Note: This page contains sample records for the topic important agricultural traits from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

The angiosperm phloem sieve tube system: a role in mediating traits important to modern agriculture.  

PubMed

The plant vascular system serves a vital function by distributing water, nutrients and hormones essential for growth and development to the various organs of the plant. In this review, attention is focused on the role played by the phloem as the conduit for delivery of both photosynthate and information macromolecules, especially from the context of its mediation in traits that are important to modern agriculture. Resource allocation of sugars and amino acids, by the phloem, to specific sink tissues is of importance to crop yield and global food security. Current findings are discussed in the context of a hierarchical control network that operates to integrate resource allocation to competing sinks. The role of plasmodesmata that connect companion cells to neighbouring sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells is evaluated in terms of their function as valves, connecting the sieve tube pressure manifold system to the various plant tissues. Recent studies have also revealed that plasmodesmata and the phloem sieve tube system function cooperatively to mediate the long-distance delivery of proteins and a diverse array of RNA species. Delivery of these information macromolecules is discussed in terms of their roles in control over the vegetative-to-floral transition, tuberization in potato, stress-related signalling involving miRNAs, and genetic reprogramming through the delivery of 24-nucleotide small RNAs that function in transcriptional gene silencing in recipient sink organs. Finally, we discuss important future research areas that could contribute to developing agricultural crops with engineered performance characteristics for enhance yield potential. PMID:24368503

Ham, Byung-Kook; Lucas, William J

2014-04-01

2

Determining the Most Important Physiological and Agronomic Traits Contributing to Maize Grain Yield through Machine Learning Algorithms: A New Avenue in Intelligent Agriculture.  

PubMed

Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features. PMID:24830330

Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

3

Determining the Most Important Physiological and Agronomic Traits Contributing to Maize Grain Yield through Machine Learning Algorithms: A New Avenue in Intelligent Agriculture  

PubMed Central

Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features.

Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

4

Economic importance of bats in agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

5

Biology: An Important Agricultural Engineering Mechanism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the field of bioengineering with particular emphasis on agricultural engineering, and presents the results of a survey of schools that combine biology and engineering in their curricula. (JR)

Henderson, S. M.

1974-01-01

6

The Importance of Agriculture Science Course Sequencing in High Schools: A View from Collegiate Agriculture Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of Agriculture Science course sequencing in high schools, as a preparatory factor for students enrolled in collegiate agriculture classes. With the variety of courses listed in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Agriculture Science, it has been possible for counselors,…

Wheelus, Robin P.

2009-01-01

7

Spatial Variable Importance Assessment for Yield Prediction in Precision Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Precision Agriculture applies state-of-the-art GPS technology in connection with site-specific, sensor-based crop management. It can also be described\\u000a as a data-driven approach to agriculture, which is strongly connected with a number of data mining problems. One of those\\u000a is also an inherently important task in agriculture: yield prediction. Given a yield prediction model, which of the predictor\\u000a variables are the

Georg Ruß; Alexander Brenning

2010-01-01

8

Physiological traits and cereal germplasm for sustainable agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeding is not a discipline that readily comes to mind when agricultural sustainability is being considered. Sustainability\\u000a is normally associated with farming practices such as stubble retention, direct-drilling, or amelioration practices such as\\u000a contour farming or liming, or rotation practices for nutrient management and disease control. The contribution of plant breeding\\u000a will be in providing germplasm for these changed

R. A. Richards; M. Watt; G. J. Rebetzke

2007-01-01

9

Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal mechanisms in community processes  

PubMed Central

All plants, including crop species, harbor a community of fungal endophyte species, yet we know little about the biotic factors that are important in endophyte community assembly. We suggest that the most direct route to understanding the mechanisms underlying community assembly is through the study of functional trait variation in the host and its fungal consortium. We review studies on crop endophytes that investigate plant and fungal traits likely to be important in endophyte community processes. We focus on approaches that could speed detection of general trends in endophyte community assembly: (i) use of the ‘assembly rules’ concept to identify specific mechanisms that influence endophyte community dynamics, (ii) measurement of functional trait variation in plants and fungi to better understand endophyte community processes and plant–fungal interactions, and (iii) investigation of microbe–microbe interactions, and fungal traits that mediate them. This approach is well suited for research in agricultural systems, where pair-wise host–fungus interactions and mechanisms of fungal–fungal competition have frequently been described. Areas for consideration include the possibility that human manipulation of crop phenotype and deployment of fungal biocontrol species can significantly influence endophyte community assembly. Evaluation of endophyte assembly rules may help to fine-tune crop management strategies.

Saunders, Megan; Glenn, Anthony E; Kohn, Linda M

2010-01-01

10

Breeding objectives and the relative importance of traits in plant and animal breeding: a comparative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding objectives always involve consideration of multiple traits, even in situations where output of a single trait is\\u000a dominant. We review literature dealing with formal definition of breeding objectives. Involvement of farmers in the process\\u000a of setting up breeding objectives is also considered. In the optimal selection index, the relative importance of a trait is\\u000a scaled by its economic value,

Johann Sölkner; Heinrich Grausgruber; Ally Mwai Okeyo; Peter Ruckenbauer; Maria Wurzinger

2008-01-01

11

Agricultural Water Pollution Control - Important Factor for Sustainable Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European model of agriculture gives great opportunities for development of Polish agriculture. The model is based on multifunctional development of rural areas. It relates mainly to traditional environmental friendly tech- nologies of crop production and socio-cultural values. Integration with European Union is accelerating the proc- ess of qualitative changes in Polish agriculture. The key role of the transformation in

Katarzyna Wyporska; Józef Mosiej

12

Construction of genetic linkage map with chromosomal assigment and quantitative trait loci associated with some important agronomic traits in cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton is the world's leading natural fiber and second most important oilseed crop and has been a focus of genetic, systematic and breeding research. The genetic and physiological bases of some important agronomic traits in cotton were investigated by QTL mapping through constructing of genetic map with chromosomal assignment. A segregating F2 population derived from an interspecific cross (G. barbadense x G. hirsutum) between two genotypes, cvs. "Giza 83" and "Deltapine" was used in this study. Different molecular markers including SSR, EST, EST-SSR, AFLP and RAPD were employed to identify markers that reveal differences between the parents. In total 42 new markers were merged with 140 previously mapped markers to produce a new map with 182 loci covering a total length of 2370.5 cM. Among these new markers, some of them were used to assign chromosomes to the produced 26 linkage groups. The LG2, LG3, LG11 and LG26 were assigned to chromosomes 1, 6, 5 and 20 respectively. Single point analysis was used to identify genomic regions controlling traits for plant height, number of nodes at flowering time, bolling date, days to flowering and number of bolls. In total 40 significant QTL were identified for the five traits on 11 linkage groups (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 18, 19 and 23). This work represents an improvement of the previously constructed genetic map in addition to chromosomal assignment and detection of new significant QTL for the five traits in Egyptian cotton. The Significant QTLs detected in this study can be employed in marker assisted selection for molecular breeding programs aiming at developing cotton cultivars with improved agronomic traits. PMID:23333856

Adawy, Sami S; Diab, Ayman A; Atia, Mohamed A M; Hussein, Ebtissam H A

2013-01-01

13

The Importance of Juvenile Root Traits for Crop Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic variation in root system architecture (RSA) is an under-exploited breeding resource. This is partly a consequence of difficulties in the rapid and accurate assessment of subterranean root systems. However, although the characterisation of root systems of large plants in the field are both time-consuming and labour-intensive, high-throughput (HTP) screens of root systems of juvenile plants can be performed in the field, glasshouse or laboratory. It is hypothesised that improving the root systems of juvenile plants can accelerate access to water and essential mineral elements, leading to rapid crop establishment and, consequently, greater yields. This presentation will illustrate how aspects of the juvenile root systems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) correlate with crop yields and examine the reasons for such correlations. It will first describe the significant positive relationships between early root system development, phosphorus acquisition, canopy establishment and eventual yield among potato genotypes. It will report the development of a glasshouse assay for root system architecture (RSA) of juvenile potato plants, the correlations between root system architectures measured in the glasshouse and field, and the relationships between aspects of the juvenile root system and crop yields under drought conditions. It will then describe the development of HTP systems for assaying RSA of OSR seedlings, the identification of genetic loci affecting RSA in OSR, the development of mathematical models describing resource acquisition by OSR, and the correlations between root traits recorded in the HTP systems and yields of OSR in the field.

White, Philip; Adu, Michael; Broadley, Martin; Brown, Lawrie; Dupuy, Lionel; George, Timothy; Graham, Neil; Hammond, John; Hayden, Rory; Neugebauer, Konrad; Nightingale, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Thomas, Catherine; Thompson, Jacqueline; Wishart, Jane; Wright, Gladys

2014-05-01

14

Relationships Among Ecologically Important Dimensions of Plant Trait Variation in Seven Neotropical Forests  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims When ecologically important plant traits are correlated they may be said to constitute an ecological ‘strategy’ dimension. Through identifying these dimensions and understanding their inter-relationships we gain insight into why particular trait combinations are favoured over others and into the implications of trait differences among species. Here we investigated relationships among several traits, and thus the strategy dimensions they represented, across 2134 woody species from seven Neotropical forests. Methods Six traits were studied: specific leaf area (SLA), the average size of leaves, seed and fruit, typical maximum plant height, and wood density (WD). Trait relationships were quantified across species at each individual forest as well as across the dataset as a whole. ‘Phylogenetic’ analyses were used to test for correlations among evolutionary trait-divergences and to ascertain whether interspecific relationships were biased by strong taxonomic patterning in the traits. Key Results The interspecific and phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent results. Seed and fruit size were expected, and confirmed, to be tightly related. As expected, plant height was correlated with each of seed and fruit size, albeit weakly. Weak support was found for an expected positive relationship between leaf and fruit size. The prediction that SLA and WD would be negatively correlated was not supported. Otherwise the traits were predicted to be largely unrelated, being representatives of putatively independent strategy dimensions. This was indeed the case, although WD was consistently, negatively related to leaf size. Conclusions The dimensions represented by SLA, seed/fruit size and leaf size were essentially independent and thus conveyed largely independent information about plant strategies. To a lesser extent the same was true for plant height and WD. Our tentative explanation for negative WD–leaf size relationships, now also known from other habitats, is that the traits are indirectly linked via plant hydraulics.

Wright, Ian J.; Ackerly, David D.; Bongers, Frans; Harms, Kyle E.; Ibarra-Manriquez, Guillermo; Martinez-Ramos, Miguel; Mazer, Susan J.; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Paz, Horacio; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Poorter, Lourens; Silman, Miles R.; Vriesendorp, Corine F.; Webb, Cam O.; Westoby, Mark; Wright, S. Joseph

2007-01-01

15

The Relative Importance of Global Agricultural Subsidies and Market Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim by global trade modelers that the potential contribution to global economic welfare of removing agricultural subsidies is less than one-tenth of that from removing agricultural tariffs puzzles many observers. To help explain that result, this paper first compares the OECD and model-based estimates of the extent of the producer distortions (leaving aside consumer distortions), and shows that 75

Kym Anderson; William J. Martin; Ernesto Valenzuela

2006-01-01

16

Importance of Respiratory Exposure to Pesticides Among Agricultural Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the majority of cases, respiratory exposure accounts for a small fraction of total body exposure to pesticides; however, higher volatility pesticides pose a greater risk for exposure, particularly in enclosed spaces and near application sites. In 2000, nearly 22 million pounds of activeingredients designated as toxic air contaminants (TACs) were applied as pesticides in California (combined agricultural and reportable

Kathryn C. Dowling; James N. Seiber

2002-01-01

17

Extending the Trait-State-Occasion Model: How Important Is Within-Wave Measurement Equivalence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) covariance models represent an important advance in methods for studying the longitudinal stability of latent constructs. Such models have only been examined under fairly restricted conditions (e.g., having only 2 tau-equivalent indicators per wave). In this study, Monte Carlo simulations revealed the effects of having 2…

Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Cole, David A.; Steiger, James H.

2007-01-01

18

The Importance of Species Traits for Species Distribution on Oceanic Islands  

PubMed Central

Understanding species' ability to colonize new habitats is a key knowledge allowing us to predict species' survival in the changing landscapes. However, most studies exploring this topic observe distribution of species in landscapes which are under strong human influence being fragmented only recently and ignore the fact that the species distribution in these landscapes is far from equilibrium. Oceanic islands seem more appropriate systems for studying the relationship between species traits and its distribution as they are fragmented without human contribution and as they remained unchanged for a long evolutionary time. In our study we compared the values of dispersal as well as persistence traits among 18 species pairs from the Canary Islands differing in their distribution within the archipelago. The data were analyzed both with and without phylogenetic correction. The results demonstrate that no dispersal trait alone can explain the distribution of the species in the system. They, however, also suggest that species with better dispersal compared to their close relatives are better colonizers. Similarly, abundance of species in the archipelago seems to be an important predictor of species colonization ability only when comparing closely related species. This implies that analyses including phylogenetic correction may provide different insights than analyses without such a correction and both types of analyses should be combined to understand the importance of various plant traits for species colonization ability.

Vazacova, Kristyna; Munzbergova, Zuzana

2014-01-01

19

Investigating the beneficial traits of Trichoderma hamatum GD12 for sustainable agriculture--insights from genomics  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma hamatum strain GD12 is unique in that it can promote plant growth, activate biocontrol against pre- and post-emergence soil pathogens and can induce systemic resistance to foliar pathogens. This study extends previous work in lettuce to demonstrate that GD12 can confer beneficial agronomic traits to other plants, providing examples of plant growth promotion in the model dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana and induced foliar resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in the model monocot rice. We further characterize the lettuce-T. hamatum interaction to show that bran extracts from GD12 and an N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamindase-deficient mutant differentially promote growth in a concentration dependent manner, and these differences correlate with differences in the small molecule secretome. We show that GD12 mycoparasitises a range of isolates of the pre-emergence soil pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and that this interaction induces a further increase in plant growth promotion above that conferred by GD12. To understand the genetic potential encoded by T. hamatum GD12 and to facilitate its use as a model beneficial organism to study plant growth promotion, induced systemic resistance and mycoparasitism we present de novo genome sequence data. We compare GD12 with other published Trichoderma genomes and show that T. hamatum GD12 contains unique genomic regions with the potential to encode novel bioactive metabolites that may contribute to GD12's agrochemically important traits.

Studholme, David J.; Harris, Beverley; Le Cocq, Kate; Winsbury, Rebecca; Perera, Venura; Ryder, Lauren; Ward, Jane L.; Beale, Michael H.; Thornton, Chris R.; Grant, Murray

2013-01-01

20

U.S. Agricultural Trade Update: August U.S. Agricultural Exports Fall While Imports Grow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of U.S. agricultural exports fell 5 percent from July to August, with bulk products falling nearly 20 percent. In contrast, high-value products rose by 4 percent. With only one month remaining in fiscal 2006, fiscal-year-to-date exports are $63....

N. Brooks

2006-01-01

21

Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits: importance in the life history of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Helicidae) in a recently colonized habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive traits of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller were investigated under artificial conditions from two samples, one collected from a population exposed to unpredictable human pressures in its natural environment, i.e. a recently created polders area with intensive agriculture, and the other from a snail farm in which animals were reared under constant conditions defined as 'optimal' for growth

LUC MADEC; CHRISTOPHE DESBUQUOIS; MARIE-AGNES COUTELLEC-VRETO

2000-01-01

22

Egg Production Performance and Prediction of Standard Limits for Traits of Economic Importance in Broiler Breeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted on broiler breeders maintained in 24 different farms located in Mansehra and Abbotabad to investigate egg production performance and develop standard limits for production traits of economic importance. Average number of day-old chicks received at a broiler breeder farm was 19076.29, out of which 16449.08 birds attained sexual maturity and were housed in laying houses.

2003-01-01

23

Dicer-like 3 produces transposable element-associated 24-nt siRNAs that control agricultural traits in rice.  

PubMed

Transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences make up over 35% of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. The host regulates the activity of different TEs by different epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone H3K9 methylation, and histone H3K4 demethylation. TEs can also affect the expression of host genes. For example, miniature inverted repeat TEs (MITEs), dispersed high copy-number DNA TEs, can influence the expression of nearby genes. In plants, 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are mainly derived from repeats and TEs. However, the extent to which TEs, particularly MITEs associated with 24-nt siRNAs, affect gene expression remains elusive. Here, we show that the rice Dicer-like 3 homolog OsDCL3a is primarily responsible for 24-nt siRNA processing. Impairing OsDCL3a expression by RNA interference caused phenotypes affecting important agricultural traits; these phenotypes include dwarfism, larger flag leaf angle, and fewer secondary branches. We used small RNA deep sequencing to identify 535,054 24-nt siRNA clusters. Of these clusters, ?82% were OsDCL3a-dependent and showed significant enrichment of MITEs. Reduction of OsDCL3a function reduced the 24-nt siRNAs predominantly from MITEs and elevated expression of nearby genes. OsDCL3a directly targets genes involved in gibberellin and brassinosteroid homeostasis; OsDCL3a deficiency may affect these genes, thus causing the phenotypes of dwarfism and enlarged flag leaf angle. Our work identifies OsDCL3a-dependent 24-nt siRNAs derived from MITEs as broadly functioning regulators for fine-tuning gene expression, which may reflect a conserved epigenetic mechanism in higher plants with genomes rich in dispersed repeats or TEs. PMID:24554078

Wei, Liya; Gu, Lianfeng; Song, Xianwei; Cui, Xiekui; Lu, Zhike; Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lulu; Hu, Fengyi; Zhai, Jixian; Meyers, Blake C; Cao, Xiaofeng

2014-03-11

24

Construction of a BAC library for buckwheat genome research - an application to positional cloning of agriculturally valuable traits.  

PubMed

We have constructed a BAC library for common buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. The library includes 142,005 clones with an average insert size of approximately 76 kb, equivalent to approximately a 7 to approximately 8-fold coverage of the genome. Polymerase chain reaction based screening of the library with AGAMOUS and FLORICAULA/LEAFY primers, has identified 7 and 9 BACs, respectively, which are consistent with the genome coverage. This library represents the first large insert genomic library for F. esculentum and it can be served as a genetic resource facilitating agricultural, pharmacological, physiological, and evolutionary studies of the species. To demonstrate the utilization of the library for characterizing agriculturally valuable traits, we developed a sequence tagged site marker tightly linked to the dwarf E locus as well as to the self-incompatibility complex locus and screened the library to initiate positional cloning of the causative genes. PMID:19168990

Yasui, Yasuo; Mori, Masashi; Matsumoto, Daiki; Ohnishi, Ohmi; Campbell, Clayton G; Ota, Tatsuya

2008-10-01

25

[The importance of psychic personality traits and emotional state for diagnostics and treatment of the patient].  

PubMed

It is very important for a physician to be aware not only of objective changes in the somatic status of the patient but also of his or her subjective emotional experience in connection with a given pathology. In everyday life and work, we frequently encounter people differing in psychic traits and emotional status. In the present paper, we describe certain personality types, their characteristic features and types of behaviour in response to the developing pathology. The most common reaction is the feeling of apprehension. Recommendations are proposed on the application of the methods for reducing manifestations of apprehension with the use of psychotherapeutic modalities and pharmaceuticals. PMID:22334913

Krasiuk, A A; Levina, Iu V

2011-01-01

26

Costly Traits and e-Collaboration: The Importance of Oral Speech in Electronic Knowledge Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is argued here that oral speech\\u000a is a costly trait evolved by our human ancestors to enable effective knowledge communication. Costly traits are phenotypic traits\\u000a that evolved in spite of imposing a fitness cost, often in the form of a survival handicap\\u000a . In non-human animals, the classic example of costly trait is the peacock’s train\\u000a , used by

Ned Kock

27

Pharmaceutical and Industrial Traits in Genetically Modified Crops: Co-existence with Conventional Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the implications of using genetically modified crops to biomanufacture pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds from the perspective of their co-existence with conventional agriculture. Such plant-made pharmaceuticals and plant-made industrial products rely on exciting scientific and technological breakthroughs and promise new opportunities for the agricultural sector, but they also entail novel risks. The management of the externalities and of

GianCarlo Moschini

2006-01-01

28

Pharmaceutical and Industrial Traits in Genetically Modified Crops: Co-Existence with Conventional Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the implications of using genetically modified crops to biomanufacture pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds from the perspective of their co-existence with conventional agriculture. Such plant-made pharmaceuticals and plant-made industrial products rely on exciting scientific and technological breakthroughs and promise new opportunities for the agricultural sector, but they also entail novel risks. The management of the externalities and of

GianCarlo Moschini

2006-01-01

29

Facultative symbionts in aphids and the horizontal transfer of ecologically important traits.  

PubMed

Aphids engage in symbiotic associations with a diverse assemblage of heritable bacteria. In addition to their obligate nutrient-provisioning symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, aphids may also carry one or more facultative symbionts. Unlike obligate symbionts, facultative symbionts are not generally required for survival or reproduction and can invade novel hosts, based on both phylogenetic analyses and transfection experiments. Facultative symbionts are mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Experiments on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) have demonstrated that facultative symbionts protect against entomopathogenic fungi and parasitoid wasps, ameliorate the detrimental effects of heat, and influence host plant suitability. The protective symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa, has a dynamic genome, exhibiting evidence of recombination, phage-mediated gene uptake, and horizontal gene transfer and containing virulence and toxin-encoding genes. Although transmitted maternally with high fidelity, facultative symbionts occasionally move horizontally within and between species, resulting in the instantaneous acquisition of ecologically important traits, such as parasitoid defense. PMID:19728837

Oliver, Kerry M; Degnan, Patrick H; Burke, Gaelen R; Moran, Nancy A

2010-01-01

30

Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal temperature at birth, 2 h after birth, and 24 h after birth; cordal plasma lactate; and latency to first suckle. Based on autopsy, causes of mortality were divided into stillborn, bitten to death, starvation, crushed, disease, and other causes. Potential risk factors of dying were estimated using a GLM with a logit link function. No significant effect (NS) of housing was observed on the odds of a piglet being stillborn (F(1,73) = 0.1, NS), being crushed (F(1,53) = 1.4, NS), or dying of starvation (F(1,53) = 0.3, NS). No significant differences were observed between the 2 genetic groups for any category of mortality. Piglet traits for pre- and postnatal survival were the same for CT and PN. The odds of being stillborn were increased in piglets born late in the birth order (F(1,1061) = 33.5, P < 0.0001), after a long interbirth interval (F(1,1061) = 19.2, P < 0.0001), and with a lighter birth weight (F(1,1061) = 9.2, P = 0.003). The lighter the birth weight of the piglets, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 18, P < 0.0001) and dying of starvation (F(1,1050) = 19, P < 0.0001). The lower the rectal temperature 2 h after birth, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 4.6, P = 0.03), starving (F(1,1050) = 16.6, P < 0.0001), or dying of diseases (F(1,1050) = 4.9, P = 0.03). Increased cordal plasma lactate increased the odds of dying from starvation (F(1,1050) = 18, P < 0.0001). In both CT and PN, the birth weight, body temperature 2 h after birth, and birth process were important traits related to crushing, starvation, and disease. Neither housing nor breeding value influenced mortality or traits of importance for the inborn viability of piglets. The results emphasize that the microclimate in the PN for newborn piglets and its heat-preserving properties are more important for survival than whether the sow is crated or penned. PMID:21148785

Pedersen, L J; Berg, P; Jørgensen, G; Andersen, I L

2011-04-01

31

Identification of Major and Minor QTL for Ecologically Important Morphological Traits in Three-Spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies of Pacific three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have uncovered several genomic regions controlling variability in different morphological traits, but QTL studies of Atlantic sticklebacks are lacking. We mapped QTL for 40 morphological traits, including body size, body shape, and body armor, in a F2 full-sib cross between northern European marine and freshwater three-spined sticklebacks. A total of 52 significant QTL were identified at the 5% genome-wide level. One major QTL explaining 74.4% of the total variance in lateral plate number was detected on LG4, whereas several major QTL for centroid size (a proxy for body size), and the lengths of two dorsal spines, pelvic spine, and pelvic girdle were mapped on LG21 with the explained variance ranging from 27.9% to 57.6%. Major QTL for landmark coordinates defining body shape variation also were identified on LG21, with each explaining ?15% of variance in body shape. Multiple QTL for different traits mapped on LG21 overlapped each other, implying pleiotropy and/or tight linkage. Thus, apart from providing confirmatory data to support conclusions born out of earlier QTL studies of Pacific sticklebacks, this study also describes several novel QTL of both major and smaller effect for ecologically important traits. The finding that many major QTL mapped on LG21 suggests that this linkage group might be a hotspot for genetic determinants of ecologically important morphological traits in three-spined sticklebacks.

Liu, Jun; Shikano, Takahito; Leinonen, Tuomas; Cano, Jose Manuel; Li, Meng-Hua; Merila, Juha

2014-01-01

32

Discovery of novel genetic networks associated with 19 economically important traits in beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Quantitative or complex traits are determined by the combined effects of many loci, and are affected by genetic networks or molecular pathways. In the present study, we genotyped a total of 138 mutations, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from 71 functional genes on a Wagyu x Limousin reference population. Two hundred forty six F2 animals were measured for 5 carcass, 6 eating quality and 8 fatty acid composition traits. A total of 2,280 single marker-trait association runs with 120 tagged mutations selected based on the HAPLOVIEW analysis revealed 144 significant associations (P < 0.05), but 50 of them were removed from the analysis due to the small number of animals (? 9) in one genotype group or absence of one genotype among three genotypes. The remaining 94 single-trait associations were then placed into three groups of quantitative trait modes (QTMs) with additive, dominant and overdominant effects. All significant markers and their QTMs associated with each of these 19 traits were involved in a linear regression model analysis, which confirmed single-gene associations for 4 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 8 traits and three-gene networks for 5 traits. Such genetic networks involving both genotypes and QTMs resulted in high correlations between predicted and actual values of performance, thus providing evidence that the classical Mendelian principles of inheritance can be applied in understanding genetic complexity of complex phenotypes. Our present study also indicated that carcass, eating quality and fatty acid composition traits rarely share genetic networks. Therefore, marker-assisted selection for improvement of one category of these traits would not interfere with improvement of another.

Jiang, Zhihua; Michal, Jennifer J.; Chen, Jie; Daniels, Tyler F.; Kunej, Tanja; Garcia, Matthew D.; Gaskins, Charles T.; Busboom, Jan R.; Alexander, Leeson J.; Wright Jr., Raymond W.; MacNeil, Michael D.

2009-01-01

33

Importance of health and environment as quality traits in the buying decision of organic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to explore consumer preference for fresh vegetables labelled as organic in combination with health and environment related quality traits. The study decomposes organic farming into its main quality aspects and measures consumers' preference structure for organic, in general, and for specific organic quality traits in particular. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – By means of stated choice preference modelling,

Koen Mondelaers; Wim Verbeke; Guido Van Huylenbroeck

2009-01-01

34

QTL mapping and epistatic interaction analysis in asparagus bean for several characterized and novel horticulturally important traits  

PubMed Central

Background Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata. ssp sesquipedalis) is a subspecies and special vegetable type of cowpea (Vigna. unguiculata L. Walp.) important in Asia. Genetic basis of horticulturally important traits of asparagus bean is still poorly understood, hindering the utilization of targeted, DNA marker-assisted breeding in this crop. Here we report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic interactions for four horticultural traits, namely, days to first flowering (FLD), nodes to first flower (NFF), leaf senescence (LS) and pod number per plant (PN) using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of asparagus bean. Results A similar genetic mode of one major QTL plus a few minor QTLs was found to dominate each of the four traits, with the number of QTLs for individual traits ranging from three to four. These QTLs were distributed on 7 of the 11 chromosomes. Major QTLs for FLD, NFF and LS were co-localized on LG 11, indicative of tight linkage. Genome wide epistasis analysis detected two and one interactive locus pairs that significantly affect FLD and LS, respectively, and the epistatic QTLs for FLD appeared to work in different ways. Synteny based comparison of QTL locations revealed conservation of chromosome regions controlling these traits in related legume crops. Conclusion Major, minor, and epistatic QTLs were found to contribute to the inheritance of the FLD, NFF, LS, and PN. Positions of many of these QTLs are conserved among closely related legume species, indicating common mechanisms they share. To our best knowledge, this is the first QTL mapping report using an asparagus bean × asparagus bean intervarietal population and provides marker-trait associations for marker-assisted approaches to selection.

2013-01-01

35

Importance of impacts scenarios for the adaptation of agriculture to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great possibility that the climate is already changing, and the most drastic way possible, increases the challenge of agricultural engineering, especially in environmentally vulnerable areas and in regions where agriculture has a high economic and social importance. Knowledge of potential impacts that may be caused by changes in water and thermal regimes in coming decades is increasingly strategic, as they allow the development of techniques to adapt agriculture to climate change and therefore minimizes the risk of undesirable impacts, for example, in food and nutritional security. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to describe a way to generate impacts scenarios caused by anomalies of precipitation and temperature in the definition of climate risk zoning of an agricultural crop very important in the tropics, such as the sugar cane, especially in central-southern Brazil, which is one of its main world producers. A key point here is the choice of the climate model to be used, considering that 23 different models were used in the fourth IPCC report published in 2007. The number and range of available models requires the definition of criteria for choosing the most suitable for the preparation of the impacts scenarios. One way proposed and used in this work is based on the definition of two groups of models according to 27 technical attributes of them. The clustering of 23 models in two groups, with a model representing each group (UKMO_HadCM3 and MIROC3.2_medres), assists the generation and comparison of impacts scenarios, making them more representative and useful. Another important aspect in the generation of impacts scenarios is the estimate of the relative importance of the anomalies of precipitation and temperature, which are the most commonly used. To assess the relative importance of the anomalies are generated scenarios considering an anomaly at a time and both together. The impacts scenarios for a high emission of greenhouse gases (A2), from 2010 to 2039, were more drastic for the sugar cane in central-southern Brazil using the UKMO_HadCM3 model than the MIROC3.2_medres model. These impacts scenarios, however, were less drastic than those generated for the arabica coffee in the same simulation conditions, reinforcing the increased vulnerability of this agricultural crop to climate change than the sugar cane. The inclusion of other restrictions on the climate risk zoning improves the quality of the generated scenarios and expands its usefulness for agricultural engineering.

Zullo, J.; Macedo, C.; Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Koga Vicente, A.

2012-12-01

36

Leaf miner and plant galler species richness on Acacia : relative importance of plant traits and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity patterns of herbivores have been related to climate, host plant traits, host plant distribution and evolutionary\\u000a relationships individually. However, few studies have assessed the relative contributions of a range of variables to explain\\u000a these diversity patterns across large geographical and host plant species gradients. Here we assess the relative influence\\u000a that climate and host plant traits have on endophagous

Katy A. Bairstow; Kerri L. Clarke; Melodie A. McGeoch; Nigel R. Andrew

2010-01-01

37

The Extent, Causes, and Importance of Context Effects on Item Parameters for Two Latent-Trait Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent, causes, and importance of context effects on item parameters for one- and three-parameter latent-trait models were examined. Items were taken from the California Achievement Tests Reading Comprehension and Mathematics Concepts and Applications subtests. The reading items were administered to 1,678 fourth-grade students, and the…

Yen, Wendy M.

38

A conceptual model of root hair ideotypes for future agricultural environments: what combination of traits should be targeted to cope with limited P availability?  

PubMed Central

Background Phosphorus (P) often limits crop production and is frequently applied as fertilizer; however, supplies of quality rock phosphate for fertilizer production are diminishing. Plants have evolved many mechanisms to increase their P acquisition, and an understanding of these traits could result in improved long-term sustainability of agriculture. This Viewpoint focuses on the potential benefits of root hairs to sustainable production. Scope First the various root-related traits that could be deployed to improve agricultural sustainability are catalogued, and their potential costs and benefits to the plant are discussed. A novel mathematical model describing the effects of length, density and longevity of root hairs on P acquisition is developed, and the relative benefits of these three root-hair traits to plant P nutrition are calculated. Insights from this model are combined with experimental data to assess the relative benefits of a range of root hair ideotypes for sustainability of agriculture. Conclusions A cost–benefit analysis of root traits suggests that root hairs have the greatest potential for P acquisition relative to their cost of production. The novel modelling of root hair development indicates that the greatest gains in P-uptake efficiency are likely to be made through increased length and longevity of root hairs rather than by increasing their density. Synthesizing this information with that from published experiments we formulate six potential ideotypes to improve crop P acquisition. These combine appropriate root hair phenotypes with architectural, anatomical and biochemical traits, such that more root-hair zones are produced in surface soils, where P resources are found, on roots which are metabolically cheap to construct and maintain, and that release more P-mobilizing exudates. These ideotypes could be used to inform breeding programmes to enhance agricultural sustainability.

Brown, L. K.; George, T. S.; Dupuy, L. X.; White, P. J.

2013-01-01

39

An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)  

PubMed Central

Background Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Results Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. Conclusions The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over previous watermelon genetic maps. A large proportion of the markers in the integrated map are SSRs, InDels and SNPs, which are easily transferable across laboratories. Moreover, the populations used to construct the integrated map include all three watermelon subspecies, making this integrated map useful for the selection of breeding traits, identification of QTL, MAS, analysis of germplasm and commercial hybrid seed detection.

2014-01-01

40

75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...with the use of forced labor or child labor. The notice sets forth the...

2010-03-11

41

New Approaches to Supporting the Agricultural Biodiversity Important for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, less than 3% of the 250,000 plant varieties available to agriculture are in use. Sources of (agricultural) biodiversity are under threat and disappearing in many regions. Increasing industrialisation of agriculture and top-down agricultural research have contributed to this dependence on a relatively few plant varieties. This article argues that new approaches to agricultural development research are needed to conserve

Ronnie Vernooy; Yiching Song

2004-01-01

42

A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS). Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in a broad array of melon germplasm. Conclusions Even though relatively unsaturated genetic maps in a diverse set of melon market types have been published, the integrated saturated map presented herein should be considered the initial reference map for melon. Most of the mapped markers contained in the reference map are polymorphic in diverse collection of germplasm, and thus are potentially transferrable to a broad array of genetic experimentation (e.g., integration of physical and genetic maps, colinearity analysis, map-based gene cloning, epistasis dissection, and marker-assisted selection).

2011-01-01

43

United Kingdom: Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards. Annual Report 2008. GAIN Report Number UK8020.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is intended to supplement the European Food & Agricultural Import Regulations (FAIRS) Report with UK-specific information. The UK FAIRS provides contact information for the competent authorities that are responsible for the import of animal pr...

J. Wilson

2008-01-01

44

Discovery of novel genetic networks associated with 19 economically important traits in beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative or complex traits are determined by the combined effects of many loci, and are affected by genetic networks or molecular pathways. In the present study, we genotyped a total of 138 mutations, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from 71 functional genes on a Wagyu x Limousin reference population. Two hundred forty six F2 animals were measured for 5 carcass,

Zhihua Jiang; Jennifer J. Michal; Jie Chen; Tyler F. Daniels; Tanja Kunej; Matthew D. Garcia; Charles T. Gaskins; Jan R. Busboom; Leeson J. Alexander; Raymond W. Wright Jr; Michael D. MacNeil

2009-01-01

45

A candidate gene association study for nine economically important traits in Italian Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

We genotyped 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 25 candidate genes in about 800 Italian Holstein sires. Fifty-six (minor allele frequency >0.02) were used to evaluate their association with single traits: milk yield (MY), milk fat yield (FY), milk protein yield (PY), milk fat percentage (FP), milk protein percentage (PP), milk somatic cell count (MSCC); and complex indexes: longevity, fertility and productivity-functionality type (PFT), using deregressed proofs, after adjustment for familial relatedness. Thirty-two SNPs were significantly associated (proportion of false positives <0.05) with different traits: 16 with MSCC, 15 with PY, 14 with MY, 12 with PFT, eight with longevity, eight with FY, eight with PP, five with FP and two with fertility. In particular, a SNP in the promoter region of the PRLR gene was associated with eight of nine traits. DGAT1 polymorphisms were highly associated with FP and FY. Casein gene markers were associated with several traits, confirming the role of the casein gene cluster in affecting milk yield, milk quality and health traits. Other SNPs in genes located on chromosome 6 were associated with PY, PP, PFT, MY (PPARGC1A) and MSCC (KIT). This latter association may suggest a biological link between the degree of piebaldism in Holstein and immunological functions affecting somatic cell count and mastitis resistance. Other significant SNPs were in the ACACA, CRH, CXCR1, FASN, GH1, LEP, LGB (also known as PAEP), MFGE8, SRC, TG, THRSP and TPH1 genes. These results provide information that can complement QTL mapping and genome-wide association studies in Holstein. PMID:24796806

Fontanesi, L; Calò, D G; Galimberti, G; Negrini, R; Marino, R; Nardone, A; Ajmone-Marsan, P; Russo, V

2014-08-01

46

Leaf miner and plant galler species richness on Acacia: relative importance of plant traits and climate.  

PubMed

Diversity patterns of herbivores have been related to climate, host plant traits, host plant distribution and evolutionary relationships individually. However, few studies have assessed the relative contributions of a range of variables to explain these diversity patterns across large geographical and host plant species gradients. Here we assess the relative influence that climate and host plant traits have on endophagous species (leaf miners and plant gallers) diversity across a suite of host species from a genus that is widely distributed and morphologically variable. Forty-six species of Acacia were sampled to encapsulate the diversity of species across four taxonomic sections and a range of habitats along a 950 km climatic gradient: from subtropical forest habitats to semi-arid habitats. Plant traits, climatic variables, leaf miner and plant galler diversity were all quantified on each plant species. In total, 97 leaf mining species and 84 plant galling species were recorded from all host plants. Factors that best explained leaf miner richness across the climatic gradient (using AIC model selection) included specific leaf area (SLA), foliage thickness and mean annual rainfall. The factor that best explained plant galler richness across the climatic gradient was C:N ratio. In terms of the influence of plant and climatic traits on species composition, leaf miner assemblages were best explained by SLA, foliage thickness, mean minimum temperature and mean annual rainfall, whilst plant gall assemblages were explained by C:N ratio, %P, foliage thickness, mean minimum temperature and mean annual rainfall. This work is the first to assess diversity and structure across a broad environmental gradient and a wide range of potential key climatic and plant trait determinants simultaneously. Such methods provide key insights into endophage diversity and provide a solid basis for assessing their responses to a changing climate. PMID:20349248

Bairstow, Katy A; Clarke, Kerri L; McGeoch, Melodie A; Andrew, Nigel R

2010-06-01

47

Genetic and heterosis analysis for important agronomic traits of Chinese vegetable mustard ( Brassica juncea ) in different environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic effects and genotype by environment (GE) interaction effects for some important agronomic traits of Chinese vegetable\\u000a mustard were analyzed by using a genetic model including additive, dominance, additive × additive effects and their interaction\\u000a effects with the environment. Four variations of Chinese vegetable mustard as parental lines and their F1s, F2s were evaluated in two locations. It was revealed that the

Xiao-Hua Qi; Jing-Hua Yang; Jing-Quan Yu; Ming-Fang Zhang

2009-01-01

48

THE UNSTRUT REGION - AN IMPORTANT AGRICULTURAL REGION IN THE ELBE-RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Unstrut River Basin is a part of the Elbe River Basin which is strongly character- ized by agriculture. The soils of the floodplains in the Unstrut Basin are very fertile. Therefor, the area of the Thuringian Basin (Thüringer Becken) is one of the most in- tensively agriculturally used regions in Germany. The intensification of the agriculture is linked

B. Klöcking; U. Maier; S. Knoblauch; B. Pfützner

49

Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

2014-01-01

50

The evolution of costly traits through selection and the importance of oral speech in e-collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes code for the expression of phenotypic traits, such as behavioral (e.g., aggressiveness) and morpho- logical (e.g., opposing thumbs) traits. Costly traits are phenotypic traits that evolved in spite of imposing a fitness cost, often in the form of a survival handicap. In non-human animals, the classic example of costly trait is the peacock's train, used by males to signal

Ned Kock

2009-01-01

51

Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.  

PubMed

Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes. PMID:18833660

Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

2008-01-01

52

Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. METHODS: Research was carried

Sévilor Kekeunou; Stephan Weise; Jean Messi; Manuel Tamò

2006-01-01

53

Importance of wetland landscape structure to shorebirds wintering in an agricultural valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only recently has the influence of landscape structure on habitat use been a research focus in wetland systems. During non-breeding periods when food can be locally limited, wetland spatial pattern across a landscape may be of great importance in determining wetland use. We studied the influence of landscape structure on abundances of wintering Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) observed on wetlands in the agricultural Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA, during two winters (1999a??2000, 2000a??2001) of differing rainfall. We examined (1) shorebird use within a sample of 100 km2 regions differing in landscape structure (hectares of shorebird habitat [wet, unvegetated]) and (2) use of sites differing in landscape context (area of shorebird habitat within a species-defined radius). For use of sites, we also assessed the influence of two local characteristics: percent of soil exposed and area of wet habitat. We analyzed data using linear regression and information-theoretic modeling. During the dry winter (2000a??2001), Dunlin were attracted to regions with more wetland habitat and their abundances at sites increased with greater area of shorebird habitat within both the site and the surrounding landscape. In contrast, Dunlin abundances at sites were related to availability of habitat at only a local scale during the wet winter (1999a??2000). Regional habitat availability was of little importance in predicting Killdeer distributions, and Killdeer site use appeared unrelated to habitat distributions at both landscape and local scales. Results suggest prioritizing sites for conservation that are located in areas with high wetland coverage.

Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

2006-01-01

54

Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Selection for Important Traits in Domestic Horse Breeds  

PubMed Central

Intense selective pressures applied over short evolutionary time have resulted in homogeneity within, but substantial variation among, horse breeds. Utilizing this population structure, 744 individuals from 33 breeds, and a 54,000 SNP genotyping array, breed-specific targets of selection were identified using an FST-based statistic calculated in 500-kb windows across the genome. A 5.5-Mb region of ECA18, in which the myostatin (MSTN) gene was centered, contained the highest signature of selection in both the Paint and Quarter Horse. Gene sequencing and histological analysis of gluteal muscle biopsies showed a promoter variant and intronic SNP of MSTN were each significantly associated with higher Type 2B and lower Type 1 muscle fiber proportions in the Quarter Horse, demonstrating a functional consequence of selection at this locus. Signatures of selection on ECA23 in all gaited breeds in the sample led to the identification of a shared, 186-kb haplotype including two doublesex related mab transcription factor genes (DMRT2 and 3). The recent identification of a DMRT3 mutation within this haplotype, which appears necessary for the ability to perform alternative gaits, provides further evidence for selection at this locus. Finally, putative loci for the determination of size were identified in the draft breeds and the Miniature horse on ECA11, as well as when signatures of selection surrounding candidate genes at other loci were examined. This work provides further evidence of the importance of MSTN in racing breeds, provides strong evidence for selection upon gait and size, and illustrates the potential for population-based techniques to find genomic regions driving important phenotypes in the modern horse.

Petersen, Jessica L.; Mickelson, James R.; Rendahl, Aaron K.; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Andersson, Lisa S.; Axelsson, Jeanette; Bailey, Ernie; Bannasch, Danika; Binns, Matthew M.; Borges, Alexandre S.; Brama, Pieter; da Camara Machado, Artur; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cappelli, Katia; Cothran, E. Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Fox-Clipsham, Laura; Graves, Kathryn T.; Guerin, Gerard; Haase, Bianca; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hemmann, Karin; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lohi, Hannes; Lopes, Maria Susana; McGivney, Beatrice A.; Mikko, Sofia; Orr, Nicholas; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Piercy, Richard J.; Raekallio, Marja; Rieder, Stefan; R?ed, Knut H.; Swinburne, June; Tozaki, Teruaki; Vaudin, Mark; Wade, Claire M.; McCue, Molly E.

2013-01-01

55

Genome-wide analysis reveals selection for important traits in domestic horse breeds.  

PubMed

Intense selective pressures applied over short evolutionary time have resulted in homogeneity within, but substantial variation among, horse breeds. Utilizing this population structure, 744 individuals from 33 breeds, and a 54,000 SNP genotyping array, breed-specific targets of selection were identified using an F(ST)-based statistic calculated in 500-kb windows across the genome. A 5.5-Mb region of ECA18, in which the myostatin (MSTN) gene was centered, contained the highest signature of selection in both the Paint and Quarter Horse. Gene sequencing and histological analysis of gluteal muscle biopsies showed a promoter variant and intronic SNP of MSTN were each significantly associated with higher Type 2B and lower Type 1 muscle fiber proportions in the Quarter Horse, demonstrating a functional consequence of selection at this locus. Signatures of selection on ECA23 in all gaited breeds in the sample led to the identification of a shared, 186-kb haplotype including two doublesex related mab transcription factor genes (DMRT2 and 3). The recent identification of a DMRT3 mutation within this haplotype, which appears necessary for the ability to perform alternative gaits, provides further evidence for selection at this locus. Finally, putative loci for the determination of size were identified in the draft breeds and the Miniature horse on ECA11, as well as when signatures of selection surrounding candidate genes at other loci were examined. This work provides further evidence of the importance of MSTN in racing breeds, provides strong evidence for selection upon gait and size, and illustrates the potential for population-based techniques to find genomic regions driving important phenotypes in the modern horse. PMID:23349635

Petersen, Jessica L; Mickelson, James R; Rendahl, Aaron K; Valberg, Stephanie J; Andersson, Lisa S; Axelsson, Jeanette; Bailey, Ernie; Bannasch, Danika; Binns, Matthew M; Borges, Alexandre S; Brama, Pieter; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cappelli, Katia; Cothran, E Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Fox-Clipsham, Laura; Graves, Kathryn T; Guérin, Gérard; Haase, Bianca; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hemmann, Karin; Hill, Emmeline W; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lohi, Hannes; Lopes, Maria Susana; McGivney, Beatrice A; Mikko, Sofia; Orr, Nicholas; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Piercy, Richard J; Raekallio, Marja; Rieder, Stefan; Røed, Knut H; Swinburne, June; Tozaki, Teruaki; Vaudin, Mark; Wade, Claire M; McCue, Molly E

2013-01-01

56

Why regionality is an important value in or- ganic agriculture: the case of the Netherlands J. de Wit, H. Verhoog and U. Prins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture is a system of produc- tion and consumption in which values play a prom i- nent role. The new IFOAM principles reflect the cur- rent worldwide consensus on the most important values of organic agriculture. Regionality or proximity is not explicitly mentioned in these principles. Also in the present EU-regulation on organic agriculture hardly any standards are formulated

J. de Wit; H. Verhoog

57

Intestinal Effects of Milkborne Growth Factors in Neonates of Agricultural Importance1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of postnatal morbidity and mortality of mammalian neonates poses a significant challenge to agricultural and medical sciences. Be- cause nutritional insufficiency and diarrhea represent major stressors, an understanding of factors mediating postnatal growth and development of the gastrointes- tinal tract is essential. This review explores the role that milkborne growth factors may play in stimulating functional development of the

Jack Odle; Ruurd T. Zijlstra; Sharon M. Donovan

58

A reference consensus genetic map for molecular markers and economically important traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the earliest domesticated crops from the Near East. Today this legume is a key protein feed and food worldwide and continues to serve an important role in culinary traditions throughout Middle East, Mediterranean region, China and Ethiopia. Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the main faba bean breeding objectives are to improve yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and other agronomic traits. Genomic approaches aimed at enhancing faba bean breeding programs require high-quality genetic linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a reference consensus map in faba bean by joining the information from the most relevant maps reported so far in this crop. Results A combination of two approaches, increasing the number of anchor loci in diverse mapping populations and joining the corresponding genetic maps, was used to develop a reference consensus map in faba bean. The map was constructed from three main recombinant inbreed populations derived from four parental lines, incorporates 729 markers and is based on 69 common loci. It spans 4,602 cM with a range from 323 to 1041 loci in six main linkage groups or chromosomes, and an average marker density of one locus every 6 cM. Locus order is generally well maintained between the consensus map and the individual maps. Conclusion We have constructed a reliable and fairly dense consensus genetic linkage map that will serve as a basis for genomic approaches in faba bean research and breeding. The core map contains a larger number of markers than any previous individual map, covers existing gaps and achieves a wider coverage of the large faba bean genome as a whole. This tool can be used as a reference resource for studies in different genetic backgrounds, and provides a framework for transferring genetic information when using different marker technologies. Combined with syntenic approaches, the consensus map will increase marker density in selected genomic regions and will be useful for future faba bean molecular breeding applications.

2013-01-01

59

Importance of non CO2 fluxes for agricultural ecosystems - understanding the mechanisms and drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In agriculture, a large proportion (about 89%) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving potential may be achieved by means of soil C sequestration. Not surprising that exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been a main research objective during last decades. In spite of this, in agricultural ecosytems (i.e. grassland and croplands) a large proportion of total emissions (about 18% in CO2e worldwide) are linked to non CO2 fluxes (about 50% N2O, 40% CH4 in contraste to 10%CO2). Those emissions are however, diffuse, for example N2O, is emitted on almost all cultivated land, and all humid grasslands emit CH4 related to watertable. However, those emissions can vary largely from one site to another or from one farming system to another, while some studies even report a fixation of CH4 and N2O by grass- and croplands, not to mention the impacts of climate change on fluxes. Finally, given the large number of findings, along with their significant diversity, complicates both estimation of these emissions and the mechanism that the public authorities could implement to encourage their reduction. To determine effective mitigation options, a better knowledge on the drivers of CH4/N2O as well as their temporal and spatial variability are of particular interest. At present, more information is needed on i) the impact of agricultural practices and the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the GHG budgets within contrasting systems, ii) differences among climate regions and climate impacts, and iii) impact of managing soil microbial functioning (through plant diverstiy, litter inputs, etc). This presentation will review recent studies to highlight some new findings on the mentioned topics.

Klumpp, Katja

2014-05-01

60

QTL analysis of fruit quality traits in two peach intraspecific populations and importance of maturity date pleiotropic effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two intraspecific peach breeding populations have been used to conduct a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of fruit\\u000a quality traits: an F1 from the cross Bolero (B) x OroA (O) and an F2 from the cross Contender (C) x Ambra (A). A total of 344 Prunus simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were analyzed in B, O, C, A parents and CxA

Iban Eduardo; Igor Pacheco; Giorgiana Chietera; Daniele Bassi; Carlo Pozzi; Alberto Vecchietti; Laura Rossini

2011-01-01

61

Sexual selection in the northern pintail ( Anas acuta ): the importance of female choice versus male-male competition in the evolution of sexually-selected traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally studied the relative importance of plumage, dominance status, and courtship behavior in determining male pairing success in the northern pintail Anas acuta and assessed whether these traits function in female choice, male-male competition or both. In an experiment (experiment IA) that eliminated the confounding effects of male-male competition and social courtship, females chose males with pure white breasts

Lisa G. Sorenson; Scott R. Derrickson

1994-01-01

62

Nutrient loading associated with agriculture land use dampens the importance of consumer-mediated niche construction.  

PubMed

The linkages between biological communities and ecosystem function remain poorly understood along gradients of human-induced stressors. We examined how resource provisioning (nutrient recycling), mediated by native freshwater mussels, influences the structure and function of benthic communities by combining observational data and a field experiment. We compared the following: (1) elemental and community composition (algal pigments and macroinvertebates) on live mussel shells and on nearby rocks across a gradient of catchment agriculture and (2) experimental colonisation of benthic communities on live vs. sham shells controlling for initial community composition and colonisation duration. We show that in near pristine systems, nutrient heterogeneity mediated by mussels relates to greater biodiversity of communities, which supports the notion that resource heterogeneity can foster biological diversity. However, with increased nutrients from the catchment, the relevance of mussel-provisioned nutrients was nearly eliminated. While species can persist in disturbed systems, their functional relevance may be diminished or lost. PMID:23848507

Spooner, Daniel E; Frost, Paul C; Hillebrand, Helmut; Arts, Michael T; Puckrin, Olivia; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

2013-09-01

63

Reducing GHG emissions through genetic improvement for feed efficiency: effects on economically important traits and enteric methane production.  

PubMed

Genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) is an indirect approach for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions in beef and dairy cattle. RFI is moderately heritable (0.26 to 0.43), moderately repeatable across diets (0.33 to 0.67) and independent of body size and production, and when adjusted for off-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFI fat) is also independent of body fatness in growing animals. It is highly dependent on accurate measurement of individual animal feed intake. Within-animal repeatability of feed intake is moderate (0.29 to 0.49) with distinctive diurnal patterns associated with cattle type, diet and genotype, necessitating the recording of feed intake for at least 35 days. In addition, direct measurement of enteric CH4 production will likely be more variable and expensive than measuring feed intake and if conducted should be expressed as CH4 production (g/animal per day) adjusted for body size, growth, body composition and dry matter intake (DMI) or as residual CH4 production. A further disadvantage of a direct CH4 phenotype is that the relationships of enteric CH4 production on other economically important traits are largely unknown. Selection for low RFI fat (efficient, -RFI fat) will result in cattle that consume less dry matter (DMI) and have an improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with high RFI fat cattle (inefficient; +RFI fat). Few antagonistic effects have been reported for the relationships of RFI fat on carcass and meat quality, fertility, cow lifetime productivity and adaptability to stress or extensive grazing conditions. Low RFI fat cattle also produce 15% to 25% less enteric CH4 than +RFI fat cattle, since DMI is positively related to enteric methane (CH4) production. In addition, lower DMI and feeding duration and frequency, and a different rumen bacterial profile that improves rumen fermentation in -RFI fat cattle may favor a 1% to 2% improvement in dry matter and CP digestibility compared with +RFI fat cattle. Rate of genetic change using this approach is expected to improve feed efficiency and reduce enteric CH4 emissions from cattle by 0.75% to 1.0% per year at equal levels of body size, growth and body fatness compared with cattle not selected for RFI fat. PMID:23739472

Basarab, J A; Beauchemin, K A; Baron, V S; Ominski, K H; Guan, L L; Miller, S P; Crowley, J J

2013-06-01

64

Assessing the importance of genotype x environment interaction for root traits in rice using a mapping population. I: a soil-filled box screen.  

PubMed

Altering root system architecture is considered a method of improving crop water and soil nutrient capture. The analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root traits has revealed inconsistency in the same population evaluated in different environments. It must be clarified if this is due to genotype x environment interaction or considerations of statistics if the value of QTLs for marker-assisted breeding is to be estimated. A modified split-plot design was used where a main plot corresponded to a separate experiment. The main plot factor had four treatments (environments), which were completely randomized among eight trials, so that each treatment was replicated twice. The sub-plot factor consisted of 168 recombinant inbreed lines of the Bala x Azucena rice mapping population, randomly allocated to the seven soil-filled boxes. The aim of the trial was to quantify QTL x environment interaction. The treatments were chosen to alter partitioning to roots; consisting of a control treatment (high-soil nitrogen, high light and high-water content) and further treatments where light, soil nitrogen or soil water was reduced singly. After 4 weeks growth, maximum root length (MRL), maximum root thickness, root mass below 50 cm, total plant dry mass (%), root mass and shoot length were measured. The treatments affected plant growth as predicted; low nitrogen and drought increased relative root partitioning, low-light decreased it. The parental varieties Bala and Azucena differed significantly for all traits. Broad-sense heritability of most traits was high (57-86%). Variation due to treatment was the most important influence on the variance, while genotype was next. Genotype x environment interaction was detected for all traits except MRL, although the proportion of variation due to this interaction was generally small. It is concluded that genotype x environment interaction is present but less important than genotypic variation. A companion paper presents QTL x environment analysis of data. PMID:16874488

MacMillan, K; Emrich, K; Piepho, H-P; Mullins, C E; Price, A H

2006-10-01

65

U.S. Irrigation. Extent and Economic Importance. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 523.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data for the years 1974, 1978, 1982, and 1984 are used to identify the principal features of irrigated farming in the United States and to assess the importance of irrigation to the farm economy. Irrigation of U.S. acreage declined 5.6 million acres between 1978 and 1984 to 44.7 million acres. In 1982 irrigated acreage represented 6 percent of the…

Day, John C.; Horner, Gerald L.

66

Association of N2-fixing cyanobacteria and plants: towards novel symbioses of agricultural importance  

SciTech Connect

Some nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are able to form symbioses with a wide variety of plants. Nostoc 2S9B is unusual in its ability to infect the roots of wheat, raising the prospect of a productive association with an important crop plant. The goal of the project was to lay the groundwork for the use of novel associations between Nostoc and crops of agronomic importance, thereby reducing our reliance on nitrogenous fertilizer. Nostoc 2S9B was found to enter roots through mechanical damage of roots and reside primarily in intercellular spaces. The strain could also be incorporated into wheat calli grown in tissue culture. In both cases, the rate of nitrogen fixation by the cyanobacterium was higher than that of the same strain grown with no plant present. Artificial nodules induced by the action of hormone 2,4D were readily infected by Nostoc 2S9B, and the cyanobacteria within such nodules fixed nitrogen under fully aerobic conditions. The nitrogen fixed was shown to be incorporated into the growing wheat seedlings. Nostoc thus differs from other bacteria in its ability to fix nitrogen in para-nodules without need for artificially microaerobic conditions. It would be useful to introduce foreign DNA into Nostoc 2S9B in order to make defined mutations to understand the genetic basis of its ability to infect wheat and to create strains that might facilitate the study of the infection process. Transfer of DNA into the cyanobacterium appears to be limited by the presence of four restriction enzymes, with recognition sequences the same as BamHI, BglI, BsaHI, and Tth111I. Genes encoding methyltransferases that protect DNA against these four enzymes have been cloned into helper plasmids to allow transfer of DNA from E. coli to Nostoc 2S9B.

Elhai, Jeff

2001-06-25

67

Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Restani, M.; Davies, J. M.; Newton, W. E.

2008-01-01

68

Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle and an emerging infectious disease of humans. Cow- and badger-based control strategies have failed to eradicate bTB from the British cattle herd, and the incidence is rising by about 18%?per year. The annual cost to taxpayers in Britain is currently £74 million. Research has focused on the badger as a potential bTB reservoir, with little attention being paid to other mammals common on farmland. We have conducted a systematic survey of wild mammals (n=4393 individuals) present on dairy farms to explore the role of species other than badgers in the epidemiology of bTB. Cultures were prepared from 10?397 samples (primarily faeces, urine and tracheal aspirates). One of the 1307 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) live-sampled, and three of the 43 badgers (Meles meles), yielded positive isolates of Mycobacterium bovis. This is the first time the bacterium has been isolated from the bank vole. The strain type was the same as that found in cattle and badgers on the same farm. However, our work indicates that the mean prevalence of infectious individuals among common farmland wildlife is extremely low (the upper 95% confidence interval is ?2.0 for all of the abundant species). Mathematical models illustrate that it is highly unlikely the disease could be maintained at such low levels. Our results suggest that these animals are relatively unimportant as reservoirs of bTB, having insufficient within-species (or within-group) transmission to sustain the infection, though occasional spill-overs from cattle or badgers may occur.

Mathews, Fiona; Macdonald, David W; Taylor, G. Michael; Gelling, Merryl; Norman, Rachel A; Honess, Paul E; Foster, Rebecca; Gower, Charlotte M; Varley, Susan; Harris, Audrey; Palmer, Simonette; Hewinson, Glyn; Webster, Joanne P

2005-01-01

69

Epistasis dominates the genetic architecture of Drosophila quantitative traits  

PubMed Central

Epistasis—nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci—is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one epistatic interaction in the DGRP. Despite apparent additive effects at largely distinct loci in the two populations, the epistatic interactions perturbed common, biologically plausible, and highly connected genetic networks. Our analysis underscores the importance of epistasis as a principal factor that determines variation for quantitative traits and provides a means to uncover genetic networks affecting these traits. Knowledge of epistatic networks will contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of evolutionarily and clinically important traits and enhance predictive ability at an individualized level in medicine and agriculture.

Huang, Wen; Richards, Stephen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Zhu, Dianhui; Anholt, Robert R. H.; Ayroles, Julien F.; Duncan, Laura; Jordan, Katherine W.; Lawrence, Faye; Magwire, Michael M.; Warner, Crystal B.; Blankenburg, Kerstin; Han, Yi; Javaid, Mehwish; Jayaseelan, Joy; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Yiqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Stone, Eric A.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

2012-01-01

70

Epistasis dominates the genetic architecture of Drosophila quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Epistasis-nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci-is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one epistatic interaction in the DGRP. Despite apparent additive effects at largely distinct loci in the two populations, the epistatic interactions perturbed common, biologically plausible, and highly connected genetic networks. Our analysis underscores the importance of epistasis as a principal factor that determines variation for quantitative traits and provides a means to uncover genetic networks affecting these traits. Knowledge of epistatic networks will contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of evolutionarily and clinically important traits and enhance predictive ability at an individualized level in medicine and agriculture. PMID:22949659

Huang, Wen; Richards, Stephen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Zhu, Dianhui; Anholt, Robert R H; Ayroles, Julien F; Duncan, Laura; Jordan, Katherine W; Lawrence, Faye; Magwire, Michael M; Warner, Crystal B; Blankenburg, Kerstin; Han, Yi; Javaid, Mehwish; Jayaseelan, Joy; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Yiqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Stone, Eric A; Gibbs, Richard A; Mackay, Trudy F C

2012-09-25

71

Quantitative trait locus mapping of genomic regions controlling herbage yield in perennial ryegrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic control of herbage yield—a complex trait of fundamental importance to agricultural productivity—was characterized in a perennial ryegrass biparental mapping population (I×S). Seasonal and combined growth score estimates of herbage yield (GS) were obtained from a trial conducted at three sites in New Zealand, over 2 years. Twenty-nine quantitative trait loci (QTL) for GS were identified on an I×S genetic

MJ Faville; MZZ Jahufer; DE Hume; BM Cooper; CGL Pennell; DL Ryan; HS Easton

2012-01-01

72

Predicting dangerousness with two Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory psychopathy scales: the importance of egocentric and callous traits.  

PubMed

Psychopathy in youth has received increased recognition as a critical clinical construct for the evaluation and management of adolescents who have come into contact with the law (e.g., Forth, Hare, & Hart, 1990; Frick, 1998; Lynam, 1996, 1998). Although considerable attention has been devoted to the adult construct of psychopathy and its relation to recidivism, psychopathy in adolescents has been less thoroughly researched. Recently, a psychopathy scale (Murrie and Cornell Psychopathy Scale; Murrie & Cornell, 2000) was developed from items of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon, 1993). This scale was found to be highly related to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 1991) and was judged to have demonstrated good criterion validity. A necessary step in the validation process of any psychopathy scale is establishing its predictive validity. With this in mind, we investigated the ability of the MACI Psychopathy Scale to predict recidivism with 55 adolescent offenders 2 years after they had been evaluated at a juvenile court evaluation unit. In addition, we devised a psychopathy scale from MACI items that aligned more closely with Cooke and Michie (2001) and Frick, Bodin, and Barry's (2001) recommendations for the refinement of psychopathy and tested its predictive validity. Results indicate that both scales had predictive utility. Interpersonal and affective components of the revised scale were particularly important in the prediction of both general and violent reoffending. PMID:12700018

Salekin, Randall T; Ziegler, Tracey A; Larrea, Maria A; Anthony, Virginia Lee; Bennett, Allyson D

2003-04-01

73

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits.

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jerome; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

74

Assessing the importance of genotype x environment interaction for root traits in rice using a mapping population. I: a soil-filled box screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altering root system architecture is considered a method of improving crop water and soil nutrient capture. The analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root traits has revealed inconsistency in the same population evaluated in different environments. It must be clarified if this is due to genotype × environment interaction or considerations of statistics if the value of QTLs for marker-assisted breeding

K. MacMillan; K. Emrich; H.-P. Piepho; C. E. Mullins; A. H. Price

2006-01-01

75

The Importance of the Regional Species Pool, Ecological Species Traits and Local Habitat Conditions for the Colonization of Restored River Reaches by Fish  

PubMed Central

It is commonly assumed that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish depends on the regional species pools; however, quantifications of the relationship between the composition of the regional species pool and restoration outcome are lacking. We analyzed data from 18 German river restoration projects and adjacent river reaches constituting the regional species pools of the restored reaches. We found that the ability of statistical models to describe the fish assemblages established in the restored reaches was greater when these models were based on ‘biotic’ variables relating to the regional species pool and the ecological traits of species rather than on ‘abiotic’ variables relating to the hydromorphological habitat structure of the restored habitats and descriptors of the restoration projects. For species presence in restored reaches, ‘biotic’ variables explained 34% of variability, with the occurrence rate of a species in the regional species pool being the most important variable, while ’abiotic’ variables explained only the negligible amount of 2% of variability. For fish density in restored reaches, about twice the amount of variability was explained by ‘biotic’ (38%) compared to ‘abiotic’ (21%) variables, with species density in the regional species pool being most important. These results indicate that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish is largely determined by the assemblages in the surrounding species pool. Knowledge of species presence and abundance in the regional species pool can be used to estimate the likelihood of fish species becoming established in restored reaches.

Stoll, Stefan; Kail, Jochem; Lorenz, Armin W.; Sundermann, Andrea; Haase, Peter

2014-01-01

76

Scale-dependent importance of environment, land use and landscape structure for species richness and composition of SE Norwegian modern agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of variation in vascular plant species richness and species composition in modern agricultural landscapes is important\\u000a for appropriate biodiversity management. From species lists for 2201 land-type patches in 16 1-km2 plots five data sets differing in sampling-unit size from patch to plot were prepared. Variation in each data set was partitioned\\u000a into seven sources: patch geometry, patch type, geographic

Rune H. Økland; Harald Bratli; Wenche E. Dramstad; Anette Edvardsen; Gunnar Engan; Wendy Fjellstad; Einar Heegaard; Oddvar Pedersen; Heidi Solstad

2006-01-01

77

Effects of the alleles of the Rht8 gene on the agricultural traits of bread winter wheat under conditions of the steppe region of the Southern Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to frost and winter hardiness, as well as crop capacity and its components, were studied in the recombinant-inbred\\u000a F5 Odesskaya and 16\\/Bezostayal lines and also in 61 lines of winter wheat carrying different alleles of the Rht8 gene. We observed no influence of different alleles of the Rht8 gene on the traits under consideration. The preponderance of the Rht8c

V. I. Fayt; S. V. Chebotar; N. V. Mokany; M. V. Pilipenko

2007-01-01

78

Trait stacking via targeted genome editing.  

PubMed

Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits. The current paradigm of randomly integrating and sorting independently segregating transgenes creates severe downstream breeding challenges. A versatile, generally applicable solution is hereby provided: the combination of high-efficiency targeted genome editing driven by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) with modular 'trait landing pads' (TLPs) that allow 'mix-and-match', on-demand transgene integration and trait stacking in crop plants. We illustrate the utility of nuclease-driven TLP technology by applying it to the stacking of herbicide resistance traits. We first integrated into the maize genome an herbicide resistance gene, pat, flanked with a TLP (ZFN target sites and sequences homologous to incoming DNA) using WHISKERS™-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures. We established a method for targeted transgene integration based on microparticle bombardment of immature embryos and used it to deliver a second trait precisely into the TLP via cotransformation with a donor DNA containing a second herbicide resistance gene, aad1, flanked by sequences homologous to the integrated TLP along with a corresponding ZFN expression construct. Remarkably, up to 5% of the embryo-derived transgenic events integrated the aad1 transgene precisely at the TLP, that is, directly adjacent to the pat transgene. Importantly and consistent with the juxtaposition achieved via nuclease-driven TLP technology, both herbicide resistance traits cosegregated in subsequent generations, thereby demonstrating linkage of the two independently transformed transgenes. Because ZFN-mediated targeted transgene integration is becoming applicable across an increasing number of crop species, this work exemplifies a simple, facile and rapid approach to trait stacking. PMID:23953646

Ainley, William M; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Welter, Mary E; Murray, Michael G; Zeitler, Bryan; Amora, Rainier; Corbin, David R; Miles, Rebecca R; Arnold, Nicole L; Strange, Tonya L; Simpson, Matthew A; Cao, Zehui; Carroll, Carley; Pawelczak, Katherine S; Blue, Ryan; West, Kim; Rowland, Lynn M; Perkins, Douglas; Samuel, Pon; Dewes, Cristie M; Shen, Liu; Sriram, Shreedharan; Evans, Steven L; Rebar, Edward J; Zhang, Lei; Gregory, Phillip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Webb, Steven R; Petolino, Joseph F

2013-12-01

79

Modeling the Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits With Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the genetic control of quantitatively inherited traits is fundamental to agricultural, evolutionary and biomedical genetic research. A detailed picture of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits can be elucidated with a well-saturated genetic map of molecular markers. The parameters that quantify the genetic architecture of a trait include the number of individual quantitative trait loci (QTL), their genomic positions,

Rongling Wu; Wei Hou; Yuehua Cui; Hongying Li; Tian Liu; Song Wu; Chang-Xing Ma; Yanru Zeng

2007-01-01

80

Soil and geography are more important determinants of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities than management practices in Swiss agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous AMF varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous AMF communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real-time PCR with taxon-specific markers for six widespread AMF species. To identify the key determinants of AMF community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well-supported dependencies between abundances of certain AMF taxa and soil properties such as pH, soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the AMF community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected AMF communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the AMF communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied. PMID:24611988

Jansa, Jan; Erb, Angela; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Smilauer, Petr; Egli, Simon

2014-04-01

81

Human Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate variations in human traits. This allows learners' natural curiosity about their identity to draw them into the study of heredity. Learners can investigate traits such as earlobe attachment, tongue rolling, hair and eye color, and hair texture. Through these traits, learners get an introduction to different inheritance patterns such as simple and incomplete dominance. Activity is usually done over multiple days to give learners time to survey people about their traits.

Salter, Irene

2012-06-26

82

Flattening Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traits are fine-grained components that can be used to compose classes, while avoiding many of the problems of multiple inheritance and mixin-based approaches. Since most implementations of traits have focused on dynamically-typed languages, the question naturally arises, how can one best introduce traits to statically-typed languages, like Java and C#? In this paper we argue that the flattening property of

Oscar Nierstrasz; Stéphane Ducasse; Nathanael Schärli

2006-01-01

83

Agricultural Conservation: Farm Program Payments are an Important Factor in Landowners' Decisions to Convert Grassland to Cropland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nation's remaining grassland has several important benefits, such as providing land for grazing and wildlife habitat for many at-risk species. However, over the past 3 centuries about half of the grassland has been converted to other uses, principally...

2007-01-01

84

Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas. PMID:8933199

Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

1996-11-01

85

Beneficial bacteria of agricultural importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhizosphere is the soil–plant root interphase and in practice consists of the soil adhering to the root besides the loose\\u000a soil surrounding it. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are potential agents for the biological control of plant\\u000a pathogens. A biocontrol strain should be able to protect the host plant from pathogens and fulfill the requirement for strong\\u000a colonization. Numerous compounds

Olubukola Oluranti Babalola

2010-01-01

86

Beneficial bacteria of agricultural importance.  

PubMed

The rhizosphere is the soil-plant root interphase and in practice consists of the soil adhering to the root besides the loose soil surrounding it. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are potential agents for the biological control of plant pathogens. A biocontrol strain should be able to protect the host plant from pathogens and fulfill the requirement for strong colonization. Numerous compounds that are toxic to pathogens, such as HCN, phenazines, pyrrolnitrin, and pyoluteorin as well as, other enzymes, antibiotics, metabolites and phytohormones are the means by which PGPR act, just as quorum sensing and chemotaxis which are vital for rhizosphere competence and colonization. The presence of root exudates has a pronounced effect on the rhizosphere where they serve as an energy source, promoting growth and influencing the root system for the rhizobacteria. In certain instances they have products that inhibit the growth of soil-borne pathogens to the advantage of the plant root. A major source of concern is reproducibility in the field due to the complex interaction between the plant (plant species), microbe and the environment (soil fertility and moisture, day length, light intensity, length of growing season, and temperature). This review listed most of the documented PGPR genera and discussed their exploitation. PMID:20635120

Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

2010-11-01

87

Spatial decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying dependences of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may strongly increase the number of people depending on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries.

Fader, Marianela; Gerten, Dieter; Krause, Michael; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang

2013-03-01

88

Biotechnology and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

Kenney, Martin

89

Landscape heterogeneity as an ecological filter of species traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape heterogeneity is a major driver of biodiversity in agricultural areas and represents an important parameter in conservation strategies. However, most landscape ecology studies measure gamma diversity of a single habitat type, despite the assessment of multiple habitats at a landscape scale being more appropriate. This study aimed to determine the effects of landscape composition and spatial configuration on life-history trait distribution in carabid beetle and herbaceous plant communities. Here, we assessed the gamma diversity of carabid beetles and plants by sampling three dominant habitats (woody habitats, grasslands and crops) across 20 landscapes in western France. RLQ and Fourth Corner three-table analyses were used to assess the association of dispersal, phenology, reproduction and trophic level traits with landscape characteristics. Landscape composition and configuration were both significant in explaining functional composition. Carabid beetles and plants showed similar response regarding phenology, i.e. open landscapes were associated with earlier breeding species. Carabid beetle dispersal traits exhibited the strongest relationship with landscape structure; for instance, large and apterous species preferentially inhabited woody landscapes, whereas small and macropterous species preferentially inhabited open landscapes. Heavy seeded plant species dominated in intensified agricultural landscapes (high % crops), possibly due to the removal of weeds (which are usually lightweight seeded species). The results of this study emphasise the roles of landscape composition and configuration as ecological filters and the importance of preserving a range of landscape types to maintain functional biodiversity at regional scales.

Duflot, Rémi; Georges, Romain; Ernoult, Aude; Aviron, Stéphanie; Burel, Françoise

2014-04-01

90

Phylogenetic analyses of RPB1 and RPB2 support a middle Cretaceous origin for a clade comprising all agriculturally and medically important fusaria.  

PubMed

Fusarium (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is one of the most economically important and systematically challenging groups of mycotoxigenic phytopathogens and emergent human pathogens. We conducted maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) analyses on partial DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest subunit (RPB2) nucleotide sequences of 93 fusaria to infer the first comprehensive and well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis of evolutionary relationships within the genus and 20 of its near relatives. Our analyses revealed that Cylindrocarpon formed a basal monophyletic sister to a 'terminal Fusarium clade' (TFC) comprising 20 strongly supported species complexes and nine monotypic lineages, which we provisionally recognize as Fusarium (hypothesis F1). The basal-most divergences within the TFC were only significantly supported by Bayesian posterior probabilities (B-PP 0.99-1). An internode of the remaining TFC, however, was strongly supported by MP and ML bootstrapping and B-PP (hypothesis F2). Analysis of seven Fusarium genome sequences and Southern analysis of fusaria elucidated the distribution of genes required for synthesis of 26 families of secondary metabolites within the phylogenetic framework. Diversification time estimates date the origin of the TFC to the middle Cretaceous 91.3 million years ago. We also dated the origin of several agriculturally important secondary metabolites as well as the lineage responsible for Fusarium head blight of cereals. Dating of several plant-associated species complexes suggests their evolution may have been driven by angiosperm diversification during the Miocene. Our results support two competing hypotheses for the circumscription of Fusarium and provide a framework for future comparative phylogenetic and genomic analyses of this agronomically and medically important genus. PMID:23357352

O'Donnell, Kerry; Rooney, Alejandro P; Proctor, Robert H; Brown, Daren W; McCormick, Susan P; Ward, Todd J; Frandsen, Rasmus J N; Lysøe, Erik; Rehner, Stephen A; Aoki, Takayuki; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Kang, Seogchan; Geiser, David M

2013-03-01

91

Traits Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners cross off or color bingo squares in response to questions about their traits. This activity is designed to be used as a review following a unit on genetics, but can be used independently. Bingo game cards and questions featured in this activity are provided in English and Spanish. This resource also contains information about PTC safety.

Malone, Molly; Starr, Harmony

2006-01-01

92

Variations with modest effects have an important role in the genetic background of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related traits.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to explore the role of variations with modest effects (previously identified by a large-scale meta-analysis in European populations) in the genetic background of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetes-related traits in a Japanese population. We enrolled 2632 Japanese subjects with T2D and 2050 non-diabetic subjects. We analyzed nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs340874 (PROX1), rs4607517 (GCK), rs2191349 (DGKB-TMEM195), rs7034200 (GLIS3), rs10885122 (ADRA2A), rs174550 (FADS1), rs11605924 (CRY2), rs10830963 (MTNR1B) and rs35767 (IGF1). rs340874 (PROX1) and rs174550 (FADS1) were significantly associated with T2D (P=0.0078, OR: 1.12; and P=0.0071, OR: 1.12, respectively). Subjects with more risk alleles related to nine SNPs had an increased risk of T2D (P=0.0017), as well as a higher fasting plasma glucose level (P=0.018), higher HbA(1c) level (P=0.013) and lower HOMA-? (P=0.033) compared with subjects who had fewer risk alleles. We identified a significant association of a SNP of FADS1 and a SNP near PROX1 with T2D in a Japanese population. The present findings suggest that inclusion of SNPs with a tendency to increase the disease risk captured more of the genetic background of T2D than that revealed by only assessing significant SNPs. PMID:22992776

Fujita, Hayato; Hara, Kazuo; Shojima, Nobuhiro; Horikoshi, Momoko; Iwata, Minoru; Hirota, Yushi; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Seino, Susumu; Kadowaki, Takashi

2012-12-01

93

PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE IN SITU AND EX SITU: WHERE ARE THE GENES OF IMPORTANCE FOR FOOD SECURITY LIKELY TO COME FROM?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT This paper approaches the questions of the scientific basis for the sole reliance on existing genebank accessions, and the continuing need for the conservation and collection of in situ genetic resources. It relates to the negotiation in progress in the inter-governmental forum of the FAO Commission for Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture for the revision of the

DAVID M. SPOONER

94

Root traits for infertile soils  

PubMed Central

Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued.

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

2013-01-01

95

U.S. Agricultural Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This briefing room from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (reviewed in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) provides general information and data on US agricultural trade with all of the countries and regions of the world. Data publications such as the US Agricultural Trade (FATUS), Agricultural Outlook, and US Agricultural Trade Balance are gathered here on a monthly or yearly basis with export and import values by commodity and country. Users will also find FATUS reference tools as well as special ERS articles covering topics such as agricultural export figures by state and the US agricultural trade's effect on the overall economy.

1999-01-01

96

Personality As Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality traits have been challenged as unimportant determinants of behavior, but evidence suggests that traits may carry as much variance as experimental manipulations. Asking whether traits or manipulations control more variance is useless because researchers can plan paradigms that favor one or the other. When traits and manipulations complement each other, there are several major kinds of interaction. The trait–manipulation

Arnold H. Buss

1989-01-01

97

Mapping of quantitative trait loci for flesh colour and growth traits in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Flesh colour and growth related traits in salmonids are both commercially important and of great interest from a physiological and evolutionary perspective. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting flesh colour and growth related traits in an F2 population derived from an isolated, landlocked wild population in Norway (Byglands Bleke) and a commercial

Matthew Baranski; Thomas Moen; Dag Inge Våge

2010-01-01

98

Methods of assessment of transfer of a gentamycin-resistance gene ( aacC1 ) from genetically engineered microorganisms into agriculturally important soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the risk associated with the deliberate release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) into the agricultural environment, the transfer of plasmids between bacterial strains was investigated under laboratory conditions. Genetically modified Rhizobium leguminosarum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains carrying the gentamycin acetyltransferase resistance gene (aacC1) on various plasmids were investigated for their ability to transfer the aacC1 gene

Ilias Tirodimos; Inge-M. Pretorius-Güth; Ursula Priefer; Athanasios Tsaftaris; Asterios S. Tsiftsoglou

1993-01-01

99

Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic. A digital data set.  

PubMed

We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of building reliable collections of ticks with specific references as to collection point, host and date of capture. The data set is freely downloadable. PMID:22843316

Estrada-Peña, A; Farkas, Robert; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Koenen, Frank; Madder, Maxime; Pascucci, Ilaria; Salman, Mo; Tarrés-Call, Jordi; Jongejan, Frans

2013-03-01

100

Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Sickle Cell Trait People who inherit one sickle cell gene ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

101

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

102

Effects of mowing cessation and hydrology on plant trait distribution in natural fen meadows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional grasslands are often of high conservation value, but depend on non-intensive management like mowing for their preservation. During the 20th century, traditional agricultural usage was either heavily intensified or abandoned due to socio-economic reasons. In Eastern Europe, land abandonment mainly took place in regions with qualitatively bad soils. This large scale land use change lead to secondary succession. In fens and fen meadows, this may lead to a decrease in species richness and a replacement of specialist species by more generalist ones. The main objective of the present study is to examine if and how mowing cessation interacts with hydrology in determining species and trait distribution in a fen meadow. In the Upper Course of the Biebrza National Park, Poland, we selected 15 sites along four transects, with plots in mown and abandoned parcels. In these plots we measured plant abundance, aboveground biomass and relative light intensity, while plant traits were selected from different trait databases. The relationship between these plot characteristics and the different traits was assessed using concordance analysis. Mowing cessation resulted in reduced moss cover and light availability, while vegetation height increased and higher litter deposition and tussock development were observed. This altered environment not only resulted in decreased species richness and evenness in abandoned plots but also caused shifts in plant trait distribution. Most of the significantly linked traits responded more strongly to mowing cessation than to the hydrologic gradient. Traits related to light competition, such as light requirements, plant height and shoot growth form, especially responded to mowing cessation. This stresses the importance of light competition as a major factor determining species and trait distribution in fen systems.

Opdekamp, W.; Beauchard, O.; Backx, H.; Franken, F.; Cox, T. J. S.; van Diggelen, R.; Meire, P.

2012-02-01

103

Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program. Advanced hulled and hulless lines (329 total) were screened using 3,072 SNPs as a part of the US. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP). Phenotypic data collected over 4 years for agronomic and food quality traits and resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal], net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres), and spot blotch [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur] were analyzed with SNP genotypic data in a GWAS to determine marker-trait associations. Significant SNPs associated with previously described quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes were identified for heading date on chromosome 3H, test weight on 2H, yield on 7H, grain protein on 5H, polyphenol oxidase activity on 2H and resistance to leaf rust on 2H and 3H, powdery mildew on 1H, 2H and 4H, net blotch on 5H, and spot blotch on 7H. Novel QTL also were identified for agronomic, quality, and disease resistance traits. These SNP-trait associations provide the opportunity to directly select for QTL contributing to multiple traits in breeding programs. PMID:23139143

Berger, Gregory L; Liu, Shuyu; Hall, Marla D; Brooks, Wynse S; Chao, Shiaoman; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Baik, B-K; Steffenson, Brian; Griffey, Carl A

2013-03-01

104

Agricultural Operations  

MedlinePLUS

... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Agriculture ranks among the most dangerous industries. Between 2003 ... by several Occupational Safety and Health standards including Agriculture ( 29 CFR 1928 ), General Industry ( 29 CFR 1910 ), ...

105

Evolution of the teachings of chemistry in the new degrees of School of Agricultural Engineering and its importance in the acquisition of competencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The academic year 2012-13 is the third year of implementation of the Bologna process in ETSI Agricultural for the subjects Chemistry I and Chemistry II in the new four Degrees: Graduate in Engineering and Agricultural Science, Food Engineering Graduate, Graduate in Engineering Environmental and Biotechnology graduate. We have implemented new interactive methodologies in the teaching-learning process based on the use of the virtual platform of the UPM, and teaching support materials and new laboratory practice developing has. It has also launched new continuous assessment systems that promote active student participation. A comparative study of academic achievements by students of the new grades in the subjects of chemistry during the last three academic years was performed to correlating the results obtained, the success rate and the drop out, and compare with the level of prior knowledge to those entering students. Possible solutions to try and fix these results in future courses are proposed Finally, the general competencies that contribute this course, how they are acquired and how they should be evaluated correctly are indicated. Acknowledgments: Innovation educative projects Nº IE02054-11/12 UPM. 2012

Arce, Augusto; Tarquis, Ana M.; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Requejo, Maria Isabel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

2014-05-01

106

PRESERVICE AGRICULTURAL EDUCATORS' ABILITY TO SOLVE AGRICULTURALLY RELATED MATHEMATICS PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to apply academic skills to agriculture is increasingly important. Even so, studies have shown that students and teachers of agricultural education lack competence in solving agriculture-related mathematics problems. The purpose of this correlational study was to explain variance in the mathematical problem-solving ability of preservice agricultural educators. Findings show a lack of competence in mathematical problem-solving among the

Greg Miller; Joe A. Gliem

107

Agriculture 21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To "promote food security and sustainable development into the next millennium," the Agriculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has recently created this new resource. An impressive and clearly arranged interface leads researchers to more than one gigabyte of data from various UN Agriculture Department sites. A detailed list of available software, databases, publication lists, and email conferences is provided via the Guides section of the site. Other services include Magazine, a monthly publication on international agricultural issues, and Gateway, a link pointing to UN Department of Agriculture divisional homepages.

108

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Morphology Features Extracted Computationally From Images  

PubMed Central

Seeds are studied to understand dispersal and establishment of the next generation, as units of agricultural yield, and for other important reasons. Thus, elucidating the genetic architecture of seed size and shape traits will benefit basic and applied plant biology research. This study sought quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the size and shape of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds by computational analysis of seed phenotypes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the small-seeded Landsberg erecta × large-seeded Cape Verde Islands accessions. On the order of 103 seeds from each recombinant inbred line were automatically measured with flatbed photo scanners and custom image analysis software. The eight significant QTL affecting seed area explained 63% of the variation, and overlapped with five of the six major-axis (length) QTL and three of the five minor-axis (width) QTL, which accounted for 57% and 38% of the variation in those traits, respectively. Because the Arabidopsis seed is exalbuminous, lacking an endosperm at maturity, the results are relatable to embryo length and width. The Cvi allele generally had a positive effect of 2.6–4.0%. Analysis of variance showed heritability of the three traits ranged between 60% and 73%. Repeating the experiment with 2.2 million seeds from a separate harvest of the RIL population and approximately 0.5 million seeds from 92 near-isogenic lines confirmed the aforementioned results. Structured for download are files containing phenotype measurements, all sets of seed images, and the seed trait measuring tool.

Moore, Candace R.; Gronwall, David S.; Miller, Nathan D.; Spalding, Edgar P.

2013-01-01

109

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

110

Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

2004-01-01

111

Agricultural and Cooperative Credit System (ACC) in Egypt: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agriculture is the most important sector in the Egyptian economy and agricultural cooperatives play an important role in the sector. Among all cooperatives, about 81 percent are in the Agricultural and Credit Cooperative System (ACC). The paper presents i...

F. Shaker

1982-01-01

112

The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological factors (e.g. the plant growth) or the economical factors as a simple monetary calculation, but also their mutual influences. Finally, the ecological-economic model enables us to make a risk assessment or evaluate adaptation strategies.

Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

2014-05-01

113

Location Model of Agricultural Product Distribution Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is one of the biggest countries, and the agriculture plays a very important role in the development of national economy. The bottleneck of agricultural development has been transferred from manufacturing to the circulation of commodities, which makes outstanding problems of the low level and high cost in logistic distribution of agricultural products. Developing logistic distribution of agricultural products would

Suo Zhi-lin; Wang Dong

2007-01-01

114

The “Null Hypothesis” of Precision Agriculture Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

As precision agriculture strives to improve the management of agricultural industries, the importance of scientific validation must not be forgotten. Eventually, the improvement that is imparted by precision agriculture management must be considered in terms of profitability and environmental impact (both short and long term). As one form of precision agriculture, we consider site-specific crop management to be defined as:

B. M. Whelan; A. B. McBratney

2000-01-01

115

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

116

Generality of Leaf Trait Relationships: A Test across Six Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here we address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity,

Peter B. Reich; David S. Ellsworth; Michael B. Walters; James M. Vose; Charles Gresham; John C. Volin; William D. Bowman

1999-01-01

117

A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach to Multi-Trait Clinical Quantitative Trait Locus Modeling  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping and transcript profiling technologies have enabled the inexpensive production of genome-wide dense marker maps in tandem with huge amounts of expression profiles. These large-scale data encompass valuable information about the genetic architecture of important phenotypic traits. Comprehensive models that combine molecular markers and gene transcript levels are increasingly advocated as an effective approach to dissecting the genetic architecture of complex phenotypic traits. The simultaneous utilization of marker and gene expression data to explain the variation in clinical quantitative trait, known as clinical quantitative trait locus (cQTL) mapping, poses challenges that are both conceptual and computational. Nonetheless, the hierarchical Bayesian (HB) modeling approach, in combination with modern computational tools such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation techniques, provides much versatility for cQTL analysis. Sillanpää and Noykova (2008) developed a HB model for single-trait cQTL analysis in inbred line cross-data using molecular markers, gene expressions, and marker-gene expression pairs. However, clinical traits generally relate to one another through environmental correlations and/or pleiotropy. A multi-trait approach can improve on the power to detect genetic effects and on their estimation precision. A multi-trait model also provides a framework for examining a number of biologically interesting hypotheses. In this paper we extend the HB cQTL model for inbred line crosses proposed by Sillanpää and Noykova to a multi-trait setting. We illustrate the implementation of our new model with simulated data, and evaluate the multi-trait model performance with regard to its single-trait counterpart. The data simulation process was based on the multi-trait cQTL model, assuming three traits with uncorrelated and correlated cQTL residuals, with the simulated data under uncorrelated cQTL residuals serving as our test set for comparing the performances of the multi-trait and single-trait models. The simulated data under correlated cQTL residuals were essentially used to assess how well our new model can estimate the cQTL residual covariance structure. The model fitting to the data was carried out by MCMC simulation through OpenBUGS. The multi-trait model outperformed its single-trait counterpart in identifying cQTLs, with a consistently lower false discovery rate. Moreover, the covariance matrix of cQTL residuals was typically estimated to an appreciable degree of precision under the multi-trait cQTL model, making our new model a promising approach to addressing a wide range of issues facing the analysis of correlated clinical traits.

Mutshinda, Crispin M.; Noykova, Neli; Sillanpaa, Mikko J.

2012-01-01

118

Agricultural Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

Brill, Winston J.

1981-01-01

119

Agricultural Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agricultural ecosystem concept promotes a distinctive set of ecological principles that give diversity and stability to the food production process. This system allows people to work more closely with nature and to feel a spiritual connection with the...

K. Kindscher

1984-01-01

120

Understanding the genetic control and physiological traits associated with rhizosheath production by barley (Hordeum vulgare).  

PubMed

There is an urgent need for simple rapid screens of root traits that improve the acquisition of nutrients and water. Temperate cereals produce rhizosheaths of variable weight, a trait first noted on desert species sampled by Tansley over 100 yr ago. This trait is almost certainly important in tolerance to abiotic stress. Here, we screened association genetics populations of barley for rhizosheath weight and derived quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and candidate genes. We assessed whether rhizosheath weight was correlated with plant performance and phosphate uptake under combined drought and phosphorus deficiency. Rhizosheath weight was investigated in relation to root hair length, and under both laboratory and field conditions. Our data demonstrated that rhizosheath weight was correlated with phosphate uptake under dry conditions and that the differences in rhizosheath weight between genotypes were maintained in the field. Rhizosheath weight also varied significantly within barley populations, was correlated with root hair length and was associated with a genetic locus (QTL) on chromosome 2H. Putative candidate genes were identified. Rhizosheath weight is easy and rapid to measure, and is associated with relatively high heritability. The breeding of cereal genotypes for beneficial rhizosheath characteristics is achievable and could contribute to agricultural sustainability in nutrient- and water-stressed environments. PMID:24684319

George, Timothy S; Brown, Lawrie K; Ramsay, Luke; White, Philip J; Newton, Adrian C; Bengough, A Glyn; Russell, Joanne; Thomas, William T B

2014-07-01

121

Selection for production and reproduction traits in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction<\\/u>Reproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations is important, because these populations determine the performance in all levels of the breeding pyramid, including the piglet production and fattening herds.Optimization of selection in pigs

Vries de A. G

1989-01-01

122

Policy, Technology, and Efficiency of Brazilian Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Brazilian agricultural sector has been transformed from a traditional system of production with low use of modern technologies to a world agricultural leader. That transformation occurred as the country moved away from import-substitution policies--wh...

C. Valdes N. Rada

2012-01-01

123

Agricultural Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the Agricultural Outlook publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Agricultural Outlook, the monthly short and long term commodity outlook publication, long available via the USDA Economics and Statistics system at Cornell University's Mann Library, (discussed in the September 15, 1995 issue of the Scout Report) is now available with graphics and charts. Selected archives of the publication are available and articles can be downloaded individually. About the only drawback to this terrific addition to ERS's electronic holdings is that the separate statistical section that accompanies AO (over 20 pages of tables), is not available at this time. This is particularly unfortunate, as these tables are one of the most valuable aspects of the publication.

1996-01-01

124

Agricultural and Nonagricultural Banking Statistics, 1980-91.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bank operating statistics for 1980-91 illustrate important differences between agricultural and nonagricultural banks. The agricultural banks, with a higher proportion of agricultural loans, were more profitable overall, while having more securities and f...

G. B. Wallace

1994-01-01

125

Developing Curriculum Markers for Agricultural Extension Education in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sufficient changes have occurred in both the agricultural and educational sectors of South Africa to warrant a careful scrutiny of the agricultural education offerings in South Africa. Agricultural extension is identified as an important part of the intended transformation of the agricultural sector. Further, agricultural extension is essentially…

Worth, S. H.

2008-01-01

126

Cold-Tolerant Agriculturally Important Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cold-tolerant microorganisms are endowed with the ability to grow at 0°C, though their growth optima lie in the mesophilic\\u000a range. To overcome the stress induced by low temperatures they have evolved a variety of adaptive responses at the cellular\\u000a and molecular levels. Multiple cell membrane modifications ensure that solute transport is not impaired at low temperatures.\\u000a Other mechanisms include the

Pankaj Kumar Mishra; Piyush Joshi; Shekhar Bisht; Jaideep Bisht; Govindan Selvakumar

127

Variability of linearly evaluated traits of type of simmental bull dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important factors of successful milk production is group of secondary traits: health, longevity, type and milking traits. These traits have become increasingly significant. In order for productive life of cows used in production of milk to be as long and as successful as possible, special attention must be directed to traits of body type and constitution. In

V. Pantelic; Z. Skalicki; M. M. Petrovic; S. Aleksic; B. Miscevic; D. Ostojic-Andric

2007-01-01

128

Privatising Agricultural Extension: Caveat Emptor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses forces promoting privatization of agricultural extension. Discusses experiences of privatization and commercialization of extension and related problems in various countries, particularly developing countries. Suggests that the state will continue to play an important role in agricultural extension in many countries and that…

Kidd, A. D.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Ficarelli, P. P.; Hoffmann, V.

2000-01-01

129

Sustainable Agriculture: Critical Challenges Facing the Structure and Function of Agricultural Research and Education in India1  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's National Agricultural Policy accords high priority to the sustainability of agriculture. ICAR and the State Agricultural Universities, which comprise the National Agricultural Research System (NARS), also emphasize the importance of incorporating the sustainability perspective into their research and education programmes. But this requires an analytical framework for sustainable agriculture that can guide a transition from research and education directed

N. H. Rao

130

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FEDERAL LEGISLATION HAS PROVIDED FOR PUBLIC PROGRAMS OF OCCUPATIONAL AGRICULTURE EDUCATION IN LAND GRANT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS, AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE TO DEVELOP KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, PROVIDE OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENT, AND DEVELOP ABILITIES IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND…

STEVENS, GLENN Z.

131

Agricultural Bioterrorism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article warns that agricultural bioterrorism can be as devastating as other forms of terrorism because it: cripples the economy of a nation, can destroy the livelihood of many people puts food supply at risk, perhaps for a long time, and may not be detected before it reaches difficult-to-control levels.

Radford G. Davis (Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine;)

2001-10-01

132

Agricultural Meteorology in China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

Rosenberg, Norman J.

1982-03-01

133

Generations of Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity students track and record the passage of colored pom-pom âtraitsâ through three generations of gingerbread people. Students observe that traits are passed from parents to offspring, and that siblings each receive a different combination of traits from their parents.

2006-01-01

134

Generalized Latent Trait Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

2000-01-01

135

Selection and evolution of causally covarying traits.  

PubMed

When traits cause variation in fitness, the distribution of phenotype, weighted by fitness, necessarily changes. The degree to which traits cause fitness variation is therefore of central importance to evolutionary biology. Multivariate selection gradients are the main quantity used to describe components of trait-fitness covariation, but they quantify the direct effects of traits on (relative) fitness, which are not necessarily the total effects of traits on fitness. Despite considerable use in evolutionary ecology, path analytic characterizations of the total effects of traits on fitness have not been formally incorporated into quantitative genetic theory. By formally defining "extended" selection gradients, which are the total effects of traits on fitness, as opposed to the existing definition of selection gradients, a more intuitive scheme for characterizing selection is obtained. Extended selection gradients are distinct quantities, differing from the standard definition of selection gradients not only in the statistical means by which they may be assessed and the assumptions required for their estimation from observational data, but also in their fundamental biological meaning. Like direct selection gradients, extended selection gradients can be combined with genetic inference of multivariate phenotypic variation to provide quantitative prediction of microevolutionary trajectories. PMID:24611949

Morrissey, Michael B

2014-06-01

136

Dispersal strategies of phytophagous insects at a local scale: adaptive potential of aphids in an agricultural environment  

PubMed Central

Background The spread of agriculture greatly modified the selective pressures exerted by plants on phytophagous insects, by providing these insects with a high-level resource, structured in time and space. The life history, behavioural and physiological traits of some insect species may have evolved in response to these changes, allowing them to crowd on crops and to become agricultural pests. Dispersal, which is one of these traits, is a key concept in evolutionary biology but has been over-simplified in most theoretical studies. We evaluated the impact of the local-scale dispersal strategy of phytophagous insects on their fitness, using an individual-based model to simulate population dynamics and dispersal between leaves and plants, by walking and flying, of the aphid Aphis gossypii, a major agricultural pest, in a melon field. We compared the optimal values for dispersal parameters in the model with the corresponding observed values in experimental trials. Results We show that the rates of walking and flying disperser production on leaves were the most important traits determining the fitness criteria, whereas dispersal distance and the clustering of flying dispersers on the target plant had no effect. We further show that the effect of dispersal parameters on aphid fitness depended strongly on plant characteristics. Conclusion Parameters defining the dispersal strategies of aphids at a local scale are key components of the fitness of these insects and may thus be essential in the adaptation to agricultural environments that are structured in space and time. Moreover, the fact that the effect of dispersal parameters on aphid fitness depends strongly on plant characteristics suggests that traits defining aphid dispersal strategies may be a cornerstone of host-plant specialization.

Lombaert, Eric; Boll, Roger; Lapchin, Laurent

2006-01-01

137

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

138

Department of Agriculture  

MedlinePLUS

... Security Laws and Regulations Marketing and Trade Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and ... Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research Newsroom Agency News Releases Agency Reports Creative ...

139

Agricultural water management and poverty linkages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is critically important to the livelihoods of more than 1 billion people living on less than $1 a day, particularly for the 850 million rural poor primarily engaged in agriculture. In many developing countries, water is a major factor constraining agricultural output, and income of the world's rural poor. Improved agricultural water management can contribute to poverty reduction through

Regassa E. Namara; Munir A. Hanjra; Gina E. Castillo; Helle Munk Ravnborg; Lawrence Smith; Barbara Van Koppen

2010-01-01

140

Transforming Agricultural Education for a Changing World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the next ten years, colleges of agriculture will be challenged to transform their role in higher education and their relationship to the evolving global food and agricultural enterprise. If successful, agriculture colleges will emerge as an important venue for scholars and stakeholders to address some of the most complex and urgent problems…

National Academies Press, 2009

2009-01-01

141

Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.  

PubMed Central

Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science. The triploid MIM FORTRAN program for mapping endosperm traits is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/).

Kao, Chen-Hung

2004-01-01

142

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

143

Rational association of genes with traits using a genome-scale gene network for Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Plants are essential sources of food, fiber and renewable energy. Effective methods for manipulating plant traits have important agricultural and economic consequences. We introduce a rational approach for associating genes with plant traits by combined use of a genome-scale functional network and targeted reverse genetic screening. We present a probabilistic network (AraNet) of functional associations among 19,647 (73%) genes of the reference flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. AraNet associations have measured precision greater than literature-based protein interactions (21%) for 55% of genes, and are highly predictive for diverse biological pathways. Using AraNet, we found a 10-fold enrichment in identifying early seedling development genes. By interrogating network neighborhoods, we identify At1g80710 (now Drought sensitive 1; Drs1) and At3g05090 (now Lateral root stimulator 1; Lrs1) as novel regulators of drought sensitivity and lateral root development, respectively. AraNet (http://www.functionalnet.org/aranet/) provides a global resource for plant gene function identification and genetic dissection of plant traits.

Lee, Insuk; Ambaru, Bindu; Thakkar, Pranjali; Marcotte, Edward M.; Rhee, Seung Y.

2010-01-01

144

Quantitative trait loci for yield and related traits in the wheat population Ning7840 × Clark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain yield and associated agronomic traits are important factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improvement. Knowledge regarding the number, genomic location, and effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) would facilitate\\u000a marker-assisted selection and the development of cultivars with desirable characteristics. Our objectives were to identify\\u000a QTLs directly and indirectly affecting grain yield expression. A population of 132 F12 recombinant inbred

F. Marza; G.-H. Bai; B. F. Carver; W.-C. Zhou

2006-01-01

145

Integrating microbial traits into ecosystem models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diverse bacterial and fungal communities control the decomposition of complex organic material, thereby driving important ecosystem functions such as CO2 production and nutrient regeneration. Predicting these functions is challenging because microbial communities and the chemical substrates they metabolize are complex. To address this challenge, I developed a theoretical model of microbial decomposition based on microbial traits involved in substrate degradation, uptake, and growth. The model represents a large number of microbial taxa, each of which possesses a set of trait values drawn at random from empirically-based distributions. The model also includes a large number of chemical substrates that can be degraded by microbial extracellular enzymes and taken up by membrane transporters. Microbes with different trait values for enzyme production and uptake capacity compete for chemical substrates and vary in abundance during model runs. I used the model to predict rates of plant litter decomposition and determine which traits were associated with high microbial abundance under different environmental conditions. The model predicted that optimal traits depend on the level of enzyme production in the whole community, which determines resource availability and decomposition rates. There is also evidence for facilitation and competition among microbial taxa that co-occur on decomposing litter, suggesting that microbial interactions may play a role in determining ecosystem function. These interactions vary with community investment in extracellular enzyme production and the magnitude of tradeoffs affecting biochemical traits such as enzyme kinetic parameters. The model accounted for 69% of the variation in decomposition rates and up to 26% of the variation in enzyme activities in an empirical dataset with 15 types of Hawaiian plant litter. By explicitly representing microbial diversity, trait-based models can predict ecosystem processes based on functional trait distributions in a community. Traits influencing microbial enzyme production are some of the key controls on litter decomposition rates, but other traits may control different ecosystem processes and microbial responses to environmental change. Identifying these traits and their inter-relationships is an essential step for improving ecosystem models.

Allison, S. D.

2012-12-01

146

Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there are quite a few cases of the use of woodland valuable in recreational and forestry respects for dacha or country-cottage construction. From fast change the pattern of ownership on ground is necessary urgent inventory of being available ground resources, including with the purposes of creation of new especially protected territories. It is important to emphasise, that to guards should be subject not only sites so-called quot.; untouched quot.; a nature, but also area with different overgrowth succession stages agricultural lands, where biodiversity raises.

Guzel, N.

2012-04-01

147

Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change  

PubMed Central

Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority.

Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

2012-01-01

148

A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.  

PubMed

With the increasing use of survival models in animal breeding to address the genetic aspects of mainly longevity of livestock but also disease traits, the need for methods to infer genetic correlations and to do multivariate evaluations of survival traits and other types of traits has become increasingly important. In this study we derived and implemented a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted. Model parameters were inferred from their marginal posterior distributions. The required fully conditional posterior distributions were derived and issues on implementation are discussed. The two Weibull baseline parameters were updated jointly using a Metropolis-Hasting step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. Simulation results showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true parameter values used in the simulation of data. In conclusion, the proposed method allows inferring additive genetic and environmental correlations, and doing multivariate genetic evaluation of a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait. PMID:16451791

Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis

2006-01-01

149

A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait  

PubMed Central

With the increasing use of survival models in animal breeding to address the genetic aspects of mainly longevity of livestock but also disease traits, the need for methods to infer genetic correlations and to do multivariate evaluations of survival traits and other types of traits has become increasingly important. In this study we derived and implemented a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted. Model parameters were inferred from their marginal posterior distributions. The required fully conditional posterior distributions were derived and issues on implementation are discussed. The two Weibull baseline parameters were updated jointly using a Metropolis-Hasting step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. Simulation results showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true parameter values used in the simulation of data. In conclusion, the proposed method allows inferring additive genetic and environmental correlations, and doing multivariate genetic evaluation of a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.

Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis

2006-01-01

150

Agricultural Pesticides: An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was developed as a guide for use by Kentucky teachers in planning and conducting young farmer/adult farmer classes in the use of agricultural pesticides. The unit contains seven lessons covering the following topics: understanding the importance of agricultural pesticides; using and handling agricultural pesticides safely; developing a…

Harrison, Kenneth M.; And Others

151

Australia-China Agricultural Trade: Dynamics and Prospects 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's increasing demand for agricultural imports presents enormous opportunities for Australian agricultural exports to this growing market. To best capture the emerging opportunities, it is pertinent for Australian agricultural industries to gain an in-depth understanding of the changing patterns of agricultural trade between Australia and China and the driving forces behind such dynamics. This paper adds to the understanding of

Zhang-Yue Zhou; Yan-Rui Wu

152

U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. agricultural exports for FY2008 are forecast by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to reach a record $83.5 billion, while agricultural imports are expected to reach $75 billion, also a record level. The agricultural trade surplus is projected to be $...

C. E. Hanrahan B. A. Banks C. Canada

2007-01-01

153

Genetic and Environmental Effects on Complex Traits in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between genotype and environment is recognized as an important source of experimental variation when complex traits are measured in the mouse, but the magnitude of that interaction has not often been measured. From a study of 2448 genetically heterogeneous mice, we report the heritability of 88 complex traits that include models of human disease (asthma, type 2 diabetes

William Valdar; Leah C. Solberg; Dominique Gauguier; William O. Cookson; J. N. P. Rawlins; R. Mott; J. Flint

2006-01-01

154

A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create a "DNA recipe" for a dog to learn how variations in DNA lead to the inheritance of different traits. Strips of paper (representing DNA) are randomly selected and used to assemble a DNA molecule. Students read the DNA recipe to create a drawing of their pet and compare it with others in the class to note similarities and differences. Through this activity, students will learn that every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits and heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

2006-01-01

155

Origins of Metastatic Traits  

PubMed Central

How cancer cells acquire the competence to colonize distant organs remains a central question in cancer biology. Tumors can release large numbers of cancer cells into the circulation, but only a small proportion of these cells survive on infiltrating distant organs and even fewer form clinically meaningful metastases. During the past decade, many predictive gene signatures and specific mediators of metastasis have been identified, yet how cancer cells acquire these traits has remained obscure. Recent experimental work and high-resolution sequencing of human tissues have started to reveal the molecular and tumor evolutionary principles that underlie the emergence of metastatic traits.

Vanharanta, Sakari; Massague, Joan

2014-01-01

156

Agricultural Outlook (Kit) 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides long-run baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2008. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices. The baseline assumes n...

1999-01-01

157

Role for electricity in agriculture  

SciTech Connect

Agriculture evolved from a family way of life to a family business for successful farmers and is now in transition toward becoming a corporate business activity. Productivity has always been the measure of a successful farm operation. This report examines current trands in agricultural practice that lead to higher productivity and the implications of those trends for the use of electricity in agriculture. Major current trends are in irrigation (even in naturally watered areas), in the use of pressurized systems for distributing irrigation water, and in no-tillage cropping and its related substitution of agricultural chemicals for machine operation in the field. The forces that led to the increase in the fraction of primary energy provided as electricity in agriculture (to its current level of about 22 percent) seem likely to persist well into the future. Manufacturing sectors peripheral to agriculture - farm machinery, petroleum refining, agricultural chemicals, food processing - also exhibit an increasing use of electric technology, thus signifying a growing importance for electricity in the activities affecting food supply.

Burwell, C.C.

1986-01-01

158

Multi-Scale Associations between Vegetation Cover and Woodland Bird Communities across a Large Agricultural Region.  

PubMed

Improving biodiversity conservation in fragmented agricultural landscapes has become an important global issue. Vegetation at the patch and landscape-scale is important for species occupancy and diversity, yet few previous studies have explored multi-scale associations between vegetation and community assemblages. Here, we investigated how patch and landscape-scale vegetation cover structure woodland bird communities. We asked: (1) How is the bird community associated with the vegetation structure of woodland patches and the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape? (2) Do species of conservation concern respond to woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover differently to other species in the community? And (3) Can the relationships between the bird community and the woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover be explained by the ecological traits of the species comprising the bird community? We studied 103 woodland patches (0.5 - 53.8 ha) over two time periods across a large (6,800 km2) agricultural region in southeastern Australia. We found that both patch vegetation and surrounding woody vegetation cover were important for structuring the bird community, and that these relationships were consistent over time. In particular, the occurrence of mistletoe within the patches and high values of woody vegetation cover within 1,000 ha and 10,000 ha were important, especially for bird species of conservation concern. We found that the majority of these species displayed similar, positive responses to patch and landscape vegetation attributes. We also found that these relationships were related to the foraging and nesting traits of the bird community. Our findings suggest that management strategies to increase both remnant vegetation quality and the cover of surrounding woody vegetation in fragmented agricultural landscapes may lead to improved conservation of bird communities. PMID:24830684

Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S; Stirnemann, Ingrid A; Stein, John R; Michael, Damian; Crane, Mason; Okada, Sachiko; Lindenmayer, David B

2014-01-01

159

Multi-Scale Associations between Vegetation Cover and Woodland Bird Communities across a Large Agricultural Region  

PubMed Central

Improving biodiversity conservation in fragmented agricultural landscapes has become an important global issue. Vegetation at the patch and landscape-scale is important for species occupancy and diversity, yet few previous studies have explored multi-scale associations between vegetation and community assemblages. Here, we investigated how patch and landscape-scale vegetation cover structure woodland bird communities. We asked: (1) How is the bird community associated with the vegetation structure of woodland patches and the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape? (2) Do species of conservation concern respond to woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover differently to other species in the community? And (3) Can the relationships between the bird community and the woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover be explained by the ecological traits of the species comprising the bird community? We studied 103 woodland patches (0.5 - 53.8 ha) over two time periods across a large (6,800 km2) agricultural region in southeastern Australia. We found that both patch vegetation and surrounding woody vegetation cover were important for structuring the bird community, and that these relationships were consistent over time. In particular, the occurrence of mistletoe within the patches and high values of woody vegetation cover within 1,000 ha and 10,000 ha were important, especially for bird species of conservation concern. We found that the majority of these species displayed similar, positive responses to patch and landscape vegetation attributes. We also found that these relationships were related to the foraging and nesting traits of the bird community. Our findings suggest that management strategies to increase both remnant vegetation quality and the cover of surrounding woody vegetation in fragmented agricultural landscapes may lead to improved conservation of bird communities.

Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S.; Stirnemann, Ingrid A.; Stein, John R.; Michael, Damian; Crane, Mason; Okada, Sachiko; Lindenmayer, David B.

2014-01-01

160

Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

161

Are autistic traits autistic?  

PubMed

According to the extreme male brain theory of autism (Baron-Cohen, 2002), autistic traits would be extreme manifestations of typical male behaviours. The Auyeung et al. (2009) paper establishes a link between autistic traits and higher fetal testosterone (fT) levels in typically developing children. We argue that the construct behind this relationship needs further investigation. First, the link between fT levels and sexually dimorphic traits, that are for example, associated with empathizing and systemizing, is controversial. Likewise, describing autistic behaviours as being extreme male-like is debatable. The cerebral hemisphere laterality pattern of individuals with autism also seems to differ from the pattern typically observed in males. Moreover, the parallel that should exist, according to the fT theory, between individuals with autism and individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), because of their high fT levels, is unclear. The theory implying fT levels in autism fails to account for a big part of autism, and the link between fT and normal 'autistic traits' hardly demonstrates the causal link between fT and autism. PMID:18718106

Barbeau, Elise B; Mendrek, Adrianna; Mottron, Laurent

2009-02-01

162

Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural landscape to ensure resistance is not developing. USEPA is teaming with NASA to perform this monitoring using models and NASA earth observation imagery from airborne and satellite platforms. Using multiple spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions, the project is monitoring the entire Midwestern "Corn Belt". By applying these methods, the project has successfully delineated insect infestations in genetically modified corn fields. Insect resistance development is expected to present itself as infestations thus indicating potential identification of resistance if it develops in genetically modified crops. The USEPA and NASA are currently considering the development of plans to potentially extend this aircraft research to other crops and develop a micro-satellite application.

Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

163

Agriculture and climate change  

SciTech Connect

How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

Abelson, P.H.

1992-07-03

164

Validation of quantitative trait loci for Fusarium head blight and kernel discoloration in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Validation of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is a prerequisite to marker assisted selection (MAS), however, only a fraction of QTLs identified for important plant traits have been independently tested for validation. Resistance to the diseases kernel discoloration (KD) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley is complex and technically difficult to assess, and therefore QTLs for these traits are suitable

Paulo C. Canci; Lexingtons M. Nduulu; Gary J. Muehlbauer; Ruth Dill-Macky; Donald C. Rasmusson; Kevin P. Smith

2004-01-01

165

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting growth and carcass traits in F2 intercross chickens.  

PubMed

We constructed a chicken F(2) resource population to facilitate the genetic improvement of economically important traits, particularly growth and carcass traits. An F(2) population comprising 240 chickens obtained by crossing a Shamo (lean, lightweight Japanese native breed) male and White Plymouth Rock breed (fat, heavyweight broiler) females was measured for BW, carcass weight (CW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), breast muscle weight (BMW), and thigh muscle weight (TMW) and was used for genome-wide linkage and QTL analysis, using a total of 240 microsatellite markers. A total of 14 QTL were detected at a 5% chromosome-wide level, and 7 QTL were significant at a 5% experiment-wide level for the traits evaluated in the F(2) population. For growth traits, significant and suggestive QTL affecting BW (measured at 6 and 9 wk) and average daily gain were identified on similar regions of chromosomes 1 and 3. For carcass traits, the QTL effects on CW were detected on chromosomes 1 and 3, with the greatest F-ratio of 15.0 being obtained for CW on chromosome 3. Quantitative trait loci positions affecting BMW and TMW were not detected at the same loci as those detected for BMW percentage of CW and TMW percentage of CW. For AFW, QTL positions were detected at the same loci as those detected for AFW percentage of CW. The present study identified significant QTL affecting BW, CW, and AFW. PMID:19211515

Uemoto, Y; Sato, S; Odawara, S; Nokata, H; Oyamada, Y; Taguchi, Y; Yanai, S; Sasaki, O; Takahashi, H; Nirasawa, K; Kobayashi, E

2009-03-01

166

Theme: Agricultural Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

1991-01-01

167

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

168

Agricultural Statistics 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1998 issue of this annual United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service compendium is available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) from the Agricultural Statistics site. Its fifteen chapters consist of time series tables covering all aspects of the US agricultural economy, including crops, livestock, farm income and expenses, price-support, and fertilizer and pesticides. Time series and geographic coverage vary. The site also contains national and state tables and an archive of Agricultural Statistics back to 1994.

169

Data and theory point to mainly additive genetic variance for complex traits.  

PubMed

The relative proportion of additive and non-additive variation for complex traits is important in evolutionary biology, medicine, and agriculture. We address a long-standing controversy and paradox about the contribution of non-additive genetic variation, namely that knowledge about biological pathways and gene networks imply that epistasis is important. Yet empirical data across a range of traits and species imply that most genetic variance is additive. We evaluate the evidence from empirical studies of genetic variance components and find that additive variance typically accounts for over half, and often close to 100%, of the total genetic variance. We present new theoretical results, based upon the distribution of allele frequencies under neutral and other population genetic models, that show why this is the case even if there are non-additive effects at the level of gene action. We conclude that interactions at the level of genes are not likely to generate much interaction at the level of variance. PMID:18454194

Hill, William G; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M

2008-02-01

170

Feral genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape from seed import spills: are concerns scientifically justified?  

PubMed

One of the concerns surrounding the import (for food and feed uses or processing) of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape is that, through seed spillage, the herbicide tolerance (HT) trait will escape into agricultural or semi-natural habitats, causing environmental or economic problems. Based on these concerns, three EU countries have invoked national safeguard clauses to ban the marketing of specific GMHT oilseed rape events on their territory. However, the scientific basis for the environmental and economic concerns posed by feral GMHT oilseed rape resulting from seed import spills is debatable. While oilseed rape has characteristics such as secondary dormancy and small seed size that enable it to persist and be redistributed in the landscape, the presence of ferals is not in itself an environmental or economic problem. Crucially, feral oilseed rape has not become invasive outside cultivated and ruderal habitats, and HT traits are not likely to result in increased invasiveness. Feral GMHT oilseed rape has the potential to introduce HT traits to volunteer weeds in agricultural fields, but would only be amplified if the herbicides to which HT volunteers are tolerant were used routinely in the field. However, this worst-case scenario is most unlikely, as seed import spills are mostly confined to port areas. Economic concerns revolve around the potential for feral GMHT oilseed rape to contribute to GM admixtures in non-GM crops. Since feral plants derived from cultivation (as distinct from import) occur at too low a frequency to affect the coexistence threshold of 0.9% in the EU, it can be concluded that feral GMHT plants resulting from seed import spills will have little relevance as a potential source of pollen or seed for GM admixture. This paper concludes that feral oilseed rape in Europe should not be routinely managed, and certainly not in semi-natural habitats, as the benefits of such action would not outweigh the negative effects of management. PMID:21526422

Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosemary S; Messéan, Antoine; Perry, Joe N; Squire, Geoffrey R

2012-02-01

171

Trends in Market Penetration of Agricultural Exports: Evidence of Protectionism. .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To evaluate the often stated proposition that agricultural protectionism has reduced market access for agricultural exports worldwide, this report examines market penetration of importing country markets by exporters of corn, soybeans, beef and veal, toba...

C. L. Jabara

1985-01-01

172

Identification of quantitative trait loci for physical and chemical properties of rice grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with six physical traits of cooked rice and seven chemical properties of rice grain\\u000a were identified using a recombinant inbred (RI) population of rice evaluated over 3 years at the National Honam Agricultural\\u000a Research Institute in Korea. The RI population consisted of 164 lines derived from a cross between Milyang23 and Gihobyeo,\\u000a and the genetic map

Yong-Gu Cho; Hyeon-Jung Kang; Young-Tae Lee; Seung-Keun Jong; Moo-Young Eun; Susan R. McCouch

2010-01-01

173

Land-plant ecology on the basis of functional traits.  

PubMed

The tissue traits and architectures of plant species are important for land-plant ecology in two ways. First, they control ecosystem processes and define habitat and resources for other taxa; thus, they are a high priority for understanding the ecosystem at a site. Second, knowledge of trait costs and benefits offers the most promising path to understanding how vegetation properties change along physical geography gradients. There exists an informal shortlist of plant traits that are thought to be most informative. Here, we summarize recent research on correlations and tradeoffs surrounding some traits that are prospects for the shortlist. By extending the list and by developing better models for how traits influence species distributions and interactions, a strong foundation of basic ecology can be established, with many practical applications. PMID:16697912

Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J

2006-05-01

174

Lizard thermal trait variation at multiple scales: a review.  

PubMed

Thermal trait variation is of fundamental importance to forecasting the impacts of environmental change on lizard diversity. Here, we review the literature for patterns of variation in traits of upper and lower sub-lethal temperature limits, temperature preference and active body temperature in the field, in relation to space, time and phylogeny. Through time, we focus on the direction and magnitude of trait change within days, among seasons and as a consequence of acclimation. Across space, we examine altitudinal and latitudinal patterns, incorporating inter-specific analyses at regional and global scales. This synthesis highlights the consistency or lack thereof, of thermal trait responses, the relative magnitude of change among traits and several knowledge gaps identified in the relationships examined. We suggest that physiological information is becoming essential for forecasting environmental change sensitivity of lizards by providing estimates of plasticity and evolutionary scope. PMID:23989339

Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

2014-01-01

175

Proceedings of the Economic Policy Workshop on Migration and Mechanization in Egyptian Agriculture (3rd).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In light of three important labor-related phenomena in Egypt--(1) perceptions of agricultural labor shortages, (2) large-scale emigration from agriculture and from Egypt itself, and (3) rapidly increasing demand for, and supply of agricultural mechanizati...

A. Richards H. Khedr H. Kheir El-Din P. L. Martin S. Nassar

1981-01-01

176

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2012-04-01

177

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2014-04-01

178

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2011-04-01

179

19 CFR 12.24 - Regulations of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. 12.24 Section 12.24 Customs...24 Regulations of the Department of Agriculture. (a) The importation into the...quarantine regulations of the Department of Agriculture, Customs officers and employees...

2010-04-01

180

Agriculture for Little People. Publication No. 0004.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a collection of teacher guides to sample units introducing agriculture at the primary level; part or all of the units can be used along with the regular curriculum during the school year. Intended to acquaint K-3 students with agriculture's important role, the purpose of the course is to impart basic knowledge of materials, tools,…

Gasior, Albert G.

181

WTO agricultural trade battles and food aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent agricultural trade battles at the WTO between the US and the EU have important implications for the Global South, in particular with respect to food aid. The current Doha round of trade talks hinges closely on agreement in the area of agriculture, and a key issue of disagreement between the US and the EU is the question of whether

Jennifer Clapp

2004-01-01

182

Agricultural Accident Prevention--Problems and Accomplishments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Titles of bulletins, for persons who are interested in agricultural accident prevention, are listed as well as examples of farm machinery manufacturers who are making special efforts to produce valuable teaching aids and to inform all segments of agriculture about important safety development. (HD)

Bristol, Benton K.

1976-01-01

183

Rebuilding Agricultural Markets, (RAMP) Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agriculture is the single most important sector of Afghanistans economy. It employs 80 percent of the countrys population and accounts for more than half of the countrys GDP. Maximizing the output of the agricultural sector is the key to improving the eco...

2006-01-01

184

St Vincent Youth and Careers in Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Given the ageing farming population in the Caribbean and the importance of agriculture to economy, there is cause for concern about the future of farming. This study seeks to explore the extent to which students pursuing agriculture in secondary schools in St Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) were likely to engage in farming as well as…

Webster, Nicole; Ganpat, Wayne

2014-01-01

185

Predictive Models in Agricultural Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction may be envisaged as organized thinking about the possible. For this purpose, dynamic models of the state-variable approach are important tools because they combine basic knowledge on the physical, chemical and physiological processes that underlie crop growth and agricultural production. At one extreme are comprehensive models that claim to integrate all aspects of growth and to focus attention on

C. T. de Wit

1985-01-01

186

Trends in Agriculture and Agribusiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a major shift from agriculture to agribusiness. Trade liberalization, deregulation, consumerization, market homogeneity, vertical integration, genetically modified crops (GMCs), frankenfood, stewardship, decommodification interdependence, and sophistication are current trends that have reshaped the industry. This paper outlines these key changes illustrating that information is important and can provide a powerful competitive edge. An annotated list of Web resources

Hazel M. G. Cameron

2006-01-01

187

AGRICULTURAL EXCHANGE RATE DATA SHEET  

EPA Science Inventory

The ERS data set contains annual and monthly data for exchange rates important to U.S. agriculture. It includes both nominal and real exchange rates for 80 countries (plus the European Union) as well as real trade-weighted exchange rate indexes for many commodities and aggregatio...

188

Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

189

Stagnation and innovation before agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the roughly 190,000 years between the emergence of anatomically modern humans and the transition to agriculture, sustained economic progress was rare. Although there were important innovations in the Upper Paleolithic, evidence from paleodemography indicates that population densities were driven more by climatic conditions than by technological innovations in food acquisition. We develop a model in which technological knowledge is

Gregory K. Dow; Clyde G. Reed

2011-01-01

190

Climate Change and Agriculture: Economic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is arguably the most important sector of the economy that is highly dependent on climate. A large body of scientific data and models have been developed to predict the impacts of the contemporary and future climate. Since the first IPCC Assessment Report was published in 1990, substantial efforts have been directed toward understand - ing climate change impacts on

John M. Antle

2008-01-01

191

Agricultural Policy and Financial Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many farmers are currently facing severe financial stress resulting in asset liquidations, problems in obtaining credit, and even bankruptcy. An important question in policy analysis is the applicability of traditional farm policy approaches to the problem of financial stress in agriculture. This is a particularly relevant question given that the 1983 PIK program was one of the most expensive and

Michael D. Boehlje; R. Thamodaran; Alan D. Barkema

1985-01-01

192

High-resolution quantitative trait locus mapping reveals sign epistasis controlling ovariole number between two Drosophila species.  

PubMed

Identifying the genes underlying genetically complex traits is of fundamental importance for medicine, agriculture, and evolutionary biology. However, the level of resolution offered by traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is usually coarse. We analyze here a trait closely related to fitness, ovariole number. Our initial interspecific mapping between Drosophila sechellia (8 ovarioles/ovary) and D. simulans (15 ovarioles/ovary) identified a major QTL on chromosome 3 and a minor QTL on chromosome 2. To refine the position of the major QTL, we selected 1038 additional recombinants in the region of interest using flanking morphological markers (selective phenotyping). This effort generated approximately one recombination event per gene and increased the mapping resolution by approximately seven times. Our study thus shows that using visible markers to select for recombinants can efficiently increase the resolution of QTL mapping. We resolved the major QTL into two epistatic QTL, QTL3a and QTL3b. QTL3a shows sign epistasis: it has opposite effects in two different genetic backgrounds, the presence vs. the absence of the QTL3b D. sechellia allele. This property of QTL3a allows us to reconstruct the probable order of fixation of the QTL alleles during evolution. PMID:16489225

Orgogozo, Virginie; Broman, Karl W; Stern, David L

2006-05-01

193

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agriculture in the Classroom (AITC) is a program supported by the United States Department of Agriculture to promote increased agricultural literacy. The AITC website provides resources for teachers including suggestions for science fair projects, virtual tours, agricultural literacy quizzes, effective teaching strategies. There is also a directory of reviewed resources, including lesson plans, webquests, DVDs, maps, posters, and other items. The student's page features an interactive presentation with career information, ideas for science fair projects, opinion features on agricultural issues, games, webquests, and an interactive map with links to downloadable fact sheets about agriculture in each state.

194

Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies.  

PubMed

Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and untangle the forces driving divergence in these sexually selected traits. Using an experimental approach, we found that male size, area of orange coloration, number of sperm per ejaculate and linear sexual selection gradients for male traits differed among populations. Within populations, a large mismatch between the direction of selection and male traits suggests that constraints may be important in preventing male traits from evolving in the direction of selection. Among populations, however, variation in sexual selection explained more than half of the differences in trait variation, suggesting that, despite within-population constraints, sexual selection has contributed to population divergence of male traits. Differences in sexual traits were also associated with predation risk and neutral genetic distance. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection in trait divergence in introduced populations, despite the presence of constraining factors such as predation risk and evolutionary history. PMID:24456226

Lindholm, A K; Head, M L; Brooks, R C; Rollins, L A; Ingleby, F C; Zajitschek, S R K

2014-02-01

195

Leaf Trait-Environment Relationships in a Subtropical Broadleaved Forest in South-East China  

PubMed Central

Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most responsive ones.

Krober, Wenzel; Bohnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

2012-01-01

196

Metrics for Agricultural Supplies & Services, Agricultural Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in agricultural supplies and services, and agricultural production, this instructional package is one of four for the agribusiness and natural resources occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

197

Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

198

1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

199

Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) mapping for growth traits in the mouse: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attainment of a specific mature body size is one of the most fundamental differences among species of mammals. Moreover, body size seems to be the central factor underlying differences in traits such as growth rate, energy metabolism and body composition. An important proportion of this variability is of genetic origin. The goal of the genetic analysis of animal growth

Pablo M. CORVA; Juan F. MEDRANO

2001-01-01

200

A Tree of Genetic Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners mark their traits for tongue rolling, PTC tasting (a harmless, bitter chemical), and earlobe attachment on tree leaf cut-outs. They then place their leaves on a large tree with branches, in which each each branch represents a different combination of traits. When completed, the tree forms a visual representation of the frequency of trait combinations within the group. Included are handouts in English and Spanish. This resource also contains information about PTC safety.

Malone, Molly; Starr, Harmony; Mitchell, April

2006-01-01

201

Characterizing psychopathy using DSM-5 personality traits.  

PubMed

Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets. PMID:23620353

Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

2013-06-01

202

Strategies for Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

1989-01-01

203

Childhood Agricultural Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... dollars) 11 2012 Blueprint for Protecting Children in Agriculture Lee BC, Gallager SS, Liebman AK, Miller ME and ... B (Eds.) (2012). Blueprint for Protecting Children in Agriculture: The 2012 National Action Plan. Marshfield, WI: Marshfield ...

204

Barter of Agricultural Commodities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Barter and barter-type agreements are employed by developing and centrally planned countries in trade of both agricultural and non-agricultural products. These types of agreements generally involve the exchange of goods without the transfer of internation...

D. U. Vogt C. L. Jabara D. A. Linse

1982-01-01

205

Vocational Agriculture in Ponape  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general objectives of agriculture education in both the elementary and secondary schools in Ponape District are to develop interest in agriculture among students and to provide practical and technical skills in growing crops and raising domestic animals. (Author)

Dayrit, Ruben S.

1975-01-01

206

USSR Report, Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on USSR agriculture. Topics include: Major crop progress and weather reporting, livestock, agro-economics and organization, agricultural machinery, forestry and timber.

1984-01-01

207

Urban Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

Corbellini, Margaret

1991-01-01

208

138 Years of Agricultural Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When the millennium rolled over, numerous agencies across the country launched Websites telling the tale of that agency's progress, from inception until present. This site, from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), provides a concise timeline of agricultural research accomplishments in the US since the department was formed in 1862. The site features a chronological history by decade, a legislative history (of laws important to agriculture, food safety, nutrition, and the environment), and a complete history (without photographs). Each historical section contains a concise sketch of the major events (or laws) of that decade. Because the information presented here spans more than a century, in-depth coverage of particular events is not included. However, those interested in gaining a historical sketch of one of the most influential agencies in the US will find this resource informative.

209

Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A

Javad Nadaf; Hélène Gilbert; Frédérique Pitel; Cécile M Berri; Katia Feve; Catherine Beaumont; Michel J Duclos; Alain Vignal; Tom E Porter; Jean Simon; Samuel E Aggrey; Larry A Cogburn; Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval

2007-01-01

210

Measuring Agricultural Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sustainability in agriculture is a complex concept and there is no ­common viewpoint among scholars about its dimensions.\\u000a Nonetheless various parameters for measuring agricultural sustainability have been proposed. This manuscript reviews some\\u000a aspects of agricultural sustainability measures by referring to measuring difficulties, components of sustainability measurement\\u000a and their interaction. Criteria to select sustainability indicators are discussed. Agricultural sustainability scales at

Dariush Hayati; Zahra Ranjbar; Ezatollah Karami

211

SFRSF: Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses sustainable agriculture in southern Florida. Issues include: land managers and farmers working together to support habitat restoration; providing the agricultural and hydrologic science and technology needed to sustain agricultural production and a quality environment; reducing phosphorus and restoring natural hydrology in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA); and Best Management Practices developed to address these issues. There are links provided for additional information on this topic.

2006-12-23

212

Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2?0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat.

Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

2014-01-01

213

[Major domestication traits in Asian rice].  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding. PMID:23208135

Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

2012-11-01

214

Agricultural Structures, Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

215

Dutch Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

216

Information for Agricultural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

Kaungamno, E. E.

217

Agriculture Business and Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

Seperich, George; And Others

218

Species identity influences belowground arthropod assemblages via functional traits  

PubMed Central

Plant species influence belowground communities in a variety of ways, ultimately impacting nutrient cycling. Functional plant traits provide a means whereby species identity can influence belowground community interactions, but little work has examined whether species identity influences belowground community processes when correcting for evolutionary history. Specifically, we hypothesized that closely related species would exhibit (i) more similar leaf and root functional traits than more distantly related species, and (ii) more similar associated soil arthropod communities. We found that after correcting for evolutionary history, tree species identity influenced belowground arthropod communities through plant functional traits. These data suggest that plant species structure may be an important predictor in shaping associated soil arthropod communities and further suggest the importance of better understanding the extended consequences of evolutionary history on ecological processes, as similarity in traits may not always reflect similar ecology.

Gorman, Courtney E.; Read, Quentin D.; Van Nuland, Michael E.; Bryant, Jessica A. M.; Welch, Jessica N.; Altobelli, Joseph T.; Douglas, Morgan J.; Genung, Mark A.; Haag, Elliot N.; Jones, Devin N.; Long, Hannah E.; Wilburn, Adam D.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

2013-01-01

219

QTLs for Seed Vigor-Related Traits Identified in Maize Seeds Germinated under Artificial Aging Conditions  

PubMed Central

High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R2>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, ShuLei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

2014-01-01

220

Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

Gough, L. P.; Herring, J. R.

1993-01-01

221

Agricultural Marketing Strategy and Pricing Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collection and distribution of agricultural products, particularly food, is an important mechanism for redistributing resources, wealth, and power. Governments have adopted policies that have to a varying degree controlled or influenced markets and ma...

D. Elz

1987-01-01

222

Electronic Agriculture Resources and Agriculture Industrialization Support Information Service Platform Structure and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agriculture resources and agriculture industrialization support information service platform is an important part of Agriculture\\u000a affair support platform of west part national area of P. R. China, a key projects in the National Science & Technology Pillar\\u000a Program in the Eleventh Five-year Plan Period. The system is designed as a 3 layers structure. Database support subsystem\\u000a is the base layer.

Xiaoming Zhao

2010-01-01

223

Personality Traits Predict Treatment Outcome in Alcohol-Dependent Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality traits are important individual characteristics modifying responses to therapy in various diseases. The aim of this study was to identify personality traits that may predict treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. The present analysis was based on a total of 146 alcohol-dependent patients (109 male, 37 female) after detoxification. The variable of interest was treatment outcome (abstinence\\/relapse) after a 1-year

Sandra E. Müller; Heinz-Gerd Weijers; Jobst Böning; Gerhard A. Wiesbeck

2008-01-01

224

Secondary Agricultural Schools in Russia. Bulletin, 1917, No. 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a country where 80 percent of the people are engaged in farming, it is natural to expect that the agricultural schools should play an important part in the general system of education. The act of 1904 on agricultural education constitutes the basis of the organization of the agricultural schools. This act places all private schools under the…

Jesien, W. S.

1917-01-01

225

Climate Change And Agriculture In Turkey: A Cge Modeling Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture remains an important source of income and employment in Turkey. Agricultural production is heavily dependent on water availability for increasing productivity and decreasing volatility in production. Half of the crop production in Turkey relies on irrigation. Irrigated agriculture currently consumes about 75 percent of total water consumption which is about 30 percent of renewable water availability. However climate change

Erol H. Cakmak; Hasan Dudu; Sirin Saracoglu

2009-01-01

226

Identifying Technical Content Training Needs of Georgia Agriculture Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The continuing trend toward increasing diversity of curriculum offered within secondary agricultural education programs is driving a change in pre-service and in-service technical training for agriculture teachers. This study looks at agriculture teachers' perceived importance of, and competence in, traditional technical competencies such as…

Peake, Jason B.; Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

2007-01-01

227

Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation and Emission Intensities in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions are closely linked. This paper reviews agricultural options to reduce energy intensities and their impacts, discusses important accounting issues related to system boundaries, land scarcity, and measurement units, and compares agricultural energy intensities and improvement potentials on an international level. Agricultural development in the past decades, while increasing yields, led to lower average energy

Uwe A. Schneider; Pete Smith

2008-01-01

228

Human Resource Development for Modernizing the Agricultural Workforce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater commercialization of agricultural systems and increasing trade liberalization dictate the need for better capacity on the part of the agriculture workforce in the 21st century. Global changes in the roles of the public and private sectors and the dramatic advancements in technology have also strongly affected agricultural workforce development needs. These evolving changes have important policy, institutional and programmatic

William M. Rivera; Gary E. Alex

2008-01-01

229

Identifying Technical Content Training Needs of Georgia Agriculture Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuing trend toward increasing diversity of curriculum offered within secondary agricultural education programs is driving a change in pre-service and in-service technical training for agriculture teachers. This study looks at agriculture teachers' perceived importance of, and competence in, traditional technical competencies such as welding and small engines, as well as more recent technical competencies such as biotechnology and computer

Jason B. Peake; Dennis W. Duncan; John C. Ricketts

2007-01-01

230

An application of industrial design in Large-scale Agricultural Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of agricultural modernization and mechanization, industrial design, as an important part of modern product, will play an important role in agricultural engineering and the design and product of agricultural machinery. At first the paper promotes the main three aspects of application of ID in agricultural engineering. Then based on the full design process of a self-propelled forage

Liu Sha

2008-01-01

231

An Inventory of My Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this genetics meets math activity, learners take inventories of their own easily-observable genetic traits and compare those inventories with other learners in groups. Then, learners make data tables and bar graphs showing the most and least common traits in their group. This guide features activity sheets in English and Spanish.

Malone, Molly; Mitchell, April; Stark, Louisa; Starr, Harmony

2006-01-01

232

National Agricultural Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) is part of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The library is a major international source for agriculture and related information. The website provides access to NAL's many resources which include: a Web Gateway to AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access), the catalog of the library and its cooperator's resources; the Agriculture Network Information Center (AgNIC), a guide to quality agricultural information on the Internet; and many other databases such as the AGROS Research Data Directory, which is a collection of dataset descriptions from the USDA's environmental research. Users may also find publications, services and programs, and links to other information centers.

233

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Perrault, Tanya

2012-02-20

234

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting.

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

235

A Reference Unit on Understanding the Role of Research and Education in Agriculture. Agriculture and Natural Resources Series. Publication 1016.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the premise that all persons with agricultural careers will be better able to function if they have at least an elementary knowledge of how agricultural research and education and farmer organizations came into being and what their roles are in modern agriculture, this unit is designed to aid in understanding the nature and importance of…

Lee, Jasper S., Comp.

236

Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes  

PubMed Central

Abstract The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources.

2014-01-01

237

Recording of direct health traits in Austria--experience report with emphasis on aspects of availability for breeding purposes.  

PubMed

A project to establish an Austria-wide health-monitoring system for cattle was launched in 2006. Veterinary diagnostic data subject to documentation by law [Law on the Control of Veterinary Medicinal Products (Tierarzneimittelkontrollgesetz)] are standardized, validated, and recorded in a central database. This Austria-wide project is a collaboration among agricultural and veterinary organizations as well as universities, and is also supported by the Austrian government. In addition to providing information for herd management and preventive measures, further objectives of the project include estimating breeding values for health traits and monitoring the overall health status of Austria's cattle. To ensure a high level of participation from farmers and veterinarians, data security issues are extremely important. Valid data are the prerequisite for the efficient use of health records. The challenge hereby is to distinguish between farms with low frequencies of diseases and incomplete documentation and recording. Measures were undertaken to establish a routine monitoring system for direct health traits. A routine genetic evaluation for direct health traits as part of the joint breeding value estimation program between Germany and Austria was introduced for Fleckvieh in December 2010, based on diagnostic data from 5,428 farms with 147,764 Fleckvieh cows. In 2010 to 2011, the reporting of direct health traits as a compulsory part of performance recording and the breeding program was introduced as well. The overall challenge is the availability of sufficient valid direct health data for reliable breeding values. Practical experience gained in Austria in setting up a health registration system, focusing mainly on the availability of direct health data for breeding purposes with its successes and difficulties, is described. PMID:22541507

Egger-Danner, C; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Obritzhauser, W; Fuerst, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Grassauer, B; Mayerhofer, M; Koeck, A

2012-05-01

238

Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.  

PubMed

How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes. PMID:23951712

Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

2013-07-01

239

Effect of Habitat Conditions and Plant Traits on Leaf Damage in the Carduoideae Subfamily  

PubMed Central

Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range.

Munzbergova, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Jiri

2013-01-01

240

The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture.  

PubMed

The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till, NT) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice that was borne out of the American dust bowl of the 1930s. The paper then describes the benefits of CA, a suggested improvement on CT, where NT, mulch and rotations significantly improve soil properties and other biotic factors. The paper concludes that CA is a more sustainable and environmentally friendly management system for cultivating crops. Case studies from the rice-wheat areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia and the irrigated maize-wheat systems of Northwest Mexico are used to describe how CA practices have been used in these two environments to raise production sustainably and profitably. Benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global warming are also discussed. The paper concludes that agriculture in the next decade will have to sustainably produce more food from less land through more efficient use of natural resources and with minimal impact on the environment in order to meet growing population demands. Promoting and adopting CA management systems can help meet this goal. PMID:17720669

Hobbs, Peter R; Sayre, Ken; Gupta, Raj

2008-02-12

241

Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs.  

PubMed

The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive "slash-and-burn" farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives. PMID:23589860

Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

2013-05-01

242

Autotoxicity in Agriculture and Forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant allelochemicals might interfere with growth of conspecific individuals (known as autotoxicity) when high concentrations\\u000a are accumulated in soil. Autotoxicity is ubiquitous in both natural and manipulated ecosystems and may have important ecological\\u000a implications. This chapter reviewed the role and management of autotoxicity in agriculture and forestry. It also discussed\\u000a the mode of action of autotoxicity and its controlling factors.

Ying Hu Liu; Ren Sen Zeng; Min An; Azim U. Mallik; Shi Ming Luo

243

An optimal strategy for functional mapping of dynamic trait loci.  

PubMed

As an emerging powerful approach for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for dynamic traits, functional mapping models the time-dependent mean vector with biologically meaningful equations and are likely to generate biologically relevant and interpretable results. Given the autocorrelation nature of a dynamic trait, functional mapping needs the implementation of the models for the structure of the covariance matrix. In this article, we have provided a comprehensive set of approaches for modelling the covariance structure and incorporated each of these approaches into the framework of functional mapping. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values are used as a model selection criterion to choose the optimal combination of the submodels for the mean vector and covariance structure. In an example for leaf age growth from a rice molecular genetic project, the best submodel combination was found between the Gaussian model for the correlation structure, power equation of order 1 for the variance and the power curve for the mean vector. Under this combination, several significant QTLs for leaf age growth trajectories were detected on different chromosomes. Our model can be well used to study the genetic architecture of dynamic traits of agricultural values. PMID:20196894

Jin, Tianbo; Li, Jiahan; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Xiaojing; Yang, Runqing; Wu, Rongling

2010-02-01

244

Agricultural aviation research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

Chevalier, H. L. (compiler); Bouse, L. F. (compiler)

1977-01-01

245

Mapping QTLs for traits related to salinity tolerance at seedling stage of rice (Oryza sativa L.): an agrigenomics study of an Iranian rice population.  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops in the world, especially in Asian countries, and salinity is a major constraint to the sustainability and expansion of rice cultivation. Genetically improving salt tolerance of rice is a highly important objective of rice breeding programs. Traits such as salt tolerance are quantitatively inherited. Hence, mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) with molecular markers can be very helpful to plant breeders in the field of agricultural genomics (AgriGenomics). In this investigation, QTL analysis of physiological traits related to salt tolerance was carried out using F2:4 population of rice derived from a cross between a salt-tolerant variety, Gharib (indica), and a salt-sensitive variety, Sepidroud (indica). A linkage map based on 148 F2 individuals was constructed with 131 SSR markers and 105 AFLP markers, covering 2475.7 cM of rice genome with an average distance of 10.48?cM between flanking markers. A total of 41 QTLs for twelve physiological traits under salinity stress were detected distributed on all rice chromosomes, some of them being reported for the first time. Also, overlapping of QTLs related to salt tolerance were observed in this study. Some of the identified QTLs on specific chromosomal regions explaining high phenotypic variance could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs. New QTLs retrieved in this study play an important role in growth of rice at seedling stage in an Iranian local population under high salinity conditions. PMID:23638881

Ghomi, Khadijeh; Rabiei, Babak; Sabouri, Hossein; Sabouri, Atefeh

2013-05-01

246

Psychotic traits in comedians.  

PubMed

Background The popular belief that creativity is associated with madness has increasingly become the focus of research for many psychologists and psychiatrists. However, despite being prime examples of creative thinking, comedy and humour have been largely neglected. Aims To test the hypothesis that comedians would resemble other creative individuals in showing a higher level of psychotic characteristics related to both schizophrenia and manic depression. Method A group of comedians (n = 500+) and a control sample of actors (n = 350+) completed an online questionnaire containing the short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), with scales measuring four dimensions of psychotic traits. Scores were compared with general population norms. Results Comedians scored significantly above O-LIFE norms on all four scales. Actors also differed from the norms but on only three of the scales. Most striking was the comedians' high score on both introverted anhedonia and extraverted impulsiveness. Conclusions This unusual personality structure may help to explain the facility for comedic performance. PMID:24434072

Ando, Victoria; Claridge, Gordon; Clark, Ken

2014-05-01

247

Functional mapping of dynamic traits with robust t-distribution.  

PubMed

Functional mapping has been a powerful tool in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying dynamic traits of agricultural or biomedical interest. In functional mapping, multivariate normality is often assumed for the underlying data distribution, partially due to the ease of parameter estimation. The normality assumption however could be easily violated in real applications due to various reasons such as heavy tails or extreme observations. Departure from normality has negative effect on testing power and inference for QTL identification. In this work, we relax the normality assumption and propose a robust multivariate t-distribution mapping framework for QTL identification in functional mapping. Simulation studies show increased mapping power and precision with the t distribution than that of a normal distribution. The utility of the method is demonstrated through a real data analysis. PMID:21966378

Wu, Cen; Li, Gengxin; Zhu, Jun; Cui, Yuehua

2011-01-01

248

Functional Mapping of Dynamic Traits with Robust t-Distribution  

PubMed Central

Functional mapping has been a powerful tool in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying dynamic traits of agricultural or biomedical interest. In functional mapping, multivariate normality is often assumed for the underlying data distribution, partially due to the ease of parameter estimation. The normality assumption however could be easily violated in real applications due to various reasons such as heavy tails or extreme observations. Departure from normality has negative effect on testing power and inference for QTL identification. In this work, we relax the normality assumption and propose a robust multivariate -distribution mapping framework for QTL identification in functional mapping. Simulation studies show increased mapping power and precision with the distribution than that of a normal distribution. The utility of the method is demonstrated through a real data analysis.

Wu, Cen; Li, Gengxin; Zhu, Jun; Cui, Yuehua

2011-01-01

249

Alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological traits but not chemical traits.  

PubMed

Leaves and fine roots are among the most important and dynamic components of terrestrial ecosystems. To what extent plants synchronize their resource capture strategies above- and belowground remains uncertain. Existing results of trait relationships between leaf and root showed great inconsistency, which may be partly due to the differences in abiotic environmental conditions such as climate and soil. Moreover, there is currently little evidence on whether and how the stringent environments of high-altitude alpine ecosystems alter the coordination between above- and belowground. Here we measured six sets of analogous traits for both leaves and fine roots of 139 species collected from Tibetan alpine grassland and Mongolian temperate grassland. N, P and N:P ratio of leaves and fine roots were positively correlated, independent of biogeographic regions, phylogenetic affiliation or climate. In contrast, leaves and fine roots seem to regulate morphological traits more independently. The specific leaf area (SLA)-specific root length (SRL) correlation shifted from negative at sites under low temperature to positive at warmer sites. The cold climate of alpine regions may impose different constraints on shoots and roots, selecting simultaneously for high SLA leaves for rapid C assimilation during the short growing season, but low SRL roots with high physical robustness to withstand soil freezing. In addition, there might be more community heterogeneity in cold soils, resulting in multidirectional strategies of root in resource acquisition. Thus our results demonstrated that alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological but not chemical traits. PMID:24633995

Geng, Yan; Wang, Liang; Jin, Dongmei; Liu, Huiying; He, Jin-Sheng

2014-06-01

250

Inventions for future sustainable development in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter is directed to the importance of different inventions as driver for sustainable development of agriculture. Inventions\\u000a are defined as radical new ideas, perspectives and technologies that hold the potential to trigger a change in sustainable\\u000a agriculture. Innovation is based on one or more inventions that can bring a major breakthrough or have a smaller impact. Inventions\\u000a can be

Evert Jacobsen; Pieter J. Beers; Arnout R. H. Fischer

2010-01-01

251

Genetic and QTL analysis of pericarp thickness and ear architecture traits of Korean waxy corn germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pericarp thickness and ear traits are important selection criteria for breeding fresh market waxy corn. This research was\\u000a conducted to better understand genetic control of these traits in popular South Korean germplasm now grown in Illinois. Pericarp\\u000a thickness on five kernel regions, and ten inflorescence architecture traits were measured on ears from 264 F2:3 families from a cross between Korean

Eunsoo ChoeTorbert; Torbert R. Rocheford

252

Genotype by environment interaction for index traits that combine growth and wood density in loblolly pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotype×environment interactions of individual traits have been assessed in numerous experiments with forest trees. However,\\u000a since breeding programs rarely aim at the improvement of a single trait, the impact of G×E on index or composite traits must\\u000a also be assessed. In a study with 12-year-old loblolly pine families in the southeastern U.S., G×E variance was of relatively\\u000a little importance compared

S. E. McKeand; G. Eriksson; J. H. Roberds

1997-01-01

253

7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260.121 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research...

2009-01-01

254

7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260.121 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research...

2010-01-01

255

FAPRI 2000 World Agricultural Outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) prepares a preliminary agricultural outlook on world agricultural production, consumption, and trade every fall. This is followed by an outside review, re-evaluation of projections, and completion of the final baseline in January. The FAPRI 2000 World Agricultural Outlook presents these final projections for world agricultural markets. A companion volume, the FAPRI 2000

Bruce A. Babcock; John C. Beghin; Samarendu Mohanty; Frank H. Fuller; Jacinto F. Fabiosa; Phillip J. Kaus; Cheng Fang; Chad E. Hart; Karen Kovarik; Abner W. Womack; Robert E. Young II; Gregg Suhler; Patrick C. Westhoff; Joe Trujillo; D. Scott Brown; Gary M. Adams; Brian Willott; Daniel Madison; Seth D. Meyer; John R. Kruse

2000-01-01

256

Vocational Agriculture I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

257

Agriculture Power and Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

Rogers, Tom

258

Agricultural Technology Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

259

Agriculture and Rural Viability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

260

Community shared agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community shared agriculture is a concept that brings food producers and consumers together in a relationship that supports values associated with sustainable agriculture, community development, and food security. At the heart of the concept is the notion of sharing. Participants share the real costs of food production through fair prices for the farmer and by assuming part of the risk

Paul Fieldhouse; M. Phil

1996-01-01

261

Are the Traits we Prefer in Potential Mates the Traits they Value in Themselves? An Analysis of Sex Differences in the Self-concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

When evaluating potential mates, men place greater importance on youth and beauty, whereas women place more importance on status and resources. Six studies tested the hypothesis that the self-concepts of men and women reflect the preferences of potential mates. Studies 1–3 showed that traits related to status were an important aspect of men's self-concepts, whereas traits related to physical attractiveness

Lorne Campbell; Christopher J. Wilbur

2009-01-01

262

Agricultural Production, Agricultural Land and Rural Poverty in Madagascar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rural areas dependent on agricultural income, are often among the poorest in developing countries. However, little distinction is generally made within the agricultural sector. This lack of distinction hinders targeting of agricultural investments towards...

B. Minten J. C. Randrianarisoa

2001-01-01

263

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

264

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

265

QTL analysis for some quantitative traits in bread wheat*  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted in bread wheat for 14 important traits utilizing data from four different mapping populations involving different approaches of QTL analysis. Analysis for grain protein content (GPC) suggested that the major part of genetic variation for this trait is due to environmental interactions. In contrast, pre-harvest sprouting tolerance (PHST) was controlled mainly by main effect QTL (M-QTL) with very little genetic variation due to environmental interactions; a major QTL for PHST was detected on chromosome arm 3AL. For grain weight, one QTL each was detected on chromosome arms 1AS, 2BS and 7AS. QTL for 4 growth related traits taken together detected by different methods ranged from 37 to 40; nine QTL that were detected by single-locus as well as two-locus analyses were all M-QTL. Similarly, single-locus and two-locus QTL analyses for seven yield and yield contributing traits in two populations respectively allowed detection of 25 and 50 QTL by composite interval mapping (CIM), 16 and 25 QTL by multiple-trait composite interval mapping (MCIM) and 38 and 37 QTL by two-locus analyses. These studies should prove useful in QTL cloning and wheat improvement through marker aided selection.

Pushpendra, Kumar Gupta; Harindra, Singh Balyan; Pawan, Laxminarayan Kulwal; Neeraj, Kumar; Ajay, Kumar; Reyazul, Rouf Mir; Amita, Mohan; Jitendra, Kumar

2007-01-01

266

What motivates farmers to participate in sustainable agriculture? Evidence and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustained growth in agricultural productivity has become an ideal model and a political goal of agricultural development in China. Local participation is essential for the implementation of sustainable agriculture strategy. We conducted a case study in Hailun County, an important grain production base in China, to find ways to motivate farmers to participate in sustainable agriculture. We obtained data from

Yan Ma; Liding Chen; Xinfeng Zhao; Haifeng Zheng; Yihe Lü

2009-01-01

267

Effect of Mineral Matter on the Reactivity of the Char from Agricultural Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural waste disposal is becoming a problem due to its increasing production and potential pollution. As a kind of biomass, agricultural waste can be used as a sustainable and renewable source of energy. Agricultural waste disposal is of great economic and environmental importance. In the paper, the effect of the mineral matters in agriculture waste on the reactivity of its

Shouyu Zhang; Dingmao Peng; Fengbao Huang

2009-01-01

268

Agricultural Mechanics. V-A-1 to V-E-1. Basic V.A.I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains five units of informational materials and transparency masters with accompanying scripts, skill sheets, and safety tests for teacher and student use in an agricultural mechanics course in vocational agriculture. The first unit introduces the agricultural mechanics shop, covering the following topics: importance of agricultural

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

269

Applications of metabolomics in agriculture.  

PubMed

Biological systems are exceedingly complex. The unraveling of the genome in plants and humans revealed fewer than the anticipated number of genes. Therefore, other processes such as the regulation of gene expression, the action of gene products, and the metabolic networks resulting from catalytic proteins must make fundamental contributions to the remarkable diversity inherent in living systems. Metabolomics is a relatively new approach aimed at improved understanding of these metabolic networks and the subsequent biochemical composition of plants and other biological organisms. Analytical tools within metabolomics including mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can profile the impact of time, stress, nutritional status, and environmental perturbation on hundreds of metabolites simultaneously resulting in massive, complex data sets. This information, in combination with transcriptomics and proteomics, has the potential to generate a more complete picture of the composition of food and feed products, to optimize crop trait development, and to enhance diet and health. Selected presentations from an American Chemical Society symposium held in March 2005 have been assembled to highlight the emerging application of metabolomics in agriculture. PMID:17117782

Dixon, Richard A; Gang, David R; Charlton, Adrian J; Fiehn, Oliver; Kuiper, Harry A; Reynolds, Tracey L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; German, J Bruce; Ridley, William P; Seiber, James N

2006-11-29

270

The modulation of somatosensory resonance by psychopathic traits and empathy  

PubMed Central

A large number of neuroimaging studies have shown neural overlaps between first-hand experiences of pain and the perception of pain in others. This shared neural representation of vicarious pain is thought to involve both affective and sensorimotor systems. A number of individual factors are thought to modulate the cerebral response to other's pain. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of psychopathic traits on the relation between sensorimotor resonance to other's pain and self-reported empathy. Our group has previously shown that a steady-state response to non-painful stimulation is modulated by the observation of other people's bodily pain. This change in somatosensory response was interpreted as a form of somatosensory gating (SG). Here, using the same technique, SG was compared between two groups of 15 young adult males: one scoring very high on a self-reported measure of psychopathic traits [60.8 ± 4.98; Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP)] and one scoring very low (42.7 ± 2.94). The results showed a significantly greater reduction of SG to pain observation for the high psychopathic traits group compared to the low psychopathic traits group. SG to pain observation was positively correlated with affective and interpersonal facet of psychopathy in the whole sample. The high psychopathic traits group also reported lower empathic concern (EC) scores than the low psychopathic traits group. Importantly, primary psychopathy, as assessed by the LSRP, mediated the relation between EC and SG to pain observation. Together, these results suggest that increase somatosensory resonance to other's pain is not exclusively explained by trait empathy and may be linked to other personality dimensions, such as psychopathic traits.

Marcoux, Louis-Alexandre; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Voisin, Julien I. A.; Lemelin, Sophie; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Jackson, Philip L.

2013-01-01

271

Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes  

SciTech Connect

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

Reich, P.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Walters, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Vose, J.M. [Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrological Lab.; Gresham, C. [Clemson Univ., Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Forest Inst.; Volin, J.C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Davie, FL (United States). Div. of Science; Bowman, W.D. [Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Mountain Research Station]|[Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Evolutionary, Population, and Organismic Biology

1999-09-01

272

Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

1985-02-01

273

Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides long-run baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2007. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices. The baseline assumes ...

1997-01-01

274

Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides long-run baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2008. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices. The baseline assumes n...

1999-01-01

275

NATIONAL AGRICULTURE SAFETY DATABASE (NASD)  

EPA Science Inventory

NASD is a national central repository of agricultural health, safety, and injury prevention materials for the agricultural community and especially for agricultural safety specialists. The mission of the NASD project is: to provide a national information resource for the dissemin...

276

Effects of plant species traits on ecosystem processes: experiments in the Patagonian steppe.  

PubMed

Several experiments have shown that aboveground net primary productivity increases with plant species richness. The main mechanism proposed to explain this relationship is niche complementarity, which is determined by differences in plant traits that affect resource use. We combined field and laboratory experiments using the most abundant species of the Patagonian steppe to identify which are the traits that determine niche complementarity in this ecosystem. We estimated traits that affect carbon, water, microclimate, and nitrogen dynamics. The most important traits distinguishing among species, from the standpoint of their effects on ecosystem functioning, were potential soil nitrification, rooting depth, and soil thermal amplitude. Additionally, we explored the relationship between trait diversity and aboveground net primary production (ANPP) using a manipulative field experiment. ANPP and the fraction of ANPP accounted for by trait diversity increased with number of traits. The effect of trait diversity decreased as the number of traits increased. Here, the use of traits gave us a mechanistic understanding of niche complementarity in the Patagonian steppe. PMID:22624303

Flombaum, Pedro; Sala, Osvaldo E

2012-02-01

277

Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects.  

PubMed

Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the asexual lineages retained the capacity to produce males that display normal courtship behaviours and are able to fertilize eggs of females from related sexual species. The maintenance of male traits may stem from pleiotropy, or from these traits only regressing via drift, which may require millions of years to generate phenotypic effects. By contrast, we found parallel decay of sexual traits in females. Asexual females produced altered airborne and contact signals, had modified sperm storage organs, and lost the ability to fertilize their eggs, impeding reversals to sexual reproduction. Female sexual traits were decayed even in recently derived asexuals, suggesting that trait changes following the evolution of asexuality, when they occur, proceed rapidly and are driven by selective processes rather than drift. PMID:23782880

Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2013-08-01

278

Assessing and Mitigating N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural cropping and animal production systems are important sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The assessment of the importance of N fertilization from synthetic fertilizer, animal wastes used as fertilizers and from N incorporated into the soil through biological N fixation, to global N2O emissions presented in this paper suggests that this source has been underestimated. We estimate that agricultural

A. R. Mosier; J. M. Duxbury; J. R. Freney; O. Heinemeyer; K. Minami

1998-01-01

279

Interpersonal problems associated with multidimensional personality questionnaire traits in women during the transition to adulthood.  

PubMed

Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in a sample of 124 young women were correlated with interpersonal dysfunction as measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex. Results suggest that Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire traits vary in their associations with interpersonal distress and in their coverage of specific kinds of interpersonal difficulties among women undergoing the transition to adulthood. PMID:22064504

Hopwood, Christopher J; Burt, S Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K; Neale, Michael C; Boker, Steven M; Klump, Kelly L

2013-02-01

280

Of flies and man: Drosophila as a model for human complex traits.  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic and environmental factors affecting human complex genetic traits and diseases is a major challenge because of many interacting genes with individually small effects, whose expression is sensitive to the environment. Dissection of complex traits using the powerful genetic approaches available with Drosophila melanogaster has provided important lessons that should be considered when studying human complex traits. In Drosophila, large numbers of pleiotropic genes affect complex traits; quantitative trait locus alleles often have sex-, environment-, and genetic background-specific effects, and variants associated with different phenotypic are in noncoding as well as coding regions of candidate genes. Such insights, in conjunction with the strong evolutionary conservation of key genes and pathways between flies and humans, make Drosophila an excellent model system for elucidating the genetic mechanisms that affect clinically relevant human complex traits, such as alcohol dependence, sleep, and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:16756480

Mackay, Trudy F C; Anholt, Robert R H

2006-01-01

281

Children's thinking about traits: implications for judgments of the self and others.  

PubMed

The relation between the way in which children interpret human behavior and their beliefs about the stability of human traits is investigated. In interviews with 202 7- and 8-year-olds across 2 studies, the belief that traits are stable predicted a greater tendency to make trait judgments, and an increased focus on outcomes and behaviors through which traits can be judged. In the academic domain, a belief in trait stability was associated with an emphasis on the evaluative meanings of performance outcomes, as opposed to mediating processes such as effort. In the sociomoral domain, the same belief was associated with an emphasis on the evaluative meanings of behaviors (e.g., whether the person is good or bad), as opposed to factors that mediate behavior, such as intention. Results suggest that beliefs about the stability of traits may serve an important role in thinking about and functioning within the academic and sociomoral domains. PMID:9586214

Heyman, G D; Dweck, C S

1998-04-01

282

Effect of subsidy regimes on economic values of functional traits in beef cattle breeding.  

PubMed

We investigated the impact of five monetary subsidy regimes on economic values of traits in a cow-calf pasture production system with surplus calves fed for slaughter. The following regimes were analysed: (1) maximum prices for slaughter animals actually received in the Czech Republic during 2004, with no subsidies of any kind; (2) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of permanent grassland and per calf born; (3) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of agricultural land, per hectare of pasture and meadow, per beef cow in a forage system and per livestock unit; (4) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of agricultural land; (5) no subsidies, but prices received for slaughter animals that covered production costs and resulted in 1% profitability. The modelled farm showed negative profit under real price conditions with no subsidies (regime 1), which led to an underestimation of economic values for functional traits. The same results were obtained in regimes in which subsidies did not depend on the number of animals (3) or on meat production from the enterprise (4). Economic values of production traits (growth and carcass traits) did not vary among subsidy regimes. To determine optimum economic values for functional traits in beef cattle, we advocate using the method applied in subsidy regime 5, no subsidies but prices for slaughter animals that cover production cost and a small profit. PMID:16533363

Wolfová, M; Pribyl, J; Wolf, J; Zahrádková, R

2006-04-01

283

Effector genes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria promote transmission and enhance other fitness traits in the field.  

PubMed Central

Establishing durable disease resistance in agricultural crops, where much of the plant defense is provided through effector-R gene interactions, is complicated by the ability of pathogens to overcome R gene resistance by losing the corresponding effector gene. Many proposed methods to maintain disease resistance in the field depend on the idea that effector gene loss results in a fitness cost to the pathogen. In this article we test for fitness costs of effector gene function loss. We created directed knockouts of up to four effector genes from the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (Xav) and examined the effect of the loss of a functional gene product on several important fitness parameters in the field. These traits included transmission, lesion development, and epiphytic survival. We found that the products of all four effector genes had significant and often additive effects on fitness traits. Additional greenhouse tests revealed costs of effector gene loss on in planta growth and further showed that the effects on lesion development were separable from the effects on growth. Observable fitness effects of the three plasmid-borne effector genes were dependent upon the loss of functional avrBs2, indicating that complex functional interactions exist among effector genes with Xav.

Wichmann, Gale; Bergelson, Joy

2004-01-01

284

Predictive Value of Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Large Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in children and adolescents are increasingly recognized as a distinctive dimension of prognostic importance in clinical samples. Nevertheless, comparatively little is known about the longitudinal effects of these personality traits on the mental health of young people from the general population. Using a…

Moran, Paul; Rowe, Richard; Flach, Clare; Briskman, Jacqueline; Ford, Tamsin; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Stephen; Goodman, Robert

2009-01-01

285

Differences in Offending Patterns between Adolescent Sex Offenders High or Low in Callous--Unemotional Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors investigated whether callous and unemotional (CU) traits designated a distinct and important group of adolescent sex offender. A sample of 150 detained adolescents (mean age = 15.89, SD = 1.53) with a current sexual offense disposition was assessed with a self-report measure of CU traits and through extensive…

Lawing, Kathryn; Frick, Paul J.; Cruise, Keith R.

2010-01-01

286

Sexual variation in heritability and genetic correlations of morphological traits in house sparrow (Passer domesticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of genetic components are important for our understanding of how individual characteristics are transferred between generations. We show that the level of heritability varies between 0.12 and 0.68 in six morphological traits in house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.) in northern Norway. Positive and negative genetic correlations were present among traits, suggesting evolu- tionary constraints on the evolution of some

H. Jensen; B.-E. Saether; T. H. Ringsby; J. Tufto; S. C. Griffith; H. Ellegren

2003-01-01

287

Carbon cycling traits of plant species are linked with mycorrhizal strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem carbon cycling depends strongly on the productivity of plant species and the decomposition rates of the litter they produce. We tested the hypothesis that classifying plant functional types according to mycorrhizal association explains important interspecific variation in plant carbon cycling traits, particularly in those traits that feature in a hypothesized feedback between vegetation productivity and litter turnover. We compared

J. H. C. Cornelissen; R. Aerts; B. Cerabolini; M. J. A. Werger; M. G. A. van der Heijden

2001-01-01

288

Regression Models for Linkage: Issues of Traits, Covariates, Heterogeneity, and Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression methods offer a common framework to analyze linkage for quantitative trait loci as well as linkage for affection status using affected sib-pairs. Although numerous papers on regression methods for linkage have been published, some common themes and important caveats tend to be scattered across the literature. For example, the typical approach is to regress a function of traits on

Daniel J. Schaid; Jane M. Olson; W. James Gauderman; Robert C. Elston

2003-01-01

289

Creativity and Certain Personality Traits: Understanding the Mediating Effect of Intrinsic Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creativity is a topic of ever-increasing interest, given its importance and applicability to literally every field. Personality traits have been frequently and predictably related to creative achievement. Amabile (1983) pointed out that individuals may have certain traits and abilities that are favorable for creativity, but whether these will actually result in achieving creative results depends on their intrinsic motivation. Additionally,

Veena Prabhu; Charlotte Sutton; William Sauser

2008-01-01

290

Sounds different: inbreeding depression in sexually selected traits in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus  

Microsoft Academic Search

If male sexual signalling is honest because it captures genetic variation in condition then traits that are important mate choice cues should be disproportionately affected by inbreeding relative to other traits. To test this, we investigated the effect of brother-sister mating on advertisement calling by male field crickets Teleogryllus commodus. We quantified the effect of one generation of inbreeding on

J. M. DRAYTON; J. HUNT; R. BROOKS; M. D. JENNIONS

2007-01-01

291

Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies.  

PubMed

Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-07-01

292

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about the Agricultural Heath Study, begun In 1993 by scientists from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

293

Agricultural Education and OSHA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture teachers should be interested in and become familiar with the implications of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 for their own benefit, for their students, and for their students' future employers. (AG)

Brown, Ronald A.

1974-01-01

294

Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

Schake, L. M.

1970-01-01

295

What is Industrial Agriculture?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Highly productive commercial agriculture, known as industrial agriculture, is the focus of this investigation. Students will analyze and compare the inputs and outputs of industrial agriculture after reading background information, examining photos and satellite images, graphing data, and answering questions. The role of technology in shaping industrial agriculture is also examined. Suggestions are offered for optionally assessing this lesson in a debate format or in a role-play format. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. This is Investigation 2 of three found in the Grades 9-12 Module 2 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the three investigations in Module 2, while related, can be done independently.

296

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

This study explores potential causes of cancer and other diseases among farmers and their families and among commercial pesticide applicators. Current medical research suggests that while agricultural workers are generally healthier than the general U.S. population, they may have higher rates of some cancers, including leukemia, myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, skin, brain, and prostate. Other conditions, like asthma, neurologic disease, and adverse reproductive outcomes may also be related to agricultural exposures.

297

Genetic architecture of cognitive traits.  

PubMed

The last decade has seen the development of large-scale genetics studies which have advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of many complex heritable traits. In this review, we examine what progress has been made in understanding the genetics of cognitive traits. We cover the whole spectrum of distribution in cognitive abilities, from studies that have identified single genes implicated in intellectual disabilities, through studies investigating the missing and hidden heritability of cognitive abilities in the general population, and finally to studies looking at "high intelligence" samples. PMID:24605886

Le Hellard, Stephanie; Steen, Vidar M

2014-06-01

298

Modulation of leaf economic traits and trait relationships by climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Our aim was to quantify climatic influences on key leaf traits and relationships at the global scale. This knowledge provides insight into how plants have adapted to different environmental pressures, and will lead to better calibration of future vegetation-climate models. Location The data set represents vegetation from 175 sites around the world. Methods For more than 2500 vascular plant

Ian J. Wright; J. H. C. Cornelissen; D. S. Falster; P. K. Groom; J. Gulias; Kouki Hikosaka; William Lee; Christopher H. Lusk; J. Oleksyn; N. Osada; H. Poorter; David I. Warton; Mark Westoby

2005-01-01

299

Association of dominant marker traits and metric traits in chickens.  

PubMed

This study was initiated to determine whether an allelic substitution of a dominant marker gene would identify a region close to a locus affecting expression in a metric trait. The rationale for the experiment was to utilize disequilibrium between a multiple recessive randombred Rhode Island Red (RRc) stock previously selected for quantitative trait performance and an unimproved dominant marker stock (MDM). The reporter genes in the MDM were: barring (B), silver (S), creeper (Cp), rose comb (R), double uropygial gland (U), crest (Cr), dominant white (I), frizzle (F), duplex comb (D), multiple spurs (M), polydactyly (Po), blue egg (O), pea comb (P), naked neck (Na), extended black (E), white skin (W+), muffs and beard (Mb), and feathered shanks (Fsh). Appropriate reciprocal crosses of MDM with RRc and F1 to RRc produced segregating full sibs that were evaluated for association with reporter traits. Carriers of Cr, I, and F were significantly later in sexual maturity than their recessive full sibs. The pleiotropic effects of F are believed to account for the later maturity. None of the marker traits had a significant association with egg numbers or egg weight. Birds expressing E were distinctly heavier at 8 and 32 wk. There is no obvious explanation for the significant larger size for the E phenotype. The CR-I-F phenotypes were significantly smaller at 32 wk than noncarrier full sibs. PMID:8378215

Shoffner, R N; Otis, J S; Garwood, V A

1993-08-01

300

Callous-Unemotional traits in youth from a DSM-5 trait perspective.  

PubMed

The current study investigated how the Callous-Unemotional (CU) trait specifier is empirically associated with the proposed trait system for personality pathology in DSM-5, and addressed the use of multiple raters in the assessment of CU traits and additional maladaptive traits in an adolescent community sample. Both mothers and adolescents (N = 197) participated in the present study. Results showed that CU traits are located in different parts of the personality space, and are significantly associated with four broad maladaptive trait dimensions, Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, and Disinhibition. Despite moderate agreement between raters, self- and maternal-rated CU traits were related in a congruent manner with PID-5 traits, and adolescents provided incremental information in CU trait assessment above maternal ratings. The present results have clear implications for the conceptualization of CU traits within the overarching model of personality pathology, proposed in DSM-5, and partially supported the application of a multi-informant approach in CU trait assessment. PMID:24344839

Decuyper, Mieke; De Caluwé, Elien; De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip

2014-06-01

301

Brassinosteroids interact negatively with jasmonates in the formation of anti-herbivory traits in tomato.  

PubMed

Given the susceptibility of tomato plants to pests, the aim of the present study was to understand how hormones are involved in the formation of tomato natural defences against insect herbivory. Tomato hormone mutants, previously introgressed into the same genetic background of reference, were screened for alterations in trichome densities and allelochemical content. Ethylene, gibberellin, and auxin mutants indirectly showed alteration in trichome density, through effects on epidermal cell area. However, brassinosteroids (BRs) and jasmonates (JAs) directly affected trichome density and allelochemical content, and in an opposite fashion. The BR-deficient mutant dpy showed enhanced pubescence, zingiberene biosynthesis, and proteinase inhibitor expression; the opposite was observed for the JA-insensitive jai1-1 mutant. The dpy x jai1-1 double mutant showed that jai1-1 is epistatic to dpy, indicating that BR acts upstream of the JA signalling pathway. Herbivory tests with the poliphagous insect Spodoptera frugiperda and the tomato pest Tuta absoluta clearly confirmed the importance of the JA-BR interaction in defence against herbivory. The study underscores the importance of hormonal interactions on relevant agricultural traits and raises a novel biological mechanism in tomato that may differ from the BR and JA interaction already suggested for Arabidopsis. PMID:19734261

Campos, Marcelo Lattarulo; de Almeida, Marcílio; Rossi, Mônica Lanzoni; Martinelli, Adriana Pinheiro; Litholdo Junior, Celso Gaspar; Figueira, Antonio; Rampelotti-Ferreira, Fátima Teresinha; Vendramim, José Djair; Benedito, Vagner Augusto; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

2009-01-01

302

Personality Traits and Teacher-Student Behaviors in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the relationship of teacher personality to teacher behaviors in physical education. Several personality traits related significantly to important observed teacher and student behaviors. Students of teachers who scored high in independence, assertiveness, questioning, and imaginativeness learned more than students of teachers…

Phillips, D. Allen; And Others

1985-01-01

303

Development of a next-generation NIL library in Arabidopsis thaliana for dissecting complex traits  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of the loci and specific alleles underlying variation in quantitative traits is an important goal for evolutionary biologists and breeders. Despite major advancements in genomics technology, moving from QTL to causal alleles remains a major challenge in genetics research. Near-isogenic lines are the ideal raw material for QTL validation, refinement of QTL location and, ultimately, gene discovery. Results In this study, a population of 75 Arabidopsis thaliana near-isogenic lines was developed from an existing recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between physiologically divergent accessions Kas-1 and Tsu-1. First, a novel algorithm was developed to utilize genome-wide marker data in selecting RILs fully isogenic to Kas-1 for a single chromosome. Seven such RILs were used in 2 generations of crossing to Tsu-1 to create BC1 seed. BC1 plants were genotyped with SSR markers so that lines could be selected that carried Kas-1 introgressions, resulting in a population carrying chromosomal introgressions spanning the genome. BC1 lines were genotyped with 48 genome-wide SSRs to identify lines with a targeted Kas-1 introgression and the fewest genomic introgressions elsewhere. 75 such lines were selected and genotyped at an additional 41 SNP loci and another 930 tags using 2b-RAD genotyping by sequencing. The final population carried an average of 1.35 homozygous and 2.49 heterozygous introgressions per line with average introgression sizes of 5.32 and 5.16 Mb, respectively. In a simple case study, we demonstrate the advantage of maintaining heterozygotes in our library whereby fine-mapping efforts are conducted simply by self-pollination. Crossovers in the heterozygous interval during this single selfing generation break the introgression into smaller, homozygous fragments (sub-NILs). Additionally, we utilize a homozygous NIL for validation of a QTL underlying stomatal conductance, a low heritability trait. Conclusions The present results introduce a new and valuable resource to the Brassicaceae research community that enables rapid fine-mapping of candidate loci in parallel with QTL validation. These attributes along with dense marker coverage and genome-wide chromosomal introgressions make this population an ideal starting point for discovery of genes underlying important complex traits of agricultural and ecological significance.

2013-01-01

304

Quantitative Trait Loci in Brassica rapa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper briefly examines current methodology for developing genetic linkage maps and using them to find loci for quantitative traits (QTL). Maximum likelihood interval mapping is viewed as an extension of classical least squares methods when the trait ...

B. S. Yandell

1992-01-01

305

Traits: Composable Units of Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the undisputed prominence of inheritance as the fundamental reuse mechanism in object-oriented programming languages, the main variants — single inheritance, multiple inheritance, and mixin inheritance — all suffer from conceptual and practical problems. In the first part of this paper, we identify and illustrate these problems. We then present traits, a simple compositional model for structuring object-oriented programs. A

Nathanael Schärli; Stéphane Ducasse; Oscar Nierstrasz; Andrew P. Black

2003-01-01

306

THE EFFICIENCY OF SEQUESTERING CARBON IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural tillage practices are important human-induced activities that can alter carbon emissions from agricultural soils and have the potential to contribute significantly to reductions in greenhouse gas emission (Lal et al., The Potential of U.S. Cropland, 1998). This research investigates the expected costs of sequestering carbon in agricultural soils under different subsidy and market-based policies. Using detailed National Resources Inventory

Gregory R. Pautsch; Lyubov A. Kurkalova; Bruce A. Babcock; Catherine L. Kling

2001-01-01

307

Energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission mitigation in global agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions are closely linked. This paper reviews agricultural options to reduce energy\\u000a intensities and their impacts, discusses important accounting issues related to system boundaries, land scarcity, and measurement\\u000a units and compares agricultural energy intensities and improvement potentials on an international level. Agricultural development\\u000a in recent decades, while increasing yields, has led to lower average energy

Uwe A. Schneider; Pete Smith

2009-01-01

308

Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders. PMID:24930576

Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

2014-10-30

309

Toxicity of several important agricultural antibiotics to Artemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible effects of antibiotic drug contamination in marine and brackish systems were evaluated using a new methodological approach. Five drugs, namely aminosidine (A), bacitracin (B), erythromycin (E), flumequine (F) and lincomycin (L), were subjected to toxicity tests using nauplii and cysts of Artemia as a model of drug contamination from intensive farming. Tests on nauplii were performed by the

Luciana Migliore; Cinzia Civitareale; Gianfranco Brambilla; Gianluigi Dojmi Di Delupis

1997-01-01

310

Pedigree models for complex human traits involving the mitochondrial genome.  

PubMed Central

Recent biochemical and molecular-genetic discoveries concerning variations in human mtDNA have suggested a role for mtDNA mutations in a number of human traits and disorders. Although the importance of these discoveries cannot be emphasized enough, the complex natures of mitochondrial biogenesis, mutant mtDNA phenotype expression, and the maternal inheritance pattern exhibited by mtDNA transmission make it difficult to develop models that can be used routinely in pedigree analyses to quantify and test hypotheses about the role of mtDNA in the expression of a trait. In the present paper, we describe complexities inherent in mitochondrial biogenesis and genetic transmission and show how these complexities can be incorporated into appropriate mathematical models. We offer a variety of likelihood-based models which account for the complexities discussed. The derivation of our models is meant to stimulate the construction of statistical tests for putative mtDNA contribution to a trait. Results of simulation studies which make use of the proposed models are described. The results of the simulation studies suggest that, although pedigree models of mtDNA effects can be reliable, success in mapping chromosomal determinants of a trait does not preclude the possibility that mtDNA determinants exists for the trait as well. Shortcomings inherent in the proposed models are described in an effort to expose areas in need of additional research.

Schork, N J; Guo, S W

1993-01-01

311

Linking Post-Translational Modifications and Variation of Phenotypic Traits*  

PubMed Central

Enzymes can be post-translationally modified, leading to isoforms with different properties. The phenotypic consequences of the quantitative variability of isoforms have never been studied. We used quantitative proteomics to dissect the relationships between the abundances of the enzymes and isoforms of alcoholic fermentation, metabolic traits, and growth-related traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the enzymatic pool allocated to the fermentation proteome was constant over the culture media and the strains considered, there was variation in abundance of individual enzymes and sometimes much more of their isoforms, which suggests the existence of selective constraints on total protein abundance and trade-offs between isoforms. Variations in abundance of some isoforms were significantly associated to metabolic traits and growth-related traits. In particular, cell size and maximum population size were highly correlated to the degree of N-terminal acetylation of the alcohol dehydrogenase. The fermentation proteome was found to be shaped by human selection, through the differential targeting of a few isoforms for each food-processing origin of strains. These results highlight the importance of post-translational modifications in the diversity of metabolic and life-history traits.

Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Bely, Marina; Aigle, Michel; Bourgais, Aurelie; Langella, Olivier; Balliau, Thierry; Chevret, Didier; Valot, Benoit; da Silva, Telma; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

2013-01-01

312

Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Fat Deposition Traits in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with fat deposition traits in pigs are important gene positions in a chromosome that influence meat quality of pork. For QTL study, a three generation resource population was constructed from a cross between Korean native boars and Landrace sows. A total of 240 F2 animals from intercross of F1 were produced. 80 microsatellite markers covering chromosomes 1 to 10 were selected to genotype the resource population. Intervals between adjacent markers were approximately 19 cM. Linkage analysis was performed using CRIMAP software version 2.4 with a FIXED option to obtain the map distances. For QTL analysis, the public web-based software, QTL express (http://www.qtl.cap.ed.ac.uk) was used. Two significant and two suggestive QTL were identified on SSC 6, 7, and 8 as affecting body fat and IMF traits. For QTL affecting IMF, the most significant association was detected between marker sw71 and sw1881 on SSC 6, and a suggestive QTL was identified between sw268 and sw205 on SSC8. These QTL accounted for 26.58% and 12.31% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. A significant QTL affecting IMF was detected at position 105 cM between markers sw71 and sw1881 on SSC 6.

Choi, B. H.; Lee, K. T.; Lee, H. J.; Jang, G. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Cho, B. W.; Han, J. Y.; Kim, T. H.

2012-01-01

313

A Mass Media Profile of Agricultural Scientists at Texas A&M University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way in which agricultural scientists of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station research staff pereive aspects of the uses and importance of the mass media in communicating their research work was surveyed. The profile developed from the 65 responses to the survey shows that agricultural scientists place only moderate importance on mass…

Tedrick, William E.

314

Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a population study  

PubMed Central

The aims of the present study were: (1) to supply further knowledge about variations in nonmetric cranial traits in relation to sex, age and laterality and (2) to evaluate biological distance between samples from a recent population. The incidence of 18 nonmetric variants of the cranium were determined in 3 adult samples of 394 skulls of known sex from North Sardinia (Sassari, Alghero and Ozieri); for the Sassari sample (n = 200) age at death was also known. Some significant sex differences were observed. Age did not appear to influence the frequency of the discontinuous traits but did for legibility. Side differences may provide important information about environmental influences. The interpopulation analysis indicates a stronger relationship between samples that are geographically closer (Sassari and Alghero), in accordance with other studies, strengthening the hypothesis of the validity of the use of nonmetric traits in the study of the peopling of a territory.

BRASILI, P.; ZACCAGNI, L.; GUALDI-RUSSO, E.

1999-01-01

315

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci onto a Phylogenetic Tree  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in genetic mapping of quantitative traits and in phylogenetic comparative approaches, these two perspectives are rarely combined. The joint consideration of multiple crosses among related taxa (whether species or strains) not only allows more precise mapping of the genetic loci (called quantitative trait loci, QTL) that contribute to important quantitative traits, but also offers the opportunity to identify the origin of a QTL allele on the phylogenetic tree that relates the taxa. We describe a formal method for combining multiple crosses to infer the location of a QTL on a tree. We further discuss experimental design issues for such endeavors, such as how many crosses are required and which sets of crosses are best. Finally, we explore the method’s performance in computer simulations, and we illustrate its use through application to a set of four mouse intercrosses among five inbred strains, with data on HDL cholesterol.

Broman, Karl W.; Kim, Sungjin; Sen, Saunak; Ane, Cecile; Payseur, Bret A.

2012-01-01

316

Drivers of carabid functional diversity: abiotic environment, plant functional traits, or plant functional diversity?  

PubMed

Understanding how community assembly is controlled by the balance of abiotic drivers (environment or management) and biotic drivers (community composition of other groups) is important in predicting the response of ecosystems to environmental change. If there are strong links between plant assemblage structure and carabid beetle functional traits and functional diversity, then it is possible to predict the impact of environmental change propagating through different functional and trophic groups. Vegetation and pitfall trap beetle surveys were carried out across twenty four sites contrasting in land use, and hence productivity and disturbance regime. Plant functional traits were very successful at explaining the distribution of carabid functional traits across the habitats studied. Key carabid response traits appeared to be body length and wing type. Carabid functional richness was significantly smaller than expected, indicating strong environmental filtering, modulated by management, soil characteristics, and by plant response traits. Carabid functional divergence was negatively related to plant functional evenness, while carabid functional evenness was positively correlated to plant functional evenness and richness. The study shows that there are clear trait linkages between the plant and the carabid assemblage that act not only through the mean traits displayed, but also via their distribution in trait space; powerful evidence that both the mean and variance of traits in one trophic group structure the assemblage of another. PMID:25000753

Pakeman, Robin J; Stockan, Jenni A

2014-05-01

317

Predicting anxiety in carers of people with dementia: the role of trait emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) is a personality dimension related to affect that has been shown to predict psychopathology. The objective of the present study was to examine the predictive validity of trait EI in explaining anxiety symptoms in family carers of people with dementia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 203 dementia family caregivers. We used the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire - Short Form (TEIQue-SF) to measure trait EI in carers. The predictive validity of the scale in explaining anxiety was tested via regression analysis. Results: Bivariate correlational analysis indicated that lower levels of trait EI were related to higher perceived burden, higher anxiety and depression, and poorer self-rated health in carers. Multiple regression analyses indicated that trait EI was a significant predictor of anxiety symptoms after accounting for known factors influencing outcomes for caregivers. Trait EI also showed strong predictive validity in relation to psychosocial outcomes in carers. Conclusions: Trait EI plays an important role in predicting anxiety in dementia caregivers. Theoretical models and interventions aimed at carers of people with dementia should take into account aspects of personality. PMID:24655614

Weaving, Jessica; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Orrell, Martin; Petrides, K V

2014-07-01

318

Bayesian mixture structural equation modelling in multiple-trait QTL mapping.  

PubMed

Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping often results in data on a number of traits that have well-established causal relationships. Many multi-trait QTL mapping methods that account for correlation among the multiple traits have been developed to improve the statistical power and the precision of QTL parameter estimation. However, none of these methods are capable of incorporating the causal structure among the traits. Consequently, genetic functions of the QTL may not be fully understood. In this paper, we developed a Bayesian multiple QTL mapping method for causally related traits using a mixture structural equation model (SEM), which allows researchers to decompose QTL effects into direct, indirect and total effects. Parameters are estimated based on their marginal posterior distribution. The posterior distributions of parameters are estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods such as the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis-Hasting algorithm. The number of QTLs affecting traits is determined by the Bayes factor. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation study and applied to data from a wheat experiment. Compared with single trait Bayesian analysis, our proposed method not only improved the statistical power of QTL detection, accuracy and precision of parameter estimates but also provided important insight into how genes regulate traits directly and indirectly by fitting a more biologically sensible model. PMID:20667167

Mi, Xiaojuan; Eskridge, Kent; Wang, Dong; Baenziger, P Stephen; Campbell, B Todd; Gill, Kulvinder S; Dweikat, Ismail

2010-06-01

319

Genomic selection using indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.  

PubMed

The aim of this simulation study was to test the hypothesis that phenotype information of specific indicator traits of environmental importance recorded on a small-scale can be implemented in breeding schemes with genomic selection to reduce the environmental impact of milk production. A stochastic simulation was undertaken to test alternative breeding strategies. The breeding goal consisted of milk production, a functional trait, and environmental impact (EI). The indicator traits (IT) for EI were categorized as large-, medium-, or small-scale, depending on how the traits were recorded. The large-scale traits were stayability and stature; the medium-scale traits were live weight and methane in the breath of the cow measured during milking; and the small-scale traits were residual feed intake and methane recorded in a respiration chamber. Simulated scenarios considered information for just one IT in addition to information for milk production and functional traits. The annual monetary genetic gain was highest in the large-scale scenario that included stayability as IT. The annual monetary gain in the scenarios with medium- or small-scale IT varied from €50.5 to 47.5. The genetic gain improvement in EI was, however, best in the scenarios where the genetic correlation between IT and EI was ?0.30 and the accuracy of direct genomic value was ?0.40. The genetic gain in EI was 26 to 34% higher when indicator traits such as greenhouse gases in the breath of the cow and methane recorded in respiration chamber were used compared with a scenario where no indicator trait was included. It is possible to achieve increased genetic gain in EI by using a highly correlated indicator trait, but it requires that the established reference population for the indicator trait is large enough so that the accuracy of direct genomic values will be reasonably high. PMID:23726422

Axelsson, H Hansen; Fikse, W F; Kargo, M; Sørensen, A C; Johansson, K; Rydhmer, L

2013-08-01

320

An introduction to markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection for crop improvement: The basic concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing the enormous potential of DNA markers in plant breeding, many agricultural research centers and plant breeding institutes have adopted the capacity for marker development and marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, due to rapid developments in marker technology, statistical methodology for identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the jargon used by molecular biologists, the utility of DNA markers in plant breeding

B. C. Y. Collard; M. Z. Z. Jahufer; J. B. Brouwer; E. C. K. Pang

2005-01-01

321

Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

1976-01-01

322

Quantitative Trait Loci in Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly examines current methodology for developing genetic linkage maps and using them to find loci for quantitative traits (QTL). Maximum likelihood interval mapping is viewed as an extension of classical least squares methods when the trait of interest is normally distributed and located near a genetic marker. Some problems in finding multiple loci for a quantitative trait are

Brian S. Yandell

323

Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

2006-01-01

324

Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also augmented with additional traits that are relevant to detecting climate change-related ef...

325

Freshwater Biological Traits Database (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

This draft report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also augmented with additional traits that are relevant to detecting climate change-related ef...

326

Quantative trait loci of seed traits for soybean in multiple environments.  

PubMed

Seed length and seed width are an important factor to the soybean yield. So the quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for seed length and seed width could assistant the breeding of soybean. In this study, the QTL underlying seed length and seed width were studied. A recombinant inbred line population of soybeans derived from a cross between the American semi-draft cultivars Charleston and Dongnong 594 were used in 7 environments. The quantitative trait loci underlying seed length, seed width, and seed length/seed width were analyzed by the method of composite interval mapping. Then, the epistatic effects and the QTL-environment (QE) interaction effects were also analyzed. Some valuable QTL sites found had great effect to the seed trait. Results showed that 7 QTLs underlying seed length were identified mainly on linkage groups D1a, C2, B1, A1, G, and A2. For the seed width, 7 QTLs were identified on linkage groups D1a and O. Two QTLs of seed length/seed width were identified on linkage groups D1b and C2. No QE interaction was found for QTLs of seed length and seed width in 7 environments. QTLs of seed length/seed width on linkage groups A1 and I had a QE interaction in 7 environments. Seven pairs of QTLs were identified that affected additive x additive epistatic effect of seed length, seed width, and seed length/seed width, which occurred among 8 linkage groups. These results supply a good foundation for molecular assistant breeding for soybean seed trait. PMID:24938611

Che, J Y; Ding, J J; Liu, C Y; Xin, D W; Jiang, H W; Hu, G H; Chen, Q S

2014-01-01

327

The Implications of Big-Five Standing for the Distribution of Trait Manifestation in Behavior: Fifteen Experience-Sampling Studies and a Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

One of the fundamental questions in personality psychology is whether and how strongly trait standing relates to the traits that people actually manifest in their behavior, when faced with real pressures and real consequences of their actions. One reason this question is fundamental is the common belief that traits do not predict how individuals behave, which leads to the reasonable conclusion that traits are not important to study. However, this conclusion is surprising given that there is almost no data on the ability of traits to predict distributions of naturally occurring, representative behaviors of individuals (and that there are many studies showing that traits do indeed predict specific behaviors). This paper describes a meta-analysis of 15 experience-sampling studies, conducted over the course of eight years, amassing over 20,000 reports of trait manifestation in behavior. Participants reported traits on typical self-report questionnaires, then described their current behavior multiple times per day for several days, as the behavior was occurring. Results showed that traits, contrary to expectations, were strongly predictive of individual differences in trait manifestation in behavior, predicting average levels with correlations between .42 and .56 (approaching .60 for stringently restricted studies). Several other ways of summarizing trait manifestation in behavior were also predicted from traits. These studies provide evidence that traits are powerful predictors of actual manifestation of traits in behavior.

Fleeson, William; Gallagher, M. Patrick

2009-01-01

328

A comprehensive search for quantitative trait loci affecting growth and carcass composition of cattle segregating alternative forms of the myostatin gene1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to iden- tify quantitative trait loci for economically important traits in two families segregating an inactive copy of the myostatin gene. Two half-sib families were devel- oped from a Belgian Blue × MARC III (n = 246) and a Piedmontese × Angus (n = 209) sire. Traits analyzed were birth, weaning, and yearling weight

E. Casas; R. T. Stone; J. W. Keele; S. D. Shackelford; S. M. Kappes; M. Koohmaraie

329

Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (FATUS). Calendar Year 1990 Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statistical reference summarizes current and historical data on U.S. foreign trade in agricultural products. Tables highlight commodity and country information, including values, quantities, principal markets for agricultural exports, and import sourc...

T. Warden

1991-01-01

330

Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (FATUS), Calendar Year 1992 Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statistical reference summarizes current and historical data on U.S. foreign trade in agricultural products. The tables highlight commodity and country information, including values, quantities, principal markets for agricultural exports, and import s...

T. A. Warden

1993-01-01

331

31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.530...reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1...purchasers or importers, the excluded medicines specified in paragraph...

2013-07-01

332

31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.523...reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1...enforcement purchasers or importers, medicine or medical devices to the...

2013-07-01

333

Intraspecific variability in functional traits matters: case study of Scots pine.  

PubMed

Although intraspecific trait variability is an important component of species ecological plasticity and niche breadth, its implications for community and functional ecology have not been thoroughly explored. We characterized the intraspecific functional trait variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to (1) compare it to the interspecific trait variability of trees in the same region, (2) explore the relationships among functional traits and the relationships between them and stand and climatic variables, and (3) study the role of functional trait variability as a determinant of radial growth. We considered five traits: wood density (WD), maximum tree height (H max), leaf nitrogen content (Nmass), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf biomass-to-sapwood area ratio (B L:A S). A unique dataset was obtained from the Ecological and Forest Inventory of Catalonia (IEFC), including data from 406 plots. Intraspecific trait variation was substantial for all traits, with coefficients of variation ranging between 8 % for WD and 24 % for B L:A S. In some cases, correlations among functional traits differed from those reported across species (e.g., H max and WD were positively related, whereas SLA and Nmass were uncorrelated). Overall, our model accounted for 47 % of the spatial variability in Scots pine radial growth. Our study emphasizes the hierarchy of factors that determine intraspecific variations in functional traits in Scots pine and their strong association with spatial variability in radial growth. We claim that intraspecific trait variation is an important determinant of responses of plants to changes in climate and other environmental factors, and should be included in predictive models of vegetation dynamics. PMID:24850418

Laforest-Lapointe, Isabelle; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Retana, Javier

2014-08-01

334

Transforming Agricultural Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Academic programs in agriculture have been a staple of many institutions for well over a century. Recently, the National Research Council crafted this thoughtful report which looks at how undergraduate agricultural education might be transformed to attract new students and "keep pace with changing times". The Council created this special site to provide interested parties with the text of the 94-page report released in March 2009, along with extra information, such as background papers and related reports. Visitors who don't want to read the entire report can view a four-page brief and also read through the nine primary recommendations. These recommendations include creating a focus on building strategic partnerships, a focused review of undergraduate programs in agriculture, and broadening the overall student experience. Additionally, visitors can learn about the study committee which was convened to create this report and also sign up for email updates about forthcoming publications.

2009-06-02

335

Advances in Quantitative Trait Analysis in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying complex traits is one of the next frontiers in biology. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become an important model for elucidating the mechanisms that govern natural genetic and phenotypic variation. This success is partially due to its intrinsic biological features, such as the short sexual generation time, high meiotic recombination rate, and small genome size. Precise reverse genetics technologies allow the high throughput manipulation of genetic information with exquisite precision, offering the unique opportunity to experimentally measure the phenotypic effect of genetic variants. Population genomic and phenomic studies have revealed widespread variation between diverged populations, characteristic of man-made environments, as well as geographic clusters of wild strains along with naturally occurring recombinant strains (mosaics). Here, we review these recent studies and provide a perspective on how these previously unappreciated levels of variation can help to bridge our understanding of the genotype-phenotype gap, keeping budding yeast at the forefront of genetic studies. Not only are quantitative trait loci (QTL) being mapped with high resolution down to the nucleotide, for the first time QTLs of modest effect and complex interactions between these QTLs and between QTLs and the environment are being determined experimentally at unprecedented levels using next generation techniques of deep sequencing selected pools of individuals as well as multi-generational crosses.

Liti, Gianni; Louis, Edward J.

2012-01-01

336

Imported malaria*  

PubMed Central

There have been 4 waves of imported malaria in the USA. They occurred during the colonization of the country and during the Second World War, the UN Police Action in Korea, and the Viet-Nam conflict. The first 3 episodes are briefly described and the data on imported malaria from Viet-Nam are discussed in detail. Endemic malaria is resurgent in many tropical countries and international travel is also on the rise. This increases the likelihood of malaria being imported from an endemic area and introduced into a receptive area. The best defence for countries threatened by imported malaria is a vigorous surveillance programme. The principles of surveillance are discussed and an example of their application is provided by a description of the methods used to conduct surveillance of malaria in the USA.

Schultz, Myron G.

1974-01-01

337

Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests.  

PubMed

Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

Lasky, Jesse R; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K; Chazdon, Robin L

2014-04-15

338

Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Boise, Idaho, May 28-30, 1997. The field trips consisted of an Agriculture and Aquaculture Tour, a tour of Idaho as America's Seed Supplier, and a Production of Milk, Cheese and Electricity tour. Presentations and committee reports include the following: (1) Idaho Seed Industry; (2) Controlled Environment Agriculture; (3) Irrigation in the North West: An Overview; (4) Drip Irrigation; (5) Sprinkler Irrigation; (6) Current Status of the ATA; (7) ATA Office Report; (8) Committee Reports; (9) Steering Committee Minutes.

None

1997-09-01

339

Transforming Agricultural Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Academic programs in agriculture have been a staple of many institutions for well over a century. Recently, the National Research Council crafted this thoughtful report which looks at how undergraduate agricultural education might be transformed to attract new students and "keep pace with changing times". The Council created this special site to provide interested parties with the text of the 94-page report released in March 2009. Visitors who don't want to read the entire report can view a four-page brief. Additionally, visitors can learn about the study committee which was convened to create this report and also sign up for email updates about forthcoming publications.

2009-03-04

340

What does agriculture have to do with climate change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Issue describes how agriculture provides important ecosystem services in the forms of food and fiber, but can also convey many disservices to agroecosystems themselves and to the ecosystems affected by agricultural practices. In particular, agricultural activities contribute substantial amounts of greenhouse gases, including more methane and nitrous oxide than any other human activity. For example, Duxbury (1994) estimated that agriculture contributes 25%, 65% and 90% of all anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), respectively.

Wilke, Brook J.

2011-03-09

341

The Impact of China's Economic Reforms on Agricultural Productivity Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for assessing the relative importance of price increases and strengthened individual incentives due to the introduction of the responsibility system for the post-1978 increase in China's agricultural productivity. Data on post-1978 Chinese agricultural performance suggest that a little over three-quarters of the measured productivity increase is due to payment system changes and the remainder to

John McMillan; John Whalley; Lijing Zhu

1989-01-01

342

SOLIDPHASE SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION IN AN AGRICULTURAL STREAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lower Santa Maria River watershed provides important aquatic habitat on the central California coast and is influenced heavily by agricultural runoff. As part of a recently completed water quality assessment, we conducted a series of water column and sediment toxicity tests throughout this watershed. Sediment from Orcutt Creek, a tributary that drains agricultural land, consistently was toxic to the

Bryn M. Phillips; Brian S. Anderson; John W. Hunt; Sarah A. Huntley; Ron S. Tjeerdema; Nancy Kapellas; Karen Worcester

2006-01-01

343

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact and vulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having the potential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related to climate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops a typology of adaptation to

Barry Smit; MARK W. SKINNER

2002-01-01

344

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact andvulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having thepotential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related toclimate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops atypology of adaptation to systematically classify and characterize

Barry Smit; Mark W. Skinner

2002-01-01

345

CHINA'S AGRICULTURE, TRADE, AND PRODUCTIVITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international community has long recognized China's effort to produce enough food to feed its growing population. Tremendous progress has been achieved in agricultural productivity growth, farmer's income, and poverty alleviation during the reform period. China's experience demonstrates the importance of institutional change, technological development, price and market liberalization, and rural development in improving food security and agricultural productivity in

Jikun Huang; Scott Rozelle; Francis Tuan

346

TraitCapture: genomic and environment modelling of plant phenomic data.  

PubMed

Agriculture requires a second green revolution to provide increased food, fodder, fiber, fuel and soil fertility for a growing population while being more resilient to extreme weather on finite land, water, and nutrient resources. Advances in phenomics, genomics and environmental control/sensing can now be used to directly select yield and resilience traits from large collections of germplasm if software can integrate among the technologies. Traits could be Captured throughout development and across environments from multi-dimensional phenotypes, by applying Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) to identify causal genes and background variation and functional structural plant models (FSPMs) to predict plant growth and reproduction in target environments. TraitCapture should be applicable to both controlled and field environments and would allow breeders to simulate regional variety trials to pre-select for increased productivity under challenging environments. PMID:24646691

Brown, Tim B; Cheng, Riyan; Sirault, Xavier R R; Rungrat, Tepsuda; Murray, Kevin D; Trtilek, Martin; Furbank, Robert T; Badger, Murray; Pogson, Barry J; Borevitz, Justin O

2014-04-01

347

Subsidies and agricultural employment: The education channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural employment in industrialized countries has been steadily decreasing despite important levels of farm subsidies. In this paper we provide a new explanation for this puzzle, namely the positive impact of subsidies on the education level of farmers’ children. If farmers are credit constrained, they may underinvest in their children’s education. By increasing farmers’ incomes, subsidies increase investment in education.

Ruxanda Berlinschi; Johan F. M. Swinnen; Kristine Van Herck

2012-01-01

348

Communication Technologies and Knowledge Building in Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of knowledge building communities has not traditionally been associated with agricultural extension, but is one which has the potential to increase the rate of adoption of best management practices by the industry. A potentially important mechanism to facilitate knowledge building is information and communication technology (ICT);…

Segrave, Robin

2004-01-01

349

Changes in Information Systems in Czech Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study carried out in 1998 (reported in the Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 2003) of the information systems used by farmers in the Czech Republic to access information and advice was repeated in 2003. The research aim was to assess whether, and how, the systems had changed during these five years. The perceived importance of 10…

Slavik, Milan

2004-01-01

350

Evaluation of physiological traits for improving drought tolerance in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among grain legumes, faba bean is becoming increasingly popular in European agriculture due to recent economic and environmental\\u000a interests. Faba bean can be a highly productive crop, but it is sensitive to drought stress and yields can vary considerably\\u000a from season to season. Understanding the physiological basis of drought tolerance would indicate traits that can be used as\\u000a indirect selection

Habib ur Rahman Khan; W. Link; T. J. Hocking; F. L. Stoddard

2007-01-01

351

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm  

PubMed Central

Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL for C18:2 was detected on Group 2. Conclusion This study describes the first successful detection of QTLs for fatty acid composition in oil palm. These QTLs constitute useful tools for application in breeding programmes.

Singh, Rajinder; Tan, Soon G; Panandam, Jothi M; Rahman, Rahimah Abdul; Ooi, Leslie CL; Low, Eng-Ti L; Sharma, Mukesh; Jansen, Johannes; Cheah, Suan-Choo

2009-01-01

352

Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

353

Agriculture, environment and biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, modern biotechnology has been increasingly applied to crop agriculture. The manipulation of whole organisms, populations of organisms and nucleic components holds much promise for improving crop productivity. Biotechnology offers various means of manipulating the fundamental processes of energy flow and biogeochemical (nutrient) cycles. It also provides a means of designing crops for specific environments which is

A. M. Mannion

1995-01-01

354

Metrics for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of agricultural mechanics students, this instructional package is one of four for the agribusiness and natural resources occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

355

Energy and Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course overview on renewable energy in an agricultural context. Details on several learning units are included on topics including energy consumption, solar energy, wind, hydropower and ocean energy. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Cochrane, Michael

2011-04-18

356

AGRICULTURAL SIMULATION MODEL (AGSIM)  

EPA Science Inventory

AGSIM is a large-scale econometric simulation model of regional crop and national livestock production in the United States. The model was initially developed to analyze the aggregate economic impacts of a wide variety issues facing agriculture, such as technological change, pest...

357

Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

358

Agriculture, forestry, range resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

Macdonald, R. B.

1974-01-01

359

Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

360

COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL employees at the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, are sharing in a unique community agriculture program that supports EPA environmental goals?off the job as well as on. Every Wednesday afternoon, bags of farm-fresh org...

361

Agriculture. Beef Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

362

Agricultural Chemistry and Bioenergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed interest in converting biomass to biofuels such as ethanol, other forms of bioenergy, and bioenergy byproducts or coproducts of commercial value opens opportunities for chemists, including agricultural chemists and related disciplines. Applications include feedstock characterization and quantification of structural changes resulting from genetic modification and of the intermediates formed during enzymatic and chemical processing; development of improved processes for

William J. Orts; Kevin M. Holtman; James N. Seiber

2008-01-01

363

Agricultural lung diseases.  

PubMed Central

Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

2000-01-01

364

Agrometeorology and sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns with the sustainability of agroecosystems in different parts of the world have hightened the awareness for careful use of the natural resource base on which agriculture depends. For proper and efficient use of soils and plant\\/animal genetic material, knowledge of the role of climate is an essential precondition. Several elements of the chapters in Agenda 21, a global

M. V. K. Sivakumar; R. Gommes; W. Baier

365

Agrometeorology and sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns with the sustainability of agroecosystems in different parts of the world have hightened the awareness for careful use of the natural resource base on which agriculture depends. For proper and efficient use of soils and plant\\/animal genetic material, knowledge of the role of climate is an essential precondition. Several elements of the chapters in Agenda 21, a global

M. V. K. Sivakumar; R. Gommes; W. Baier

2000-01-01

366

e-Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the United Nations, the e-Agriculture initiative is primarily concerned with the "conceptualization, design, development, evaluation and application of innovative ways to use information and communication technologies (ICT) in the rural domain, with a primary focus on agriculture." This website is an integral part of the initiative, as it is set up to help interested parties exchange experiences and best practices related to this emerging field. Persons unfamiliar with the field should start their journey through the site by clicking on the "Global Examples" area. Here they will find items such as Digital Green, which is an agricultural training and advising system that seeks to benefit rural farmers by disseminating targeted information through digital videos. After that, visitors should make their way to the "Resources" section. As might be expected, this section contains learning tools and activities, along with a glossary of e-agriculture terms. Finally, visitors can also login to take an active part in their forums and create their own customized list of resources.

367

Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

368

Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

369

The heritability of ocular traits.  

PubMed

Heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variation in a population that is attributable to genetic variation among individuals. Many ophthalmic disorders and biometric traits are known to have a genetic basis and consequently much work has been published in the literature estimating the heritability of various ocular parameters. We collated and summarized the findings of heritability studies conducted in the field of ophthalmology. We grouped the various studies broadly by phenotype as follows: refraction, primary open-angle glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and others. A total of 82 articles were retrieved from the literature relating to estimation of heritability for an ocular disease or biometric trait; of these, 37 papers were concerned with glaucoma, 28 with refraction, 4 with AMD, 5 with diabetic retinopathy, and 4 with cataract. The highest reported heritability for an ophthalmic trait is 0.99 for the phenotype ? 20 small hard drusen, indicating that observed variation in this parameter is largely governed by genetic factors. Over 60% of the studies employed a twin study design and a similar percentage utilized variance components methods and structural equation modeling (SEM) to derive their heritability values. Using modern SEM techniques, heritability estimates derived from twin subjects were generally higher than those from family data. Many of the estimates are in the moderate to high range, but to date the majority of genetic variants accounting for these findings have not been uncovered, hence much work remains to be undertaken to elucidate fully their molecular etiology. PMID:20851442

Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hewitt, Alex W; Hammond, Chris J; Mackey, David A

2010-01-01

370

New Guinea: A Cradle of Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Agriculture is believed to have been developed independently in several different places. New Guinea has long been proposed as one of these sites, but evidence has been equivocal. In her Perspective, Neumann discusses recent evidence that several important crops, including the banana, were first domesticated in New Guinea. She highlights the report by Denham et al., who show that agriculture developed gradually over several thousand years and that the banana has been cultivated in New Guinea since at least 7000 years ago.

Katharina Neumann (J.W. Goethe-Universität;)

2003-06-19

371

Health and safety risks in production agriculture.  

PubMed Central

Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

1998-01-01

372

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

373

Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

374

Teachers' Use of Agricultural Laboratories in Secondary Agricultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends in the agriculture industry require students to have the ability to solve problems associated with scientific content. Agricultural laboratories are considered a main component of secondary agricultural education, and are well suited to provide students with opportunities to develop problem-solving skills through experiential learning. This…

Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

2012-01-01

375

Associations between Allozyme Genotypes and Quantitative Traits in Douglas-Fir [PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (Mirb.) Franco  

PubMed Central

Effects of maternal genotypes for eight enzyme loci on seven quantitative traits in 41 half-sib families were determined. Heritability estimates for the quantitative traits were highly significant and ranged from 0.57 to 0.86. Only six of 112 comparisons (56 comparisons for each of the genotypes and 56 for homozygous versus heterozygous contrasts) were statistically significant (P < 0.05). None of these significant comparisons could be associated with either a particular allele or a particular genotype. No heterotic effects were observed when the homozygous genotypes were compared with the heterozygous ones. Because the quantitative traits are highly correlated, a discriminant function analysis was performed to obtain the two most important canonical variates that accounted for 75% of the variance in the quantitative traits. There were no significant associations among enzyme loci and the two canonical variates. I conclude that, in this study, enzyme genotypic differences do not influence the quantitative traits to a major extent.

El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

1982-01-01

376

The role of trait and ability emotional intelligence in bulimic symptoms.  

PubMed

Bulimia is characterized by poor affect regulation, yet the role of emotional intelligence (EI) is little understood. This study examined associations between EI and bulimic symptoms using 235 women from community and student populations. They completed measures of trait and ability EI, and the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale. Results showed that deficiencies in different aspects of trait EI and/or ability EI are a function of symptom type: binge eating, compensatory behaviours or weight and shape concerns. Consistent with affect regulation models, self-regulatory aspects of trait EI were related to two bulimic symptoms: binge eating and weight and shape concerns. Ability-based self-emotion management was not important, and explanatory power of lower-level EI facets (traits or abilities) was not superior to more broadly defined EI factors. Results support the conclusion that trait and ability EI may maintain subclinical levels of bulimic symptoms but have different paths. PMID:24854810

Gardner, Kathryn Jane; Quinton, Stephanie; Qualter, Pamela

2014-04-01

377

Connecting DSM-5 Personality Traits and Pathological Beliefs: Toward a Unifying Model  

PubMed Central

Dissatisfaction with the DSM-IV model of personality disorders has led to the development of alternative conceptualizations, including pathological trait models and models linked to particular theoretical approaches, such as Beck and Freeman’s (1990) cognitive framework. An important issue involves the potential to interweave such models into a single, parsimonious system that combines their distinct advantages. In this study, pathological trait and dysfunctional belief data from 616 individuals in a non-clinical sample were evaluated for commensurability using structural equation modeling. These models can be integrated via five higher-order factors, and that specific dimensions of dysfunctional beliefs can be differentiated based on features of the DSM-5 trait model. Overall, these results suggest that traits provide scaffolding for individual differences in pathological personality, within which dysfunctional beliefs offer specific vectors for clinical intervention in a cognitive framework. Implications of the empirical commensurability of trait and cognitive models are discussed.

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Schade, Nick; Krueger, Robert F.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Markon, Kristian E.

2013-01-01

378

Desirable plant root traits for protecting unstable slopes against landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trait is defined as a distinct, quantitative property of organisms, usually measured at the individual level and used comparatively across species. Plant quantitative traits are extremely important for understanding the local ecology of any site. Plant height, architecture, root depth, wood density, leaf size and leaf nitrogen concentration control ecosystem processes and define habitat for other taxa. An engineer conjecturing as to how plant traits may directly influence physical processes occurring on sloping land just needs to consider how e.g. canopy architecture and litter properties influence the partitioning of rainfall among interception loss, infiltration and runoff. Plant traits not only influence abiotic processes occurring at a site, but also the habitat for animals and invertebrates. Depending on the goal of the landslide engineer, the immediate and long-term effects of plant traits in an environment must be considered if a site is to remain viable and ecologically successful. When vegetation is considered in models of slope stability, usually the only root parameters taken into consideration are tensile strength and root area ratio. Root system spatial structure is not considered, although the length, orientation and diameter of roots are recognized as being of importance. Thick roots act like soil nails on slopes, reinforcing soil in the same way that concrete is reinforced with steel rods. The spatial position of these thick roots also has an indirect effect on soil fixation in that the location of thin and fine roots will depend on the arrangement of thick roots. Thin and fine roots act in tension during failure on slopes and if they cross the slip surface, are largely responsible for reinforcing soil on slopes. Therefore, the most important trait to consider initially is rooting depth. To stabilize a slope against a shallow landslide, roots must cross the shear surface. The number and thickness of roots in this zone will therefore largely determine slope stability. Rooting depth is species dependent when soil conditions are not limiting and the number of horizontal lateral roots borne on the vertical roots usually changes with depth. Therefore, the number and orientation of roots that the shear surface intersects will change significantly with rooting depth for the same plant, even for magnitudes of only several cm. Similarly, depending on the geometry of the root system, the angle at which a root crosses the shear surface can also have an influence on its resistance to pullout and breakage. The angle at which a root emerges from the parent root is dependent on root type, depth and species (when soil conditions are not limiting). Due to the physiology of roots, a root branch can be initiated at any point along a parent root, but not necessarily emerge fully from the parent root. These traits, along with others including size, relative growth rate, regeneration strategies, wood structure and strength will be discussed with regard to their influence on slope stability. How each of these traits is influenced by soil conditions and plantation techniques is also of extreme importance to the landslide engineer. The presence of obstacles in the soil, as well as compaction, affects root length and branching pattern. Roots of many species of woody plants on shallow soils also tend to grow along fractures deep into the underlying bedrock which allows roots to locate supplies of nutrient and water rich pockets. Rooting depths of herbaceous species in water-limited environments are highly correlated with infiltration depth, but waterlogged soils can asphyxiate tree roots, resulting in shallow root systems. The need to understand and integrate each of these traits for a species is not easy. Therefore, we suggest a hierarchy whereby traits are considered in order of importance, along with how external factors influence their expression over time.

Stokes, A.; Atger, C.; Bengough, G.; Fourcaud, T.; Sidle, R. C.

2009-04-01

379

Theme: In-Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven theme articles review the history and philosophy of vocational agriculture, its relationship to the national goals for education, the place of sustainable agriculture and supervised experience in the curriculum, diversifying the curriculum, and fisheries education programs in Alaska. (SK)

Elliot, Jack, Ed.; And Others

1991-01-01

380

MARYLAND AGRICULTURE AND YOUR WATERSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

Using primarily 1995 State of Maryland agricultural statistics data, a new methodology was demonstrated with which State natural resource managers can analyze the areal extent of agricultural lands and production data on a watershed basis. The report organized major crop ...

381

Energy uses in Nebraska agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report surveys the present demand level for fuels for Nebraska's agriculture, considering the mix of cultural practices, crops, and environment including irrigation, crop drying, and transportation to market. Opportunities are discussed for reducing the energy demand for productive agriculture.

P. E. Fischbach; N. C. Teter

1976-01-01

382

Agricultural subsidies and the American obesity epidemic.  

PubMed

Government-issued agricultural subsidies are worsening obesity trends in America. Current agricultural policy remains largely uninformed by public health discourse. Although findings suggest that eliminating all subsidies would have a mild impact on the prevalence of obesity, a revision of commodity programs could have a measurable public health impact on a population scale, over time. Policy reforms will be important determinants of the future of obesity in America, primarily through indemnity program revisions, and the allocation of increasing amounts of resources to sustainable agriculture. Public health intervention will be required at the policy level to promote healthy behavioral changes in consumers. The 2013 Farm Bill will be the key mechanism to induce such policy change in the near future. PMID:23953360

Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M; Eisenberg, Mark J

2013-09-01

383

The Core Historical Literature of Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How did people raise pigs in the 19th century? What were people talking about in the journal of Agricultural History in 1965? These are but a few of the questions answered in the documents contained within The Core Historical Literature of Agriculture website. Created by staff members at the Albert R. Mann Library at Cornell University, the site contains important agricultural texts from the nineteenth century to the late twentieth century. Visitors can learn more about the collection in the "About" section, and then move along to the "Browse" area. Here visitors can browse all of the titles alphabetically or chronologically. Also, visitors can find the recent additions here underneath the main browsing area. New visitors might want to peruse the 1827 volume "The Honey Bee: its natural history, physiology and management" or the 1921 work, "The Marketing of Whole Milk".

384

Comparison of single-trait and multiple-trait genomic prediction models  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, a single-trait genomic model (STGM) is compared with a multiple-trait genomic model (MTGM) for genomic prediction using conventional estimated breeding values (EBVs) calculated using a conventional single-trait and multiple-trait linear mixed models as the response variables. Three scenarios with and without missing data were simulated; no missing data, 90% missing data in a trait with high heritability, and 90% missing data in a trait with low heritability. The simulated genome had a length of 500 cM with 5000 equally spaced single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 300 randomly distributed quantitative trait loci (QTL). The true breeding values of each trait were determined using 200 of the QTLs, and the remaining 100 QTLs were assumed to affect both the high (trait I with heritability of 0.3) and the low (trait II with heritability of 0.05) heritability traits. The genetic correlation between traits I and II was 0.5, and the residual correlation was zero. Results The results showed that when there were no missing records, MTGM and STGM gave the same reliability for the genomic predictions for trait I while, for trait II, MTGM performed better that STGM. When there were missing records for one of the two traits, MTGM performed much better than STGM. In general, the difference in reliability of genomic EBVs predicted using the EBV response variables estimated from either the multiple-trait or single-trait models was relatively small for the trait without missing data. However, for the trait with missing data, the EBV response variable obtained from the multiple-trait model gave a more reliable genomic prediction than the EBV response variable from the single-trait model. Conclusions These results indicate that MTGM performed better than STGM for the trait with low heritability and for the trait with a limited number of records. Even when the EBV response variable was obtained using the multiple-trait model, the genomic prediction using MTGM was more reliable than the prediction using the STGM.

2014-01-01

385

Life history of a malaria parasite (Plasmodium mexicanum): independent traits and basis for variation.  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite of lizards, exhibits substantial variation among infections in the life-history traits which define its blood-dwelling stages. Such variation in life histories among infections is common in Plasmodium and may influence the ecology and evolution of the parasite's transmission success and virulence. Insight into these issues requires identification of independent traits (some traits may be bound by developmental trade-offs) and the importance of genetic versus host effects producing the variation. We studied 11 life-history traits in 120 induced infections of P. mexicanum in its natural lizard host (20 each from six donor infections). The traits varied among infections and fell into three clusters: rate/peak (rate of increase and peak parasitaemia of asexuals and gametocytes), time (duration of pre-patent period and the infection's growth) and maturity (timing of first gametocytes). Thus, few life-history traits define an infection in the lizard's blood. Donor effects were significant for ten traits and two trait clusters (maturity was the exception) suggesting genetic differences among infections may influence the rate of increase and peak parasitaemia, but not the timing of the first production of gametocytes.

Eisen, R J; Schall, J J

2000-01-01

386

The relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human physical attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of traits have been proposed to be important in human mate choice decisions. However, relatively little work has been conducted to determine the relative importance of these traits. In this study, we assessed the relative importance of the face and body in judgments of human physical attractiveness. One hundred twenty-seven men and 133 women were shown images of

Thomas E. Currie; Anthony C. Little

2009-01-01

387

Agriculture and environment: The physical geography of temperate agricultural systems  

SciTech Connect

The scientific developments of this century have brought a significant change in the way that agricultural activity affects the environment. This book analyzes this interrelationship by drawing together and evaluating recent research from a wide variety of sources. The book is organized into four parts, beginning with an introduction to the conceptual background of this study. It then examines the historical context of modern agriculture, describes the nature and basis of modern agricultural operations, and provides in-depth coverage of the environmental relationships of the major types of agriculture currently practiced. Finally, the environmental impact of agriculture is described from an ecological perspective.

Briggs, D.; Courtney, F.

1987-01-01

388

Strategies To Promote Agricultural Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the agricultural literacy effort has been to produce informed citizens able to participate more fully in the establishment of policies that support a highly competitive agricultural industry in this country and abroad. In their article titled, "Position Statement on Agricultural Literacy," Russell, McCracken, and Miller (1990)…

1992

389

Agricultural-Food Policy Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication reviews the development of the Nation's food and agricultural policy as embodied in the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977. Organized as a source book, it provides a background to understanding the food and agricultural policy process and t...

1980-01-01

390

The Myth of Organic Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacanoski Z. (2009): The myth of organic agriculture. Plant Protect Sci., 45: 39-48. Although many people are convinced of the superiority of organic agriculture in any form, there are many negative aspects that follow this type of agricultural system. The productivity of organic cropping systems is considerably lower than that of conventional or integrated systems and leads to less land

Zvonko PACANOSKI

2009-01-01

391

The Historiography of American Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides secondary school U.S. history teachers with a beginning bibliography for incorporating agricultural history into their classes. Annotates books covering the social, economic, and political aspects of agricultural history. Identifies works dealing with topical matters such as land settlement, slavery, agricultural policy, and the Dust…

Hurt, R. Douglas

1991-01-01

392

Organic agriculture versus genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objections of organic agriculture against genetic engineering as presented in the 2002 Position Statement of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) are analysed. The objections can be grouped into three categories: risks to human health and the environment, socio-ethical objections, and incompatibility with the principles of sustainable agriculture. As to threats to human health and the environment

H. Verhoog

2007-01-01

393

Agricultural chemistry and bioenergy.  

PubMed

Renewed interest in converting biomass to biofuels such as ethanol, other forms of bioenergy, and bioenergy byproducts or coproducts of commercial value opens opportunities for chemists, including agricultural chemists and related disciplines. Applications include feedstock characterization and quantification of structural changes resulting from genetic modification and of the intermediates formed during enzymatic and chemical processing; development of improved processes for utilizing chemical coproducts such as lactic acid and glycerol; development of alternative biofuels such as methanol, butanol, and hydrogen; and ways to reduce greenhouse gas emission and/or use carbon dioxide beneficially. Chemists will also be heavily involved in detailing the phytochemical composition of alternative energy crops and genetically improved crops. A resurgence of demand for agricultural chemistry and related disciplines argues for increasing output through targeted programs and on-the-job training. PMID:18473470

Orts, William J; Holtman, Kevin M; Seiber, James N

2008-06-11

394

Importance timing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bayesian evidence Z = ? L(x)d?(x) is defined as likelihood L integrated over prior ?, and is often computed in that form -- with nested sampling as the preferred algorithm for passing from prior to posterior in large or complicated applications. However, a user may suspect that some locations x are more useful than others, and wish to guide the computation by using a suitable weight function w(x). In conventional importance sampling, such weights are incorporated by re-writing Z as ?(L/w)(wd?), using a weighted prior w? and correspondingly de-weighted likelihood L/w. Unfortunately, w cannot be updated during a run without altering the likelihood surfaces (which nested sampling requires to be fixed). Also, the normalization ? wd? must be known if the value of Z is to be retrieved. Importance timing removes those disadvantages by preserving the likelihood unchanged. Excess prior weight w is cancelled, not through L, but by adjusting the rate of the MCMC clock which defines termination of a trial exploration. This preserves the evidence value and enables the weights to be (slowly) learned as iterations proceed.

Skilling, John

2013-08-01

395

U.S. Participation in International Agricultural Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of research to aid developing countries in meeting their food needs is being emphasized increasingly. Much attention has focused on the international agricultural research centers as a result of the development of high-yield varieties of ri...

1978-01-01

396

Agricultural impacts: Big data insights into pest spread  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pests and diseases reduce agricultural yields and are an important wildcard in the evaluation of future climate impacts. A unique global record of pests and diseases provides evidence for poleward expansions of their distributions.

Garrett, Karen A.

2013-11-01

397

Framework for Analyzing Technical Trade Barriers in Agricultural Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technical trade barriers are increasingly important in the internationaltrade of agricultural products. Designing technical trade measures that can satisfy the growing demand for food safety, product differentiation, environmental amenities, and product i...

D. Orden D. Roberts T. E. Josling

1999-01-01

398

Traits underpinning desiccation resistance explain distribution patterns of terrestrial isopods.  

PubMed

Predicted changes in soil water availability regimes with climate and land-use change will impact the community of functionally important soil organisms, such as macro-detritivores. Identifying and quantifying the functional traits that underlie interspecific differences in desiccation resistance will enhance our ability to predict both macro-detritivore community responses to changing water regimes and the consequences of the associated species shifts for organic matter turnover. Using path analysis, we tested (1) how interspecific differences in desiccation resistance among 22 northwestern European terrestrial isopod species could be explained by three underlying traits measured under standard laboratory conditions, namely, body ventral surface area, water loss rate and fatal water loss; (2) whether these relationships were robust to contrasting experimental conditions and to the phylogenetic relatedness effects being excluded; (3) whether desiccation resistance and hypothesized underlying traits could explain species distribution patterns in relation to site water availability. Water loss rate and (secondarily) fatal water loss together explained 90% of the interspecific variation in desiccation resistance. Our path model indicated that body surface area affects desiccation resistance only indirectly via changes in water loss rate. Our results also show that soil moisture determines isopod species distributions by filtering them according to traits underpinning desiccation resistance. These findings reveal that it is possible to use functional traits measured under standard conditions to predict soil biota responses to water availability in the field over broad spatial scales. Taken together, our results demonstrate an increasing need to generate mechanistic models to predict the effect of global changes on functionally important organisms. PMID:23224790

Dias, André T C; Krab, Eveline J; Mariën, Janine; Zimmer, Martin; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Ellers, Jacintha; Wardle, David A; Berg, Matty P

2013-07-01

399

Valence Effects in Reasoning About Evaluative Traits  

PubMed Central

Reasoning about evaluative traits was investigated among a group of 7- and 8-year-olds (N = 34), a group of 11- to 13-year olds (N = 25), and a group of adults (N = 23) to determine whether their inferences would be sensitive to the valence of social and academic traits. Four aspects of trait-relevant beliefs were examined: (1) malleability, (2) stability over time, (3) origin in terms of nature versus nurture, and (4) an inference criterion that concerns how readily traits are inferred. Although there was evidence of an age-related decrease in the tendency to emphasize positive information, participants of all ages responded that positive traits are less malleable and more stable over time than negative traits, that the positive influences of biological and environmental factors are likely to override the negative influences, and that competence can be more readily inferred from positive outcomes than from negative outcomes.

Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

2010-01-01

400

Heritability of Cardiovascular and Personality Traits in 6,148 Sardinians  

PubMed Central

In family studies, phenotypic similarities between relatives yield information on the overall contribution of genes to trait variation. Large samples are important for these family studies, especially when comparing heritability between subgroups such as young and old, or males and females. We recruited a cohort of 6,148 participants, aged 14–102 y, from four clustered towns in Sardinia. The cohort includes 34,469 relative pairs. To extract genetic information, we implemented software for variance components heritability analysis, designed to handle large pedigrees, analyze multiple traits simultaneously, and model heterogeneity. Here, we report heritability analyses for 98 quantitative traits, focusing on facets of personality and cardiovascular function. We also summarize results of bivariate analyses for all pairs of traits and of heterogeneity analyses for each trait. We found a significant genetic component for every trait. On average, genetic effects explained 40% of the variance for 38 blood tests, 51% for five anthropometric measures, 25% for 20 measures of cardiovascular function, and 19% for 35 personality traits. Four traits showed significant evidence for an X-linked component. Bivariate analyses suggested overlapping genetic determinants for many traits, including multiple personality facets and several traits related to the metabolic syndrome; but we found no evidence for shared genetic determinants that might underlie the reported association of some personality traits and cardiovascular risk factors. Models allowing for heterogeneity suggested that, in this cohort, the genetic variance was typically larger in females and in younger individuals, but interesting exceptions were observed. For example, narrow heritability of blood pressure was approximately 26% in individuals more than 42 y old, but only approximately 8% in younger individuals. Despite the heterogeneity in effect sizes, the same loci appear to contribute to variance in young and old, and in males and females. In summary, we find significant evidence for heritability of many medically important traits, including cardiovascular function and personality. Evidence for heterogeneity by age and sex suggests that models allowing for these differences will be important in mapping quantitative traits.

Scuteri, Angelo; Orru, Marco; Albai, Giuseppe; Dei, Mariano; Lai, Sandra; Usala, Gianluca; Lai, Monica; Loi, Paola; Mameli, Cinzia; Vacca, Loredana; Deiana, Manila; Olla, Nazario; Masala, Marco; Cao, Antonio; Najjar, Samer S; Terracciano, Antonio; Nedorezov, Timur; Sharov, Alexei; Zonderman, Alan B; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Costa, Paul; Lakatta, Edward; Schlessinger, David

2006-01-01

401

Agricultural biotechnology FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the U.S. Department of Agriculture list a number of frequently asked questions regarding biotechnology. The FAQs addresses questions related to defining biotechnology, biotechnology helping farmers and consumers, public dialogue and exchange of information on biotechnology, federal agencies that regulate biotechnology, testing a biotechnology derived plant, commercial production of a biotechnology derived plant, exposure of biotech crops, the role of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), and trade issues with biotechnology. Copyright 2005 International Technology Education Association

US Department of Agriculture (USDA)

2003-01-01

402

Mechanics of agricultural materials  

SciTech Connect

This work is an attempt to summarize the calculation methods developed in the main fields of agricultural mechanics, and to indicate the material laws involved on the basis of a unified approach, with all relevant physico-mechanical properties taken into account. The book deals with material properties, gives the necessary theoretical background for description of the mechanical behaviour of these materials including modern powerful calculation methods and finally discusses a large number of experimental results.

Sitkel, G.

1986-01-01

403

Agricultural application of SWECS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principal applications of wind energy for agriculture are (1) farmstead power, mainly electrical, (2) building heating, (3) irrigation pumping, (4) product storage and processing, (5) hot water for residences and dairies, and (6) associated industries of agribusiness such as feedlots, fertilizer elevators, greenhouses, etc. Field experiments show that wind energy is a viable alternative, however, reliability and maintenance are still major problems. Test results of the various experiments are described.

Nelson, V.

404

29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 ...REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of...

2010-07-01

405

29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 ...REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of...

2011-07-01

406

29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 ...REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of...

2012-07-01

407

75 FR 16719 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity...2008 Act) established the Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP) by amending...agricultural producers to implement agricultural water enhancement activities on...

2010-04-02

408

29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 ...REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of...

2013-07-01

409

19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs...Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United...regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting or prohibiting the...

2010-04-01

410

19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs...Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United...regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting or prohibiting the...

2012-04-01

411

19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.  

...Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs...Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United...regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting or prohibiting the...

2014-04-01

412

19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs...Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United...regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting or prohibiting the...

2011-04-01

413

Teaching Biology Using Agriculture as the Context: Perceptions of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of 531 students in a course using animal agriculture to teach biology, 90% felt it helped them understand the relationship between science and agriculture and the importance of agriculture. Nearly 90% disagreed with statements that animals should not be used for food and that farmers are not concerned about the environment. (Contains 18…

Balschweid, Mark A.

2002-01-01

414

Applications of microwave remote sensing of soil moisture for agricultural applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural irrigation is the largest (80%) user of freshwater resources. With increasing freshwater demand, it is important to make optimal use of water resources with improved agricultural productivity through objective and accurate informat ion provided by remote sensing. This paper reviews the potential of applications of microwave remote sensing of soil moisture and vegetation for agricultural application. Microwave remote sensing

Tarendra Lakhankar; Nir Krakauer; Reza Khanbilvardi

2009-01-01

415

Economic and Social Conditions Relating to Agriculture and Its Structure to Year 2000. CARD Miscellaneous Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Possible economic and social trends in world agriculture by year 2000 will include increased energy costs; larger, fewer and more specialized farms; decreasing agricultural population; closer ties between farmers and large agribusinesses; more emphasis on consumer and environmental protection; and an increased importance of agriculture in…

Heady, Earl O.

416

Chai: Traits for Java-Like Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traits support the factoring out of common behaviour, and its integration into classes in a manner that coexists smoothly with inheritance-based structuring mechanisms. We designed the language Chai, which incorporates statically typed traits into a simple Java-inspired base language, and we discuss three versions of the language: Chai1, where traits are only a mechanism for the creation of classes; Chai2

Charles Smith; Sophia Drossopoulou

2005-01-01

417

Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many plant traits covary in a non-random manner reflecting interdependencies associated with "ecological strategy" dimensions. To understand how plants integrate their structural and physiological investments, data on leaf and leaflet size and the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (?LS) obtained for 1020 individual trees (encompassing 661 species) located in 52 tropical forest plots across the Amazon Basin were incorporated into an analysis utilising existing data on species maximum height (Hmax), seed size, leaf mass per unit area (MA), foliar nutrients and ?13C, and branch xylem density (?x). Utilising a common principal components approach allowing eigenvalues to vary between two soil fertility dependent species groups, five taxonomically controlled trait dimensions were identified. The first involves primarily cations, foliar carbon and MA and is associated with differences in foliar construction costs. The second relates to some components of the classic "leaf economic spectrum", but with increased individual leaf areas and a higher ?LS newly identified components for tropical tree species. The third relates primarily to increasing Hmax and hence variations in light acquisition strategy involving greater MA, reductions in ?LS and less negative ?13C. Although these first three dimensions were more important for species from high fertility sites the final two dimensions were more important for low fertility species and were associated with variations linked to reproductive and shade tolerance strategies. Environmental conditions influenced structural traits with ?x of individual species decreasing with increased soil fertility and higher temperatures. This soil fertility response appears to be synchronised with increases in foliar nutrient concentrations and reductions in foliar [C]. Leaf and leaflet area and ?LS were less responsive to the environment than ?x. Thus, although genetically determined foliar traits such as those associated with leaf construction costs coordinate independently of structural characteristics such as maximum height, others such as the classical "leaf economic spectrum" covary with structural traits such as leaf size and ?LS. Coordinated structural and physiological adaptions are also associated with light acquisition/shade tolerance strategies with several traits such as MA and [C] being significant components of more than one ecological strategy dimension. This is argued to be a consequence of a range of different potential underlying causes for any observed variation in such "ambiguous" traits. Environmental effects on structural and physiological characteristics are also coordinated but in a different way to the gamut of linkages associated with genotypic differences.

Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Baker, T. R.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schwarz, M.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

2012-02-01

418

Assessing association between protein truncating variants and quantitative traits  

PubMed Central

Motivation: In sequencing studies of common diseases and quantitative traits, power to test rare and low frequency variants individually is weak. To improve power, a common approach is to combine statistical evidence from several genetic variants in a region. Major challenges are how to do the combining and which statistical framework to use. General approaches for testing association between rare variants and quantitative traits include aggregating genotypes and trait values, referred to as ‘collapsing’, or using a score-based variance component test. However, little attention has been paid to alternative models tailored for protein truncating variants. Recent studies have highlighted the important role that protein truncating variants, commonly referred to as ‘loss of function’ variants, may have on disease susceptibility and quantitative levels of biomarkers. We propose a Bayesian modelling framework for the analysis of protein truncating variants and quantitative traits. Results: Our simulation results show that our models have an advantage over the commonly used methods. We apply our models to sequence and exome-array data and discover strong evidence of association between low plasma triglyceride levels and protein truncating variants at APOC3 (Apolipoprotein C3). Availability: Software is available from http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/~rivas/mamba Contact: donnelly@well.ox.ac.uk

Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Neville, Matthew J.; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Moutsianas, Loukas; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Karpe, Fredrik; McCarthy, Mark I.; Donnelly, Peter

2013-01-01

419

Why do personality traits predict divorce? Multiple pathways through satisfaction.  

PubMed

While previous studies indicate that personality traits influence the likelihood of divorce, the processes that drive this relationship have yet to be examined. Accordingly, the current study utilized a nationally representative, longitudinal sample (N = 8,206) to test whether relationship satisfaction is a pathway by which personality traits influence relationship dissolution. Specifically, we examined 2 different pathways: the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways. The enduring dynamics pathway specifies that the association between personality and relationship satisfaction reflects ongoing relationship dynamics, which are presumed to be stable across a relationship. In contrast, the emergent distress pathway proposes that personality leads to worsening dynamics across the course of a relationship, which is indicated by changes in satisfaction. For each pathway, we assessed actor, partner, and combined effects for the Big Five. Results replicate previous research in that personality traits prospectively predict relationship dissolution. Both the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways served to explain this relationship, though the enduring dynamics model evidenced the largest effects. The emergent distress pathway was stronger for couples who experienced certain life events, suggesting that personality plays a role in adapting to changing life circumstances. Moreover, results suggest that the personality of the dyad is important in this process: Above and beyond actor effects, partner effects influenced relationship functioning (although the influence of combined effects was less clear). In sum, the current study demonstrates that personality traits shape the overall quality of one's relationship, which in turn influences the likelihood of relationship dissolution. PMID:24841100

Solomon, Brittany C; Jackson, Joshua J

2014-06-01

420

Individual differences in cocaine addiction: maladaptive behavioural traits.  

PubMed

Cocaine use leads to addiction in only a subset of individuals. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these individual differences in the transition from cocaine use to cocaine abuse is important to develop treatment strategies. There is agreement that specific behavioural traits increase the risk for addiction. As such, both high impulsivity and high anxiety have been reported to predict (compulsive) cocaine self-administration behaviour. Here, we set out a new view explaining how these two behavioural traits may affect addictive behaviour. According to psychological and psychiatric evolutionary views, organisms flourish well when they fit (match) their environment by trait and genotype. However, under non-fit conditions, the need to compensate the failure to deal with this environment increases, and, as a consequence, the functional use of rewarding drugs like cocaine may also increase. It suggests that neither impulsivity nor anxiety are bad per se, but that the increased risk to develop cocaine addiction is dependent on whether behavioural traits are adaptive or maladaptive in the environment to which the animals are exposed. This 'behavioural (mal)adaptation view' on individual differences in vulnerability to cocaine addiction may help to improve therapies for addiction. PMID:24835358

Homberg, Judith R; Karel, Peter; Verheij, Michel M M

2014-07-01

421

Psychopathic traits in Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of studies examining psychopathy in comparable samples of violent individuals with and without psychotic illness. The main goal of the study was to assess the prevalence and nature of psychopathic traits as measured by PCL-R among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Further, the impact of co-morbid psychopathy on the homicidal incidents, as well as the associations of psychopathy and offender background factors, among offenders with schizophrenia was investigated. A retrospective study was performed using extensive forensic psychiatric evaluation reports and crime reports as sources of information. The sample consisted of 72 homicide offenders with schizophrenia and 72 controls without psychotic illness. Psychopathic features were prevalent among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia, although for the most parts to a lesser extent compared to other homicide offenders. Like non-mentally ill psychopathic offenders, offenders with schizophrenia and many psychopathic traits are likely to present early starting problems in many areas of life and they also commit homicides that resemble other psychopathic offenders' in their choice of victims, intoxication and post-offense behavior. The observed prevalence of psychopathic traits highlights the importance of psychopathy assessment among violence-prone individuals with schizophrenia. In most respects, offenders with schizophrenia and high levels of psychopathic traits seem to be similar to psychopathic offenders without psychotic illness, which has implications for early intervention and management. PMID:21925734

Laajasalo, Taina; Salenius, Stephan; Lindberg, Nina; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

2011-01-01

422

Trait anxiety, but not trait anger, predisposes obese individuals to emotional eating  

PubMed Central

The present study examined whether trait anxiety and trait anger are associated with vulnerability to emotional eating, particularly among obese individuals. Lean (n=37) and obese (n=24) participants engaged in a laboratory study where they completed measures of trait anxiety and trait anger at screening and then completed 3 counterbalanced experimental sessions involving different mood inductions (neutral, anxiety, anger). Following each mood induction, participants were provided with snack foods in a sham taste test. Models predicting snack intake revealed a significant trait anxiety × body mass index group interaction, such that high trait anxiety was positively associated with food intake for obese individuals, but not their lean counterparts. Contrary to the hypothesis, trait anger was not associated with food intake for obese or lean participants. Results suggest that trait anxiety may be a risk factor for emotional eating among obese individuals.

Schneider, Kristin L.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Oleski, Jessica; Pagoto, Sherry L.

2010-01-01

423

Inconsistencies in spontaneous and intentional trait inferences  

PubMed Central

This study explores the fMRI correlates of observers making trait inferences about other people under conflicting social cues. Participants were presented with several behavioral descriptions involving an agent that implied a particular trait. The last behavior was either consistent or inconsistent with the previously implied trait. This was done under instructions that elicited either spontaneous trait inferences (‘read carefully’) or intentional trait inferences (‘infer a trait’). The results revealed that when the behavioral descriptions violated earlier trait implications, regardless of instruction, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was more strongly recruited as well as the domain-general conflict network including the posterior medial frontal cortex (pmFC) and the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC). These latter two areas were more strongly activated under intentional than spontaneous instructions. These findings suggest that when trait-relevant behavioral information is inconsistent, not only is activity increased in the mentalizing network responsible for trait processing, but control is also passed to a higher level conflict monitoring network in order to detect and resolve the contradiction.

Ma, Ning; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Baetens, Kris; Seurinck, Ruth; Fias, Wim

2012-01-01

424

Interspecific coordination and intraspecific plasticity of fine root traits in North American temperate tree species.  

PubMed

Fine roots play an important role in nutrient and water absorption and hence overall tree performance. However, current understanding of the ecological role of belowground traits lags considerably behind those of aboveground traits. In this study, we used data on specific root length (SRL), fine root diameter (D) and branching intensity (BI) of two datasets to examine interspecific trait coordination as well as intraspecific trait variation across ontogenetic stage and soil conditions (i.e., plasticity). The first dataset included saplings of 12 North American temperate tree species grown in monocultures in a common garden experiment to examine interspecific trait coordination. The second dataset included adult and juvenile individuals of four species (present in both datasets) co-occurring in natural forests on contrasting soils (i.e., humid organic, mesic, and xeric podzolic).The three fine root traits investigated were strongly coordinated, with high SRL being related to low D and high BI. Fine root traits and aboveground life-strategies (i.e., relative growth rate) were weakly coordinated and never significant. Intraspecific responses to changes in ontogenetic stage or soil conditions were trait dependent. SRL was significantly higher in juveniles compared to adults for Abies balsamea and Acer rubrum, but did not vary with soil condition. BI did not vary significantly with either ontogeny or soil conditions, while D was generally significantly lower in juveniles and higher in humid organic soils. D also had the least total variability most of which was due to changes in the environment (plasticity). This study brings support for the emerging evidence for interspecific root trait coordination in trees. It also indicates that intraspecific responses to both ontogeny and soil conditions are trait dependent and less concerted. D appears to be a better indicator of environmental change than SRL and BI. PMID:23874347

Tobner, Cornelia M; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian

2013-01-01

425

Social personality trait and fitness  

PubMed Central

Several recent studies have explored various aspects of animal personality and their ecological consequences. However, the processes responsible for the maintenance of personality variability within a population are still largely unknown. We have recently demonstrated that social personality traits exist in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and that the variation in sociability provides an explanation for variable dispersal responses within a given species. However, we need to know the fitness consequences of variation in sociability across environmental contexts in order to better understand the maintenance of such variation. In order to achieve this, we investigated the relationship between sociability and survival, body growth and fecundity, in one-year-old individuals in semi-natural populations with varying density. ‘Asocial’ and ‘social’ lizards displayed different fitness outcomes in populations of different densities. Asocial lizards survived better in low-density populations, while social females reproduced better. Spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions might thus be the process underlying the maintenance of these personality traits within a population. Finally, we also discuss the position of sociability in a more general individual behavioural pattern including boldness, exploration and aggressiveness.

Cote, J; Dreiss, A; Clobert, J

2008-01-01

426

Life Cycles and Inherited Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young children are fascinated as they watch lizards, frogs, butterflies and other small animals develop through life stages, from being born to adult to death. Some of them experience pets at home, while others visit zoos and learn through online resources. Gardening offers an opportunity to observe stages of growth in plants and presents another view of the diversity of life. Characteristics of living organisms, their stages of life and the diversity around us are major concepts developed within this guide. Elementary students learn about growth and development and characteristics of organisms by observing plants and animals that are part of their immediate environment. Through these observations and experiences they begin to notice and develop an understanding that offspring resemble their parents; that characteristics (traits that are observed) are diverse even within same species; and that patterns and variations occur at every level of life. This foundation provides the basic building blocks that are instrumental to the further understanding of genes, traits, heredity and reproductions that they will study in later grades. All resources within this guide correspond to the National Science Education Standards and have been reviewed and evaluated by a team of experienced science teachers, taking into account the needs and concerns of elementary school teachers and students.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

427

How do pollinator visitation rate and seed set relate to species' floral traits and community context?  

PubMed

Differences among plant species in visitation rate and seed set within a community may be explained both by the species' floral traits and the community context. Additionally, the importance of species' floral traits vs. community context on visitation rate and seed set may vary among communities. In communities where the pollinator-to-flower ratio is low, floral traits may be more important than community context, as pollinators may have the opportunity to be choosier when visiting plant species. In this study we investigated whether species' floral traits (flower shape, size and number, and flowering duration) and community context (conspecific and heterospecific flower density, and pollinator abundance) could explain among-species variation in visitation rate and seed set. For this, we used data on 47 plant species from two Norwegian plant communities differing in pollinator-to-flower ratio. Differences among species in visitation rate and seed set within a community could be explained by similar variables as those explaining visitation rate and seed set within species. As expected, we found floral traits to be more important than community context in the community with a lower pollinator-to-flower ratio; whereas in the community with a higher pollinator-to-flower ratio, community context played a bigger role. Our study gives significant insights into the relative importance of floral traits on species' visitation rate and seed set, and contributes to our understanding of the role of the community context on the fitness of plant species. PMID:23579571

Lázaro, Amparo; Jakobsson, Anna; Totland, Ørjan

2013-11-01

428

Genetic properties of egg quality traits and their correlations with performance traits in Japanese quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Performance traits were measured on 1908 Japanese quail and egg quality traits assessed on 1800 eggs at 10 wk of age.2. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate animal model with restricted maximum likelihood using ASREML software.3. Body weight at different ages showed positive genetic correlations with egg weight and most of the internal egg quality traits,

E. Lotfi; S. Zerehdaran; Z. Raoufi

2012-01-01

429

Application of the False Discovery Rate to Quantitative Trait Loci Interval Mapping With Multiple Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) has been proposed as an alternative to controlling the genome- wise error rate (GWER) for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) in genome scans. The objective here was to implement FDR in the context of regression interval mapping for multiple traits. Data on five traits from an F2 swine breed cross were used. FDR was

Hakkyo Lee; Jack C. M. Dekkers; M. Soller; Massoud Malek; Rohan L. Fernando; Max F. Rothschild

2002-01-01

430

Multiple differences in calling songs and other traits between solitary and gregarious Mormon crickets from allopatric mtDNA clades  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In acoustic species, traits such as male calling song are likely to diverge quickly between allopatric populations due to sexual selection, and divergence in parameters such as carrier frequency, chirp structure, and other important song characters can influence sexual isolation. Here we make use of two forms of Mormon crickets to examine differences in a broad suite of traits

Nathan W Bailey; Darryl T Gwynne; William V Bailey; Michael G Ritchie

2007-01-01

431

Integrating species traits with extrinsic threats: closing the gap between predicting and preventing species declines  

PubMed Central

In studies of extinction risk, it is often insufficient to conclude that species with narrow ranges or small clutch sizes require prioritized protection. To improve conservation outcomes, we also need to know which threats interact with these traits to endanger some species but not others. In this study, we integrated the spatial patterns of key threats to Australian amphibians with species' ecological/life-history traits to both predict declining species and identify their likely threats. In addition to confirming the importance of previously identified traits (e.g. narrow range size), we find that extrinsic threats (primarily the disease chytridiomycosis and invasive mosquitofish) are equally important and interact with intrinsic traits (primarily ecological group) to create guild-specific pathways to decline in our model system. Integrating the spatial patterns of extrinsic threats in extinction risk analyses will improve our ability to detect and manage endangered species in the future, particularly where data deficiency is a problem.

Murray, Kris A.; Rosauer, Dan; McCallum, Hamish; Skerratt, Lee F.

2011-01-01

432

Integrating species traits with extrinsic threats: closing the gap between predicting and preventing species declines.  

PubMed

In studies of extinction risk, it is often insufficient to conclude that species with narrow ranges or small clutch sizes require prioritized protection. To improve conservation outcomes, we also need to know which threats interact with these traits to endanger some species but not others. In this study, we integrated the spatial patterns of key threats to Australian amphibians with species' ecological/life-history traits to both predict declining species and identify their likely threats. In addition to confirming the importance of previously identified traits (e.g. narrow range size), we find that extrinsic threats (primarily the disease chytridiomycosis and invasive mosquitofish) are equally important and interact with intrinsic traits (primarily ecological group) to create guild-specific pathways to decline in our model system. Integrating the spatial patterns of extrinsic threats in extinction risk analyses will improve our ability to detect and manage endangered species in the future, particularly where data deficiency is a problem. PMID:20980304

Murray, Kris A; Rosauer, Dan; McCallum, Hamish; Skerratt, Lee F

2011-05-22

433

Evidence for Genetic Variation in Human Mate Preferences for Sexually Dimorphic Physical Traits  

PubMed Central

Intersexual selection has been proposed as an important force in shaping a number of morphological traits that differ between human populations and/or between the sexes. Important to these accounts is the source of mate preferences for such traits, but this has not been investigated. In a large sample of twins, we assess forced-choice, dichotomous mate preferences for height, skin colour, hair colour and length, chest hair, facial hair, and breast size. Across the traits, identical twins reported more similar preferences than nonidentical twins, suggesting genetic effects. However, the relative magnitude of estimated genetic and environmental effects differed greatly and significantly between different trait preferences, with heritability estimates ranging from zero to 57%.

Burri, Andrea V.

2012-01-01

434

Evidence for genetic variation in human mate preferences for sexually dimorphic physical traits.  

PubMed

Intersexual selection has been proposed as an important force in shaping a number of morphological traits that differ between human populations and/or between the sexes. Important to these accounts is the source of mate preferences for such traits, but this has not been investigated. In a large sample of twins, we assess forced-choice, dichotomous mate preferences for height, skin colour, hair colour and length, chest hair, facial hair, and breast size. Across the traits, identical twins reported more similar preferences than nonidentical twins, suggesting genetic effects. However, the relative magnitude of estimated genetic and environmental effects differed greatly and significantly between different trait preferences, with heritability estimates ranging from zero to 57%. PMID:23166631

Verweij, Karin J H; Burri, Andrea V; Zietsch, Brendan P

2012-01-01

435

Biofertilizers function as key player in sustainable agriculture by improving soil fertility, plant tolerance and crop productivity  

PubMed Central

Current soil management strategies are mainly dependent on inorganic chemical-based fertilizers, which caused a serious threat to human health and environment. The exploitation of beneficial microbes as a biofertilizer has become paramount importance in agriculture sector for their potential role in food safety and sustainable crop production. The eco-friendly approaches inspire a wide range of application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi, cyanobacteria and many other useful microscopic organisms led to improved nutrient uptake, plant growth and plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. The present review highlighted biofertilizers mediated crops functional traits such as plant growth and productivity, nutrient profile, plant defense and protection with special emphasis to its function to trigger various growth- and defense-related genes in signaling network of cellular pathways to cause cellular response and thereby crop improvement. The knowledge gained from the literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological bases of biofertlizers towards sustainable agriculture in reducing problems associated with the use of chemicals fertilizers.

2014-01-01

436

Market-Oriented Agriculture: The Declining Role of Government Commodity Programs in Agricultural Production Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The portion of U.S. agricultural production covered by government income support payments has declined over the span of the last two 5-year farm acts. Consequently, nongovernmental supply and demand factors (market forces) are becoming more important in i...

P. C. Westcott

1993-01-01

437

How Mobile Are Resources in Chinese Agriculture?— Implications for China's Agricultural Trade Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAgricultural trade policy in China has been the subject of heated discussion since China's accession to the WTO. Studies have been carried out and propositions put forth regarding comparative advantage, food security, development of the industry, and farmers’ income. In this paper, we attempt to provide an analysis from another important perspective: resource mobility, which is an essential assumption in

Funing Zhong; Jing Zhu; Zhengqin Xie

2007-01-01

438

Feeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on feeding livestock contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to be a livestock producer. The lessons in this unit cover the importance of good feeding practices, the identification of nutritional needs and the composition of feeds for…

Johnson, Boyd C.

439

Both additivity and epistasis control the genetic variation for fruit quality traits in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a gene involved in the variation of a quantitative trait may change due to epistatic interactions with the overall\\u000a genetic background or with other genes through digenic interactions. The classical populations used to map quantitative trait\\u000a loci (QTL) are poorly efficient to detect epistasis. To assess the importance of epistasis in the genetic control of fruit\\u000a quality

Mathilde Causse; Jamila Chaïb; Laurent Lecomte; Michel Buret

2007-01-01

440

Statistical issues in the search for genes affecting quantitative traits in experimental populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews key contributions in the area of statistics as\\u000aapplied to the use of molecular marker technology and quantitative genetics in\\u000athe search for genes affecting quantitative traits responsible for specific\\u000adiseases and economically important agronomic traits. Since an exhaustive\\u000aliterature review is not possible, the limited scope of this work is to\\u000aencourage further statistical work in

R. W. Doerge; Z. B. Zeng; B. S. Weir

1997-01-01

441

Quantitative trait loci analysis for rice seed vigor during the germination stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed vigor is an important characteristic of seed quality, and rice cultivars with strong seed vigor are desirable in direct-sowing\\u000a rice production for optimum stand establishment. In the present study, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of three traits\\u000a for rice seed vigor during the germination stage, including germination rate, final germination percentage, and germination\\u000a index, were investigated using one recombinant

Zhou-fei Wang; Jian-fei Wang; Yong-mei Bao; Fu-hua Wang; Hong-sheng Zhang

2010-01-01

442

African Species Belonging to the Tribe Psoraleeae Produce Ureides, a Symbiotic Trait Characteristic of the Phaseoleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern studies in plant physiology have revealed the importance of nodulation and symbiotic traits in the taxonomy of legumes\\u000a (Sprent, 2001). A recent phylogenetic tree showed a close relationship between the tribes Phaseoleae and Psoraleeae. This\\u000a study aimed to assess the symbiotic traits of eight Psoralea species, which occur uniquely as endemics in the Cape region of South Africa and

S. Kanu; S. B. Chimpango; J. Sprent; F. D. Dakora

443

Genome-wide prediction of discrete traits using bayesian regressions and machine learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Genomic selection has gained much attention and the main goal is to increase the predictive accuracy and the genetic gain\\u000a in livestock using dense marker information. Most methods dealing with the large p (number of covariates) small n (number of observations) problem have dealt only with continuous traits, but there are many important traits in livestock\\u000a that are recorded in

Oscar González-Recio; Selma Forni

2011-01-01

444

Multiple regression for molecular-marker, quantitative trait data from large F 2 populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular marker-quantitative trait associations are important for breeders to recognize and understand to allow application in selection. This work was done to provide simple, intuitive explanations of trait-marker regression for large samples from an F2 and to examine the properties of the regression estimators. Beginning with a(- 1,0,1) coding of marker classes and expected frequencies in the F2, expected values,

A. J. Wright; R. P. Mowers

1994-01-01

445

A Simple Analysis of an Inherited Trait  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a classroom activity for analyzing an inherited human trait, the ability to tast phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Formulas for analyzing gene frequency are given for classroom and neighborhood samples. Additional tables include statistics on the ability to taste PTC and other easily sampled human traits. (MA)

Aagaard, Stanley; Keller, Elhannan

1977-01-01

446

Leaf trait relationships in Australian plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf trait data were compiled for 258 Australian plant species from several habitat types dominated by woody perennials. Specific leaf area (SLA), photosynthetic capacity, dark respiration rate and leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were positively correlated with one another and negatively correlated with average leaf lifespan. These trait relationships were consistent with previous results from global datasets. Together,

Ian J. Wright; Philip K. Groom; Byron B. Lamont; Pieter Poot; Peter B. Reich; E-Detlef Schulze; Erik J. Veneklaas; Mark Westoby; Penrith South

2004-01-01

447

Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

Eichner, Edward R.

1986-01-01

448

Retinopathy in patients with sickle cell trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSickle hemoglobinopathies are among the most prevalent genetic disorders in the United States. Sickle cell trait (hemoglobin AS) is the most common genotype and has traditionally been considered a benign condition. Systemic and ocular complications are seen infrequently in patients with sickle cell trait. In the presence of concomitant systemic diseases or trauma, however, marked retinopathy can occur. The presence

Sherrol A. Reynolds; Eulogio Besada; Christine Winter-Corella

2007-01-01

449

Trait Level Estimation for Nonfitting Response Vectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used three scoring methods (maximum likelihood estimation, expected a posteriori estimation, and biweight estimation) to estimate the latent trait values when nonmodel response vectors (NRVs) were present. Also investigated the relationship between the detection rate of a person-fit index and the error in the latent trait estimate. Discusses the…

Meijer, Rob R.; Nering, Michael L.

1997-01-01