and clinical mastitis. Importantly these traits were not associated with reduced productivity and, in the case of cellular immune traits, were highly repeatable. Moreover these immune traits displayed significant between-animal variation suggesting that they may be altered by genetic selection. This study represents the largest simultaneous analysis of multiple immune traits in dairy cattle to-date and demonstrates that a number of immune traits are associated with health events. These traits represent useful selection markers for future programmes aimed at improving animal health and fitness. PMID:23776543

Banos, Georgios; Wall, Eileen; Coffey, Michael P.; Bagnall, Ainsley; Gillespie, Sandra; Russell, George C.; McNeilly, Tom N.

2013-01-01

275

Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies  

PubMed Central

Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-01-01

276

Nitrogen mineralization in production agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the effects of N management and how it relates to the N cycle in soil ecosystems is essential to determining N availability. This manuscript describes the importance of N mineralization to production agriculture and introduces a special issue on “N Mineralization in Production Agricult...

277

Urban agriculture in Belém, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing one's own food is an important survival strategy, so it shouldn't be surprising that many urbanites produce food, even in congested cities. Urban agriculture concerns such farming as animal husbandry, the growing of fruit trees, crops of basic grains and horticulture, which coexist in the city with tree crops, and the raising of rabbits, poultry, or other stock.With regard

Isabel Madaleno

2000-01-01

278

AGRICULTURAL EXCHANGE RATE DATA SHEET  

EPA Science Inventory

The ERS data set contains annual and monthly data for exchange rates important to U.S. agriculture. It includes both nominal and real exchange rates for 80 countries (plus the European Union) as well as real trade-weighted exchange rate indexes for many commodities and aggregatio...

279

Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

280

Agricultural Statistics 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1998 issue of this annual United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service compendium is available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) from the Agricultural Statistics site. Its fifteen chapters consist of time series tables covering all aspects of the US agricultural economy, including crops, livestock, farm income and expenses, price-support, and fertilizer and pesticides. Time series and geographic coverage vary. The site also contains national and state tables and an archive of Agricultural Statistics back to 1994.

281

Mapping epistatic quantitative trait loci underlying endosperm traits using all markers on the entire genome in a random hybridization design.  

PubMed

Triploid endosperm is of great economic importance owing to its nutritious quality. Mapping endosperm trait loci (ETL) can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. However, most triploid ETL mapping methods do not produce unbiased estimates of the two dominant effects of ETL. A random hybridization design is an alternative method that may be used to overcome this problem. However, epistasis has an important role in the dissection of genetic architecture for complex traits. In this study, therefore, an attempt was made to map epistatic ETL (eETL) under a triploid genetic model of endosperm traits in a random hybridization design. The endosperm trait means of random hybrid lines, together with known marker genotype information from their corresponding parental F(2) plants, were used to estimate, efficiently and without bias, the positions and all of the effects of eETL using a penalized maximum likelihood method. The method proposed in this article was verified by a series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments. Results from the simulated studies show that the proposed method provides accurate estimates of eETL parameters with a low false-positive rate and a relatively short running time. This new method enables us to map triploid eETL in the same way as diploid quantitative traits. PMID:18461088

He, X-H; Zhang, Y-M

2008-07-01

282

QTL analysis of fruit quality traits in muscadine grapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) are an important native fruit crop grown in the southeastern United States. To facilitate the breeding of improved cultivars of muscadine grapes a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted on several flower and fruit characteristics of two segregatin...

283

Identifying Traits with Formal Concept Analysis Adrian Lienhard  

E-print Network

University of Bern (Switzerland) lienhard@iam.unibe.ch St´ephane Ducasse Software Composition Group) ducasse@iam.unibe.ch Gabriela Ar´evalo Software Composition Group University of Bern (Switzerland) arevalo@iam and decomposing class hierarchies into traits is therefore an important and challenging task to facilitate

Ducasse, Stéphane

284

First Impressions: Gait Cues Drive Reliable Trait Judgements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances.…

Thoresen, John C.; Vuong, Quoc C.; Atkinson, Anthony P.

2012-01-01

285

Original article Genetic analysis of root traits in maize  

E-print Network

Original article Genetic analysis of root traits in maize Emmanuelle Guingoa Yannick Héberta Alain December 1997; accepted 27 April 1998) Abstract - In many areas around the world, maize (Zea Mays L.) crops@lusignan.inra.fr #12;1. INTRODUCTION Selection for increased root lodging resistance is an important objective of maize

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

The Evolution of Mate Preferences, Sensory Biases, and Indicator Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite decades of intensive research, important discoveries continue to be made about how secondary sexual characters and mate preferences evolve. A general prediction of the mate choice indicator models is that female preferences should evolve in response to changes in the indicator value of male traits. One approach to testing this prediction is to take advantage of situations in which

Gregory F. Grether

2010-01-01

287

MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

288

Personality traits, affective commitment, documentation of knowledge, and knowledge sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managerial influences on knowledge sharing and the importance of knowledge sharing in strategic success of firms have been well studied. Some research and theory have considered the effects of relatively malleable and situation-specific individual characteristics, such as motivation and the perception of vulnerability, on knowledge sharing. Insufficient research has considered the effects of enduring individual differences (i.e. personality traits) on

Kurt Matzler; Birgit Renzl; Todd Mooradian; Georg von Krogh; Julia Mueller

2011-01-01

289

Evidences of local adaptation in quantitative traits in Prosopis alba (Leguminosae).  

PubMed

Signals of selection on quantitative traits can be detected by the comparison between the genetic differentiation of molecular (neutral) markers and quantitative traits, by multivariate extensions of the same model and by the observation of the additive covariance among relatives. We studied, by three different tests, signals of occurrence of selection in Prosopis alba populations over 15 quantitative traits: three economically important life history traits: height, basal diameter and biomass, 11 leaf morphology traits that may be related with heat-tolerance and physiological responses and spine length that is very important from silvicultural purposes. We analyzed 172 G1-generation trees growing in a common garden belonging to 32 open pollinated families from eight sampling sites in Argentina. The multivariate phenotypes differ significantly among origins, and the highest differentiation corresponded to foliar traits. Molecular genetic markers (SSR) exhibited significant differentiation and allowed us to provide convincing evidence that natural selection is responsible for the patterns of morphological differentiation. The heterogeneous selection over phenotypic traits observed suggested different optima in each population and has important implications for gene resource management. The results suggest that the adaptive significance of traits should be considered together with population provenance in breeding program as a crucial point prior to any selecting program, especially in Prosopis where the first steps are under development. PMID:25523543

Bessega, C; Pometti, C; Ewens, M; Saidman, B O; Vilardi, J C

2015-02-01

290

Autism traits in the RASopathies  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) pathway genes lead to a class of disorders known as RASopathies, including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Costello syndrome (CS), and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). Previous work has suggested potential genetic and phenotypic overlap between dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although the literature offers conflicting evidence for association of NF1 and autism, there has been no systematic evaluation of autism traits in the RASopathies as a class to support a role for germline Ras/MAPK activation in ASDs. Methods We examined the association of autism traits with NF1, NS, CS and CFC, comparing affected probands with unaffected sibling controls and subjects with idiopathic ASDs using the qualitative Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the quantitative Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Results Each of the four major RASopathies showed evidence for increased qualitative and quantitative autism traits compared with sibling controls. Further, each RASopathy exhibited a distinct distribution of quantitative social impairment. Levels of social responsiveness show some evidence of correlation between sibling pairs, and autism-like impairment showed a male bias similar to idiopathic ASDs. Conclusions Higher prevalence and severity of autism traits in RASopathies compared to unaffected siblings suggests that dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling during development may be implicated in ASD risk. Evidence for sex bias and potential sibling correlation suggests that autism traits in the RASopathies share characteristics with autism traits in the general population and clinical ASD population and can shed light on idiopathic ASDs. PMID:24101678

Adviento, Brigid; Corbin, Iris L; Widjaja, Felicia; Desachy, Guillaume; Enrique, Nicole; Rosser, Tena; Risi, Susan; Marco, Elysa J; Hendren, Robert L; Bearden, Carrie E; Rauen, Katherine A; Weiss, Lauren A

2014-01-01

291

Irradiation of northwest agricultural products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

1985-02-01

292

College of Agriculture College of Agriculture Guide  

E-print Network

......................................................................................................................21 f) System for Accountability and Management (SAM.........................................................................................36 b) Purdue Agriculture Development Office.......................................................................................42 c) Office of Technology Commercialization (OTC

293

Callous-Unemotional traits in youth from a DSM-5 trait perspective.  

PubMed

The current study investigated how the Callous-Unemotional (CU) trait specifier is empirically associated with the proposed trait system for personality pathology in DSM-5, and addressed the use of multiple raters in the assessment of CU traits and additional maladaptive traits in an adolescent community sample. Both mothers and adolescents (N = 197) participated in the present study. Results showed that CU traits are located in different parts of the personality space, and are significantly associated with four broad maladaptive trait dimensions, Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, and Disinhibition. Despite moderate agreement between raters, self- and maternal-rated CU traits were related in a congruent manner with PID-5 traits, and adolescents provided incremental information in CU trait assessment above maternal ratings. The present results have clear implications for the conceptualization of CU traits within the overarching model of personality pathology, proposed in DSM-5, and partially supported the application of a multi-informant approach in CU trait assessment. PMID:24344839

Decuyper, Mieke; De Caluwé, Elien; De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip

2014-06-01

294

7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

2010-01-01

295

7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

2011-01-01

296

7 CFR 1230.11 - Imported pork and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported pork and pork products. 1230.11 Section 1230.11 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...

2010-01-01

297

7 CFR 1230.11 - Imported pork and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Imported pork and pork products. 1230.11 Section 1230.11 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...

2011-01-01

298

7 CFR 1230.11 - Imported pork and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Imported pork and pork products. 1230.11 Section 1230.11 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...

2013-01-01

299

7 CFR 1230.11 - Imported pork and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Imported pork and pork products. 1230.11 Section 1230.11 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...

2012-01-01

300

7 CFR 1230.11 - Imported pork and pork products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Imported pork and pork products. 1230.11 Section 1230.11 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION...

2014-01-01

301

Personality traits and anxiety symptoms: the multilevel trait predictor model.  

PubMed

Investigation of relations between personality traits and mental disorders can inform key issues in psychopathology research. However, it has been hindered by extensive correlations among the traits. Building on studies of affect-psychopathology relations (e.g., the tripartite model), an organizational framework is proposed to solve this problem with respect to anxiety pathology. To test the resulting model, associations between four traits (negative emotionality, positive emotionality, anxiety sensitivity, and negative evaluation sensitivity) and four anxiety symptoms (chronic worry, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, panic, and social anxiety) were examined in an undergraduate sample (N=907). Confirmatory factor analyses supported operationalizations of the constructs in this study. Examination of the trait-symptom links using hierarchical multiple regression analyses supported most of the predicted relations. Specifically, negative emotionality emerged as a general predictor that was significantly related to all four symptom dimensions. In contrast, anxiety sensitivity was specific to panic and worry, whereas negative evaluation sensitivity was specific to social anxiety and worry. Finally, positive emotionality was uniquely related to social anxiety. The model accounted for a substantial amount of variance in the symptoms and almost all of the covariation among them. PMID:17240351

Kotov, Roman; Watson, David; Robles, Jennifer P; Schmidt, Norman B

2007-07-01

302

Combined Expression Trait Correlations and Expression Quantitative Trait  

E-print Network

, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, 2 Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin, Madison segregating for obesity and diabetes. By combining the correlation results with linkage mapping information otherwise be missed if we studied only mRNA traits with statistically significant linkages in this small

Yandell, Brian S.

303

The External Factor Constraints on China's Agricultural Products Export and Countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has an important strategic significance for China's agricultural products export to the Chinese economy in the aspects of great contribution to foreign exchange, broadening employment channels for farmers, increasing peasant income and agricultural restructuring, and improving the international competitiveness of agriculture. Since China entered WTO , the import and export of agricultural products have a rapid growth. However, the

Ping Zhao

2009-01-01

304

Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

1993-01-01

305

Appearance traits in fish farming: progress from classical genetics to genomics, providing insight into current and potential genetic improvement.  

PubMed

Appearance traits in fish, those external body characteristics that influence consumer acceptance at point of sale, have come to the forefront of commercial fish farming, as culture profitability is closely linked to management of these traits. Appearance traits comprise mainly body shape and skin pigmentation. Analysis of the genetic basis of these traits in different fish reveals significant genetic variation within populations, indicating potential for their genetic improvement. Work into ascertaining the minor or major genes underlying appearance traits for commercial fish is emerging, with substantial progress in model fish in terms of identifying genes that control body shape and skin colors. In this review, we describe research progress to date, especially with regard to commercial fish, and discuss genomic findings in model fish in order to better address the genetic basis of the traits. Given that appearance traits are important in commercial fish, the genomic information related to this issue promises to accelerate the selection process in coming years. PMID:25140172

Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

2014-01-01

306

Phenotypic plasticity in the developmental integration of morphological trade-offs and secondary sexual trait compensation.  

PubMed

Trait exaggeration through sexual selection will tale place alongside other changes in phenotype. Exaggerated morphology might be compensated by parallel changes in traits that support, enhance or facilitate exaggeration: 'secondary sexual trait compensation' (SSTC). Alternatively, exaggeration might be realized at the expense of other traits through morphological trade-offs. For the most part, SSTC has only been examined interspecifically. For these phenomena to be important intraspecifically, the sexual trait must be developmentally integrated with the compensatory or competing trait. We studied developmental integration in two species with different development: the holometabolous beetle Onthophagus taurus and the hemimetabolous earwig Forficula auricularia. Male-dimorphic variation in trait exaggeration was exploited to expose both trade-offs and SSTC. We found evidence for morphological trade-offs in O. taurus, but no F. auricularia, supporting the notion that trade-offs are more likely in closed developmetal systems. However, we found these trade-offs were not limited solely to traits growing close together. Developmental integration of structures involved in SSTC were detected in both species. The developmental integration of SSTC was phenotypically plastic, such that the compensation for relatively larger sexual traits was greater in the exasperated male morphs. Evidence of intraspecific SSTC demands studies of the selective, genetic and developmental architecture of phenotypic integration. PMID:15799950

Tomkins, Joseph L; Kotiaho, Janne S; Lebas, Natasha R

2005-03-01

307

Phenotypic plasticity in the developmental integration of morphological trade-offs and secondary sexual trait compensation  

PubMed Central

Trait exaggeration through sexual selection will take place alongside other changes in phenotype. Exaggerated morphology might be compensated by parallel changes in traits that support, enhance or facilitate exaggeration: ‘secondary sexual trait compensation’ (SSTC). Alternatively, exaggeration might be realized at the expense of other traits through morphological trade-offs. For the most part, SSTC has only been examined interspecifically. For these phenomena to be important intraspecifically, the sexual trait must be developmentally integrated with the compensatory or competing trait. We studied developmental integration in two species with different development: the holometabolous beetle Onthophagus taurus and the hemimetabolous earwig Forficula auricularia. Male-dimorphic variation in trait exaggeration was exploited to expose both trade-offs and SSTC. We found evidence for morphological trade-offs in O. taurus, but not F. auricularia, supporting the notion that trade-offs are more likely in closed developmental systems. However, we found these trade-offs were not limited solely to traits growing close together. Developmental integration of structures involved in SSTC were detected in both species. The developmental integration of SSTC was phenotypically plastic, such that the compensation for relatively larger sexual traits was greater in the exaggerated male morphs. Evidence of intraspecific SSTC demands studies of the selective, genetic and developmental architecture of phenotypic integration. PMID:15799950

Tomkins, Joseph L; Kotiaho, Janne S; LeBas, Natasha R

2005-01-01

308

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Kernel and Malting Quality Traits Using Historical European Barley Records  

PubMed Central

Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

Röder, Marion S.; van Eeuwijk, Fred

2014-01-01

309

Intraspecific Trait Variation Driven by Plasticity and Ontogeny in Hypochaeris radicata  

PubMed Central

The importance of intraspecific variation in plant functional traits for structuring communities and driving ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, but mechanisms governing this variation are less studied. Variation could be due to adaptation to local conditions, plasticity in observed traits, or ontogeny. We investigated 1) whether abiotic stress caused individuals, maternal lines, and populations to exhibit trait convergence, 2) whether trait variation was primarily due to ecotypic differences or trait plasticity, and 3) whether traits varied with ontogeny. We sampled three populations of Hypochaeris radicata that differed significantly in rosette diameter and specific leaf area (SLA). We grew nine maternal lines from each population (27 lines total) under three greenhouse conditions: ambient conditions (control), 50% drought, or 80% shade. Plant diameter and relative chlorophyll content were measured throughout the experiment, and leaf shape, root?shoot ratio, and SLA were measured after five weeks. We used hierarchical mixed-models and variance component analysis to quantify differences in treatment effects and the contributions of population of origin and maternal line to observed variation. Observed variation in plant traits was driven primarily by plasticity. Shade significantly influenced all measured traits. Plant diameter was the only trait that had a sizable proportion of trait variation (30%) explained by population of origin. There were significant ontogenetic differences for both plant diameter and relative chlorophyll content. When subjected to abiotic stress in the form of light or water limitation, Hypochaeris radicata exhibited significant trait variability. This variation was due primarily to trait plasticity, rather than to adaptation to local conditions, and also differed with ontogeny. PMID:25333738

Mitchell, Rachel M.; Bakker, Jonathan D.

2014-01-01

310

Pedigree models for complex human traits involving the mitochrondrial genome  

SciTech Connect

Recent biochemical and molecular-genetic discoveries concerning variations in human mtDNA have suggested a role for mtDNA mutations in a number of human traits and disorders. Although the importance of these discoveries cannot be emphasized enough, the complex natures of mitochondrial biogenesis, mutant mtDNA phenotype expression, and the maternal inheritance pattern exhibited by mtDNA transmission make it difficult to develop models that can be used routinely in pedigree analyses to quantify and test hypotheses about the role of mtDNA in the expression of a trait. In the present paper, the authors describe complexities inherent in mitochondrial biogenesis and genetic transmission and show how these complexities can be incorporated into appropriate mathematical models. The authors offer a variety of likelihood-based models which account for the complexities discussed. The derivation of the models is meant to stimulate the construction of statistical tests for putative mtDNA contribution to a trait. Results of simulation studies which make use of the proposed models are described. The results of the simulation studies suggest that, although pedigree models of mtDNA effects can be reliable, success in mapping chromosomal determinants of a trait does not preclude the possibility that mtDNA determinants exist for the trait as well. Shortcomings inherent in the proposed models are described in an effort to expose areas in need of additional research. 58 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Schork, N.J.; Guo, S.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1993-12-01

311

Trait and state perseverative cognition and the cortisol awakening response.  

PubMed

Perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination, worry) may amplify or maintain cortisol stress responses. The present study examined the effects of trait and state perseverative cognition (PC) on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We hypothesized that trait PC and state (prior day's) PC would be associated with greater CARs. Undergraduates scoring high (N=77) and low (N=42) on trait PC were included. Participants reported worries about upcoming events and ruminations on past events that occurred throughout the day as a measure of state PC. The next morning, saliva samples were collected 0, 30, 45, and 60min after awakening to assess the CAR. Area under the curve (AUC) and 30-min increase (30-min Inc) were calculated to capture the salivary cortisol total output and increase relative to baseline in the hour after awakening. There was no effect of trait PC on the CAR. In contrast, reports of worrying and/or ruminating the night before predicted greater increases in cortisol concentration and total cortisol output compared to those who neither ruminated nor worried the night before. These effects were not accounted for by depressed mood, anxiety, sleep, or recent stressors. Findings suggest differential effects of trait and state PC on the CAR and highlight the importance of using proximal measures in examining individual differences in the CAR. PMID:21050668

Zoccola, Peggy M; Dickerson, Sally S; Yim, Ilona S

2011-05-01

312

Linking Post-Translational Modifications and Variation of Phenotypic Traits*  

PubMed Central

Enzymes can be post-translationally modified, leading to isoforms with different properties. The phenotypic consequences of the quantitative variability of isoforms have never been studied. We used quantitative proteomics to dissect the relationships between the abundances of the enzymes and isoforms of alcoholic fermentation, metabolic traits, and growth-related traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the enzymatic pool allocated to the fermentation proteome was constant over the culture media and the strains considered, there was variation in abundance of individual enzymes and sometimes much more of their isoforms, which suggests the existence of selective constraints on total protein abundance and trade-offs between isoforms. Variations in abundance of some isoforms were significantly associated to metabolic traits and growth-related traits. In particular, cell size and maximum population size were highly correlated to the degree of N-terminal acetylation of the alcohol dehydrogenase. The fermentation proteome was found to be shaped by human selection, through the differential targeting of a few isoforms for each food-processing origin of strains. These results highlight the importance of post-translational modifications in the diversity of metabolic and life-history traits. PMID:23271801

Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Bely, Marina; Aigle, Michel; Bourgais, Aurélie; Langella, Olivier; Balliau, Thierry; Chevret, Didier; Valot, Benoît; da Silva, Telma; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

2013-01-01

313

Genetic Analyses of Age at Onset Traits   

E-print Network

The identification of factors underlying complex trait variation is a major goal in the field of genetics. For normally distributed, fully observed trait data there are many well established statistical methods for ...

Anderson, Carl

2007-01-01

314

Human Resource Development for Modernizing the Agricultural Workforce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater commercialization of agricultural systems and increasing trade liberalization dictate the need for better capacity on the part of the agriculture workforce in the 21st century. Global changes in the roles of the public and private sectors and the dramatic advancements in technology have also strongly affected agricultural workforce development needs. These evolving changes have important policy, institutional and programmatic

William M. Rivera; Gary E. Alex

2008-01-01

315

MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT AMONG THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT AMONG THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY The Departments of the Army, Agriculture, and the Interior, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA the important contribution of agricultural producers to our society, our economy, and our environment. We

US Army Corps of Engineers

316

Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

Moreira, M. A. (principal investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

1984-01-01

317

Agricultural Chemicals and Radiation. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is designed to be used as a resource in teaching vocational agriculture high school students about the environment. Agricultural chemicals are the major focus, with some attention to radiation. The importance of safety in agricultural chemical use is stressed, with descriptions of the pesticide label; protective clothing; respiratory…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

318

Intraspecific variability in functional traits matters: case study of Scots pine.  

PubMed

Although intraspecific trait variability is an important component of species ecological plasticity and niche breadth, its implications for community and functional ecology have not been thoroughly explored. We characterized the intraspecific functional trait variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to (1) compare it to the interspecific trait variability of trees in the same region, (2) explore the relationships among functional traits and the relationships between them and stand and climatic variables, and (3) study the role of functional trait variability as a determinant of radial growth. We considered five traits: wood density (WD), maximum tree height (H max), leaf nitrogen content (Nmass), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf biomass-to-sapwood area ratio (B L:A S). A unique dataset was obtained from the Ecological and Forest Inventory of Catalonia (IEFC), including data from 406 plots. Intraspecific trait variation was substantial for all traits, with coefficients of variation ranging between 8% for WD and 24% for B L:A S. In some cases, correlations among functional traits differed from those reported across species (e.g., H max and WD were positively related, whereas SLA and Nmass were uncorrelated). Overall, our model accounted for 47% of the spatial variability in Scots pine radial growth. Our study emphasizes the hierarchy of factors that determine intraspecific variations in functional traits in Scots pine and their strong association with spatial variability in radial growth. We claim that intraspecific trait variation is an important determinant of responses of plants to changes in climate and other environmental factors, and should be included in predictive models of vegetation dynamics. PMID:24850418

Laforest-Lapointe, Isabelle; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Retana, Javier

2014-08-01

319

Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

320

1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

321

Fetal testosterone and autistic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of amniotic testosterone in humans suggest that fetal testosterone (fT) is related to specific (but not all) sexually dimorphic aspects of cognition and behaviour. It has also been suggested that autism may be an extreme manifestation of some male-typical traits, both in terms of cognition and neuroanatomy. In this paper, we examine the possibility of a link between autistic

Bonnie Auyeung; Simon Baron-Cohen; Emma Ashwin; Rebecca Knickmeyer; Kevin Taylor; Gerald Hackett

2009-01-01

322

Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests  

PubMed Central

Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

Lasky, Jesse R.; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K.; Chazdon, Robin L.

2014-01-01

323

Freshwater Biological Traits Database (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

This draft report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also augmented with additional traits that are relevant to detecting climate change-related ef...

324

Mapping the Epigenetic Basis of Complex Traits  

E-print Network

Mapping the Epigenetic Basis of Complex Traits Sandra Cortijo,1 * René Wardenaar,2 * Maria Colomé Johannes2 Quantifying the impact of heritable epigenetic variation on complex traits is an emerging that several of these differentially methylated regions (DMRs) act as bona fide epigenetic quantitative trait

Napp, Nils

325

Agriculture and the Property Tax: A Forward Look Based on a Historical Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 392.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing the property tax in terms of agriculture, this report analyzes the following in an historical sense in order to draw implications for the future: (1) the importance of the property tax to the agricultural sector; (2) the horizontal equity of the property tax for the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in terms of income and wealth;…

Stam, Jerome M.; Sibold, Ann G.

326

Strategies for Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

1989-01-01

327

Limitations to Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pie chart showing the percentage of land without limitations to agriculture (11%) and the reasons that the other land is of limited agriculture usefulness. With a timeplot showing the (slight) increase in arable land over the period 1960-2000

AAAS Atlas of Population and Environment

328

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

329

Feed efficiency, carcass, and temperament traits in F2 Nellore-Angus steers  

E-print Network

effect on the temperament of the calf. This population was structured to identify QTL for economically important traits and appears to be useful to identify genetic markers for feed efficiency and animal temperament....

Amen, Tonya Sue

2008-10-10

330

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEC Agricultural Economics  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEC Agricultural Economics KEY: # = new course THE ECONOMICS OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE. (3 of agriculture in both a national and international dimension. Students who have completed ECO 201

MacAdam, Keith

331

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment SAG Sustainable Agriculture  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment SAG Sustainable Agriculture KEY: # = new course INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. (3) Broad introduction to the environmental, economic and cultural agriculture are discussed along with pertinent soil, crop and livestock management practices. Relationships

MacAdam, Keith

332

SFRSF: Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses sustainable agriculture in southern Florida. Issues include: land managers and farmers working together to support habitat restoration; providing the agricultural and hydrologic science and technology needed to sustain agricultural production and a quality environment; reducing phosphorus and restoring natural hydrology in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA); and Best Management Practices developed to address these issues. There are links provided for additional information on this topic.

2006-12-23

333

Biofuels from Agricultural Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuels are liquid fuels which can be produced from agricultural biomass. Agriculture-based biofuels include bioethanol, biodiesel, biomethanol, methane, and bio-oil components. Various agricultural residues, such as grain dust, crop residues, and fruit tree residues, are available as the sources of agricultural energy. Bio-energy from biomass, both residues and energy crops, can be converted into modern energy carriers. Bioethanol is derived

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

334

Agricultural Structures, Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

335

International Programs in Agriculture  

E-print Network

International Programs in Agriculture MessagefromtheDirector­ Staying Ahead of Globalization and more prosperous place for all. Fortunately, Purdue International Programs in Agriculture (IPIA) has natural disasters caution us to remember the power of nature. The United Nations Food and Agriculture

336

Growing Hawaii's agriculture industry,  

E-print Network

Program Overview Growing Hawaii's agriculture industry, one business at a time Website: http-3547 agincubator@ctahr.hawaii.edu Grow Your Business If you are looking to start an agriculture-related business with our program · Positively impact the agriculture industry in Hawaii with their success

337

Division of Agriculture,  

E-print Network

DAFVM Division of Agriculture, Forestry, and Veterinary M e d i c i n e Visit us online at www to the Mississippi State University Division of Agriculture, Forestry, and Veterinary Medicine. Discrimination based-3-14) Mississippi State University's Division of Agriculture, Forestry, and Veterinary Medicine, or DAFVM

Ray, David

338

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference Conference Information Join us to discuss the drivers of Missouri agricultural and bio-fuels markets and participate in a special review of international policy implications for Missouri agriculture. Registration Deadline To guarantee space availability, please register

Noble, James S.

339

European Commission Agriculture and  

E-print Network

European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

340

Intraspecific variation in root and leaf traits and leaf-root trait linkages in eight aspen demes (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides).  

PubMed

Leaf and fine root morphology and physiology have been found to vary considerably among tree species, but not much is known about intraspecific variation in root traits and their relatedness to leaf traits. Various aspen progenies (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides) with different growth performance are used in short-rotation forestry. Hence, a better understanding of the link between root trait syndromes and the adaptation of a deme to a particular environment is essential in order to improve the match between planted varieties and their growth conditions. We examined the between-deme (genetic) and within-deme (mostly environmental) variation in important fine root traits [mean root diameter, specific root area (SRA) and specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD), root tip abundance, root N concentration] and their co-variation with leaf traits [specific leaf area (SLA), leaf size, leaf N concentration] in eight genetically distinct P. tremula and P. tremuloides demes. Five of the six root traits varied significantly between the demes with largest genotypic variation in root tip abundance and lowest in mean root diameter and RTD (no significant difference). Within-deme variation in root morphology was as large as between-deme variation suggesting a relatively low genetic control. Significant relationships existed neither between SLA and SRA nor between leaf N and root N concentration in a plant. Contrary to expectation, high aboveground relative growth rates (RGR) were associated with large, and not small, fine root diameters with low SRA and SRL. Compared to leaf traits, the influence of root traits on RGR was generally low. We conclude that aspen exhibits large intraspecific variation in leaf and also in root morphological traits which is only partly explained by genetic distances. A root order-related analysis might give deeper insights into intraspecific root trait variation. PMID:24155751

Hajek, Peter; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

2013-01-01

341

TRY – a global database of plant traits  

PubMed Central

Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.

Kattge, J; Díaz, S; Lavorel, S; Prentice, I C; Leadley, P; Bönisch, G; Garnier, E; Westoby, M; Reich, P B; Wright, I J; Cornelissen, J H C; Violle, C; Harrison, S P; Van Bodegom, P M; Reichstein, M; Enquist, B J; Soudzilovskaia, N A; Ackerly, D D; Anand, M; Atkin, O; Bahn, M; Baker, T R; Baldocchi, D; Bekker, R; Blanco, C C; Blonder, B; Bond, W J; Bradstock, R; Bunker, D E; Casanoves, F; Cavender-Bares, J; Chambers, J Q; Chapin, F S; Chave, J; Coomes, D; Cornwell, W K; Craine, J M; Dobrin, B H; Duarte, L; Durka, W; Elser, J; Esser, G; Estiarte, M; Fagan, W F; Fang, J; Fernández-Méndez, F; Fidelis, A; Finegan, B; Flores, O; Ford, H; Frank, D; Freschet, G T; Fyllas, N M; Gallagher, R V; Green, W A; Gutierrez, A G; Hickler, T; Higgins, S I; Hodgson, J G; Jalili, A; Jansen, S; Joly, C A; Kerkhoff, A J; Kirkup, D; Kitajima, K; Kleyer, M; Klotz, S; Knops, J M H; Kramer, K; Kühn, I; Kurokawa, H; Laughlin, D; Lee, T D; Leishman, M; Lens, F; Lenz, T; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Llusià, J; Louault, F; Ma, S; Mahecha, M D; Manning, P; Massad, T; Medlyn, B E; Messier, J; Moles, A T; Müller, S C; Nadrowski, K; Naeem, S; Niinemets, Ü; Nöllert, S; Nüske, A; Ogaya, R; Oleksyn, J; Onipchenko, V G; Onoda, Y; Ordoñez, J; Overbeck, G; Ozinga, W A; Patiño, S; Paula, S; Pausas, J G; Peñuelas, J; Phillips, O L; Pillar, V; Poorter, H; Poorter, L; Poschlod, P; Prinzing, A; Proulx, R; Rammig, A; Reinsch, S; Reu, B; Sack, L; Salgado-Negret, B; Sardans, J; Shiodera, S; Shipley, B; Siefert, A; Sosinski, E; Soussana, J-F; Swaine, E; Swenson, N; Thompson, K; Thornton, P; Waldram, M; Weiher, E; White, M; White, S; Wright, S J; Yguel, B; Zaehle, S; Zanne, A E; Wirth, C

2011-01-01

342

On Pancultural Self-EnhancementWell-Adjusted Taiwanese Self-Enhance on Personally Valued Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwanese participants made better-than-average judgments on collectivistic and individualistic traits, evaluated the personal importance of those traits, and completed measures of psychological adjustment (depression, perceived stress, subjective well-being, and satisfaction with life). Replicating findings from other East Asian samples, participants self-enhanced (i.e., regarded the self as superior to peers) more on collectivistic than individualistic attributes and assigned higher personal importance

Lowell Gaertner; Constantine Sedikides; Kirk Chang

2008-01-01

343

Session Title Climate Smart Agriculture  

E-print Network

Session Title Climate Smart Agriculture Session Date Khosla (moderator) Professor, Soil and Crop Sciences College of Agricultural Climate Smart Agriculture is a multi-disciplinary approach to practice agriculture

Barnes, Elizabeth A.

344

Montana State University 1 College of Agriculture  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 College of Agriculture Graduate Programs Available Agricultural Education Program (http:// catalog.montana.edu/graduate/agriculture/agricultural- education) · M.S. in Agricultural Education (http://catalog.montana.edu/graduate/ agriculture/agricultural-education) Department

Lawrence, Rick L.

345

The role of trait and ability emotional intelligence in bulimic symptoms.  

PubMed

Bulimia is characterized by poor affect regulation, yet the role of emotional intelligence (EI) is little understood. This study examined associations between EI and bulimic symptoms using 235 women from community and student populations. They completed measures of trait and ability EI, and the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale. Results showed that deficiencies in different aspects of trait EI and/or ability EI are a function of symptom type: binge eating, compensatory behaviours or weight and shape concerns. Consistent with affect regulation models, self-regulatory aspects of trait EI were related to two bulimic symptoms: binge eating and weight and shape concerns. Ability-based self-emotion management was not important, and explanatory power of lower-level EI facets (traits or abilities) was not superior to more broadly defined EI factors. Results support the conclusion that trait and ability EI may maintain subclinical levels of bulimic symptoms but have different paths. PMID:24854810

Gardner, Kathryn Jane; Quinton, Stephanie; Qualter, Pamela

2014-04-01

346

Associations between Allozyme Genotypes and Quantitative Traits in Douglas-Fir [PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (Mirb.) Franco  

PubMed Central

Effects of maternal genotypes for eight enzyme loci on seven quantitative traits in 41 half-sib families were determined. Heritability estimates for the quantitative traits were highly significant and ranged from 0.57 to 0.86. Only six of 112 comparisons (56 comparisons for each of the genotypes and 56 for homozygous versus heterozygous contrasts) were statistically significant (P < 0.05). None of these significant comparisons could be associated with either a particular allele or a particular genotype. No heterotic effects were observed when the homozygous genotypes were compared with the heterozygous ones. Because the quantitative traits are highly correlated, a discriminant function analysis was performed to obtain the two most important canonical variates that accounted for 75% of the variance in the quantitative traits. There were no significant associations among enzyme loci and the two canonical variates. I conclude that, in this study, enzyme genotypic differences do not influence the quantitative traits to a major extent. PMID:17246076

El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

1982-01-01

347

Connecting DSM-5 Personality Traits and Pathological Beliefs: Toward a Unifying Model  

PubMed Central

Dissatisfaction with the DSM-IV model of personality disorders has led to the development of alternative conceptualizations, including pathological trait models and models linked to particular theoretical approaches, such as Beck and Freeman’s (1990) cognitive framework. An important issue involves the potential to interweave such models into a single, parsimonious system that combines their distinct advantages. In this study, pathological trait and dysfunctional belief data from 616 individuals in a non-clinical sample were evaluated for commensurability using structural equation modeling. These models can be integrated via five higher-order factors, and that specific dimensions of dysfunctional beliefs can be differentiated based on features of the DSM-5 trait model. Overall, these results suggest that traits provide scaffolding for individual differences in pathological personality, within which dysfunctional beliefs offer specific vectors for clinical intervention in a cognitive framework. Implications of the empirical commensurability of trait and cognitive models are discussed. PMID:24273380

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Schade, Nick; Krueger, Robert F.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Markon, Kristian E.

2013-01-01

348

Natural selection on floral traits of Lobelia (Lobeliaceae): spatial and temporal variation.  

PubMed

The strength and direction of natural selection on floral traits can vary spatially and temporally because of variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. High spatial variation in selection should lead to differentiation of floral traits among populations. In contrast, high temporal variation in selection should retard the evolution of population-specific floral phenotypes. To determine the relative importance of spatial vs. temporal variation in natural selection, we measured phenotypic selection on seven floral traits of the wildflowers Lobelia cardinalis and L. siphilitica in 1999 and 2000. Lobelia cardinalis experienced significant temporal variation in selection, whereas L. siphilitica experienced spatial variation in selection on the same traits. This variation in selection on floral traits was associated with spatial and temporal differences in the soil microenvironment. Although few studies of natural selection include spatial or temporal replicates, our results suggest that such replication is critical for understanding the distribution of phenotypes in nature. PMID:21659233

Caruso, Christina M; Peterson, S Brook; Ridley, Caroline E

2003-09-01

349

DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gs?)-encoding (GNAS) genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits  

PubMed Central

Background Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie some important quantitative traits in domestic mammals, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In this candidate gene study, we have identified novel associations between six validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 97.6 kb region within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha gene (GNAS) domain on bovine chromosome 13 and genetic merit for a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian sires. The mammalian GNAS domain consists of a number of reciprocally-imprinted, alternatively-spliced genes which can play a major role in growth, development and disease in mice and humans. Based on the current annotation of the bovine GNAS domain, four of the SNPs analysed (rs43101491, rs43101493, rs43101485 and rs43101486) were located upstream of the GNAS gene, while one SNP (rs41694646) was located in the second intron of the GNAS gene. The final SNP (rs41694656) was located in the first exon of transcripts encoding the putative bovine neuroendocrine-specific protein NESP55, resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine amino acid substitution at amino acid position 192. Results SNP genotype-phenotype association analyses indicate that the single intronic GNAS SNP (rs41694646) is associated (P ? 0.05) with a range of performance traits including milk yield, milk protein yield, the content of fat and protein in milk, culled cow carcass weight and progeny carcass conformation, measures of animal body size, direct calving difficulty (i.e. difficulty in calving due to the size of the calf) and gestation length. Association (P ? 0.01) with direct calving difficulty (i.e. due to calf size) and maternal calving difficulty (i.e. due to the maternal pelvic width size) was also observed at the rs43101491 SNP. Following adjustment for multiple-testing, significant association (q ? 0.05) remained between the rs41694646 SNP and four traits (animal stature, body depth, direct calving difficulty and milk yield) only. Notably, the single SNP in the bovine NESP55 gene (rs41694656) was associated (P ? 0.01) with somatic cell count--an often-cited indicator of resistance to mastitis and overall health status of the mammary system--and previous studies have demonstrated that the chromosomal region to where the GNAS domain maps underlies an important quantitative trait locus for this trait. This association, however, was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. The three remaining SNPs assayed were not associated with any of the performance traits analysed in this study. Analysis of all pairwise linkage disequilibrium (r2) values suggests that most allele substitution effects for the assayed SNPs observed are independent. Finally, the polymorphic coding SNP in the putative bovine NESP55 gene was used to test the imprinting status of this gene across a range of foetal bovine tissues. Conclusions Previous studies in other mammalian species have shown that DNA sequence variation within the imprinted GNAS gene cluster contributes to several physiological and metabolic disorders, including obesity in humans and mice. Similarly, the results presented here indicate an important role for the imprinted GNAS cluster in underlying complex performance traits in cattle such as animal growth, calving, fertility and health. These findings suggest that GNAS domain-associated polymorphisms may serve as important genetic markers for future livestock breeding programs and support previous studies that candidate imprinted loci may act as molecular targets for the genetic improvement of agricultural populations. In addition, we present new evidence that the bovine NESP55 gene is epigenetically regulated as a maternally expressed imprinted gene in placental and intestinal tissues from 8-10 week old bovine foetuses. PMID:21214909

2011-01-01

350

Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human  

E-print Network

Original Article The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human physical of these traits. In this study, we assessed the relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human received 16 June 2009 Abstract A number of traits have been proposed to be important in human mate choice

Little, Tony

351

Immunity Traits in Pigs: Substantial Genetic Variation and Limited Covariation  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing robustness via improvement of resistance to pathogens is a major selection objective in livestock breeding. As resistance traits are difficult or impossible to measure directly, potential indirect criteria are measures of immune traits (ITs). Our underlying hypothesis is that levels of ITs with no focus on specific pathogens define an individual's immunocompetence and thus predict response to pathogens in general. Since variation in ITs depends on genetic, environmental and probably epigenetic factors, our aim was to estimate the relative importance of genetics. In this report, we present a large genetic survey of innate and adaptive ITs in pig families bred in the same environment. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty four ITs were studied on 443 Large White pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and analyzed by combining a principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic parameter estimation. ITs include specific and non specific antibodies, seric inflammatory proteins, cell subsets by hemogram and flow cytometry, ex vivo production of cytokines (IFN?, TNF?, IL6, IL8, IL12, IFN?, IL2, IL4, IL10), phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. While six ITs had heritabilities that were weak or not significantly different from zero, 18 and 30 ITs had moderate (0.10.4) heritability values, respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between ITs were weak except for a few traits that mostly include cell subsets. PCA revealed no cluster of innate or adaptive ITs. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that variation in many innate and adaptive ITs is genetically controlled in swine, as already reported for a smaller number of traits by other laboratories. A limited redundancy of the traits was also observed confirming the high degree of complementarity between innate and adaptive ITs. Our data provide a genetic framework for choosing ITs to be included as selection criteria in multitrait selection programmes that aim to improve both production and health traits. PMID:21829490

Flori, Laurence; Gao, Yu; Laloë, Denis; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Leplat, Jean-Jacques; Teillaud, Angélique; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Laffitte, Joëlle; Pinton, Philippe; de Vaureix, Christiane; Bouffaud, Marcel; Mercat, Marie-José; Lefèvre, François; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire

2011-01-01

352

Assessing Youth Perceptions and Knowledge of Agriculture: The Impact of Participating in an AgVenture Program  

E-print Network

Agriculture touches the lives of individuals every day, and some do not even realize it. As a means to educate society, agricultural education programs, such as "AgVenture," have been established to educate youth about the importance of agriculture...

Luckey, Alisa

2012-07-16

353

Invited review: overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits.  

PubMed

For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm include, for example, slaughter houses (meat composition and quality) and veterinary labs (specific pathogens, viral loads). At the farm level, many data are available from automated and semi-automated milking and management systems. Electronic devices measuring physiological status or activity parameters can be used to predict events such as oestrus, and also behavioural traits. Challenges concerning the predictive biology of indicator traits or standardization need to be solved. To develop effective selection programmes for new traits, the development of large databases is necessary so that high-reliability breeding values can be estimated. For expensive-to-record traits, extensive phenotyping in combination with genotyping of females is a possibility. PMID:25387784

Egger-Danner, C; Cole, J B; Pryce, J E; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B; Bradley, A; Stock, K F

2015-02-01

354

Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

1977-01-01

355

Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

356

Breeding for Grain Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding for complex multigenic phenotypic quality characters in cereals by chemical analyses and functional pilot tests is\\u000a traditionally a slow and expensive process. The development of new instrumental screening methods for complex quality traits\\u000a evaluated by multivariate data analysis has during the last decades revolutionised the economy and scale in breeding for quality.\\u000a The traditional explorative plant breeding view is

Lars Munck

357

5th- Heredity and Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are a list of links and activities about Heredity and Traits. ACTIVITIES Where Did It Come From? (UEN) - Talks about the topics in the 5th grade science core. BEST PICK! Heredity (BrainPop) - Video and activities about Heredity. BEST PICK! Study Jams: Heredity - Video and short quiz about Heredity. BEST PICK! Dog Breeding (PBS Kids) - An interactive experience where you need to figure out which animals to breed to get ...

B, Miss

2011-11-11

358

The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture.  

PubMed

The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till, NT) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice that was borne out of the American dust bowl of the 1930s. The paper then describes the benefits of CA, a suggested improvement on CT, where NT, mulch and rotations significantly improve soil properties and other biotic factors. The paper concludes that CA is a more sustainable and environmentally friendly management system for cultivating crops. Case studies from the rice-wheat areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia and the irrigated maize-wheat systems of Northwest Mexico are used to describe how CA practices have been used in these two environments to raise production sustainably and profitably. Benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global warming are also discussed. The paper concludes that agriculture in the next decade will have to sustainably produce more food from less land through more efficient use of natural resources and with minimal impact on the environment in order to meet growing population demands. Promoting and adopting CA management systems can help meet this goal. PMID:17720669

Hobbs, Peter R; Sayre, Ken; Gupta, Raj

2008-02-12

359

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm  

PubMed Central

Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL for C18:2 was detected on Group 2. Conclusion This study describes the first successful detection of QTLs for fatty acid composition in oil palm. These QTLs constitute useful tools for application in breeding programmes. PMID:19706196

Singh, Rajinder; Tan, Soon G; Panandam, Jothi M; Rahman, Rahimah Abdul; Ooi, Leslie CL; Low, Eng-Ti L; Sharma, Mukesh; Jansen, Johannes; Cheah, Suan-Choo

2009-01-01

360

Genetic variation of inbreeding depression among floral and fitness traits in Silene nutans.  

PubMed

The magnitude and variation of inbreeding depression (ID) within populations is important for the evolution and maintenance of mixed mating systems. We studied ID and its genetic variation in a range of floral and fitness traits in a small and large population of the perennial herb Silene nutans, using controlled pollinations in a fully factorial North Carolina II design. Floral traits and early fitness traits, that is seed mass and germination rate, were not much affected by inbreeding (delta<0.2). In contrast, 'late' fitness traits and multiplicative fitness suffered severely from inbreeding (delta>0.4). Lack of genetic correlations indicated that ID in floral, early and late traits is genetically decoupled. There was a trend that the smaller population was less affected by ID than the large one, although the differences were not significant for most traits. Hence, evidence for purging of deleterious alleles remains inconclusive in this study. Genetic variation in ID among paternal families was statistically significant in most floral and all seed traits, but not in late fitness traits. However, some paternal families had delta<0.5, even in the multiplicative fitness measure that suffered most from ID (delta=0.74), suggesting that the mixed mating system of S. nutans might be evolutionary stable. PMID:19690582

Thiele, J; Hansen, T; Siegismund, H R; Hauser, T P

2010-01-01

361

Autotoxicity in Agriculture and Forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant allelochemicals might interfere with growth of conspecific individuals (known as autotoxicity) when high concentrations\\u000a are accumulated in soil. Autotoxicity is ubiquitous in both natural and manipulated ecosystems and may have important ecological\\u000a implications. This chapter reviewed the role and management of autotoxicity in agriculture and forestry. It also discussed\\u000a the mode of action of autotoxicity and its controlling factors.

Ying Hu Liu; Ren Sen Zeng; Min An; Azim U. Mallik; Shi Ming Luo

362

TraitCapture: genomic and environment modelling of plant phenomic data.  

PubMed

Agriculture requires a second green revolution to provide increased food, fodder, fiber, fuel and soil fertility for a growing population while being more resilient to extreme weather on finite land, water, and nutrient resources. Advances in phenomics, genomics and environmental control/sensing can now be used to directly select yield and resilience traits from large collections of germplasm if software can integrate among the technologies. Traits could be Captured throughout development and across environments from multi-dimensional phenotypes, by applying Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) to identify causal genes and background variation and functional structural plant models (FSPMs) to predict plant growth and reproduction in target environments. TraitCapture should be applicable to both controlled and field environments and would allow breeders to simulate regional variety trials to pre-select for increased productivity under challenging environments. PMID:24646691

Brown, Tim B; Cheng, Riyan; Sirault, Xavier R R; Rungrat, Tepsuda; Murray, Kevin D; Trtilek, Martin; Furbank, Robert T; Badger, Murray; Pogson, Barry J; Borevitz, Justin O

2014-04-01

363

7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order...importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum forage,...

2012-01-01

364

7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order...importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum forage,...

2010-01-01

365

7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order...importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum forage,...

2013-01-01

366

7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order...importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum forage,...

2014-01-01

367

7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order...importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum forage,...

2011-01-01

368

7 CFR 1218.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information...person who imports fresh or processed blueberries into the United States as a...

2010-01-01

369

7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information...means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2014-01-01

370

7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information...means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2013-01-01

371

7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information...means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2012-01-01

372

7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information...means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2010-01-01

373

7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information...means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United...

2011-01-01

374

Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs.  

PubMed

The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive "slash-and-burn" farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives. PMID:23589860

Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

2013-05-01

375

Agriculture: access to technology limited.  

PubMed

From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

1997-01-01

376

[Change traits of phosphorous consumption structure in China and their effects on environmental phosphorous loads].  

PubMed

Substance flow analysis was used to construct a model to analyze change traits of China's phosphorous (P) consumption structure from 1980 to 2008 and their influences on environmental phosphorous loads, then the correlation between several socioeconomic factors and phosphorous consumption pollution was investigated. It is found that phosphorous nutrient inputs of urban life and rural life on a per capita level climbed to 1.20 kg x a(-1) and 0.99 kg x a(-1) from 0.83 kg x a(-1) and 0.75 kg x a(-1) respectively, but phosphorous recycling ratios of urban life fell to 15.6% from 62.6%. P inputs of animal husbandry and planting also kept increasing, but the recycling ratio of the former decreased from 67.5% to 40.5%, meanwhile much P input of the latter was left in agricultural soil. Correlation coefficients were all above 0.90, indicating that population, urbanization level, development levels of planting and animal husbandry were important incentives for P consumption pollution in China. Environmental Kuznets curve showed that China still stayed in the early development stage, promoting economic growth at an expense of environmental quality. This study demonstrates that China's P consumption system is being transformed into a linear and open structure, and that P nutrient loss and environmental P loads increase continually. PMID:22720592

Ma, Dun-Chao; Hu, Shan-Ying; Chen, Ding-Jiang; Li, You-Run

2012-04-01

377

Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping and The Genetic Basis of Heterosis in Maize and Rice  

PubMed Central

Despite its importance to agriculture, the genetic basis of heterosis is still not well understood. The main competing hypotheses include dominance, overdominance, and epistasis. NC design III is an experimental design that has been used for estimating the average degree of dominance of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and also for studying heterosis. In this study, we first develop a multiple-interval mapping (MIM) model for design III that provides a platform to estimate the number, genomic positions, augmented additive and dominance effects, and epistatic interactions of QTL. The model can be used for parents with any generation of selfing. We apply the method to two data sets, one for maize and one for rice. Our results show that heterosis in maize is mainly due to dominant gene action, although overdominance of individual QTL could not completely be ruled out due to the mapping resolution and limitations of NC design III. For rice, the estimated QTL dominant effects could not explain the observed heterosis. There is evidence that additive × additive epistatic effects of QTL could be the main cause for the heterosis in rice. The difference in the genetic basis of heterosis seems to be related to open or self pollination of the two species. The MIM model for NC design III is implemented in Windows QTL Cartographer, a freely distributed software. PMID:18791260

Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Wang, Shengchu; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Zeng, Zhao-Bang

2008-01-01

378

Is horizontal transmission really a problem for phylogenetic comparative methods? A simulation study using continuous cultural traits  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) provide a potentially powerful toolkit for testing hypotheses about cultural evolution. Here, we build on previous simulation work to assess the effect horizontal transmission between cultures has on the ability of both phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic methods to make inferences about trait evolution. We found that the mode of horizontal transmission of traits has important consequences for both methods. Where traits were horizontally transmitted separately, PCMs accurately reported when trait evolution was not correlated even at the highest levels of horizontal transmission. By contrast, linear regression analyses often incorrectly concluded that traits were correlated. Where simulated trait evolution was not correlated and traits were horizontally transmitted as a pair, both methods inferred increased levels of positive correlation with increasing horizontal transmission. Where simulated trait evolution was correlated, increasing rates of separate horizontal transmission led to decreasing levels of inferred correlation for both methods, but increasing rates of paired horizontal transmission did not. Furthermore, the PCM was also able to make accurate inferences about the ancestral state of traits. These results suggest that under certain conditions, PCMs can be robust to the effects of horizontal transmission. We discuss ways that future work can investigate the mode and tempo of horizontal transmission of cultural traits. PMID:21041214

Currie, Thomas E.; Greenhill, Simon J.; Mace, Ruth

2010-01-01

379

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2014-01-01

380

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2013-01-01

381

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2011-01-01

382

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2012-01-01

383

7 CFR 1212.12 - Importer-Handler Representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...who must import at least 75 percent of the honey they market in the United States and...

2010-01-01

384

Study on the time-space optimization for cold-chain logistics of fresh agricultural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important part of logistics, fresh agricultural products logistics is a key branch of modern logistics. This article first introduced the concept and characteristics of fresh agricultural products logistics, described the difference between cold -chain logistics of fresh agricultural products and the ordinary industry logistics, introduced the developing condition of Chinese agricultural products logistics, then it focused on the

Xiaolin Zhang; Guang Li

2010-01-01

385

Agricultural Mechanics. V-A-1 to V-E-1. Basic V.A.I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains five units of informational materials and transparency masters with accompanying scripts, skill sheets, and safety tests for teacher and student use in an agricultural mechanics course in vocational agriculture. The first unit introduces the agricultural mechanics shop, covering the following topics: importance of agricultural

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

386

Genetic analysis of fruit shape traits at different maturation stages in sponge gourd*  

PubMed Central

The fruit shape is important quantitative trait closely related to the fruit quality. However, the genetic model of fruit shapes has not been proposed. Therefore, in the present study, analysis of genetic effects for fruit shape traits (fruit length and fruit perimeter) in sponge gourd was conducted by employing a developmental genetic model including fruit direct effects and maternal effects. Analysis approaches of unconditional and conditional variances were applied to evaluate the genetic behavior of fruit shape traits at economical and physiological maturation times. The results of variance analysis indicated that fruit length and fruit perimeter were simultaneously affected by fruit direct genetic effects and maternal effects. Fruit direct genetic effects were relatively more important for fruit shape traits at whole developmental period. The gene expression was most active at the economical maturation stage (1~12 d after flowering) for two shape traits, and the activation of gene was mostly due to direct dominance effects at physiological maturation stage (13~60 d after flowering). The coefficients due to different genetic effects, as well as the phenotypic correlation coefficients, varied significantly between fruit shape traits themselves at various maturation stages. The results showed that it was relatively easy to improve fruit shape traits for industrial purpose by carefully selecting the parents at economical maturation stage instead of that at physiological maturation stage. PMID:17542062

Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Jin; Zhang, Cai-fang; Guan, Ya-jing; Zhang, Ying

2007-01-01

387

Protected Agriculture in the State of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the country's harsh climate, scarce water resources and poor-quality land resources, protected agriculture (PA) has a significant role in Kuwait's agricultural development. Despite difficulties, PA made spectacular progress during the 1980s (area increased from 3.5 ha in 1979\\/80 to 425 ha in 1989\\/90) and was beginning to establish an important niche in the national economy just prior to

Afaf Y. Al-Nasser; N. R. Bhat

388

Two on Urban Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As various organizations and think-tanks continue to develop programmatic strategies to improve the welfare of the world's poor, one intriguing idea that has met with marked success is the incorporation of agriculture into the very fabric of urban areas. One such organization is the International Development Research Centre (based in Canada), and its Cities Feeding People program. At the website, visitors can learn about the centre's research agenda, read various working papers and online books on the subject of urban agriculture (such as the recently released, Urban Agriculture Policy Briefs for Local Governments in Latin America), and read news updates. In that same vein, and found at the second link, is the Georgia Center for Urban Agriculture which is also committed "to promoting environmental stewardship and the delivery of science-based information." Here visitors can learn more about urban agriculture, read about creating and maintaining a successful urban agriculture, and the organization of the Center.

389

Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many plant traits covary in a non-random manner reflecting interdependencies associated with "ecological strategy" dimensions. To understand how plants integrate their structural and physiological investments, data on leaf and leaflet size and the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (?LS) obtained for 1020 individual trees (encompassing 661 species) located in 52 tropical forest plots across the Amazon Basin were incorporated into an analysis utilising existing data on species maximum height (Hmax), seed size, leaf mass per unit area (MA), foliar nutrients and ?13C, and branch xylem density (?x). Utilising a common principal components approach allowing eigenvalues to vary between two soil fertility dependent species groups, five taxonomically controlled trait dimensions were identified. The first involves primarily cations, foliar carbon and MA and is associated with differences in foliar construction costs. The second relates to some components of the classic "leaf economic spectrum", but with increased individual leaf areas and a higher ?LS newly identified components for tropical tree species. The third relates primarily to increasing Hmax and hence variations in light acquisition strategy involving greater MA, reductions in ?LS and less negative ?13C. Although these first three dimensions were more important for species from high fertility sites the final two dimensions were more important for low fertility species and were associated with variations linked to reproductive and shade tolerance strategies. Environmental conditions influenced structural traits with ?x of individual species decreasing with increased soil fertility and higher temperatures. This soil fertility response appears to be synchronised with increases in foliar nutrient concentrations and reductions in foliar [C]. Leaf and leaflet area and ?LS were less responsive to the environment than ?x. Thus, although genetically determined foliar traits such as those associated with leaf construction costs coordinate independently of structural characteristics such as maximum height, others such as the classical "leaf economic spectrum" covary with structural traits such as leaf size and ?LS. Coordinated structural and physiological adaptions are also associated with light acquisition/shade tolerance strategies with several traits such as MA and [C] being significant components of more than one ecological strategy dimension. This is argued to be a consequence of a range of different potential underlying causes for any observed variation in such "ambiguous" traits. Environmental effects on structural and physiological characteristics are also coordinated but in a different way to the gamut of linkages associated with genotypic differences.

Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Baker, T. R.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schwarz, M.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

2012-02-01

390

Genomic additive and dominance variance of milk performance traits.  

PubMed

Milk performance traits are likely influenced by both additive and non-additive (e.g. dominance) genetic effects. Genetic variation can be partitioned using genomic information. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic variance components of production and milk component traits (e.g. acetone, fatty acids), which are particularly important for milk processing or which can provide information on the health status of cows. A genomic relationship approach was applied to phenotypic and genetic information of 1295 Holstein cows for estimating additive genetic and dominance variance components. Most of the 17 investigated traits were mainly affected by additive genetic effects, but protein content and casein content also showed a significant contribution of dominance. The ratio of dominance to additive variance was estimated as 0.64 for protein content and 0.56 for casein content. This ratio was highest for SCS (1.36) although dominance was not significant. Dominance effects were negligible in other moderately heritable milk traits. PMID:24974900

Wittenburg, D; Melzer, N; Reinsch, N

2015-02-01

391

Phenotypic selection favors missing trait combinations in coexisting annual plants.  

PubMed

Trade-offs among traits are important for maintaining biodiversity, but the role of natural selection in their construction is not often known. It is possible that trade-offs reflect fundamental constraints, negative correlational selection, or directional selection operating on costly, redundant traits. In a Sonoran Desert community of winter annual plants, we have identified a trade-off between relative growth rate and water-use efficiency among species, such that species with high relative growth rate have low water-use efficiency and vice versa. We measured selection on water-use efficiency, relative growth rate, and underlying traits within populations of four species at two study sites with different average climates. Phenotypic trait correlations within species did not match the among-species trade-off. In fact, for two species with high water-use efficiency, individuals with high relative growth rate also had high water-use efficiency. All populations experienced positive directional selection for water-use efficiency and relative growth rate. Selection tended to be stronger on water-use efficiency at the warmer and drier site, and selection on relative growth rate tended to be stronger at the cooler and wetter site. Our results indicate that directional natural selection favors a phenotype not observed among species in the community, suggesting that the among-species trade-off could be due to pervasive genetic constraints, perhaps acting in concert with processes of community assembly. PMID:23852354

Kimball, Sarah; Gremer, Jennifer R; Huxman, Travis E; Lawrence Venable, D; Angert, Amy L

2013-08-01

392

Why do personality traits predict divorce? Multiple pathways through satisfaction.  

PubMed

While previous studies indicate that personality traits influence the likelihood of divorce, the processes that drive this relationship have yet to be examined. Accordingly, the current study utilized a nationally representative, longitudinal sample (N = 8,206) to test whether relationship satisfaction is a pathway by which personality traits influence relationship dissolution. Specifically, we examined 2 different pathways: the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways. The enduring dynamics pathway specifies that the association between personality and relationship satisfaction reflects ongoing relationship dynamics, which are presumed to be stable across a relationship. In contrast, the emergent distress pathway proposes that personality leads to worsening dynamics across the course of a relationship, which is indicated by changes in satisfaction. For each pathway, we assessed actor, partner, and combined effects for the Big Five. Results replicate previous research in that personality traits prospectively predict relationship dissolution. Both the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways served to explain this relationship, though the enduring dynamics model evidenced the largest effects. The emergent distress pathway was stronger for couples who experienced certain life events, suggesting that personality plays a role in adapting to changing life circumstances. Moreover, results suggest that the personality of the dyad is important in this process: Above and beyond actor effects, partner effects influenced relationship functioning (although the influence of combined effects was less clear). In sum, the current study demonstrates that personality traits shape the overall quality of one's relationship, which in turn influences the likelihood of relationship dissolution. PMID:24841100

Solomon, Brittany C; Jackson, Joshua J

2014-06-01

393

Quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in an F2 generation of rainbow trout produced through phenotypic selection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selective breeding programs for salmonids typically aim to improve traits associated with growth and disease resistance. It has been established that stressors common to production environments can adversely affect these and other traits which are important to producers and consumers. Previously,...

394

A study of the role of root morphological traits in growth of barley in zinc-deficient soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc (Zn) deficiency reduces crop yields globally. This study investigated the importance of root morpholog- ical traits, especially root hairs, in plant growth and Zn uptake. Wild-type barley (Hordeum vulgare) Pallas and its root-hairless mutant brb were grown in soil and solution culture at different levels of Zn supply for 16 d. Root morphological traits (root length, diameter, and surface

Y. Genc; C. Y. Huang; P. Langridge

2007-01-01

395

Dietary flavonoids enhance conspicuousness of a melanin-based trait in male blackcaps but not of the female homologous trait or of sexually monochromatic traits.  

PubMed

Signalling theory predicts that signals should fulfil three fundamental requirements: high detectability, discriminability and, most importantly, reliability. Melanins are the most common pigments in animals. Correlations between genotypic and phenotypic qualities of the sender and size and morph of melanin-based traits are known, but it is contentious whether melanin-based colouration may signal any quality. We examined the effect of supplementing blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with flavonoids, potent plant antioxidants, on plumage colouration. We demonstrate that melanin-based colour can fulfil all requirements of signals of phenotypic condition. As predicted by sexual selection theory, flavonoid supplementation influenced only the sexually dichromatic black cap of males, whereas the female homologous trait and the sexually monochromatic back colouration remained unaffected. Using avian vision models we show that birds can estimate male flavonoid intake from colouration of males' black cap. Because flavonoid ingestion can increase immune responsiveness in blackcaps, melanin head colouration may signal environmentally determined immune condition. PMID:19555443

Catoni, C; Peters, A; Schaefer, H M

2009-08-01

396

Agricultural aviation research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

Chevalier, H. L. (compiler); Bouse, L. F. (compiler)

1977-01-01

397

Agriculture Fact Book 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture Office of Communications has recently released the latest version (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) of its Agriculture Fact Book (discussed in the May 17, 1996 Scout Report). It is a compendium of thousands of facts presented in thumbnail essay, chart, table, and map formats that discuss the various aspects of US agriculture. The AFB answers questions about what Americans eat and what it costs, the structure of agriculture, and rural America, among others. Users can also find detailed organizational information about the Department. The AFB is a well-known reference tool for librarians, journalists, and subject specialists alike.

398

Agriculture Fact Book 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) has recently released the _Agricultural Fact Book 1996_ . Provided by the USDA Office of Communications, it offers basic facts about many aspects of U.S. agriculture, including the U.S. farm sector, the structure of U.S. agriculture, and rural America. It contains short entries and brief statistical breakdowns, and is meant to be used as a ready reference tool for journalists, librarians, farm special interest groups, and the general public. The publication is available only in Adobe Acrobat .pdf format. Pointers to the Adobe Acrobat download site are available from the publication.

1996-01-01

399

Fulbrighters Agricultural scientists  

E-print Network

with research and education. A Fulbright award gives students and scholars the benefit of conducting worldFulbrighters are... Agricultural scientists Anthropologists Archeologists Architects Art historians

400

Interspecific coordination and intraspecific plasticity of fine root traits in North American temperate tree species  

PubMed Central

Fine roots play an important role in nutrient and water absorption and hence overall tree performance. However, current understanding of the ecological role of belowground traits lags considerably behind those of aboveground traits. In this study, we used data on specific root length (SRL), fine root diameter (D) and branching intensity (BI) of two datasets to examine interspecific trait coordination as well as intraspecific trait variation across ontogenetic stage and soil conditions (i.e., plasticity). The first dataset included saplings of 12 North American temperate tree species grown in monocultures in a common garden experiment to examine interspecific trait coordination. The second dataset included adult and juvenile individuals of four species (present in both datasets) co-occurring in natural forests on contrasting soils (i.e., humid organic, mesic, and xeric podzolic).The three fine root traits investigated were strongly coordinated, with high SRL being related to low D and high BI. Fine root traits and aboveground life-strategies (i.e., relative growth rate) were weakly coordinated and never significant. Intraspecific responses to changes in ontogenetic stage or soil conditions were trait dependent. SRL was significantly higher in juveniles compared to adults for Abies balsamea and Acer rubrum, but did not vary with soil condition. BI did not vary significantly with either ontogeny or soil conditions, while D was generally significantly lower in juveniles and higher in humid organic soils. D also had the least total variability most of which was due to changes in the environment (plasticity). This study brings support for the emerging evidence for interspecific root trait coordination in trees. It also indicates that intraspecific responses to both ontogeny and soil conditions are trait dependent and less concerted. D appears to be a better indicator of environmental change than SRL and BI. PMID:23874347

Tobner, Cornelia M.; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian

2013-01-01

401

Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.  

PubMed

The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex. PMID:23928890

Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

2014-01-01

402

Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and avoiding the introduction of fish.

Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

2004-01-01

403

The stay-green trait.  

PubMed

Stay-green (sometimes staygreen) refers to the heritable delayed foliar senescence character in model and crop plant species. In a cosmetic stay-green, a lesion interferes with an early step in chlorophyll catabolism. The possible contribution of synthesis to chlorophyll turnover in cosmetic stay-greens is considered. In functional stay-greens, the transition from the carbon capture period to the nitrogen mobilization (senescence) phase of canopy development is delayed, and/or the senescence syndrome proceeds slowly. Yield and composition in high-carbon (C) crops such as cereals, and in high-nitrogen (N) species such as legumes, reflect the source-sink relationship with canopy C capture and N remobilization. Quantitative trait loci studies show that functional stay-green is a valuable trait for improving crop stress tolerance, and is associated with the domestication syndrome in cereals. Stay-green variants reveal how autumnal senescence and dormancy are coordinated in trees. The stay-green phenotype can be the result of alterations in hormone metabolism and signalling, particularly affecting networks involving cytokinins and ethylene. Members of the WRKY and NAC families, and an ever-expanding cast of additional senescence-associated transcription factors, are identifiable by mutations that result in stay-green. Empirical selection for functional stay-green has contributed to increasing crop yields, particularly where it is part of a strategy that also targets other traits such as sink capacity and environmental sensitivity and is associated with appropriate crop management methodology. The onset and progress of senescence are phenological metrics that show climate change sensitivity, indicating that understanding stay-green can contribute to the design of appropriate crop types for future environments. PMID:24600017

Thomas, Howard; Ougham, Helen

2014-07-01

404

Wisconsin Agriculture Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics  

E-print Network

Wisconsin Agriculture 2012 STATUS OF Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics · Status­Extension College of Agricultural & Life Sciences UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MADISON #12;#12;Status of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2012 An annual report by the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, UW

Radeloff, Volker C.

405

Integrating species traits with extrinsic threats: closing the gap between predicting and preventing species declines  

PubMed Central

In studies of extinction risk, it is often insufficient to conclude that species with narrow ranges or small clutch sizes require prioritized protection. To improve conservation outcomes, we also need to know which threats interact with these traits to endanger some species but not others. In this study, we integrated the spatial patterns of key threats to Australian amphibians with species' ecological/life-history traits to both predict declining species and identify their likely threats. In addition to confirming the importance of previously identified traits (e.g. narrow range size), we find that extrinsic threats (primarily the disease chytridiomycosis and invasive mosquitofish) are equally important and interact with intrinsic traits (primarily ecological group) to create guild-specific pathways to decline in our model system. Integrating the spatial patterns of extrinsic threats in extinction risk analyses will improve our ability to detect and manage endangered species in the future, particularly where data deficiency is a problem. PMID:20980304

Murray, Kris A.; Rosauer, Dan; McCallum, Hamish; Skerratt, Lee F.

2011-01-01

406

Are secondary sex traits, parasites and immunity related to variation in primary sex traits in the Arctic charr?  

PubMed Central

Primary and secondary sex traits are influenced by the same sex hormones, and the expression of secondary sex traits may consequently signal males' capacity for sperm production. Sperm quality may also be influenced by immune activity, as sperm are non-self to the male. Parasite infections alter immune activity and may thus reduce ejaculate quality. In the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) the red abdominal colour is considered an ornament that signals important information in mate choice. We captured and individually caged sexually mature male Arctic charr during the spawning period. Afterwards we estimated abdominal colour, parasite infections, gonad mass and several spermatological and immunological variables. Intensity of abdominal colour was positively correlated to testes mass, milt mass and sperm cell numbers produced. Additionally, males with low parasite intensities had high testes mass and produced milt with high sperm density, indicating a trade-off between parasite resistance and development of primary sex traits. Our measures of immunity were, however, not related to primary sex traits. We conclude that females evaluating male abdominal coloration may obtain information about differences between males in fertilization potential and parasite resistance. PMID:15101414

Måsvaer, Marthe; Liljedal, Ståle; Folstad, Ivar

2004-01-01

407

Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures.2. Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as

A. Pakdel; J. A. M. Van Arendonk; A. L. J. Vereijken; H. Bovenhuis

2005-01-01

408

Self-Other Differences in Perceived Trait Consistency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to determine whether trait categories are generally perceived as more applicable to others than to self. Subjects described themselves and two acquaintances on trait checklists, indicating not only placement on trait continuum but also perceived consistency of trait-related behavior. Positive, negative, and neutral traits were…

Sagar, H. Andrew

409

Both additivity and epistasis control the genetic variation for fruit quality traits in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a gene involved in the variation of a quantitative trait may change due to epistatic interactions with the overall\\u000a genetic background or with other genes through digenic interactions. The classical populations used to map quantitative trait\\u000a loci (QTL) are poorly efficient to detect epistasis. To assess the importance of epistasis in the genetic control of fruit\\u000a quality

Mathilde Causse; Jamila Chaïb; Laurent Lecomte; Michel Buret

2007-01-01

410

Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

1985-02-01

411

ACCOUNTING FOR HETEROGENEOUS VARIANCES IN MULTI-TRAIT EVALUATION OF JERSEY TYPE TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The multi-trait genetic evaluation system for type traits was modified to estimate adjustments for heterogeneous variance (HV) simultaneously with estimated breeding values (EBV) for final score and 14 linear traits. Each within herd-year parity variance was regressed toward a predicted variance whi...

412

Biomonitoring through biological traits of benthic macroinvertebrates: how to use species trait databases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to investigate the potential use of biological and ecological traits of macroinvertebrates as indicator systems of quality conditions in freshwater ecosystems. To provide a framework for the trait analysis, a data base was developed; it stored biological information about 472 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa. Twenty-two variables describing biological and ecological traits were resolved into a

Philippe Usseglio-Polatera; Michel Bournaud; Philippe Richoux; Henri Tachet

2000-01-01

413

Work and technological innovation in organic agriculture.  

PubMed

Organic agriculture is a sustainable cultivation ecologically, economically and socially. Several researches in organic agriculture have been made from technical perspectives, economic traits or related to ecological aspects. There are practically no investigations into the nature of the technology used in organic agriculture, especially from an ergonomic perspective. From the activity analysis, this study aimed to map the technology used in the production of organic vegetables. Properties producing organic vegetables were selected representing the State of São Paulo. It was applied an instrument (questionnaire and semi-structured interview) with their managers and it was made visual records to identify adaptations, innovations and technological demands that simultaneously minimize the workload and the difficulties in performing the tasks and increase work productivity. For some of the technological innovations a digital scanner was used to generate a virtual solid model to facilitate its redesign and virtual prototyping. The main results show that organic farmers have little technology in product form. The main innovations that enable competitive advantage or allow higher labor productivity occur in the form of processes, organization and marketing. PMID:22317490

Tereso, M J A; Abrahão, R F; Gemma, S F B; Montedo, U B; Menegon, N L; Guarneti, J E; Ribeiro, I A V

2012-01-01

414

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for fiber quality and yield trait by RIL approach in Upland cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of cotton fiber quality has become more important because of changes in spinning technology. Stable quantitative\\u000a trait loci (QTLs) for fiber quality will enable molecular marker-assisted selection to improve fiber quality of future cotton\\u000a cultivars. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic linkage map consisting of 156 loci covering 1,024.4 cM was constructed using\\u000a a series of recombinant inbred lines

Xinlian Shen; Wangzhen Guo; Qiongxian Lu; Xiefei Zhu; Youlu Yuan; Tianzhen Zhang

2007-01-01

415

Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center2229MenokinRoad,Warsaw,VA22572804-333-3485www.arec.vaes.vt.edu/eastern-virginia Physical Resources  

E-print Network

Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center2229MenokinRoad,Warsaw,VA22572 owned 54 acres: (31 cropland) offices, shop, seed lab, machinery storage Yeatman farm lease through 2013 for different traits of soybeans and wheat #12;EasternVirginiaAgriculturalResearchandExtensionCenter John Seago

Virginia Tech

416

Psychopathy and Trait Emotional Intelligence  

PubMed Central

Psychopathic individuals are infamous for their chronic and diverse failures of social adjustment despite their adequate intellectual abilities. Non-cognitive factors, in particular trait emotional intelligence (EI), offer one possible explanation for their lack of success. This study explored the association between psychopathy and EI, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS, Salovey, Mayer, Golman, Turvey & Palfai, 1995). Consistent with the Response Modulation (RM) model of psychopathy (Newman & Lorenz, 2003), low-anxious psychopathic individuals had significantly lower scores on TMMS Repair and Attention compared to controls. Consistent with proposals by Patrick and Lang (1999) regarding PCL-R factors, these EI deficits related to different aspects of the psychopathy construct. Correlations revealed significant inverse associations between PCL-R factor 1 and Attention and PCL-R factor 2 and Repair. We propose that the multi-dimensional EI framework affords a complementary perspective on laboratory-based explanations of psychopathy. PMID:18438451

Malterer, Melanie B.; Glass, Samantha J.; Newman, Joseph P.

2008-01-01

417

Invasive species in agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

418

Ecological Models: Agricultural Models  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The agricultural research community is faced with a wide array of complex problems to solve. Continued population increases in developing countries require increased agricultural production, while agroecosystems are being stressed and negatively impacted by greater use of water and agrochemicals. F...

419

Theme: Urban Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

1990-01-01

420

Agriculture Power and Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

Rogers, Tom

421

Publications Agricultural Economics  

E-print Network

. (2012). Economics of IPM Decisions. Stored Product Protection (1- 9). Manhattan, KS: Kansas State (1-11). Manhattan, KS: Kansas State. http://entomology.k-state.edu/doc/finished- chapters/s156-ch-27 of Food and Agriculture­ Conservation Effects Assessment Project. How to Build Better Agricultural

422

Agriculture in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture in the United States has been successful in terms of productivity, assets, and employment. Maintaining our agriculture, however, is becoming more cosily in terms of declining resources and offsite environmental damage. Some of the very technology enhancing productivity is part of the cause. Over half the energy costs to produce U.S. crops are for fertilizers and fuel for farm

Raymond P. Poincelot

1990-01-01

423

AGRICULTURAL REPORT FEBRUARY 2008  

E-print Network

allowed the development and sale of livestock insurance products. Like crop insurance, these programsPURDUE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS REPORT FEBRUARY 2008 he Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 of the insurance policy and its availability. This article provides a general description of the LRP-Swine policy

424

Summer Agricultural Program Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher educators and state supervisors were surveyed to determine their perceptions of philosophically ideal agricultural education summer program activities. A random sample of teacher educators was selected from the directory of the American Association for Agricultural Education, and a random sample of state supervisors was selected from a…

Swan, Michael K.

425

Important driving forces in livestock production and agriculture  

E-print Network

demands high water usage, often depleting local supplies. Inadequate waste management also causes of consequences remains a complex task, but there are many promising solutions. Livestock products provide one of industrialized production systems impair air and water quality, de-value real estate and create health and well

Archer, Steven R.

426

Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests.  

PubMed

Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found in forests under different climatic control. Here, adult leaf and metamer traits were measured for 39 tree species from a tropical moist semi-evergreen forest (1580 mm rain yr(-1)) and 41 species from a dry deciduous forest (1160 mm yr(-1)) in Bolivia. Twenty-six functional traits were measured and related to species regeneration light requirements.Adult leaf traits were clearly associated with shade tolerance. Different, rather than stronger, shade adaptations were found for moist compared with dry forest species. Shade adaptations exclusively found in the evergreen moist forest were related to tough and persistent leaves, and shade adaptations in the dry deciduous forest were related to high light interception and water use.These results suggest that, for forests differing in rainfall seasonality, there is a shift in the relative importance of functional leaf traits and performance trade-offs that control light partitioning. In the moist evergreen forest leaf traits underlying the growth-survival trade-off are important, whereas in the seasonally deciduous forest leaf traits underlying the growth trade-off between low and high light might become important. PMID:19140935

Poorter, Lourens

2009-03-01

427

Report to the New Jersey State Board of Agriculture October 2013  

E-print Network

Report to the New Jersey State Board of Agriculture October 2013 Nicholi Vorsa, cranberry breeder at Rutgers Philip E. Marucci Center for Blueberry and Cranberry Research and Extension, received a $500 with Agronomic Traits, Fruit Quality and Disease Resistance in the American Cranberry." The proposed research

Goodman, Robert M.

428

National Agricultural Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are regular online agricultural libraries, and then there is the National Agricultural Library (NAL), with more working papers, fact sheets, and farm updates than ears of corn in a corncrib. This digital library, produced by the United States Department of Agriculture will be quite a boon to agriculture scholars, extension agents, and farmers alike. Designed to assist those who are unable to make a personal visit, the Library's website allows users to browse documents by subject (such as marketing and trade or livestock) and also ask actual librarians questions, via the site. Visitors will definitely want to look at the NAL Special Collections area, which features a number of rare agricultural books and guides, and the very nice pomological watercolor collection, which features images of apples, grapes, and pears.

429

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

430

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

431

Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus  

PubMed Central

Background Many agricultural contaminants disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife. However, evidence of endocrine disruption in wild amphibians living in agricultural areas has been controversial. Typically, studies on the effects of pollutants on wildlife attempt to compare polluted with unpolluted sites. Objectives We took a novel approach to address this question by explicitly quantifying the relationship between gonadal abnormalities and habitats characterized by differing degrees of agricultural activity. Methods We quantified the occurrence of gonadal abnormalities and measures of gonadal function in at least 20 giant toads (Bufo marinus) from each of five sites that occur along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use from 0 to 97%. Results The number of abnormalities and frequency of intersex gonads increased with agriculture in a dose-dependent fashion. These gonadal abnormalities were associated with altered gonadal function. Testosterone, but not 17?-estradiol, concentrations were altered and secondary sexual traits were either feminized (increased skin mottling) or demasculinized (reduced forearm width and nuptial pad number) in intersex toads. Based on the end points we examined, female morphology and physiology did not differ across sites. However, males from agricultural areas had hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits that were intermediate between intersex toads and non-agricultural male toads. Skin coloration at the most agricultural site was not sexually dimorphic; males had female coloration. Conclusions Steroid hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits correlate with reproductive activity and success, so affected toads likely have reduced reproductive success. These reproductive abnormalities could certainly contribute to amphibian population declines occurring in areas exposed to agricultural contaminants. PMID:19057706

McCoy, Krista A.; Bortnick, Lauriel J.; Campbell, Chelsey M.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.; St. Mary, Colette M.

2008-01-01

432

Association of eight EST-derived SNPs with carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

The identification of genetic markers associated with important economic traits is fundamental to improving the productivity and quality of livestock. In this investigation, we searched for 177 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) putatively involved in meat quality from the available pig EST database, and detected eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight ESTs. We investigated the associations of these SNPs with 18 carcass and meat quality traits in a Landrace?×?Lantang F2 resource population (n?=?257). Association analysis revealed that seven SNPs (except E42) were associated with some of the carcass- and meat quality-related traits. Particularly, significant associations of three SNPs (E53, E82, and E36) with backfat thickness traits were observed. Further, the genetic effects of E53 on four live backfat thickness traits were validated in an independent population (n?=?221). More investigations about E53 sequence characteristics were performed, i.e., radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, 3'-RACE, and screening analysis of the positive BAC clones. Our research identified the genetic effects of eight EST-derived SNPs on carcass and meat quality traits, and suggested that E53 may be a useful marker for live backfat thickness traits in pig breeding programs. PMID:25081836

Tong, Xiong; Zhang, Zhe; Jiao, Yiren; Xu, Jian; Dang, Hongquyen; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Zhiguo; Duan, Junli; Zhang, Hao; Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Chong

2015-02-01

433

Association of Personality Traits with Elder Self-Neglect in a Community Dwelling Population  

PubMed Central

Objective Elder self-neglect is an important public health issue. However, little is known about the association between personality traits and risk of elder self-neglect among community-dwelling populations. The objectives of this study are: 1) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect and 2) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect severity. Methods Population-based study conducted from 1993–2005 of community-dwelling older adults (N=9,056) participating in the Chicago Health Aging Project (CHAP). Subsets of the CHAP participants (N=1,820) were identified for suspected self-neglect by social services agency, which assessed the severity. Personality traits assessed included neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity and information processing. Logistic and linear regressions were used to assess these associations. Results In the bivariate analyses, personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, information processing, and rigidity) were significantly associated with increased risk of elder self-neglect. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the above associations were no longer statistically significant. In addition, personality traits were not associated with increased risk of greater self-neglect severity. Furthermore, interaction term analyses of personality traits with health and psychosocial factors were not statistically significant with elder self-neglect outcomes. Conclusion Neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity and information processing were not associated with significantly increased risk of elder self-neglect after consideration of potential confounders. PMID:21788924

Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Wilson, Robert; Beck, Todd; McKinell, Kelly; Evans, Denis

2010-01-01

434

Ten year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Method Ten-year rank order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluated before and after correcting for test-retest dependability and internal consistency in a clinical sample (N = 266). Results Dependability corrected stability estimates were generally in the range of .60–.90 for traits and .25–.65 for personality disorders. Conclusions The relatively lower stability of personality disorder symptoms may indicate important differences between pathological behaviors and relatively more stable self-attributed traits and imply that a full understanding of personality and personality pathology needs to take both traits and symptoms into account. The Five-Factor Theory distinction between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations provides a theoretical framework for the separation of traits and disorders in terms of stability in which traits reflect basic tendencies that are stable and pervasive across situations, whereas personality disorder symptoms reflect characteristic maladaptations that are a function of both basic tendencies and environmental dynamics. PMID:22812532

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Samuel, Douglas B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Shea, M. Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C.; Gunderson, John G.; Skodol, Andrew E.

2012-01-01

435

Plant traits and decomposition: are the relationships for roots comparable to those for leaves?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Fine root decomposition is an important determinant of nutrient and carbon cycling in grasslands; however, little is known about the factors controlling root decomposition among species. Our aim was to investigate whether interspecific variation in the potential decomposition rate of fine roots could be accounted for by root chemical and morphological traits, life history and taxonomic affiliation. We also investigated the co-ordinated variation in root and leaf traits and potential decomposition rates. Methods We analysed potential decomposition rates and the chemical and morphological traits of fine roots on 18 Mediterranean herbaceous species grown in controlled conditions. The results were compared with those obtained for leaves in a previous study conducted on similar species. Key Results Differences in the potential decomposition rates of fine roots between species were accounted for by root chemical composition, but not by morphological traits. The root potential decomposition rate varied with taxonomy, but not with life history. Poaceae, with high cellulose concentration and low concentrations of soluble compounds and phosphorus, decomposed more slowly than Asteraceae and Fabaceae. Patterns of root traits, including decomposition rate, mirrored those of leaf traits, resulting in a similar species clustering. Conclusions The highly co-ordinated variation of roots and leaves in terms of traits and potential decomposition rate suggests that changes in the functional composition of communities in response to anthropogenic changes will strongly affect biogeochemical cycles at the ecosystem level. PMID:22143881

Birouste, Marine; Kazakou, Elena; Blanchard, Alain; Roumet, Catherine

2012-01-01

436

NATIONAL AGRICULTURE SAFETY DATABASE (NASD)  

EPA Science Inventory

NASD is a national central repository of agricultural health, safety, and injury prevention materials for the agricultural community and especially for agricultural safety specialists. The mission of the NASD project is: to provide a national information resource for the dissemin...

437

Oregon Agriculture and the Economy  

E-print Network

Oregon Agriculture and the Economy: An Update Oregon State University Extension Service Rural Analyst Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics Oregon State University #12;Contents ...........................................................................................................................................12 Agricultural Support Services, Wholesale Trade, Transportation and Warehousing, Retail Trade

Tullos, Desiree

438

Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy Traits in Sorghum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sorghum is a very attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, high biomass yield, and great genetic diversity. Two traits are of particular interest: The sweet sorghum trait, which results in the accumulation of ...

439

Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

Eichner, Edward R.

1986-01-01

440

Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trait-based perspective of leadership has a long but checkered history. Trait approaches dominated the initial decades of scientific leadership research. Later, they were disdained for their inability to offer clear distinctions between leaders and nonleaders and for their failure to account for situational variance in leadership behavior.…

Zaccaro, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

441

7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75 Restrictions on importation of restricted articles...in order to prevent the entry into the United States of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) it is necessary to...

2010-01-01

442

7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75 Restrictions on importation of restricted articles...in order to prevent the entry into the United States of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) it is necessary to...

2011-01-01

443

7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75 Restrictions on importation of restricted articles...in order to prevent the entry into the United States of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) it is necessary to...

2014-01-01

444

7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75 Restrictions on importation of restricted articles...in order to prevent the entry into the United States of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) it is necessary to...

2013-01-01

445

7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75 Restrictions on importation of restricted articles...in order to prevent the entry into the United States of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) it is necessary to...

2012-01-01

446

7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Nursery Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37 Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of...

2010-01-01

447

7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Nursery Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37 Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of...

2011-01-01

448

Cultural traits as units of analysis  

PubMed Central

Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process. PMID:21041205

O'Brien, Michael J.; Lyman, R. Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L.

2010-01-01

449

Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies: lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important public health priority in agricultural policy-making is currently food safety, despite the relatively higher importance of food security, nutrition, and other agricultural-related health issues in terms of global burden of disease. There is limited experience worldwide of using health impact assessment (HIA) during the development of agriculture and food policies, which perhaps reflects the complex nature of

Karen Lock; Mojca Gabrijelcic-Blenkus; Marco Martuzzi; Peter Otorepec; Paul Wallace; Carlos Dora; Aileen Robertson; Jozica Maucec Zakotnic

2003-01-01

450

THE USE OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE. NECESSITY VS. REALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic was chosen due to the fact that, although agricultural insurance is particularly needed in agriculture to achieve performance, its achievements are still modest. The importance of this research is in that it tackles a very important sector of the economy, agriculture, and puts forward an immediate viable solution that meets the current needs of farmers. The contribution of

Moisuc Diana-Aderina; Nan Anca-Petruta

2011-01-01

451

Trait approach motivation moderates the aftereffects of self-control  

PubMed Central

Numerous experiments have found that exercising self-control reduces success on subsequent, seemingly unrelated self-control tasks. Such evidence lends support to a strength model that posits a limited and depletable resource underlying all manner of self-control. Recent theory and evidence suggest that exercising self-control may also increase approach-motivated impulse strength. The two studies reported here tested two implications of this increased approach motivation hypothesis. First, aftereffects of self-control should be evident even in responses that require little or no self-control. Second, participants higher in trait approach motivation should be particularly susceptible to such aftereffects. In support, exercising self-control led to increased optimism (Study 1) and broadened attention (Study 2), but only among individuals higher in trait approach motivation. These findings suggest that approach motivation is an important key to understanding the aftereffects of exercising self-control. PMID:25324814

Crowell, Adrienne; Kelley, Nicholas J.; Schmeichel, Brandon J.

2014-01-01

452

A quantitative genetic and epigenetic model of complex traits  

PubMed Central

Background Despite our increasing recognition of the mechanisms that specify and propagate epigenetic states of gene expression, the pattern of how epigenetic modifications contribute to the overall genetic variation of a phenotypic trait remains largely elusive. Results We construct a quantitative model to explore the effect of epigenetic modifications that occur at specific rates on the genome. This model, derived from, but beyond, the traditional quantitative genetic theory that is founded on Mendel’s laws, allows questions concerning the prevalence and importance of epigenetic variation to be incorporated and addressed. Conclusions It provides a new avenue for bringing chromatin inheritance into the realm of complex traits, facilitating our understanding of the means by which phenotypic variation is generated. PMID:23102025

2012-01-01

453

Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

Böhlke, J.K.

2002-01-01

454

A Unimodal Species Response Model Relating Traits to Environment with Application to Phytoplankton Communities  

PubMed Central

In this paper we attempt to explain observed niche differences among species (i.e. differences in their distribution along environmental gradients) by differences in trait values (e.g. volume) in phytoplankton communities. For this, we propose the trait-modulated Gaussian logistic model in which the niche parameters (optimum, tolerance and maximum) are made linearly dependent on species traits. The model is fitted to data in the Bayesian framework using OpenBUGS (Bayesian inference Using Gibbs Sampling) to identify according to which environmental variables there is niche differentiation among species and traits. We illustrate the method with phytoplankton community data of 203 lakes located within four climate zones and associated measurements on 11 environmental variables and six morphological species traits of 60 species. Temperature and chlorophyll-a (with opposite signs) described well the niche structure of all species. Results showed that about 25% of the variance in the niche centres with respect to chlorophyll-a were accounted for by traits, whereas niche width and maximum could not be predicted by traits. Volume, mucilage, flagella and siliceous exoskeleton are found to be the most important traits to explain the niche centres. Species were clustered in two groups with different niches structures, group 1 high temperature-low chlorophyll-a species and group 2 low temperature-high chlorophyll-a species. Compared to group 2, species in group 1 had larger volume but lower surface area, had more often flagella but neither mucilage nor siliceous exoskeleton. These results might help in understanding the effect of environmental changes on phytoplankton community. The proposed method, therefore, can also apply to other aquatic or terrestrial communities for which individual traits and environmental conditioning factors are available. PMID:24835582

Jamil, Tahira; Kruk, Carla; ter Braak, Cajo J. F.

2014-01-01

455

Predicting species’ range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America  

PubMed Central

Using functional traits to explain species’ range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)—indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations—explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic “no-go areas” for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

2014-01-01

456

Predicting species' range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America.  

PubMed

Using functional traits to explain species' range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)--indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations--explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic "no-go areas" for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

2014-09-23

457

The expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits reflects levels of dietary stress in guppies.  

PubMed

Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed 'n3LC') influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet 'quantity' treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males' colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits. PMID:25170940

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P

2014-01-01

458

Stress strengthens memory of first impressions of others' positive personality traits.  

PubMed

Encounters with strangers bear potential for social conflict and stress, but also allow the formation of alliances. First impressions of other people play a critical role in the formation of alliances, since they provide a learned base to infer the other's future social attitude. Stress can facilitate emotional memories but it is unknown whether stress strengthens our memory for newly acquired impressions of other people's personality traits. To answer this question, we subjected 60 students (37 females, 23 males) to an impression-formation task, viewing portraits together with brief positive vs. negative behavior descriptions, followed by a 3-min cold pressor stress test or a non-stressful control procedure. The next day, novel and old portraits were paired with single trait adjectives, the old portraits with a trait adjective matching the previous day's behavior description. After a filler task, portraits were presented again and subjects were asked to recall the trait adjective. Cued recall was higher for old (previously implied) than the novel portraits' trait adjectives, indicating validity of the applied test procedures. Overall, recall rate of implied trait adjectives did not differ between the stress and the control group. However, while the control group showed a better memory performance for others' implied negative personality traits, the stress group showed enhanced recall for others' implied positive personality traits. This result indicates that post-learning stress affects consolidation of first impressions in a valence-specific manner. We propose that the stress-induced strengthening of memory of others' positive traits forms an important cue for the formation of alliances in stressful conditions. PMID:21298099

Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

2011-01-01

459

The Expression of Pre- and Postcopulatory Sexually Selected Traits Reflects Levels of Dietary Stress in Guppies  

PubMed Central

Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed ‘n3LC’) influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet ‘quantity’ treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant