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1

The angiosperm phloem sieve tube system: a role in mediating traits important to modern agriculture.  

PubMed

The plant vascular system serves a vital function by distributing water, nutrients and hormones essential for growth and development to the various organs of the plant. In this review, attention is focused on the role played by the phloem as the conduit for delivery of both photosynthate and information macromolecules, especially from the context of its mediation in traits that are important to modern agriculture. Resource allocation of sugars and amino acids, by the phloem, to specific sink tissues is of importance to crop yield and global food security. Current findings are discussed in the context of a hierarchical control network that operates to integrate resource allocation to competing sinks. The role of plasmodesmata that connect companion cells to neighbouring sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells is evaluated in terms of their function as valves, connecting the sieve tube pressure manifold system to the various plant tissues. Recent studies have also revealed that plasmodesmata and the phloem sieve tube system function cooperatively to mediate the long-distance delivery of proteins and a diverse array of RNA species. Delivery of these information macromolecules is discussed in terms of their roles in control over the vegetative-to-floral transition, tuberization in potato, stress-related signalling involving miRNAs, and genetic reprogramming through the delivery of 24-nucleotide small RNAs that function in transcriptional gene silencing in recipient sink organs. Finally, we discuss important future research areas that could contribute to developing agricultural crops with engineered performance characteristics for enhance yield potential. PMID:24368503

Ham, Byung-Kook; Lucas, William J

2014-04-01

2

The Better-Than-Average Effect in Hong Kong and the United States: The Role of Personal Trait Importance and Cultural Trait Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

People tend to make self-aggrandizing social comparisons on traits that are important to the self. However, existing research on the better-than-average effect (BTAE) and trait importance does not distinguish between personal trait importance (participants’ ratings of the importance of certain traits to themselves) and cultural trait importance (participants’ perceptions of the importance of the traits to the cultural group to

Kim-Pong Tam; Angela K.-y. Leung; Young-Hoon Kim; Chi-Yue Chiu; Ivy Yee-Man Lau; Al K. C. Au

2012-01-01

3

Perceived importance of employees' traits in the service industry.  

PubMed

Selection assessments are common practice to help reduce employee turnover in the service industry, but as too little is known about employees' characteristics, which are valued most highly by human resources professionals, a sample of 108 managers and human resources professionals rated the perceived importance of 31 performance traits for Line, Middle, and Senior employees. Rasch scaling analyses indicated strong consensus among the respondents. Nonsocial skills, abilities, and traits such as Ethical Awareness, Self-motivation, Writing Skills, Verbal Ability, Creativity, and Problem Solving were rated as more important for higher level employees. By contrast, traits which directly affect the interaction with customers and coworkers (Service Orientation, Communication Style, Agreeableness, Sense of Humor, Sensitivity to Diversity, Group Process, and Team Building) were rated as more important for lower level employees. Respondents' age and sex did not substantially alter these findings. Results are discussed in terms of improving industry professionals' perceived ecological and external validities of generic and customized assessments of employee. PMID:19610487

Lange, Rense; Houran, James

2009-04-01

4

Value Traits Reinforcement and Perceived Importance: Does Context Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether business students' perception of value trait reinforcement and importance differ by their university\\u000a context. Student perceptions in coeducational religious, coeducational public and all-female religious schools were compared.\\u000a The results of this study indicate areas of similarity and differences among students in regard to the context of school type\\u000a and that reinforcement differences seemed to contribute to

John a. Ruhe; William R. Allen; James H. Davis; Virginia Geurin; Justin Longenecker

1998-01-01

5

Importance of energy balance in agriculture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning, man has tried to control nature and the environment, and the use of energy, mainly from non-renewable sources providing the necessary power for that. The consequences of this long fight against nature has reached a critical state of unprecedented worldwide environmental degradation, as evidenced by the increasing erosion of fertile lands, the deforestation processes, the pollution of water, air and land by agrochemicals, the loss of plant and animal species, the progressive deterioration of the ozone layer and signs of global warming. This is exacerbated by the increasing population growth, implying a steady increase in consumption, and consequently, in the use of energy. Unfortunately, all these claims are resulting in serious economic and environmental problems worldwide. Because the economic and environmental future of the countries is interrelated, it becomes necessary to adopt sustainable development models based on the use of renewable and clean energies, the search for alternative resources and the use of productive systems more efficient from an energy standpoint, always with a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the agricultural sector, the question we ask is: how long can we keep the current energy-intensive agricultural techniques in developed countries? To analyze this aspect, energy balance is a very helpful tool because can lead to more efficient, sustainable and environment-friendly production systems for each agro-climatic region. This requires the identification of all the inputs and the outputs involved and their conversion to energy values by means of corresponding energy coefficients or equivalents (International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies). Energy inputs (EI) can be divided in direct (energy directly used in farms as fuel, machines, fertilizers, seeds, herbicides, human labor, etc.) and indirect (energy not consumed in the farm but in the elaboration, manufacturing or manipulation of inputs) ones. Energy outputs (EO) are considered as the calorific value of the harvested biomass (main products and sub-products), calculated from the total production (kg/ha) and its corresponding energy coefficient (strongly correlated to the biochemical composition of the products). Based on energy inputs and outputs, energy efficiency can be expressed as (i) net energy produced (NE) (also known as energy gain or energy balance, calculated as EI-EO and expressed as MJ/ha), (ii) the energy output/input ratio (also known as energy efficiency and calculated as EO/EI), and (iii) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI, expressed as kg/MJ). Funding provided by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

Meco, R.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Moreno, C.

2012-04-01

6

Imported Fire Ants: An Agricultural Pest and a  

E-print Network

Imported Fire Ants: An Agricultural Pest and a Human Health Hazard Imported fire ants (Solenopsis. The black imported fire ant was brought to Mobile, AL, in 1918. The red imported fire ant arrived) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) for advice about how to manage imported fire ants

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

7

How to Tell How Important Agriculture Is to Your State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes agriculture's economic importance and lists the top 10 states according to 4 possible criteria for determining economic dependence on agriculture: number of food and fiber system jobs, number of farmworkers, proportion of food and fiber system jobs, and proportion of farmworkers to total food and fiber system jobs. (JHZ)

Schluter, Gerald; Edmondson, William

1986-01-01

8

Inheritance of several important agronomic traits in almond  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Four tree traits (flowering time, flowering density, productivity and ripening time) and 5 fruit traits (kernel weight, shell hardness, kernel percentage, double kernels and kernel bitterness) were studied in an almond (P. dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) progeny of 165 seedlings, for 3 years. This progeny comes from a cross between the French selection 'R1000' ('Tardy Nonpareil' x 'Tuono')

F. Dicenta; E. Ortega; R. Sánchez-Pérez; H. Duval; P. Martínez-Gómez

9

Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the com- mercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in trans- genic research, rather than on the health and welfare

M. Greger

2010-01-01

10

The relative importance of genetic and nongenetic inheritance in relation to trait plasticity in Callosobruchus maculatus  

E-print Network

The relative importance of genetic and nongenetic inheritance in relation to trait plasticity and nongenetic mechanisms of inheritance is predicted to be related to the degree of trait plasticity, with nongenetic inheritance playing a greater role in the cross-generational trans- mission of more plastic traits

Bonduriansky, Russell

11

Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal mechanisms in community processes  

PubMed Central

All plants, including crop species, harbor a community of fungal endophyte species, yet we know little about the biotic factors that are important in endophyte community assembly. We suggest that the most direct route to understanding the mechanisms underlying community assembly is through the study of functional trait variation in the host and its fungal consortium. We review studies on crop endophytes that investigate plant and fungal traits likely to be important in endophyte community processes. We focus on approaches that could speed detection of general trends in endophyte community assembly: (i) use of the ‘assembly rules’ concept to identify specific mechanisms that influence endophyte community dynamics, (ii) measurement of functional trait variation in plants and fungi to better understand endophyte community processes and plant–fungal interactions, and (iii) investigation of microbe–microbe interactions, and fungal traits that mediate them. This approach is well suited for research in agricultural systems, where pair-wise host–fungus interactions and mechanisms of fungal–fungal competition have frequently been described. Areas for consideration include the possibility that human manipulation of crop phenotype and deployment of fungal biocontrol species can significantly influence endophyte community assembly. Evaluation of endophyte assembly rules may help to fine-tune crop management strategies.

Saunders, Megan; Glenn, Anthony E; Kohn, Linda M

2010-01-01

12

Animal trait ontology: The importance and usefulness of a unified trait vocabulary for animal species  

PubMed Central

Ontologies help to identify and formally define the entities and relationships in specific domains of interest. Bio-ontologies, in particular, play a central role in the annotation, integration, analysis, and interpretation of biological data. Missing from the number of bio-ontologies is one that includes phenotypic trait information found in livestock species. As a result, the Animal Trait Ontology (ATO) project being carried out under the auspices of the USDA-National Animal Genome Research Program is aimed at the development of a standardized trait ontology for farm animals and software tools to assist the research community in collaborative creation, editing, maintenance, and use of such an ontology. The ATO is currently inclusive of cattle, pig, and chicken species, and will include other livestock species in the future. The ATO will eventually be linked to other species (e.g., human, rat, mouse) so that comparative analysis can be efficiently performed between species. PMID:18272850

Hughes, L. M.; Bao, J.; Hu, Z.-L.; Honavar, V.; Reecy, J. M.

2008-01-01

13

Modelling Adaptive Responses Across Agricultural Environments as a Prerequisite for Identifying Adaptive Traits and Plant Ideotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Modelling cultivar yield responses across agricultural environments by additive main effects and multiplicative interaction\\u000a (AMMI) or factorial regression is useful for understanding genotype × environment interaction patterns, simplifying and improving\\u000a the targeting of cultivars, and helping breeding programs in defining selection strategies, adaptive traits and plant ideotypes\\u000a by itself and by acting as a benchmark for physiological studies. Examples are

Paolo Annicchiarico; Luciano Pecetti

14

The Importance of Institutional Structure in Controlling Agricultural Runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural runoff, such as dissolved mineral salts and selenium, creates pronounced downstream impacts to agricultural producers and to wildlife. The ability to manage these problems efficiently depends critically on the institutional pricing structure of irrigation water delivery agencies. An important characteristic of irrigation water delivery is whether irrigators pay per unit of water received or make one payment regardless of the quantity of water received. In this study we compare the effectiveness of agricultural runoff reduction policies in two regions that employ these different water pricing structures. We find that reduction policy is more effective and can be achieved at a lower cost when water is priced on a per unit basis and that growers have greater incentive to act on their own to reduce runoff problems. Operating under a per unit pricing system encourages water conservation and runoff reduction, which creates public benefits that are not achieved under the single-payment, fixed allotment method of irrigation water delivery.

Schuck, Eric C.; Green, Gareth P.; Clements, Janet; Frasier, W. Marshall

2006-12-01

15

The Importance of Juvenile Root Traits for Crop Yields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic variation in root system architecture (RSA) is an under-exploited breeding resource. This is partly a consequence of difficulties in the rapid and accurate assessment of subterranean root systems. However, although the characterisation of root systems of large plants in the field are both time-consuming and labour-intensive, high-throughput (HTP) screens of root systems of juvenile plants can be performed in the field, glasshouse or laboratory. It is hypothesised that improving the root systems of juvenile plants can accelerate access to water and essential mineral elements, leading to rapid crop establishment and, consequently, greater yields. This presentation will illustrate how aspects of the juvenile root systems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) correlate with crop yields and examine the reasons for such correlations. It will first describe the significant positive relationships between early root system development, phosphorus acquisition, canopy establishment and eventual yield among potato genotypes. It will report the development of a glasshouse assay for root system architecture (RSA) of juvenile potato plants, the correlations between root system architectures measured in the glasshouse and field, and the relationships between aspects of the juvenile root system and crop yields under drought conditions. It will then describe the development of HTP systems for assaying RSA of OSR seedlings, the identification of genetic loci affecting RSA in OSR, the development of mathematical models describing resource acquisition by OSR, and the correlations between root traits recorded in the HTP systems and yields of OSR in the field.

White, Philip; Adu, Michael; Broadley, Martin; Brown, Lawrie; Dupuy, Lionel; George, Timothy; Graham, Neil; Hammond, John; Hayden, Rory; Neugebauer, Konrad; Nightingale, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Thomas, Catherine; Thompson, Jacqueline; Wishart, Jane; Wright, Gladys

2014-05-01

16

Rapid multiplexed analysis of perfect markers for important rice traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated DNA Extraction, Next Generation Sequencing and high throughput genotyping technologies used in combination allow more tightly targeted approaches to genetic analysis than ever before. It is now possible to quickly acquire genome wide data for a range of key reference varieties which differ by important phenotypes. These data can be quickly converted to high throughput genotyping assays allowing rapid

Ardashir K Masouleh; Daniel LE Waters; Russell F Reinke; Robert J Henry

2009-01-01

17

How Important Is Economic Geography for Rural Non-agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil  

E-print Network

How Important Is Economic Geography for Rural Non-agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil ERIK-agricultural employment prospects and earnings. Key words: Rural non-agricultural employment, economic geography, Latin America, Brazil. JEL Classification: J24, J43, O18, R23 1. INTRODUCTION Rural non-agricultural employment

Krivobokova, Tatyana

18

Local and regional abundance of exotic plant species on Mediterranean islands: are species traits important?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim We assess the importance of three relevant and readily obtainable life- history traits (dispersal syndrome, stem height and growth form) and biogeographical origin (European vs. non-European) on the local and regional abundance of over 400 exotic plant species across eight Mediterranean islands. Location The Mediterranean islands of Lesbos, Rhodes, Crete, Malta, Corsica, Sardinia, Majorca and Minorca. Methods We adopt

Francisco Lloret; Fréderic Médail; Giuseppe Brundu; Philip E. Hulme; Aberdeenshire AB

2004-01-01

19

Lithuanian Agriculture Teachers' Perceptions on the Importance and Integration of Leadership Skills into the Agricultural Education Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Lithuania prepares for membership in the European Union, agricultural education programs will play a vital role in educating future leaders for the agricultural industry and rural communities. Lithuanian agriculture teachers who participated in two seminars conducted by the American Professional Partnership for Lithuanian Education (A.P.P.L.E.) were surveyed to determine their perceived level of importance of various leadership skills and

James J. Connors; Benjamin Swan; James A. Brousseau

20

Importance of riparian habitats for small mammal and herpetofaunal communities in agricultural landscapes of southern Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of adequate riparian strips in agricultural landscapes is generally recognized to contribute to the reduction of the impacts of agricultural practices on the water quality of streams, to regularize water temperature and to help in the creation of important wildlife habitats. This study aimed at determining the importance of riparian strips in agricultural landscapes of southern Québec for

Charles Maisonneuve; Stéphanie Rioux

2001-01-01

21

Important Co?leader Skills and Traits on Extended Outdoor Trips as Perceived by Leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although wilderness trips are typically co?led, there is a deficit of research literature exploring the dynamics of co?leadership in the field. This study was conducted to determine the skills and traits outdoor adventure trip leaders perceived to be important for their co?leaders to possess on an extended outdoor trip. Utilizing Q?methodology, a 36?item instrument developed from the leadership literature was

Christel Rilling; Deb Jordan

2007-01-01

22

Dicer-like 3 produces transposable element-associated 24-nt siRNAs that control agricultural traits in rice  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences make up over 35% of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. The host regulates the activity of different TEs by different epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone H3K9 methylation, and histone H3K4 demethylation. TEs can also affect the expression of host genes. For example, miniature inverted repeat TEs (MITEs), dispersed high copy-number DNA TEs, can influence the expression of nearby genes. In plants, 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are mainly derived from repeats and TEs. However, the extent to which TEs, particularly MITEs associated with 24-nt siRNAs, affect gene expression remains elusive. Here, we show that the rice Dicer-like 3 homolog OsDCL3a is primarily responsible for 24-nt siRNA processing. Impairing OsDCL3a expression by RNA interference caused phenotypes affecting important agricultural traits; these phenotypes include dwarfism, larger flag leaf angle, and fewer secondary branches. We used small RNA deep sequencing to identify 535,054 24-nt siRNA clusters. Of these clusters, ?82% were OsDCL3a-dependent and showed significant enrichment of MITEs. Reduction of OsDCL3a function reduced the 24-nt siRNAs predominantly from MITEs and elevated expression of nearby genes. OsDCL3a directly targets genes involved in gibberellin and brassinosteroid homeostasis; OsDCL3a deficiency may affect these genes, thus causing the phenotypes of dwarfism and enlarged flag leaf angle. Our work identifies OsDCL3a-dependent 24-nt siRNAs derived from MITEs as broadly functioning regulators for fine-tuning gene expression, which may reflect a conserved epigenetic mechanism in higher plants with genomes rich in dispersed repeats or TEs. PMID:24554078

Wei, Liya; Gu, Lianfeng; Song, Xianwei; Cui, Xiekui; Lu, Zhike; Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lulu; Hu, Fengyi; Zhai, Jixian; Meyers, Blake C.; Cao, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

23

Habitat effects on the relative importance of trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions.  

PubMed

Classical views of trophic cascades emphasize the primacy of consumptive predator effects on prey populations to the transmission of indirect effects [density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)]. However, trophic cascades can also emerge without changes in the density of interacting species because of non-consumptive predator effects on prey traits such as foraging behaviour [trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs)]. Although ecologists appreciate this point, measurements of the relative importance of each indirect predator effect are rare. Experiments with a three-level, rocky shore food chain containing an invasive predatory crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the snail, Nucella lapillus) and a basal resource (the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides) revealed that the strength of TMIIs is comparable with, or exceeds, that of DMIIs. Moreover, the sign and strength of each indirect predator effect depends on whether it is measured in risky or refuge habitats. Because habitat shifts are often responsible for the emergence of TMIIs, attention to the sign and strength of these interactions in both habitats will improve our understanding of the link between individual behaviour and community dynamics. PMID:17040327

Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ewanchuk, Patrick J; Matassa, Catherine M

2006-11-01

24

Selected historic agricultural data important to environmental quality in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report and the accompanying tables summarize some of the important changes in American agriculture in the form of a timeline and a compilation of selected annual time-series data that can be broadly related to environmental quality. Although these changes have been beneficial for increasing agricultural production, some of them have resulted in environmental concerns. The agriculture timeline is divided into four categories (1) crop and animal changes, (2) mechanical changes, (3) biological and chemical changes, and (4) regulatory and societal changes. The timeline attempts to compile events that have had a lasting impact on agriculture in the United States. The events and data presented in this report may help to improve the connections between agricultural activist and environmental concerns.

Grey, Katia M.; Capel, Paul D.; Baker, Nancy T.; Thelin, Gail P.

2012-01-01

25

Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Core Collection of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) with SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Mining elite genes within rice landraces is of importance for the improvement of cultivated rice. An association mapping for 12 agronomic traits was carried out using a core collection of rice consisting of 150 landraces (Panel 1) with 274 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the mapping results were further verified using a Chinese national rice micro-core collection (Panel 2) and a collection from a global molecular breeding program (Panel 3). Our results showed that (1) 76 significant (P<0.05) trait-marker associations were detected using mixed linear model (MLM) within Panel 1 in two years, among which 32% were identical with previously mapped QTLs, and 11 significant associations had >10% explained ratio of genetic variation; (2) A total of seven aforementioned trait-marker associations were verified within Panel 2 and 3 when using a general linear model (GLM) and 55 SSR markers of the 76 significant trait-marker associations. However, no significant trait-marker association was found to be identical within three panels when using the MLM model; (3) several desirable alleles of the loci which showed significant trait-marker associations were identified. The research provided important information for further mining these elite genes within rice landraces and using them for rice breeding. PMID:25360796

Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xiangdong; Tong, Hanhua; Lu, Yonggen; Li, Jinquan

2014-01-01

26

Water use in agriculture in China: importance, challenges, and implications for policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation is too important for China to live without. With 75% of grain production of China coming from irrigated land, irrigation plays a major role in food security and poverty alleviation in China, and even in stabilizing the world grain market due to the potential significance of China's gain imports. Yet, water use in China's agriculture faces ever-increasing challenges. These

Leshan Jin; Warren Young

2001-01-01

27

The importance of comprehensive agricultural education in land-grant institutions: a historical perspective.  

PubMed

Any thorough examination of the present and future of agricultural education must certainly begin with a look into its past. Since the creation of the United States, many leading American philosophers have viewed a strong agrarian culture as the bedrock of American vigor. These same philosophers repeatedly noted the significance of comprehensive agricultural education to a nation rich in agricultural wealth. The signing of the Agricultural Colleges Act legitimized the concept of formal education in the agricultural sciences and provided funding for such education. The Act, which came to be known as the Morrill Act, after one of its primary authors, stressed the importance of comprehensive education. In fact, the inclusion of liberal studies was specifically mentioned in the Morrill Act and was defended repeatedly by Morrill himself. Comprehensive education prevented graduating technically trained students who were lacking in the basic outcomes of education--critical, comprehensive problem solving, cohesive thought, and effective communication. However, throughout history, the demands of a growing population coupled with rapid advancements in scientific knowledge led to a gradual move away from comprehensive education in agricultural sciences toward increasing specialization, resulting in more narrowly trained students. Today's agricultural students are technically well versed but often lack the skill and knowledge required for cohesive thought and critical problem solving. Addressing the multitude of challenges facing leaders in the future of agriculture requires much more than technical skill. These challenges require quick, yet careful thinkers and communicators who can respond to changing market structure and consumer demand in a dynamic way. Students who are a product of a conscious move toward amalgamation of burgeoning scientific knowledge and technical prowess with an integrative education emphasizing relationships between disciplines would better serve tomorrow's agriculture. PMID:10875653

Grant, P M; Field, T G; Green, R D; Rollin, B E

2000-06-01

28

QTL mapping and epistatic interaction analysis in asparagus bean for several characterized and novel horticulturally important traits  

PubMed Central

Background Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata. ssp sesquipedalis) is a subspecies and special vegetable type of cowpea (Vigna. unguiculata L. Walp.) important in Asia. Genetic basis of horticulturally important traits of asparagus bean is still poorly understood, hindering the utilization of targeted, DNA marker-assisted breeding in this crop. Here we report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic interactions for four horticultural traits, namely, days to first flowering (FLD), nodes to first flower (NFF), leaf senescence (LS) and pod number per plant (PN) using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of asparagus bean. Results A similar genetic mode of one major QTL plus a few minor QTLs was found to dominate each of the four traits, with the number of QTLs for individual traits ranging from three to four. These QTLs were distributed on 7 of the 11 chromosomes. Major QTLs for FLD, NFF and LS were co-localized on LG 11, indicative of tight linkage. Genome wide epistasis analysis detected two and one interactive locus pairs that significantly affect FLD and LS, respectively, and the epistatic QTLs for FLD appeared to work in different ways. Synteny based comparison of QTL locations revealed conservation of chromosome regions controlling these traits in related legume crops. Conclusion Major, minor, and epistatic QTLs were found to contribute to the inheritance of the FLD, NFF, LS, and PN. Positions of many of these QTLs are conserved among closely related legume species, indicating common mechanisms they share. To our best knowledge, this is the first QTL mapping report using an asparagus bean × asparagus bean intervarietal population and provides marker-trait associations for marker-assisted approaches to selection. PMID:23375055

2013-01-01

29

Leaf miner and plant galler species richness on Acacia : relative importance of plant traits and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity patterns of herbivores have been related to climate, host plant traits, host plant distribution and evolutionary\\u000a relationships individually. However, few studies have assessed the relative contributions of a range of variables to explain\\u000a these diversity patterns across large geographical and host plant species gradients. Here we assess the relative influence\\u000a that climate and host plant traits have on endophagous

Katy A. Bairstow; Kerri L. Clarke; Melodie A. McGeoch; Nigel R. Andrew

2010-01-01

30

Trait emotional intelligence and goal self-integration: important predictors of emotional well-being?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal goals vary in the extent to which they are integrated with core aspects of the self. Goal self-integration was measured by asking 95 students to rate their reasons for adopting eight personal strivings. In addition, the trait emotional intelligence (EI) and emotional well-being of participants was measured, in order to determine the influence of goal self-integration and trait EI

Gordon Spence; Lindsay G Oades; Peter Caputi

2004-01-01

31

Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations of beef cattle with extensive phenotypic records for economical-  

E-print Network

Genomics Populations for Characterization of Economically Important Traits Structured populations efficiency and carcass merit, are a critical need in the post-genome sequencing era. Coupled with the availability of the 7.5x assembly of the bovine genome sequence and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP

32

An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Professional Internships on Students' Perception of the Importance of Employment Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors measured the effects of a formal internship on students' perceptions of the importance of traits employees consider during the hiring process. Prior studies have reported that accounting firms perceive students with internship experience as better entry-level accountants. This perception may be related to changes in student beliefs…

Green, Brian Patrick; Graybeal, Patricia; Madison, Roland L.

2011-01-01

33

The Extent, Causes, and Importance of Context Effects on Item Parameters for Two Latent-Trait Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent, causes, and importance of context effects on item parameters for one- and three-parameter latent-trait models were examined. Items were taken from the California Achievement Tests Reading Comprehension and Mathematics Concepts and Applications subtests. The reading items were administered to 1,678 fourth-grade students, and the…

Yen, Wendy M.

34

The importance of aboveground-belowground interactions on the evolution and maintenance of variation in plant defense traits  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades a growing body of empirical research has shown that many ecological processes are mediated by a complex array of indirect interactions occurring between rhizosphere-inhabiting organisms and those found on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground–belowground studies have thus far focused on elucidating processes and underlying mechanisms that mediate the behavior and performance of invertebrates in opposite ecosystem compartments. Less is known about genetic variation in plant traits such as defense as that may be driven by above- and belowground trophic interactions. For instance, although our understanding of genetic variation in aboveground plant traits and its effects on community-level interactions is well developed, little is known about the importance of aboveground–belowground interactions in driving this variation. Plant traits may have evolved in response to selection pressures from above- and below-ground interactions from antagonists and mutualists. Here, we discuss gaps in our understanding of genetic variation in plant-related traits as they relate to aboveground and belowground multitrophic interactions. When metabolic resources are limiting, multiple attacks by antagonists in both domains may lead to trade-offs. In nature, these trade-offs may critically depend upon their effects on plant fitness. Natural enemies of herbivores may also influence selection for different traits via top–down control. At larger scales these interactions may generate evolutionary “hotspots” where the expression of various plant traits is the result of strong reciprocal selection via direct and indirect interactions. The role of abiotic factors in driving genetic variation in plant traits is also discussed. PMID:24348484

van Geem, Moniek; Gols, Rieta; van Dam, Nicole M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Fortuna, Taiadjana; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

35

The importance of marginal habitats for the conservation of old trees in agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterioration of unfarmed habitats resulted in a considerable decrease of biological diversity in agricultural landscapes. The most important elements of cultural landscapes determining a high level of biological diversity are woodlots and the trees themselves. This paper presents the results of a study carried out in 2000–2001 on the distribution and number of champion (heritage) trees on the area of

Grzegorz Or?owski; Lech Nowak

2007-01-01

36

A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS). Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in a broad array of melon germplasm. Conclusions Even though relatively unsaturated genetic maps in a diverse set of melon market types have been published, the integrated saturated map presented herein should be considered the initial reference map for melon. Most of the mapped markers contained in the reference map are polymorphic in diverse collection of germplasm, and thus are potentially transferrable to a broad array of genetic experimentation (e.g., integration of physical and genetic maps, colinearity analysis, map-based gene cloning, epistasis dissection, and marker-assisted selection). PMID:21797998

2011-01-01

37

A candidate gene association study for nine economically important traits in Italian Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

We genotyped 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 25 candidate genes in about 800 Italian Holstein sires. Fifty-six (minor allele frequency >0.02) were used to evaluate their association with single traits: milk yield (MY), milk fat yield (FY), milk protein yield (PY), milk fat percentage (FP), milk protein percentage (PP), milk somatic cell count (MSCC); and complex indexes: longevity, fertility and productivity-functionality type (PFT), using deregressed proofs, after adjustment for familial relatedness. Thirty-two SNPs were significantly associated (proportion of false positives <0.05) with different traits: 16 with MSCC, 15 with PY, 14 with MY, 12 with PFT, eight with longevity, eight with FY, eight with PP, five with FP and two with fertility. In particular, a SNP in the promoter region of the PRLR gene was associated with eight of nine traits. DGAT1 polymorphisms were highly associated with FP and FY. Casein gene markers were associated with several traits, confirming the role of the casein gene cluster in affecting milk yield, milk quality and health traits. Other SNPs in genes located on chromosome 6 were associated with PY, PP, PFT, MY (PPARGC1A) and MSCC (KIT). This latter association may suggest a biological link between the degree of piebaldism in Holstein and immunological functions affecting somatic cell count and mastitis resistance. Other significant SNPs were in the ACACA, CRH, CXCR1, FASN, GH1, LEP, LGB (also known as PAEP), MFGE8, SRC, TG, THRSP and TPH1 genes. These results provide information that can complement QTL mapping and genome-wide association studies in Holstein. PMID:24796806

Fontanesi, L; Calò, D G; Galimberti, G; Negrini, R; Marino, R; Nardone, A; Ajmone-Marsan, P; Russo, V

2014-08-01

38

Importance of impacts scenarios for the adaptation of agriculture to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great possibility that the climate is already changing, and the most drastic way possible, increases the challenge of agricultural engineering, especially in environmentally vulnerable areas and in regions where agriculture has a high economic and social importance. Knowledge of potential impacts that may be caused by changes in water and thermal regimes in coming decades is increasingly strategic, as they allow the development of techniques to adapt agriculture to climate change and therefore minimizes the risk of undesirable impacts, for example, in food and nutritional security. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to describe a way to generate impacts scenarios caused by anomalies of precipitation and temperature in the definition of climate risk zoning of an agricultural crop very important in the tropics, such as the sugar cane, especially in central-southern Brazil, which is one of its main world producers. A key point here is the choice of the climate model to be used, considering that 23 different models were used in the fourth IPCC report published in 2007. The number and range of available models requires the definition of criteria for choosing the most suitable for the preparation of the impacts scenarios. One way proposed and used in this work is based on the definition of two groups of models according to 27 technical attributes of them. The clustering of 23 models in two groups, with a model representing each group (UKMO_HadCM3 and MIROC3.2_medres), assists the generation and comparison of impacts scenarios, making them more representative and useful. Another important aspect in the generation of impacts scenarios is the estimate of the relative importance of the anomalies of precipitation and temperature, which are the most commonly used. To assess the relative importance of the anomalies are generated scenarios considering an anomaly at a time and both together. The impacts scenarios for a high emission of greenhouse gases (A2), from 2010 to 2039, were more drastic for the sugar cane in central-southern Brazil using the UKMO_HadCM3 model than the MIROC3.2_medres model. These impacts scenarios, however, were less drastic than those generated for the arabica coffee in the same simulation conditions, reinforcing the increased vulnerability of this agricultural crop to climate change than the sugar cane. The inclusion of other restrictions on the climate risk zoning improves the quality of the generated scenarios and expands its usefulness for agricultural engineering.

Zullo, J.; Macedo, C.; Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Koga Vicente, A.

2012-12-01

39

An application of belief-importance theory with reference to trait emotional intelligence, mood, and somatic complaints.  

PubMed

This article describes the basic principles of belief-importance (belimp) theory and tests them in two empirical studies. Belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences and divergences between our belief that we can attain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. Four distinct quadrants can be identified within the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression and Apathy), broadly corresponding to the personality dimensions of trait emotional intelligence, conscientiousness, neuroticism and introversion. Study 1 (N=365) defines the four quadrants in relation to goals about financial security and shows that they score differently on trait emotional intelligence, mood and somatic complaints. Study 2 (N=230) defines the quadrants in relation to goals about appearance and, separately, in relation to goals about popularity, and replicates the findings of the first study. Strategies and requirements for testing belimp theory are presented, as are a number of theoretical and practical advantages that it can potentially offer. PMID:20602738

Petrides, K V

2011-04-01

40

75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...with the use of forced labor or child labor. The notice sets forth the...

2010-03-11

41

The importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture around the periphery of the Amazon rainforest.  

PubMed

The unsustainable use of the soil of the deforested area at the Amazonian border is one of the greatest threats to the rainforest, because it is the predominant cause of shifting cultivation in the region. The sustainable management of soils with low natural fertility is a major challenge for smallholder agriculture in the humid tropics. In the periphery of Brazilian Amazonia, agricultural practices that are recommended for the Brazilian savannah, such as saturating soils with soluble nutrients do not ensure the sustainability of agroecosystems. Improvements in the tilled topsoil cannot be maintained if deterioration of the porous soil structure is not prevented and nutrient losses in the root zone are not curtailed. The information gleaned from experiments affirms that in the management of humid tropical agrosystems, the processes resulting from the interaction between climatic factors and indicators of soil quality must be taken into consideration. It must be remembered that these interactions manifest themselves in ways that cannot be predicted from the paradigm established in the other region like the southeast of Brazil, which is based only on improving the chemical indicators of soil quality. The physical indicators play important role in the sustainable management of the agrosystems of the region and for these reasons must be considered. Therefore, alley cropping is a potential substitute for slash and burn agriculture in the humid tropics with both environmental and agronomic advantages, due to its ability to produce a large amount of residues on the soil surface and its effect on the increase of economic crop productivity in the long term. The article presents some promising patents on the importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture. PMID:23305424

Moura, Emanoel G; Sena, Virley G L; Corrêa, Mariana S; Aguiar, Alana das C F

2013-04-01

42

Brain vasopressin is an important regulator of maternal behavior independent of dams' trait anxiety  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) is arguably among the most potent regulators of social behaviors in mammals identified to date. However, only the related neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to promote maternal behavior. Here, we assess the role of AVP in maternal care, in particular in arched back nursing, pup retrieval, and pup contact by using complementary pharmacological and genetic approaches. Also, experiments were performed in rat dams with differences in trait anxiety, i.e., rats bred for either high (HAB) or low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior as well as nonselected (NAB) dams. Viral vector-mediated up-regulation of AVP V1a receptors (AVP-Rs) within the medial preoptic area of lactating NAB rats and chronic central AVP treatment of NAB and LAB dams improved, whereas local blockade of AVP-R expression by means of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or central AVP-R antagonism impaired, maternal care in NAB dams. Also, in HAB rats with a genetically determined elevated brain AVP activity, intrinsically high levels of maternal care were reversed by blockade of AVP-R actions. Treatment-induced impairment of AVP-mediated maternal behavior increased adult emotionality and impaired social interactions in male offspring of NAB dams. These findings provide direct evidence for an essential and highly potent role of brain AVP in promoting maternal behavior, which seems to be independent of the dam's trait anxiety. PMID:18955705

Bosch, Oliver J.; Neumann, Inga D.

2008-01-01

43

ESTIMATION OF HETEROSIS FOR SOME IMPORTANT TRAITS IN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the estimation of mid-parent and better-parent heterosis in Brassica juncea L. genotypes an experiment was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2004-05 and 2005-06 using 8 x 8 full diallel. All the 56 F1 hybrids and their parents were planted in a randomized complete block design with two replications. Out of 56 hybrids, negative mid-parent and better-parent heterosis

Naushad Ali Turi; S. Salim Shah; Sardar Ali

44

ATTED-II in 2014: Evaluation of Gene Coexpression in Agriculturally Important Plants  

PubMed Central

ATTED-II (http://atted.jp) is a database of coexpressed genes that was originally developed to identify functionally related genes in Arabidopsis and rice. Herein, we describe an updated version of ATTED-II, which expands this resource to include additional agriculturally important plants. To improve the quality of the coexpression data for Arabidopsis and rice, we included more gene expression data from microarray and RNA sequencing studies. The RNA sequencing-based coexpression data now cover 94% of the Arabidopsis protein-encoding genes, representing a substantial increase from previously available microarray-based coexpression data (76% coverage). We also generated coexpression data for four dicots (soybean, poplar, grape and alfalfa) and one monocot (maize). As both the quantity and quality of expression data for the non-model species are generally poorer than for the model species, we verified coexpression data associated with these new species using multiple methods. First, the overall performance of the coexpression data was evaluated using gene ontology annotations and the coincidence of a genomic feature. Secondly, the reliability of each guide gene was determined by comparing coexpressed gene lists between platforms. With the expanded and newly evaluated coexpression data, ATTED-II represents an important resource for identifying functionally related genes in agriculturally important plants. PMID:24334350

Obayashi, Takeshi; Okamura, Yasunobu; Ito, Satoshi; Tadaka, Shu; Aoki, Yuichi; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo

2014-01-01

45

76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...for Comment on Guidelines for Eliminating Child and Forced Labor in Agricultural Supply...States are produced by forced labor or child labor. In addition to accepting...

2011-04-12

46

QTL of three agronomically important traits and their interactions with environment in a European x Chinese rapeseed population.  

PubMed

A rapeseed population consisted of 282 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from a cross between a European vality "Sallux" and a Chinese inbred line "Gaoyou" was planted in 4 locations, 2 in Xi'an and Hangzhou, China, and 2 in Goettingen, Germany. Field experiments were carried out to obtain agronomically phenotypic data from above four environments. A linkage map including 125 SSR-markers was constructed and QTL analyses was performed using mixed model approach to detect QTLs showing additive (a), epistasis (aa) as well as their interactions with environments (QE) for three important agronomic traits: plant height, flowering time and maturity. The results demonstrated that each trait was controlled by several QTLs with additive effect and a number of QTLs with epistatic and QE interaction effects. Plant height was controlled by many QTLs (12 loci with a or combined ae, 5 loci with ae). Additive effects were predominant,totally explained 75% of the phenotypic variation and often combined with digenic epistasis. Of 12 main QTLs, 9 showed Gaoyou alleles decreasing plant height. Most of QTLs with QE effects showed ecologically favourable alleles in diverse regions. Five of 7 ae loci showed Gaoyou alleles in Hangzhou and all the ae loci but one had Sollux alleles in two locations of Germany increasing plant height. The digenic epistatic main effect accounted for one third of total additive main effects. In this study,we discovered 7 and 8 loci having significant additive main effects upon flowering time and maturity, respectively. Of them, early flowering and maturity alleles were respectively 6 and 5 derived from Chinese parent Gaoyou. All these QTLs together accounted for around 60% of the phenotypic variation for each trait. Significant ae interactions were detected for flowering time and maturity and parental alleles showed almost evenly dispersal at all environments. Three of 8 main QTLs for maturity were located at similar or identical positions as QTLs for flowering time, which confirmed the close correlation between these two traits. Two QTLs for plant height on linkage groups N14-1 and 19 were located at similar positions as QTL for flowering time and as already known QTLs for oil content. Selection for reduced plant height and early flowering might reduce oil content. Digenic epistatic QTLs both for flowering time and maturity were detected but much less important than QTLs with additive effects. PMID:16201242

Zhao, Jian-Yi; Becker, Heiko C; Ding, Hou-Dong; Zhang, Yao-Feng; Zhang, Dong-Qing; Ecke, Wolfgang

2005-09-01

47

Conservation Agriculture: What Is It and Why Is It Important for Future Sustainable Food Production?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. The paper first introduces the reasons for tillage in agriculture and discusses how this age-old agricultural practice is responsible for natural resource and soil degradation. The paper goes on to

Peter R. Hobbs

48

Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

2014-01-01

49

The relative importance of microbial nitrate reduction processes in an agriculturally-impacted estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities are increasing reactive nitrogen levels worldwide. Reactive nitrogen exists largely as nitrate and may be ecologically harmful to nutrient-limited systems. Nitrate loadings to the environment may be transformed by the microbial nitrate reduction processes of denitrification (converting nitrate to dinitrogen gas), or of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) (allowing reactive nitrogen to persist). The predominant nitrate reduction pathway largely determines the nitrogen removal capacity of the estuary. Therefore, identifying the relative importance of denitrification and DNRA in a given system provides insight into how much nitrate is transformed to dinitrogen and ammonium. Estuary sediments often have high nitrate reduction rates, but the environmental factors that determine which process prevails are underexplored. Nitrate availability and salinity are thought to influence which nitrate reduction process predominates. Elkhorn Slough is a small California estuary that experiences a range of nitrate concentrations (0 to over 2,000 ?M) and salinities (0 to 33.5) depending on the agricultural runoff introduced through the Old Salinas River and the tidal influence. This study investigates how the fluctuating nutrient and salinity conditions found over the diel cycle at the interface of the Old Salinas River and Elkhorn Slough influences the nitrogen transformation rates observed. Benthic denitrification and DNRA are evaluated using whole sediment core incubations amended with an overlying 15NO3- labeled pool. Rates of denitrification and DNRA in the sediment are calculated using the isotope pairing technique. The results of this research will help elucidate the relative importance of dissimilatory nitrate removal pathways in an agriculturally-impacted estuary and ultimately reveal whether anthropogenic nitrate inputs are preserved or removed from the system.

Cardarelli, E.; Francis, C. A.

2013-12-01

50

Important trait and application of time-frequency to traceable source link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking the traceable source link system of the time-frequency as the typical one from the National Intelligence Standard Research Institute (NIST) of the United States, the article provides its block-diagram and technical indicators reviews its aim and its task. The article also gives the important characters of the traceable source link of the time-frequency, which includes: having the high-accuracy cesium fountain primitive frequency benchmark (accuracy and steady degrees all reach to 1×E-15), keeping ahead in the aspect of time-frequency transform method technology research and development, then reaching the advanced level in the frequency measurement and the analytical system of long-range calibration (FMAS), so as in the quality of the high integration, automatization, intelligent, lightweight of top-level equipment in the traceabel source link system. At last, the article describes the importance and the key technical indicator achieved at present to the high-accuracy synchronous time-frequency system in the field of the astronomy measurement, the guided missile launch, navigation and orientation, etc.

Ni, Guang-Ren; Xu, Lu-Ping; He, Kang-Yuan

2006-03-01

51

Genome-wide analysis reveals selection for important traits in domestic horse breeds.  

PubMed

Intense selective pressures applied over short evolutionary time have resulted in homogeneity within, but substantial variation among, horse breeds. Utilizing this population structure, 744 individuals from 33 breeds, and a 54,000 SNP genotyping array, breed-specific targets of selection were identified using an F(ST)-based statistic calculated in 500-kb windows across the genome. A 5.5-Mb region of ECA18, in which the myostatin (MSTN) gene was centered, contained the highest signature of selection in both the Paint and Quarter Horse. Gene sequencing and histological analysis of gluteal muscle biopsies showed a promoter variant and intronic SNP of MSTN were each significantly associated with higher Type 2B and lower Type 1 muscle fiber proportions in the Quarter Horse, demonstrating a functional consequence of selection at this locus. Signatures of selection on ECA23 in all gaited breeds in the sample led to the identification of a shared, 186-kb haplotype including two doublesex related mab transcription factor genes (DMRT2 and 3). The recent identification of a DMRT3 mutation within this haplotype, which appears necessary for the ability to perform alternative gaits, provides further evidence for selection at this locus. Finally, putative loci for the determination of size were identified in the draft breeds and the Miniature horse on ECA11, as well as when signatures of selection surrounding candidate genes at other loci were examined. This work provides further evidence of the importance of MSTN in racing breeds, provides strong evidence for selection upon gait and size, and illustrates the potential for population-based techniques to find genomic regions driving important phenotypes in the modern horse. PMID:23349635

Petersen, Jessica L; Mickelson, James R; Rendahl, Aaron K; Valberg, Stephanie J; Andersson, Lisa S; Axelsson, Jeanette; Bailey, Ernie; Bannasch, Danika; Binns, Matthew M; Borges, Alexandre S; Brama, Pieter; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cappelli, Katia; Cothran, E Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Fox-Clipsham, Laura; Graves, Kathryn T; Guérin, Gérard; Haase, Bianca; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hemmann, Karin; Hill, Emmeline W; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lohi, Hannes; Lopes, Maria Susana; McGivney, Beatrice A; Mikko, Sofia; Orr, Nicholas; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Piercy, Richard J; Raekallio, Marja; Rieder, Stefan; Røed, Knut H; Swinburne, June; Tozaki, Teruaki; Vaudin, Mark; Wade, Claire M; McCue, Molly E

2013-01-01

52

How Important is Economic Geography for Rural Non-Agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

By paying particular attention to the local economic context, this paper analyzes rural non-agricultural employment and earnings in non-agricultural jobs. The empirical analysis is based on the Brazilian Demographic Census, allowing for disaggregated controls for the local economy. Education stands out as one of the key factor for shaping employment outcome and earnings potential. Failure to control for locational effects

Erik Jonasson; Steven M. Helfand

2009-01-01

53

Variability in size-selective mortality obscures the importance of larval traits to recruitment success in a temperate marine fish.  

PubMed

In fishes, the growth-mortality hypothesis has received broad acceptance as a driver of recruitment variability. Recruitment is likely to be lower in years when the risk of starvation and predation in the larval stage is greater, leading to higher mortality. Juvenile snapper, Pagrus auratus (Sparidae), experience high recruitment variation in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. Using a 5-year (2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011) data set of larval and juvenile snapper abundances and their daily growth histories, based on otolith microstructure, we found selective mortality acted on larval size at 5 days post-hatch in 4 low and average recruitment years. The highest recruitment year (2005) was characterised by no size-selective mortality. Larval growth of the initial larval population was related to recruitment, but larval growth of the juveniles was not. Selective mortality may have obscured the relationship between larval traits of the juveniles and recruitment as fast-growing and large larvae preferentially survived in lower recruitment years and fast growth was ubiquitous in high recruitment years. An index of daily mortality within and among 3 years (2007, 2008, 2010), where zooplankton were concurrently sampled with ichthyoplankton, was related to per capita availability of preferred larval prey, providing support for the match-mismatch hypothesis. In 2010, periods of low daily mortality resulted in no selective mortality. Thus both intra- and inter-annual variability in the magnitude and occurrence of selective mortality in species with complex life cycles can obscure relationships between larval traits and population replenishment, leading to underestimation of their importance in recruitment studies. PMID:24871134

Murphy, Hannah M; Warren-Myers, Fletcher W; Jenkins, Gregory P; Hamer, Paul A; Swearer, Stephen E

2014-08-01

54

Dietary effects on life history traits in a terrestrial isopod: the importance of evaluating maternal effects and trade-offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of life history aim to explain patterns in the evolution of reproductive investment, growth, and survival. Trade-offs between traits are a fundamental component of life history theory. In herbivorous arthropods life history traits are often responsive to variation in numerous environmental factors, especially diet quality. Using three artificial diets under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined changes in life history

Marco A. Lardies; Mauricio J. Carter; Francisco Bozinovic

2004-01-01

55

Bacterial traits, organism mass, and numerical abundance in the detrital soil food web of Dutch agricultural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares responses to environmental stress of the ecophysiological traits of organisms in the detrital soil food webs of grasslands in the Netherlands, using the relationship between average body mass M and numerical abundance N. The microbial biomass and biodiversity of belowground fauna were measured in 110 grasslands on sand, 85 of them farmed under organic, conventional and intensive

C. Mulder; J. E. Cohen; H. Setälä; J. Bloem; A. M. Breure

2005-01-01

56

Bacterial traits, organism mass, and numerical abundance in the detrital soil food web of Dutch agricultural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares responses to environmental stress of the ecophysiological traits of organisms in the detrital soil food webs of grasslands in the Netherlands, using the relationship between average body mass M and numerical abundance N. The microbial biomass and biodiversity of belowground fauna were measured in 110 grasslands on sand, 85 of them farmed under organic, conventional and intensive

Christian Mulder; Joel E. Cohen; Heikki Setala

57

Bacterial traits organism mass and numerical abundance in the detrital soil food web of Dutch agricultural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper compares,responses to environmental,stress of the ecophysiological traits of organisms in the detrital soil food webs of grasslands in the Netherlands, using the relationship between,average body mass M and numerical abundance,N. The microbial biomass,and biodiversity of belowground,fauna were measured,in 110 grasslands on sand, 85 of them farmed under organic, conventional and intensive management. Bacterial cell volume,and abundance,and electrophoretic

Christian Mulder; E Joel; Heikki Setala; Anton M. Breure

58

A reference consensus genetic map for molecular markers and economically important traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the earliest domesticated crops from the Near East. Today this legume is a key protein feed and food worldwide and continues to serve an important role in culinary traditions throughout Middle East, Mediterranean region, China and Ethiopia. Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the main faba bean breeding objectives are to improve yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and other agronomic traits. Genomic approaches aimed at enhancing faba bean breeding programs require high-quality genetic linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a reference consensus map in faba bean by joining the information from the most relevant maps reported so far in this crop. Results A combination of two approaches, increasing the number of anchor loci in diverse mapping populations and joining the corresponding genetic maps, was used to develop a reference consensus map in faba bean. The map was constructed from three main recombinant inbreed populations derived from four parental lines, incorporates 729 markers and is based on 69 common loci. It spans 4,602 cM with a range from 323 to 1041 loci in six main linkage groups or chromosomes, and an average marker density of one locus every 6 cM. Locus order is generally well maintained between the consensus map and the individual maps. Conclusion We have constructed a reliable and fairly dense consensus genetic linkage map that will serve as a basis for genomic approaches in faba bean research and breeding. The core map contains a larger number of markers than any previous individual map, covers existing gaps and achieves a wider coverage of the large faba bean genome as a whole. This tool can be used as a reference resource for studies in different genetic backgrounds, and provides a framework for transferring genetic information when using different marker technologies. Combined with syntenic approaches, the consensus map will increase marker density in selected genomic regions and will be useful for future faba bean molecular breeding applications. PMID:24377374

2013-01-01

59

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and quality traits of fossil cereal grains provide clues on sustainability at the beginnings of Mediterranean agriculture.  

PubMed

We present a novel approach to study the sustainability of ancient Mediterranean agriculture that combines the measurement of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C) and nitrogen isotope composition (delta(15)N) along with the assessment of quality traits in fossil cereal grains. Charred grains of naked wheat and barley were recovered in Los Castillejos, an archaeological site in SE Spain, with a continuous occupation of ca. 1500 years starting soon after the origin of agriculture (ca. 4000 BCE) in the region. Crop water status and yield were estimated from Delta(13)C and soil fertility and management practices were assessed from the delta(15)N and N content of grains. The original grain weight was inferred from grain dimensions and grain N content was assessed after correcting N concentration for the effect of carbonisation. Estimated water conditions (i.e. rainfall) during crop growth remained constant for the entire period. However, the grain size and grain yield decreased progressively during the first millennium after the onset of agriculture, regardless of the species, with only a slight recovery afterwards. Minimum delta(15)N values and grain N content were also recorded in the later periods of site occupation. Our results indicate a progressive loss of soil fertility, even when the amount of precipitation remained steady, thereby indicating the unsustainable nature of early agriculture at this site in the Western Mediterranean Basin. In addition, several findings suggest that barley and wheat were cultivated separately, the former being restricted to marginal areas, coinciding with an increased focus on wheat cultivation. PMID:18438779

Aguilera, Mònica; Araus, José Luis; Voltas, Jordi; Rodríguez-Ariza, Maria Oliva; Molina, Fernando; Rovira, Núria; Buxó, Ramon; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

2008-06-01

60

Sexual selection in the northern pintail ( Anas acuta ): the importance of female choice versus male-male competition in the evolution of sexually-selected traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally studied the relative importance of plumage, dominance status, and courtship behavior in determining male pairing success in the northern pintail Anas acuta and assessed whether these traits function in female choice, male-male competition or both. In an experiment (experiment IA) that eliminated the confounding effects of male-male competition and social courtship, females chose males with pure white breasts

Lisa G. Sorenson; Scott R. Derrickson

1994-01-01

61

A design-constraint trade-off underpins the diversity in ecologically important traits in species Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Bacterial species are internally diverse in genomic and multi-locus gene comparisons. The ecological causes of phenotypic and genotypic diversity within species are far less well understood. Here, we focus on the competitive fitness for growth on nutrients within Escherichia coli, an internally rich species. Competition experiments in nutrient-limited chemostats revealed that members of the ECOR collection exhibited a wide continuum of competitive abilities, with some fitter and some less fit than the lab strain MG1655. We observed an inverse relationship between competitiveness and the resistance of strains to detergent and antibiotic, consistent with the notion that membrane permeability and competitive fitness are linked by a trade-off between self-preservation and nutritional competence (SPANC); high permeability has a postulated cost in antibacterial sensitivity whereas a low permeability has a cost in nutrient affinity. Isolates moved along the markedly nonlinear trade-off curve by mutational adaptation; an ECOR strain sensitive to antibacterials and a good competitor was easily converted by mutation into a mutant with higher resistance but poorer competition in the presence of low antibiotic concentrations. Conversely, a resistant ECOR strain changed into a better competitor after a short period of selection under nutrient limitation. In both directions, mutations can affect porin proteins and outer membrane permeability, as indicated by protein analysis, gene sequencing and an independent assay of outer membrane permeability. The extensive, species-wide diversity of E. coli in ecologically important traits can thus be explained as an evolutionary consequence of a SPANC trade-off driven by antagonistic pleiotropy. PMID:23677010

Phan, Katherine; Ferenci, Thomas

2013-01-01

62

Developed Countries' Imposed Standards on Trade of Agricultural Imports from Developing Countries  

E-print Network

regulations that is dominated by developed countries. Their standards typically become the international norm and are diffused through such mechanisms as the World Trade Organization (WTO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex... in meats has grown steadily since the mid-1990s. Main products are meat cuts and edible offal, while trade in carcasses and live animals is significantly less. In 2001, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported the aggregate value of live...

Cabrera, Raul; Cochran, Matt; Dangelmayr, Lauren; D'Aguilar, Gavin; Lee, Jeongwoo; Speir, Ian; Weigand, Courtney

2007-01-01

63

The Importance of Public-Private Partnerships in Agricultural Insurance in China: based on Analysis for Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a healthy and sustainable policy-driven agricultural insurance scheme, a discussion of the importance of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) is timely in light of the challenges that governments are facing against the backdrop of increasing scale and frequency of major agro-related natural disasters across the globe. Most recently in 2008, it is reported a total of 137 natural catastrophes led

Li Xing; Kaiyu Lu

2010-01-01

64

The Importance of Selected Instructional Areas in the Present and Future Secondary Agricultural Education Curriculum as Perceived by Teachers, Principals, and Superintendents in Nebraska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1989-90 survey received 381 responses from Nebraska agriculture teachers, principals, and superintendents in which they rated agricultural economics, marketing, and computers as important current topics; leadership, personal development, agribusiness management, and natural resources were important future topics. Most had a cautious, low-risk…

Foster, Rick; And Others

1995-01-01

65

The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

Gwata, E.

2012-04-01

66

Important Information/Instructions for Student Participants regarding Commencement Exercise COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES  

E-print Network

Important Information/Instructions for Student Participants regarding Commencement Exercise -1 us in the North and South Reading Rooms of the Wilbur Cross Building from 3:00 pm-5:00 pm and enjoy graduating with a double major will sit with the primary degree department. #12;Important Information

Holsinger, Kent

67

Screening of plant growth-promoting traits in arsenic-resistant bacteria isolated from agricultural soil and their potential implication for arsenic bioremediation.  

PubMed

Twelve arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 10 to 30mM and 150 to 320mM for As(III) and As(V), respectively) were isolated from the agricultural soil of the Chianan Plain in southwestern Taiwan using enrichment techniques. Eight isolates capable of oxidizing As(III) (rate of oxidation from 0.029 to 0.059?Mh(-1) 10(-9) cell) and exhibiting As(III)-oxidase enzyme activity belong to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella and Comamonas genera, whereas four isolates that did not show As(III)-oxidizing activity belong to Geobacillus, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Enterobacter genera. Assessment of the parameters of plant growth promotion revealed that Pseudomonas sp. ASR1, ASR2 and ASR3, Geobacillus sp. ASR4, Bacillus sp. ASR5, Paenibacillus sp. ASR6, Enterobacter sp. ASR10 and Comamonas sp. ASR11, and ASR12 possessed some or all of the studied plant growth-promoting traits, including phosphate-solubilization, siderophore, IAA-like molecules and ACC deaminase production. In addition, the ability of As-resistant isolates to grow over wide ranges of pH and temperatures signify their potential application for sustainable bioremediation of As in the environment. PMID:24685527

Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Chou, Mon-Lin; Chen, Chien-Yen

2014-05-15

68

Importance of hedgerows as habitat corridors for forest plants in agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hedgerows have been proposed as habitat and conservation corridor for forest plant species, but their importance for the survival of these species is still not clear. The objective of our study was to examine the frequency of occurrence of forest species and total forest species richness in different parts of the hedgerows, and to relate these patterns of occurrence to

Stephan Wehling; Martin Diekmann

2009-01-01

69

Importance of Wetland Landscape Structure to Shorebirds Wintering in an Agricultural Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only recently has the influence of landscape structure on habitat use been a research focus in wetland systems. During non-breeding\\u000a periods when food can be locally limited, wetland spatial pattern across a landscape may be of great importance in determining\\u000a wetland use. We studied the influence of landscape structure on abundances of wintering Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)

Oriane W. Taft; Susan M. Haig

2006-01-01

70

THE IMPORTANCE OF DEFAULT RISK TO AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS: AN EXAMPLE FROM EL SALVADOR \\/ L'IMPORTANCE DU RISQUE DE NON-SOLVABILITE DANS LES BANQUES DE DEVELOPPEMENT: L'EXPERIENCE DU SALVADOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many agricultural development banks in developing countries the Agricultural Development Bank of EI Salvador suffers from low rates of return on assets. This paper uses a model of lending costs developed by Baker and Bottomly to identify the relative importance of the three components of lending cost. The risk premium for default is found to be the largest component,

Gerald C. Nelson; Ricardo Cruz-Letona

1991-01-01

71

Microsatellite Diversity of the Agriculturally Important Alpine Grass Poa alpina in Relation to Land Use and Natural Environment  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Alpine Meadow Grass Poa alpina is common in subalpine and alpine natural sites and agriculturally used land, where it is an important fodder grass. Natural factors and human land use are supposed to have been shaping its genetic diversity for hundreds of years. The species comprises sexually and vegetatively reproducing plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use, environmental factors and the mode of reproduction on the distribution of its microsatellite diversity within and among populations and to analyse whether its genetic diversity is correlated with plant species diversity in grassland parcels. Methods Genetic diversity of P. alpina was assessed with five microsatellite markers for 569 plants originating from 20 natural sites and from 54 grassland parcels of different cultural tradition, land use and altitude in the Swiss Alps. Due to polyploidy and frequent aneuploidy of the species, data analyses were based on the presence of microsatellite bands. Key Results A low but significant differentiation was found in microsatellite bands among natural sites and agriculturally used parcels, while their microsatellite band diversity within populations did not differ. An increased differentiation was found in microsatellite bands with increasing geographic distance among parcels, and a differentiation among grazed and mown parcels, and among sexually and vegetatively reproducing populations. Band richness of sampled plants per village was higher for villages where parcels represented more different land-use types. Within populations, microsatellite band diversity was higher in grazed than in mown parcels. Conclusions The diversity of human land use in the Alps was associated with genetic diversity of P. alpina. Therefore, the ongoing socio-economically motivated land-use changes, which reduce the number of different land-use types, will affect the genetic diversity of P. alpina negatively. PMID:17901059

Rudmann-Maurer, Katrin; Weyand, Anne; Fischer, Markus; Stocklin, Jurg

2007-01-01

72

Epistasis dominates the genetic architecture of Drosophila quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Epistasis-nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci-is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one epistatic interaction in the DGRP. Despite apparent additive effects at largely distinct loci in the two populations, the epistatic interactions perturbed common, biologically plausible, and highly connected genetic networks. Our analysis underscores the importance of epistasis as a principal factor that determines variation for quantitative traits and provides a means to uncover genetic networks affecting these traits. Knowledge of epistatic networks will contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of evolutionarily and clinically important traits and enhance predictive ability at an individualized level in medicine and agriculture. PMID:22949659

Huang, Wen; Richards, Stephen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Zhu, Dianhui; Anholt, Robert R H; Ayroles, Julien F; Duncan, Laura; Jordan, Katherine W; Lawrence, Faye; Magwire, Michael M; Warner, Crystal B; Blankenburg, Kerstin; Han, Yi; Javaid, Mehwish; Jayaseelan, Joy; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Yiqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Stone, Eric A; Gibbs, Richard A; Mackay, Trudy F C

2012-09-25

73

Epistasis dominates the genetic architecture of Drosophila quantitative traits  

PubMed Central

Epistasis—nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci—is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one epistatic interaction in the DGRP. Despite apparent additive effects at largely distinct loci in the two populations, the epistatic interactions perturbed common, biologically plausible, and highly connected genetic networks. Our analysis underscores the importance of epistasis as a principal factor that determines variation for quantitative traits and provides a means to uncover genetic networks affecting these traits. Knowledge of epistatic networks will contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of evolutionarily and clinically important traits and enhance predictive ability at an individualized level in medicine and agriculture. PMID:22949659

Huang, Wen; Richards, Stephen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Zhu, Dianhui; Anholt, Robert R. H.; Ayroles, Julien F.; Duncan, Laura; Jordan, Katherine W.; Lawrence, Faye; Magwire, Michael M.; Warner, Crystal B.; Blankenburg, Kerstin; Han, Yi; Javaid, Mehwish; Jayaseelan, Joy; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna; Ongeri, Fiona; Perales, Lora; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Yiqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Stone, Eric A.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

2012-01-01

74

Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle and an emerging infectious disease of humans. Cow- and badger-based control strategies have failed to eradicate bTB from the British cattle herd, and the incidence is rising by about 18%?per year. The annual cost to taxpayers in Britain is currently £74 million. Research has focused on the badger as a potential bTB reservoir, with little attention being paid to other mammals common on farmland. We have conducted a systematic survey of wild mammals (n=4393 individuals) present on dairy farms to explore the role of species other than badgers in the epidemiology of bTB. Cultures were prepared from 10?397 samples (primarily faeces, urine and tracheal aspirates). One of the 1307 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) live-sampled, and three of the 43 badgers (Meles meles), yielded positive isolates of Mycobacterium bovis. This is the first time the bacterium has been isolated from the bank vole. The strain type was the same as that found in cattle and badgers on the same farm. However, our work indicates that the mean prevalence of infectious individuals among common farmland wildlife is extremely low (the upper 95% confidence interval is ?2.0 for all of the abundant species). Mathematical models illustrate that it is highly unlikely the disease could be maintained at such low levels. Our results suggest that these animals are relatively unimportant as reservoirs of bTB, having insufficient within-species (or within-group) transmission to sustain the infection, though occasional spill-overs from cattle or badgers may occur. PMID:16543179

Mathews, Fiona; Macdonald, David W; Taylor, G. Michael; Gelling, Merryl; Norman, Rachel A; Honess, Paul E; Foster, Rebecca; Gower, Charlotte M; Varley, Susan; Harris, Audrey; Palmer, Simonette; Hewinson, Glyn; Webster, Joanne P

2005-01-01

75

Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Restani, M.; Davies, J. M.; Newton, W. E.

2008-01-01

76

Predicting the impacts of climate change on animal distributions: the importance of local adaptation and species' traits  

SciTech Connect

The geographic range limits of many species are strongly affected by climate and are expected to change under global warming. For species that are able to track changing climate over broad geographic areas, we expect to see shifts in species distributions toward the poles and away from the equator. A number of ecological and evolutionary factors, however, could restrict this shifting or redistribution under climate change. These factors include restricted habitat availability, restricted capacity for or barriers to movement, or reduced abundance of colonists due the perturbation effect of climate change. This research project examined the last of these constraints - that climate change could perturb local conditions to which populations are adapted, reducing the likelihood that a species will shift its distribution by diminishing the number of potential colonists. In the most extreme cases, species ranges could collapse over a broad geographic area with no poleward migration and an increased risk of species extinction. Changes in individual species ranges are the processes that drive larger phenomena such as changes in land cover, ecosystem type, and even changes in carbon cycling. For example, consider the poleward range shift and population outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle that has decimated millions of acres of Douglas fir trees in the western US and Canada. Standing dead trees cause forest fires and release vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere. The beetle likely shifted its range because it is not locally adapted across its range, and it appears to be limited by winter low temperatures that have steadily increased in the last decades. To understand range and abundance changes like the pine beetle, we must reveal the extent of adaptive variation across species ranges - and the physiological basis of that adaptation - to know if other species will change as readily as the pine beetle. Ecologists tend to assume that range shifts are the dominant response of species to climate change, but our experiments suggest that other processes may act in some species that reduce the likelihood of geographic range change. In the first part of our DOE grant (ending 2008) we argued that the process of local adaptation of populations within a species range, followed by climatic changes that occur too quickly for adaptive evolution, is an underappreciated mechanism by which climate change could affect biodiversity. When this process acts, species ranges may not shift readily toward the poles, slowing the rate of species and biome change. To test this claim, we performed an experiment comparing core and peripheral populations in a series of field observations, translocation experiments, and genetic analyses. The papers in Appendix A were generated from 2005-2008 funding. In the second part of the DOE grant (ending 2011) we studied which traits promote population differentiation and local adaptation by building genomic resources for our study species and using these resources to reveal differences in gene expression in peripheral and core populations. The papers in Appendix B were generated from 2008-2011 funding. This work was pursued with two butterfly species that have contrasting life history traits (body size and resource specialization) and occupy a common ecosystem and a latitudinal range. These species enabled us to test the following hypotheses using a single phylogenetic group.

HELLMANN, J. J.; LOBO, N. F.

2011-12-20

77

A high-density consensus map of barley linking DArT markers to SSR, RFLP and STS loci and agricultural traits  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular marker technologies are undergoing a transition from largely serial assays measuring DNA fragment sizes to hybridization-based technologies with high multiplexing levels. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) is a hybridization-based technology that is increasingly being adopted by barley researchers. There is a need to integrate the information generated by DArT with previous data produced with gel-based marker technologies. The goal of this study was to build a high-density consensus linkage map from the combined datasets of ten populations, most of which were simultaneously typed with DArT and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR), Restriction Enzyme Fragment Polymorphism (RFLP) and/or Sequence Tagged Site (STS) markers. Results The consensus map, built using a combination of JoinMap 3.0 software and several purpose-built perl scripts, comprised 2,935 loci (2,085 DArT, 850 other loci) and spanned 1,161 cM. It contained a total of 1,629 'bins' (unique loci), with an average inter-bin distance of 0.7 ± 1.0 cM (median = 0.3 cM). More than 98% of the map could be covered with a single DArT assay. The arrangement of loci was very similar to, and almost as optimal as, the arrangement of loci in component maps built for individual populations. The locus order of a synthetic map derived from merging the component maps without considering the segregation data was only slightly inferior. The distribution of loci along chromosomes indicated centromeric suppression of recombination in all chromosomes except 5H. DArT markers appeared to have a moderate tendency toward hypomethylated, gene-rich regions in distal chromosome areas. On the average, 14 ± 9 DArT loci were identified within 5 cM on either side of SSR, RFLP or STS loci previously identified as linked to agricultural traits. Conclusion Our barley consensus map provides a framework for transferring genetic information between different marker systems and for deploying DArT markers in molecular breeding schemes. The study also highlights the need for improved software for building consensus maps from high-density segregation data of multiple populations. PMID:16904008

Wenzl, Peter; Li, Haobing; Carling, Jason; Zhou, Meixue; Raman, Harsh; Paul, Edie; Hearnden, Phillippa; Maier, Christina; Xia, Ling; Caig, Vanessa; Ovesná, Jaroslava; Cakir, Mehmet; Poulsen, David; Wang, Junping; Raman, Rosy; Smith, Kevin P; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Chalmers, Ken J; Kleinhofs, Andris; Huttner, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej

2006-01-01

78

Agriculture INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

1 Agriculture INTRODUCTION 1.1 Although its share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has declined from over half at Independence to less than one-fifth currently, agriculture remains the predominant sector in it as the principal occupation. Agriculture still contributes significantly to export earnings and is an important

Sohoni, Milind

79

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jerome; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

80

The Importance of the Regional Species Pool, Ecological Species Traits and Local Habitat Conditions for the Colonization of Restored River Reaches by Fish  

PubMed Central

It is commonly assumed that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish depends on the regional species pools; however, quantifications of the relationship between the composition of the regional species pool and restoration outcome are lacking. We analyzed data from 18 German river restoration projects and adjacent river reaches constituting the regional species pools of the restored reaches. We found that the ability of statistical models to describe the fish assemblages established in the restored reaches was greater when these models were based on ‘biotic’ variables relating to the regional species pool and the ecological traits of species rather than on ‘abiotic’ variables relating to the hydromorphological habitat structure of the restored habitats and descriptors of the restoration projects. For species presence in restored reaches, ‘biotic’ variables explained 34% of variability, with the occurrence rate of a species in the regional species pool being the most important variable, while ’abiotic’ variables explained only the negligible amount of 2% of variability. For fish density in restored reaches, about twice the amount of variability was explained by ‘biotic’ (38%) compared to ‘abiotic’ (21%) variables, with species density in the regional species pool being most important. These results indicate that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish is largely determined by the assemblages in the surrounding species pool. Knowledge of species presence and abundance in the regional species pool can be used to estimate the likelihood of fish species becoming established in restored reaches. PMID:24404187

Stoll, Stefan; Kail, Jochem; Lorenz, Armin W.; Sundermann, Andrea; Haase, Peter

2014-01-01

81

The importance of rare species: a trait-based assessment of rare species contributions to functional diversity and possible ecosystem function in tall-grass prairies  

PubMed Central

The majority of species in ecosystems are rare, but the ecosystem consequences of losing rare species are poorly known. To understand how rare species may influence ecosystem functioning, this study quantifies the contribution of species based on their relative level of rarity to community functional diversity using a trait-based approach. Given that rarity can be defined in several different ways, we use four different definitions of rarity: abundance (mean and maximum), geographic range, and habitat specificity. We find that rarer species contribute to functional diversity when rarity is defined by maximum abundance, geographic range, and habitat specificity. However, rarer species are functionally redundant when rarity is defined by mean abundance. Furthermore, when using abundance-weighted analyses, we find that rare species typically contribute significantly less to functional diversity than common species due to their low abundances. These results suggest that rare species have the potential to play an important role in ecosystem functioning, either by offering novel contributions to functional diversity or via functional redundancy depending on how rare species are defined. Yet, these contributions are likely to be greatest if the abundance of rare species increases due to environmental change. We argue that given the paucity of data on rare species, understanding the contribution of rare species to community functional diversity is an important first step to understanding the potential role of rare species in ecosystem functioning. PMID:24455165

Jain, Meha; Flynn, Dan FB; Prager, Case M; Hart, Georgia M; DeVan, Caroline M; Ahrestani, Farshid S; Palmer, Matthew I; Bunker, Daniel E; Knops, Johannes MH; Jouseau, Claire F; Naeem, Shahid

2014-01-01

82

Importance of spatially structured environmental heterogeneity in controlling microbial community composition at small spatial scales in an agricultural field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial heterogeneity is an inherent feature of soils that has significant functional implications, particularly when the activities of soil microbial communities are considered. The main goal of this study was to determine the physical–chemical properties best correlated with changes in microbial community composition in an agricultural ecosystem, as part of an effort to better understand what environmental factors control the

Rima B. Franklin; Aaron L. Mills

2009-01-01

83

Trait stacking via targeted genome editing.  

PubMed

Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits. The current paradigm of randomly integrating and sorting independently segregating transgenes creates severe downstream breeding challenges. A versatile, generally applicable solution is hereby provided: the combination of high-efficiency targeted genome editing driven by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) with modular 'trait landing pads' (TLPs) that allow 'mix-and-match', on-demand transgene integration and trait stacking in crop plants. We illustrate the utility of nuclease-driven TLP technology by applying it to the stacking of herbicide resistance traits. We first integrated into the maize genome an herbicide resistance gene, pat, flanked with a TLP (ZFN target sites and sequences homologous to incoming DNA) using WHISKERS™-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures. We established a method for targeted transgene integration based on microparticle bombardment of immature embryos and used it to deliver a second trait precisely into the TLP via cotransformation with a donor DNA containing a second herbicide resistance gene, aad1, flanked by sequences homologous to the integrated TLP along with a corresponding ZFN expression construct. Remarkably, up to 5% of the embryo-derived transgenic events integrated the aad1 transgene precisely at the TLP, that is, directly adjacent to the pat transgene. Importantly and consistent with the juxtaposition achieved via nuclease-driven TLP technology, both herbicide resistance traits cosegregated in subsequent generations, thereby demonstrating linkage of the two independently transformed transgenes. Because ZFN-mediated targeted transgene integration is becoming applicable across an increasing number of crop species, this work exemplifies a simple, facile and rapid approach to trait stacking. PMID:23953646

Ainley, William M; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Welter, Mary E; Murray, Michael G; Zeitler, Bryan; Amora, Rainier; Corbin, David R; Miles, Rebecca R; Arnold, Nicole L; Strange, Tonya L; Simpson, Matthew A; Cao, Zehui; Carroll, Carley; Pawelczak, Katherine S; Blue, Ryan; West, Kim; Rowland, Lynn M; Perkins, Douglas; Samuel, Pon; Dewes, Cristie M; Shen, Liu; Sriram, Shreedharan; Evans, Steven L; Rebar, Edward J; Zhang, Lei; Gregory, Phillip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Webb, Steven R; Petolino, Joseph F

2013-12-01

84

Scale-dependent importance of environment, land use and landscape structure for species richness and composition of SE Norwegian modern agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of variation in vascular plant species richness and species composition in modern agricultural landscapes is important\\u000a for appropriate biodiversity management. From species lists for 2201 land-type patches in 16 1-km2 plots five data sets differing in sampling-unit size from patch to plot were prepared. Variation in each data set was partitioned\\u000a into seven sources: patch geometry, patch type, geographic

Rune H. Økland; Harald Bratli; Wenche E. Dramstad; Anette Edvardsen; Gunnar Engan; Wendy Fjellstad; Einar Heegaard; Oddvar Pedersen; Heidi Solstad

2006-01-01

85

Soil and geography are more important determinants of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities than management practices in Swiss agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous AMF varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous AMF communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real-time PCR with taxon-specific markers for six widespread AMF species. To identify the key determinants of AMF community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well-supported dependencies between abundances of certain AMF taxa and soil properties such as pH, soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the AMF community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected AMF communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the AMF communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied. PMID:24611988

Jansa, Jan; Erb, Angela; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Smilauer, Petr; Egli, Simon

2014-04-01

86

Sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is important for different reasons in different parts of the world and sustainability is defined in many ways. Sustainability may be a necessary but is never a sufficient condition. Agriculturally, it must involve the responsible use of resources, mainly in order to produce the food needed, but this is quite different from ensuring that people are adequately fed. This

Colin Spedding

1998-01-01

87

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the land

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

88

Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. Methods Research was carried out in 5 villages of each of three Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks (AECD-Blocks) of the Forest Margin Benchmark Area (FMBA). In each village, a semi-structured survey was used; male and female groups of farmers were interviewed separately. Results Z. variegatus is present throughout the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, where it is ranked as the third most economically important insect pest of agriculture. In the farmers' opinion, Z. variegatus is a polyphagous insect with little impact on young perennial crops. The length of the pre-farming fallow does not affect Z. variegatus pest pressure in the following crops. The increased impact of the grasshopper observed today in the fields, compared to what existed 10 years ago is as a result of deforestation and increase in surface of herbaceous fallow. The damage caused by Z. variegatus is higher in fields adjacent to C. odorata and herbaceous fallows than in those adjacent to forests and shrubby fallows. The fight against this grasshopper is often done through physical methods carried out by hand, for human consumption. The farmers highlight low usage of the chemical methods and a total absence of biological and ecological methods. Conclusion Farmers' perception have contributed to understanding the status of Z. variegatus in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. The results are in general similar to those obtained in other countries. PMID:16573815

Kekeunou, Sevilor; Weise, Stephan; Messi, Jean; Tamo, Manuel

2006-01-01

89

Haplotyping a Quantitative Trait with a High-Density Map in Experimental Crosses  

E-print Network

by the new model will facilitate the molecular cloning of a QTL. Our model is founded on population genetic of America Background. The ultimate goal of genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is the positional cloning of genes involved in any agriculturally or medically important phenotype. However, only

Cheverud, James M.

90

The Influence of Genetic Drift and Selection on Quantitative Traits in a Plant Pathogenic Fungus  

PubMed Central

Genetic drift and selection are ubiquitous evolutionary forces acting to shape genetic variation in populations. While their relative importance has been well studied in plants and animals, less is known about their relative importance in fungal pathogens. Because agro-ecosystems are more homogeneous environments than natural ecosystems, stabilizing selection may play a stronger role than genetic drift or diversifying selection in shaping genetic variation among populations of fungal pathogens in agro-ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a QST/FST analysis using agricultural populations of the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune. Population divergence for eight quantitative traits (QST) was compared with divergence at eight neutral microsatellite loci (FST) for 126 pathogen strains originating from nine globally distributed field populations to infer the effects of genetic drift and types of selection acting on each trait. Our analyses indicated that five of the eight traits had QST values significantly lower than FST, consistent with stabilizing selection, whereas one trait, growth under heat stress (22°C), showed evidence of diversifying selection and local adaptation (QST>FST). Estimates of heritability were high for all traits (means ranging between 0.55–0.84), and average heritability across traits was negatively correlated with microsatellite gene diversity. Some trait pairs were genetically correlated and there was significant evidence for a trade-off between spore size and spore number, and between melanization and growth under benign temperature. Our findings indicate that many ecologically and agriculturally important traits are under stabilizing selection in R. commune and that high within-population genetic variation is maintained for these traits. PMID:25383967

Stefansson, Tryggvi S.; McDonald, Bruce A.; Willi, Yvonne

2014-01-01

91

Men's Attitudes Toward Race and Gender Equity: The Importance of Masculinity Ideology, Gender-Related Traits, and Reference Group Identity Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined masculinity ideology, gender-related traits, and male identity as they relate to men's attitudes toward racial diversity, women's equality, and sexual harassment. Un- dergraduate men completed measures of these constructs. The findings suggest that men who endorse a traditional masculinity ideology and\\/or who are dependent on a male reference group for their gender role self-concept are also likely

Jay C. Wade; Chris Brittan-Powell

2001-01-01

92

Landscape heterogeneity as an ecological filter of species traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape heterogeneity is a major driver of biodiversity in agricultural areas and represents an important parameter in conservation strategies. However, most landscape ecology studies measure gamma diversity of a single habitat type, despite the assessment of multiple habitats at a landscape scale being more appropriate. This study aimed to determine the effects of landscape composition and spatial configuration on life-history trait distribution in carabid beetle and herbaceous plant communities. Here, we assessed the gamma diversity of carabid beetles and plants by sampling three dominant habitats (woody habitats, grasslands and crops) across 20 landscapes in western France. RLQ and Fourth Corner three-table analyses were used to assess the association of dispersal, phenology, reproduction and trophic level traits with landscape characteristics. Landscape composition and configuration were both significant in explaining functional composition. Carabid beetles and plants showed similar response regarding phenology, i.e. open landscapes were associated with earlier breeding species. Carabid beetle dispersal traits exhibited the strongest relationship with landscape structure; for instance, large and apterous species preferentially inhabited woody landscapes, whereas small and macropterous species preferentially inhabited open landscapes. Heavy seeded plant species dominated in intensified agricultural landscapes (high % crops), possibly due to the removal of weeds (which are usually lightweight seeded species). The results of this study emphasise the roles of landscape composition and configuration as ecological filters and the importance of preserving a range of landscape types to maintain functional biodiversity at regional scales.

Duflot, Rémi; Georges, Romain; Ernoult, Aude; Aviron, Stéphanie; Burel, Françoise

2014-04-01

93

IncP-1? Plasmids are Important Vectors of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Agricultural Systems: Diversification Driven by Class 1 Integron Gene Cassettes  

PubMed Central

The role of broad-host range IncP-1? plasmids in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in agricultural systems has not yet been investigated. These plasmids were detected in total DNA from all of 16 manure samples and in arable soil based on a novel 5?-nuclease assay for real-time PCR. A correlation between IncP-1? plasmid abundance and antibiotic usage was revealed. In a soil microcosm experiment the abundance of IncP-1? plasmids was significantly increased even 127?days after application of manure containing the antibiotic compound sulfadiazine, compared to soil receiving only manure, only sulfadiazine, or water. Fifty IncP-1? plasmids that were captured in E. coli CV601gfp from bacterial communities of manure and arable soil were characterized by PCR and hybridization. All plasmids carried class 1 integrons with highly varying sizes of the gene cassette region and the sul1 gene. Three IncP-1? plasmids captured from soil bacteria and one from manure were completely sequenced. The backbones were nearly identical to that of the previously described IncP-1? plasmid pKJK5. The plasmids differed mainly in the composition of a Tn402-like transposon carrying a class 1 integron with varying gene cassettes, IS1326, and in three of the plasmids the tetracycline resistance transposon Tn1721 with various truncations. Diverse Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were revealed as hosts of one of the IncP-1? plasmids in soil microcosms. Our data suggest that IncP-1? plasmids are important vectors for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance in agricultural systems. PMID:22279444

Heuer, Holger; Binh, Chu T. T.; Jechalke, Sven; Kopmann, Christoph; Zimmerling, Ute; Krogerrecklenfort, Ellen; Ledger, Thomas; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Top, Eva; Smalla, Kornelia

2011-01-01

94

Variations with modest effects have an important role in the genetic background of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related traits.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to explore the role of variations with modest effects (previously identified by a large-scale meta-analysis in European populations) in the genetic background of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetes-related traits in a Japanese population. We enrolled 2632 Japanese subjects with T2D and 2050 non-diabetic subjects. We analyzed nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs340874 (PROX1), rs4607517 (GCK), rs2191349 (DGKB-TMEM195), rs7034200 (GLIS3), rs10885122 (ADRA2A), rs174550 (FADS1), rs11605924 (CRY2), rs10830963 (MTNR1B) and rs35767 (IGF1). rs340874 (PROX1) and rs174550 (FADS1) were significantly associated with T2D (P=0.0078, OR: 1.12; and P=0.0071, OR: 1.12, respectively). Subjects with more risk alleles related to nine SNPs had an increased risk of T2D (P=0.0017), as well as a higher fasting plasma glucose level (P=0.018), higher HbA(1c) level (P=0.013) and lower HOMA-? (P=0.033) compared with subjects who had fewer risk alleles. We identified a significant association of a SNP of FADS1 and a SNP near PROX1 with T2D in a Japanese population. The present findings suggest that inclusion of SNPs with a tendency to increase the disease risk captured more of the genetic background of T2D than that revealed by only assessing significant SNPs. PMID:22992776

Fujita, Hayato; Hara, Kazuo; Shojima, Nobuhiro; Horikoshi, Momoko; Iwata, Minoru; Hirota, Yushi; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Seino, Susumu; Kadowaki, Takashi

2012-12-01

95

Peace Corps | Agriculture Agriculture Volunteers  

E-print Network

Peace Corps | Agriculture Agriculture Volunteers Agriculture is the primary economic activity Volunteers contribute sustain- able solutions to a community's agricultural issues and help preserve natural resources. Programs and Sample Projects Agriculture and Forestry Extension · Collaborate with farmers

Kaminsky, Werner

96

Phylogenetic analyses of RPB1 and RPB2 support a middle Cretaceous origin for a clade comprising all agriculturally and medically important fusaria.  

PubMed

Fusarium (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is one of the most economically important and systematically challenging groups of mycotoxigenic phytopathogens and emergent human pathogens. We conducted maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) analyses on partial DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest subunit (RPB2) nucleotide sequences of 93 fusaria to infer the first comprehensive and well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis of evolutionary relationships within the genus and 20 of its near relatives. Our analyses revealed that Cylindrocarpon formed a basal monophyletic sister to a 'terminal Fusarium clade' (TFC) comprising 20 strongly supported species complexes and nine monotypic lineages, which we provisionally recognize as Fusarium (hypothesis F1). The basal-most divergences within the TFC were only significantly supported by Bayesian posterior probabilities (B-PP 0.99-1). An internode of the remaining TFC, however, was strongly supported by MP and ML bootstrapping and B-PP (hypothesis F2). Analysis of seven Fusarium genome sequences and Southern analysis of fusaria elucidated the distribution of genes required for synthesis of 26 families of secondary metabolites within the phylogenetic framework. Diversification time estimates date the origin of the TFC to the middle Cretaceous 91.3 million years ago. We also dated the origin of several agriculturally important secondary metabolites as well as the lineage responsible for Fusarium head blight of cereals. Dating of several plant-associated species complexes suggests their evolution may have been driven by angiosperm diversification during the Miocene. Our results support two competing hypotheses for the circumscription of Fusarium and provide a framework for future comparative phylogenetic and genomic analyses of this agronomically and medically important genus. PMID:23357352

O'Donnell, Kerry; Rooney, Alejandro P; Proctor, Robert H; Brown, Daren W; McCormick, Susan P; Ward, Todd J; Frandsen, Rasmus J N; Lysøe, Erik; Rehner, Stephen A; Aoki, Takayuki; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Kang, Seogchan; Geiser, David M

2013-03-01

97

Irrigated agriculture is an important risk factor for West Nile virus disease in the hyperendemic Larimer-Boulder-Weld area of north central Colorado.  

PubMed

This study focused on two West Nile virus (WNV) disease outbreak years, 2003 and 2007, and included a three-county area (Larimer, Boulder, and Weld) in North Central Colorado that is hyperendemic for WNV disease. We used epidemiological data for reported WNV disease cases at the census tract scale to: (1) elucidate whether WNV disease incidence differs between census tracts classified as having high versus lower human population density (based on a threshold value of 580 persons/km2) and (2) determine associations between WNV disease incidence and habitat types suitable as development sites for the larval stage of Culex mosquito vectors. WNV disease incidence was significantly elevated in census tracts with lower human population density, compared with those with high density of human population, in both 2003 (median per census tract of 223 and 143 cases per 100,000 population, respectively) and 2007 (median per census tract of 46 and 19 cases per 100,000 population). This is most likely related, in large part, to greater percentages of coverage in less densely populated census tracts by habitats suitable as development sites for Culex larvae (open water, developed open space, pasture/hay, cultivated crops, woody wetlands, and emergent herbaceous wetlands) and, especially, for the subset of these habitats made up by irrigated agricultural land (pasture/hay and cultivated crops) that presumably serve as major producers of the locally most important vector of WNV to humans: Culex tarsalis. A series of analyses produced significant positive associations between greater coverage of or shorter distance to irrigated agricultural land and elevated WNV disease incidence. As an exercise to produce data with potential to inform spatial implementation schemes for prevention and control measures within the study area, we mapped the spatial patterns, by census tract, of WNV disease incidence in 2003 and 2007 as well as the locations of census tracts that had either low (<25th percentile) or high (>75th percentile) WNV disease incidence in both outbreak years (relative to the incidence for each year). This revealed substantial changes from 2003 to 2007 in the spatial pattern for census tracts within the study area with high WNV disease incidence and suggests a dynamic and evolving scenario of WNV transmission to humans that needs to be taken into account for prevention and control measures to stay current and represent the most effective use of available resources. PMID:20939393

Eisen, Lars; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Pape, W John; Winters, Anna M; Cheronis, Nicholas

2010-09-01

98

AGRICULTURAL SPRING 2005  

E-print Network

to insert the genes into economically important agricultural crop plants. The history of Michigan State University, the pioneer land-grant institution, is closely tied to the history of agriculture and naturalMICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION SPRING 2005 VOL. 23 NO. 1 Plant Breeding and Genetics

99

Fostering Agriculture Environmental Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is important to any society, but its activity often has negative impact in the environment. We propose a game, implemented in the on-line virtual world platform Open-Simulator, that gives the opportunity to players to experience the potential effects of agriculture in the environment. The game was built with the purpose of promoting the awareness of agriculture issues, such as,

Rui Prada; Daniel Dias; Helmut Prendinger; Arturo Nakasone

2010-01-01

100

Biotechnology and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

Kenney, Martin

101

Geographic Variation in the Acoustic Traits of Greater Horseshoe Bats: Testing the Importance of Drift and Ecological Selection in Evolutionary Processes  

PubMed Central

Patterns of intraspecific geographic variation of signaling systems provide insight into the microevolutionary processes driving phenotypic divergence. The acoustic calls of bats are sensitive to diverse evolutionary forces, but processes that shape call variation are largely unexplored. In China, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum displays a diverse call frequency and inhabits a heterogeneous landscape, presenting an excellent opportunity for this kind of research. We quantified geographic variation in resting frequency (RF) of echolocation calls, estimated genetic structure and phylogeny of R. ferrumequinum populations, and combined this with climatic factors to test three hypotheses to explain acoustic variation: genetic drift, cultural drift, and local adaptation. Our results demonstrated significant regional divergence in frequency and phylogeny among the bat populations in China's northeast (NE), central-east (CE) and southwest (SW) regions. The CE region had higher frequencies than the NE and SW regions. Drivers of RF divergence were estimated in the entire range and just the CE/NE region (since these two regions form a clade). In both cases, RF divergence was not correlated with mtDNA or nDNA genetic distance, but was significantly correlated with geographic distance and mean annual temperature, indicating cultural drift and ecological selection pressures are likely important in shaping RF divergence among different regions in China. PMID:23950926

Sun, Keping; Luo, Li; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Wei, Xuewen; Jin, Longru; Jiang, Tinglei; Li, Guohong; Feng, Jiang

2013-01-01

102

Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease (SCD) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Sickle Cell Trait People who inherit one sickle cell gene ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

103

Introduction Agriculture/Agricultural Science  

E-print Network

38 Introduction Guide Entrance Life Career Inquiries Agriculture/Agricultural Science Mission and goal of the Graduate School of Agricultural Science The mission of agricultural science organization which aims to realize this agricultural ideal, the Graduate School of Agricultural Science's basic

Banbara, Mutsunori

104

Ministry of Agriculture  

E-print Network

As Iran addresses the goal of self-sufficiency in the production of food and fiber products, sustainable agriculture is gaining interest within Extension and the Ministry of Agriculture as a means of achieving this goal. Dependence on pesticide and insecticide imports, compounded by a growing population, limited arable land, and high soil erosion, has led to the call for more appropriate agricultural practice. Little is known, however, about extension agents = perceptions regarding sustainable agriculture practices. A random sample of extension agents in the Khorasan Province was surveyed by mail. Agents perceived sustainable agriculture to mean lower chemical inputs, natural resource and environmental protection, effective and efficient agricultural production system, and reliance on organic matter. Agents also indicated a preference for sustainable agricultural practices. Younger and less experienced agents tended to prefer sustainable over traditional agriculture practices. Agents also indicated the need for more local research. Implications for these results are given and recommendations made.

Mohammad Chizari; Associate Professor; James R. Lindner; Extension Associate

105

Agriculture and Water Availability Issues: An Overview Prepared for 2012 Florida Agricultural Commodity & Policy Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Agriculture and Water Availability Issues: An Overview Prepared for 2012 Florida Agricultural Commodity & Policy Outlook Conference Tatiana Borisova Acknowledgement: I would like to acknowledge, University of Florida. Water and Agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is very important for both state

Hill, Jeffrey E.

106

ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING IN IRISH AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is an important industry for Ireland and within agriculture the dairy sector plays a prominent role. The Irish Food and Agriculture Authority (Teagasc) promotes the competitiveness and innovativeness of agriculture through its advisory extension services: one such extension service is monitor farms (MFs). However, little is known about knowledge and learning processes in relation to MFs and the wider

Rosita O. Kouwenaar

107

Agricultural Operations  

MedlinePLUS

... any worker in the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (GP2AFH) industry. These numbers are the best available ... queried by industry for Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting (GP2AFH), Accessed June 2013. 2 Agricultural Safety . Centers ...

108

Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program. Advanced hulled and hulless lines (329 total) were screened using 3,072 SNPs as a part of the US. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP). Phenotypic data collected over 4 years for agronomic and food quality traits and resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal], net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres), and spot blotch [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur] were analyzed with SNP genotypic data in a GWAS to determine marker-trait associations. Significant SNPs associated with previously described quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes were identified for heading date on chromosome 3H, test weight on 2H, yield on 7H, grain protein on 5H, polyphenol oxidase activity on 2H and resistance to leaf rust on 2H and 3H, powdery mildew on 1H, 2H and 4H, net blotch on 5H, and spot blotch on 7H. Novel QTL also were identified for agronomic, quality, and disease resistance traits. These SNP-trait associations provide the opportunity to directly select for QTL contributing to multiple traits in breeding programs. PMID:23139143

Berger, Gregory L; Liu, Shuyu; Hall, Marla D; Brooks, Wynse S; Chao, Shiaoman; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Baik, B-K; Steffenson, Brian; Griffey, Carl A

2013-03-01

109

Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits

Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

1992-01-01

110

Pleiotropic Patterns of Quantitative Trait Loci for 70 Murine Skeletal Traits  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies of a skeletal trait or a few related skeletal components are becoming commonplace, but as yet there has been no investigation of pleiotropic patterns throughout the skeleton. We present a comprehensive survey of pleiotropic patterns affecting mouse skeletal morphology in an intercross of LG/J and SM/J inbred strains (N = 1040), using QTL analysis on 70 skeletal traits. We identify 798 single-trait QTL, coalescing to 105 loci that affect on average 7–8 traits each. The number of traits affected per locus ranges from only 1 trait to 30 traits. Individual traits average 11 QTL each, ranging from 4 to 20. Skeletal traits are affected by many, small-effect loci. Significant additive genotypic values average 0.23 standard deviation (SD) units. Fifty percent of loci show codominance with heterozygotes having intermediate phenotypic values. When dominance does occur, the LG/J allele tends to be dominant to the SM/J allele (30% vs. 8%). Over- and underdominance are relatively rare (12%). Approximately one-fifth of QTL are sex specific, including many for pelvic traits. Evaluating the pleiotropic relationships of skeletal traits is important in understanding the role of genetic variation in the growth and development of the skeleton. PMID:18430949

Kenney-Hunt, Jane P.; Wang, Bing; Norgard, Elizabeth A.; Fawcett, Gloria; Falk, Doug; Pletscher, L. Susan; Jarvis, Joseph P.; Roseman, Charles; Wolf, Jason; Cheverud, James M.

2008-01-01

111

U.S. Agricultural Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This briefing room from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (reviewed in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) provides general information and data on US agricultural trade with all of the countries and regions of the world. Data publications such as the US Agricultural Trade (FATUS), Agricultural Outlook, and US Agricultural Trade Balance are gathered here on a monthly or yearly basis with export and import values by commodity and country. Users will also find FATUS reference tools as well as special ERS articles covering topics such as agricultural export figures by state and the US agricultural trade's effect on the overall economy.

1999-01-01

112

Evolution of the teachings of chemistry in the new degrees of School of Agricultural Engineering and its importance in the acquisition of competencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The academic year 2012-13 is the third year of implementation of the Bologna process in ETSI Agricultural for the subjects Chemistry I and Chemistry II in the new four Degrees: Graduate in Engineering and Agricultural Science, Food Engineering Graduate, Graduate in Engineering Environmental and Biotechnology graduate. We have implemented new interactive methodologies in the teaching-learning process based on the use of the virtual platform of the UPM, and teaching support materials and new laboratory practice developing has. It has also launched new continuous assessment systems that promote active student participation. A comparative study of academic achievements by students of the new grades in the subjects of chemistry during the last three academic years was performed to correlating the results obtained, the success rate and the drop out, and compare with the level of prior knowledge to those entering students. Possible solutions to try and fix these results in future courses are proposed Finally, the general competencies that contribute this course, how they are acquired and how they should be evaluated correctly are indicated. Acknowledgments: Innovation educative projects Nº IE02054-11/12 UPM. 2012

Arce, Augusto; Tarquis, Ana M.; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Requejo, Maria Isabel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

2014-05-01

113

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

114

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

115

The contribution of agricultural economics to development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural economics is an applied discipline with a broadly based application to development theory. The importance of agriculture in economic development has led to pressing demands on the role which agricultural economists are required to play. At all stages, a major part of the planning and implementation input is contributed by agricultural economists. The development of agricultural economics was therefore

T. I. Fenyes; C. J. van Rooyen

1985-01-01

116

Scientists Studying Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... trait, which can cause sudden death in young athletes. In people with sickle cell trait, intense physical ... found to have sickle cell trait. "More student-athletes with sickle cell trait have died than those ...

117

Generality of Leaf Trait Relationships: A Test across Six Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here we address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity,

Peter B. Reich; David S. Ellsworth; Michael B. Walters; James M. Vose; Charles Gresham; John C. Volin; William D. Bowman

1999-01-01

118

Pennsylvania Agricultural  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Agricultural Environmental Requirements AmIInCompliance? Agricultural activities, and $2 Billion from crops. There are more than 63,000 farms, and 98% are family owned. Agriculture has a huge impact on PA's economy, with a history rich in conservation and environmental stewardship. Before

Guiltinan, Mark

119

Agricultural Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

120

The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no- till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage, considered synonymous in this paper, play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice

Peter R. Hobbs; Ken Sayre; Raj Gupta

2008-01-01

121

Agriculture 21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To "promote food security and sustainable development into the next millennium," the Agriculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has recently created this new resource. An impressive and clearly arranged interface leads researchers to more than one gigabyte of data from various UN Agriculture Department sites. A detailed list of available software, databases, publication lists, and email conferences is provided via the Guides section of the site. Other services include Magazine, a monthly publication on international agricultural issues, and Gateway, a link pointing to UN Department of Agriculture divisional homepages.

122

The contrasting roles of growth traits and architectural traits in diversity maintenance in clonal plant communities.  

PubMed

Plant communities often exhibit high diversity, even though pairwise experiments usually result in competitive hierarchies that should result in competitive exclusion. Such experiments, however, do not typically allow expression of spatial traits, despite theoretical studies showing the potential importance of spatial mechanisms of diversity maintenance. Here we ask whether, in a clonal plant model system, spatial trait variation is more likely than growth trait variation to maintain diversity. We used a field-calibrated, spatially explicit model to simulate communities comprising sets of four simulated species differing in only one of a suite of architectural or growth traits at a time, examining their dynamics and long-term diversity. To compare trait manipulation effects across traits measured in different units, we scaled traits to have identical effects on initial productivity. We found that in communities of species differing only in an architectural trait, all species usually persist, whereas communities of species differing only in a growth trait experienced rapid competitive exclusion. To examine the roles of equalizing and stabilizing mechanisms in maintaining diversity, we conducted reciprocal invasion experiments for species pairs differing only in single traits. The results suggest that stabilizing mechanisms cannot account for the observed long-term co-occurrence. Strong positive correlations between diversity and similarity both in monoculture carrying capacity and reciprocal invasion ability suggesting equalizing mechanisms may instead be responsible. PMID:23149395

Wildová, Radka; Goldberg, Deborah E; Herben, Tomáš

2012-12-01

123

Agricultural scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are agricultural scientists, and what do they actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about agricultural science as a career. Here the job of an agricultural scientist is defined and described. In the rest of the resource, students can examine two specialized job titles associated with agricultural scientists: organic specialist/assistant professor and senior research associate. Students can read narratives that are a few paragraphs in length about an organic specialist and a senior research associate. In addition, the senior research associate poses a challenge to students that calls on them to investigate corn's resistance to insects. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

124

Functional traits of graminoids in semi-arid steppes: a test of grazing histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Understanding variability in ecosystem response to grazing is essential for improving management. Recent efforts have focused on the role of plant functional traits but do not iden- tify factors influencing trait development. As traits are legacies of historical selective pressures, they may indicate the importance of a plant community's evolutionary history of grazing. 2. We compared grazing-resistance traits

PETER B. ADLER; DANIEL G. MILCHUNAS; WILLIAM K. LAUENROTH; OSVALDO E. SALA; INGRID C. BURKE

2004-01-01

125

Inheritance of pod and seed traits in chickpea.  

PubMed

A 4 x 4 full-diallel cross was studied to estimate the gene effects and genetic parameters of pod and seed traits. According to Hayman's method, additive genetic variance was significant for pod length and seed length and width, also, both additive and dominance genetic variance were significant for pod thickness and width. As additive gene effects were significant for pod and seed traits, it is suggesting the selection of this traits early generations. Partial dominance was important for traits. The high narrow sense heritability of pod and seed traits was between 86 and 97%. PMID:21387919

Bicer, B Tuba; Sakar, Dogan

2010-09-01

126

Engendering agricultural research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper makes a case for gender equity in the agricultural R&D system. It reviews the evidence on exactly why it is important to pay attention to gender issues in agriculture and why it is necessary to recognize women?s distinct food-security roles throughout the entire value chain?for both food and nonfood crops, marketed and nonmarketed commodities. The authors examine whether

Ruth Meinzen-Dick; Agnes Quisumbing; Julia Behrman; Patricia Biermayr-Jenzano; Vicki Wilde; Marco Noordeloos; Catherine Ragasa; Nienke Beintema

2010-01-01

127

VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

128

Agricultural Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief summary of the state of agricultural research in the United States. The agricultural research system is finely attuned to the immediate needs of its clients, as evident in its response to the attack of corn blight in 1970. (JR)

Waggoner, Paul E.

1973-01-01

129

Generations of Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity students track and record the passage of colored pom-pom âtraitsâ through three generations of gingerbread people. Students observe that traits are passed from parents to offspring, and that siblings each receive a different combination of traits from their parents.

2006-01-01

130

Generalized Latent Trait Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

2000-01-01

131

Selection and evolution of causally covarying traits.  

PubMed

When traits cause variation in fitness, the distribution of phenotype, weighted by fitness, necessarily changes. The degree to which traits cause fitness variation is therefore of central importance to evolutionary biology. Multivariate selection gradients are the main quantity used to describe components of trait-fitness covariation, but they quantify the direct effects of traits on (relative) fitness, which are not necessarily the total effects of traits on fitness. Despite considerable use in evolutionary ecology, path analytic characterizations of the total effects of traits on fitness have not been formally incorporated into quantitative genetic theory. By formally defining "extended" selection gradients, which are the total effects of traits on fitness, as opposed to the existing definition of selection gradients, a more intuitive scheme for characterizing selection is obtained. Extended selection gradients are distinct quantities, differing from the standard definition of selection gradients not only in the statistical means by which they may be assessed and the assumptions required for their estimation from observational data, but also in their fundamental biological meaning. Like direct selection gradients, extended selection gradients can be combined with genetic inference of multivariate phenotypic variation to provide quantitative prediction of microevolutionary trajectories. PMID:24611949

Morrissey, Michael B

2014-06-01

132

Genetic architecture of novel traits in the hopi sunflower.  

PubMed

Following domestication, crop lineages typically undergo diversification either to adapt to disparate habitats or to fill novel agricultural roles. This process has produced the numerous varieties found in modern-day crop germplasm collections. Here, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying unique traits in the Hopi sunflower, a primitive, Native American domesticate. These traits included a variety of achene (i.e., single-seeded fruit) characters as well as the extremely late flowering time of the Hopi sunflower. Composite interval mapping identified 42 QTLs underlying the 12 traits of interest. Although these QTLs were found on 10 of the 17 sunflower linkage groups, strong genetic correlations were evidenced by the clustering of QTLs across traits in certain genomic regions. The number of QTLs per trait ranged from 2 to 6, and the average QTL explained 14.7% of the variance (range: 2.5-46.9%). The apparent contribution of epistasis was minor, as has previously been observed for domestication-related traits. Unlike typical domestication-related traits in sunflower, the traits under consideration here exhibited a relatively simple genetic basis, with 2 QTL clusters being largely responsible for the unique characteristics of the Hopi sunflower. Based on the rarity of these traits in domesticated sunflower, it would appear that they evolved within the Hopi lineage following domestication. The simple genetic architecture of these traits may be a by-product of genetic constraints imposed by the genetically complex nature of domestication-related traits in sunflower, with the large number of domestication-related QTLs limiting the fraction of the genome that is available for subsequent diversification. PMID:20696668

Wills, David M; Abdel-Haleem, Hussein; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

2010-01-01

133

Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

134

Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

Crank, Ron

135

Agricultural Microbiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

Brill, Winston J.

1981-01-01

136

Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.  

PubMed Central

Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science. The triploid MIM FORTRAN program for mapping endosperm traits is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:15342535

Kao, Chen-Hung

2004-01-01

137

Cold-Tolerant Agriculturally Important Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cold-tolerant microorganisms are endowed with the ability to grow at 0°C, though their growth optima lie in the mesophilic\\u000a range. To overcome the stress induced by low temperatures they have evolved a variety of adaptive responses at the cellular\\u000a and molecular levels. Multiple cell membrane modifications ensure that solute transport is not impaired at low temperatures.\\u000a Other mechanisms include the

Pankaj Kumar Mishra; Piyush Joshi; Shekhar Bisht; Jaideep Bisht; Govindan Selvakumar

138

Organic agriculture cannot replace conventional agriculture  

E-print Network

Organic agriculture cannot replace conventional agriculture Sina Adl , David Iron and Theodore Agriculture | Pathogen Dispersal Introduction Organic farming [1, 2] is gaining in popularity in Eu- rope, because or- ganic agriculture avoids using environmentally harmful chem- icals that pollute soil

Kolokolnikov, Theodore

139

77 FR 51867 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1205...Imports AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is amending...imported cotton and the cotton content of imported products to...

2012-08-28

140

International Agriculture College of Agriculture  

E-print Network

, like European corn borer, Russian wheat aphid, and Hessian fly. The blight that devastated our vast to learn about technological innovations in agriculture early on, and to be among the early adopters

141

Agricultural Market Access Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in early 1999, the Agricultural Market Access Database (AMAD) is a joint effort by Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, EU Commission - Agriculture Directorate-General, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, The World Bank, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and United States Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service. AMAD was created in order to "provide a common data set on tariffs, TRQs and imports, as well as the tools for researchers, policymakers, and others to use in analyzing levels of tariff protection in agriculture among WTO Members." Users begin by selecting a region on a map; from there they can narrow their search by country, and the database will generate a data set on that country. AMAD also provides a 30-page User's Guide which helps explain the purpose and uses of the database, as well as helping to decipher some of the information contained in AMAD. At present, not all countries worldwide can be accessed through this database. AMAD, however, promises to continue to expand.

142

Agricultural Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the Agricultural Outlook publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Agricultural Outlook, the monthly short and long term commodity outlook publication, long available via the USDA Economics and Statistics system at Cornell University's Mann Library, (discussed in the September 15, 1995 issue of the Scout Report) is now available with graphics and charts. Selected archives of the publication are available and articles can be downloaded individually. About the only drawback to this terrific addition to ERS's electronic holdings is that the separate statistical section that accompanies AO (over 20 pages of tables), is not available at this time. This is particularly unfortunate, as these tables are one of the most valuable aspects of the publication.

1996-01-01

143

Agricultural Outlook, January-February 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Agricultural Economy: Commodity Overviews; Commodity Spotlight: From Grains to Meat: New Focus for Russian Ag Imports; World Agriculture and Trade: Australian Farmers Watch World Prices; Dairy Policies Are Limiting U.S.-Canada Trade; Argentina a...

D. A. Shields, M. Reardon, N. Blisard, R. Schnepf

1997-01-01

144

Integrating microbial traits into ecosystem models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diverse bacterial and fungal communities control the decomposition of complex organic material, thereby driving important ecosystem functions such as CO2 production and nutrient regeneration. Predicting these functions is challenging because microbial communities and the chemical substrates they metabolize are complex. To address this challenge, I developed a theoretical model of microbial decomposition based on microbial traits involved in substrate degradation, uptake, and growth. The model represents a large number of microbial taxa, each of which possesses a set of trait values drawn at random from empirically-based distributions. The model also includes a large number of chemical substrates that can be degraded by microbial extracellular enzymes and taken up by membrane transporters. Microbes with different trait values for enzyme production and uptake capacity compete for chemical substrates and vary in abundance during model runs. I used the model to predict rates of plant litter decomposition and determine which traits were associated with high microbial abundance under different environmental conditions. The model predicted that optimal traits depend on the level of enzyme production in the whole community, which determines resource availability and decomposition rates. There is also evidence for facilitation and competition among microbial taxa that co-occur on decomposing litter, suggesting that microbial interactions may play a role in determining ecosystem function. These interactions vary with community investment in extracellular enzyme production and the magnitude of tradeoffs affecting biochemical traits such as enzyme kinetic parameters. The model accounted for 69% of the variation in decomposition rates and up to 26% of the variation in enzyme activities in an empirical dataset with 15 types of Hawaiian plant litter. By explicitly representing microbial diversity, trait-based models can predict ecosystem processes based on functional trait distributions in a community. Traits influencing microbial enzyme production are some of the key controls on litter decomposition rates, but other traits may control different ecosystem processes and microbial responses to environmental change. Identifying these traits and their inter-relationships is an essential step for improving ecosystem models.

Allison, S. D.

2012-12-01

145

Building Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable agriculture requires the balancing of a variety of goals. This means that often no single goal can be maximized, since such optimization might totally preclude the achievement of one of the other goals of sustainability. For this reason, transdisciplinary teams containing advocates of the various goals, with ability to negotiate priorities, provide an important input into research and extension

Cornelia Butler Flora

1992-01-01

146

Personality Traits of White-Collar Telecommuters: Perceptions of Graduating Business Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business students (n=730) identified traits they perceived important for successful telecommuters. Independence, honesty, dependability, resourcefulness, initiative, and ethical behavior were most highly rated. Reinforcement of these traits to prepare for telecommuting was recommended. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

Lomo-David, Ewuuk; Griffin, Frank

2001-01-01

147

Managing the Tropical Agriculture Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial production of beef, soybeans, cotton, and biofuels is expanding into the tropical latitudes of South America and may soon reach tropical Africa in the most important agricultural transition since the Green Revolution. This shift is driven by the shortage of land suitable for expansion of cultivation and grazing in the temperate zone, increased global demands for agricultural commodities, the

Daniel C. Nepstad; Claudia M. Stickler

2008-01-01

148

Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change  

PubMed Central

Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority.

Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

2012-01-01

149

7 CFR 999.300 - Regulation governing importation of raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulation governing importation of raisins... Section 999.300 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...AGRICULTURE SPECIALTY CROPS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 999.300 Regulation...

2010-01-01

150

Association mapping for morphological and physiological traits in Populus simonii  

PubMed Central

Background To optimize marker-assisted selection programs, knowledge of the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits is very important for breeders. Generally, most phenotypes, e.g. morphological and physiological traits, are quantitatively inherited, and thus detection of the genes underlying variation for these traits is difficult. Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium has recently become a powerful approach to map genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) in plants. Results In this study, association analysis using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was performed to detect the marker loci linked to 13 morphological traits and 10 physiological traits in a wild P. simonii population that consisted of 528 individuals sampled from 16 sites along the Yellow River in China. Based on a model controlling for both population structure (Q) and relative kinship (K), three SSR markers (GCPM_616-1 in 31.2 Mb on LG I, GCPM_4055-2 in 5.7 Mb on LG XV, and GCPM_3142 of unknown location) were identified for seven traits. GCPM_616-1 was associated with five morphological traits (R2 = 5.14-10.09%), whereas GCPM_3142 (15.03%) and GCPM_4055-2 (13.26%) were associated with one morphological trait and one physiological trait, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that this wild population is suitable for association mapping and the identified markers will be suitable for marker-assisted selection breeding or detection of target genes or QTL in the near future. PMID:25079290

2014-01-01

151

Unraveling the Complex Trait of Crop Yield With Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica napus  

PubMed Central

Yield is the most important and complex trait for the genetic improvement of crops. Although much research into the genetic basis of yield and yield-associated traits has been reported, in each such experiment the genetic architecture and determinants of yield have remained ambiguous. One of the most intractable problems is the interaction between genes and the environment. We identified 85 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed yield along with 785 QTL for eight yield-associated traits, from 10 natural environments and two related populations of rapeseed. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed 401 consensus QTL, of which 82.5% were clustered and integrated into 111 pleiotropic unique QTL by meta-analysis, 47 of which were relevant for seed yield. The complexity of the genetic architecture of yield was demonstrated, illustrating the pleiotropy, synthesis, variability, and plasticity of yield QTL. The idea of estimating indicator QTL for yield QTL and identifying potential candidate genes for yield provides an advance in methodology for complex traits. PMID:19414564

Shi, Jiaqin; Li, Ruiyuan; Qiu, Dan; Jiang, Congcong; Long, Yan; Morgan, Colin; Bancroft, Ian; Zhao, Jianyi; Meng, Jinling

2009-01-01

152

Developing Curriculum Markers for Agricultural Extension Education in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sufficient changes have occurred in both the agricultural and educational sectors of South Africa to warrant a careful scrutiny of the agricultural education offerings in South Africa. Agricultural extension is identified as an important part of the intended transformation of the agricultural sector. Further, agricultural extension is essentially…

Worth, S. H.

2008-01-01

153

First impressions: gait cues drive reliable trait judgements.  

PubMed

Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances. Across three studies, we assessed the reliability of trait judgements of point-light walkers and identified motion-related visual cues driving observers' judgements. The findings confirm that observers make reliable, albeit inaccurate, trait judgements, and these were linked to a small number of motion components derived from a Principal Component Analysis of the motion data. Parametric manipulation of the motion components linearly affected trait ratings, providing strong evidence that the visual cues captured by these components drive observers' trait judgements. Subsequent analyses suggest that reliability of trait ratings was driven by impressions of emotion, attractiveness and masculinity. PMID:22717166

Thoresen, John C; Vuong, Quoc C; Atkinson, Anthony P

2012-09-01

154

Origins of Metastatic Traits  

PubMed Central

How cancer cells acquire the competence to colonize distant organs remains a central question in cancer biology. Tumors can release large numbers of cancer cells into the circulation, but only a small proportion of these cells survive on infiltrating distant organs and even fewer form clinically meaningful metastases. During the past decade, many predictive gene signatures and specific mediators of metastasis have been identified, yet how cancer cells acquire these traits has remained obscure. Recent experimental work and high-resolution sequencing of human tissues have started to reveal the molecular and tumor evolutionary principles that underlie the emergence of metastatic traits. PMID:24135279

Vanharanta, Sakari; Massagué, Joan

2014-01-01

155

A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create a "DNA recipe" for a dog to learn how variations in DNA lead to the inheritance of different traits. Strips of paper (representing DNA) are randomly selected and used to assemble a DNA molecule. Students read the DNA recipe to create a drawing of their pet and compare it with others in the class to note similarities and differences. Through this activity, students will learn that every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits and heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

2006-01-01

156

Aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia: role of state versus trait factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to elucidate the relative importance of state vs. trait factors in determining aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia. Thirty-one aggressive schizophrenia patients in rehabilitation wards were compared with 31 matched non-aggressive patients with respect to their psychopathology, phenomenologies of hallucinations and delusions, neuroleptic motor side effects, history of aggression and personality traits. Significant differences between the

Peter Cheung; Isaac Schweitzer; Kathleen Crowley; Virginia Tuckwell

1997-01-01

157

Environmental heterogeneity and spatiotemporal variability in plant defense traits  

E-print Network

452 Environmental heterogeneity and spatiotemporal variability in plant defense traits Alyssa S of plant defenses. If environmental heterogeneity is an important mechanism influ- encing plant defense in our system. This study highlights the context dependence of plant defense trait levels, which may

Cronin, James T.

158

Trait anxiety and impoverished prefrontal control of attention  

E-print Network

Trait anxiety and impoverished prefrontal control of attention Sonia J Bishop1­3 Many neurocognitive models of anxiety emphasize the importance of a hyper-responsive threat-detection system centered to threat. Here we investigated whether trait anxiety is associated with a much broader dysregulation

Bishop, Sonia

159

Multifunctional crop trait ontology for breeders' data: field book, annotation, data discovery and semantic enrichment of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Agricultural crop databases maintained in gene banks of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) are valuable sources of information for breeders. These databases provide comparative phenotypic and genotypic information that can help elucidate functional aspects of plant and agricultural biology. To facilitate data sharing within and between these databases and the retrieval of information, the crop ontology (CO) database was designed to provide controlled vocabulary sets for several economically important plant species. Methodology Existing public ontologies and equivalent catalogues of concepts covering the range of crop science information and descriptors for crops and crop-related traits were collected from breeders, physiologists, agronomists, and researchers in the CGIAR consortium. For each crop, relationships between terms were identified and crop-specific trait ontologies were constructed following the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) format standard using the OBO-Edit tool. All terms within an ontology were assigned a globally unique CO term identifier. Principal results The CO currently comprises crop-specific traits for chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), potato (Solanum tuberosum), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum spp.) and wheat (Triticum spp.). Several plant-structure and anatomy-related terms for banana (Musa spp.), wheat and maize are also included. In addition, multi-crop passport terms are included as controlled vocabularies for sharing information on germplasm. Two web-based online resources were built to make these COs available to the scientific community: the ‘CO Lookup Service’ for browsing the CO; and the ‘Crops Terminizer’, an ontology text mark-up tool. Conclusions The controlled vocabularies of the CO are being used to curate several CGIAR centres' agronomic databases. The use of ontology terms to describe agronomic phenotypes and the accurate mapping of these descriptions into databases will be important steps in comparative phenotypic and genotypic studies across species and gene-discovery experiments. PMID:22476066

Shrestha, Rosemary; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Mauleon, Ramil; Senger, Martin; Davenport, Guy F.; Hancock, David; Morrison, Norman; Bruskiewich, Richard; McLaren, Graham

2010-01-01

160

Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits  

SciTech Connect

Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

1993-11-01

161

Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren. PMID:21199490

Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

2011-03-01

162

Sustainability, agriculture, and agricultural policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of achieving sustainable development in the context of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and other policy suggestions is examined. Sustainable development is defined as a commitment to conserve necessary biological, cultural, and aesthetic capital for future generations. This is not a costless process. Constraints are required on current economic activity, entailing sacrifices by the current

J Bowers

1995-01-01

163

76 FR 32088 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1205...Imports AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is proposing...raw cotton and the cotton content of imported...

2011-06-03

164

76 FR 54078 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1205...Imports AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is amending...raw cotton and the cotton content of imported...

2011-08-31

165

77 FR 34855 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (2011 Amendments)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1205...Amendments) AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is proposing...imported cotton and the cotton content of imported products to...

2012-06-12

166

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

167

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

168

Factors affecting agricultural journalists and agricultural communicators  

E-print Network

Agricultural journalism and agricultural communication have been researched in depth, identifying job skills, job satisfaction, educational backgrounds, and curriculum issues. However, a study examining the spheres (subjective, institutional...

Chenault, Edith Anne

2009-05-15

169

Accuracy of multi-trait genomic selection using different methods  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic selection has become a very important tool in animal genetics and is rapidly emerging in plant genetics. It holds the promise to be particularly beneficial to select for traits that are difficult or expensive to measure, such as traits that are measured in one environment and selected for in another environment. The objective of this paper was to develop three models that would permit multi-trait genomic selection by combining scarcely recorded traits with genetically correlated indicator traits, and to compare their performance to single-trait models, using simulated datasets. Methods Three (SNP) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism based models were used. Model G and BC?0 assumed that contributed (co)variances of all SNP are equal. Model BSSVS sampled SNP effects from a distribution with large (or small) effects to model SNP that are (or not) associated with a quantitative trait locus. For reasons of comparison, model A including pedigree but not SNP information was fitted as well. Results In terms of accuracies for animals without phenotypes, the models generally ranked as follows: BSSVS > BC?0 > G > > A. Using multi-trait SNP-based models, the accuracy for juvenile animals without any phenotypes increased up to 0.10. For animals with phenotypes on an indicator trait only, accuracy increased up to 0.03 and 0.14, for genetic correlations with the evaluated trait of 0.25 and 0.75, respectively. Conclusions When the indicator trait had a genetic correlation lower than 0.5 with the trait of interest in our simulated data, the accuracy was higher if genotypes rather than phenotypes were obtained for the indicator trait. However, when genetic correlations were higher than 0.5, using an indicator trait led to higher accuracies for selection candidates. For different combinations of traits, the level of genetic correlation below which genotyping selection candidates is more effective than obtaining phenotypes for an indicator trait, needs to be derived considering at least the heritabilities and the numbers of animals recorded for the traits involved. PMID:21729282

2011-01-01

170

Evaluating the fitness of human lysozyme transgenic dairy goats: growth and reproductive traits.  

PubMed

While there are many reports in the literature describing the attributes of specific applications of transgenic animals for agriculture, there are relatively few studies focusing on the fitness of the transgenic animals themselves. This work was designed to gather information on genetically modified food animals to determine if the presence of a transgene can impact general animal production traits. More specifically, we used a line of transgenic dairy goats expressing human lysozyme in their mammary gland to evaluate the reproductive fitness and growth and development of these animals compared to their non-transgenic counterparts and the impact of consuming a transgenic food product, lysozyme-containing milk. In males, none of the parameters of semen quality, including semen volume and concentration, total sperm per ejaculate, sperm morphology, viability and motility, were significantly different between transgenic bucks and non-transgenic full-sib controls. Likewise, transgenic females of this line did not significantly differ in the reproductive traits of gestation length and litter size compared to their non-transgenic counterparts. To evaluate growth, transgenic and non-transgenic kid goats received colostrum and milk from either transgenic or non-transgenic does from birth until weaning. Neither the presence of the transgene nor the consumption of milk from transgenic animals significantly affected birth weight, weaning weight, overall gain and post-wean gain. These results indicate that the analyzed reproductive and growth traits were not regularly or substantially impacted by the presence or expression of the transgene. The evaluation of these general parameters is an important aspect of defining the safety of applying transgenic technology to animal agriculture. PMID:20135222

Jackson, Kathryn A; Berg, Jolene M; Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

2010-12-01

171

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

2008-01-01

172

Ethics and Agricultural Education: Determining Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a three-round Delphi (n=197, 109, 75), secondary teachers (61.5% in agriculture) identified important ethical issues regarding land and water use: conversion of agricultural land for urban development, water rights control, and public land used for agriculture. Nearly all addressed ethical issues in class. (SK)

Foster, Billye

2000-01-01

173

WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION - TURKISH CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the case in most developing and developed countries in the world, women play a vital role in rural areas of Turkey in contributing to agricultural activities in addition to household duties and non-agricultural activities such as industry and services. Women's role in the daily economic life in Turkey has always been very important especially in the agricultural

B. Özekici; O. Tekinel; S. Kiymaz

174

Explaining Africa agricultural and food trade deficits  

E-print Network

Why has Africa become a net food importer? Explaining Africa agricultural and food trade deficits agricultural and food trade deficits Manitra A. Rakotoarisoa Massimo Iafrate Marianna Paschali trade and markets division food and agriculture organization of the united nations Rome, 2011 #12;The designations

175

Reciprocal insights into adaptation from agricultural and evolutionary studies in tomato  

PubMed Central

Although traditionally separated by different aims and methodologies, research on agricultural and evolutionary problems shares a common goal of understanding the mechanisms underlying functionally important traits. As such, research in both fields offers potential complementary and reciprocal insights. Here, we discuss adaptive stress responses (specifically to water stress) as an example of potentially fruitful research reciprocity, where agricultural research has clearly produced advances that could benefit evolutionary studies, while evolutionary studies offer approaches and insights underexplored in crop studies. We focus on research on Solanum species that include the domesticated tomato and its wild relatives. Integrated approaches to understanding ecological adaptation are particularly attractive in tomato and its wild relatives: many presumptively adaptive phenotypic differences characterize wild species, and the physiological and mechanistic basis of many relevant traits and environmental responses has already been examined in the context of cultivated tomato and some wild species. We highlight four specific instances where these reciprocal insights can be combined to better address questions that are fundamental both to agriculture and evolution.

Moyle, Leonie C; Muir, Christopher D

2010-01-01

176

Trait emotional intelligence and the dark triad traits of personality.  

PubMed

This study presents the first behavioral genetic investigation of the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) and the Dark Triad traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. In line with trait EI theory, the construct correlated positively with narcissism, but negatively with the other two traits. Generally, the correlations were consistent across the 4 factors and 15 facets of the construct. Cholesky decomposition analysis revealed that the phenotypic associations were primarily due to correlated genetic factors and secondarily due to correlated nonshared environmental factors, with shared environmental factors being nonsignificant in all cases. Results are discussed from the perspective of trait EI theory with particular reference to the issue of adaptive value. PMID:21314254

Petrides, K V; Vernon, Philip A; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Veselka, Livia

2011-02-01

177

Identifying the Future Needs for Long-Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics  

PubMed Central

Agricultural animal research has been immensely successful over the past century in developing technology and methodologies that have dramatically enhanced production efficiency of the beef, dairy, swine, poultry, sheep, and aquaculture industries. In the past two decades, molecular biology has changed the face of agricultural animal research, primarily in the arena of genomics and the relatively new offshoot areas of functional genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and metagenomics. Publication of genetic and physical genome maps in the past 15 years has given rise to the possibility of being able finally to understand the molecular nature of the genetic component of phenotypic variation. While quantitative geneticists have been remarkably successful in improving production traits, genomic technology holds potential for being able to lead to more accurate and rapid animal improvement, especially for phenotypic traits that are difficult to measure. Recently, the agricultural research community has been able to capitalize on the infrastructure built by the human genome project by sequencing two of the major livestock genomes (Gallus domesticus and Bos Taurus). The 2005 calendar year is truly unprecedented in the history of agricultural animal research since draft genome sequences were completed for chickens and cattle. In addition, sequencing the swine and equine genome was initiated in early 2006. We now have in place a powerful toolbox for understanding the genetic variation underlying economically important and complex phenotypes. Over the past few years, new challenges have emerged for animal agriculture. Enhancements in production efficiency have not come without some negative side effects on animal well-being and longevity in production environments, including losses in reproductive efficiency, increased stress susceptibility, increased animal waste issues, and increased susceptibility to animal metabolic and infectious diseases. When considered in concert with societal concerns in the areas of natural resource conservation and protection, animal welfare, and food safety, it is clear that publicly supported agricultural research must be focused on enhancing the functionality and well-being of livestock and poultry in environmentally neutral production systems in the future. Realizing the great potential for animal genomics to address these and other issues, a workshop was convened by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington, DC in September of 2004. The workshop was entitled “Charting the Road Map for Long Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics”. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the workshop and the resulting recommendations. The need for a cohesive, comprehensive long-term plan for all of USDA's research efforts in animal genomics was evident at the workshop, requiring further integration of the efforts of the USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) and the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to achieve the greatest return on investment. PMID:17384737

Green, R. D.; Qureshi, M. A.; Long, J. A.; Burfening, P.J.; Hamernik, D.L.

2007-01-01

178

Identifying the future needs for long-term USDA efforts in agricultural animal genomics.  

PubMed

Agricultural animal research has been immensely successful over the past century in developing technology and methodologies that have dramatically enhanced production efficiency of the beef, dairy, swine, poultry, sheep, and aquaculture industries. In the past two decades, molecular biology has changed the face of agricultural animal research, primarily in the arena of genomics and the relatively new offshoot areas of functional genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and metagenomics. Publication of genetic and physical genome maps in the past 15 years has given rise to the possibility of being able finally to understand the molecular nature of the genetic component of phenotypic variation. While quantitative geneticists have been remarkably successful in improving production traits, genomic technology holds potential for being able to lead to more accurate and rapid animal improvement, especially for phenotypic traits that are difficult to measure.Recently, the agricultural research community has been able to capitalize on the infrastructure built by the human genome project by sequencing two of the major livestock genomes (Gallus domesticus and Bos Taurus). The 2005 calendar year is truly unprecedented in the history of agricultural animal research since draft genome sequences were completed for chickens and cattle. In addition, sequencing the swine and equine genome was initiated in early 2006. We now have in place a powerful toolbox for understanding the genetic variation underlying economically important and complex phenotypes. Over the past few years, new challenges have emerged for animal agriculture. Enhancements in production efficiency have not come without some negative side effects on animal well-being and longevity in production environments, including losses in reproductive efficiency, increased stress susceptibility, increased animal waste issues, and increased susceptibility to animal metabolic and infectious diseases. When considered in concert with societal concerns in the areas of natural resource conservation and protection, animal welfare, and food safety, it is clear that publicly supported agricultural research must be focused on enhancing the functionality and well-being of livestock and poultry in environmentally neutral production systems in the future. Realizing the great potential for animal genomics to address these and other issues, a workshop was convened by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington, DC in September of 2004. The workshop was entitled "Charting the Road Map for Long Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics". This paper summarizes the proceedings of the workshop and the resulting recommendations. The need for a cohesive, comprehensive long-term plan for all of USDA's research efforts in animal genomics was evident at the workshop, requiring further integration of the efforts of the USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) and the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to achieve the greatest return on investment. PMID:17384737

Green, R D; Qureshi, M A; Long, J A; Burfening, P J; Hamernik, D L

2007-01-01

179

Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality…

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

2013-01-01

180

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture  

E-print Network

Framtidens lantbruk / Future Agriculture Future Agriculture ­ Livestock, Crops and Land Use Report from a multidisciplinary research platform. Phase I (2009 ­ 2012) #12;Future Agriculture ­ Livestock Waldenström Utgivningsår: 2012, Uppsala Utgivare: SLU, Framtidens lantbruk/Future Agriculture Layout: Pelle

181

Molecular dissection of seedling-vigor and associated physiological traits in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

seedling-vigor is important for crop establishment. There have been reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses on seedling-vigor related morphological traits. However, physiological understanding of these detected QTLs is rather limited. In this study, we employed a recombinant inbred population to detect QTLs for seedling-vigor traits and physiological traits related to seedling-vigor. Germination rate and seedling growth were measured to quantify

K. Cui; S. Peng; Y. Xing; C. Xu; S. Yu; Q. Zhang

2002-01-01

182

On the fate of sexual traits under asexuality.  

PubMed

Environmental shifts and life-history changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. In the absence of pleiotropy and other constraints, such traits may decay as a consequence of neutral mutation accumulation or selective processes, highlighting the importance of natural selection for adaptations. A suite of traits are expected to lose their adaptive function in asexual organisms derived from sexual ancestors, and the many independent transitions to asexuality allow for comparative studies of parallel trait maintenance versus decay. In addition, because certain traits, notably male-specific traits, are usually not exposed to selection under asexuality, their decay would have to occur as a consequence of drift. Selective processes could drive the decay of traits associated with costs, which may be the case for the majority of sexual traits expressed in females. We review the fate of male and female sexual traits in 93 animal lineages characterized by asexual reproduction, covering a broad taxon range including molluscs, arachnids, diplopods, crustaceans and eleven different hexapod orders. Many asexual lineages are still able occasionally to produce males. These asexually produced males are often largely or even fully functional, revealing that major developmental pathways can remain quiescent and functional over extended time periods. By contrast, for asexual females, there is a parallel and rapid decay of sexual traits, especially of traits related to mate attraction and location, as expected given the considerable costs often associated with the expression of these traits. The level of decay of female sexual traits, in addition to asexual females being unable to fertilize their eggs, would severely impede reversals to sexual reproduction, even in recently derived asexual lineages. More generally, the parallel maintenance versus decay of different trait types across diverse asexual lineages suggests that neutral traits display little or no decay even after extended periods under relaxed selection, while extensive decay for selected traits occurs extremely quickly. These patterns also highlight that adaptations can fix rapidly in natural populations of asexual organisms, in spite of their mode of reproduction. PMID:24443922

van der Kooi, Casper J; Schwander, Tanja

2014-11-01

183

Quantitative Genetic Mapping of Life History Traits in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

uses the elite model system Drosophila melanogaster to perform quantitative genetic mapping on two important life history traits: the morphology of the posterior lobe of the genital arch and the length of time flies resist death due to starvation stress...

McNeil, Casey Lee

2012-08-31

184

Original article Heterogeneity of variance for type traits  

E-print Network

, homogeneity of variance-covariance components) are presented. These hypotheses were described via, the existence of heterogeneous variances for milk production and other traits of economic importance in cattle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds  

PubMed Central

Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the estimation of genetic parameters that control body weight, body composition, meat quality traits and parameters that shape the growth curve in turkey birds. Results The average heritability estimate for body weight traits was 0.38, except for early weights that were strongly affected by maternal effects. This study showed that body weight traits, upper asymptote (a growth curve trait), percent breast meat and redness of meat had high heritability whereas heritabilities of breast length, breast width, percent drip loss, ultimate pH, lightness and yellowness of meat were medium to low. We found high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weight, upper asymptote, most breast meat yield traits and percent drip loss but percent drip loss was found strongly negatively correlated with ultimate pH. Percent breast meat, however, showed genetic correlations close to zero with body weight traits and upper asymptote. Conclusion The results of this analysis and the growth curve from the studied population of turkey birds suggest that the turkey birds could be selected for breeding between 60 and 80 days of age in order to improve overall production and the production of desirable cuts of meat. The continuous selection of birds within this age range could promote high growth rates but specific attention to meat quality would be needed to avoid a negative impact on the quality of meat. PMID:21266032

2011-01-01

186

Quantitative trait loci and metabolic pathways  

PubMed Central

The interpretation of quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies is limited by the lack of information on metabolic pathways leading to most economic traits. Inferences about the roles of the underlying genes with a pathway or the nature of their interaction with other loci are generally not possible. An exception is resistance to the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) in maize (Zea mays L.) because of maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone synthesized in silks via a branch of the well characterized flavonoid pathway. Our results using flavone synthesis as a model QTL system indicate: (i) the importance of regulatory loci as QTLs, (ii) the importance of interconnecting biochemical pathways on product levels, (iii) evidence for “channeling” of intermediates, allowing independent synthesis of related compounds, (iv) the utility of QTL analysis in clarifying the role of specific genes in a biochemical pathway, and (v) identification of a previously unknown locus on chromosome 9S affecting flavone level. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of maysin synthesis and associated corn earworm resistance should lead to improved breeding strategies. More broadly, the insights gained in relating a defined genetic and biochemical pathway affecting a quantitative trait should enhance interpretation of the biological basis of variation for other quantitative traits. PMID:9482823

McMullen, M. D.; Byrne, P. F.; Snook, M. E.; Wiseman, B. R.; Lee, E. A.; Widstrom, N. W.; Coe, E. H.

1998-01-01

187

A database of life-history traits of European amphibians  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the current context of climate change and landscape fragmentation, efficient conservation strategies require the explicit consideration of life history traits. This is particularly true for amphibians, which are highly threatened worldwide, composed by more than 7400 species, which is constitute one of the most species-rich vertebrate groups. The collection of information on life history traits is difficult due to the ecology of species and remoteness of their habitats. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge is limited, and missing information on certain life history traits are common for in this species group. We compiled data on amphibian life history traits from literature in an extensive database with morphological and behavioral traits, habitat preferences and movement abilities for 86 European amphibian species (50 Anuran and 36 Urodela species). When it were available, we reported data for males, females, juveniles and tadpoles. Our database may serve as an important starting point for further analyses regarding amphibian conservation.

Moulherat, Sylvain; Calvez, Olivier; Stevens, Virginie M; Clobert, Jean; Schmeller, Dirk S

2014-01-01

188

7 CFR 1210.314 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES...imports watermelons into the United States as a principal or as an agent, broker, or consignee for...

2010-01-01

189

Distinct evolutionary patterns of morphometric sperm traits in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

The striking diversity of sperm shape across the animal kingdom is still poorly understood. Postcopulatory sexual selection is an important factor driving the evolution of sperm size and shape. Interestingly, morphometric sperm traits, such as the length of the head, midpiece and flagellum, exhibit a strong positive phenotypic correlation across species. Here we used recently developed comparative methods to investigate how such phenotypic correlations between morphometric sperm traits may evolve. We compare allometric relationships and evolutionary trajectories of three morphometric sperm traits (length of head, midpiece and flagellum) in passerine birds. We show that these traits exhibit strong phenotypic correlations but that allometry varies across families. In addition, the evolutionary trajectories of the midpiece and flagellum are similar while the trajectory for head length differs. We discuss our findings in the light of three scenarios accounting for correlated trait evolution: (i) genetic correlation; (ii) concerted response to selection acting simultaneously on different traits; and (iii) phenotypic correlation between traits driven by mechanistic constraints owing to selection on sperm performance. Our results suggest that concerted response to selection is the most likely explanation for the phenotypic correlation between morphometric sperm traits. PMID:22896646

Immler, Simone; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Birkhead, Tim R.

2012-01-01

190

Multi-scale associations between vegetation cover and woodland bird communities across a large agricultural region.  

PubMed

Improving biodiversity conservation in fragmented agricultural landscapes has become an important global issue. Vegetation at the patch and landscape-scale is important for species occupancy and diversity, yet few previous studies have explored multi-scale associations between vegetation and community assemblages. Here, we investigated how patch and landscape-scale vegetation cover structure woodland bird communities. We asked: (1) How is the bird community associated with the vegetation structure of woodland patches and the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape? (2) Do species of conservation concern respond to woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover differently to other species in the community? And (3) Can the relationships between the bird community and the woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover be explained by the ecological traits of the species comprising the bird community? We studied 103 woodland patches (0.5 - 53.8 ha) over two time periods across a large (6,800 km(2)) agricultural region in southeastern Australia. We found that both patch vegetation and surrounding woody vegetation cover were important for structuring the bird community, and that these relationships were consistent over time. In particular, the occurrence of mistletoe within the patches and high values of woody vegetation cover within 1,000 ha and 10,000 ha were important, especially for bird species of conservation concern. We found that the majority of these species displayed similar, positive responses to patch and landscape vegetation attributes. We also found that these relationships were related to the foraging and nesting traits of the bird community. Our findings suggest that management strategies to increase both remnant vegetation quality and the cover of surrounding woody vegetation in fragmented agricultural landscapes may lead to improved conservation of bird communities. PMID:24830684

Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S; Stirnemann, Ingrid A; Stein, John R; Michael, Damian; Crane, Mason; Okada, Sachiko; Lindenmayer, David B

2014-01-01

191

Multi-Scale Associations between Vegetation Cover and Woodland Bird Communities across a Large Agricultural Region  

PubMed Central

Improving biodiversity conservation in fragmented agricultural landscapes has become an important global issue. Vegetation at the patch and landscape-scale is important for species occupancy and diversity, yet few previous studies have explored multi-scale associations between vegetation and community assemblages. Here, we investigated how patch and landscape-scale vegetation cover structure woodland bird communities. We asked: (1) How is the bird community associated with the vegetation structure of woodland patches and the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape? (2) Do species of conservation concern respond to woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover differently to other species in the community? And (3) Can the relationships between the bird community and the woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover be explained by the ecological traits of the species comprising the bird community? We studied 103 woodland patches (0.5 - 53.8 ha) over two time periods across a large (6,800 km2) agricultural region in southeastern Australia. We found that both patch vegetation and surrounding woody vegetation cover were important for structuring the bird community, and that these relationships were consistent over time. In particular, the occurrence of mistletoe within the patches and high values of woody vegetation cover within 1,000 ha and 10,000 ha were important, especially for bird species of conservation concern. We found that the majority of these species displayed similar, positive responses to patch and landscape vegetation attributes. We also found that these relationships were related to the foraging and nesting traits of the bird community. Our findings suggest that management strategies to increase both remnant vegetation quality and the cover of surrounding woody vegetation in fragmented agricultural landscapes may lead to improved conservation of bird communities. PMID:24830684

Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S.; Stirnemann, Ingrid A.; Stein, John R.; Michael, Damian; Crane, Mason; Okada, Sachiko; Lindenmayer, David B.

2014-01-01

192

What is Sustainable Agriculture?  

E-print Network

What is Sustainable Agriculture? Sustainable agriculture is one that produces abundant food without. Sustainable agriculture is also the agriculture of social values, one whose suc- cess is indistinguishable. But in the first decade of the 21st Century, sus- tainable agriculture, as a set of commonly accepted practices

Wang, Changlu

193

Wisconsin Agriculture SPECIAL ARTICLE  

E-print Network

STATUS OF Wisconsin Agriculture 2009 · SPECIAL ARTICLE: Bioenergy and Agriculture in Wisconsin Economy Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College of Agricultural and Life Sciences of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2009 An annual report by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department

Radeloff, Volker C.

194

76 FR 69083 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports; Corrections  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1205...Corrections AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...raw cotton and the cotton content of imported cotton- containing...notified the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) that...

2011-11-08

195

A Tree of Genetic Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners mark their traits for tongue rolling, PTC tasting (a harmless, bitter chemical), and earlobe attachment on tree leaf cut-outs. They then place their leaves on a large tree with branches, in which each each branch represents a different combination of traits. When completed, the tree forms a visual representation of the frequency of trait combinations within the group. Included are handouts in English and Spanish. This resource also contains information about PTC safety.

Malone, Molly; Starr, Harmony; Mitchell, April

2006-01-01

196

Major life goals of college students: An investigation of personality traits, vocational interests, and values.  

E-print Network

??Life goals, values, vocational interests, and personality traits are important factors that influence career and everyday life decision-making. This dissertation presents a framework for how… (more)

Sun, Jo-Tzu

2011-01-01

197

Agricultural Pesticides: An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was developed as a guide for use by Kentucky teachers in planning and conducting young farmer/adult farmer classes in the use of agricultural pesticides. The unit contains seven lessons covering the following topics: understanding the importance of agricultural pesticides; using and handling agricultural pesticides safely; developing a…

Harrison, Kenneth M.; And Others

198

Canadian Agricultural  

E-print Network

In 1995 the Canadian Government abolished an export subsidy on railway shipments of grain from the Canadian Prairies known as the Western Grain Transportation Act (WGTA). This decision marked the end of one of the longest-running agricultural subsidies in the world, first known as the Crow's Nest Pass Agreement of 1897 3 and commonly referred to as the “Crow Rate. ” The removal of this transportation subsidy increased the cost of exporting grain from the prairie region of Canada by $17-$34/tonne, equivalent to 8%-17 % of its value 4. These increased transportation costs translated into lower grain prices at the farm-gate. The repeal of the WGTA is often associated with a range of adaptations by farmers to the lower prices for export grains (see, for example, Doan et al. 2003, 2006). It is believed that some farmers adapted to the new environment by shifting to high-value export crops, feed grain production and animal production or by pursuing economies of size in grain production.

Shon Ferguson; Rose Olfert

199

Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. Methods In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Key Results Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. Conclusions The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level. PMID:21795278

Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphael; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

2011-01-01

200

Extension Mechanisms to Support Sustainable Agriculture in Iran Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable agriculture, as a managerial philosophy has risen to meet environmental, economic and social complications. Agricultural extension as a source of information plays an important role for the achievement of sustainable forms of agriculture. In fact, conventional extension system cannot accomplish sustainability in agriculture. The objective of the study was to identify the most appropriate mechanism to support dimensions and

Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

2008-01-01

201

Role for electricity in agriculture  

SciTech Connect

Agriculture evolved from a family way of life to a family business for successful farmers and is now in transition toward becoming a corporate business activity. Productivity has always been the measure of a successful farm operation. This report examines current trands in agricultural practice that lead to higher productivity and the implications of those trends for the use of electricity in agriculture. Major current trends are in irrigation (even in naturally watered areas), in the use of pressurized systems for distributing irrigation water, and in no-tillage cropping and its related substitution of agricultural chemicals for machine operation in the field. The forces that led to the increase in the fraction of primary energy provided as electricity in agriculture (to its current level of about 22 percent) seem likely to persist well into the future. Manufacturing sectors peripheral to agriculture - farm machinery, petroleum refining, agricultural chemicals, food processing - also exhibit an increasing use of electric technology, thus signifying a growing importance for electricity in the activities affecting food supply.

Burwell, C.C.

1986-01-01

202

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference Conference Information This conference will discuss the drivers of Missouri agricultural and bio-fuel markets and the implications for Missouri farmsDr.JonHagler, DirectoroftheMissouriDepartment ofAgriculture. · Outlookpresentationsderivedfrom thelatestbaselineresultsof

Noble, James S.

203

Research on the Innovative Service Platform of Agricultural Economic Development - A Case Study on New Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Development Model of Yunnan Province in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations (ACEO) is an important service platform to promote the industrialization of agriculture, increase farmers' income, and solve the \\

Yingmei Gong; Youjin Gu; Yougang Wang

2010-01-01

204

INTRODUCTION Ecosystem services and agriculture: Cultivating agricultural  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Ecosystem services and agriculture: Cultivating agricultural ecosystems for diverse of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039, United States b Department F O A B S T R A C T Article history: Received 20 September 2007 Accepted 20 September 2007 Available

Lupi, Frank

205

Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2?0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

2014-01-01

206

(Baron, 2009) Importance  

E-print Network

#12;(Baron, 2009) #12;Importance NOx pollution's affect on eastern Rocky Mountain wilderness and water NOx pollution from agriculture and vehicles/cities Runoff accounts for 80% of our water Nitrogen not used by plants is deposited into the water system (Rocky Mountain National Park) http

Toohey, Darin W.

207

Species identity influences belowground arthropod assemblages via functional traits  

PubMed Central

Plant species influence belowground communities in a variety of ways, ultimately impacting nutrient cycling. Functional plant traits provide a means whereby species identity can influence belowground community interactions, but little work has examined whether species identity influences belowground community processes when correcting for evolutionary history. Specifically, we hypothesized that closely related species would exhibit (i) more similar leaf and root functional traits than more distantly related species, and (ii) more similar associated soil arthropod communities. We found that after correcting for evolutionary history, tree species identity influenced belowground arthropod communities through plant functional traits. These data suggest that plant species structure may be an important predictor in shaping associated soil arthropod communities and further suggest the importance of better understanding the extended consequences of evolutionary history on ecological processes, as similarity in traits may not always reflect similar ecology.

Gorman, Courtney E.; Read, Quentin D.; Van Nuland, Michael E.; Bryant, Jessica A. M.; Welch, Jessica N.; Altobelli, Joseph T.; Douglas, Morgan J.; Genung, Mark A.; Haag, Elliot N.; Jones, Devin N.; Long, Hannah E.; Wilburn, Adam D.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

2013-01-01

208

Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural landscape to ensure resistance is not developing. USEPA is teaming with NASA to perform this monitoring using models and NASA earth observation imagery from airborne and satellite platforms. Using multiple spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions, the project is monitoring the entire Midwestern "Corn Belt". By applying these methods, the project has successfully delineated insect infestations in genetically modified corn fields. Insect resistance development is expected to present itself as infestations thus indicating potential identification of resistance if it develops in genetically modified crops. The USEPA and NASA are currently considering the development of plans to potentially extend this aircraft research to other crops and develop a micro-satellite application.

Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

209

The number of queens: An important trait in ant evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive social and ecological differences between ant colonies that have a single queen and those that have multiple queens are defined. The evolutionary tendencies which lead to polygyny and the adaptive significance of multiple queens are examined. The discussion of the ecological consequences of polygyny and monogyny leads to a deeper understanding of territoriality, spacing and species packing in

Bert Hölldobler; Edward O. Wilson

1977-01-01

210

U.S. Agriculture and International Trade  

E-print Network

International markets are important for many U.S. farm products and greatly affect U.S. agriculture. This publication discusses the causes of import change, the export product mix, major markets, and markets of the future....

McCorkle, Dean; Benson, Geoffrey A.; Marchant, Mary; Rosson, C. Parr

1999-06-23

211

Entomophagy and space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

212

Anxiety: States, Traits--Situations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the utility of situational assessments of trait anxiety in predicting state anxiety reactions. Results indicated that the STAI-A-Trait and the S-R GTA Evaluation measures correlated significantly higher with each other than either did with the S-R GTA Physical Danger measure. Both stresses produced significant increases in state…

Kendall, Philip C.

1978-01-01

213

Reduce, reuse, and recycle: Developmental evolution of trait diversification  

E-print Network

and development, and the reuse of particular genes in the parallel evolution of ecologically important traits. Key words: CRABS CLAW ; CYCLOIDEA ; evo-devo; FRUITFULL ; independent recruitment; KNOX1; parallelism; trait evolution. 1 Manuscript received... and differentiation. AP1 (green) is expressed alongside its close paralog CAULIFLOWER ( CAL ) in fl oral meristems, where both genes specify fl oral meristem identity and later in sepals and petals to promote fl oral organ identity. 399March 2011] Preston et al...

Preston, Jill C.; Hileman, Lena C.; Cubas, Pilar

2011-01-01

214

[Major domestication traits in Asian rice].  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding. PMID:23208135

Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

2012-11-01

215

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting. PMID:21385637

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

216

Exploratorium: Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed to complement the redesigned Traits of Life exhibit at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, this fine site allows visitors to view a photo gallery of the new exhibit, investigate some provocative online exhibits, and explore a host of links that are germane to the nature of biology. The exhibits constitute the core of the material available at the site, and are divided into four thematic areas, including "The Stuff of Life," "Life Needs Energy," "Making More Life," and "Change Over Time." "The Stuff of Life" is quite fascinating, as it profiles cells with a flair for the interactive. Users can learn about the workings of a cell through the "Cell Explorer" exhibit, read an interview with David Goodsell (a molecular biologist), and view a poster that describes how proteins make muscles work. The other three areas of online exhibits are similarly arranged and provide a host of educational materials that can be used as teaching aids or as compelling intellectual diversions.

217

Effective monitoring of agriculture.  

PubMed

An opinion piece published in Nature proposed a global network for agricultural monitoring [J. Sachs, R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S. J. Andelman, K. G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L. E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Leemans, J. C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C. A. Palm, J. P. Reganold, D. D. Richter, S. J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T. P. Tomich and P. A. Sanchez, Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560.]. Whilst we agree with Sachs et al. that monitoring of agricultural systems is a critically important activity of global significance, especially given increasing problems with global food security and the potential impacts of agriculture on the environment [J. Cribb, The Coming Famine. The Global Food Crisis and What We Can Do to Avoid It, CSIRO Publishing and University of California Press, Melbourne and Oakland, 2010.], we argue in this paper that their generic, mandated monitoring framework has a high probability of failure or at best will be highly inefficient. We base this conclusion on our recently published examination of the factors influencing the success or failure of monitoring programs worldwide [D. B. Lindenmayer and G. E. Likens, Effective Ecological Monitoring, CSIRO Publishing and Earthscan, Melbourne and London, 2010.]. We briefly outline what we believe are three serious flaws in the monitoring framework proposed by Sachs et al. We then suggest an alternative approach that we argue would be more effective, more efficient, and have a greater chance of successfully addressing key issues in sustainable agriculture. PMID:21479312

Lindenmayer, David B; Likens, Gene E

2011-06-01

218

Agriculture and climate change  

SciTech Connect

How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

Abelson, P.H.

1992-07-03

219

An Examination of the Effects of the Texas Farm Bureau Mobile Learning Barn Agricultural Education Program on Youth's Perceptions and Knowledge of Agriculture  

E-print Network

Farm Bureau Mobile Learning Barn, strive to educate youth about the importance of agriculture. This study documented the agricultural perceptions and knowledge of youth who attended the Texas Farm Bureau Mobile Learning Barn agricultural education...

Howard, Joni Leigh

2013-12-03

220

Importance of Acinetobacter spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enormous number of bacterial species exist in nature and the human environment with important roles in natural chemical\\u000a and biological cycles involved in the agricultural aspects of food and industrial activity. However, only a relatively limited\\u000a number of microbes are recognized as important pathogens for humans and causes of clinical infections, including well-known\\u000a species like Salmonella spp.,Streptococcus pyogenes, or

Eugénie Bergogne-Bérézin

221

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Perrault, Tanya

2012-02-20

222

Expression of anatomical leaf traits in homoploid hybrids between deciduous and evergreen species of Vaccinium.  

PubMed

We investigated the anatomical expression of leaf traits in hybrids between evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea and deciduous V. myrtillus. We compared parents from four populations with their respective F1 hybrids and tested whether (i) transgression can be the source of novel anatomical traits in hybrids; (ii) expression of transgressive traits is more probable for traits with similar values in parents and intermediate for more distinct values, as predicted by theory; and (iii) independent origin of hybrids leads to identical trait expression profiles among populations. We found that anatomical leaf traits can be divided into four categories based on their similarity to parents: intermediate, parental-like, transgressive and non-significant. Contrary to the common view, parental-like trait values were equally important in shaping the hybrid profile, as were intermediate traits. Transgression was revealed in 17/144 cases and concerned mainly cell and tissue sizes. As predicted by theory, we observed transgressive segregation more often when there was little phenotypic divergence, but intermediate values when parental traits were differentiated. It is likely that cell and tissue sizes are phylogenetically more conserved due to stabilising selection, whereas traits such as leaf thickness and volume fraction of the intercellular spaces, showing a consistent intermediate pattern across populations, are more susceptible to directional selection. Hybrid populations showed little similarity in expression profile, with only three traits identically expressed across all populations. Thus local adaptation of parental species and specific genetic background may be of importance. PMID:22823251

Piwczy?ski, M; Ponikierska, A; Pucha?ka, R; Corral, J M

2013-05-01

223

Bayesian Shrinkage Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Dynamic Traits  

PubMed Central

Many quantitative traits are measured repeatedly during the life of an organism. Such traits are called dynamic traits. The pattern of the changes of a dynamic trait is called the growth trajectory. Studying the growth trajectory may enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture of the growth trajectory. Recently, we developed an interval-mapping procedure to map QTL for dynamic traits under the maximum-likelihood framework. We fit the growth trajectory by Legendre polynomials. The method intended to map one QTL at a time and the entire QTL analysis involved scanning the entire genome by fitting multiple single-QTL models. In this study, we propose a Bayesian shrinkage analysis for estimating and mapping multiple QTL in a single model. The method is a combination between the shrinkage mapping for individual quantitative traits and the Legendre polynomial analysis for dynamic traits. The multiple-QTL model is implemented in two ways: (1) a fixed-interval approach where a QTL is placed in each marker interval and (2) a moving-interval approach where the position of a QTL can be searched in a range that covers many marker intervals. Simulation study shows that the Bayesian shrinkage method generates much better signals for QTL than the interval-mapping approach. We propose several alternative methods to present the results of the Bayesian shrinkage analysis. In particular, we found that the Wald test-statistic profile can serve as a mechanism to test the significance of a putative QTL. PMID:17435239

Yang, Runqing; Xu, Shizhong

2007-01-01

224

Kernel-based whole-genome prediction of complex traits: a review  

PubMed Central

Prediction of genetic values has been a focus of applied quantitative genetics since the beginning of the 20th century, with renewed interest following the advent of the era of whole genome-enabled prediction. Opportunities offered by the emergence of high-dimensional genomic data fueled by post-Sanger sequencing technologies, especially molecular markers, have driven researchers to extend Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright's models to confront new challenges. In particular, kernel methods are gaining consideration as a regression method of choice for genome-enabled prediction. Complex traits are presumably influenced by many genomic regions working in concert with others (clearly so when considering pathways), thus generating interactions. Motivated by this view, a growing number of statistical approaches based on kernels attempt to capture non-additive effects, either parametrically or non-parametrically. This review centers on whole-genome regression using kernel methods applied to a wide range of quantitative traits of agricultural importance in animals and plants. We discuss various kernel-based approaches tailored to capturing total genetic variation, with the aim of arriving at an enhanced predictive performance in the light of available genome annotation information. Connections between prediction machines born in animal breeding, statistics, and machine learning are revisited, and their empirical prediction performance is discussed. Overall, while some encouraging results have been obtained with non-parametric kernels, recovering non-additive genetic variation in a validation dataset remains a challenge in quantitative genetics. PMID:25360145

Morota, Gota; Gianola, Daniel

2014-01-01

225

Insects represent a link between food animal farms and the urban environment for antibiotic resistance traits.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections result in higher patient mortality rates, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health care costs. Extensive use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the animal industry represents great pressure for evolution and selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on farms. Despite growing evidence showing that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance in food animals correlate with resistance in human pathogens, the proof for direct transmission of antibiotic resistance is difficult to provide. In this review, we make a case that insects commonly associated with food animals likely represent a direct and important link between animal farms and urban communities for antibiotic resistance traits. Houseflies and cockroaches have been shown to carry multidrug-resistant clonal lineages of bacteria identical to those found in animal manure. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated proliferation of bacteria and horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the insect digestive tract as well as transmission of resistant bacteria by insects to new substrates. We propose that insect management should be an integral part of pre- and postharvest food safety strategies to minimize spread of zoonotic pathogens and antibiotic resistance traits from animal farms. Furthermore, the insect link between the agricultural and urban environment presents an additional argument for adopting prudent use of antibiotics in the food animal industry. PMID:24705326

Zurek, Ludek; Ghosh, Anuradha

2014-06-01

226

Joint evolution of multiple social traits: a kin selection analysis  

PubMed Central

General models of the evolution of cooperation, altruism and other social behaviours have focused almost entirely on single traits, whereas it is clear that social traits commonly interact. We develop a general kin-selection framework for the evolution of social behaviours in multiple dimensions. We show that whenever there are interactions among social traits new behaviours can emerge that are not predicted by one-dimensional analyses. For example, a prohibitively costly cooperative trait can ultimately be favoured owing to initial evolution in other (cheaper) social traits that in turn change the cost–benefit ratio of the original trait. To understand these behaviours, we use a two-dimensional stability criterion that can be viewed as an extension of Hamilton's rule. Our principal example is the social dilemma posed by, first, the construction and, second, the exploitation of a shared public good. We find that, contrary to the separate one-dimensional analyses, evolutionary feedback between the two traits can cause an increase in the equilibrium level of selfish exploitation with increasing relatedness, while both social (production plus exploitation) and asocial (neither) strategies can be locally stable. Our results demonstrate the importance of emergent stability properties of multidimensional social dilemmas, as one-dimensional stability in all component dimensions can conceal multidimensional instability. PMID:19828549

Brown, Sam P.; Taylor, Peter D.

2010-01-01

227

College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

40 College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences 40 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND LIFE SCIENCES The College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sci- ences (virtual- nity and Economic Development Concentration; Agricultural Education; Agricultural Mechanization

Stuart, Steven J.

228

Roadmap for Agriculture  

E-print Network

environmental stewardship through the development of sustainable management practices. n Grand Challenge 7 67 WeA Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture A Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture Prepared and Agriculture #12;A Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture p i About this Publication To reference

Buckel, Jeffrey A.

229

environment and agriculture  

E-print Network

environment and agriculture environmentagriculture.curtin.edu.au Bachelor of Science - majorS in agriculture, environmental Biology or coaStal Zone management Science and engineering #12;t he department of environment and agriculture caters for students who are passionate about agriculture, biology, conserving

230

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

231

Effect of Habitat Conditions and Plant Traits on Leaf Damage in the Carduoideae Subfamily  

PubMed Central

Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range. PMID:23717643

Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Ji?í

2013-01-01

232

Effect of habitat conditions and plant traits on leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily.  

PubMed

Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range. PMID:23717643

Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Ji?í

2013-01-01

233

A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

2006-01-01

234

[Agriculture, ecology and development].  

PubMed

This work is based in part on the papers concerning agriculture, ecology, and development contained in this issue of the Revue Tiers-Monde. It provides an overview of changing international attitudes toward environmental damage, examines 3 specific types of damage affecting developing countries in particular, and discusses the shortcomings of existing environmental projects and the prerequisites for a lasting control over environmental damage. It has become increasingly evident that pollution and environmental damage cannot be the concern exclusively of developed countries. The 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development in rio de Janeiro focused most of its attention on problems evident at the planetary level such as the greenhouse effect and extinction of species. Problems resulting from the impact of harmful agricultural practices on developing country ecological environments were noted somewhat in passing. The examples of tropical deforestation, the degradation of savannahs and steppes, and cultivation of new fields on steep mountainsides demonstrate the complexity and gravity of environmental problems in developing countries. The poverty of peasants and their inability to obtain the inputs that would enable them to practice a more stable type of agriculture are important factors in the damage done. A common problem is that immediate production or consumption is favored with little regard for longterm consequences. Certain agricultural practices such as the use of cultivars selected for their high yields under optimal conditions contribute to the progressive disappearance of varieties with special properties such as resistance to disease or insects that may be needed in the future. Excessive use of herbicides, pesticides, or fertilizer may bring problems of pollution and toxicity. Numerous development projects sponsored by donors from the developed countries have been designed to pursue short term objectives with insufficient attention to longterm damage. Environmental protection projects have frequently fallen short of their goals because the local populations were not consulted or involved. Some used materials such as tree species that were not adapted to local conditions or that did not meet the needs of the people. The sponsors of development projects may not be sufficiently aware of the difficulty of assuring day-to-day survival for some groups, who find the constraints imposed by the projects to be extremely burdensome. The author argues that peasants are always interested in reconciling their production objectives with protection of resources, and they are quite well informed of how to do so. Governments should ease their access to credit or the inputs that would enable them to practice a more productive agriculture with less environmental damage. A more equitable world economic order will be required before environmental protection can be assured in the poorest countries. PMID:12286676

Dufumier, M

1993-01-01

235

Agriculture's environmental externalities: DEA evidence for French agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of persistent technical inefficiency offers the opportunity for a 'free lunch' not typically implied by the neoclassical theory of the firm. When external effects are related to the use of particular inputs, reduction of persistent technically inefficient levels of input use represents a means of reducing external impacts. An important example is found in agriculture where substantial environmental

Isabelle Piot-Lepetit; Dominique Vermersch; Robert Weaver

1997-01-01

236

7 CFR 782.13 - Importer responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Importer responsibilities. 782.13 Section 782.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...Implementation of the End-Use Certificate Program § 782.13 Importer responsibilities. The importer...

2010-01-01

237

7 CFR 1150.121 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150... Importer means a person that imports imported dairy products into the United States as a...

2013-01-01

238

7 CFR 1150.121 - Importer.  

...AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150... Importer means a person that imports imported dairy products into the United States as a...

2014-01-01

239

7 CFR 1150.121 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150... Importer means a person that imports imported dairy products into the United States as a...

2012-01-01

240

Independent Evolution of Leaf and Root Traits within and among Temperate Grassland Plant Communities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used data from temperate grassland plant communities in Alberta, Canada to test two longstanding hypotheses in ecology: 1) that there has been correlated evolution of the leaves and roots of plants due to selection for an integrated whole-plant resource uptake strategy, and 2) that trait diversity in ecological communities is generated by adaptations to the conditions in different habitats. We tested the first hypothesis using phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evidence of correlated evolution of suites of leaf and root functional traits in these grasslands. There were consistent evolutionary correlations among traits related to plant resource uptake strategies within leaf tissues, and within root tissues. In contrast, there were inconsistent correlations between the traits of leaves and the traits of roots, suggesting different evolutionary pressures on the above and belowground components of plant morphology. To test the second hypothesis, we evaluated the relative importance of two components of trait diversity: within-community variation (species trait values relative to co-occurring species; ? traits) and among-community variation (the average trait value in communities where species occur; ? traits). Trait diversity was mostly explained by variation among co-occurring species, not among-communities. Additionally, there was a phylogenetic signal in the within-community trait values of species relative to co-occurring taxa, but not in their habitat associations or among-community trait variation. These results suggest that sorting of pre-existing trait variation into local communities can explain the leaf and root trait diversity in these grasslands. PMID:21687704

Kembel, Steven W.; Cahill, James F.

2011-01-01

241

Genetic Architecture of Growth Traits Revealed by Global Epistatic Interactions  

PubMed Central

Epistasis has long been recognized as fundamentally important in understanding the structure, function, and evolutionary dynamics of biological systems. Yet, little is known about how it is distributed underlying specific traits. Based on a global map of epistatic interactions in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that epistasis is prevalent (?13% increase from random expectation) and displays modular architecture among genes that underlie the same growth traits. More interestingly, our results indicate that hub genes responsible for the same growth traits tend to link epistatically with each other more frequently than random expectation. Our results provide a genome-wide perspective on the genetic architecture of growth traits in a eukaryotic organism. PMID:21859803

Xu, Lin; Jiang, Huifeng; Chen, Hong; Gu, Zhenglong

2011-01-01

242

A fast algorithm for functional mapping of complex traits.  

PubMed Central

By integrating the underlying developmental mechanisms for the phenotypic formation of traits into a mapping framework, functional mapping has emerged as an important statistical approach for mapping complex traits. In this note, we explore the feasibility of using the simplex algorithm as an alternative to solve the mixture-based likelihood for functional mapping of complex traits. The results from the simplex algorithm are consistent with those from the traditional EM algorithm, but the simplex algorithm has considerably reduced computational times. Moreover, because of its nonderivative nature and easy implementation with current software, the simplex algorithm enjoys an advantage over the EM algorithm in the dynamic modeling and analysis of complex traits. PMID:15342547

Zhao, Wei; Wu, Rongling; Ma, Chang-Xing; Casella, George

2004-01-01

243

Underdispersion and overdispersion of traits in terrestrial snail communities on islands  

PubMed Central

Understanding and disentangling different processes underlying the assembly and diversity of communities remains a key challenge in ecology. Species can assemble into communities either randomly or due to deterministic processes. Deterministic assembly leads to species being more similar (underdispersed) or more different (overdispersed) in certain traits than would be expected by chance. However, the relative importance of those processes is not well understood for many organisms, including terrestrial invertebrates. Based on knowledge of a broad range of species traits, we tested for the presence of trait underdispersion (indicating dispersal or environmental filtering) and trait overdispersion (indicating niche partitioning) and their relative importance in explaining land snail community composition on lake islands. The analysis of community assembly was performed using a functional diversity index (Rao's quadratic entropy) in combination with a null model approach. Regression analysis with the effect sizes of the assembly tests and environmental variables gave information on the strength of under- and overdispersion along environmental gradients. Additionally, we examined the link between community weighted mean trait values and environmental variables using a CWM-RDA. We found both trait underdispersion and trait overdispersion, but underdispersion (eight traits) was more frequently detected than overdispersion (two traits). Underdispersion was related to four environmental variables (tree cover, habitat diversity, productivity of ground vegetation, and location on an esker ridge). Our results show clear evidence for underdispersion in traits driven by environmental filtering, but no clear evidence for dispersal filtering. We did not find evidence for overdispersion of traits due to diet or body size, but overdispersion in shell shape may indicate niche differentiation between snail species driven by small-scale habitat heterogeneity. The use of species traits enabled us to identify key traits involved in snail community assembly and to detect the simultaneous occurrence of trait underdispersion and overdispersion. PMID:25360251

Astor, Tina; Strengbom, Joachim; Berg, Matty P; Lenoir, Lisette; Marteinsdottir, Bryndis; Bengtsson, Jan

2014-01-01

244

Bayesian mapping of quantitative trait loci for complex binary traits.  

PubMed Central

A complex binary trait is a character that has a dichotomous expression but with a polygenic genetic background. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for such traits is difficult because of the discrete nature and the reduced variation in the phenotypic distribution. Bayesian statistics are proved to be a powerful tool for solving complicated genetic problems, such as multiple QTL with nonadditive effects, and have been successfully applied to QTL mapping for continuous traits. In this study, we show that Bayesian statistics are particularly useful for mapping QTL for complex binary traits. We model the binary trait under the classical threshold model of quantitative genetics. The Bayesian mapping statistics are developed on the basis of the idea of data augmentation. This treatment allows an easy way to generate the value of a hypothetical underlying variable (called the liability) and a threshold, which in turn allow the use of existing Bayesian statistics. The reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to simulate the posterior samples of all unknowns, including the number of QTL, the locations and effects of identified QTL, genotypes of each individual at both the QTL and markers, and eventually the liability of each individual. The Bayesian mapping ends with an estimation of the joint posterior distribution of the number of QTL and the locations and effects of the identified QTL. Utilities of the method are demonstrated using a simulated outbred full-sib family. A computer program written in FORTRAN language is freely available on request. PMID:10880497

Yi, N; Xu, S

2000-01-01

245

Can traits predict species' vulnerability? A test with farmland passerines in two continents.  

PubMed

Species' traits have been used both to explain and, increasingly, to predict species' vulnerability. Trait-based comparative analyses allow mechanisms causing vulnerability to be inferred and, ideally, conservation effort to be focused efficiently and effectively. However, empirical evidence of the predictive ability of trait-based approaches is largely wanting. I tested the predictive power of trait-based analyses on geographically replicated datasets of farmland bird population trends. I related the traits of farmland passerines with their long-term trends in abundance (an assessment of their response to agricultural intensification) in eight regions in two continents. These analyses successfully identified explanatory relationships in the regions, specifically: species faring badly tended to be medium-sized, had relatively short incubation and fledging periods, were longer distant migrants, had small relative brain sizes and were farmland specialists. Despite this, the models had poor ability to predict species' vulnerability in one region from trait-population trend relationships from a different region. In many cases, the explained variation was low (median R(2) = 8%). The low predictive ability of trait-based analyses must therefore be considered if such trait-based models are used to inform conservation priorities. PMID:21047852

Pocock, Michael J O

2011-05-22

246

Climate Change and Agriculture: Economic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is arguably the most important sector of the economy that is highly dependent on climate. A large body of scientific data and models have been developed to predict the impacts of the contemporary and future climate. Since the first IPCC Assessment Report was published in 1990, substantial efforts have been directed toward understand - ing climate change impacts on

John M. Antle

2008-01-01

247

Trends in Agriculture and Agribusiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a major shift from agriculture to agribusiness. Trade liberalization, deregulation, consumerization, market homogeneity, vertical integration, genetically modified crops (GMCs), frankenfood, stewardship, decommodification interdependence, and sophistication are current trends that have reshaped the industry. This paper outlines these key changes illustrating that information is important and can provide a powerful competitive edge. An annotated list of Web resources

Hazel M. G. Cameron

2006-01-01

248

Agriculture for Little People. Publication No. 0004.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a collection of teacher guides to sample units introducing agriculture at the primary level; part or all of the units can be used along with the regular curriculum during the school year. Intended to acquaint K-3 students with agriculture's important role, the purpose of the course is to impart basic knowledge of materials, tools,…

Gasior, Albert G.

249

WTO agricultural trade battles and food aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent agricultural trade battles at the WTO between the US and the EU have important implications for the Global South, in particular with respect to food aid. The current Doha round of trade talks hinges closely on agreement in the area of agriculture, and a key issue of disagreement between the US and the EU is the question of whether

Jennifer Clapp

2004-01-01

250

Agricultural Accident Prevention--Problems and Accomplishments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Titles of bulletins, for persons who are interested in agricultural accident prevention, are listed as well as examples of farm machinery manufacturers who are making special efforts to produce valuable teaching aids and to inform all segments of agriculture about important safety development. (HD)

Bristol, Benton K.

1976-01-01

251

Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca.  

PubMed

Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) resulting from three seed production environments. Significant QTL were identified for germination in darkness, germination at 25 and 35 degrees C, median maximum temperature of germination, hypocotyl length at 72 h post-imbibition, and plant (seedling) quality. Some QTL for germination and early seedling growth characteristics were co-located, suggestive of pleiotropic loci regulating these traits. A single QTL (Htg6.1) described 25 and 23% of the total phenotypic variation for high temperature germination in California- and Netherlands-grown populations, respectively, and was significant between 33 and 37 degrees C. Additionally, Htg6.1 showed significant epistatic interactions with other Htg QTL and a consistent effect across all the three seed production environments. L. serriola alleles increased germination at these QTL. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability (h2) of Htg6.1 was 0.84, indicating potential for L. serriola as a source of germination thermotolerance for lettuce introgression programs. PMID:16177902

Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Knapp, Steven J; Still, David W; Lenssen, Ger M; Schut, Johan W; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

2005-11-01

252

Landscape Planning for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction I: A Geographical Allocation Framework  

E-print Network

understood, reducing agricultural NPS pollution and improving stream water quality has become an importantLandscape Planning for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction I: A Geographical+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Agricultural nonpoint source pollution remains a persistent environmental

Vander Zanden, Jake

253

Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.  

PubMed

How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes. PMID:23951712

Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

2013-07-01

254

Recurrence risks for Mendelian traits Autosomal Dominant  

E-print Network

Recurrence risks for Mendelian traits · Autosomal Dominant ­ Risk of next child being affected;· Definition ­ Multifactorial Trait · Trait determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors, which determine individual risk, age of onset, severity of disease and clinical symptoms #12;A trait is determined

Dellaire, Graham

255

1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

256

Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station 109 Agriculture Hall  

E-print Network

and partnership with Michigan communities, agricultural and natural resources industries and organizations its Web site at . The Animal Industry Initiative (AII) has funded 96 projects with the industry, MSU Extension, the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) and the MAES in creating the Michigan

257

[Study of trait anxiety in children with different profiles of lateral organization after early social deprivation].  

PubMed

School behavior and learning were examined in 68 right-, lefthanded, and ambidextral 10-12-year-old children earlier exposed to social deprivation. Socially deprived children revealed stress and high trait anxiety. "Imposed lefthandedness" is considered to be an important factor responsible for the high level of trait anxiety. In the group of socially deprived children persons with sanguinic temperament showed the lowest, and melancholies showed the highest levels of trait anxiety as compared to the control group. PMID:15174268

A?rapetiants, M G; Lushchekina, E A; Shkol'nik, T K

2004-01-01

258

Economic weights for performance and survival traits of growing pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to derive economic weights for performance and survival traits of growing pigs including feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily feed intake (DFI), ADG, postweaning survival of the growing pig (SG), and carcass fat depth at the P2 site (CFD). An independent model was developed for each trait to derive economic values directly based on a typical Australian production system. This flexible approach may be used to customize economic values for different production systems and alternative trait combinations in breeding objectives. Discounted genetic expressions were used as a means of taking into account differences in frequency and timing of expression of traits to obtain economic weights. Economic values for SG were derived based on a cost-saving and a lost-revenue approach. The correct formulation of the economic value of ADG depends on how feed cost is included in the breeding objective. If FCR is defined as a breeding objective trait, then savings in feed costs through earlier slaughter should not be counted in the economic value of ADG. In contrast, if DFI is included in the breeding objective instead of FCR, then feed-cost savings through earlier slaughter need to be attributed to the economic value for ADG, as a benefit from faster ADG. The paper also demonstrates that economic weightings in indexes for FCR can potentially be overestimated by 70% when it is assumed that DFI or FCR records taken from a limited duration test period reflect the corresponding trait over the full lifetime of the growing pig destined for slaughter. Postweaning survival of the growing pig was the most important breeding objective trait of growing pigs. The relative importance of each breeding objective trait in a sire-line index based on the genetic SD of each trait was 44.5, 27.0, 17.4, and 11.1% for SG, FCR, ADG, and CFD, respectively. Further studies to better clarify the extent of genetic variation that exists in SG under nucleus-farm and commercial-farm conditions are warranted, given the high economic importance of this survival trait of growing pigs. PMID:25367529

Hermesch, S; Ludemann, C I; Amer, P R

2014-12-01

259

[Effects of agricultural practices on community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural ecosystem: a review].  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are rich in diversity in agricultural ecosystem, playing a vital role based on their unique community structure. Host plants and environmental factors have important effects on AM fungal community structure, so do the agricultural practices which deserve to pay attention to. This paper summarized the research advances in the effects of agricultural practices such as irrigation, fertilization, crop rotation, intercropping, tillage, and pesticide application on AM fungal community structure, analyzed the related possible mechanisms, discussed the possible ways in improving AM fungal community structure in agricultural ecosystem, and put forward a set of countermeasures, i.e., improving fertilization system and related integrated techniques, increasing plant diversity in agricultural ecosystem, and inoculating AM fungi, to enhance the AM fungal diversity in agricultural ecosystem. The existing problems in current agricultural practices and further research directions were also proposed. PMID:21941770

Sheng, Ping-Ping; Li, Min; Liu, Run-Jin

2011-06-01

260

138 Years of Agricultural Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When the millennium rolled over, numerous agencies across the country launched Websites telling the tale of that agency's progress, from inception until present. This site, from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), provides a concise timeline of agricultural research accomplishments in the US since the department was formed in 1862. The site features a chronological history by decade, a legislative history (of laws important to agriculture, food safety, nutrition, and the environment), and a complete history (without photographs). Each historical section contains a concise sketch of the major events (or laws) of that decade. Because the information presented here spans more than a century, in-depth coverage of particular events is not included. However, those interested in gaining a historical sketch of one of the most influential agencies in the US will find this resource informative.

261

Quantitative trait loci for biofortification traits in maize grain.  

PubMed

Detecting genes that influence biofortification traits in cereal grain could help increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in crops to solve the global mineral malnutrition problem. The aims of this study were to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in maize grain in a mapping population, as well as QTLs for bioavailable Fe, Zn, and Mg, by precalculating their respective ratios with P. Elemental analysis of grain samples was done by coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in 294 F(4) lines of a biparental population taken from field trials of over 3 years. The population was mapped using sets of 121 polymorphic markers. QTL analysis revealed 32 significant QTLs detected for 7 traits, of which some were colocalized. The Additive-dominant model revealed highly significant additive effects, suggesting that biofortification traits in maize are generally controlled by numerous small-effect QTLs. Three QTLs for Fe/P, Zn/P, and Mg/P were colocalized on chromosome 3, coinciding with simple sequence repeats marker bnlg1456, which resides in close proximity to previously identified phytase genes (ZM phys1 and phys2). Thus, we recommend the ratios as bioavailability traits in biofortification research. PMID:22071312

Simi?, Domagoj; Mladenovi? Drini?, Snezana; Zduni?, Zvonimir; Jambrovi?, Antun; Ledencan, Tatjana; Brki?, Josip; Brki?, Andrija; Brki?, Ivan

2012-01-01

262

Mapping QTLs for traits related to salinity tolerance at seedling stage of rice (Oryza sativa L.): an agrigenomics study of an Iranian rice population.  

PubMed

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops in the world, especially in Asian countries, and salinity is a major constraint to the sustainability and expansion of rice cultivation. Genetically improving salt tolerance of rice is a highly important objective of rice breeding programs. Traits such as salt tolerance are quantitatively inherited. Hence, mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) with molecular markers can be very helpful to plant breeders in the field of agricultural genomics (AgriGenomics). In this investigation, QTL analysis of physiological traits related to salt tolerance was carried out using F2:4 population of rice derived from a cross between a salt-tolerant variety, Gharib (indica), and a salt-sensitive variety, Sepidroud (indica). A linkage map based on 148 F2 individuals was constructed with 131 SSR markers and 105 AFLP markers, covering 2475.7 cM of rice genome with an average distance of 10.48?cM between flanking markers. A total of 41 QTLs for twelve physiological traits under salinity stress were detected distributed on all rice chromosomes, some of them being reported for the first time. Also, overlapping of QTLs related to salt tolerance were observed in this study. Some of the identified QTLs on specific chromosomal regions explaining high phenotypic variance could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs. New QTLs retrieved in this study play an important role in growth of rice at seedling stage in an Iranian local population under high salinity conditions. PMID:23638881

Ghomi, Khadijeh; Rabiei, Babak; Sabouri, Hossein; Sabouri, Atefeh

2013-05-01

263

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

264

Extension Agricola, (Agricultural Extension),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agricultural Extension Manual is a how-to manual covering techniques of extension work and community organization. It is written for extension workers. Also it promotes recommended agricultural practices, training of counterparts and a host of other r...

M. J. Gibbons, R. Schroeder

1987-01-01

265

Agricultural Outlook, May 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Agricultural Economy; Commodity Spotlight: Exports Boost Prospects for Fresh Sweet Cherries; World Agriculture and Trade: Chile: The Next NAFTA Partner; Environment and Resources: Precision Farming: Harnessing Technology; Farm Bill '95: The Farm...

N. Childs, L. Caplan, S. Rosen

1995-01-01

266

Limitations to Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pie chart showing the percentage of land without limitations to agriculture (11%) and the reasons that the other land is of limited agriculture usefulness. With a timeplot showing the (slight) increase in arable land over the period 1960-2000

Environment, Aaas A.

267

Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes  

SciTech Connect

Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

Reich, P.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Walters, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Vose, J.M. [Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrological Lab.; Gresham, C. [Clemson Univ., Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Forest Inst.; Volin, J.C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Davie, FL (United States). Div. of Science; Bowman, W.D. [Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Mountain Research Station]|[Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Evolutionary, Population, and Organismic Biology

1999-09-01

268

The modulation of somatosensory resonance by psychopathic traits and empathy  

PubMed Central

A large number of neuroimaging studies have shown neural overlaps between first-hand experiences of pain and the perception of pain in others. This shared neural representation of vicarious pain is thought to involve both affective and sensorimotor systems. A number of individual factors are thought to modulate the cerebral response to other's pain. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of psychopathic traits on the relation between sensorimotor resonance to other's pain and self-reported empathy. Our group has previously shown that a steady-state response to non-painful stimulation is modulated by the observation of other people's bodily pain. This change in somatosensory response was interpreted as a form of somatosensory gating (SG). Here, using the same technique, SG was compared between two groups of 15 young adult males: one scoring very high on a self-reported measure of psychopathic traits [60.8 ± 4.98; Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP)] and one scoring very low (42.7 ± 2.94). The results showed a significantly greater reduction of SG to pain observation for the high psychopathic traits group compared to the low psychopathic traits group. SG to pain observation was positively correlated with affective and interpersonal facet of psychopathy in the whole sample. The high psychopathic traits group also reported lower empathic concern (EC) scores than the low psychopathic traits group. Importantly, primary psychopathy, as assessed by the LSRP, mediated the relation between EC and SG to pain observation. Together, these results suggest that increase somatosensory resonance to other's pain is not exclusively explained by trait empathy and may be linked to other personality dimensions, such as psychopathic traits. PMID:23801950

Marcoux, Louis-Alexandre; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Voisin, Julien I. A.; Lemelin, Sophie; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Jackson, Philip L.

2013-01-01

269

SFRSF: Sustainable Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses sustainable agriculture in southern Florida. Issues include: land managers and farmers working together to support habitat restoration; providing the agricultural and hydrologic science and technology needed to sustain agricultural production and a quality environment; reducing phosphorus and restoring natural hydrology in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA); and Best Management Practices developed to address these issues. There are links provided for additional information on this topic.

270

Information for Agricultural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

Kaungamno, E. E.

271

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference  

E-print Network

Missouri Agriculture Outlook Conference Conference Information Join us to discuss the drivers of Missouri agricultural and bio-fuels markets and participate in a special review of international policy implications for Missouri agriculture. Registration Deadline To guarantee space availability, please register

Noble, James S.

272

European Commission Agriculture and  

E-print Network

European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

273

Agriculture KENNETH L. KOONCE  

E-print Network

COLLEGE OF Agriculture KENNETH L. KOONCE Dean M. E. GARRISON Associate Dean JACQUELINE M. MALLET BAKER Recruitment Coordinator 104 Agricultural Administration Building 225/578-2362 FAX 225/578-2526 Student Services 138 Agricultural Administration Building 225/578-2065 FAX 225/578-2526 The College

Harms, Kyle E.

274

Growing Hawaii's agriculture industry,  

E-print Network

Program Overview Growing Hawaii's agriculture industry, one business at a time Website: http-3547 agincubator@ctahr.hawaii.edu Grow Your Business If you are looking to start an agriculture-related business with our program · Positively impact the agriculture industry in Hawaii with their success

275

2, 485518, 2006 Agricultural  

E-print Network

the agricultural potential of the land. Growing populations and more intensive land use, both for agriculture and livestock, have led to changes in the structure of vegetation, hydrology, and land quality. Over impacted sustainability of agriculture and the ability of the land to support its popula- tions. In much

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Dutch Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

277

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION Curriculum Checksheet  

E-print Network

\\ AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION Curriculum Checksheet 123 Credits This checksheet describes the curricular requirements for both the Bachelor of Science degree in Agricultural Education with a concentration in "Teaching" and for the teacher licensing program in agricultural education. The courses listed are courses

Rutledge, Steven

278

Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

279

African Americans and Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

Morgan, Joan

2000-01-01

280

Drainage and Agricultural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the role of drainage as aninstrument for agricultural and rural development andthe related drainage development forces and processes.Five specific roles of drainage are distinguished:foodproduction, agricultural intensification anddiversification, sustainable irrigated land use, ruraldevelopment and environmental protection. Specialattention is given to the drainage development needsof the developing countries. It is argued that whileat early stages of agricultural development, drainagedevelopment

Lambert K. Smedema; Safwat Abdel-Dayem; Walter J. Ochs

2000-01-01

281

Agricultural Marketing Strategy and Pricing Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collection and distribution of agricultural products, particularly food, is an important mechanism for redistributing resources, wealth, and power. Governments have adopted policies that have to a varying degree controlled or influenced markets and ma...

D. Elz

1987-01-01

282

De novo assembly of soybean wild relatives for pan-genome analysis of diversity and agronomic traits.  

PubMed

Wild relatives of crops are an important source of genetic diversity for agriculture, but their gene repertoire remains largely unexplored. We report the establishment and analysis of a pan-genome of Glycine soja, the wild relative of cultivated soybean Glycine max, by sequencing and de novo assembly of seven phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions. Intergenomic comparisons identified lineage-specific genes and genes with copy number variation or large-effect mutations, some of which show evidence of positive selection and may contribute to variation of agronomic traits such as biotic resistance, seed composition, flowering and maturity time, organ size and final biomass. Approximately 80% of the pan-genome was present in all seven accessions (core), whereas the rest was dispensable and exhibited greater variation than the core genome, perhaps reflecting a role in adaptation to diverse environments. This work will facilitate the harnessing of untapped genetic diversity from wild soybean for enhancement of elite cultivars. PMID:25218520

Li, Ying-Hui; Zhou, Guangyu; Ma, Jianxin; Jiang, Wenkai; Jin, Long-Guo; Zhang, Zhouhao; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Jinbo; Sui, Yi; Zheng, Liangtao; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zuo, Qiyang; Shi, Xue-Hui; Li, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Hu, Yiyao; Kong, Guanyi; Hong, Hui-Long; Tan, Bing; Song, Jian; Liu, Zhang-Xiong; Wang, Yaoshen; Ruan, Hang; Yeung, Carol K L; Liu, Jian; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guan, Rong-Xia; Wang, Ke-Jing; Li, Wen-Bin; Chen, Shou-Yi; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Jiang, Zhi; Jackson, Scott A; Li, Ruiqiang; Qiu, Li-Juan

2014-10-01

283

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment GEN General Agriculture  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment GEN General Agriculture KEY: # = new course * = course IN AGRICULTURE. (3) Anintroductorycourserequiringcriticalanalysisofthemajorsocial. Prereq: Students enrolled in the College of Agriculture; freshmen only in fall semesters and transfers

MacAdam, Keith

284

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEC Agricultural Economics  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEC Agricultural Economics KEY: # = new course THE ECONOMICS OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE. (3 of agriculture in both a national and international dimension. Students who have completed ECO 201

MacAdam, Keith

285

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment SAG Sustainable Agriculture  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment SAG Sustainable Agriculture KEY: # = new course INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE. (3) Broad introduction to the environmental, economic and cultural agriculture are discussed along with pertinent soil, crop and livestock management practices. Relationships

MacAdam, Keith

286

Personality traits, traitedness, and disorders: towards an enhanced understanding of trait-disorder relationships  

E-print Network

-behavior relationships. That is, if traits are differentially applicable to different individuals, then trait-behavior relationships may be moderated based on the strength with which an individual fits with a given trait model. This study used moderated multiple...

Warner, Megan Beth

2006-10-30

287

Fluctuating Asymmetry and Environmental Stress: Understanding the Role of Trait History  

PubMed Central

While fluctuating asymmetry (FA; small, random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits) is widely regarded as a proxy for environmental and genetic stress effects, empirical associations between FA and stress are often weak or heterogeneous among traits. A conceptually important source of heterogeneity in relationships with FA is variation in the selection history of the trait(s) under study, i.e. traits that experienced a (recent) history of directional change are predicted to be developmentally less stable, potentially through the loss of canalizing modifiers. Here we applied X-ray photography on museum specimens and live captures to test to what extent the magnitude of FA and FA-stress relationships covary with directional shifts in traits related to the flight apparatus of four East-African rainforest birds that underwent recent shifts in habitat quality and landscape connectivity. Both the magnitude and direction of phenotypic change varied among species, with some traits increasing in size while others decreased or maintained their original size. In three of the four species, traits that underwent larger directional changes were less strongly buffered against random perturbations during their development, and traits that increased in size over time developed more asymmetrically than those that decreased. As we believe that spurious relationships due to biased comparisons of historic (museum specimens) and current (field captures) samples can be ruled out, these results support the largely untested hypothesis that directional shifts may increase the sensitivity of developing traits to random perturbations of environmental or genetic origin. PMID:23472123

De Coster, Greet; Van Dongen, Stefan; Malaki, Phillista; Muchane, Muchai; Alcantara-Exposito, Angelica; Matheve, Hans; Lens, Luc

2013-01-01

288

Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects  

PubMed Central

Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the asexual lineages retained the capacity to produce males that display normal courtship behaviours and are able to fertilize eggs of females from related sexual species. The maintenance of male traits may stem from pleiotropy, or from these traits only regressing via drift, which may require millions of years to generate phenotypic effects. By contrast, we found parallel decay of sexual traits in females. Asexual females produced altered airborne and contact signals, had modified sperm storage organs, and lost the ability to fertilize their eggs, impeding reversals to sexual reproduction. Female sexual traits were decayed even in recently derived asexuals, suggesting that trait changes following the evolution of asexuality, when they occur, proceed rapidly and are driven by selective processes rather than drift. PMID:23782880

Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J.; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

2013-01-01

289

Using phenotypic manipulations to study multivariate selection of floral trait associations  

PubMed Central

Background A basic theme in the study of plant–pollinator interactions is that pollinators select not just for single floral traits, but for associations of traits. Responses of pollinators to sets of traits are inherent in the idea of pollinator syndromes. In its most extreme form, selection on a suite of traits can take the form of correlational selection, in which a response to one trait depends on the value of another, thereby favouring floral integration. Despite the importance of selection for combinations of traits in the evolution of flowers, evidence is relatively sparse and relies mostly on observational approaches. Scope Here, methods for measuring selection on multivariate suites of floral traits are presented, and the studies to date are reviewed. It is argued that phenotypic manipulations present a powerful, but rarely used, approach to teasing apart the separate and combined effects of particular traits. The approach is illustrated with data from studies of alpine plants in Colorado and New Zealand, and recommendations are made about several features of the design of such experiments. Conclusions Phenotypic manipulations of two or more traits in combination provide a direct way of testing for selection of floral trait associations. Such experiments will be particularly valuable if rooted in hypotheses about differences between types of pollinators and tied to a proposed evolutionary history. PMID:19218579

Campbell, Diane R.

2009-01-01

290

Epistatic interactions of genes influence within-individual variation of physical activity traits in mice  

PubMed Central

A number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) recently have been discovered that affect various activity traits in mice, but their collective impact does not appear to explain the consistently moderate to high heritabilities for these traits. We previously suggested interactions of genes, or epistasis, might account for additional genetic variability of activity, and tested this for the average distance, duration and speed run by mice during a 3 week period. We found abundant evidence for epistasis affecting these traits, although, recognized that epistatic effects may well vary within individuals over time. We therefore conducted a full genome scan for epistatic interactions affecting these traits in each of seven three-day intervals. Our intent was to assess the extent and trends in epistasis affecting these traits in each of the intervals. We discovered a number of epistatic interactions of QTLs that influenced the activity traits in the mice, the majority of which were not previously found and appeared to affect the activity traits (especially distance and speed) primarily in the early or in the late age intervals. The overall impact of epistasis was considerable, its contribution to the total phenotypic variance varying from an average of 22–35% in the three traits across all age intervals. It was concluded that epistasis is more important than single-locus effects of genes on activity traits at specific ages and it is therefore an essential component of the genetic architecture of physical activity. PMID:21667081

Pomp, Daniel; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

2014-01-01

291

Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.  

PubMed

This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. PMID:24576635

French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

2014-05-01

292

Shifts and disruptions in resource-use trait syndromes during the evolution of herbaceous crops.  

PubMed

Trait-based ecology predicts that evolution in high-resource agricultural environments should select for suites of traits that enable fast resource acquisition and rapid canopy closure. However, crop breeding targets specific agronomic attributes rather than broad trait syndromes. Breeding for specific traits, together with evolution in high-resource environments, might lead to reduced phenotypic integration, according to predictions from the ecological literature. We provide the first comprehensive test of these hypotheses, based on a trait-screening programme of 30 herbaceous crops and their wild progenitors. During crop evolution plants became larger, which enabled them to compete more effectively for light, but they had poorly integrated phenotypes. In a subset of six herbaceous crop species investigated in greater depth, competitiveness for light increased during early plant domestication, whereas diminished phenotypic integration occurred later during crop improvement. Mass-specific leaf and root traits relevant to resource-use strategies (e.g. specific leaf area or tissue density of fine roots) changed during crop evolution, but in diverse and contrasting directions and magnitudes, depending on the crop species. Reductions in phenotypic integration and overinvestment in traits involved in competition for light may affect the chances of upgrading modern herbaceous crops to face current climatic and food security challenges. PMID:25185998

Milla, Rubén; Morente-López, Javier; Alonso-Rodrigo, J Miguel; Martín-Robles, Nieves; Chapin, F Stuart

2014-10-22

293

Organic Agriculture Supports Biodiversity and Sustainable Food Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity is vital to several important ecosystem services that ensure sustainability of food production. In organic agriculture, land management practices that promote biodiversity and soil quality are emphasized and the goal is to maintain a sustainable agricultural system. Soil quality or soil health is the foundation for all agriculture and natural plant communities and a primary indicator of sustainable land

Teri Underwood; Christine McCullum-Gomez; Alison Harmon; Susan Roberts

2011-01-01

294

AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy  

E-print Network

STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook, and Specialization in the Wisconsin Dairy Industry · The Economic Importance of Value-added Agriculture in Wisconsin · The Economic Value of Wisconsin's Green Industry Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College

Radeloff, Volker C.

295

Identifying Technical Content Training Needs of Georgia Agriculture Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The continuing trend toward increasing diversity of curriculum offered within secondary agricultural education programs is driving a change in pre-service and in-service technical training for agriculture teachers. This study looks at agriculture teachers' perceived importance of, and competence in, traditional technical competencies such as…

Peake, Jason B.; Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

2007-01-01

296

Climate Change And Agriculture In Turkey: A Cge Modeling Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture remains an important source of income and employment in Turkey. Agricultural production is heavily dependent on water availability for increasing productivity and decreasing volatility in production. Half of the crop production in Turkey relies on irrigation. Irrigated agriculture currently consumes about 75 percent of total water consumption which is about 30 percent of renewable water availability. However climate change

Erol H. Cakmak; Hasan Dudu; Sirin Saracoglu

2009-01-01

297

Agricultural Chemicals and Radiation. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is designed to be used as a resource in teaching vocational agriculture high school students about the environment. Agricultural chemicals are the major focus, with some attention to radiation. The importance of safety in agricultural chemical use is stressed, with descriptions of the pesticide label; protective clothing; respiratory…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

298

Secondary Agricultural Schools in Russia. Bulletin, 1917, No. 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a country where 80 percent of the people are engaged in farming, it is natural to expect that the agricultural schools should play an important part in the general system of education. The act of 1904 on agricultural education constitutes the basis of the organization of the agricultural schools. This act places all private schools under the…

Jesien, W. S.

1917-01-01

299

7 CFR 1260.117 - Importer.  

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260... Importer means any person who imports cattle, beef, or beef products from outside the United...

2014-01-01

300

7 CFR 1260.117 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260... Importer means any person who imports cattle, beef, or beef products from outside the United...

2010-01-01

301

7 CFR 1260.117 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260... Importer means any person who imports cattle, beef, or beef products from outside the United...

2011-01-01

302

7 CFR 1260.117 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260... Importer means any person who imports cattle, beef, or beef products from outside the United...

2013-01-01

303

7 CFR 1260.117 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260... Importer means any person who imports cattle, beef, or beef products from outside the United...

2012-01-01

304

7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal...

2012-01-01

305

Autism traits in the RASopathies  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) pathway genes lead to a class of disorders known as RASopathies, including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Costello syndrome (CS), and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). Previous work has suggested potential genetic and phenotypic overlap between dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although the literature offers conflicting evidence for association of NF1 and autism, there has been no systematic evaluation of autism traits in the RASopathies as a class to support a role for germline Ras/MAPK activation in ASDs. Methods We examined the association of autism traits with NF1, NS, CS and CFC, comparing affected probands with unaffected sibling controls and subjects with idiopathic ASDs using the qualitative Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the quantitative Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Results Each of the four major RASopathies showed evidence for increased qualitative and quantitative autism traits compared with sibling controls. Further, each RASopathy exhibited a distinct distribution of quantitative social impairment. Levels of social responsiveness show some evidence of correlation between sibling pairs, and autism-like impairment showed a male bias similar to idiopathic ASDs. Conclusions Higher prevalence and severity of autism traits in RASopathies compared to unaffected siblings suggests that dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling during development may be implicated in ASD risk. Evidence for sex bias and potential sibling correlation suggests that autism traits in the RASopathies share characteristics with autism traits in the general population and clinical ASD population and can shed light on idiopathic ASDs. PMID:24101678

Adviento, Brigid; Corbin, Iris L; Widjaja, Felicia; Desachy, Guillaume; Enrique, Nicole; Rosser, Tena; Risi, Susan; Marco, Elysa J; Hendren, Robert L; Bearden, Carrie E; Rauen, Katherine A; Weiss, Lauren A

2014-01-01

306

Reciprocal Influences between Negative Life Events and Callous-Unemotional Traits.  

PubMed

Children with conduct problems and co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits show more severe, stable, and aggressive antisocial behaviors than those without CU traits. Exposure to negative life events has been identified as an important contributing factor to the expression of CU traits across time, although the directionality of this effect has remained unknown due to a lack of longitudinal study. The present longitudinal study examined potential bidirectional effects of CU traits leading to experiencing more negative life events and negative life events leading to increases in CU traits across 3 years among a sample of community-based school-aged (M?=?10.9, SD?=?1.71 years) boys and girls (N?=?98). Repeated rating measures of CU traits, negative life events and conduct problems completed by children and parents during annual assessments were moderately to highly stable across time. Cross-lagged models supported a reciprocal relationship of moderate magnitude between child-reported CU traits and "controllable" negative life events. Parent-reported CU traits predicted "uncontrollable" life events at the earlier time point and controllable life events at the later time point, but no reciprocal effect was evident. These findings have important implications for understanding developmental processes that contribute to the stability of CU traits in youth. PMID:24875593

Kimonis, Eva R; Centifanti, Luna C M; Allen, Jennifer L; Frick, Paul J

2014-11-01

307

Plant functional traits suggest novel ecological strategy for an invasive shrub in an understorey  

E-print Network

of invasive species relative to the entire native community is important in understanding and managing both advances in plant ecology to compare functional traits of an invasive shrub species, autumn-olive Elaeagnus of the invasive shrub's trait distribution with those of the native species was found to be smaller than

Ostling, Annette

308

Differences in Offending Patterns between Adolescent Sex Offenders High or Low in Callous--Unemotional Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors investigated whether callous and unemotional (CU) traits designated a distinct and important group of adolescent sex offender. A sample of 150 detained adolescents (mean age = 15.89, SD = 1.53) with a current sexual offense disposition was assessed with a self-report measure of CU traits and through extensive…

Lawing, Kathryn; Frick, Paul J.; Cruise, Keith R.

2010-01-01

309

Variation in resource limitation of plant reproduction influences natural selection on floral traits of Asclepias syriaca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of both pollen and resources can influence natural selection on floral traits, but their relative importance in shaping floral evolution is unclear. We experimentally manipulated pollinator and resource (fertilizer and water) availability in the perennial wildflower Asclepias syriaca L. Nine floral traits, one male fitness component (number of pollinia removed), and two female fitness components (number of pollinia

Christina M. Caruso; Davin L. D. Remington; Kate E. Ostergren

2005-01-01

310

Carbon cycling traits of plant species are linked with mycorrhizal strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem carbon cycling depends strongly on the productivity of plant species and the decomposition rates of the litter they produce. We tested the hypothesis that classifying plant functional types according to mycorrhizal association explains important interspecific variation in plant carbon cycling traits, particularly in those traits that feature in a hypothesized feedback between vegetation productivity and litter turnover. We compared

J. H. C. Cornelissen; R. Aerts; B. Cerabolini; M. J. A. Werger; M. G. A. van der Heijden

2001-01-01

311

UrbanSolutionsCenter Evaluation of 40 Wild Rose Species for Horticultural Traits, Alkalinity  

E-print Network

UrbanSolutionsCenter Evaluation of 40 Wild Rose Species for Horticultural Traits, Alkalinity (aphids, spider mites, scarab beetles, thrips, etc.) resistance are important on garden roses. Wild rose will make it possible to incorporate these traits into garden rose breeding programs and to develop new

312

EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF PLANT DEFENCES Plant traits that predict resistance to herbivores  

E-print Network

EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF PLANT DEFENCES Plant traits that predict resistance to herbivores Diego of plants against insect and mammalian herbivores, their relative importance compared to other potential defensive plant traits (e.g. physical resistance, gross morphology, life-history, primary chemistry

Lajeunesse, Marc J.

313

Effect of Maternal Age on Milk Production Traits, Fertility, and Longevity in Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longevity is the economically most important func- tional trait in cattle populations. However, with an in- creased productive lifespan, the number of offspring born by older dams increases. A higher maternal age might have negative effects on the performance of off- spring.Theobjectiveofthisstudywastoinvestigatethe effect of maternal age on production (energy-corrected milk yield (ECM)) and functional traits (fertility; so- matic cell score,

B. Fuerst-Waltl; A. Reichl; C. Fuerst; R. Baumung; J. Sölkner

2004-01-01

314

Study on the Trait Sport-confidence of the collegiate basketball athletes and its influence factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important component of the athletes' comprehensive abilities; sport-confidence impacts on the athletic performance whether before or during the event. By means of documental data method, survey method, psychological measurement, and statistical method, the research had directed on the trait sport-confidence (SC- Trait) of collegiate basketball athletes who had participated in college basketball matches of shanghai, china and its

Lu Tianfeng; Wang Enfeng

2011-01-01

315

Predictive Value of Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Large Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in children and adolescents are increasingly recognized as a distinctive dimension of prognostic importance in clinical samples. Nevertheless, comparatively little is known about the longitudinal effects of these personality traits on the mental health of young people from the general population. Using a…

Moran, Paul; Rowe, Richard; Flach, Clare; Briskman, Jacqueline; Ford, Tamsin; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Stephen; Goodman, Robert

2009-01-01

316

Examining Socioaffective Processing Biases in Cigarette Smokers with High Versus Low Trait Hostility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing measures of socioaffective processing is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying emotional-interpersonal traits relevant to health, such as hostility. In this study, cigarette smokers with low (LH; n = 49) and high (HH; n = 43) trait hostility completed the Emotional Interference Gender Identification Task (EIGIT), a newly developed behavioral measure of socioaffective processing biases toward facial affect. The

Adam M. Leventhal; Christopher W. Kahler

2010-01-01

317

Herb abundance and life-history traits in two contrasting alpine habitats in southern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonisation is often a critical stage in the life history of plants, and recruitment success is expected to have a strong impact on plant frequencies especially among herbs. Several plant traits (seed size, plant height, leaf dry weight and specific leaf area) are suggested to be functionally important in early life stages, and the impact of such traits is expected

Gunnar Austrheim; Marianne Evju; Atle Mysterud

2005-01-01

318

Quantitative trait loci analysis of swine meat quality traits.  

PubMed

A QTL study was performed in large half-sib families to characterize the genetic background of variation in pork quality traits as well as to examine the possibilities of including QTL in a marker-assisted selection scheme. The quality traits included ultimate pH in LM and the semimembranosus, drip loss, and the Minolta color measurements L*, a*, and b* representing meat lightness, redness, and yellowness, respectively. The families consist of 3,883 progenies of 12 Duroc boars that were evaluated to identify the QTL. The linkage map consists of 462 SNP markers on 18 porcine autosomes. Quantitative trait loci were mapped using a linear mixed model with fixed factors (sire, sex, herd, month, sow age) and random factors (polygenic effect, QTL effects, and litter). Chromosome-wide and genome-wide significance thresholds were determined by Peipho's approach, and 95% Bayes credibility intervals were estimated from a posterior distribution of the QTL position. In total, 31 QTL for the 6 meat quality traits were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, among which 11 QTL were significant at the 5% genome-wide level and 5 of these were significant at the 0.1% genome-wide level. Segregation of the identified QTL in different families was also investigated. Most of the identified QTL segregated in 1 or 2 families. For the QTL affecting ultimate pH in LM and semimembranosus and L* and b* value on SSC6, the positions of the QTL and the shapes of the likelihood curves were almost the same. In addition, a strong correlation of the estimated effects of these QTL was found between the 4 traits, indicating that the same genes control these traits. A similar pattern was seen on SSC15 for the QTL affecting ultimate pH in the 2 muscles and drip loss. The results from this study will be helpful for fine mapping and identifying genes affecting meat quality traits, and tightly linked markers may be incorporated into marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:20495113

Li, H D; Lund, M S; Christensen, O F; Gregersen, V R; Henckel, P; Bendixen, C

2010-09-01

319

Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies  

PubMed Central

Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-01-01

320

Identification of Immune Traits Correlated with Dairy Cow Health, Reproduction and Productivity  

PubMed Central

Detailed biological analyses (e.g. epidemiological, genetic) of animal health and fitness in the field are limited by the lack of large-scale recording of individual animals. An alternative approach is to identify immune traits that are associated with these important functions and can be subsequently used in more detailed studies. We have used an experimental dairy herd with uniquely dense phenotypic data to identify a range of potentially useful immune traits correlated with enhanced (or depressed) health and fitness. Blood samples from 248 dairy cows were collected at two-monthly intervals over a 10-month period and analysed for a number of immune traits, including levels of serum proteins associated with the innate immune response and circulating leukocyte populations. Immune measures were matched to individual cow records related to productivity, fertility and disease. Correlations between traits were calculated using bivariate analyses based on animal repeatability and random regression models with a Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing. A number of significant correlations were found between immune traits and other recorded traits including: CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio and subclinical mastitis; % CD8+ lymphocytes and fertility; % CD335+ natural killer cells and lameness episodes; and serum haptoglobin levels and clinical mastitis. Importantly these traits were not associated with reduced productivity and, in the case of cellular immune traits, were highly repeatable. Moreover these immune traits displayed significant between-animal variation suggesting that they may be altered by genetic selection. This study represents the largest simultaneous analysis of multiple immune traits in dairy cattle to-date and demonstrates that a number of immune traits are associated with health events. These traits represent useful selection markers for future programmes aimed at improving animal health and fitness. PMID:23776543

Banos, Georgios; Wall, Eileen; Coffey, Michael P.; Bagnall, Ainsley; Gillespie, Sandra; Russell, George C.; McNeilly, Tom N.

2013-01-01

321

Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

322

Redesigning public agricultural research and development in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural research and development (R&D) has played an important and increasing role in the course of agricultural development all over the world. In Brazil public agricultural R&D was started with the creation of Embrapa at beginning of the 1970s. Since that, Embrapa's contribution to agricultural R&D for tropical regions became well known worldwide. However, in the last decade, Embrapa's R&D

Alcido Elenor Wander

2003-01-01

323

Dispersal strategies of phytophagous insects at a local scale: adaptive potential of aphids in an agricultural environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The spread of agriculture greatly modified the selective pressures exerted by plants on phytophagous insects, by providing these insects with a high-level resource, structured in time and space. The life history, behavioural and physiological traits of some insect species may have evolved in response to these changes, allowing them to crowd on crops and to become agricultural pests. Dispersal,

Eric Lombaert; Roger Boll; Laurent Lapchin

2006-01-01

324

The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture.  

PubMed

The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till, NT) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Cultivation and tillage play an important role in agriculture. The benefits of tillage in agriculture are explored before introducing conservation tillage (CT), a practice that was borne out of the American dust bowl of the 1930s. The paper then describes the benefits of CA, a suggested improvement on CT, where NT, mulch and rotations significantly improve soil properties and other biotic factors. The paper concludes that CA is a more sustainable and environmentally friendly management system for cultivating crops. Case studies from the rice-wheat areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia and the irrigated maize-wheat systems of Northwest Mexico are used to describe how CA practices have been used in these two environments to raise production sustainably and profitably. Benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global warming are also discussed. The paper concludes that agriculture in the next decade will have to sustainably produce more food from less land through more efficient use of natural resources and with minimal impact on the environment in order to meet growing population demands. Promoting and adopting CA management systems can help meet this goal. PMID:17720669

Hobbs, Peter R; Sayre, Ken; Gupta, Raj

2008-02-12

325

The Relationship between Biodiversity and Organic Agriculture Defining Appropriate Policies and Approaches for Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of the EU's total land area is used for agricultural production, which over the centuries has produced an impressive diversity of landscapes. The importance of maintaining the biodiversity associated with these agricultural areas is a high priority for the conservation of nature in Europe as a whole. However, these traditional farming methods are now increasingly being superseded

Sue Stolton

326

Bovine Polledness – An Autosomal Dominant Trait with Allelic Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistent horns are an important trait of speciation for the family Bovidae with complex morphogenesis taking place briefly after birth. The polledness is highly favourable in modern cattle breeding systems but serious animal welfare issues urge for a solution in the production of hornless cattle other than dehorning. Although the dominant inhibition of horn morphogenesis was discovered more than

Ivica Medugorac; Doris Seichter; Alexander Graf; Ingolf Russ; Helmut Blum; Karl Heinrich Göpel; Sophie Rothammer; Stefan Krebs

2012-01-01

327

Human genetic variation and its contribution to complex traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few years have seen extensive efforts to catalogue human genetic variation and correlate it with phenotypic differences. Most common SNPs have now been assessed in genome-wide studies for statistical associations with many complex traits, including many important common diseases. Although these studies have provided new biological insights, only a limited amount of the heritable component of any complex

Sarah S. Murray; Nicholas J. Schork; Eric J. Topol; Kelly A. Frazer

2009-01-01

328

Floristic patterns and plant traits of Mediterranean communities in  

E-print Network

(grassland and scrubland) in the context of ecological succession. We ask whether plant assemblagesORIGINAL ARTICLE Floristic patterns and plant traits of Mediterranean communities in fragmented To contrast floristic spatial patterns and the importance of habitat fragmentation in two plant communities

Chave, Jérôme

329

Sensitivity assessment of freshwater macroinvertebrates to pesticides using biological traits.  

PubMed

Assessing the sensitivity of different species to chemicals is one of the key points in predicting the effects of toxic compounds in the environment. Trait-based predicting methods have proved to be extremely efficient for assessing the sensitivity of macroinvertebrates toward compounds with non specific toxicity (narcotics). Nevertheless, predicting the sensitivity of organisms toward compounds with specific toxicity is much more complex, since it depends on the mode of action of the chemical. The aim of this work was to predict the sensitivity of several freshwater macroinvertebrates toward three classes of plant protection products: organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. Two databases were built: one with sensitivity data (retrieved, evaluated and selected from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ECOTOX database) and the other with biological traits. Aside from the "traditional" traits usually considered in ecological analysis (i.e. body size, respiration technique, feeding habits, etc.), multivariate analysis was used to relate the sensitivity of organisms to some other characteristics which may be involved in the process of intoxication. Results confirmed that, besides traditional biological traits, related to uptake capability (e.g. body size and body shape) some traits more related to particular metabolic characteristics or patterns have a good predictive capacity on the sensitivity to these kinds of toxic substances. For example, behavioral complexity, assumed as an indicator of nervous system complexity, proved to be an important predictor of sensitivity towards these compounds. These results confirm the need for more complex traits to predict effects of highly specific substances. One key point for achieving a complete mechanistic understanding of the process is the choice of traits, whose role in the discrimination of sensitivity should be clearly interpretable, and not only statistically significant. PMID:21983753

Ippolito, A; Todeschini, R; Vighi, M

2012-03-01

330

Fetal testosterone and autistic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of amniotic testosterone in humans suggest that fetal testosterone (fT) is related to specific (but not all) sexually dimorphic aspects of cognition and behaviour. It has also been suggested that autism may be an extreme manifestation of some male-typical traits, both in terms of cognition and neuroanatomy. In this paper, we examine the possibility of a link between autistic

Bonnie Auyeung; Simon Baron-Cohen; Emma Ashwin; Rebecca Knickmeyer; Kevin Taylor; Gerald Hackett

2009-01-01

331

Stateful Traits Alexandre Bergel1  

E-print Network

, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, 2 Language and Software Evolution ­ LISTIC, Universit´e de Savoie, 3 to compose classes from reus- able components while avoiding problems of fragility brought by multiple inher as software components, are artificially incomplete, and classes that use such traits may con- tain

Ducasse, Stéphane

332

Agricultural land reform in Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

During transition, Moldova has pursued a policy of small-scale land privatisiation and a sucession of decollectivisation initiatives. Small-scale land reform has been important for bolstering the real incomes of rural households but living standards have continued to fall. While initial political resistance to decollectivisation has been overcome, serious challenges remain for co-ordinating agricultural production, procurement and marketing from a newly

Matthew Gorton

2001-01-01

333

7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.  

...10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260.121 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research...

2014-01-01

334

7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260.121 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research...

2013-01-01

335

7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260.121 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research...

2010-01-01

336

7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260.121 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research...

2011-01-01

337

7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260.121 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research...

2012-01-01

338

7 CFR 1150.120 - Imported dairy product.  

...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Imported dairy product. 1150.120 Section 1150.120 Agriculture...AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

2014-01-01

339

7 CFR 1150.120 - Imported dairy product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Imported dairy product. 1150.120 Section 1150.120 Agriculture...AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

2013-01-01

340

7 CFR 1150.120 - Imported dairy product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Imported dairy product. 1150.120 Section 1150.120 Agriculture...and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

2012-01-01

341

Agricultural Statistics 1994  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has made full text of "Agricultural Statistics 1994" available via its Web site. Agricultural Statistics is an annual compendium of data (and selected charts) relating to all aspects of the U.S. agricultural economy. Subject coverage includes all major crop and livestock sectors, farm income and credit, stabilization and price support, agricultural conservation and forestry statistics, and fertilizers and pesticides, among others. Tables include both state and national breakdowns, and most national tables include between two and ten year time series. The book is available as one large Adobe Acrobat .PDF file (about 5 megabytes), so you'll need a fast connection to get it. You'll also need a free Acrobat Reader, which can be obtained at the same page. Acrobat allows selective searching for specific tables, as well as selective printing of those tables. (See Network Tools, below.)

1994-01-01

342

Two on Urban Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As various organizations and think-tanks continue to develop programmatic strategies to improve the welfare of the world's poor, one intriguing idea that has met with marked success is the incorporation of agriculture into the very fabric of urban areas. One such organization is the International Development Research Centre (based in Canada), and its Cities Feeding People program. At the website, visitors can learn about the centre's research agenda, read various working papers and online books on the subject of urban agriculture (such as the recently released, Urban Agriculture Policy Briefs for Local Governments in Latin America), and read news updates. In that same vein, and found at the second link, is the Georgia Center for Urban Agriculture which is also committed "to promoting environmental stewardship and the delivery of science-based information." Here visitors can learn more about urban agriculture, read about creating and maintaining a successful urban agriculture, and the organization of the Center.

343

Association mapping of germination traits in Arabidopsis thaliana under light and nutrient treatments: searching for G×E effects.  

PubMed

In the natural world, genotype expression is influenced by an organism's environment. Identifying and understanding the genes underlying phenotypes in different environments is important for making advances in fields ranging from evolution to medicine to agriculture. With the availability of genome-wide genetic-marker datasets, it is possible to look for genes that interact with the environment. Using the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana, we looked for genes underlying phenotypes as well as genotype-by-environment interactions in four germination traits under two light and two nutrient conditions. We then performed genome-wide association tests to identify candidate genes underlying the observed phenotypes and genotype-by-environment interactions. Of the four germination traits examined, only two showed significant genotype-by-environment interactions. While genome-wide association analyses did not identify any markers or genes explicitly linked to genotype-by-environment interactions, we did identify a total of 55 markers and 71 genes associated with germination differences. Of the 71 genes, four--ZIGA4, PS1, TOR, and TT12--appear to be strong candidates for further study of germination variation under different environments. PMID:24902604

Morrison, Ginnie D; Linder, C Randal

2014-08-01

344

Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants.  

PubMed

The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties. PMID:24296899

Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K

2013-12-01

345

Agricultural Development Bank Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB\\/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local

Hans Dieter Seibel

2001-01-01

346

Neural Basis of Emotional Decision Making in Trait Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Although trait anxiety has been associated with risk decision making, whether it is related to risk per se or to the feeling of the risk, as well as the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, remains unclear. Using a decision-making task with a manipulation of frame (i.e., written description of options as a potential gain or loss) and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive relationship between trait anxiety and decision making. The classic framing effect was observed: participants chose the safe option when it was described as a potential gain, but they avoided the same option when it was described as a potential loss. Most importantly, trait anxiety was positively correlated with this behavioral bias. Trait anxiety was also positively correlated with amygdala-based “emotional” system activation and its coupling with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) when decisions were consistent with the framing effect, but negatively correlated with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)-based “analytic” system activation and its connectivity to the vmPFC when decisions ran counter to the framing effect. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety is not associated with subjective risk preference but an evaluative bias of emotional information in decision making, underpinned by a hyperactive emotional system and a hypoactive analytic system in the brain. PMID:24259585

Xu, Pengfei; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S.; Wu, Runguo; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Jiang, Yang; Fan, Jin

2013-01-01

347

Extensions to quantitative trait locus mapping in experimental organisms.  

PubMed

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies involving inbred model organisms have become important and often-used investigative tools in contemporary genetics research. As a result, a number of statistical methods and study designs have been developed that have made it relatively easy for researchers to determine the rough locations of a number of QTLs that influence traits of all types, including a great many of relevance to hypertension and blood pressure regulation. However, as a whole, these methods and designs are limited in that they are not flexible enough to accommodate many of the complexities associated with quantitative trait expression. In this review, we describe a number of extensions to QTL mapping designs that should make QTL mapping experiments more insightful and compelling. These extensions include multiple QTL modeling with an emphasis on epistatic locus interaction and additive locus effects, the use of multiple phenotypic end points, the design of pharmacogenetic studies, the use of whole-genome parameters in quantitative trait investigations, and issues in mapping QTLs that influence traits that exhibit developmental trends. We use studies investigating the genetic basis of blood pressure regulation to exemplify relevant issues. PMID:8952606

Schork, N J; Nath, S P; Lindpaintner, K; Jacob, H J

1996-12-01

348

Neural basis of emotional decision making in trait anxiety.  

PubMed

Although trait anxiety has been associated with risk decision making, whether it is related to risk per se or to the feeling of the risk, as well as the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, remains unclear. Using a decision-making task with a manipulation of frame (i.e., written description of options as a potential gain or loss) and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive relationship between trait anxiety and decision making. The classic framing effect was observed: participants chose the safe option when it was described as a potential gain, but they avoided the same option when it was described as a potential loss. Most importantly, trait anxiety was positively correlated with this behavioral bias. Trait anxiety was also positively correlated with amygdala-based "emotional" system activation and its coupling with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) when decisions were consistent with the framing effect, but negatively correlated with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)-based "analytic" system activation and its connectivity to the vmPFC when decisions ran counter to the framing effect. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety is not associated with subjective risk preference but an evaluative bias of emotional information in decision making, underpinned by a hyperactive emotional system and a hypoactive analytic system in the brain. PMID:24259585

Xu, Pengfei; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S; Wu, Runguo; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Jiang, Yang; Fan, Jin; Luo, Yue-jia

2013-11-20

349

Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs  

PubMed Central

The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive “slash-and-burn” farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives. PMID:23589860

Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L.; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

2013-01-01

350

Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders. PMID:24930576

Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

2014-10-30

351

Agriculture Fact Book 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture Office of Communications has recently released the latest version (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) of its Agriculture Fact Book (discussed in the May 17, 1996 Scout Report). It is a compendium of thousands of facts presented in thumbnail essay, chart, table, and map formats that discuss the various aspects of US agriculture. The AFB answers questions about what Americans eat and what it costs, the structure of agriculture, and rural America, among others. Users can also find detailed organizational information about the Department. The AFB is a well-known reference tool for librarians, journalists, and subject specialists alike.

352

Agriculture Fact Book 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) has recently released the _Agricultural Fact Book 1996_ . Provided by the USDA Office of Communications, it offers basic facts about many aspects of U.S. agriculture, including the U.S. farm sector, the structure of U.S. agriculture, and rural America. It contains short entries and brief statistical breakdowns, and is meant to be used as a ready reference tool for journalists, librarians, farm special interest groups, and the general public. The publication is available only in Adobe Acrobat .pdf format. Pointers to the Adobe Acrobat download site are available from the publication.

1996-01-01

353

Agricultural aviation research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

Chevalier, H. L. (compiler); Bouse, L. F. (compiler)

1977-01-01

354

A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait

Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

2013-01-01

355

Genome-wide association mapping for kernel and malting quality traits using historical European barley records.  

PubMed

Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

Matthies, Inge E; Malosetti, Marcos; Röder, Marion S; van Eeuwijk, Fred

2014-01-01

356

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Kernel and Malting Quality Traits Using Historical European Barley Records  

PubMed Central

Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

Roder, Marion S.; van Eeuwijk, Fred

2014-01-01

357

Intraspecific Trait Variation Driven by Plasticity and Ontogeny in Hypochaeris radicata  

PubMed Central

The importance of intraspecific variation in plant functional traits for structuring communities and driving ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, but mechanisms governing this variation are less studied. Variation could be due to adaptation to local conditions, plasticity in observed traits, or ontogeny. We investigated 1) whether abiotic stress caused individuals, maternal lines, and populations to exhibit trait convergence, 2) whether trait variation was primarily due to ecotypic differences or trait plasticity, and 3) whether traits varied with ontogeny. We sampled three populations of Hypochaeris radicata that differed significantly in rosette diameter and specific leaf area (SLA). We grew nine maternal lines from each population (27 lines total) under three greenhouse conditions: ambient conditions (control), 50% drought, or 80% shade. Plant diameter and relative chlorophyll content were measured throughout the experiment, and leaf shape, root?shoot ratio, and SLA were measured after five weeks. We used hierarchical mixed-models and variance component analysis to quantify differences in treatment effects and the contributions of population of origin and maternal line to observed variation. Observed variation in plant traits was driven primarily by plasticity. Shade significantly influenced all measured traits. Plant diameter was the only trait that had a sizable proportion of trait variation (30%) explained by population of origin. There were significant ontogenetic differences for both plant diameter and relative chlorophyll content. When subjected to abiotic stress in the form of light or water limitation, Hypochaeris radicata exhibited significant trait variability. This variation was due primarily to trait plasticity, rather than to adaptation to local conditions, and also differed with ontogeny. PMID:25333738

Mitchell, Rachel M.; Bakker, Jonathan D.

2014-01-01

358

Intraspecific Trait Variation Driven by Plasticity and Ontogeny in Hypochaeris radicata.  

PubMed

The importance of intraspecific variation in plant functional traits for structuring communities and driving ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, but mechanisms governing this variation are less studied. Variation could be due to adaptation to local conditions, plasticity in observed traits, or ontogeny. We investigated 1) whether abiotic stress caused individuals, maternal lines, and populations to exhibit trait convergence, 2) whether trait variation was primarily due to ecotypic differences or trait plasticity, and 3) whether traits varied with ontogeny. We sampled three populations of Hypochaeris radicata that differed significantly in rosette diameter and specific leaf area (SLA). We grew nine maternal lines from each population (27 lines total) under three greenhouse conditions: ambient conditions (control), 50% drought, or 80% shade. Plant diameter and relative chlorophyll content were measured throughout the experiment, and leaf shape, root?shoot ratio, and SLA were measured after five weeks. We used hierarchical mixed-models and variance component analysis to quantify differences in treatment effects and the contributions of population of origin and maternal line to observed variation. Observed variation in plant traits was driven primarily by plasticity. Shade significantly influenced all measured traits. Plant diameter was the only trait that had a sizable proportion of trait variation (30%) explained by population of origin. There were significant ontogenetic differences for both plant diameter and relative chlorophyll content. When subjected to abiotic stress in the form of light or water limitation, Hypochaeris radicata exhibited significant trait variability. This variation was due primarily to trait plasticity, rather than to adaptation to local conditions, and also differed with ontogeny. PMID:25333738

Mitchell, Rachel M; Bakker, Jonathan D

2014-01-01

359

A 2-step strategy for detecting pleiotropic effects on multiple longitudinal traits  

PubMed Central

Genetic pleiotropy refers to the situation in which a single gene influences multiple traits and so it is considered as a major factor that underlies genetic correlation among traits. To identify pleiotropy, an important focus in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is on finding genetic variants that are simultaneously associated with multiple traits. On the other hand, longitudinal designs are often employed in many complex disease studies, such that, traits are measured repeatedly over time within the same subject. Performing genetic association analysis simultaneously on multiple longitudinal traits for detecting pleiotropic effects is interesting but challenging. In this paper, we propose a 2-step method for simultaneously testing the genetic association with multiple longitudinal traits. In the first step, a mixed effects model is used to analyze each longitudinal trait. We focus on estimation of the random effect that accounts for the subject-specific genetic contribution to the trait; fixed effects of other confounding covariates are also estimated. This first step enables separation of the genetic effect from other confounding effects for each subject and for each longitudinal trait. Then in the second step, we perform a simultaneous association test on multiple estimated random effects arising from multiple longitudinal traits. The proposed method can efficiently detect pleiotropic effects on multiple longitudinal traits and can flexibly handle traits of different data types such as quantitative, binary, or count data. We apply this method to analyze the 16th Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW16) Framingham Heart Study (FHS) data. A simulation study is also conducted to validate this 2-step method and evaluate its performance. PMID:25368629

Wang, Weiqiang; Feng, Zeny; Bull, Shelley B.; Wang, Zuoheng

2014-01-01

360

Development of a next-generation NIL library in Arabidopsis thaliana for dissecting complex traits  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of the loci and specific alleles underlying variation in quantitative traits is an important goal for evolutionary biologists and breeders. Despite major advancements in genomics technology, moving from QTL to causal alleles remains a major challenge in genetics research. Near-isogenic lines are the ideal raw material for QTL validation, refinement of QTL location and, ultimately, gene discovery. Results In this study, a population of 75 Arabidopsis thaliana near-isogenic lines was developed from an existing recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between physiologically divergent accessions Kas-1 and Tsu-1. First, a novel algorithm was developed to utilize genome-wide marker data in selecting RILs fully isogenic to Kas-1 for a single chromosome. Seven such RILs were used in 2 generations of crossing to Tsu-1 to create BC1 seed. BC1 plants were genotyped with SSR markers so that lines could be selected that carried Kas-1 introgressions, resulting in a population carrying chromosomal introgressions spanning the genome. BC1 lines were genotyped with 48 genome-wide SSRs to identify lines with a targeted Kas-1 introgression and the fewest genomic introgressions elsewhere. 75 such lines were selected and genotyped at an additional 41 SNP loci and another 930 tags using 2b-RAD genotyping by sequencing. The final population carried an average of 1.35 homozygous and 2.49 heterozygous introgressions per line with average introgression sizes of 5.32 and 5.16 Mb, respectively. In a simple case study, we demonstrate the advantage of maintaining heterozygotes in our library whereby fine-mapping efforts are conducted simply by self-pollination. Crossovers in the heterozygous interval during this single selfing generation break the introgression into smaller, homozygous fragments (sub-NILs). Additionally, we utilize a homozygous NIL for validation of a QTL underlying stomatal conductance, a low heritability trait. Conclusions The present results introduce a new and valuable resource to the Brassicaceae research community that enables rapid fine-mapping of candidate loci in parallel with QTL validation. These attributes along with dense marker coverage and genome-wide chromosomal introgressions make this population an ideal starting point for discovery of genes underlying important complex traits of agricultural and ecological significance. PMID:24063355

2013-01-01

361

Preferential traits for breeding Nguni cattle in low-input in-situ conservation production systems.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted in communal and small-scale Nguni cattle enterprises to determine preferential traits for improvement under low-input cattle breeding programs. Forty-one farmers participated in ranking six specific traits of breeding bulls and cows. Kruskal-Wallis test and ordinal logistic regression were used to determine mean ranks of traits and odds ratios of predictors (enterprise ownership, gender, farmer age, education level, agriculture training) on specified trait ranks, respectively. Preferential traits for breeding bulls were in the order; aggression and mating behaviour (1.86), tick and disease resistance (1.90), body condition score (2.69), scrotal circumference (4.52), body size and conformation (4.71) and coat colour (5.02). For breeding cows,preferential order were; tick and disease resistance (1.55), reproductive efficiency (2.02), body condition score (3.14), body size and conformation (4.21), coat colour (4.74) and milk yield (5.31). Less old farmers (< 50 years) and those from communal enterprises preferred bull coat colour more than scrotal circumference. Farmers with primary education and those with formal agriculture training had the least odds ratio estimates on the poorly ranked bull coat colour. The informally trained farmers, older age group (> 50 years), females and those from small-scale enterprises had odds ratio estimates less than one for the sixth ranked milk yield in Nguni cows. It was concluded that trait preference in breeding bulls and cows is significantly influenced by socio-economic and demographic factors. It is recommended to consider farmer preferences in trait selection and designing communal breeding programs. PMID:23705106

Tada, Obert; Muchenje, Voster; Dzama, Kennedy

2013-12-01

362

Appearance traits in fish farming: progress from classical genetics to genomics, providing insight into current and potential genetic improvement.  

PubMed

Appearance traits in fish, those external body characteristics that influence consumer acceptance at point of sale, have come to the forefront of commercial fish farming, as culture profitability is closely linked to management of these traits. Appearance traits comprise mainly body shape and skin pigmentation. Analysis of the genetic basis of these traits in different fish reveals significant genetic variation within populations, indicating potential for their genetic improvement. Work into ascertaining the minor or major genes underlying appearance traits for commercial fish is emerging, with substantial progress in model fish in terms of identifying genes that control body shape and skin colors. In this review, we describe research progress to date, especially with regard to commercial fish, and discuss genomic findings in model fish in order to better address the genetic basis of the traits. Given that appearance traits are important in commercial fish, the genomic information related to this issue promises to accelerate the selection process in coming years. PMID:25140172

Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

2014-01-01

363

Wisconsin Agriculture Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics  

E-print Network

Wisconsin Agriculture 2012 STATUS OF Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics · Status­Extension College of Agricultural & Life Sciences UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MADISON #12;#12;Status of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2012 An annual report by the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, UW

Radeloff, Volker C.

364

Intraspecific variability in functional traits matters: case study of Scots pine.  

PubMed

Although intraspecific trait variability is an important component of species ecological plasticity and niche breadth, its implications for community and functional ecology have not been thoroughly explored. We characterized the intraspecific functional trait variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to (1) compare it to the interspecific trait variability of trees in the same region, (2) explore the relationships among functional traits and the relationships between them and stand and climatic variables, and (3) study the role of functional trait variability as a determinant of radial growth. We considered five traits: wood density (WD), maximum tree height (H max), leaf nitrogen content (Nmass), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf biomass-to-sapwood area ratio (B L:A S). A unique dataset was obtained from the Ecological and Forest Inventory of Catalonia (IEFC), including data from 406 plots. Intraspecific trait variation was substantial for all traits, with coefficients of variation ranging between 8% for WD and 24% for B L:A S. In some cases, correlations among functional traits differed from those reported across species (e.g., H max and WD were positively related, whereas SLA and Nmass were uncorrelated). Overall, our model accounted for 47% of the spatial variability in Scots pine radial growth. Our study emphasizes the hierarchy of factors that determine intraspecific variations in functional traits in Scots pine and their strong association with spatial variability in radial growth. We claim that intraspecific trait variation is an important determinant of responses of plants to changes in climate and other environmental factors, and should be included in predictive models of vegetation dynamics. PMID:24850418

Laforest-Lapointe, Isabelle; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Retana, Javier

2014-08-01

365

Assessing Youth Perceptions and Knowledge of Agriculture: The Impact of Participating in an AgVenture Program  

E-print Network

Agriculture touches the lives of individuals every day, and some do not even realize it. As a means to educate society, agricultural education programs, such as "AgVenture," have been established to educate youth about the importance of agriculture...

Luckey, Alisa

2012-07-16

366

Agricultural Instruction in Secondary Schools: Papers Read at the Third Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Agricultural Teaching, Atlanta, Georgia November 12 1912. Bulletin, 1913, No. 14. Whole Number 522  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in agricultural education continues to increase. The attempt to teach agriculture is no longer confined to the agricultural college and special agricultural school. Methods of teaching the most important facts and the elementary principles of agriculture are discussed in the meetings of most of our educational associations. There is a…

United States Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1913

1913-01-01

367

Biofuels and Agriculture  

E-print Network

Biofuels and Agriculture Biofuels and Agriculture A Factsheet for Farmers American farmers have "biofuels" like ethanol and biodiesel mean that new markets are opening up. These can provide extra farm as growing markets for other biofuels like biodiesel. What are biofuels? Biofuels (short for "biomass fuels

Pawlowski, Wojtek

368

AGRICULTURAL REPORT MAY 1998  

E-print Network

and the future of the industry, fac- ulty in the School of Agriculture at Purdue University in collaboration for the New Millennium--winner of a Gold Award for editing from the Agricultural Communica- tors in Education: international trade, consumer demand for food, the hog/pork sector, the beef sector and the grains and oil seeds

369

Agriculture and Environmental Quality  

E-print Network

to acquaint students to agricultural practices and their effect on environmental quality, and to demonstrate Water Act, wetlands, bioenergy, food waste and pesticides. Students will examine the nitrogen treatment process and the use of biosolids and reclaimed water in agriculture. Students will scrutinize

Ma, Lena

370

Agriculture as History  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the historical role of agriculture in the United States. While the treatment begins with an overview of American agricultural history from colonial times to the present, it focuses primarily on the time period from 1860 to 1950. The bibliography contains books which will introduce themes and events from that era.

T. J. Lusher

1997-01-01

371

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. (TITLE SUPPLIED).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AGRICULTURE IS THE MOST BASIC INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES AND, AS OUR SOURCE OF FOOD, FEED, AND FIBER, OCCUPIES A KEY ROLE IN THE ECONOMY OF THE COUNTRY. CHANGING DEMANDS AND SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS HAVE CREATED A NEED FOR INCREASED EMPHASIS ON TRAINING INDIVIDUALS FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE TOTAL INDUSTRY OF AGRICULTURE. THESE CHANGES HAVE…

1966

372

Agriculture and Environmental Quality  

E-print Network

and erosion/leaching, non-point source pollution, best management practices, land application of biosolids and the effects of pollution on the agricultural environment. Topics covered include: Soil characterization to minimize agricultural pollution and sustain food production adequate for the world's population

Ma, Lena

373

Agriculture Power and Machinery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

Rogers, Tom

374

Vocational Agriculture I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

375

Agricultural Experiment Station Publications  

E-print Network

, social and cultural aspects of agriculture, natural resources management and family issues, to benefit New Mexico's citizens. Off-campus centers located near Alcalde, Artesia, Clayton, Clovis, Corona, Farm the Agricultural Experiment Station, publishes research data and study results. These publications, prepared

376

Action Plan Agricultural Sciences  

E-print Network

and animal origin that are suitable for industrial processing, and all at minimum cost to the environmentAction Plan 2010-2013 Agricultural Sciences Area EXECUTIVE SUMMARY #12;N.B.: If you require any Research Strategy and Proposed Actions 12 #12;4 2010-13 Action Plan. Area 4 4Agricultural Sciences Area 1

Fitze, Patrick

377

Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests  

PubMed Central

Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

Lasky, Jesse R.; Uriarte, Maria; Boukili, Vanessa K.; Chazdon, Robin L.

2014-01-01

378

Traits and phylogenetic history contribute to network structure across Canadian plant-pollinator communities.  

PubMed

Interaction webs, or networks, define how the members of two or more trophic levels interact. However, the traits that mediate network structure have not been widely investigated. Generally, the mechanism that determines plant-pollinator partnerships is thought to involve the matching of a suite of species traits (such as abundance, phenology, morphology) between trophic levels. These traits are often unknown or hard to measure, but may reflect phylogenetic history. We asked whether morphological traits or phylogenetic history were more important in mediating network structure in mutualistic plant-pollinator interaction networks from Western Canada. At the plant species level, sexual system, growth form, and flower symmetry were the most important traits. For example species with radially symmetrical flowers had more connections within their modules (a subset of species that interact more among one another than outside of the module) than species with bilaterally symmetrical flowers. At the pollinator species level, social species had more connections within and among modules. In addition, larger pollinators tended to be more specialized. As traits mediate interactions and have a phylogenetic signal, we found that phylogenetically close species tend to interact with a similar set of species. At the network level, patterns were weak, but we found increasing functional trait and phylogenetic diversity of plants associated with increased weighted nestedness. These results provide evidence that both specific traits and phylogenetic history can contribute to the nature of mutualistic interactions within networks, but they explain less variation between networks. PMID:25142045

Chamberlain, Scott A; Cartar, Ralph V; Worley, Anne C; Semmler, Sarah J; Gielens, Grahame; Elwell, Sherri; Evans, Megan E; Vamosi, Jana C; Elle, Elizabeth

2014-10-01

379

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

380

Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

381

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Agriculture in the Classroom initiative is designed to "improve agricultural literacy." The organization's work is supported by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which works to develop the classroom programs, including fact sheets, lesson plans, and interactive activities. Visitors can make their way through five sections on the homepage, including State Programs, Teacher Center, and Student Center. In the Teacher Center, visitors will find lesson plans, state agricultural facts, and current and back issues of "AgroWorld." This publication brings together helpful information for students and teachers seeking to learn about integrated science, Earth systems, and family and consumer science. Moving along, the Student Center includes fun activities for younger children in the Kids' Zone, such as games that allow students to learn about farm activities and the world of agricultural science.

382

The evolutionary genetics of sexually selected plumage colour traits in the galliform birds  

E-print Network

and female common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and found lower TYRP1 expression in males. Knowledge of the genetic basis of secondary sexual traits and the action of sexual selection at this level could have important implications for our understanding...

Nadeau, Nicola Jacqueline

2007-01-16

383

78 FR 46565 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2013-08-01

384

76 FR 60801 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2011-09-30

385

75 FR 53271 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2010-08-31

386

77 FR 51751 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2012-08-27

387

Women Participation in Agricultural Production: A Probit Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women play a very significant role in agricultural production in Nigeria. They are however accorded little attention. Inadequate information on the level of women participation in agriculture has helped to under estimate their importance in the economy and hence led to their neglect in policy issues. This study therefore employed the Probit analysis to investigate the determinants of women participation in agricultural production. It was found that the level of the disposable income, perception, tenure rights and the level of the contribution of the women to agriculture had significant impact on the women participation in agricultural production.

Damisa, M. A.; Samndi, R.; Yohanna, M.

388

Simulating trait evolution for cross-cultural comparison  

PubMed Central

Cross-cultural anthropologists have increasingly used phylogenetic methods to study cultural variation. Because cultural behaviours can be transmitted horizontally among socially defined groups, however, it is important to assess whether phylogeny-based methods—which were developed to study vertically transmitted traits among biological taxa—are appropriate for studying group-level cultural variation. Here, we describe a spatially explicit simulation model that can be used to generate data with known degrees of horizontal donation. We review previous results from this model showing that horizontal transmission increases the type I error rate of phylogenetically independent contrasts in studies of correlated evolution. These conclusions apply to cases in which two traits are transmitted as a pair, but horizontal transmission may be less problematic when traits are unlinked. We also use the simulation model to investigate whether measures of homology (the consistency index and the retention index) can detect horizontal transmission of cultural traits. Higher rates of evolutionary change have a stronger depressive impact on measures of homology than higher rates of horizontal transmission; thus, low consistency or retention indices are not necessarily indicative of ‘ethnogenesis’. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the importance of using simulations to assess the validity of methods in cross-cultural research. PMID:21041206

Nunn, Charles L.; Arnold, Christian; Matthews, Luke; Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff

2010-01-01

389

Effects of conversion of dry tropical forest to agricultural mosaic on herpetofaunal assemblages.  

PubMed

We explored the impact of forest conversion to agricultural mosaic on anuran, lizard, snake, and turtle assemblages of Neotropical dry forests. Over 2 years, we sampled 6 small watersheds on the west coast of Mexico, 3 conserved and 3 disturbed. The disturbed watersheds were characterized by a mosaic of pastures and cultivated fields (corn, beans, squash) intermingled with patches of different successional stages of dry forest. In each watershed, we conducted 11 diurnal and nocturnal time-constrained searches in 10 randomly established plots. We considered vulnerability traits of species in relation to habitat modification. Eighteen anuran, 18 lizard, 23 snake, and 3 turtle species were recorded. Thirty-six species (58%) occurred in both forest conditions, and 14 (22%) and 12 species (19%) occurred only in the conserved and disturbed sites, respectively. Assemblages responded differently to disturbance. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of lizards were higher in disturbed forests. Anuran diversity and species richness were lower in disturbed forest but abundance was similar in both forest conditions. Diversity, richness, and abundance of turtles were lower in disturbed forest. The structure and composition of snake assemblages did not differ between forest conditions. We considered species disturbance sensitive if their abundance was significantly less in disturbed areas. Four anuran (22%), 2 lizard (11%), and 3 turtle (100%) species were sensitive to disturbance. No snake species was sensitive. The decline in abundance of disturbance-sensitive species was associated with the reduction of forest canopy cover, woody stem cover, roots, and litter-layer ground cover. Anuran species with small body size and direct embryonic development were especially sensitive to forest disturbance. An important goal for the conservation of herpetofauna should be the determination of species traits associated with extinction or persistence in agricultural mosaics. PMID:18294298

Suazo-Ortuño, Ireri; Alvarado-Díaz, Javier; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

2008-04-01

390

Immunity Traits in Pigs: Substantial Genetic Variation and Limited Covariation  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing robustness via improvement of resistance to pathogens is a major selection objective in livestock breeding. As resistance traits are difficult or impossible to measure directly, potential indirect criteria are measures of immune traits (ITs). Our underlying hypothesis is that levels of ITs with no focus on specific pathogens define an individual's immunocompetence and thus predict response to pathogens in general. Since variation in ITs depends on genetic, environmental and probably epigenetic factors, our aim was to estimate the relative importance of genetics. In this report, we present a large genetic survey of innate and adaptive ITs in pig families bred in the same environment. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty four ITs were studied on 443 Large White pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and analyzed by combining a principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic parameter estimation. ITs include specific and non specific antibodies, seric inflammatory proteins, cell subsets by hemogram and flow cytometry, ex vivo production of cytokines (IFN?, TNF?, IL6, IL8, IL12, IFN?, IL2, IL4, IL10), phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. While six ITs had heritabilities that were weak or not significantly different from zero, 18 and 30 ITs had moderate (0.10.4) heritability values, respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between ITs were weak except for a few traits that mostly include cell subsets. PCA revealed no cluster of innate or adaptive ITs. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that variation in many innate and adaptive ITs is genetically controlled in swine, as already reported for a smaller number of traits by other laboratories. A limited redundancy of the traits was also observed confirming the high degree of complementarity between innate and adaptive ITs. Our data provide a genetic framework for choosing ITs to be included as selection criteria in multitrait selection programmes that aim to improve both production and health traits. PMID:21829490

Flori, Laurence; Gao, Yu; Laloe, Denis; Lemonnier, Gaetan; Leplat, Jean-Jacques; Teillaud, Angelique; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Laffitte, Joelle; Pinton, Philippe; de Vaureix, Christiane; Bouffaud, Marcel; Mercat, Marie-Jose; Lefevre, Francois; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire

2011-01-01

391

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AED Agricultural Education  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AED Agricultural Education KEY: # = new course INTRODUCTION TO CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION. (3) The history, status, philosophy, and objectives of career

MacAdam, Keith

392

Fine Mapping and Candidate Gene Search of Quantitative Trait Loci for Growth and Obesity Using Mouse Intersubspecific Subcongenic Intercrosses and Exome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Although growth and body composition traits are quantitative traits of medical and agricultural importance, the genetic and molecular basis of those traits remains elusive. Our previous genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses in an intersubspecific backcross population between C57BL/6JJcl (B6) and wild Mus musculus castaneus mice revealed a major growth QTL (named Pbwg1) on a proximal region of mouse chromosome 2. Using the B6.Cg-Pbwg1 intersubspecific congenic strain created, we revealed 12 closely linked QTLs for body weight and body composition traits on an approximately 44.1-Mb wild-derived congenic region. In this study, we narrowed down genomic regions harboring three (Pbwg1.12, Pbwg1.3 and Pbwg1.5) of the 12 linked QTLs and searched for possible candidate genes for the QTLs. By phenotypic analyses of F2 intercross populations between B6 and each of four B6.Cg-Pbwg1 subcongenic strains with overlapping and non-overlapping introgressed regions, we physically defined Pbwg1.12 affecting body weight to a 3.8-Mb interval (61.5–65.3 Mb) on chromosome 2. We fine-mapped Pbwg1.3 for body length to an 8.0-Mb interval (57.3–65.3) and Pbwg1.5 for abdominal white fat weight to a 2.1-Mb interval (59.4–61.5). The wild-derived allele at Pbwg1.12 and Pbwg1.3 uniquely increased body weight and length despite the fact that the wild mouse has a smaller body size than that of B6, whereas it decreased fat weight at Pbwg1.5. Exome sequencing and candidate gene prioritization suggested that Gcg and Grb14 are putative candidate genes for Pbwg1.12 and that Ly75 and Itgb6 are putative candidate genes for Pbwg1.5. These genes had nonsynonymous SNPs, but the SNPs were predicted to be not harmful to protein functions. These results provide information helpful to identify wild-derived quantitative trait genes causing enhanced growth and resistance to obesity. PMID:25398139

Ishikawa, Akira; Okuno, Sin-ichiro

2014-01-01

393

Biological and ecological traits of Trichoptera: the influence of phylogeny on life history and behavioral traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological and ecological traits of fauna have the potential to indicate changes in community structure that relate to function as an alternative to using traditional taxonomic descriptors. However, traits may be inherited, and consequently, not all species traits are independent of phylogeny. When used in analyses of community structure, results based on traits may be difficult to interpret; suites of traits may respond together even if only one trait is responding to changes in the habitat. To determine the relationship between traits and phylogeny, we examined life history and behavioral traits for the extant 45 families of Trichoptera. Traits such as larval size, respiratory strategies, case or net materials, locomotion, food and functional feeding group, voltanism, diapause, habitat, and reproduction were collected from published life histories. Traits were then coded and mapped onto the phylogeny of Trichoptera to determine the correlations between traits, as well as correlations directly influenced by the phylogeny. Traits such as functional feeding group, reproductive strategies, and building materials were correlated with phylogeny, while traits such as locomotion and habitat type were less influenced by phylogeny. Consideration of macroinvertebrate phylogenies when selecting biological and ecological traits may be essential for accurate interpretation of community function.

Mendez, P. K.; Resh, V. H.

2005-05-01

394

Sustainable and Unsustainable Agriculture in Ghana and  

E-print Network

The agricultural sector of African economies has faced considerable challenges within the past 50 years or so. Although agricultural production on the continent rose by an annual average of 2 % between 1965 and 1980 and has continued to increase by 1.8 % annually since then, population growth of 2.9 % per year has resulted in a per capita decline in agricultural production. From self-sufficiency in food production before the 1960s, many African countries have become net food importers, with a handful of them facing severe food shortages arising from drought, desertification, climate change and wars. In this paper we use the case of Ghana and Nigeria to explore some of the salient dynamics that have resulted in the current crisis in the agricultural sector of African economies. We argue that soil conditions, climate change, population growth, in combination with ineffective economic policies have contributed immensely to the sordid state of agriculture in Africa. We use historical and contemporary evidence gathered from Ghana and Nigeria during several visits to show how economic policies have interacted with biophysical and environmental factors to generate an unsustainable use of land, agricultural labor, and natural resources. Based on our field research, we propose an “agroentrepreneurial” model of agriculture that combines sustainable farming practices with entrepreneurship. This model enables farmers to take advantage of emerging markets in the food value chain, as well as enhance their living standards and self-esteem.

Steve Onyeiwu; Eric Pallant; Meredith Hanlon

395

Oregon Agriculture and the Economy  

E-print Network

Oregon Agriculture and the Economy: An Update Oregon State University Extension Service Rural Analyst Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics Oregon State University #12;Contents ...........................................................................................................................................12 Agricultural Support Services, Wholesale Trade, Transportation and Warehousing, Retail Trade

Tullos, Desiree

396

Important driving forces in livestock production and agriculture  

E-print Network

, water shortage and pollution and loss of biodiversity. Formulating responses to the wide range of industrialized production systems impair air and water quality, de-value real estate and create health and well widespread impact. Pollution and depletion of water Livestock production can lead to unsustainable water use

Archer, Steven R.

397

IMPORTANCE AND INCLUSION OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thank God for giving me the strength to finish what I started and for giving me the help and support of all those listed below! Shane, without you, I would not even be in grad school. Your constant support and encouragement,kept me going when I thought that I would never finish. Thank

Keri Jeanne Miller

398

Morphological Correlates of a Combat Performance Trait in the Forked Fungus Beetle, Bolitotherus cornutus  

PubMed Central

Combat traits are thought to have arisen due to intense male-male competition for access to females. While large and elaborate weapons used in attacking other males have often been the focus of sexual selection studies, defensive traits (both morphological and performance) have received less attention. However, if defensive traits help males restrict access to females, their role in the process of sexual selection could also be important. Here we examine the morphological correlates of grip strength, a defensive combat trait involved in mate guarding, in the tenebrionid beetle Bolitotherus cornutus. We found that grip strength was repeatable and differed between the sexes. However, these differences in performance were largely explained by body size and a non-additive interaction between size and leg length that differed between males and females. Our results suggest that leg size and body size interact as part of an integrated suite of defensive combat traits. PMID:22916153

Benowitz, Kyle M.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Formica, Vincent A.

2012-01-01

399

Natural selection on floral traits of Lobelia (Lobeliaceae): spatial and temporal variation.  

PubMed

The strength and direction of natural selection on floral traits can vary spatially and temporally because of variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. High spatial variation in selection should lead to differentiation of floral traits among populations. In contrast, high temporal variation in selection should retard the evolution of population-specific floral phenotypes. To determine the relative importance of spatial vs. temporal variation in natural selection, we measured phenotypic selection on seven floral traits of the wildflowers Lobelia cardinalis and L. siphilitica in 1999 and 2000. Lobelia cardinalis experienced significant temporal variation in selection, whereas L. siphilitica experienced spatial variation in selection on the same traits. This variation in selection on floral traits was associated with spatial and temporal differences in the soil microenvironment. Although few studies of natural selection include spatial or temporal replicates, our results suggest that such replication is critical for understanding the distribution of phenotypes in nature. PMID:21659233

Caruso, Christina M; Peterson, S Brook; Ridley, Caroline E

2003-09-01

400

The role of trait and ability emotional intelligence in bulimic symptoms.  

PubMed

Bulimia is characterized by poor affect regulation, yet the role of emotional intelligence (EI) is little understood. This study examined associations between EI and bulimic symptoms using 235 women from community and student populations. They completed measures of trait and ability EI, and the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale. Results showed that deficiencies in different aspects of trait EI and/or ability EI are a function of symptom type: binge eating, compensatory behaviours or weight and shape concerns. Consistent with affect regulation models, self-regulatory aspects of trait EI were related to two bulimic symptoms: binge eating and weight and shape concerns. Ability-based self-emotion management was not important, and explanatory power of lower-level EI facets (traits or abilities) was not superior to more broadly defined EI factors. Results support the conclusion that trait and ability EI may maintain subclinical levels of bulimic symptoms but have different paths. PMID:24854810

Gardner, Kathryn Jane; Quinton, Stephanie; Qualter, Pamela

2014-04-01

401

Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agriculture in the Classroom Web site(last mentioned in the October 27, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has recently been updated. One of the current features, Listening to the Prairie - Farming in Nature's Image, is a useful resource which has many lesson plans and classroom activities for all grades and can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. These lesson plans explore subjects like how energy passes through food webs, where our food comes from, how agriculture affects our lives, and soil and erosion. This is a useful site that focuses on a subject that many urban students may not normally be exposed to.

2002-01-01

402

Ancient and Modern Agriculture.  

E-print Network

compilation of sollie of the agricultural texts that are to be found in both the Old and New Testaments for the use of rural agricultural leaders who may desire to give more definite spiritual context to their messages upon agricultural and related topics... pests and plant diseases pecu- liar to one certain crop. (d) m e r e legumes are grown in rotation and they are turned into the soil o r fed to livestock and the manure distributed on the fields, the fer- tility of the land is increased. (e...

Short, A. K.

1923-01-01

403

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm  

PubMed Central

Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL for C18:2 was detected on Group 2. Conclusion This study describes the first successful detection of QTLs for fatty acid composition in oil palm. These QTLs constitute useful tools for application in breeding programmes. PMID:19706196

Singh, Rajinder; Tan, Soon G; Panandam, Jothi M; Rahman, Rahimah Abdul; Ooi, Leslie CL; Low, Eng-Ti L; Sharma, Mukesh; Jansen, Johannes; Cheah, Suan-Choo

2009-01-01

404

DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gs?)-encoding (GNAS) genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits  

PubMed Central

Background Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie some important quantitative traits in domestic mammals, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In this candidate gene study, we have identified novel associations between six validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 97.6 kb region within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha gene (GNAS) domain on bovine chromosome 13 and genetic merit for a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian sires. The mammalian GNAS domain consists of a number of reciprocally-imprinted, alternatively-spliced genes which can play a major role in growth, development and disease in mice and humans. Based on the current annotation of the bovine GNAS domain, four of the SNPs analysed (rs43101491, rs43101493, rs43101485 and rs43101486) were located upstream of the GNAS gene, while one SNP (rs41694646) was located in the second intron of the GNAS gene. The final SNP (rs41694656) was located in the first exon of transcripts encoding the putative bovine neuroendocrine-specific protein NESP55, resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine amino acid substitution at amino acid position 192. Results SNP genotype-phenotype association analyses indicate that the single intronic GNAS SNP (rs41694646) is associated (P ? 0.05) with a range of performance traits including milk yield, milk protein yield, the content of fat and protein in milk, culled cow carcass weight and progeny carcass conformation, measures of animal body size, direct calving difficulty (i.e. difficulty in calving due to the size of the calf) and gestation length. Association (P ? 0.01) with direct calving difficulty (i.e. due to calf size) and maternal calving difficulty (i.e. due to the maternal pelvic width size) was also observed at the rs43101491 SNP. Following adjustment for multiple-testing, significant association (q ? 0.05) remained between the rs41694646 SNP and four traits (animal stature, body depth, direct calving difficulty and milk yield) only. Notably, the single SNP in the bovine NESP55 gene (rs41694656) was associated (P ? 0.01) with somatic cell count--an often-cited indicator of resistance to mastitis and overall health status of the mammary system--and previous studies have demonstrated that the chromosomal region to where the GNAS domain maps underlies an important quantitative trait locus for this trait. This association, however, was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. The three remaining SNPs assayed were not associated with any of the performance traits analysed in this study. Analysis of all pairwise linkage disequilibrium (r2) values suggests that most allele substitution effects for the assayed SNPs observed are independent. Finally, the polymorphic coding SNP in the putative bovine NESP55 gene was used to test the imprinting status of this gene across a range of foetal bovine tissues. Conclusions Previous studies in other mammalian species have shown that DNA sequence variation within the imprinted GNAS gene cluster contributes to several physiological and metabolic disorders, including obesity in humans and mice. Similarly, the results presented here indicate an important role for the imprinted GNAS cluster in underlying complex performance traits in cattle such as animal growth, calving, fertility and health. These findings suggest that GNAS domain-associated polymorphisms may serve as important genetic markers for future livestock breeding programs and support previous studies that candidate imprinted loci may act as molecular targets for the genetic improvement of agricultural populations. In addition, we present new evidence that the bovine NESP55 gene is epigenetically regulated as a maternally expressed imprinted gene in placental and intestinal tissues from 8-10 week old bovine foetuses. PMID:21214909

2011-01-01

405

Remotely Sensed Mapping of Agricultural Productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying vulnerable agricultural production areas is essential for any sustainable development/farming plan. Climate is among the most important factors that determine the agricultural potential of a region and the suitability of an area for a specific crop or land management, followed by soil characteristics and geomorphology. Temperature and rainfall in terms of quantity and spatiotemporal variability are the two climatic variables that determine the agricultural potential of an area and the risk involved in any new agronomical use. Also, extreme weather events, such as droughts, have to be taken into account. In this paper, two satellite derived indices are combined in GIS environment with soil maps and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in order to identify the agricultural potential of areas. Namely, these indices are the Vegetation Health Index (VHI) and the Degree Days (DD) (also known as Heat Units). VHI represents overall vegetation health and is used for agricultural drought monitoring and mapping. DD units (oC d) are often used in agriculture in order to estimate or predict the lengths of the different phases of the development in crop plants, since temperature has a primary role in the growth of many organisms (plants and insects). The two indices are computed for 20 hydrological years, from October 1981 to September 2001, from NOAA/AVHRR ten -day composite images with 8x8 Km spatial resolution. DD is examined for crops of great commercial importance. The soil maps are digitized according to fertility (appropriate or not for agricultural use) and desertification vulnerability, whereas altitude based limitations are provided by the DEM. The study area is the water district of Thessaly, the largest lowland formation of Greece and the country's largest agricultural centre, located in Central Greece. The superposition of the two indices along with the soil and elevation data had led to the identification of vulnerable agricultural production areas. The derived map represents the appropriate agricultural use per pixel and implies that in the 35% of Thessaly water district, agriculture is not a sustainable use. Crops of commercial importance can be grown to the rest 65%.

Tsiros, E.; Domenikiotis, C.; Dalezios, N. R.; Danalatos, N. G.

2009-04-01

406

Region and site conditions affect phenotypic trait variation in five forest herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of organisms to express different phenotypes under different environmental conditions. It may buffer individuals both against short-term environmental fluctuations and long-term effects of global change. A plastic behaviour in response to changes in the environment may be especially important in species with low migration rates and colonization capacities, such as in many forest plants in present-day fragmented landscapes. We compared the phenotypic trait variation (used as a proxy for the amount of phenotypic plasticity) of five forest herbs (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Circaea lutetiana, Impatiens noli-tangere, Sanicula europaea and Stachys sylvatica) between two regions in Germany that differ in their overall environmental conditions (Bremen in the northwest, Freiburg in the southwest; 5 species × 2 regions × 8-15 populations × 25-50 individuals). In addition, we measured light intensity and important soil parameters (soil pH, moisture, K, P and N) in all populations. We found consistent differences in trait variability between the two regions in several species. In Brachypodium and Stachys both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in Freiburg. Similarly, reproductive traits of Impatiens and Sanicula appeared to be more variable in Freiburg, while in both species at least one of the vegetative traits was more variable in Bremen. Mean local environmental conditions also affected trait variation; in most of the species both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in sites with higher nutrient contents and higher light availability. Across all traits and both regions, seed or fruit production was most variable. In summary, at least some of the studied forest herbs appear to respond strongly to large-scale environmental differences, showing a higher trait variability in the more southern region. Given the assumption that phenotypic trait variation is positively associated with phenotypic plasticity, we conclude that these populations may more easily respond to changes in the environment.

Lemke, Isgard Holle; Kolb, Annette; Diekmann, Martin Reemt

2012-02-01

407

7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order...importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum forage,...

2010-01-01

408

Genetic variation of inbreeding depression among floral and fitness traits in Silene nutans.  

PubMed

The magnitude and variation of inbreeding depression (ID) within populations is important for the evolution and maintenance of mixed mating systems. We studied ID and its genetic variation in a range of floral and fitness traits in a small and large population of the perennial herb Silene nutans, using controlled pollinations in a fully factorial North Carolina II design. Floral traits and early fitness traits, that is seed mass and germination rate, were not much affected by inbreeding (delta<0.2). In contrast, 'late' fitness traits and multiplicative fitness suffered severely from inbreeding (delta>0.4). Lack of genetic correlations indicated that ID in floral, early and late traits is genetically decoupled. There was a trend that the smaller population was less affected by ID than the large one, although the differences were not significant for most traits. Hence, evidence for purging of deleterious alleles remains inconclusive in this study. Genetic variation in ID among paternal families was statistically significant in most floral and all seed traits, but not in late fitness traits. However, some paternal families had delta<0.5, even in the multiplicative fitness measure that suffered most from ID (delta=0.74), suggesting that the mixed mating system of S. nutans might be evolutionary stable. PMID:19690582

Thiele, J; Hansen, T; Siegismund, H R; Hauser, T P

2010-01-01

409

Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

Böhlke, J.K.

2002-01-01

410

Quantitative trait loci influencing drought tolerance in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is a major constraint in sorghum production worldwide. Drought-stress in sorghum has been characterized at both pre-flowering\\u000a and post-flowering stages resulting in a drastic reduction in grain yield. In the case of post-flowering drought stress, lodging\\u000a further aggravates the problem resulting in total loss of crop yield in mechanized agriculture. The present study was conducted\\u000a to identify quantitative trait

H. Kebede; P. K. Subudhi; D. T. Rosenow; H. T. Nguyen

2001-01-01

411

Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

Schake, L. M.

1970-01-01

412

United States of Agriculture  

E-print Network

Center,U.S.GeologicalSurvey,Lafayette,LA70506 Gerald J. Gottfried, Research Forester, Southwest Forest Sciences Complex, Rocky Mountain Research of Agriculture, Forest Service, Riverside, CA 92507 Michael G. Harrington, Research Forester, Fire Sciences

Stephens, Scott L.

413

AGRICULTURAL REPORT DECEMBER 2010  

E-print Network

PURDUE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS REPORT DECEMBER 2010 he American Dream, to have a better life than://www.merriam-webster.com/ dictionary/opportunity> ** United States Census Bureau. American FactFinder Glossary.

414

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about the Agricultural Heath Study, begun In 1993 by scientists from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

415

International Programs in Agriculture  

E-print Network

technology in West and Central Africa. In collaboration with the U.S. Agency for International Development and Central Africa. Thanks to the hard work of Linda Vallade and the study aboard staff, Purdue Agriculture

416

United States of Agriculture  

E-print Network

populations of P. ponderosa, (e) interspecific and intraspecific pine grafts, (f) effects of procedural, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 454 p. Retrieval Terms: Pinus species, pine grafts, bark ...........................................................................1 Chapter 2 General Procedures

Standiford, Richard B.

417

Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

1990-01-01

418

Agricultural Health Study  

Cancer.gov

This study explores potential causes of cancer and other diseases among farmers and their families and among commercial pesticide applicators. Current medical research suggests that while agricultural workers are generally healthier than the general U.S. population, they may have higher rates of some cancers, including leukemia, myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, skin, brain, and prostate. Other conditions, like asthma, neurologic disease, and adverse reproductive outcomes may also be related to agricultural exposures.

419

Reforming Agricultural Development Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of agricultural development banking discussed in this paper has a history to it. For a hundred years or more, until the middle of the 20th century, a small number of agricultural banks existed outside of Europe. During that period, 15.5% of the banks in the AgriBank-Stat inventory, were established.1 Some seem to have led an inconspicuous life, like

Thorsten Giehler; Hans Dieter Seibel; Stefan Karduck

2005-01-01

420

Agricultural Water Demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to present and discuss the major lines of research related to water use at the farm-level.\\u000a In contrast to the case of industrial water use, there has been an enormous amount of attention paid to the economic characteristics\\u000a of agricultural water use and effluent flows from agricultural operations. In addition to the primary literature

Steven Renzetti

421

Trait--environment relationships remain strong despite 50 years of trait compositional change in temperate forests.  

PubMed

Temperate North American forest communities have changed considerably in response to logging, fragmentation, herbivory, and other global change factors. Significant changes in the structure and composition of seemingly undisturbed Wisconsin forest communities have occurred over the past 50 years, including widespread declines in alpha and beta species diversity. To investigate how shifts in species composition have affected distributions of plant functional traits, we first compiled extensive data on understory plant species traits. We then computed community-weighted trait means and functional diversity metrics for communities in both the 1950s and 2000s. We examined how trait values and diversity varied across environmental gradients and among Wisconsin's four main ecoregions. Trait means and diversity values reflect conspicuous gradients in species composition, soils, and climatic conditions. Over the past 50 years, values of most traits have changed as communities shifted toward species with higher leaf nutrient levels and specific leaf area, particularly in the southern ecoregions. Trait richness and diversity have declined, particularly in historically species- and trait-rich unglaciated southwestern Wisconsin. Reductions in within-site trait diversity may be diminishing the ability of these forest communities to resist or resiliently respond to shifts in environmental conditions. Despite changes in trait and community composition, trait-environment relationships measured directly via fourth-corner analysis remain strong for most plant traits. Nevertheless, accelerating ecological change (including climate change) could outstrip the ability of plant species and traits to match their environment, particularly in more fragmented landscapes. PMID:25163112

Amatangelo, Kathryn L; Johnson, Sarah E; Rogers, David A; Waller, Donald M

2014-07-01

422

Traits underpinning desiccation resistance explain distribution patterns of terrestrial isopods.  

PubMed

Predicted changes in soil water availability regimes with climate and land-use change will impact the community of functionally important soil organisms, such as macro-detritivores. Identifying and quantifying the functional traits that underlie interspecific differences in desiccation resistance will enhance our ability to predict both macro-detritivore community responses to changing water regimes and the consequences of the associated species shifts for organic matter turnover. Using path analysis, we tested (1) how interspecific differences in desiccation resistance among 22 northwestern European terrestrial isopod species could be explained by three underlying traits measured under standard laboratory conditions, namely, body ventral surface area, water loss rate and fatal water loss; (2) whether these relationships were robust to contrasting experimental conditions and to the phylogenetic relatedness effects being excluded; (3) whether desiccation resistance and hypothesized underlying traits could explain species distribution patterns in relation to site water availability. Water loss rate and (secondarily) fatal water loss together explained 90% of the interspecific variation in desiccation resistance. Our path model indicated that body surface area affects desiccation resistance only indirectly via changes in water loss rate. Our results also show that soil moisture determines isopod species distributions by filtering them according to traits underpinning desiccation resistance. These findings reveal that it is possible to use functional traits measured under standard conditions to predict soil biota responses to water availability in the field over broad spatial scales. Taken together, our results demonstrate an increasing need to generate mechanistic models to predict the effect of global changes on functionally important organisms. PMID:23224790

Dias, André T C; Krab, Eveline J; Mariën, Janine; Zimmer, Martin; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Ellers, Jacintha; Wardle, David A; Berg, Matty P

2013-07-01

423

[Agricultural migration has changed face].  

PubMed

Movements related to colonization of new lands for cultivation or pasturing have constituted the dominant form of migration in the Sahel countries since the colonial period. the relative importance of such movements declined with the development of labor migration, but geographic mobility continues to be an integral part of Sahel life. A principal strategy during crises of agricultural production was the vast movement of population toward new lands, but such movements had little macroeconomic or macrosocial importance given the low population density and technical development of the time; the family subsistence enterprise was merely displaced. The artificial division into separate countries in the colonial era brought some control of migratory movements, and especially those across international borders, but such migrations increased again after independence and especially during the prolonged drought. Rural migration has been encouraged by development of transportation and communication facilities and by progress in controlling endemic diseases such as river blindness and sleeping sickness. Contemporary migration differs fundamentally from agricultural migration of the past. Migration has become, in addition to a survival strategy, a strategy of economic and social advancement. The change of residence is often accompanied by a restructuring of economic activities and substantial increases in the household's resources. Migrants attempt to produce enough for their own consumption, with some left for sale. They may also take on secondary employment, especially in the dry season: sale of firewood, petty trading, artisanal production. Spontaneous population movements seem to benefit the migrants, improving family and national agricultural production and contributing to a better distribution of rural population, but they have a high social and ecological cost and should receive more attention from planners and researchers in the context of the current campaign against decertification of the Sahel. Rural population transfers sponsored by the government have also entailed high costs and met with only partial success. Local populations displaced by dams, large reforestation projects, and other large projects have not always been compensated and relocated adequately. The more significant type of government population transfer program involves relocation at greater distances of residents of relatively poor and overpopulated regions to managed zones where agricultural intensification makes better returns and incomes possible. Large resettlement projects based on improved agricultural techniques including irrigation have yielded disappointing results since the 1960s due to high cost, inadequate management of irrigation, and difficult recruitment of settlers. Results of these projects should be kept in mind when plan for rural population redistribution are made. PMID:12343343

Ouedraogo, D

1991-04-01

424

College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

40 College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences 40 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND LIFE SCIENCES The mission of the College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences is to provide teaching, research, and service in agriculture, forestry, and life sciences that will benefit the citizens

Stuart, Steven J.

425

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEN Agricultural Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Food and Environment AEN Agricultural Engineering KEY: # = new course of engineering systems, earthwork computations, and introduction to boundary surveys for Agriculture students in the College of Agriculture and/or consent of instructor. AEN 220 FARM TRACTORS AND ENGINES. (3) Principles

MacAdam, Keith

426

College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

42 College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND LIFE SCIENCES The mission of the College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences is to provide teaching, research, and service in agriculture, forestry, and life sciences that will benefit the citizens of South

Stuart, Steven J.

427

College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND LIFE SCIENCES The mission of the College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences is to provide teaching, research and service in agriculture, forestry and life sciences that will benefit the citizens of South

Stuart, Steven J.

428

College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

43 College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND LIFE SCIENCES The College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Scienc- es (CAFLS) supports Clemson University's land-grant mission to provide education, research and service to the public. The College of Agriculture

Stuart, Steven J.

429

College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

40 College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences 40 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND LIFE SCIENCES The mission of the College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences is to provide teaching, research, and service in agriculture, forestry, and life sciences that will benefit the citizens of South

Stuart, Steven J.

430

College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

20 College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences 20 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND LIFE SCIENCES The mission of the College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences is to provide teaching, research, and service in agriculture, forestry, and life sciences that will benefit the citizens

Stuart, Steven J.

431

College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

39 College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND LIFE SCIENCES The College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sci- ences (www.clemson.edu/CAFLS) offers a broad. The undergraduate academic programs include Agricultural and Applied Economics with a Community and Economic

Stuart, Steven J.

432

College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

41 College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND LIFE SCIENCES The mission of the College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences is to provide teaching, research, and service in agriculture, forestry, and life sciences that will benefit the citizens of South

Stuart, Steven J.

433

College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

46 College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences 46 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND LIFE SCIENCES The College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sci- ences offers graduate programs in 17 traditional disciplines in agriculture, forestry, and a wide variety of biological sciences, from

Stuart, Steven J.

434

College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,  

E-print Network

20 College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences 20 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND LIFE SCIENCES The mission of the College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences is to provide teaching, research and service in agriculture, forestry and life sciences that will benefit the citizens of South

Stuart, Steven J.

435

Agricultural and Biological Engineering College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension  

E-print Network

Agricultural and Biological Engineering College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension An Equal Opportunity University College of Agricultural Sciences, U.S. Department of Agriculture- diate containment and timely clean-up of any spills. Everyone involved with the manure irrigation system

Kaye, Jason P.

436

Why do personality traits predict divorce? Multiple pathways through satisfaction.  

PubMed

While previous studies indicate that personality traits influence the likelihood of divorce, the processes that drive this relationship have yet to be examined. Accordingly, the current study utilized a nationally representative, longitudinal sample (N = 8,206) to test whether relationship satisfaction is a pathway by which personality traits influence relationship dissolution. Specifically, we examined 2 different pathways: the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways. The enduring dynamics pathway specifies that the association between personality and relationship satisfaction reflects ongoing relationship dynamics, which are presumed to be stable across a relationship. In contrast, the emergent distress pathway proposes that personality leads to worsening dynamics across the course of a relationship, which is indicated by changes in satisfaction. For each pathway, we assessed actor, partner, and combined effects for the Big Five. Results replicate previous research in that personality traits prospectively predict relationship dissolution. Both the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways served to explain this relationship, though the enduring dynamics model evidenced the largest effects. The emergent distress pathway was stronger for couples who experienced certain life events, suggesting that personality plays a role in adapting to changing life circumstances. Moreover, results suggest that the personality of the dyad is important in this process: Above and beyond actor effects, partner effects influenced relationship functioning (although the influence of combined effects was less clear). In sum, the current study demonstrates that personality traits shape the overall quality of one's relationship, which in turn influences the likelihood of relationship dissolution. PMID:24841100

Solomon, Brittany C; Jackson, Joshua J

2014-06-01

437

Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived agricultural management dataset allows us to show which climate shocks increase all agricultural area, decrease all agricultural area, and cause substitution between single and double cropping.

Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

2013-12-01

438

Genetic parameters of pelt character, feed efficiency and size traits in Finnish blue fox (Vulpes lagopus).  

PubMed

Pelt character traits (size, quality, colour clarity, darkness) are important economic traits in blue fox breeding. Better feed efficiency (FE) is another economically important and new breeding goal for fur animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlations between pelt character traits, FE and size traits and to estimate genetic parameters for pelt character traits. Pelt size (pSIcm ) had a high positive genetic correlation with animal grading size (gSI), final body weight (BWFin), body length and daily gain (DG), and a moderate correlation with body condition score (BCS). Animal body length and BCS (describing fatness) were considered as genetically different traits. Genetic correlations between pelt quality and size traits were estimated without precision and did not differ from zero, but colour clarity (pCL) had a low antagonistic genetic correlation with FE. Pelt size and DG had a favourable genetic correlation with FE but a fairly high unfavourable genetic correlation with dry matter feed intake. The current emphasis on selection for larger animal and pelt size improves FE indirectly, but selection for larger pelt size favours fast-growing and fat individuals and simultaneously increases feed intake. The detected genetic connections between FE, size, feed intake and pCL should be taken into account in the Finnish blue fox breeding programme. PMID:24236607

Kempe, R; Koskinen, N; Strandén, I

2013-12-01

439

Social personality trait and fitness  

PubMed Central

Several recent studies have explored various aspects of animal personality and their ecological consequences. However, the processes responsible for the maintenance of personality variability within a population are still largely unknown. We have recently demonstrated that social personality traits exist in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and that the variation in sociability provides an explanation for variable dispersal responses within a given species. However, we need to know the fitness consequences of variation in sociability across environmental contexts in order to better understand the maintenance of such variation. In order to achieve this, we investigated the relationship between sociability and survival, body growth and fecundity, in one-year-old individuals in semi-natural populations with varying density. ‘Asocial’ and ‘social’ lizards displayed different fitness outcomes in populations of different densities. Asocial lizards survived better in low-density populations, while social females reproduced better. Spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions might thus be the process underlying the maintenance of these personality traits within a population. Finally, we also discuss the position of sociability in a more general individual behavioural pattern including boldness, exploration and aggressiveness. PMID:18755678

Cote, J; Dreiss, A; Clobert, J

2008-01-01

440

7 CFR 1212.12 - Importer-Handler Representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION...EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...who must import at least 75 percent of the honey they market in the United States and...

2010-01-01