Sample records for important geologic process

  1. Fluid flow in the earth's crust plays an important role in a number of geologic processes. In carbonate reservoirs, fluid

    E-print Network

    Fluid flow in the earth's crust plays an important role in a number of geologic processes. In carbonate reservoirs, fluid flow is thought to be controlled by open macrofractures. The movement of fluids of fluids is accompanied by substantial change in the pore pressure field. As fluids drain, pore pressure

  2. The importance of both geological and pedological processes in control of grain size and sedimentation rates in Peoria Loess

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, H.; Mason, J.A.; Balsam, W.L.

    2006-01-01

    The loess-paleosol succession in the Peoria Loess in southern Illinois is characterized as alternating loess layers and weathering bands, known as paleosol A horizons. The fast loess accumulation during the late Wisconsin glaciation interacted with the incipient pedogenesis and caused unclear boundaries of loess-paleosol alternations in soil horizonation and mineralogy. Parameters of grain size distribution, sedimentation rate, matrix carbonate content and diffuse reflectance (i.e. soil colors and iron oxides) are used in this paper to discuss the geological and pedological influences for the Peoria Loess in Keller Farm section in southern Illinois. The multi-proxy analysis revealed that many paleosol A horizons, defined by the diffuse reflectance variability, contain finer-grained materials with a relatively higher sedimentation rate. It suggests that glaciofluvial sediments were available in the source areas for uploading eolian dust during the temporary ice sheet retreats. The denser vegetation and wetter surface soils on the loess deposit area could increase the dust trapping efficiency and caused a greater accumulation rate of loess deposits. The coarser-grained materials and slower sedimentation rate are often found in loess layers. It suggests that strong surface winds transported the coarser-grained materials from local dust sources and sparse vegetation and dry surface soils reduced the dust trapping efficiency during the ice sheet readvance. The strong interactions between the geological and pedological processes played an important role on the loess-paleosol alternations in southern Illinois during the late Wisconsin glaciation. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  4. Geology and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, M.

    1982-01-01

    Digital image processing for geological applications will be integrated with geographic information systems and data base management systems. While multiband data sets from radar and multispectral scanners will make extreme demands on memory, bus and processor architectures, it is expected that array processors and VLSI/VHSIC dedicated function chips will allow the use of fast Fourier transform and classification algorithms. It is anticipted that, as processor power increases, the weakest link of a processing system will become the analyst who uses it. Human engineering of systems is therefore recommended for the most effective utilization of remotely sensed geologic data.

  5. Planetary geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2014-11-01

    In this introduction to planetary geology, we review the major geologic processes affecting the solid bodies of the solar system, namely volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion. We illustrate the interplay of these processes in different worlds, briefly reviewing how they affect the surfaces of the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, then focusing on two very different worlds: Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the solar system, and Saturn's moon Titan, where the interaction between a dense atmosphere and the surface make for remarkably earth-like landscapes despite the great differences in surface temperature and composition.

  6. Important geological properties of unconventional resource shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatt, Roger M.

    2011-12-01

    The revelation of vast global quantities of potentially productive gas and oil-prone shales has led to advancements in understanding important geological properties which impact reservoir performance. Based upon research on a variety of shales, several geological properties have been recognized as being common and important to hydrocarbon production. (1) transport/depositional processes include hemipelagic `rain', hyperpycnal flows, turbidity current flows, tempestites, wave-reworking, and contour currents in both shallow and deep water settings. (2) Common shale minerals include clays, quartz, calcite, dolomite, apatite, and pyrite; organic constituents include spores ( Tasmanites), plant remains, biogenic quartz and calcite, and arenaceous foraminifera. (3) Porosity and permeability are characteristically low with pore sizes ranging down to the nanoscale. Main pore types include intergranular (including pores within clay floccules), porous organic matter, porous fecal pellets, and microfractures. (4) Important geochemical characteristics include organic richness (>3%), maturity (>1.1%Ro for shale gas and 0.6-0.9% for shale oil) and type (I-IV), in addition to certain biomarkers which are indicators of bottom water oxicity during deposition. Remaining hydrocarbon potential [RHP = (S1 + S2)/TOC] also reflects temporal environmental changes. `Isotopic reversals' can be used to detect best producing areas in shale-gas plays. (5) Lithofacies stacking patterns and sequence stratigraphy are the result of eustatic depositional history. A general sequence stratigraphic model is presented here that highlights this commonality. (6) Geomechanical properties are key to drilling, fracturing and production of hydrocarbons. Brittle-ductile couplets at several scales occur in shale sequences. (7) Geophysical properties, when calibrated to rock properties, provide a means of regionally to locally mapping the aforementioned properties. (8) Economic and societal considerations in the exploration and development of resource shales are garnering attention. Many potentially economic shale-gas and shale-oil plays are being identified globally. Risks and uncertainties associated with gas- and oil-rich shales include the lack of long-term production histories, environmental concerns related to hydraulic fracturing, uncertainty in calculating hydrocarbons-in-place, and fluctuations in supply, demand, and price.

  7. Important geological properties of unconventional resource shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatt, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The revelation of vast global quantities of potentially productive gas and oil-prone shales has led to advancements in understanding important geological properties which impact reservoir performance. Based upon research on a variety of shales, several geological properties have been recognized as being common and important to hydrocarbon production. (1) transport/depositional processes include hemipelagic `rain', hyperpycnal flows, turbidity current flows, tempestites, wave-reworking, and contour currents in both shallow and deep water settings. (2) Common shale minerals include clays, quartz, calcite, dolomite, apatite, and pyrite; organic constituents include spores (Tasmanites), plant remains, biogenic quartz and calcite, and arenaceous foraminifera. (3) Porosity and permeability are characteristically low with pore sizes ranging down to the nanoscale. Main pore types include intergranular (including pores within clay floccules), porous organic matter, porous fecal pellets, and microfractures. (4) Important geochemical characteristics include organic richness (>3%), maturity (>1.1%Ro for shale gas and 0.6-0.9% for shale oil) and type (I-IV), in addition to certain biomarkers which are indicators of bottom water oxicity during deposition. Remaining hydrocarbon potential [RHP = (S1 + S2)/TOC] also reflects temporal environmental changes. `Isotopic reversals' can be used to detect best producing areas in shale-gas plays. (5) Lithofacies stacking patterns and sequence stratigraphy are the result of eustatic depositional history. A general sequence stratigraphic model is presented here that highlights this commonality. (6) Geomechanical properties are key to drilling, fracturing and production of hydrocarbons. Brittle-ductile couplets at several scales occur in shale sequences. (7) Geophysical properties, when calibrated to rock properties, provide a means of regionally to locally mapping the aforementioned properties. (8) Economic and societal considerations in the exploration and development of resource shales are garnering attention. Many potentially economic shale-gas and shale-oil plays are being identified globally. Risks and uncertainties associated with gas- and oil-rich shales include the lack of long-term production histories, environmental concerns related to hydraulic fracturing, uncertainty in calculating hydrocarbons-in-place, and fluctuations in supply, demand, and price.

  8. Oceanography - Marine Geological Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Russell McDuff

    A first year course in oceanography with extensive Internet resources. Topics covered include: principles of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, continuum mechanics, and time-series analysis applied to marine geological and geophysical data; applications to transport of marine sediments; Pleistocene sedimentation and global climate change; and the thermal balance of the oceanic lithosphere. The link to the lecture schedule provides detailed supporting materials.

  9. Coastal Geological Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Coastlines are places of continuous, often dramatic geological activity. They change daily and seasonally, but especially over long time periods. This interactive feature discusses the forces that help shape coastal landforms like cliffs and beaches. Topics include waves, tides, and currents; weathering, erosion, and deposition; and other factors, such as the activity of organisms and human modifications. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

  10. Processes of Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 July 2003

    This THEMIS visible image captures a complex process of deposition, burial and exhumation. The crater ejecta in the top of the image is in the form of flow lobes, indicating that the crater was formed in volatile-rich terrain. While a radial pattern can be seen in the ejecta, the pattern is sharper in the lower half of the ejecta. This is because the top half of the ejecta is still buried by a thin layer of sediment. It is most likely that at one time the entire area was covered. Wind, and perhaps water erosion have started to remove this layer, once again exposing the what was present underneath.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.3, Longitude 181.2 East (178.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison Charts of Geological Processes: Terrestrial Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This chart presents information on the geological processes (volcanism, impact cratering, tectonics, and gradation) that have affected the Earth, Moon, and the terrestrial planets. Students compare the effects these processes have had on the Moon and planets. There is also a blank chart and a sheet of notes on the geological processes that may be used in conjunction with this chart. This chart is one of the activities for the Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Introduction to the Solar System.

  13. Geologic Landforms and Processes on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    During the first reconaissence of the satellites of the outer solar system conducted by the Voyager missions (1979-1989), a surprising diversity of unusual geologic landforms were observed, in some cases with bewildering complexity (e.g., Triton). Impact features were certainly expected but the variety of volcanic, diapiric, tectonic, impact, and erosional landforms was only remotely suggested by some early theoretical works. These diagnostic features are manifestations of the internal composition, thermal history, and dynamical evolution of these bodies. It is the job of the geologist to interpret the morphology, stratigraphy, and composition of these deposits and structures to ascertain what materials were mobilized in the interior, in what amount, and the mechanism and cause of their mobilization. In this chapter, we review what is know about these features and what constraints can be placed on composition and thermal history. Particular emphasis is placed on volcanic features, as these are most directly related to satellite composition and thermal history. The surface spectra, high albedos, and low bulk densities of the satellites of the outer solar system indicate that water and other ices are abundant on these bodies, particularly on their surfaces. Ices, particularly water ice, are less dense than silicates and will tend to float and form crusts during differentiation or partial melting of the interior. Ices therefore take the place of silicates as 'crust-forming' minerals and dominate geologic processes on icy satellites. Melted ices form magma bodies, and sometimes are extruded as lavas, an unusual but still valid perspective for terrestrial geologists. The unusual properties of some ices, including their low melting temperatures, and low strengths (as well as the decrease in density on the freezing of water ice), will ultimately be very important in interpreting this record.

  14. Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as “historically mined” or “unmined,” and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations.

  15. Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Travis S; Clements, William H; Wanty, Richard B; Verplanck, Philip L; Church, Stanley E; San Juan, Carma A; Fey, David L; Rockwell, Barnaby W; DeWitt, Ed H; Klein, Terry L

    2012-04-01

    Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as "historically mined" or "unmined," and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations. PMID:22645817

  16. Importance of process oriented organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedic, S.

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyzes different types of start-up aerospace organizations, common mistakes and the importance of process oriented management systems. It is made using experience in starting up 5 airlines, one microlight aircraft production, two GLXP teams and 4 space technology companies' startup.

  17. Planetary geology: Impact processes on asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental geological and geophysical properties of asteroids were studied by theoretical and simulation studies of their collisional evolution. Numerical simulations incorporating realistic physical models were developed to study the collisional evolution of hypothetical asteroid populations over the age of the solar system. Ideas and models are constrained by the observed distributions of sizes, shapes, and spin rates in the asteroid belt, by properties of Hirayama families, and by experimental studies of cratering and collisional phenomena. It is suggested that many asteroids are gravitationally-bound "rubble piles.' Those that rotate rapidly may have nonspherical quasi-equilibrium shapes, such as ellipsoids or binaries. Through comparison of models with astronomical data, physical properties of these asteroids (including bulk density) are determined, and physical processes that have operated in the solar system in primordial and subsequent epochs are studied.

  18. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (editor)

    1978-01-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

  19. Will Somebody do the Dishes? Weathering Analogies, Geologic Processes and Geologic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, P.; Wuotila, S.; Giuliani, M.

    2006-12-01

    A good analogy is one of the most powerful tools in any instructors' arsenal, and encouraging students to explore the links between an analogy and a scientific concept can cement both ideas in a student's mind. A common analogy for weathering and erosion processes is doing the dishes. Oxidation, hydration, and solution reactions can be intimidating on the chalkboard but easily understood in the context of cleaning up after dinner. Rather than present this analogy as a lecture demonstration, students are encouraged to experimentally determine which type of weathering works best on their dirty dishes. The experiment must use at least four identically dirty dishes: three experimental dishes and one control dish. The experimental dishes are subjected to simulated weathering and erosion processes of the student's design. Common techniques developed by students are cold or warm water baths, baths with and without acid (lemon juice or soda), and freeze-thaw cycles. Occasionally creative experiments result in unexpected discoveries, such the inefficiency of abrasion from wind-blown sand, especially when compared to soaking dishes in Canadian Whiskey. The effectiveness of each experimental run is determined by comparison to the control plate after loose debris is removed from each. The dish with the smallest aerial extent of remaining food is the declared the most effective. Discussion sections of the experimental write-up includes a description of which geologic processes were being simulated in each experiment, comparisons of the effectiveness of each techniques, and statements of how these experiments differ from reality. In order to advance this project, a second stage of the assignment, a direct comparison of weathering and erosion techniques on food and on geologic materials, will be added this fall. Ideally, students will empirically derive erosion rates and calculate the time required to remove the volume of material represented by a geologically important feature, such as Mt. Rainier or the Grand Canyon. In the end, students completing this project gain an understanding of how geologic processes work, the time scales required, the differences between analogies and the real thing, and arguably the most important aspect, a best-practices approach to doing the dishes.

  20. Geologic processes on Venus: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masursky, H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of Venera 15 and 16 radar image and altimetry data and reevaluation of Pioneer Venus and earlier Venera data have greatly expanded the perception of the variety and complexity of geologic processes on Venus. PV data have discriminated four highland regions (each different in geomorphic appearance), a large upland rolling plains region, and smaller areas of lowland plains. Two highland volcanic centers were identified that may be presently active, as suggested by their geomorphologic appearance combined with positive gravity anomalies, lightning strike clusters, and a change in SO2 content in the upper atmosphere. Geochemical data obtained by the Venera landers have indicated that one upland area and nearby rolling plains are composed of volcanic rocks, probably basalts or syenites. New Venera radar images of the Ishtar Terra region show folded and/or faulted linear terrain and associated volcanic features that may have been deformed by both compressional and extensional forces. Lowland surfaces resemble the mare basaltic lava flows that fill basins on the Moon, Mars and Earth. Ubiquitous crater like forms may be of either volcanic or impact origin; the origin of similar lunar features was determined by the character of their ejecta deposits.

  1. Abstracts for the Planetary Geology Field Conference on Aeolian Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (editor); Black, D. (editor)

    1978-01-01

    The Planetary Geology Field Conference on Aeolian Processes was organized at the request of the Planetary Geology Program office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to bring together geologists working on aeolian problems on earth and planetologists concerned with similar problems on the planets. Abstracts of papers presented at the conference are arranged herein by alphabetical order of the senior author. Papers fall into three broad categories: (1) Viking Orbiter and Viking Lander results on aeolian processes and/or landforms on Mars, (2) laboratory results on studies of aeolian processes, and (3) photogeology and field studies of aeolian processes on Earth.

  2. Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

  3. Geological Disposal Concept Selection Aligned with a Voluntarism Process - 13538

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Glenda; King, Samantha [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Building 587, Curie Avenue, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)] [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Building 587, Curie Avenue, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The UK's Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) is currently at a generic stage in its implementation programme. The UK site selection process is a voluntarist process and, as yet, no communities have decided to participate. RWMD has set out a process to describe how a geological disposal concept would be selected for the range of higher activity wastes in the UK inventory, including major steps and decision making points, aligned with the stages of the UK site selection process. A platform of information is being developed on geological disposal concepts at various stages of implementation internationally and, in order to build on international experience, RWMD is developing its approach to technology transfer. The UK has a range of different types of higher activity wastes with different characteristics; therefore a range of geological disposal concepts may be needed. In addition to identifying key aspects for considering the compatibility of different engineered barrier systems for different types of waste, RWMD is developing a methodology to determine minimum separation distances between disposal modules in a co-located geological disposal facility. RWMD's approach to geological disposal concept selection is intended to be flexible, recognising the long term nature of the project. RWMD is also committed to keeping alternative radioactive waste management options under review; an approach has been developed and periodic reviews of alternative options will be published. (authors)

  4. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  5. Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and greenstones. The geological record of the Archean Earth is considerably different than the Phanerozoic record and ongoing processes [1, 7]. The Archean record is characterized by evidence for enhanced mantle temperatures, different styles of crustal deformation (localized belts of high intensity deformation, tight high and low angle folds, diapiric-related deformation, significant lateral differences in lithospheric thickness (implied by 'cold' keels), significant evidence for crustal thickening processes and the burial and exhumation of thickened crust, abundant hightemperature komatiites, greenstone belts, "mafic plains"-type greenstones, positive gneissic and felsic diapirs, abundance of a distinctive TTG (tonalitetrondhjemite- granodiorite) assemblage, layered gabbro- anorthosite igneous intrusions, very abundant plume-derived basalts, unusual events interpreted to represent mantle instability and overturn, late stage granodiorites and granites derived from intracrustal melting, epicratonic basins, and production of large volumes of continental crust [1,4,5]. A major question in the study of the Archean is the nature of the geodynamic processes operating during this time. Do the geodynamic processes represent a steady-state accommodation to the Archean thermal environment, or do they represent a transitional or evolutionary phase? Does the Archean represent a particular unique style of vertical tectonics, as on oneplate planets, lateral tectonics (perhaps early plate tectonics) as on later Earth, or is it transitional in time (and perhaps in space), changing from one style to another during the Archean? What role do the enhanced mantle and crustal temperatures play in volcanism and tectonism during this period? Do global crustal and lithospheric density instabilities play a major role in the transition [8], perhaps causing catastrophic foundering and crustal overturn [9], as thought to have occurred on the Moon and Mars? Does vertical crustal accretion dominate over lateral crustal accretion, leading to density instabilities and planet-wide diapiric upwel

  6. Online Courses: Mississippi State University: Geology I: Processes and Products

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Does your curriculum include concepts in geology? Do you need to continue your education in earth science? Geology I from the Teachers in Geosciences covers the foundational material in physical geology that you need to understand to successfully teach

  7. THE ROLE OF PORE PRESSURE IN DEFORMATION IN GEOLOGIC PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T. N.; Houston, W. N.; Nur, A. M.

    1980-03-01

    A Penrose Conference entitled, "The Role of Pore Pressure in Deformation in Geologic Processes" was convened by the authors at San Diego, California between November 9 and 13, 1979. The conference was sponsored by the Geological Society of America. This report is a summary of the highlights of the issues discussed during the conference. In addition, this report also includes a topical reference list relating to the different subject areas relevant to pore pressure and deformation. The references were compiled from a list suggested by the participants and were available for consultation during the conference. Although the list is far from complete, it should prove to be a good starting point for one who is looking for key papers in the field.

  8. Processing of multispectral thermal IR data for geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Multispectral thermal IR data were acquired with a 24-channel scanner flown in an aircraft over the E. Tintic Utah mining district. These digital image data required extensive computer processing in order to put the information into a format useful for a geologic photointerpreter. Simple enhancement procedures were not sufficient to reveal the total information content because the data were highly correlated in all channels. The data were shown to be dominated by temperature variations across the scene, while the much more subtle spectral variations between the different rock types were of interest. The image processing techniques employed to analyze these data are described.

  9. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. Techniques for determining probabilities of events and processes affecting the performance of geologic repositories: Literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Hunter; C. J. Mann

    1989-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a probabilistic standard for the performance of geologic repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste. This report treats not only geologic events and processes like fault movement, but also events and processes that arise from the relationship between human actions and geology, like drilling for resources, and some that arise from nongeologic

  11. Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Bergman

    2009-08-03

    With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the many different kinds of geological exploration. The elements that make up minerals and the different ways minerals are developed, The special characteristics of minerals, like physical properties, is explained. Earths tectonic plates, the reasons they move, and the effects of the shifting are also given. Also featured is fossils and how they are developed and are found, as well as why fossils are useful tools for scientists.

  12. Some important fractional transformations for signal processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolf W Lohmann; David Mendlovic; Zeev Zalevsky; Rainer G Dorsch

    1996-01-01

    The fractional Fourier transform (FRT), that is useful mathematical and optical tool for signal processing, was defined as a generalization of the conventional Fourier transform. As opposed to the Fourier transform, the Hartley transform is a real (not complex) mathematical transformation and thus might be attractive for various applications. In optics, due to the fact that it is a real

  13. The importance of precise U-Pb ages in geological correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, T. (Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    A reduction of lead laboratory background contamination by six orders of magnitude over the past two decades provides a similar reduction in the sample size required for the analysis. Single grains and parts of grains from growth stages in complex populations with a diameter like that of a human hair can now be precisely dated ([+-] 2 m.y., 2 sigma) without a need to average many grains or many spots as with previous conventional or ion microprobe techniques. New methods to eliminate discordance add to the reliability of the method. Precise ages for igneous events, metamorphism, deformation and mineralization provide a means of correlating geological processes at different structural levels and on a scale far greater than normally possible by proximal relationships. Ages of granulite formation and ductile flow in the Superior Province show that these deep level processes occurred more than 50 m.y. after volcanism at the same time as gold deposits formed in active faults at high structural levels. Episodes of isotopic resetting and new zircon growth due to overthrusting in the Grenville Front tectonic zone allow the ages of deformation to be compared for the 1,500 km length of this structure. Dating single zircons in sedimentary packages like the Toridonian sandstone gives the age of a continental source now removed by continental drift. Single zircon cores indicate the protolith age for 372 Ma and 30 Ma granites in Nova Scotia and Chile, respectively. Diabase dykes of the McKenzie dyke swarm separated by up to 2,000 Km can be shown to be coeval at 1,267 [+-] 2 Ma and hence to have formed by a common process of these dimensions. Precise dating of single zircons (microgram size) from the K-T boundary layer that show varying degrees of shock metamorphism define a circa 550 Ma age for the target rock and 65.5 [+-] 3 Ma age for the impact event.

  14. Beowulf Distributed Processing and the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Discipline (NMD) has expanded its scientific and research activities. Work is being conducted in areas such as emergency response research, scientific visualization, urban prediction, and other simulation activities. Custom-produced digital data have become essential for these types of activities. High-resolution, remotely sensed datasets are also seeing increased use. Unfortunately, the NMD is also finding that it lacks the resources required to perform some of these activities. Many of these projects require large amounts of computer processing resources. Complex urban-prediction simulations, for example, involve large amounts of processor-intensive calculations on large amounts of input data. This project was undertaken to learn and understand the concepts of distributed processing. Experience was needed in developing these types of applications. The idea was that this type of technology could significantly aid the needs of the NMD scientific and research programs. Porting a numerically intensive application currently being used by an NMD science program to run in a distributed fashion would demonstrate the usefulness of this technology. There are several benefits that this type of technology can bring to the USGS's research programs. Projects can be performed that were previously impossible due to a lack of computing resources. Other projects can be performed on a larger scale than previously possible. For example, distributed processing can enable urban dynamics research to perform simulations on larger areas without making huge sacrifices in resolution. The processing can also be done in a more reasonable amount of time than with traditional single-threaded methods (a scaled version of Chester County, Pennsylvania, took about fifty days to finish its first calibration phase with a single-threaded program). This paper has several goals regarding distributed processing technology. It will describe the benefits of the technology. Real data about a distributed application will be presented as an example of the benefits that this technology can bring to USGS scientific programs. Finally, some of the issues with distributed processing that relate to USGS work will be discussed.

  15. Importance of geology to fisheries management: Examples from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, K.M.; Koenig, C.C.; Coleman, F.C.; Miller, M.

    2003-01-01

    Seafloor mapping of shelf-edge habitats in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico demonstrates how sidescan-sonar imagery, seismic-reflection profiling, video data, geologic mapping, sediment sampling, and understanding the regional geologic history can enhance, support, and guide traditional fisheries research and management. New data from the Madison Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Marine Reserves reveal complex benthic habitats consisting of high-relief calcareous pinnacles, low-relief karstic hardbottom, rocky outcrops several kilometers in length, and variable thickness of fine-grained and apparently mobile coarse-grained sediments. Our data also show that certain fish alter the landscape by clearing sediment from hardbottom areas (e.g., red grouper Epinephelus morio) and by burrowing extensively in fine-grained sediment (e.g., tilefish Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps). The seafloor imagery and geologic maps show that (a) sea level fluctuations played a dominant role in the development of the present-day regional geology, and (b) habitats (and benthic communities) are tied closely to geologic character. Understanding the geologic setting allowed for efficient and representative sampling of the biology. The geologic data can be used to set meaningful boundaries for fishery reserves and to help predict habitats in areas that are not well mapped. This interdisciplinary work added value to traditional research disciplines by providing management with integrated tools to make better decisions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2003.

  16. Impact craters: their importance in geologic record and implications for natural resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Levie, D. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Impacting bodies of sufficient size traveling at hypervelocities carry tremendous potential energy. This relatively infrequent process results in the instantaneous formation of unique structures that are characterized by extensive fracturing and brecciation of the target material. Impacts onto continental shield areas can create rich ore deposits, such as the Sudbury mining district in Canada. Impacts into the sedimentary column can instantaneously create hydrocarbon reservoirs out of initially nonporous rocks, such as at Red Wing Creek and Viewfield in the Williston basin. Associated reservoirs are usually limited to a highly deformed central uplift in larger craters, or to the fractured rim facies in smaller craters. The presence of reservoirs and trapping mechanisms is largely dependent, however, upon the preservation state of the crater in the subsurface. A catastrophic extraterrestrial event (a large asteroid impact) has also been suggested as the cause for the extinction of the dinosaurs, but the latest theory proposes a companion star with a 26 m.y. periodicity as the cause for numerous lifeform extinctions over a similar time interval. Regardless of their magnitude and distribution over the earth, it is clear that catastrophic extraterrestrial events have been responsible for altering the geologic column locally, regionally, and quite possibly on a global scale.

  17. Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data

    DOEpatents

    Eliason, Jay R. (Richland, WA); Eliason, Valerie L. C. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer. Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys. The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure. Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations. The vectors, points, and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation.

  18. 76 FR 34656 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Geological and Geophysical Exploration of Mineral and Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...Marine Mammals; Geological and Geophysical Exploration of Mineral and Energy Resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in the...Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE), formerly Minerals Management Service (MMS), for authorization to take...

  19. Geologic versus wildfire controls on hillslope processes and debris flow initiation in the Green River canyons

    E-print Network

    Pederson, Joel L.

    Geologic versus wildfire controls on hillslope processes and debris flow initiation in the Green are unknown. A recent episode of enhanced debris-flow and wildfire activity provided an opportunity to examine with recent debris flows to determine how surficial geology, wildfire, topography, bedrock strength

  20. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H. [Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-08-01

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphasis is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.

  1. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H. (Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1996-01-01

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the Interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for Integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphases is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.

  2. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.J.; Cooper, D.H. [Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the Interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the well. Typically, interpolation methods employ deterministic or geostatistical algorithms which offer limited capacity for Integrating data derived from secondary analyses. These secondary analyses, which might include the results from 3-D seismic inversion, borehole imagery studies, or deductive reasoning, introduce a subjective component into what would otherwise be restricted to a purely mathematical treatment of geologic data. At Saudi ARAMCO an increased emphases is being placed on the role of the reservoir geologist in the development of 3-D geologic models. Quantitative results, based on numerical computations, are being enhanced with intuitive geology, derived from years of cumulative professional experience and expertise. Techniques such as template modeling and modified conditional simulation, are yielding 3-D geologic models, which not only more accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir, but also preserve geologic detail throughout the simulation process. This incorporation of secondary data sources and qualitative analysis has been successfully demonstrated in a clastic reservoir environment in Central Saudi Arabia, and serves as a prototype for future 3-D geologic model development.

  3. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  4. Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high-pass filtering technique for delineating anomalies caused by mineralization or boundaries of mineralization-associated geological bodies; S-A method can be applied as high-pass, low-pass or band -pass filtering techniques for extracting patterns of interest from mixing data; and cascade processes can be implemented to integrate diverse layers of information for mineral resources predictive mapping.

  5. Digitizing rocks standardizing the geological description process using workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, M.R. (EXLOG (Services), Windsor, Berkshire (United Kingdom)); Shields, J.A. (EXLOG North Sea, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Taylor, M.R. (EXLOG, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The preservation of geological knowledge in a standardized digital form presents a challenge. Data sources, inherently fuzzy, range in scale from the macroscopic (e.g., outcrop) through the mesoscopic (e.g., hand-specimen) core and sidewall core, to the microscopic (e.g., drill cuttings, thin sections, and microfossils). Each scale change results in increased heterogeneity and potentially contradictory data and the providers of such data may vary in experience level. To address these issues with respect to cores and drill cuttings, a geological description workstation has been developed and is undergoing field trials. Over 1000 carefully defined geological attributes are currently available within a depth-indexed, relational database. Attributes are stored in digital form, allowing multiple users to select familiar usage (e.g., diabase vs. dolerite). Data can be entered in one language and retrieved in other languages. The database structure allow groupings of similar elements (e.g., rhyolites in acidic, igneous or volcanics subgroups or the igneous rock group) permitting different uses to analyze details appropriate to the scale of the usage. Data entry uses a graphical user interface, allowing the geologist to make quick, logical selections in a standardized or custom-built format with extensive menus, on-screen graphics and help screens available. Description ranges are permissible. Entries for lithology, petrology, structures (sedimentary, organic and deformational), reservoir characteristics (porosity and hydrocarbon shows), and macrofossils are available. Sampling points for thin sections, core analysis, geochemistry, or micropaleontology studies are also recorded. Using digital data storage, geological logs using graphical, alphanumeric and symbolic depictions are possible. Data can be integrated with drilling and mud gas data, MWD and wireline data and off well-site analyses to produced composite formation evaluation logs and interpretational crossplots.

  6. The lively Aysén fjord, Chile: Records of multiple geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Calafat, Antoni; Canals, Miquel; Frigola, Jaime; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Lafuerza, Sara; Longva, Oddvar; Micallef, Aaron; Sepúlveda, Sergio A.; Vargas, Gabriel; Azpiroz, María; Bascuñán, Ignacio; Duhart, Paul; Iglesias, Olaia; Kempf, Philipp; Rayo, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The Aysén fjord is a 65 km long, east-west oriented fjord in Chilean Patagonia, located approximately at 45.4ºS and 73.2ºW, with a maximum water depth of 345 m. The fjord receives at present the riverine input of Aysén, Pescado, Condor and Cuervo rivers, which drain the surrounding up to 2000 m high Patagonian Andes. The fjord is crossed by a number of faults associated to the seismically active Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone, a major trench parallel intra-arc fault system. After a four-month period of moderate seismicity, an Mw 6.2 earthquake on 21 April 2007 triggered dozens of subaerial landslides along the fjord flanks. Some of the landslides reached the fjord water mass, generating a series of tsunami-like displacement waves that impacted the adjacent coastlines with 3-12 m, locally over 50 m high run-ups, causing ten fatalities and severe damage to salmon farms. The research cruise DETSUFA on board BIO Hespérides in March 2013 mapped the submerged morphology of the fjord and gathered air-gun seismic profiles and sediment gravity cores in order to characterise the footprint of the landslides in the fjord floor. Very-high resolution multibeam bathymetry (4 m cell size) clearly shows the deformation structures created by the landslides in the inner fjord. The landslides descended and accelerated down the submerged fjord flanks, and reached the fjord floor at approx. 200 m water depth generating large, 1 to 10 m deep impact depressions. Sediment removed from these depressions moved radially and piled up in deformation rings formed by compressional ridges 10-15 m in height, block fields and a narrow frontal depression. Up to six >1.5 square km of these structures can be identified in the fjord. In addition, the DETSUFA survey extended beyond the SE-NW-oriented inner fjord past the Cuervo Ridge, located in front of the Cuervo river delta. The ridge, previously interpreted as a volcanic transverse structure, has most probably acted as a limit for grounding ice in the past, as suggested by the presence of melt-water channels lateral to the ridge. Beyond the ridge, the fjord smoothens and deepens to more than 330 m forming an enclosed basin before turning SW. There, it shallows back across a field of streamlined submerged hills of glacial origin. The external Aysén fjord, before joining to Canal Costa and Canal Moraleda, is characterized by three volcanic cones, one of them forming Isla Colorada - which also acted as a glacial limit - and the other two totally submerged and previously unknown. The largest one is 160 m high, 1.3 km in diameter and tops at 67 m water depth. This data set illustrates the complex interaction between fluvial, glacial, tectonic, volcanic and gravity processes and evidences the recent lively geological history of Aysén fjord.

  7. Molecular Modeling of Environmentally Important Processes: Reduction Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne; Bumpus, John A.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Cramer, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of computational quantum chemistry in the modeling of environmentally important processes is described. The employment of computational quantum mechanics for the prediction of oxidation-reduction potential for solutes in an aqueous medium is discussed.

  8. The importance of business process modeling in software systems design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Barjis

    2008-01-01

    Despite diligent efforts made by the software engineering community, the failure of software projects keeps increasing at an alarming rate. After two decades of this problem reoccurring, one of the leading causes for the high failure rate is still poor process modeling (requirements' specification). Therefore both researchers and practitioners recognize the importance of business process modeling in understanding and designing

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and catastrophic events

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    SRI International has projected the rate, duration, and magnitude of geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and Gulf Coast over the next million years. This information will be used by the Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as input to a computer model, which will be used to simulate possible release scenarios and the consequences of the release of nuclear waste from geologic containment. The estimates in this report, although based on best scientific judgment, are subject to considerable uncertainty. An evaluation of the Quaternary history of the two study areas revealed that each had undergone geomorphic change in the last one million years. Catastrophic events were evaluated in order to determine their significance to the simulation model. Given available data, catastrophic floods are not expected to occur in the two study areas. Catastrophic landslides may occur in the Southwest, but because the duration of the event is brief and the amount of material moved is small in comparison to regional denudation, such events need not be included in the simulation model. Ashfalls, however, could result in removal of vegetation from the landscape, thereby causing significant increases in erosion rates. Because the estimates developed during this study may not be applicable to specific sites, general equations were presented as a first step in refining the analysis. These equations identify the general relationships among the important variables and suggest those areas of concern for which further data are required. If the current model indicates that geomorphic processes (taken together with other geologic changes) may ultimately affect the geologic containment of nuclear waste, further research may be necessary to refine this analysis for application to specific sites.

  10. Radiogenic Strontium-87 as an Index of Geologic Processes.

    PubMed

    Hedge, C E; Walthall, F G

    1963-06-14

    The abundance of radiogenic Sr(87) relative to Sr(86) at the time of crystallization has been determined for 45 rocks. The total range in the ratio Sr(87)/Sr(86) is less than 2 percent. Ratios for recent lavas range from 0.702 to 0.711. Oceanic basalts are closely grouped at 0.703, whereas ratios for continental volcanic rocks spread from 0.702 to 0.711. Among the volcanic rocks, ranging from basalt to rhyolite, no correlation was found between original ratio and rock type. Older mafic and felsic rocks that include both plutonic and extrusive types also cover this same range in original Sr(87)/Sr(86) ratios; however, there is a definite trend with geologic time. Precambrian rocks give values as low as 0.700. The data indicate that Sr(87)/Sr(86) of the weathering crust has changed 1.1 percent in 3000 million years, while the ratio in the mantle has changed no more than 0.5 percent. PMID:17837503

  11. Refining Martian Ages and Understanding Geological Processes From Cratering Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    2005-01-01

    Senior Scientist William K. Hartman presents his final report on Mars Data Analysis Program grant number NAG5-12217: The third year of the three-year program was recently completed in mid-2005. The program has been extremely productive in research and data analysis regarding Mars, especially using Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey imagery. In the 2005 alone, three papers have already been published, to which this work contributed.1) Hartmann, W. K. 200.5. Martian cratering 8. Isochron refinement and the history of Martian geologic activity Icarus 174, 294-320. This paper is a summary of my entire program of establishing Martian chronology through counts of Martian impact craters. 2) Arfstrom, John, and W. K. Hartmann 2005. Martian flow features, moraine-like rieges, and gullies: Terrestrial analogs and interrelationships. Icarus 174,32 1-335. This paper makes pioneering connections between Martian glacier-like features and terrestrial glacial features. 3) Hartmann, W.K., D. Winterhalter, and J. Geiss. 2005 Chronology and Physical Evolution of Planet Mars. In The Solar System and Beyond: Ten Years of ISSI (Bern: International Space Science Institute). This is a summary of work conducted at the International Space Science Institute with an international team, emphasizing our publication of a conference volume about Mars, edited by Hartmann and published in 2001.

  12. Radiogenic strontium-87 as an index of geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedge, C.E.; Walthall, F.G.

    1963-01-01

    The abundance of radiogenic Sr87 relative to Sr86 at the time of crystallization has been determined for 45 rocks. The total range in the ratio Sr87/Sr86 is less than 2 percent. Ratios for recent lavas range from 0.702 to 0.711. Oceanic basalts are closely grouped at 0.703, whereas ratios for continental volcanic rocks spread from 0.702 to 0.711. Among the volcanic rocks, ranging from basalt to rhyolite, no correlation was found between original ratio and rock type. Older mafic and felsic rocks that include both plutonic and extrusive types also cover this same range in original Sr87/Sr86 ratios; however, there is a definite trend with geologic time. Pre-cambrian rocks give values as low as 0.700. The data indicate that Sr87/Sr86 of the weathering crust has changed 1.1 percent in 3000 million years, while the ratio in the mantle has changed no more than 0.5 percent.

  13. Modeling coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical processes including plastic deformation in geological porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, S.; Karra, S.; Pawar, R. J.; Zyvoloski, G.

    2012-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the recent years in developing computational tools for analyzing coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical (THM) processes that occur in geological porous media. This is mainly due to their importance in applications including carbon sequestration, enhanced geothermal systems, oil and gas production from unconventional sources, degradation of Arctic permafrost, and nuclear waste isolation. Large changes in pressures, temperatures and saturation can result due to injection/withdrawal of fluids or emplaced heat sources. These can potentially lead to large changes in the fluid flow and mechanical behavior of the formation, including shear and tensile failure on pre-existing or induced fractures and the associated permeability changes. Due to this, plastic deformation and large changes in material properties such as permeability and porosity can be expected to play an important role in these processes. We describe a general purpose computational code FEHM that has been developed for the purpose of modeling coupled THM processes during multi-phase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code uses a continuum mechanics approach, based on control volume - finite element method. It is designed to address spatial scales on the order of tens of centimeters to tens of kilometers. While large deformations are important in many situations, we have adapted the small strain formulation as useful insight can be obtained in many problems of practical interest with this approach while remaining computationally manageable. Nonlinearities in the equations and the material properties are handled using a full Jacobian Newton-Raphson technique. Stress-strain relationships are assumed to follow linear elastic/plastic behavior. The code incorporates several plasticity models such as von Mises, Drucker-Prager, and also a large suite of models for coupling flow and mechanical deformation via permeability and stresses/deformations. In this work we present several example applications of such models.

  14. Geological images

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marli Bryant Miller

    This site from Marli Bryant Miller, a professor at the University of Oregon, presents images of geological features from around the world. Photographs of glacial features, igneous and metamorphic rocks and processes, and structural geology are featured.

  15. Processing of Neutron Diffraction Data for Strain Measurement in Geological Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom [ORNL] [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL] [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Dessieux Jr, Luc Lucius [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    : Conventional rock mechanics testing techniques typically involve the loading of samples and measurement of displacements or strains on the outer boundary of the specimen surface. Neutron diffraction based strain measurement techniques represent a unique and powerful tool for measuring the strain within geological materials under load. The structural variability and non-uniform crystallinity of geological materials, however, create many complexities in the intensity patterns that must be analyzed to quantify strains within the material. The attenuating and scattering properties of the pressure cell housing the sample further add difficulties to the data analysis. This paper describes the methods and processes used to process neutron scattering data for strain measurement in geological materials. It is intended to provide a primer for those in the rock mechanics community that are interested in utilizing this technique along with additional discussion of neutron diffraction experimental factors that may affect data quality.

  16. Protein import into plant mitochondria: signals, machinery, processing, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Murcha, Monika W; Kmiec, Beata; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta; Whelan, James

    2014-12-01

    The majority of more than 1000 proteins present in mitochondria are imported from nuclear-encoded, cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins. This impressive feat of transport and sorting is achieved by the combined action of targeting signals on mitochondrial proteins and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. The mitochondrial protein import apparatus is composed of a number of multi-subunit protein complexes that recognize, translocate, and assemble mitochondrial proteins into functional complexes. While the core subunits involved in mitochondrial protein import are well conserved across wide phylogenetic gaps, the accessory subunits of these complexes differ in identity and/or function when plants are compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the model system for mitochondrial protein import. These differences include distinct protein import receptors in plants, different mechanistic operation of the intermembrane protein import system, the location and activity of peptidases, the function of inner-membrane translocases in linking the outer and inner membrane, and the association/regulation of mitochondrial protein import complexes with components of the respiratory chain. Additionally, plant mitochondria share proteins with plastids, i.e. dual-targeted proteins. Also, the developmental and cell-specific nature of mitochondrial biogenesis is an aspect not observed in single-celled systems that is readily apparent in studies in plants. This means that plants provide a valuable model system to study the various regulatory processes associated with protein import and mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25324401

  17. Disribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, G.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, T.; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ~350 m to ~2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30 degrees), with no dunes being present above 60 degrees. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30 degrees and 60 degrees north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes are the most recent, while tectonic processes that led to the formation of mountains and Xanadu are likely the most ancient.

  18. Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, G.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, T.; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ???350 m to ???2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30??), with no dunes being present above 60??. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30?? and 60?? north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes are the most recent, while tectonic processes that led to the formation of mountains and Xanadu are likely the most ancient. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M. C.; Stofan, E. R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K. L.; Mitri, G.; Wood, C. A.; Kirk, R. L.; Wall, S. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, T.; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R. J.; Janssen, M.; Legall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.; The Cassini Radar Team

    2010-02-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ˜350 m to ˜2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30°), with no dunes being present above 60°. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30° and 60° north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes are the most recent, while tectonic processes that led to the formation of mountains and Xanadu are likely the most ancient.

  20. Geologic characterization of shelf areas using usSEABED for GIS mapping, modeling processes and assessing marine sand and gravel resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S.J.; Bliss, J.D.; Arsenault, M.A.; Jenkins, C.J.; Goff, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic maps depicting offshore sedimentary features serve many scientific and applied purposes. Such maps have been lacking, but recent computer technology and software offer promise in the capture and display of diverse marine data. Continental margins contain landforms which provide a variety of important functions and contain important sedimentary records. Some shelf areas also contain deposits regarded as potential aggregate resources. Because proper management of coastal and offshore areas is increasingly important, knowledge of the framework geology and marine processes is critical. Especially valuable are comprehensive and integrated digital databases based on high-quality information from original sources. Products of interest are GIS maps containing thematic information, such as sediment character and texture. These products are useful to scientists modeling nearshore and shelf processes as well as planners and managers. The U.S. Geological Survey is leading a national program to gather a variety of extant marine geologic data into the usSEABED database system. This provides centralized, integrated marine geologic data collected over the past 50 years. To date, over 340,000 sediment data points from the U.S. reside in usSEABED, which combines an array of physical data and analytical and descriptive information about the sea floor and are available to the marine community through three USGS data reports for the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific published in 2006, and the project web sites: (http://woodshole.er.usg s.gov/project-pages/aggregates/ and http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/usseabed/)

  1. Linking Geologic Framework to Nearshore Processes and Shoreline Change: Results from the Outer Banks of North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNinch, J. E.; Miselis, J. L.; Schupp, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    Within the coastal geology community, a consensus appears to have developed that the geologic framework of the inner-shelf plays an important role in shoreline change. It has yet to be determined, however, whether geology exerts a first-order control on shoreline dynamics and, if so, across what time and spatial scales. Furthermore, principal mechanisms that may link underlying geology and shoreline behavior remain poorly understood and untested. To this end, an extensive survey of the seafloor surface and shallow sub-bottom utilizing an interferometric swath bathymetry sonar system and a chirp sub-bottom profiler mounted on an amphibious vessel was conducted across the surf zone of the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Recent findings from a small region near Duck, North Carolina suggest a connection between partial exposure of pre-modern, non-sandy substrates in the surf zone and bar morphodynamics leading to the repeated occurrence of shoreline hotspots. Support from the US Geological Survey, US Army Corps of Engineers, and the Army Research Office has expanded this work to include a 40 km length of surf zone extending from Duck to Nags Head, North Carolina. Preliminary results from the larger survey are consistent with earlier findings at Duck which show: 1) an underlying ravinement surface with very irregular relief across the surf zone; 2) a thin cover of modern sand, ranging from 0 to a maximum of 2.5 m thick, with a surface morphology that does not necessarily mirror the underlying topography; 3) the presence of large transverse bars located beside exposures of non-sandy substrate; and 4) a spatial correlation between hotspots and regions with exposed non-sandy substrates and transverse bars in the surf zone. Future work will examine shoreline behavior and bar morphodynamics associated with the geologic framework of the nearshore over event and seasonal time scales. These observations will be designed to provide insight into the processes responsible for hotspot formation and to identify key geologic variables that could be incorporated into, and ultimately, improve shoreline evolution models.

  2. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: new insights into geological processes and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James W., III; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Blewett, David T.; Chapman, Clark R.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Evans, Larry G.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Helbert, Jörn; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Merline, William J.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larrz R.; Phillips, Roger J.; Prockter, Louise M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Sprague, Ann L.; Strom, Robert G.; Vilas, Faith; Watters, Thomas R.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2008-09-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, a part of NASA's Discovery Program, was designed to answer six questions [1]: (1) What planetary formational processes led to Mercury's high ratio of metal to silicate? (2) What is the geological history of Mercury? (3) What are the nature and origin of Mercury's magnetic field? (4) What are the structure and state of Mercury's core? (5) What are the radar-reflective materials at Mercury's poles? (6) What are the important volatile species and their sources and sinks near Mercury? MESSENGER is currently midway through a complex interplanetary cruise phase that involves three flybys of Mercury. The first of these, on 14 January 2008, provided important new information relating to several of the questions above [2-13]. Here we summarize observations made during the flyby that are most relevant to new insights about geological processes that have operated on Mercury and implications for the planet's history [3, 8-13]. The instruments that provided the most direct information on the geological history of Mercury during this first encounter were the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) [14], the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) [15], and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) [16]. Among the many specific questions remaining following the Mariner 10 mission to Mercury (1974- 1975) were (1) the level of mineralogical and compositional diversity of the crust, which appeared relatively bland in Mariner 10 data, (2) the nature of the rest of the huge Caloris impact basin seen only partially in Mariner 10 images, (3) the origin of the extensive plains observed on the surface (ponded impact ejecta or extrusive lava flows?), (4) the diversity and global distribution of tectonic features that have deformed the crust and their implications for strain as a function of time, and (5) the bombardment chronology and geological history of Mercury [1, 17-19]. The viewing geometry for the first MESSENGER encounter of Mercury [1] provided important information on these questions from image and remote sensing data on an additional 20% of the surface of Mercury not seen by Mariner 10, as well as comprehensive views of the Caloris basin and its surroundings. MESSENGER MDIS multi-spectral images [8-10] revealed a relatively low-reflectance surface with three broad units identified from reflectance and spectral slope in the wavelength range 0.4-1.0 ?m. These new data helped to confirm the diversity of color units detected in re-processed Mariner 10 color-ratio images [20] and to extend the analysis to larger areas of Mercury. One of these new units is higher in reflectance and forms relatively red plains material that corresponds to a distinct class of smooth plains; these plains, on the basis of their sharp contacts with other units, are interpreted to have been emplaced volcanically. A second unit is represented by lowerreflectance material with a lesser spectral slope and is interpreted to form a distinct crustal component enriched in opaque minerals and possibly more common at depth. A spectrally intermediate terrain appears to form the majority of the upper crust in the newly observed area. Several other spectrally distinct units are found in local regions: (1) moderately high-reflectance, relatively reddish material associated with rimless depressions and located at several places along the interior margin of the Caloris basin rim; (2) highreflectance deposits observed in some impact crater floors; and (3) fresh crater ejecta that is less modified by space weathering than older surface materials. MASCS spectrometer data [9,15] show absorption and spectral slope properties of resolved spectra that are indicative of differences in composition and regolith maturation processes among color units defined by MDIS. Mid-ultraviolet to near-infrared reflectance observations of the surface revealed the presence of a previously unobserved ultraviolet absorption feature that suggests a low FeO content (<2-3 weight %) in silicates in averag

  3. Dark Carbon Fixation: An Important Process in Lake Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Ana Lúcia; Bastviken, David; Gudasz, Cristian; Tranvik, Lars; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Close to redox boundaries, dark carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria may be a large contributor to overall carbon fixation. Still, little is known about the relative importance of this process in lake systems, in spite the potentially high chemoautotrophic potential of lake sediments. We compared rates of dark carbon fixation, bacterial production and oxygen consumption in sediments from four Swedish boreal and seven tropical Brazilian lakes. Rates were highly variable and dark carbon fixation amounted up to 80% of the total heterotrophic bacterial production. The results indicate that non-photosynthetic carbon fixation can represent a substantial contribution to bacterial biomass production, especially in sediments with low organic matter content. PMID:23776549

  4. Importance of Remote-Sensing Data in Structural Geologic Analysis of Oil and Gas-Bearing Regions of Azerbaijan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gasham A. Zeinalov

    2000-01-01

    In addition to surface geologic and geophysical investigations, Panchromatic SPOT and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were merged using an IHS approach to produce a satellite composite image to use as a basis for structural geologic analysis of the oil- and gas-bearing regions of Azerbaijan, including the South Caspian and Kura Basins. With the development of new exploration technology, various

  5. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid reasoning within the panels of science experts. In a second study, individual differences in reasoning about brittle deformations were correlated with reasoning about ductile deformations (e.g., what a bent plastic sheet would look like when unbent). Students who were good at visualizing what something looked like before it was broken were also good at visualizing what something looked like before it was bent, and this skill was not correlated to reasoning about rigid rotations. These findings suggest the cognitive processes that support reasoning about rigid and non-rigid events may differ and thus may require different types of support and training. We do not know if differences between experts and novices result from experience or self-selection, or both. Nevertheless, the range of spatial skill evinced by novices and experts strongly argues for designing visualizations to support a variety of users.

  6. Hometown Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stacey Cochiara

    Students are introduced to concepts in the course that give them the skills to understand geologic maps. These include structural geology, weathering processes, the geologic time scale, types of rocks and minerals, glacial geology, etc. They also look at several quadrangle maps as lab activities, including the Williamsville Quadrangle from Virginia and the Bright Angel Quadrangle from the Grand Canyon. This independent exercise allows students to further investigate their hometown or other areas of interest, and report on the geologic history. This further prepares them for more advanced courses and also gives them an appreciation of their surroundings, a key part of a geologist's training.

  7. The importance of sensory integration processes for action cascading.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Krutika; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dual tasking or action cascading is essential in everyday life and often investigated using tasks presenting stimuli in different sensory modalities. Findings obtained with multimodal tasks are often broadly generalized, but until today, it has remained unclear whether multimodal integration affects performance in action cascading or the underlying neurophysiology. To bridge this gap, we asked healthy young adults to complete a stop-change paradigm which presented different stimuli in either one or two modalities while recording behavioral and neurophysiological data. Bimodal stimulus presentation prolonged response times and affected bottom-up and top-down guided attentional processes as reflected by the P1 and N1, respectively. However, the most important effect was the modulation of response selection processes reflected by the P3 suggesting that a potentially different way of forming task goals operates during action cascading in bimodal vs. unimodal tasks. When two modalities are involved, separate task goals need to be formed while a conjoint task goal may be generated when all stimuli are presented in the same modality. On a systems level, these processes seem to be related to the modulation of activity in fronto-polar regions (BA10) as well as Broca's area (BA44). PMID:25820681

  8. The importance of sensory integration processes for action cascading

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Krutika; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dual tasking or action cascading is essential in everyday life and often investigated using tasks presenting stimuli in different sensory modalities. Findings obtained with multimodal tasks are often broadly generalized, but until today, it has remained unclear whether multimodal integration affects performance in action cascading or the underlying neurophysiology. To bridge this gap, we asked healthy young adults to complete a stop-change paradigm which presented different stimuli in either one or two modalities while recording behavioral and neurophysiological data. Bimodal stimulus presentation prolonged response times and affected bottom-up and top-down guided attentional processes as reflected by the P1 and N1, respectively. However, the most important effect was the modulation of response selection processes reflected by the P3 suggesting that a potentially different way of forming task goals operates during action cascading in bimodal vs. unimodal tasks. When two modalities are involved, separate task goals need to be formed while a conjoint task goal may be generated when all stimuli are presented in the same modality. On a systems level, these processes seem to be related to the modulation of activity in fronto-polar regions (BA10) as well as Broca's area (BA44). PMID:25820681

  9. Exhibit Development: The Importance of Process and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; McLain, B.

    2010-08-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in developing national traveling exhibitions on space science education (e.g. Electric Space, MarsQuest, Alien Earths, Giant Worlds, Asteroids, and Discover Space). It is also known for developing effective digital media programs (e.g. www.alienearths.org), education workshops for formal and informal educators, and educational films (e.g. Inspire Me: Weightless Flights of Discovery). This paper focuses on the exhibit development process, spanning conceptual planning, design development, fabrication and launch. SSI's exhibit programs also include education and outreach programming and the development of an online version of the exhibit. Examples from Giant Worlds and Asteroids will be used to illustrate these development phases especially the importance of evaluation/research in exhibit development using a logic model approach.

  10. Thermophilic bacilli and their importance in dairy processing.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Sara A; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve H

    2010-12-15

    The thermophilic bacilli, such as Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus spp., are an important group of contaminants in the dairy industry. Although these bacilli are generally not pathogenic, their presence in dairy products is an indicator of poor hygiene and high numbers are unacceptable to customers. In addition, their growth may result in milk product defects caused by the production of acids or enzymes, potentially leading to off-flavours. Dairy thermophiles are usually selected for by the conditions during dairy manufacture. These bacteria are able to grow in sections of dairy manufacturing plants where temperatures reach 40-65°C. Furthermore, because they are spore formers, they are difficult to eliminate. In addition, they exhibit a wide temperature growth range, exhibit a fast growth rate (generation time of approximately 15-20 min) and tend to readily form biofilms. Many strategies have been tested to remove, prevent and/or delay the formation of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in dairy manufacture, but with limited success. This is, in part, because little is known about the structure and composition of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in general and, more specifically, in milk processing environments. Therefore, new cleaning regimes often do not target the problem optimally. A greater understanding of the structure of thermophilic biofilms within the context of the milk processing environment and their link with spore formation is needed to develop better control measures. This review discusses the characteristics and food spoilage potential, enumeration and identification methods for the thermophilic bacilli, as well as their importance to dairy manufacture, with an emphasis on biofilm development and spore formation. PMID:21047695

  11. Martian planetwide crater distributions - Implications for geologic history and surface processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, L. A.; Condit, C. D.; West, R. A.; Herman, B. M.; Kreidler, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    Three different diameter size ranges are considered in connection with the Martian crater distribution, taking into account small craters from 0.6 to 1.2 km, intermediate-sized craters from 4 to 10 km, and large craters with diameters exceeding 20 km. One of the objectives of the investigation reported is to establish the effects of eolian processes in the modification of craters in the different size ranges. Another objective is concerned with a description of the genetic relationships among the three size ranges of craters. Observables related to the relative age of geologic provinces are to be separated from observables related to geographic variations in eolian transport and deposition. Lunar and Martian cratering histories are compared as a basis for establishing relative and absolute time scales for the geological evolution of Mars.

  12. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of amorphous silica. Unlike the thick (<10 ?m) passivating silica layers observed in the reacted samples from fully water saturated scCO2 experiments, images obtained from a focused ion beam sectioned sample indicted these coatings were chemically wollastonite but structurally amorphous. In addition, evidence of an intermediate hydrated amorphous calcium carbonate forming under these conditions further emphasize the importance of understanding geochemical processes occurring in water-bearing scCO2 fluids.

  13. Geologic Maps Geology 200

    E-print Network

    Kammer, Thomas

    Geologic Maps Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists #12;Geologic Map of the US #12;Symbols found on geologic maps #12;Horizontal Strata #12;Geologic map of part of the Grand Canyon. Each color represents a different formation. #12;Inclined Strata #12;Dome #12;Geologic map of the Black Hills

  14. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco...TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO...1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed...

  15. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco...TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO...1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed...

  16. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...true Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco...TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO...1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed...

  17. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco...TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO...1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed...

  18. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco...TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO...1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed...

  19. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    SciTech Connect

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2S3 (Canada)] [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2S3 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  20. The importance of new processing techniques in tissue engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, L.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The use of polymer scaffolds in tissue engineering is reviewed and processing techniques are examined. The discussion of polymer-scaffold processing explains fiber bonding, solvent casting and particulate leaching, membrane lamination, melt molding, polymer/ceramic fiber composite-foam processing, phase separation, and high-pressure processing.

  1. Processes that initiate turbidity currents and their influence on turbidites: A marine geology perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, David J.W.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    How the processes that initiate turbidity currents influence turbidite deposition is poorly understood, and many discussions in the literature rely on concepts that are overly simplistic. Marine geological studies provide information on the initiation and flow path of turbidity currents, including their response to gradient. In case studies of late Quaternary turbidites on the eastern Canadian and western U.S. margins, initiation processes are inferred either from real-time data for historical flows or indirectly from the age and contemporary paleogeography, erosional features, and depositional record. Three major types of initiation process are recognized: transformation of failed sediment, hyperpycnal flow from rivers or ice margins, and resuspension of sediment near the shelf edge by oceanographic processes. Many high-concentration flows result from hyperpycnal supply of hyperconcentrated bedload, or liquefaction failure of coarse-grained sediment, and most tend to deposit in slope conduits and on gradients < 0.5?? at the base of slope and on the mid fan. Highly turbulent flows, from transformation of retrogressive failures and from ignitive flows that are triggered by oceanographic processes, tend to cannibalize these more proximal sediments and redeposit them on lower gradients on the basin plain. Such conduit flushing provides most of the sediment in large turbidites. Initiation mechanism exerts a strong control on the duration of turbidity flows. In most basins, there is a complex feedback between different types of turbidity-current initiation, the transformation of the flows, and the associated slope morphology. As a result, there is no simple relationship between initiating process and type of deposit. ?? 2009, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  2. Exploring Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.

    2008-09-01

    I am willing to bet a nice bottle of chardonnay that much of the Eos readership has lugged around, fondled, and fumbled through an introductory physical geology textbook of some form or another, once upon a time. Mine, in 1970, was Physical Geology, by Longwell, Flint, and Sanders, which I still have, by the way. Most of us know how ``classical'' physical geology textbooks have been organized: first, a broad overview of Earth processes, then several sections devoted to groups of more specific subjects (e.g., mineralogy, sedimentary rocks, and environments, with one chapter per subject), then several sections devoted to a synthesis of geologic processes in the context of plate tectonics, and finally, typically, a discussion of Earth resources and environment- related issues. Some relatively new textbooks have ventured into new pedagogical formats, for example, emphasizing how we know what we know (e.g., How Does Earth Work: Physical Geology and the Process of Science by Smith and Pun).

  3. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  4. No geology without marine geology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H Kuenen

    2002-01-01

    A brief review is offered of the many problems where knowledge of the ocean floors and of marine processes in shallow water is indispensable for the further advancement of geology. The subject of turbidity currents is treated in greater detail, to demonstrate the interrelation of several aspects of marine geology with sedimentologic and paleogeographic investigations. It is obvious that the

  5. Quantitative Geological Surface Processes Extracted From Infrared Spectroscopy and Remote Sensing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael S. Ramsey

    This 17-page PDF document from Michael Ramsey at the University of Pittsburg explores some of the practical applications of Thermal Infrared (TIR) data in both the laboratory and remotely acquired environments. It focuses on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) in particular, but also mentions other systems and the caveats of moving from laboratory-based hypotheses to real world data. The document discusses the principles of TIR, highlighting the common analytical technique of spectral deconvolution as it is applied to two very different geologic processes. Case studies at the Kelso Dunes, CA and Bezimmiany Volcano, Russia, are used as primary examples that highlight TIR applications to eolian and volcanological processes. Graphs and photos help illustrate the concepts.

  6. Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

    2014-09-01

    Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its hydrogeologic control in a reef lagoon setting, but is likely to occur in many similar coastal settings. Ignoring geologic complexity can result in mischaracterization of SGD and other coastal groundwater processes at many spatial scales.

  7. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187...importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition...761.1(f) and the definition of excluded manufacturing process at §...

  8. Geologic nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, Susan Werner

    Sonic velocities of geologic fluids, such as volcanic magmas and geothermal fluids, can be as low as 1 m/s. Critical velocities in large rivers can be of the order of 1-10 m/s. Because velocities of fluids moving in these settings can exceed these characteristic velocities, sonic and supersonic gas flow and critical and supercritical shallow-water flow can occur. The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized and, as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid-flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, supercritical flow occurs where debris discharged from tributary canyons constricts the channel into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle. The geometry of the channel in these regions can be used to interpret the flood history of the Colorado River over the past 103-105 years. The unity of fluid mechanics in these three natural phenomena is provided by the well-known analogy between gas flow and shallow-water flow in converging-diverging nozzles.

  9. Geologic Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, Susan Werner

    1989-02-01

    Sonic velocities of geologic fluids, such as volcanic magmas and geothermal fluids, can be as low as 1 m/s. Critical velocities in large rivers can be of the order of 1-10 m/s. Because velocities of fluids moving in these settings can exceed these characteristic velocities, sonic and supersonic gas flow and critical and supercritical shallow-water flow can occur. The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the gyeser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. The transport capacity in the rapids can be so great that the river contours the channel to a characteristic shape. This shape can be used to interpret the flood history of the Colorado River over the past 10³-105 years. The unity of fluid mechanics in these three natural phenomena is provided by the well-known analogy between gas flow and shallow-water flow in converging-diverging nozzles.

  10. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  11. Molecular connections between nuclear and ciliary import processes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    As an organelle, the cilium contains a unique complement of protein and lipid. Recent work has begun to shed light on the mechanisms that regulate entry of ciliary proteins into the compartment. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that regulate ciliary entry of cytosolic molecules. Studies have revealed a size exclusion mechanism for ciliary entry that is similar to the barrier to nuclear entry. Active import into the ciliary compartment involves nuclear trafficking components including importins, a Ran-guanosine triphosphate gradient, and nucleoporins. Together, this work indicates that nuclei and cilia share molecular, structural and mechanistic components that regulate import into the compartments. PMID:23985042

  12. 1.0 GAS TRANSFER An important process used in water and wastewater treatment. Also very important when

    E-print Network

    Stenstrom, Michael K.

    1.0 GAS TRANSFER An important process used in water and wastewater treatment. Also very important wastewaters to the stream. Gas/Liquid Interface Gas Liquid Gas transfer to the liquid is absorption Gas Stripping 1. H2S Sour water in refineries, taste and odor removed in drinking water treatment, unwanted loss

  13. umerical modeling of earthquake processes has become an important

    E-print Network

    Preston, Eric

    details of the faulting process remain unknown, leaving us without a complete physical theory of their occurrence. Here we discuss an approach that seeks ele- mentary numerical models capable of reproduc- ing some prominent features of earthquake data. Most notably, we study models that emulate the Gutenberg

  14. The importance of business process clarification within the virtual enterprise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Sackett; Thomas Rose; Veronica Adamson

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the innovative generic business process set (GBPS) model and how this may be used as a functional template for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) participating in a virtual enterprise. The authors provide specific emphasis on the use of information communication and technology (ICT) in business applications and show how the model can be used as a medium

  15. Development of multiple source data processing for structural analysis at a regional scale. [digital remote sensing in geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrere, Veronique

    1990-01-01

    Various image processing techniques developed for enhancement and extraction of linear features, of interest to the structural geologist, from digital remote sensing, geologic, and gravity data, are presented. These techniques include: (1) automatic detection of linear features and construction of rose diagrams from Landsat MSS data; (2) enhancement of principal structural directions using selective filters on Landsat MSS, Spacelab panchromatic, and HCMM NIR data; (3) directional filtering of Spacelab panchromatic data using Fast Fourier Transform; (4) detection of linear/elongated zones of high thermal gradient from thermal infrared data; and (5) extraction of strong gravimetric gradients from digitized Bouguer anomaly maps. Processing results can be compared to each other through the use of a geocoded database to evaluate the structural importance of each lineament according to its depth: superficial structures in the sedimentary cover, or deeper ones affecting the basement. These image processing techniques were successfully applied to achieve a better understanding of the transition between Provence and the Pyrenees structural blocks, in southeastern France, for an improved structural interpretation of the Mediterranean region.

  16. Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

  17. A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes in Geologic Heat Pipes

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2005-01-21

    Above-boiling temperature conditions, as encountered, for example, in geothermal reservoirs and in geologic repositories for the storage of heat-producing nuclear wastes, may give rise to strongly altered liquid and gas flow processes in porous subsurface environments. The magnitude of such flow perturbation is extremely hard to measure in the field. We therefore propose a simple temperature-profile method that uses high-resolution temperature data for deriving such information. The energy that is transmitted with the vapor and water flow creates a nearly isothermal zone maintained at about the boiling temperature, referred to as a heat pipe. Characteristic features of measured temperature profiles, such as the differences in the gradients inside and outside of the heat pipe regions, are used to derive the approximate magnitude of the liquid and gas fluxes in the subsurface, for both steady-state and transient conditions.

  18. Separating Macroecological Pattern and Process: Comparing Ecological, Economic, and Geological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Blonder, Benjamin; Sloat, Lindsey; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form (‘first-order effects’), these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns (‘second-order effects’). These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems. PMID:25383874

  19. Separating macroecological pattern and process: comparing ecological, economic, and geological systems.

    PubMed

    Blonder, Benjamin; Sloat, Lindsey; Enquist, Brian J; McGill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form ('first-order effects'), these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns ('second-order effects'). These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems. PMID:25383874

  20. Convection phenomena of importance for materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, S.

    1977-01-01

    The basic aspects of convection processes are delineated. It is shown that even in weak gravitational fields buoyancy can induce fluid motion. Furthermore, at reduced gravity, other nongravity forces such as surface or interfacial tensions, g jitter, thermal volume expansions, density differences due to phase changes, and magnetic and electric fields can induce fluid motions. The types of flows possible with these various driving forces are described, and criteria for determining the extent and nature of the resulting flows and heat transfer are presented. The different physical mechanisms that can occur separately and in combination are indicated, and the present state of knowledge of each of the phenomena is outlined. Specific research problems are described for many of the types of convection that are necessary to obtain greater understanding of their implications for space processing.

  1. Convection phenomena at reduced gravity of importance for materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, S.

    1976-01-01

    The basic aspects of convection processes are delineated. It is shown that even in weak gravitational fields buoyancy can induce fluid motions. Furthermore, at reduced gravity other nongravity forces such as surface or interfacial tensions, g-jitter, therma-volume expansions, density differences due to phase changes, and magnetic and electric fields can induce fluid motions. The various types of flow possible with these various driving forces are described and criteria for determining the extent and nature of the resulting flows and heat transfer are presented. The various physical mechanisms that can occur separately and in combination are indicated and the present state of knowledge of each of the phenomena is outlined.

  2. The importance of cost considerations in the systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the question of cost, from the birth of a program to its conclusion, particularly from the point of view of large multi-center programs, and suggests how to avoid some of the traps and pitfalls. Emphasis is given to cost in the systems engineering process, but there is an inevitable overlap with program management. (These terms, systems engineering and program management, have never been clearly defined.) In these days of vast Federal budget deficits and increasing overseas competition, it is imperative that we get more for each research and development dollar. This is the only way we will retain our leadership in high technology and, in the long run, our way of life.

  3. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  4. Physical and Chemical Processes Affecting Permeability during Geologic Carbon Sequestration in Arkose and Dolostone: Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Tutolo, B. M.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration in saline sedimentary basins provides a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We are conducting experiments using a novel flow system at elevated temperatures and pressures to better understand the physical and chemical processes that result from CO2 injection into these basins and the effects of these processes on system permeability. Here we present experimental results on arkose (primarily K-feldspar and quartz) and dolostone, focusing on CO2 exsolution and fluid-mineral reactions. Following heating-induced CO2 exsolution in an arkose sediment (90-125 ?m) core, XRCT scans revealed abundant pores several times larger than the average grain size. The pores likely grew as exsolved CO2 accumulated in the pores and exerted outspread forces on the surrounding grains. These trapped CO2 accumulations blocked flow pathways, reducing measured permeability by 10,000 times. Another reported experiment on a solid arkose core and water with aqueous CO2 concentrations at 80% saturation dissolved K-feldspar, as evidenced by 3 to 1 ratios of Si to K in sampled fluids, and precipitated an Al-rich mineral, likely gibbsite. SEM images revealed extensive clay precipitation on K-feldspar mineral surfaces. Alteration reduced permeability from 5 × 10-14 m2 to 3 × 10-14 m2 during this 52-day experiment. The third reported experiment on a dolostone core and 1 molal NaCl brine with an aqueous CO2 concentration at 75% saturation caused extensive dissolution and a large increase in permeability. This three-day experiment produced a wormhole of 2 mm in diameter that penetrated the entire 2.6 cm long core with a diameter of 1.3 cm. High, initial Ca and Mg fluid concentrations that quickly receded imply early formation of the wormhole that grew in diameter with time. Our experimental results show that formation permeability can change dramatically from both physical and chemical processes, and these changes should be accounted for during geologic carbon sequestration.

  5. Process and device for the determination of the characteristics of the geological formations traversed by a borehole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bard; P. Morlier; R. Pelet; J. Sarda

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of a process for determining characteristics of the geological formations traversed by a borehole, making use of a sonde by means of which the intensity of the gamma rays naturally radiated from the formations is measured. Both longitudinal and transversal acoustic waves are transmitted to the formations, their travel time and their attenuation between two receivers

  6. Investigating geologic features and processes: A field investigation for earth science students at Leif Erickson Park, Duluth, Minnesota.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laurie Severson

    This activity is a field investigation where students observe and interpret the rocks types, geologic features, and processes typical to the north shore of Lake Superior. Students use their data to develop questions that could be further investigated and to predict the sequence of events leading to the formation of these rocks and features.

  7. Determining the rates of geological processes in a large-scale metamorphic complex: a multi-method approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Gasser; E. Bruand; K. Stuewe; D. Rubatto; D. A. Foster

    2010-01-01

    Metamorphic complexes occur at the Earth's surface in many places all over the world. The combined application of different geochronological and thermochronological techniques may help to constrain the rates of geological processes which led to the formation of such metamorphic belts. In this contribution we present the results of a multi-method approach aimed at constraining the timing of burial, heating,

  8. Computational and Spectroscopic Investigations of the Molecular Scale Structure and Dynamics of Geologically Important Fluids and Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    R. James Kirkpatrick; Andrey G. Kalinichev

    2008-11-25

    Research supported by this grant focuses on molecular scale understanding of central issues related to the structure and dynamics of geochemically important fluids, fluid-mineral interfaces, and confined fluids using computational modeling and experimental methods. Molecular scale knowledge about fluid structure and dynamics, how these are affected by mineral surfaces and molecular-scale (nano-) confinement, and how water molecules and dissolved species interact with surfaces is essential to understanding the fundamental chemistry of a wide range of low-temperature geochemical processes, including sorption and geochemical transport. Our principal efforts are devoted to continued development of relevant computational approaches, application of these approaches to important geochemical questions, relevant NMR and other experimental studies, and application of computational modeling methods to understanding the experimental results. The combination of computational modeling and experimental approaches is proving highly effective in addressing otherwise intractable problems. In 2006-2007 we have significantly advanced in new, highly promising research directions along with completion of on-going projects and final publication of work completed in previous years. New computational directions are focusing on modeling proton exchange reactions in aqueous solutions using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), metadynamics (MTD), and empirical valence bond (EVB) approaches. Proton exchange is critical to understanding the structure, dynamics, and reactivity at mineral-water interfaces and for oxy-ions in solution, but has traditionally been difficult to model with molecular dynamics (MD). Our ultimate objective is to develop this capability, because MD is much less computationally demanding than quantum-chemical approaches. We have also extended our previous MD simulations of metal binding to natural organic matter (NOM) to a much longer time scale (up to 10 ns) for significantly larger systems. These calculations have allowed us, for the first time, to study the effects of metal cations with different charges and charge density on the NOM aggregation in aqueous solutions. Other computational work has looked at the longer-time-scale dynamical behavior of aqueous species at mineral-water interfaces investigated simultaneously by NMR spectroscopy. Our experimental NMR studies have focused on understanding the structure and dynamics of water and dissolved species at mineral-water interfaces and in two-dimensional nano-confinement within clay interlayers. Combined NMR and MD study of H2O, Na+, and Cl- interactions with the surface of quartz has direct implications regarding interpretation of sum frequency vibrational spectroscopic experiments for this phase and will be an important reference for future studies. We also used NMR to examine the behavior of K+ and H2O in the interlayer and at the surfaces of the clay minerals hectorite and illite-rich illite-smectite. This the first time K+ dynamics has been characterized spectroscopically in geochemical systems. Preliminary experiments were also performed to evaluate the potential of 75As NMR as a probe of arsenic geochemical behavior. The 75As NMR study used advanced signal enhancement methods, introduced a new data acquisition approach to minimize the time investment in ultra-wide-line NMR experiments, and provides the first evidence of a strong relationship between the chemical shift and structural parameters for this experimentally challenging nucleus. We have also initiated a series of inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements of water dynamics in the interlayers of clays and layered double hydroxides. The objective of these experiments is to probe the correlations of water molecular motions in confined spaces over the scale of times and distances most directly comparable to our MD simulations and on a time scale different than that probed by NMR. This work is being done in collaboration with Drs. C.-K. Loong, N. de Souza, and A.I. Kolesnikov at the Intense Pulsed

  9. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Heine; D. H. Cooper

    1996-01-01

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the Interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the

  10. Integration of geostatistical techniques and intuitive geology in the 3-D modeling process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Heine; D. H. Cooper

    1995-01-01

    The development of 3-D geologic models for reservoir description and simulation has traditionally relied on the computer derived interpolation of well data in a geocelluar stratigraphic framework. The quality of the interpolation has been directly dependent on the nature of the interpolation method, and ability of the interpolation scheme to accurately predict the value of geologic attributes away from the

  11. Geologic structure and processes of the eastern Pacific margin: California and Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Kirk Duncan

    The margin of the eastern Pacific has been sculpted during Tertiary geologic times by convergent and transcurrent plate motion along both continental and oceanic plate boundaries. Interpretations of central California geology predict margin development by Early Tertiary plate convergence, the transition to a transform plate boundary, and subsequent modification of that boundary. Deep penetration seismic reflection transects (EDGE profiles) provide new data to refine these interpretations. These data support the interpretation that a plate fragment related to the Farallon plate may be continued to subduct off California after the Pacific/North America transform boundary was established to the north and south. These seismic data also reveal structures related to probable Miocene transtensional development of the offshore Santa Maria Basin after subduction eventually ceased in this area. The final stage of margin development is one of compressional deformation. This stage is documented by folding and thrust faulting, that appear to be concentrated near the zones of earlier extension and include examples of basin inversion. The Tertiary history of Costa Rica is one of plate convergence in an oceanic island arc setting. In particular, the plate boundary off the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, is an accretionary convergent margin in a low sediment supply environment. Seismic reflection data, including regional 2D profiles and a 3D survey over a portion of the lower trench slope, show mechanisms of sediment accretion, subsequent compressional deformation, and upper slope extension. The mechanisms of sediment accretion include offscraping at the trench, but the dominant process is underplating. With low sediment supply (no trench turbidites) the sedimentary cover on the subducting Cocos plate is thin and is accreted in small blocks. Variation in the basement structure of the Cocos plate perturbs the accretion processes and affects the arrangement of sedimentary blocks as they are accreted to the prism. The resulting prism structure varies rapidly along strike. The upper slope of the Costa Rica margin features an approximately 20 km wide zone of predominantly landward dipping normal faults. Seismic data show that the faults cut the entire 2 km thick slope apron section and penetrate the underlying accretionary prism.

  12. In Situ Optical Observation of High-Temperature Geological Processes With the Moissanite Cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Walte; H. Keppler

    2005-01-01

    A major drawback of existing techniques in experimental earth and material sciences is the inability to observe ongoing high-temperature processes in situ during an experiment. Examples for important time-dependent processes include the textural development of rocks and oxide systems during melting and crystallization, solid-state and melt-present recrystallization and Ostwald ripening, and bubble nucleation and growth during degassing of glasses and

  13. Urban soil geochemistry in Athens, Greece: The importance of local geology in controlling the distribution of potentially harmful trace elements.

    PubMed

    Argyraki, Ariadne; Kelepertzis, Efstratios

    2014-06-01

    Understanding urban soil geochemistry is a challenging task because of the complicated layering of the urban landscape and the profound impact of large cities on the chemical dispersion of harmful trace elements. A systematic geochemical soil survey was performed across Greater Athens and Piraeus, Greece. Surface soil samples (0-10cm) were collected from 238 sampling sites on a regular 1×1km grid and were digested by a HNO3-HCl-HClO4-HF mixture. A combination of multivariate statistics and Geographical Information System approaches was applied for discriminating natural from anthropogenic sources using 4 major elements, 9 trace metals, and 2 metalloids. Based on these analyses the lack of heavy industry in Athens was demonstrated by the influence of geology on the local soil chemistry with this accounting for 49% of the variability in the major elements, as well as Cr, Ni, Co, and possibly As (median values of 102, 141, 16 and 24mg kg(-1) respectively). The contribution to soil chemistry of classical urban contaminants including Pb, Cu, Zn, Sn, Sb, and Cd (medians of 45, 39, 98, 3.6, 1.7 and 0.3mg kg(-1) respectively) was also observed; significant correlations were identified between concentrations and urbanization indicators, including vehicular traffic, urban land use, population density, and timing of urbanization. Analysis of soil heterogeneity and spatial variability of soil composition in the Greater Athens and Piraeus area provided a representation of the extent of anthropogenic modifications on natural element loadings. The concentrations of Ni, Cr, and As were relatively high compared to those in other cities around the world, and further investigation should characterize and evaluate their geochemical reactivity. PMID:24662205

  14. Rheology of petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures: Applications to analogue modelling of geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2014-06-01

    Paraffins have been widely used in analogue modelling of geological processes. Petrolatum and paraffin oil are commonly used to lubricate model boundaries and to simulate weak layers. In this paper, we present rheological tests of petrolatum, paraffin oil and several homogeneous mixtures of the two. The results show that petrolatum and all petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures are strain, strain rate and temperature dependent under typical experimental strain rates (10-3-10-1 s-1). For the same conditions, pure paraffin oil is a slightly temperature-dependent, linear, Newtonian fluid. All mixtures have yield stress and flow stress (strain softening) values that decrease with decreasing shear rate, and with increasing relative amounts of paraffin oil. The degree of strain rate dependence (shear thinning) also decreases with increasing paraffin oil content. Because these materials have rheologies that can be characterized and controlled, they are suitable for use in a large number of analogue model settings, either as a lubricant or to simulate weak layers. When used as a lubricant, mixtures with higher paraffin oil content should perform better than pure petrolatum.

  15. The effects of CO2-brine rheology on leakage processes in geologic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shibo; Clarens, Andres F.

    2012-08-01

    Leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites is inherently challenging to study because CO2, driven by buoyant forces, travels over long distances, undergoing phase changes and encountering numerous connate brine and formation chemistries as it rises to the surface. This work explores the effect that CO2has on the rheological properties of brine solutions over a range of GCS-relevant temperature, pressure, ionic strength, and shear conditions. Under the fluid-liquid equilibrium conditions that prevail in the deep subsurface, viscosity of CO2-brine mixtures was found to be a function of temperature and pressure alone. Once leakage conditions ensue, discrete CO2bubbles form in brine, resulting in the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE), and these mixtures exhibit complex linear viscoelastic, time dependent, and thixotropic behavior. The presence of CO2(g) bubbles on the flow of the bulk fluid could have important impacts on impeding (via shear drag force) leakage depending on the geometrical, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of a storage site. Under VLE conditions, the effective viscosity of CO2-brine mixtures was found to be up to five times higher than brine alone but the microstructure was easily destroyed, and not readily regained, under high shear conditions. At higher temperatures and higher ionic strength, the effect is less pronounced. These results were considered in the context of flow through porous media, and the effect on buoyancy-driven flow is significant. Understanding this effect is important for developing an accurate constitutive relationship for leaking CO2, which will lead to better capacity to select and monitor GCS sites.

  16. Application of ERTS images and image processing to regional geologic problems and geologic mapping in northern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H. (principal investigator); Billingsley, F. C.; Gillespie, A. R.; Abrams, M. J.; Squires, R. L.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, I.; Elston, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Computer image processing was shown to be both valuable and necessary in the extraction of the proper subset of the 200 million bits of information in an ERTS image to be applied to a specific problem. Spectral reflectivity information obtained from the four MSS bands can be correlated with in situ spectral reflectance measurements after path radiance effects have been removed and a proper normalization has been made. A detailed map of the major fault systems in a 90,000 sq km area in northern Arizona was compiled from high altitude photographs and pre-existing published and unpublished map data. With the use of ERTS images, three major fault systems, the Sinyala, Bright Angel, and Mesa Butte, were identified and their full extent measured. A byproduct of the regional studies was the identification of possible sources of shallow ground water, a scarce commodity in these regions.

  17. Deposits related to degradation processes on Piton des Neiges Volcano (Reunion Island): overview and geological hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bret, Laurent; Fevre, Yannick; Join, Jean-Lambert; Robineau, Bernard; Bachelery, Patrick

    2003-04-01

    Piton des Neiges (PN) Volcano on Reunion Island offers a rare opportunity to study deposits related to degradation processes in a deeply eroded oceanic shield volcano. Both the inner parts and flanks reveal a large amount of resedimented volcaniclastic material, including extensive debris avalanche deposits. PN litho-structural units, first studied by Upton and Wadsworth [1965, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A 271, pp. 105-130], are re-examined. This review highlights the importance of long volcanic repose periods and erosion processes during PN history. volcaniclastic deposits have been studied in the field in order to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of the three main types of PN degradation processes. The deposits of these processes have been classified into: (1) talus, (2) mudflow and debris flow, and (3) debris avalanche. Lithology, frequency and estimated volumes of each deposit type imply that the structural evolution of PN can be considered in terms of the competition between the volcanic productivity and the degradation and erosion processes. The occurrence of huge catastrophic avalanches produced by flank failure is convincingly linked to the basaltic activity of PN, which implies a very low risk at present. On the contrary, mudflows and debris flows pose an important risk due to the high population density focussed around the basin outlets. Moreover, if smaller debris avalanches can occur in the cirques of PN, another major risk must be evaluated.

  18. Process geomorphology and ecosystems: Disturbance regimes and interactions Geomorphic processes are important agents of ecosystem distur-

    E-print Network

    Stoffel, Markus

    Editorial Process geomorphology and ecosystems: Disturbance regimes and interactions Geomorphic process geomorphology and ecosystems at any scale; and in (iii) investigating how ecosystems might be used

  19. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  20. Geological SciencesGeological Sciences Geological EngineeringGeological Engineering

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    Geological SciencesGeological Sciences Geological EngineeringGeological Engineering Geosciences Careers in the ik ou ve n ver see t b f rel e y ' e n i e o ! Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering Queen's University See the World Geological Sciences Arts and Science Faculty

  1. September 2012 BASIN RESEARCH AND ENERGY GEOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    September 2012 BASIN RESEARCH AND ENERGY GEOLOGY STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK at BINGHAMTON research programs in geochemistry, sedimentary geology, or Earth surface processes with the potential the position, visit the Geological Sciences and Environmental Studies website (www.geology

  2. Teaching Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This rather remarkable website contains a great collection of resources for web-based instruction and demonstrations of geology concepts. The collection includes, under Classroom demonstration, the very useful SeisMac 3.0, which is an application for Mac OS X that turns a laptop computer into a " low-resolution strong-motion accelerometer," or a basic seismograph. It works by accessing the computer's Sudden Motion Sensor in order to display real-time, three axis accelerations graphs. Visitors can use the application to watch the seismic waves go up and down just by tapping their feet on the floor nearby. Other resources include Virtual Earth (an "interactive minicourse on thermal convection") and a link to Geology in the news, which collates important news stories with a geological theme.

  3. Process-based approach to CO2 leakage detection by vadose zone gas monitoring at geologic CO2 storage sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanak, K. D.; Bennett, P. C.; Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D.

    2012-08-01

    A critical issue for geologic carbon sequestration is the ability to detect CO2 in the vadose zone. Here we present a new process-based approach to identify CO2 that has leaked from deep geologic storage reservoirs into the shallow subsurface. Whereas current CO2 concentration-based methods require years of background measurements to quantify variability of natural vadose zone CO2, this new approach examines chemical relationships between vadose zone N2, O2, CO2, and CH4 to promptly distinguish a leakage signal from natural vadose zone CO2. The method uses sequential inspection of the following gas concentration relationships: 1) O2 versus CO2 to distinguish in-situ vadose zone background processes (biologic respiration, methane oxidation, and CO2 dissolution) from exogenous deep leakage input, 2) CO2 versus N2 to further distinguish dissolution of CO2 from exogenous deep leakage input, and 3) CO2 versus N2/O2 to assess the degree respiration, CH4 oxidation and atmospheric mixing/dilution occurring in the system. The approach was developed at a natural CO2-rich control site and successfully applied at an engineered site where deep gases migrated into the vadose zone. The ability to identify gas leakage into the vadose zone without the need for background measurements could decrease uncertainty in leakage detection and expedite implementation of future geologic CO2 storage projects.

  4. SMART-1 highlights and relevant studies on early bombardment and geological processes on rocky planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. D.; Josset, J. L.; Koschny, D.; Frew, D.; Almeida, M.; Zender, J.; Heather, D.; Peters, S.; Marini, A.; Stagnaro, L.; Beauvivre, S.; Grande, M.; Kellett, B.; Huovelin, J.; Nathues, A.; Mall, U.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McCannon, P.

    2008-08-01

    We present results from SMART-1 science and technology payload, in the context of the Nobel symposium on 'Physics of Planetary Systems'. SMART-1 is Europe' first lunar mission (Foing et al 2000 LPSC XXXI Abstract #1677 (CDROM); Foing et al 2001 Earth, Moon Planets 85 86 523 31 Marini et al 2002 Adv. Space Res. 30 1895 900 Racca et al 2001 Earth Moon Planets 85 86 379 95, Racca et al 2002 Planet Space Sci. 50 1323 37) demonstrating technologies for future science and exploration missions, and providing advances in our understanding of lunar origin and evolution, and general planetary questions. The mission also contributes a step in developing an international program of lunar exploration. The spacecraft, launched on 27 September 2003 as an Ariane 5 Auxiliary passenger to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO), performed a 14-month long cruise using a tiny thrust of electric propulsion alone, reached lunar capture in November 2004, and lunar science orbit in March 2005. SMART-1 carried 7 hardware experiments (Foing et al 2003 Adv. Space Res. 31 2323, Foing et al 2005 LPI/LPSC XXXVI 2404 (CDROM)) performing 10 investigations, including 3 remote-sensing instruments, used during the cruise, the mission' nominal six-months and one-year extension in lunar science orbit. Three remote sensing instruments, D-CIXS, SIR and AMIE, have returned data that are relevant to a broad range of lunar studies. The mission provided regional and global x-ray measurements of the Moon, global high-spectral resolution NIR spectrometry, high spatial resolution colour imaging of selected regions. The South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) and other impact basins have been prime targets for studies using the SMART-1 suite of instruments. Combined, these should aid a large number of science studies, from bulk crustal composition and theories of lunar origin/evolution, the global and local crustal composition, to the search for cold traps at the lunar poles and the mapping of potential lunar resources. We present here SMART-1 results relevant to the study of the early bombardment and geological processes on rocky planets. Further information and updates on the SMART-1 mission can be found on the ESA Science and Technology web pages, at: http://sci.esa.int/smart-1/.

  5. The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitkina, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG complex rocks, the following age-formation stages are determined: protolith of the biotite gneisses - 3149±46 Ma; metamorphism, deformation of rocks, foliation - 2727±5 - 2725±2 - 2697±9 - 2667±7 Ma, granite bodies formation - 2615±8 Ma and biotite gneisses migmatization - 2549±30 Ma, formation of different pegmatite and granite veins -1644±7 Ma. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 12-05-31063, 11-05-00570. 1.Batieva I.D., Belkov I.V. Granitoidnie formacii Kolskogo poluostrova. // Ocgerki po petrologiy, mineralogiy i metallogeniy Kolskogo poluostrova. L.: Nauka. 1968. p. 5-143. (in russian) 2. Belkov I.V., Zagorodny V.G., Predovsky A.A. et al. Stratigraficheskoe raschlenenie i korrelyacia dokembria severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. L.: Nauka. 1971. p. 141-150. (in russian) 3. Docembriskaya tektonica severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita (Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k tektonicheskoi karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000) / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1992. 112 P. (in russian) 4. Zagorodny V.G., Radchenko A.T. Tectonika i glubinnoe stroenie severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. Apatity: KFA SSSR. 1978. p. 3-12. (in russian) 5. Kozlov N.E., Sorohtin N.O., Glaznev V.N. et al. Geologia Arhea Baltiskogo shita. S.Pb.: Nauka. 2006. 329 p. (in russian) 6. Mitrofanov F.P. Sovremennie problemy i nekotorie resheniya dokembriskoy geologii kratonov. (2001) Litosphera.2001. V 1. P. 5-14. (in russian) 7. Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k geologicheskoy karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000 / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1994. 95 P. (in russian) 8. Haritonov L.Y. Structura i stratigraphia karelid vostoka Baltiskogo shita. M.: Nedra. 1966. 354 P. (in russian)

  6. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce...monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce...PCBs. (a) Persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

  7. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce...monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce...PCBs. (a) Persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

  8. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce...monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce...PCBs. (a) Persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

  9. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce...monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce...PCBs. (a) Persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

  10. Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: evolution and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, E.; Maier, K. L.; Holzer, T. L.; Knudsen, K. L.; Olson, H.; Pagenknopp, M.; Ponti, D. J.; Rosa, C.; Tinsley, J. C.; Wan, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (~1,400 km2) is a combination of tidal marsh, islands and agricultural lands at the confluence of the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers, in northern California. Most of the Delta islands are now 3 to 8 m below sea-level and must be protected by levees from inundation. Because of the Delta's crucial role in conveying fresh water to the State, levee failures can cause substantial economic loss by disrupting this supply. Understanding the evolution of the Delta is fundamental to assess the vulnerability of the Delta islands to seismically-induced levee failure. The modern Delta is a young geological feature that began forming during the middle Holocene. Preceding versions of the Delta hosted a variety of depositional environments as sea level fluctuated, responding to climatically-controlled changes. The rising sea reached the Delta about 8,000 years ago, and modern deltaic evolution continued into Holocene time until present. More accurate stratigraphic studies incorporating depositional ages are required to i) better understand the late Quaternary evolution of the Delta, ii) trace the base of Holocene deposits, iii) identify potentially active faults, and iv) evaluate liquefaction hazard for the Delta . This study uses the large amount of data available on the Delta (collected by the California Department of Water Resources and others during the past 30 years) and merges them into a unified dataset. We have produced a database that includes historic and surficial maps, aerial photographs, boreholes, and CPT data, for the purpose of clarifying the nature of the Quaternary deposits and the evolution of the Late Quaternary Delta. Additionally, we have identified recently discovered Pleistocene tephra as the Rockland ash, ~0.575 Ma, and the Loleta ash, ~0.40-0.37 Ma, which have improved stratigraphic correlations and assessment of subsidence rates. Delta sediments include sequences of glacial and interglacial deposits. Borehole logs reveal sequences of incision and backfilling corresponding to major climatic fluctuations: incised channels, sand-filling channels, gravel alluvial fans and eolian dunes during glacial periods, and fine-grained alluvial floodplains, mud flats deposits, marshes and peat during warmer interglacials. The evolution of the Delta is likely the result of three processes: subsidence (based on tephra ages, between ~0.004 cm/yr and 0.007 cm/yr in the Northern Delta, ~0.01 cm/yr in the central Delta, ~0.06 cm/yr in the Eastern Delta), compaction due to organic soil oxidation (3.6-6.1 cm/yr), and tectonic control. The thickness of the organic soils (>20 m) suggests that the Holocene sea-level rise was the major factor controlling the Delta's morphology before agricultural drainage began in the 1850's. Because the patterns suggest that sea-level rise was the major cause of changes in the Delta, it is likely that once the organic soil is all oxidized by anthropogenic processes within a few centuries, the major controlling factor will become anthropogenic sea-level rise.

  11. GIS-project: geodynamic globe for global monitoring of geological processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ryakhovsky; D. Rundquist; Yu. Gatinsky; E. Chesalova

    2003-01-01

    A multilayer geodynamic globe at the scale 1:10,000,000 was created at the end of the nineties in the GIS Center of the Vernadsky Museum. A special soft-and-hardware complex was elaborated for its visualization with a set of multitarget object directed databases. The globe includes separate thematic covers represented by digital sets of spatial geological, geochemical, and geophysical information (maps, schemes,

  12. Introductory Geology From the Liberal Arts Approach: A Geology-Sociology Linked Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, E. O.; Davis, E.

    2008-12-01

    Geology can be a hard sell to college students, especially to college students attending small, liberal arts institutions in localities that lack exaggerated topography. At these schools, Geology departments that wish to grow must work diligently to attract students to the major; professors must be able to convince a wider audience of students that geology is relevant to their everyday lives. Toward this end, a Physical Geology course was linked with an introductory Sociology course through the common theme of Consumption. The same students took the two courses in sequence, beginning with the Sociology course and ending with Physical Geology; thus, students began by discussing the role of consumption in society and ended by learning about the geological processes and implications of consumption. Students were able to ascertain the importance of geology in their daily lives by connecting Earth processes to specific products they consume, such as cell phones and bottled water. Students were also able to see the connection between seemingly disparate fields of study, which is a major goal of the liberal arts. As a theme, Consumption worked well to grab the attention of students interested in diverse issues, such as environmental science or social justice. A one-hour lecture illustrating the link between sociology and geology was developed for presentation to incoming freshmen and their parents to advertise the course. Initial response has been positive, showing an increase in awareness of geological processes among students with a wide range of interests.

  13. CO2-mineral Wettability and Implications for Understanding Leakage Processes from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarens, A. F.; Edwards, I.; Wang, S.

    2011-12-01

    In geological carbon sequestration (GCS), leakage events will be difficult to predict because parcels of CO2 will travel over long length scales and encounter a number of heterogeneous formations and endogenous brine in their rise to the surface. A constitutive model of a rising parcel of CO2 includes at least three main forces: 1) buoyant forces, 2) surface tension forces, and 3) shear drag forces. Of these, surface tension forces are of great significance, especially for predicting capillary and mineral trapping, and are affected by surface tension and the three-phase contact angle between CO2, brine, and the solid host mineral surfaces. Very limited experimental data on contact angles in GCS relevant systems has been reported in the academic literature. Here, the contact angle of several of the rock and clay species prevailing near GCS sites, e.g. quartz, feldspar, calcite, kaolinite, smectite and illite, were measured under a range of relevant temperature, pressure and ionic strength conditions. The measurements were made in a custom-built high-pressure view cell by introducing precisely controlled pendant CO2 droplets of constant volume to smooth and clean mineral surfaces after saturating the surrounding brine with CO2 and images were recorded using a high resolution digital camera. Images were processed and the contact angle measured using ImageJ software with a plug-in designed for this purpose. To measure the contact angle of CO2 on clay surfaces, ultra-pure microscope glass slides were coated with cleaned and particle-size-separated clay particles using hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol to ensure adhesion and a continuous coating on the surface. The uniform morphology of the surface was confirmed using electron microscopy. Preliminary results demonstrate differences in contact angle between the tested minerals, with calcite > quartz > feldspar. The absolute differences between the minerals were on the order of 3-7%. The results also demonstrate that under higher temperature and pressure conditions, the contact angle decreases making the minerals more strongly wetting. For calcite, the contact angle decreases from 155.9o at 7MPa, 30oC (gas phase CO2) to 149.8o at 20MPa, 50oC (supercritical phase CO2), suggesting that contact angle is impacted by both temperature and pressure but also by CO2 phase. The contact angle measurements also indicate that some mineral surfaces can undergo surface hysteresis wherein surface reactions can result in changes in the surface energy and the contact angle. Of the minerals tested here calcite was found to be the most reactive and the contact angle changed from non-wetting to wetting over the period of several hours. The measurements reported here for pure mineral species enable the development of effective contact angles for heterogeneous materials that have undergone diagenesis are common on the surfaces of the consolidated and unconsolidated media.

  14. Redesigning and Transforming: A Case Study of the Role of Semiotic Import in Early Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I explore the role of semiotic import (Van Leeuwen, 2005) in the composing processes of three bilingual students (six to seven years old) emerging as writers of English. Using social semiotic (Van Leeuwen, 2005) and design (New London Group, 2000) frameworks, I trace a qualitative "micro-history" of how the students imported…

  15. Process and device for the determination of the characteristics of the geological formations traversed by a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, J.; Morlier, P.; Pelet, R.; Sarda, J.

    1981-12-22

    A description is given of a process for determining characteristics of the geological formations traversed by a borehole, making use of a sonde by means of which the intensity of the gamma rays naturally radiated from the formations is measured. Both longitudinal and transversal acoustic waves are transmitted to the formations, their travel time and their attenuation between two receivers placed in contact with the formations are measured. By combination of the so-obtained values a resulting value is elaborated which is representative of one characteristic of the surveyed formations.

  16. Genesis of karren in Kentucky Lake, Tennessee: Interaction of geologic structure, weathering processes, and bioerosion

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, M.A.; Smith, W.L. (Univ. of Tennessee, Martin, TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    While karst features formed along marine coastlines are commonly reported, shoreline karst features produced within lacustrine systems have received little attention. The shoreline of Bond Island'' in Kentucky Lake has evolved a distinctive karren geomorphology not recognized elsewhere in the lake. The karren consist of well-developed clint and grike topography, trench formation, solution pits, flutes, and runnels, and pit and tunnel development. Two processes are responsible for the karren. First, freshwater dissolution and wave action on structurally fractured Decatur Limestone (Silurian) mechanically and chemically weaken the entire exposed surface. Second, a seasonal cycle of winter freeze-thaw and frost wedging followed by spring bioerosion overprints the first set of processes. Bioerosion by chemical dissolution involving a complex association of predominantly chironomids, algae, fungi, and bryozoa results in preferential dissolution along joints, stylolites, and bedding planes to form shallow spindle-shaped solution pits over the entire surface and sides of the karren. The solution pits average 1 cm length by 0.4 cm depth densely covering rock surfaces. This study suggests that seasonal bioerosion may constitute a more important geomorphic factor in lacustrine systems than previously recognized.

  17. In Situ Optical Observation of High-Temperature Geological Processes With the Moissanite Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walte, N.; Keppler, H.

    2005-12-01

    A major drawback of existing techniques in experimental earth and material sciences is the inability to observe ongoing high-temperature processes in situ during an experiment. Examples for important time-dependent processes include the textural development of rocks and oxide systems during melting and crystallization, solid-state and melt-present recrystallization and Ostwald ripening, and bubble nucleation and growth during degassing of glasses and melts. The investigation of these processes by post-mortem analysis of a quenched microstructure is time consuming and often unsatisfactory. Here, we introduce the moissanite cell that allows optical in situ observation of long-term experiments at high temperatures. Moissanite is a transparent gem-quality type of SiC that is characterized by its hardness and superior chemical and thermal resistance. Two moissanite windows with a thickness and diameter of several millimeters are placed into sockets of fired pyrophyllite and fixed onto two opposite metal plates. The sockets are wrapped with heating wire and each window is connected to a thermocouple for temperature control. The sample is placed directly between the moissanite windows and the cell is assembled similarly to a large diamond anvil cell. In situ observation of the sample is done with a microscope through observation windows and movies are recorded with an attached digital camera. Our experiments with the new cell show that temperatures above 1200°C can be maintained and observed in a sample for several days without damaging the cell nor the windows. Time-lapse movies of melting and crystallizing natural and synthetic rocks and of degassing glasses and melts will be presented to show the potential of the new technique for experimental earth and material science.

  18. Antarctic Dry Valleys: Geological Processes in Hyperarid, Hypothermal Environments and Implications for Water on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J.; Dickson, J. L.; Levy, J. S.; Baker, D. M. H.; Marchant, D. R.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) are characterized by mean annual temperatures (MAT) well below the freezing point of water and are among the coldest and driest environments on Earth. In spite of these extreme conditions, seasonal temperatures (ST) and peak daytime temperatures (PDT) can locally exceed the melting point of water in certain settings in certain microenvironments. Three major microenvironments (upland stable zone, inland mixed zone, coastal thaw zone) are defined in the ADV on the basis of measurements of atmospheric temperatures (MAT/ST), soil moisture and relative humidity, and the concurrent availability and mobility of water; these microenvironments show variations in the abundance and character of different geomorphic features. For example, in the coldest upland stable zone melting is almost non-existent and sublimation polygons dominate; ice-wedge polygons occur in the coastal thaw zone where seasonal temperatures can exceed the melting temperature of water; sand-wedge polygons occur in the inland mixed zone. The ADV are characterized by a regional permafrost layer and a shallow ice table. In contrast to more temperate latitudes on Earth where the hydrological system and cycle are vertically integrated, the ADV hydrological system consists of a horizontally stratified hydrological cycle; the regional permafrost layer precludes vertical exchange of surface water and deep groundwater below the permafrost. Local near-surface meltwater is produced seasonally, flows across the surface to create gullies, channels and small fluvial features, and soaks into the dry upper part of the permafrost, running downslope along the top of the ice table in a perched aquifer. In this context, melting of seasonal and perennial surface and very near surface snow and ice deposits during peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures causes a range of fluvial and liquid water-related features in the coastal thaw zone and inland mixed zone. Among the features and processes that we have analyzed and instrumented over numerous field seasons in the ADV are rock-weathering processes, debris-covered glaciers, viscous flow features, polygons, active gullies, recurring slope lineae, fluvial channels, and small ponds and lakes. Key to understanding these features in the ADV has proven to be: 1) location of surface microenvironments that sequester seasonal and perennial snow and ice, 2) understanding the importance of peak daytime and seasonal temperatures, in contrast to MAT, 3) the role of the shallow ice table in producing a perched aquifer in the dry part of the soil layer above the top of the ice table, 4) understanding the importance of short-term peak melting events (revealed by time-lapse images and environmental instrumentation), 5) measuring seasonal rates of vertical propagation and depths of penetration of the melting geotherm, 6) determining the role of salt exchange in hyporheic zone processes and alteration of rocks and soils, and water chemistry, and 7) analysis of the role of insolation and slope orientation in melting processes. These factors also have important implications for the study and interpretation of water-related features and the climate history of Mars. Similarities are observed between the ADV microenvironments and latitudinal zones and geomorphic feature distributions on Mars.

  19. Importance of Q-Values in Astrophysical Rapid Proton Capture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Chirashree; Gangopadhyay, G.

    2013-06-01

    The importance of measuring Q-values in rapid proton capture process has been investigated. The microscopic optical model, derived using a nucleon-nucleon interaction and densities from relativistic mean field (RMF) calculations, has been utilized to calculate the reaction rates. It has been observed that the Q-values involved in the reactions at waiting points at A = 60 and 64 are very important in determining the final abundance of the process. Some other Q-values also play a crucial role in the final abundance of nuclei near the end point of the process.

  20. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  1. Venus: Vertical accretion of crust and depleted mantle and implications for geological history and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Parmentier, E. M.; Hess, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    Models for the vertical accretion of a basaltic crust and depleted mantle layer on Venus over geologic time predict the eventual development of a net negatively buoyant depleted mantle layer, its foundering and its remixing with the underlying mantle. The consequences of the development of this layer, its loss, and the aftermath are investigated and compared to the geologic record of Venus revealed by Magellan. The young average age of the surface of Venus (several hundred million years), the formation of the heavily deformed tessera regions, the subsequent emplacement of widespread volcanic plains, the presently low rate of volcanic activity, and impact crater population that cannot be distinguished from a completely spatially random distribution, and the small number of impact craters embayed by volcanism, are all consistent with the development of a depleted mantle layer, its relatively rapid loss followed by large-scale volcanic flooding, and its subsequent reestablishment. We outline a 'catastrophic' tectonic resurfacing model in which the foundering of the depleted mantle layer several hundred million years ago caused globally extensive tectonic deformation and obliteration of the cratering record, accompanied by upwelling of warm fertile mantle and its pressure-release melting to produce extensive surface volcanism in the following period. Venus presently appears to be characterized by a relatively thick depleted mantle layer and lithosphere reestablished over the last several hundred million years following the previous instability event inferred to have produced the tessera terrain.

  2. Geological Survey research 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1978-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Geological Survey research 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1976-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Geology of Kentucky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.

  5. Process Consistency in Models: the Importance of System Signatures, Expert Knowledge and Process Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, Markus; Fovet, Ophelie; Ruiz, Laurent; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological models are frequently characterized by what is often considered to be adequate calibration performances. In many cases, however, these models experience a substantial uncertainty and performance decrease in validation periods, thus resulting in poor predictive power. Besides the likely presence of data errors, this observation can point towards wrong or insufficient representations of the underlying processes and their heterogeneity. In other words, right results are generated for the wrong reasons. Thus ways are sought to increase model consistency and to thereby satisfy the contrasting priorities of the need a) to increase model complexity and b) to limit model equifinality. In this study a stepwise model development approach is chosen to test the value of an exhaustive and systematic combined use of hydrological signatures, expert knowledge and readily available, yet anecdotal and rarely exploited, hydrological information for increasing model consistency towards generating the right answer for the right reasons. A simple 3-box, 7 parameter, conceptual HBV-type model, constrained by 4 calibration objective functions was able to adequately reproduce the hydrograph with comparatively high values for the 4 objective functions in the 5-year calibration period. However, closer inspection of the results showed a dramatic decrease of model performance in the 5-year validation period. In addition, assessing the model's skill to reproduce a range of 20 hydrological signatures including, amongst others, the flow duration curve, the autocorrelation function and the rising limb density, showed that it could not adequately reproduce the vast majority of these signatures, indicating a lack of model consistency. Subsequently model complexity was increased in a stepwise way to allow for more process heterogeneity. To limit model equifinality, increase in complexity was counter-balanced by a stepwise application of "realism constraints", inferred from expert knowledge (e.g. unsaturated storage capacity of hillslopes should exceed the one of wetlands) and anecdotal hydrological information (e.g. long-term estimates of actual evaporation obtained from the Budyko framework and long-term estimates of baseflow contribution) to ensure that the model is well behaved with respect to the modeller's perception of the system. A total of 11 model set-ups with increased complexity and an increased number of realism constraints was tested. It could be shown that in spite of largely unchanged calibration performance, compared to the simplest set-up, the most complex model set-up (12 parameters, 8 constraints) exhibited significantly increased performance in the validation period while uncertainty did not increase. In addition, the most complex model was characterized by a substantially increased skill to reproduce all 20 signatures, indicating a more suitable representation of the system. The results suggest that a model, "well" constrained by 4 calibration objective functions may still be an inadequate representation of the system and that increasing model complexity, if counter-balanced by realism constraints, can indeed increase predictive performance of a model and its skill to reproduce a range of hydrological signatures, but that it does not necessarily result in increased uncertainty. The results also strongly illustrate the need to move away from automated model calibration towards a more general expert-knowledge driven strategy of constraining models if a certain level of model consistency is to be achieved.

  6. 3-Dimensional Mapping of Electrical Resistivity and Geological Data with Combination of CPTe Data for understanding the Fluid Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanli, A. I.; Nyari, Z.; Stickel, J.; Tillmann, A.

    2012-12-01

    To understand the hydrogeological process and spatial distribution of contamination, there are several conventional methods which are gathered under two main branches that are invasive and non-invasive techniques. Standard Penetration Test and Conic Penetration Test techniques are called as classical borehole techniques and they are accepted among the invasive or less-invasive techniques. On the other hand, electrical and electromagnetic based Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar, most widely used techniques in imaging the subsurface in the last decade, are called as non-invasive geophysical methods. 3D electrical resistivity distribution provides information about water flow and changes in electrical resistivity of the pore fluid. Therefore, to assist in understanding and modeling of the fluid transport process, 3D spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity data with the corresponded 3D geological section were mapped and interpreted in the test site located in western Germany.

  7. Determining the rates of geological processes in a large-scale metamorphic complex: a multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, D.; Bruand, E.; Stuewe, K.; Rubatto, D.; Kloetzli, U. S.; Foster, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Metamorphic complexes occur at the Earth's surface in many places all over the world. The combined application of different geochronological and thermochronological techniques may help to constrain the rates of geological processes which led to the formation of such metamorphic belts. In this contribution we present the results of a multi-method approach aimed at constraining the timing of burial, heating, partial melting, cooling and exhumation of the Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC) of southern Alaska. The CMC is a large scale (ca. 300x50 km) upper amphibolite facies complex developed in an extreme forearc position in a Late Cretaceous to Paleocene accretionary prism. We present (1) U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages of detrital zircons from the complex, which constrain the depositional age of the sedimentary rocks in which the complex developed to ~60-65 Ma, (2) U-Pb SHRIMP ages of monazite and zircon, linked by geochemical and textural analyses to the metamorphic history of the rocks, which constrain the timing of heating, peak metamorphism and partial melting to only ~3 Ma at ~54-51 Ma, and (3) 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of muscovite and biotite as well as zircon fission track ages, which constrain the timing of cooling and exhumation to ~50-25 Ma. Combined with thermobarometry and pseudosection modelling conducted on the same samples, these radiometric ages reveal a surprisingly short metamorphic cycle: sedimentation followed by heating and burial to ~650-700°C and ~8-10 kbar occurred over a short time period of ~5-10 Ma, and cooling down to ~350°C occurred at least in the western part of the complex over a period of ~5-8 Ma. These results can be used to calculate rates of geological processes: heating rates are in the order of ~60-140°C/Ma, and cooling rates vary from ~30- 180°C/Ma in the west to 6-10°C/Ma in the southeast of the complex. Burial and exhumation rates are more difficult to constrain and depend on the pressure distribution throughout the crustal column during metamorphism, but vary between 0.5-10 mm/a. Whereas the peak metamorphic conditions are consistent with conductive heating in a regional metamorphic cycle, the high rates of heating and cooling are harder to reconcile with such processes. Advective mechanisms involving the transport of mass and/or heat are likely to have been involved. These data demonstrate the usefulness of combining different geochronological methods for determining rates and mechanisms of geological processes on a regional scale.

  8. Preliminary paper - Integrated control process for the development of the mined geologic disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Russell B.; Harbert, Kevin R.; Calloway, David E.

    1997-11-26

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management, begins to focus DOE Programs and Projects on the total system life cycle instead of looking at project execution or operation as individual components. As DOE begins to implement this order, the DOE Management and Operating contractors must develop a process to control not only the contract baseline but also the overall life cycle baseline. This paper presents an integrated process that is currently being developed on the Yucca Mountain Project for DOE. The process integrates the current contract/project baseline management process with the management control process for design and the configuration management change control process.

  9. GIS-project: geodynamic globe for global monitoring of geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryakhovsky, V.; Rundquist, D.; Gatinsky, Yu.; Chesalova, E.

    2003-04-01

    A multilayer geodynamic globe at the scale 1:10,000,000 was created at the end of the nineties in the GIS Center of the Vernadsky Museum. A special soft-and-hardware complex was elaborated for its visualization with a set of multitarget object directed databases. The globe includes separate thematic covers represented by digital sets of spatial geological, geochemical, and geophysical information (maps, schemes, profiles, stratigraphic columns, arranged databases etc.). At present the largest databases included in the globe program are connected with petrochemical and isotopic data on magmatic rocks of the World Ocean and with the large and supperlarge mineral deposits. Software by the Environmental Scientific Research Institute (ESRI), USA as well as ArcScan vectrorizator were used for covers digitizing and database adaptation (ARC/INFO 7.0, 8.0). All layers of the geoinformational project were obtained by scanning of separate objects and their transfer to the real geographic co-ordinates of an equiintermediate conic projection. Then the covers were projected on plane degree-system geographic co-ordinates. Some attributive databases were formed for each thematic layer, and in the last stage all covers were combined into the single information system. Separate digital covers represent mathematical descriptions of geological objects and relations between them, such as Earth's altimetry, active fault systems, seismicity etc. Some grounds of the cartographic generalization were taken into consideration in time of covers compilation with projection and co-ordinate systems precisely answered a given scale. The globe allows us to carry out in the interactive regime the formation of coordinated with each other object-oriented databases and thematic covers directly connected with them. They can be spread for all the Earth and the near-Earth space, and for the most well known parts of divergent and convergent boundaries of the lithosphere plates. Such covers and time series reflect in diagram form a total combination and dynamics of data on the geological structure, geophysical fields, seismicity, geomagnetism, composition of rock complexes, and metalloge-ny of different areas on the Earth's surface. They give us possibility to scale, detail, and develop 3D spatial visualization. Information filling the covers could be replenished as in the existing so in newly formed databases with new data. The integrated analyses of the data allows us more precisely to define our ideas on regularities in development of lithosphere and mantle unhomogeneities using some original technologies. It also enables us to work out 3D digital models for geodynamic development of tectonic zones in convergent and divergent plate boundaries with the purpose of integrated monitoring of mineral resources and establishing correlation between seismicity, magmatic activity, and metallogeny in time-spatial co-ordinates. The created multifold geoinformation system gives a chance to execute an integral analyses of geoinformation flows in the interactive regime and, in particular, to establish some regularities in the time-spatial distribution and dynamics of main structural units in the lithosphere, as well as illuminate the connection between stages of their development and epochs of large and supperlarge mineral deposit formation. Now we try to use the system for prediction of large oil and gas concentration in the main sedimentary basins. The work was supported by RFBR, (grants 93-07-14680, 96-07-89499, 99-07-90030, 00-15-98535, 02-07-90140) and MTC.

  10. USGS: Geology in the Parks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Survey Geology in the Parks Web site is a cooperative project of the USGS Western Earth Surface Processes Team and the National Park Service. This extensive site covers geologic maps, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, geologic time, US geologic provinces, park geology of the Mojave, Sunset Crater, Lake Mead, North Cascades, Death Valley, Yosemite National Park, and much more. Descriptions, graphics, photographs, and animations all contribute to this informative and interesting Web site making it a one stop, all encompassing, resource for everything geology and US national park related.

  11. Mutation is arguably the most important of all genetic processes, generating genetic variation between indi-

    E-print Network

    Eyre-Walker, Adam

    Mutation is arguably the most important of all genetic processes, generating genetic variation between indi- viduals within a species and between cells within an individual. In doing so, mutation the very first investigations into the pat- tern of mutation -- conducted on the rII region

  12. Flow Tube Studies of Gas Phase Chemical Processes of Atmospheric Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct measurements of elementary reaction rate constants and photochemistry parameters for processes of importance in the atmosphere. These measurements are being carried out under temperature and pressure conditions covering those applicable to the stratosphere and upper troposphere, using the chemical ionization mass spectrometry turbulent flow technique developed in our laboratory.

  13. 77 FR 38033 - Notice of Establishment of a Commodity Import Approval Process Web Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    We are announcing the creation of a new Plant Protection and Quarantine Web site that will provide stakeholders with information about the commodity import approval process for plants and plant products and give them the opportunity to consult with us on risk assessments as they are being drafted. We are doing this in response to stakeholder requests for more information about the commodity......

  14. High-performance computer simulation of wave processes in geological media in seismic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, I. E.; Petrov, I. B.

    2012-02-01

    A class of problems arising in seismic exploration are investigated, namely, seismic signal propagation in multilayered geological rock and near-surface disturbance propagation in massive rock with heterogeneities, such as empty or filled fractures and cavities. Numerical solutions are obtained for wave propagation in such highly heterogeneous media, including those taking into account the plastic properties of the rock, which can be manifested near a seismic gap or a wellbore. All types of explosion-generated elastic and elastoplastic waves and waves reflected from fractures and the boundaries of the integration domain are analyzed. The identification of waves in seismograms recorded with near-surface receivers is addressed. The grid-characteristic method is used on triangular, parallelepipedal, and tetrahedral meshes with boundary conditions set on the rock-fracture interface and on free surfaces in explicit form. The numerical method proposed is suitable for the study of the interaction between seismic waves and heterogeneous inclusions, since it ensures the most correct design of computational algorithms on the boundaries of the integration domain and at media interfaces. A parallel software code implemented with the help of OpenMP and MPI was used to execute computations on parallelepipedal and tetrahedral grids.

  15. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the US high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the US program, these processes, which are well defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the US program.

  16. The Martian geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Roatsch, T.; Gwinner, K.; Scholten, F.; Di Achille, G.; Duxbury, T.; Erkeling, G.; van Gasselt, S.; Gupta, S.; Head, J. W.; Hiesinger, H.; Ip, W.; Keller, H.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Kneissl, T.; Le Deit, L.; McCord, T. B.; Muller, J.; Murray, J. J.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pinet, P. C.; Reiss, D.; Rossi, A.; Spohn, T.; Tirsch, D.; Williams, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the strong evidence for aqueous processes at or near the surface, Mars is the most Earth-like body in the Solar System. After 10 years of ESA's Mars Express orbiting the planet its High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) covered about 90 % of the surface in stereo and color with resolutions up to 10 m/pixel [1]. Digital elevation models of up to 50 m grid spacing, generated from all suitable datasets of the stereo coverage, currently cover about 40 % of the surface [2]. The geomorphological analysis of surface features, observed by the HRSC indicate major surface modifications by endogenic and exogenic processes on all scales. Endogenic landforms (e.g., tectonic rifts, small basaltic shield volcanoes) were found to be very similar to their equivalents on Earth [1,3,4,5,6,7], suggesting that no unique processes are required to explain their formation. Volcanism may have been active up to the very recent past or even to the present, putting important constraints on thermal evolution models [6,7]. The analysis of diverse landforms produced by aqueous processes revealed that surface water activity was likely episodic, but ranged in age from very ancient to very recent [1,8-16]. Particularly important is prominent glaciation and periglacial features at several latitudes, including mountain glaciers [17-21]. The identification of aqueous alteration minerals and their geological context has enabled a better understanding of paleoenvironmental conditions and pedogenetic processes [23-25]. Dark dunes contain volcanic material and are evidence for the significantly dynamic surface environment, characterized by widespread erosion, transport, and redeposition [26]. Since basically all geologic interpretations of extraterrestrial features require profound knowledge of the Earth as key reference, studies of terrestrial analogues are mandatory in planetary geology. Field work in Antarctica, Svalbard and Iceland [5,6,21,22,27] provided a basis for the analysis of periglacial and volcanic processes, respectively. References: [1]Jaumann et al., 2007, PSS 55; [2]Gwinner et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [3]Neukum et al., 2004, Nature 432; [4]Neukum et al., EPSL 294;[5] Hauber et al., 2005, Nature 434; [6]Hauber et al., 2009 PSS 57; [7]Platz and Michael, 2011, EPSL 312, [8]Jaumann et al., 2005, GRL 32; [9]Jaumann et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [10]Erkeling et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [11]Erkeling et al., 2012, Icarus, 219; [12]Kleinhans et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [13]Reiss et al., 2009, PSS 57; [14]Kneissl et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [15]Di Achille et al., 2006, JGR 111; [16]Di Achille et al., 2006, GRL 33; [17]Head et al., 2005 Nature 434; [18]Murray et al., 2005 Nature 434; [19]Pacifici et al., 2009, Icarus 202; [20]Rossi et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am.356; [21]Marchant and Head, 2007, Icarus; [22]Ulrich et al., 2011 Geomorphology 134;[23] Le Deit et al., 2010, Icarus 208; [24]Le Deit et al., 2012, JGR 117; [25]Bishop et al., 2013, JGR 118; [26]Tirsch et al., 2011, JGR 116; [27]Hauber et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am. 483.

  17. Geologic Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alec Bodzin

    2002-04-01

    Geologic Explorations allows learners to explore a variety of unique geological formations of Utah using Quicktime Virtual Reality (QTVR) panoramas and digital still imagery. Spectacular panoramas and striking images capture Utah's unique geology and invite students to explore and learn interesting facts and concepts central to the study of geology.

  18. Ecology of Caribbean Sponges: Are Top-Down or Bottom-Up Processes More Important?

    PubMed Central

    Lesser, Michael P.; Slattery, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Benthic-pelagic coupling and the role of bottom-up versus top-down processes are recognized as having a major impact on the structure of marine communities. While the roles of bottom-up processes are better appreciated they are still viewed as principally affecting the outcome of top-down processes. Sponges on coral reefs are important members of the benthic community and provide a critically important functional linkage between water-column productivity and the benthos. As active suspension feeders sponges utilize the abundant autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton in the water column. As a result sponges across the Caribbean basin exhibit a consistent and significant pattern of greater biomass, tube extension rate, and species numbers with increasing depth. Likewise, the abundance of their food supply also increases along a depth gradient. Using experimental manipulations it has recently been reported that predation is the primary determinant of sponge community structure. Here we provide data showing that the size and growth of the sponge Callyspongia vaginalis are significantly affected by food availability. Sponges increased in size and tube extension rate with increasing depth down to 46 m, while simultaneously exposed to the full range of potential spongivores at all depths. Additionally, we point out important flaws in the experimental design used to demonstrate the role of predation and suggest that a resolution of this important question will require well-controlled, multi-factorial experiments to examine the independent and interactive effects of predation and food abundance on the ecology of sponges. PMID:24244563

  19. Statistical pre-processing and analyses of hydro-meteorological time series in a geologic clay site (methodology and first results for Mont Terri’s PP experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatmi, H.; Ababou, R.; Matray, J. M.

    This article presents a set of statistical methods for pre-processing (or pre-conditioning) and analyzing multivariate hydro-geologic time series, such as pore pressures and atmospheric pressure (temporal structures). The pre-processing methods are necessary to enhance or complete the signals due to defects in the observed time series (data gaps, spurious values, variable time steps). The statistical analyses aim, in fine, at characterizing the hydraulic behaviour of a clayey formation in the context of deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste. Pore water and atmospheric pressure time series from the Mont Terri rock laboratory (BPP-1 borehole) are taken as an example.

  20. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-encounter Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula, and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, the putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observations. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto System's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by New Horizons' cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate of the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration) and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of prospects for endogenic activity in the form of tectonics and cryo-volcanism.

  1. Geology of the Colorado Plateau

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Colorado Plateau Field Institute

    This web page provides a general description of the geology of the Colorado Plateau. Topics include information about the various geologic environments and processes active during the Precambrian and the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras.

  2. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets: importance for understanding of processes of their formation and subsequent development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2009-04-01

    Our knowledge about formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets (the Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and, possibly, the Moon) based on different physical and geochemical speculations and models. The main disadvantage of such hypotheses is their abstract character and ignoring any data on tectonomagmatic evolution of those planets. At the same time, just this type of data provide an important information, which is necessary for elaborating of a present-day theory of their formation and evolution. The Earth has been much better studied compared to the other planets, therefore we will discuss the main questions of planetary tectonomagmatic evolution using the Earth as example plus involve other data on the Moon and the terrestrial planets. Two dominating hypotheses about composition of the primordial Earth's crust exist now: (1) traditional implies that the primordial crust had basic composition, whereas the sialic crust resulted from a geosyncline process or, in modern terms, from processes at convergent plate margins, and (2) primordial crust was sialic; the plate tectonic mechanisms started in the Middle Paleoproterozoic and resulted in oceanic spreading and formation of the secondary oceanic crust. Both models require a global melting of a primary chondritic material to form the primordial crust. The final result depends on the degree of melt differentiation during solidification of a magmatic ocean. Such a solidification, due to differences between adiabatic and melting-points gradients had to proceed in bottom-top direction (Jeffries, 1929) and resulted in accumulation of low-temperature derivates in the primordial crust. Geological data, namely granite-dominated Archean crust, and results of studying of detrital zircon from Australia supports the primordial-sialic crust hypothesis. The Moon which is four times smaller than Earth has a basic primordial crust. Such a difference can be explained by different depths of their magmatic oceans. The Early Precambrian (Archean, Early Paleoproterozoic) tectonomagmatic activity on the Earth was rather different from the Phanerozoic: the major features then were huge granite-greenstone terranes (GGTs) and their separating granulite belts; mantle melts were derived from a depleted source. The GGTs consisting of greenstone belts with komatiite-basaltic magmatism in Archean, "submerged" in granite gneiss matrix, probably, strong reworked primordial sialic crust, and by siliceous high-Mg series (SHMS) in early Paleoproterozoic. GGTs were areas of extension, uplifting and denudation, whereas the granulite belts were dominated by compression, sinking and sedimentation. Generally, the Early Precambrian geological pattern was rather different from the modern plate tectonics and can be described in plumetectonics terms. A drastic change of the tectonomagamtic and ecology processes on it's surface occurred at ca. 2.3-2.0 Ga: instead of high-Mg magmas appeared geochemical enriched Fe-Ti pucrites and basalts, and the plume tectonic was changed by plate tectonics, which is still active now, as well as ecologic situation on the surface. Since that time the primordial sialic continental crust has been gradually replaced by the secondary basaltic oceanic crust. Systematic consumption of the ancient crust in subduction zones obviously started at ~2 Ga and led to gradually replacing it by the secondary mafic (oceanic) crust. The crustal materials has stored in the "slab cemeteries", revealed in the mantle by seismic tomography. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the Moon began4.4-4.0 Ga in lunar highlands with low-Ti magnesium suite, analogous to the terrestrial Paleoproterozoic SHMS. Cardinal change of tectonomagmatic processes, close to that on the Earth, happed on the Moon ~3.9 Ga to form large depressions of lunar maria with thinned crust and vast basaltic volcanism with signatures of plume magmatism (high-Ti basalts). The lunar maria were, probably, specific analogues of Earth's oceans. On Venus and Mars also two main types of morphostructures, which are vast fields of basal

  3. Results From an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist; D. Barr; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C. Zhang

    2006-08-02

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

  4. YOUNG GEOLOGY GEOLOGY OF THE

    E-print Network

    Seamons, Kent E.

    YOUNG GEOLOGY UNIVERSITY May, 1962 GEOLOGY OF THE SOUTHERN WASATCH MOUNTAINS AND VICIN~IM,UTAH C O ....................J. Keith Rigby 80 Economic Geology of North-Central Utah ...,............... Kcnneth C.Bdodc 85 Rod Log ........................Lehi F. Hintze, J. Ka# Ri&, & ClydeT. Hardy 95 Geologic Map of Southern

  5. Collaborative web-based annotation of video footage of deep-sea life, ecosystems and geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottmann, R.; Ratmeyer, V.; Pop Ristov, A.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    More and more seagoing scientific expeditions use video-controlled research platforms such as Remote Operating Vehicles (ROV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), and towed camera systems. These produce many hours of video material which contains detailed and scientifically highly valuable footage of the biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of the oceans. Many of the videos contain unique observations of unknown life-forms which are rare, and which cannot be sampled and studied otherwise. To make such video material online accessible and to create a collaborative annotation environment the "Video Annotation and processing platform" (V-App) was developed. A first solely web-based installation for ROV videos is setup at the German Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (available at http://videolib.marum.de). It allows users to search and watch videos with a standard web browser based on the HTML5 standard. Moreover, V-App implements social web technologies allowing a distributed world-wide scientific community to collaboratively annotate videos anywhere at any time. It has several features fully implemented among which are: • User login system for fine grained permission and access control • Video watching • Video search using keywords, geographic position, depth and time range and any combination thereof • Video annotation organised in themes (tracks) such as biology and geology among others in standard or full screen mode • Annotation keyword management: Administrative users can add, delete, and update single keywords for annotation or upload sets of keywords from Excel-sheets • Download of products for scientific use This unique web application system helps making costly ROV videos online available (estimated cost range between 5.000 - 10.000 Euros per hour depending on the combination of ship and ROV). Moreover, with this system each expert annotation adds instantaneous available and valuable knowledge to otherwise uncharted material.

  6. Geological Survey research 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1982-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress. (USGS)

  7. The Large Impact Process Inferred from the Geology of Lunar Multiring Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1994-01-01

    The study of the geology of multiring impact basins on the Moon over the past ten years has given us a rudimentary understanding of how these large structures have formed and evolved on the Moon and other bodies. Two-ring basins on the Moon begin to form at diameters of about 300 km; the transition diameter at which more than two rings appear is uncertain, but it appears to be between 400 and 500 km in diameter. Inner rings tend to be made up of clusters or aligned segments of massifs and are arranged into a crudely concentric pattern; scarp-like elements may or may not be present. Outer rings are much more scarp-like and massifs are rare to absent. Basins display textured deposits, interpreted as ejecta, extending roughly an apparent basin radius exterior to the main topographic rim. Ejecta may have various morphologies, ranging from wormy and hummocky deposits to knobby surfaces; the causes of these variations are not known, but may be related to the energy regime in which the ejecta are deposited. Outside the limits of the textured ejecta are found both fields of satellitic craters (secondaries) and light plains deposits. Impact melt sheets are observed on the floors of relatively unflooded basins. Samples of impact melts from lunar basins have basaltic major-element chemistry, characterized by K, rare-earth elements (REE), P, and other trace elements of varying concentration (KREEP); ages are between 3.8 and 3.9 Ga. These lithologies cannot be produced through the fusion of known pristine (plutonic) rock types, suggesting the occurrence of unknown lithologies within the Moon. These melts were probably generated at middle to lower crustal levels. Ejecta compositions, preservation of pre-basin topography, and deposit morphologies all indicate that the excavation cavity of multiring basins is between about 0.4 and 0.6 times the diameter of the apparent crater diameter. Basin depths of excavation can be inferred from the composition of basin ejecta. A variety of mechanisms has been proposed to account for the formation of basin rings but none of them are entirely plausible. Mechanisms can be divided into two broad groups: (1) forcible uplift due to fluidization of the target; (2) concentric, brittle, fracturing and failure of the target, on regional (megaterraces) to global scales (lithospheric fracturing). Most basin rings are spaced at a constant factor on all planets. Evidence supports divergent ringforming models, so it may be that the ring-locating mechanism differs from the ring-forming mechanism. Thus, large-scale crustal foundering (megaterracing) could occur along concentric zones of weakness created by some type of resonant wave mechanism (fluidization and uplift); such immediate crustal adjustment could then be followed by long-term adjustment of the fractured lithosphere.

  8. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  9. Layer Cake Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Wagner

    This classroom activity uses a cake to demonstrate geologic processes and introduce geologic terms. Students will learn how folds and faults occur, recognize the difference in behavior between brittle and ductile rocks, and attempt to predict structures likely to result from application of various forces to layered rocks. They will also attempt to interpret 'core samples' to determine subsurface rock structure.

  10. Importance of “Process Evaluation” in Audiological Rehabilitation: Examples from Studies on Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is to discuss the importance of “evaluating the process of change” (i.e., process evaluation) in people with disability by studying their lived experiences. Detailed discussion is made about “why and how to investigate the process of change in people with disability?” and some specific examples are provided from studies on patient journey of persons with hearing impairment (PHI) and their communication partners (CPs). In addition, methodological aspects in process evaluation are discussed in relation to various metatheoretical perspectives. The discussion has been supplemented with relevant literature. The healthcare practice and disability research in general are dominated by the use of outcome measures. Even though the values of outcome measures are not questioned, there seems to be a little focus on understanding the process of change over time in relation to health and disability. We suggest that the process evaluation has an additional temporal dimension and has applications in both clinical practice and research in relation to health and disability. PMID:25276135

  11. On the potential vegetation feedbacks that enhance phosphorus availability - insights from a process-based model linking geological and ecological timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buendía, C.; Arens, S.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2014-07-01

    In old and heavily weathered soils, the availability of P might be so small that the primary production of plants is limited. However, plants have evolved several mechanisms to actively take up P from the soil or mine it to overcome this limitation. These mechanisms involve the active uptake of P mediated by mycorrhiza, biotic de-occlusion through root clusters, and the biotic enhancement of weathering through root exudation. The objective of this paper is to investigate how and where these processes contribute to alleviate P limitation on primary productivity. To do so, we propose a process-based model accounting for the major processes of the carbon, water, and P cycles including chemical weathering at the global scale. Implementing P limitation on biomass synthesis allows the assessment of the efficiencies of biomass production across different ecosystems. We use simulation experiments to assess the relative importance of the different uptake mechanisms to alleviate P limitation on biomass production. We find that active P uptake is an essential mechanism for sustaining P availability on long timescales, whereas biotic de-occlusion might serve as a buffer on timescales shorter than 10 000 yr. Although active P uptake is essential for reducing P losses by leaching, humid lowland soils reach P limitation after around 100 000 yr of soil evolution. Given the generalized modelling framework, our model results compare reasonably with observed or independently estimated patterns and ranges of P concentrations in soils and vegetation. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that P limitation might be an important driver of biomass production efficiency (the fraction of the gross primary productivity used for biomass growth), and that vegetation on old soils has a smaller biomass production rate when P becomes limiting. With this study, we provide a theoretical basis for investigating the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to P availability linking geological and ecological timescales under different environmental settings.

  12. On the potential vegetation feedbacks that enhance phosphorus availability - insights from a process-based model linking geological and ecological time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buendíia, C.; Arens, S.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-12-01

    In old and heavily weathered soils, the availability of P might be so small that the primary production of plants is limited. However, plants have evolved several mechanisms to actively take up P from the soil or mine it to overcome this limitation. These mechanisms involve the active uptake of P mediated by mycorrhiza, biotic de-occlusion through root clusters, and the biotic enhancement of weathering through root exudation. The objective of this paper is to investigate how and where these processes contribute to alleviate P limitation on primary productivity. To do so, we propose a process-based model accounting for the major processes of the carbon, water, and P cycle including chemical weathering at the global scale. We use simulation experiments to assess the relative importance of the different uptake mechanisms to alleviate P limitation on biomass production. Implementing P limitation on biomass synthesis allows the assessment of the efficiencies of biomass production across different ecosystems. We find that active P-uptake is an essential mechanism for sustaining P availability on long time scales, whereas biotic de-occlusion might serve as a buffer on time scales shorter than 10 000 yr. Although active P uptake is essential for reducing P losses by leaching, humid lowland soils reach P limitation after around 100 000 yr of soil evolution. Given the generalized modeling framework, our model results compare reasonably with observed or independently estimated patterns and ranges of P concentrations in soils and vegetation. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that P limitation might be an important driver of biomass production efficiency (the fraction of the gross primary productivity used for biomass growth), and that vegetation on older soils becomes P-limited leading to a smaller biomass production efficiency. With this study, we provide a theoretical basis for investigating the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to P availability linking geological and ecological time scales under different environmental settings.

  13. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features for particular consumer groups (such as younger consumers) in order to increase their knowledge regarding vehicle safety and to encourage them to place highest priority on safety in the new vehicle purchase process. PMID:18460367

  14. On geological processes on venus: Analysis of the relationship between altitude and degree of surface roughness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Bazilevski; N. N. Bobina; V. P. Shashkina; Yu. G. Shkuratov; Yu. V. Kornienko; A. Ya. Usikov; D. G. Stankevich

    1982-01-01

    Aiming to study the relationship between Venus surface heights and surface roughness, the Pioneer Venus surface altitude map and map of r.m.s. slope in m-dkm scale have been analy sed for the Beta and Ishtar regions using a system of digital image processing. To integrate the data obtained, the results of geomorphological analysis of Venera 9 and 10 TV panoramas

  15. Experience of the application of a database of generic Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) targeted at geological storage of CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell Walke; Richard Metcalfe; Laura Limer; Philip Maul; Alan Paulley; David Savage

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of a freely accessible on-line database of generic Features, Events and Processes (FEPs), designed to support the analysis of geological CO2 storage systems during performance assessments. The Generic CO2 FEP Database was established by Quintessa in 2004 through international collaboration under the auspices of the Weyburn project. Subsequently, development of the database has continued and

  16. Geologic Map of North America

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Geologic Map of North America is a product of GSA's Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) project. At a scale of 1:5,000,000, this map covers ~15% of Earth's surface and differs from previous maps in several important respects: it is the first such map to depict the geology of the seafloor, th...

  17. Insights into Titan's geology and hydrology based on enhanced image processing of Cassini RADAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Antoine; Aharonson, Oded; Deledalle, Charles; Hayes, Alexander G.; Kirk, Randolph; Howington-Kraus, Elpitha

    2014-10-01

    The Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar has been acquiring images of Titan's surface since October 2004. To date, 59% of Titan's surface has been imaged by radar, with significant regions imaged more than once. Radar data suffer from speckle noise hindering interpretation of small-scale features and comparison of reimaged regions for change detection. We present here a new image analysis technique that combines a denoising algorithm with mapping and quantitative measurements that greatly enhance the utility of the data and offers previously unattainable insights. After validating the technique, we demonstrate the potential improvement in understanding of surface processes on Titan and defining global mapping units, focusing on specific landforms including lakes, dunes, mountains, and fluvial features. Lake shorelines are delineated with greater accuracy. Previously unrecognized dissection by fluvial channels emerges beneath shallow methane cover. Dune wavelengths and interdune extents are more precisely measured. A significant refinement in producing digital elevation models is shown. Interactions of fluvial and aeolian processes with topographic relief is more precisely observed and understood than previously. Benches in bathymetry are observed in northern sea Ligeia Mare. Submerged valleys show similar depth suggesting that they are equilibrated with marine benches. These new observations suggest a liquid level increase in the northern sea, which may be due to changes on seasonal or longer timescales.

  18. Laboratory Studies of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Chemical Processes of Importance in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Mario J.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct measurements of chemical kinetics parameters for reactions of importance in the stratosphere and upper troposphere, and to study the interaction of trace gases with ice surfaces in order to elucidate the mechanism of heterogeneous chlorine activation processes, using both a theoretical and an experimental approach. The measurements were carried out under temperature and pressure conditions covering those applicable to the stratosphere and upper troposphere. The main experimental technique employed was turbulent flow-chemical ionization mass spectrometry, which is particularly well suited for investigations of radical-radical reactions.

  19. Structural Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, this site describes the basics of structural geology with text and images. The page includes the discussion of stress, strain, strike and dip, faults, folds, mountain building, erosion, economic geology, and environmental geology. This is a nice introduction to the basic topics in geology. Images from the field help to enhance the topics on the site. Instructors can use this resource to help create or simply enhance their curriculum.

  20. The geomorphology of Rhea - Implications for geologic history and surface processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Horner, V. M.; Greeley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Morphological analyses of landforms on Rhea are used to define three physiographic provinces: cratered terrain 1 undifferentiated; cratered terrain 1 lineated; and cratered terrain 2. The important statigraphic relationships between the different provinces are examined with respect to major impact basins and tectonic features. It is shown that the formation of multiringed basins may have caused, or at least controlled the locations of major resurfacing and mantling events. The diameters of the central peaks relative to the impact crater diameters are found to be significantly larger than those within the craters of the moon or Mercury. Both cratered and noncrater lineaments have regional orientations which do not fit current global or regional stress models. On the basis of the morphological analysis, a chronological order is established for the origin of the three provinces: the cratered terrain 1 province was formed first; and cratered terrain 1 lineated and cratered terrain 2 were formed second, and last, respectively. It is shown that the chronological order is generally consistent with current theoretical models of the evolution of Rhea.

  1. Assessment Report, Department of Geology August, 2012

    E-print Network

    Bogaerts, Steven

    Assessment Report, Department of Geology August, 2012 1. Learning Goals ALL students in geology, classification schemes, geologic history and processes, and the structure of the Earth. 3. demonstrate an understanding of the variability, complexity, and interdependency of processes within geologic systems. 4. use

  2. Geological Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "Why do engineers need to know about geologic time?" That question is answered in this resource from the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Civil and Geological Engineering. Provided here is a discussion of the concepts of geological time; relative dating methods, such as correlation; and absolute dating methods, such as radiometric methods. Diagrams and charts are included to demonstrate these complex concepts.

  3. Geological cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Hageman

    1972-01-01

    During the last hundred years, intensive studies have been made on the geological indications of the so called “Ice Ages”;. Already Penck and Bruckner discovered, around the end of the nineteenth century, the cyclic character of these phenomena and distinguished at least four cycles in the Alps area. In fact these geological cycles are controlled by climatic conditions. The geological

  4. Structural Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains a variety of resources for faculty members who teach undergraduate structural geology. You will find links to activities and assignments, internet and computer resources, useful articles and maps, presentations from the summer 2004 workshop on teaching structural geology, working groups and a discussion forum, and lots of creative ideas for teaching structural geology.

  5. GEOLOGY, January 2011 39 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    ). This geologically based age estimation from Australia agrees with those from south China, where continental rifting Australia Geology, January 2011; v. 39; no. 1; p. 39­42; doi: 10.1130/G31461.1; 2 figures; Data RepositoryGEOLOGY, January 2011 39 INTRODUCTION The breakup processes of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent

  6. Influence of fluvial processes on the quaternary geologic framework of the continental shelf, North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boss, S.K.; Hoffman, C.W.; Cooper, B.

    2002-01-01

    Digital, single-channel, high-resolution seismic reflection profiles were acquired from the insular continental shelf of North Carolina, USA along a data grid extending from Oregon Inlet northward 48 km to Duck, North Carolina and from the nearshore zone seaward approximately 28 km (total surveyed area= 1334 km2). These data were processed and interpreted to delineate principal reflecting horizons and develop a three-dimensional seismic stratigraphic framework for the continental shelf that was compared to stratigraphic data from the shoreward back-barrier (estuarine) and barrier island system. Six principal reflecting horizons (designated R0 through R5) were present within the upper 60 m of the shelf stratigraphic succession. Three-dimensional mapping of reflector R1 demonstrated its origin from fluvial incision of the continental shelf during an episode (or episodes) of lowered sea-level. Fluvial processes during development of reflector R1 were responsible for extensive reworking and re-deposition of sediment throughout most of the northern half of the study area. Five seismic stratigraphic units (designated S1 through S5) were tentatively correlated with depositional sequences previously identified from the North Carolina back-barrier (estuarine) and barrier island system. These five stratigraphic units span the Quaternary Period (S1 = early Holocene; S2 = 51-78 ka; S3 = 330-530 ka; S4 = 1.1-1.8 Ma; S5 = earliest Pleistocene). Unit S1 is composed of fine-grained fluvial/estuarine sediment that back-filled incised streams during early Holocene sea-level rise. The four other stratigraphic units (S2-S5) display tabular depositional geometries, low total relief, and thicken toward the east-southeast as their basal reflectors dip gently between 0.41 m km-1 (0.02??) and 0.54 m km-1 (0.03??). Knowledge of the three-dimensional subsurface stratigraphic architecture of the continental shelf enhances understanding of the development of shelf depositional successions and provides a framework for development of better Quaternary sea-level data, especially offshore North Carolina where such data are sparse. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vesta's Geological Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Schenk, P.; De Sanctis, M. C.

    2014-02-01

    Vesta’s diverse geology exhibits impact basins and craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes.

  8. A Domain Decomposition Approach for Large-Scale Simulations of Flow Processes in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Keni; Moridis, G.J.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

    2008-07-01

    Simulation of the system behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic media involves solving fully coupled mass- and heat-balance equations. In this study, we develop a domain decomposition approach for large-scale gas hydrate simulations with coarse-granularity parallel computation. This approach partitions a simulation domain into small subdomains. The full model domain, consisting of discrete subdomains, is still simulated simultaneously by using multiple processes/processors. Each processor is dedicated to following tasks of the partitioned subdomain: updating thermophysical properties, assembling mass- and energy-balance equations, solving linear equation systems, and performing various other local computations. The linearized equation systems are solved in parallel with a parallel linear solver, using an efficient interprocess communication scheme. This new domain decomposition approach has been implemented into the TOUGH+HYDRATE code and has demonstrated excellent speedup and good scalability. In this paper, we will demonstrate applications for the new approach in simulating field-scale models for gas production from gas-hydrate deposits.

  9. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these {open_quotes}geomorphic hazards{close_quotes} include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC.

  10. The Martian Geomorphology as mapped by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC): Implications for Geological Processes and Climate Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    One major reason for exploring Mars is the similarity of surface features to those present on Earth. Among the most important are morphological and mineralogical indicators that liquid water has existed on Mars at various locations over the entire history of the planet, albeit in decreasing abundance with time. Due to the strong evidence for aqueous processes at or near the surface, Mars is the most Earth-like body in the Solar System. The HRSC instrument is designed to simultaneously map the morphology, topography, structure and geologic context of the surface as well as atmospheric phenomena [1]. After 10 years of ESA's Mars Express orbiting the planet its High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) has covered about 90 % of the surface in stereo and color with resolutions up to 10 m/pixel. Digital elevation models of up to 30-50 m grid spacing [1], generated from all suitable datasets of the stereo coverage, currently cover about 40% of the surface [1,2]. The geomorphological analyses of surface features, observed by the HRSC indicate major surface modifications by endogenic and exogenic processes at all scales. Endogenic landforms (e.g., tectonic rifts, small basaltic shield volcanoes) were found to be very similar to their equivalents on Earth [1,3,4,5,6,7]. Volcanism may have been active up to the very recent past or even to the present, putting important constraints on thermal evolution models [6,7]. The analysis of diverse landforms produced by aqueous processes revealed that surface water activity was likely episodic, but ranged in age from very ancient to very recent [1,8-16]. Particularly important are prominent glacial and periglacial features at several latitudes, including mountain glaciers and a frozen sea [17-21]. The identification of aqueous alteration minerals and their geological context has enabled a better understanding of paleoenvironmental conditions and pedogenetic processes [23-25]. Dark dunes contain volcanic material and are evidence for the very dynamic surface environment, characterized by widespread erosion, transport, and redeposition [26]. References: [1]Jaumann et al., 2007, PSS 55; [2]Gwinner et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [3]Neukum et al., 2004, Nature 432; [4]Neukum et al., EPSL 294;[5] Hauber et al., 2005, Nature 434; [6]Hauber et al., 2009 PSS 57; [7]Platz and Michael, 2011, EPSL 312, [8]Jaumann et al., 2005, GRL 32; [9]Jaumann et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [10]Erkeling et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [11]Erkeling et al., 2012, Icarus, 219; [12]Kleinhans et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [13]Reiss et al., 2009, PSS 57; [14]Kneissl et al., 2010, EPSL 294; [15]Di Achille et al., 2006, JGR 111; [16]Di Achille et al., 2006, GRL 33; [17]Head et al., 2005 Nature 434; [18]Murray et al., 2005 Nature 434; [19]Pacifici et al., 2009, Icarus 202; [20]Rossi et al., 2011, Geol. Soc. Am.356; [21]Marchant and Head, 2007, Icarus; [22]Ulrich et al., 2011 Geomorphology 134;[23] Le Deit et al., 2010, Icarus 208; [24]Le Deit et al., 2012, JGR 117; [25]Bishop et al., 2013, JGR 118; [26]Tirsch et al., 2011, JGR 116;

  11. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were emplaced; these lie stratigraphically above the equatorial ridges that likely were formed by Rheasilvia. The last features to be formed were craters with bright rays and other surface mantling deposits. Executed progressively throughout data acquisition, the iterative mapping process provided the team with geologic proto-units in a timely manner. However, interpretation of the resulting map was hampered by the necessity to provide the team with a standard nomenclature and symbology early in the process. With regard to mapping and interpreting units, the mapping process was hindered by the lack of calibrated mineralogic information. Topography and shadow played an important role in discriminating features and terrains, especially in the early stages of data acquisition.

  12. Ground Penetrating Radar Field Studies of Lunar-Analog Geologic Settings and Processes: Barringer Meteor Crater and Northern Arizona Volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. S.; Grant, J. A.; Williams, K. K.; Bussey, B.

    2010-12-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data from terrestrial analog environments can help constrain models for evolution of the lunar surface, aid in interpretation of orbital SAR data, and help predict what might be encountered in the subsurface during future, landed, scientific or engineering operations on the Moon. GPR can yield insight into the physical properties, clast-size distribution, and layering of the subsurface, granting a unique view of the processes affecting an area over geologic time. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate these capabilities at sites at which geologic processes, settings, and/or materials are similar to those that may be encountered on the moon, especially lava flows, impact-crater ejecta, and layered materials with varying properties. We present results from transects obtained at Barringer Meteor Crater, SP Volcano cinder cone, and Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, all in northern Arizona. Transects were taken at several sites on the ejecta of Meteor Crater, all within a crater radius (~400 m) of the crater rim. Those taken across ejecta lobes or mounds reveal the subsurface contact of the ejecta upper surface and overlying, embaying sediments deposited by later alluvial, colluvial, and/or aeolian processes. Existing mine shafts and pits on the south side of the crater provide cross sections of the subsurface against which we compare adjacent GPR transects. The ‘actual’ number, size, and depth of clasts in the top 1-2 m of the subsurface are estimated from photos of the exposed cross sections. In GPR radargrams, reflections attributed to blocks in the top 2-5 m of the subsurface are counted, and their depth distribution noted. Taking GPR measurements along a transect at two frequencies (200 and 400 MHz) and to various depths, we obtain the ratio of the actual number of blocks in the subsurface to the number detectable with GPR, as well as an assessment of how GPR detections in ejecta decline with depth and depend on antenna frequency. This work allows calibration of GPR-based interpretations of ejecta processes. Work at SP volcano focuses on the northern, lower slopes of the cinder cone, from beneath which a basalt lava flow extends onto surrounding terrain. Layering within cinders is visible in GPR radargrams in the upper ~0.5 m. A small pit reveals that such layering may be due to significant, stratified variation in cinder size, relative moisture content of a fine, loess-like matrix, and fraction of inter-cinder voids, or pore space, filled with matrix. The subsurface cinder-lava contact, as well as some variation within the lava flow (possibly due to varying degrees of coherence and fracturing), is detected by the GPR. Our work will help frame tractable scientific questions in lunar mission development, and aid in interpretation of future returned data. A non-invasive alternative and complement to digging and drilling, GPR is also potentially useful in exploration of other terrestrial bodies.

  13. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  14. State-of-the-Art Article: The Role and Importance of Lower-Level Processes in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This article examines current research on the role and importance of lower-level processes in second language (L2) reading. The focus is on word recognition and its subcomponent processes, including various phonological and orthographic processes. Issues related to syntactic and semantic processes and their relationship with word recognition are…

  15. The CB1 receptor as an important mediator of hedonic reward processing.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Chris M; Zimmer, Andreas; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has emerged recently as a key mediator for reward processing. It is well known that cannabinoids affect appetitive learning processes and can induce reinforcing and rewarding effects. However, the involvement of the ECB system in hedonic aspects of reward-related behavior is not completely understood. With the present study, we investigated the modulatory role of the ECB system on hedonic perception, measured by the pleasure attenuated startle (PAS) paradigm for a palatable food reward. Here, a conditioned odor is thought to induce a pleasant affective state that attenuates an aversive reflex-the acoustic startle response. Modulatory effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR1411716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55?212-2 on PAS were examined in rats. PAS was also measured in CB1 receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition as well as the absence of CB1 receptors was found to reduce PAS, whereas WIN 55?212-2 administration increased PAS. Finally, presentation of a conditioned reward cue was found to induce striatal FosB/?FosB expression in WT mice, but not in KO mice, indicating a reduced stimulation of reward-related brain regions in conditioned KO mice by odor presentation. We here show that in addition to our previous studies in rats, PAS may also serve as a valuable and suitable measure to assess hedonic processing in mice. Our data further indicate that the ECB system, and in particular CB1 receptor signaling, appears to be highly important for the mediation of hedonic aspects of reward processing. PMID:24718372

  16. Testing the Late Noachian Icy Highlands Model: Geological Observations, Processes and Origin of Fluvial and Lacustrine Features.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James; Wordsworth, Robin; Forget, Francis; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Halvey, Italy

    2014-05-01

    A new reconstruction of the Late Noachian Mars atmosphere and climate shows atmosphere-surface thermal coupling and an adiabatic cooling effect producing preferential distribution of snow and ice in the highlands. In this Late Noachian Icy Highlands (LNIH) scenario, snow and ice accumulate in the south circumpolar region and in the higher altitudes of the southern uplands, but the mean annual temperature is everywhere below freezing. How can the abundant evidence for water-related fluvial and lacustrine activity (valley networks, VN; open-basin lakes, OBL; closed-basin lakes; CBL) be reconciled with the icy highlands model? We investigate the nature of geologic processes operating in the icy highlands and use the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) as guidance in understanding and assessing how melting might be taking place. In the MDV, mean annual temperatures (MAT) are well below freezing. This results in a thick regional permafrost layer, the presence of an ice-table at shallow depths, and an overlying dry active layer. This configuration produces a perched aquifer and a horizontally stratified hydrologic system, where any melting results in local saturation of the dry active layer and channelized flow on top of the ice table. Top-down melting results in the dominance of lateral water transport, in contrast to temperate climates with vertical infiltration and transport to the groundwater table. Despite subzero MAT, MDV peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures can exceed 273K and have a strong influence on the melting of available water ice. We present maps of the predicted distribution of LNIH snow and ice, compare these to the distribution of VN, OBL and CBL, and assess how top-down and bottom-up melting processes might explain the formation of these features in an otherwise cold and icy LN Mars. We assess the global near-surface water budget, analyze thickness estimates to distinguish areas of cold-based and wet-based glaciation, analyze the state of the ice cover and its susceptibility to melting and runoff, and describe top-down melting and fluvial channel formation processes in a LNIH environment. We find that: 1) episodic top-down melting of the LNIH is a robust mechanism to produce the observed fluvial and lacustrine features; 2) the characteristics and distribution of features in the Dorsa Argentea Formation are consistent with an extensive circum-polar ice cap during LNIH time; and 3) the nature of preserved LN impact craters is consistent with impact cratering processes in the LNIH environment. 393 words.

  17. The importance of manufacturing processes and their control for the reliability of CPV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombert, Andreas; Rubio, Francisca

    2013-09-01

    Highly concentrating photovoltaic systems (HCPV) based on III-V multi-junction solar cells entered the PV market recently. Since 2008, HCPV power plants operate in various countries and valuable experiences could be gained. Reliability and durability of CPV power plant components are very much impacting the overall life cycle costs of a CPV power plant. Especially the CPV module is a critical component when considering system life time and overall economics. Soitec's CPV Modules based on Concentrix{trade mark, serif} technology are designed for outstanding robustness and reliability even under harsh environmental conditions. The reliability of a CPV module depends significantly on the manufacturing processes and their control. Therefore it is important to design CPV modules for manufacturability.

  18. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical significance. Cultural resources include fishponds, petroglyphs and a heiau (religious site). The fishponds are also recognized as exceptional birding areas and are important wetlands for migratory birds. The ocean and reef have been designated as a Marine Area Reserve, where green sea turtles commonly come ashore to rest. The park is also a valuable recreational resource, with approximately 4 km of coastline and a protective cove ideal for snorkeling and swimming. KAHO park boundaries extend beyond the mean high tide line and include the adjacent marine environment. An accompanying report for KAHO presents the results of benthic habitat mapping of the offshore waters, from the shoreline to approximately 40 m water depth. Ground-water quality and potential downslope impacts created by development around the park are of concern to Park management.

  19. Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (editor)

    1974-01-01

    With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

  20. Raising the bar: the importance of hospital library standards in the continuing medical education accreditation process.

    PubMed

    Gluck, J C; Hassig, R A

    2001-07-01

    The Connecticut State Medical Society (CSMS) reviews and accredits the continuing medical education (CME) programs offered by Connecticut's hospitals. As part of the survey process, the CSMS assesses the quality of the hospitals' libraries. In 1987, the CSMS adopted the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) "Minimum Standards for Health Sciences Libraries in Hospitals." In 1990, professional librarians were added to the survey team and, later, to the CSMS CME Committee. Librarians participating in this effort are recruited from the membership of the Connecticut Association of Health Sciences Librarians (CAHSL). The positive results of having a qualified librarian on the survey team and the invaluable impact of adherence to the MLA standards are outlined. As a direct result of this process, hospitals throughout the state have added staffing, increased space, and added funding for resources during an era of cutbacks. Some hospital libraries have been able to maintain a healthy status quo, while others have had proposed cuts reconsidered by administrators for fear of losing valuable CME accreditation status. Creating a relationship with an accrediting agency is one method by which hospital librarians elsewhere may strengthen their efforts to ensure adequate library resources in an era of downsizing. In addition, this collaboration has provided a new and important role for librarians to play on an accreditation team. PMID:11465686

  1. Pristine Noachian crust and key geologic transitions in the lower walls of Valles Marineris: Insights into early igneous processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flahaut, Jessica; Quantin, Cathy; Clenet, Harold; Allemand, Pascal; Mustard, John F.; Thomas, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Valles Marineris is a unique vertical section through the uppermost kilometers of the martian crust. Its location, east of the Tharsis bulge, and its water-related history, fuel a great diversity of rock types in this area (Carr, M.H., Head, J.W. [2010]. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 294, 185-203). HiRISE and CRISM data available over the walls of the canyon were analyzed to infer the importance of magmatic and sedimentary processes through time. This contribution provides a complete morphologic and mineralogic characterization of the cross-section of rocks exposed in the canyon walls. Low-calcium pyroxene and olivine are detected in the lower portion of the walls, in association with morphologically distinct outcrops, leading to the idea that pristine Noachian crust might be exposed. Phyllosilicates are also present within the walls, but they appear to correspond to an alteration product. No proper sedimentary layers were observed within the walls of Valles Marineris at the resolution available today. All these detections are limited to the eastern portion of Valles Marineris, especially Juventae, Coprates, Capri, and Ganges chasmata. Preserved Noachian crustal material is rare on the martian surface and is rarely exposed in its pristine geologic context. Such detections lend precious information about early igneous processes. This survey also supports observations from the nearby impact crater central peaks (Quantin, C., Flahaut, J., Allemand, P. [2009]. Lunar Planet. Sci. 10; Quantin, C., Flahaut, J., Clenet, H., Allemand, P., Thomas, P. [2011]. Icarus, submitted for publication) and suggests that the western part of Valles Marineris may be cut into another material, consistent with lavas or volcanic sediments.

  2. Kentucky Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 1996 the Education Committee of the Kentucky Geological Survey, in conjunction with the Kentucky Society of Professional Geologists, established the Earth Science Education Network (ESEN). The network provided a group of geologists who served as resource persons for teachers, but has now been expanded to provide resources from around the globe. While primarily focusing on the geology of Kentucky, many of the online resources are applicable for educators throughout the U.S. There are links to Earth science topics and important websites, handouts and instructions for classroom demonstrations and activities, and also interesting information about Kentucky geology and publications.

  3. Biological nitrogen fixation is a much more important process in the nitrogen cycle of the oceans than previously thought.

    E-print Network

    Capone, Douglas G.

    341 Biological nitrogen fixation is a much more important process in the nitrogen cycle Introduction A revolution in our understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle and the role of microorganisms revise our view of the quantitative importance of this process in the nitrogen cycle of the present

  4. 7 CFR 361.8 - Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain Canadian-origin screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain...UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.8 Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain...monitoring of an APHIS inspector. The cleaning will be at the expense of the owner...

  5. Reply to Jones and Crowe: Correcting mistaken views of sedimentary geology, Mn-oxidation

    E-print Network

    Faraon, Andrei

    LETTER Reply to Jones and Crowe: Correcting mistaken views of sedimentary geology, Mn high, citing a reference for incorrect rocks: differ- ent lithologies, environments, process sedi margin deltaic sediments. Using correct sedimentary geology is important (2). In our report O2

  6. Utah Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Utah Geological Survey's Web site, Utah Geology, offers a variety of interesting geological information about the state. Good descriptions, illustrations, and photographs can be accessed on earthquakes and hazards, dinosaurs and fossils, rocks and minerals, oil and energy, and more. For example, the Rocks and Minerals page contains everything from how to stake a mining claim to downloadable summaries of mineral activity in the state. There is quite a bit of information within the site, and anyone interested in geology will find themselves exploring these pages for quite a while.

  7. Fatigue and fatigue crack growth processes in hard tissues: The importance of age and surface integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majd, Hessam

    With the progressive increase in partially and fully dentate seniors, fracture has become an increasingly common form of restored tooth failure. Dentin undergoes progressive changes in microstructure with patient age, and studies are now suggesting that there is a reduction in fatigue strength and fatigue crack growth resistance of this tissue. This dissertation explores aging of dentin, the influence of flaws that are introduced during restorative processes on the fatigue properties of dentin, and proposes models for characterizing the damage initiation and growth process during fatigue of dentin. Results from this investigation show that the fatigue crack growth properties (Paris Law parameters (C, m) andDeltaKth) of human dentin undergo the most significant changes at a patient age of 42 years. Based on the fatigue crack growth responses, three age groups were established including young (age?33), aged (34?age ?49) and old (50?age) patients for further analysis. There were significant differences in the initiation and growth behavior between the tissues of patients from the three age groups. With regards to the influence of restorative processes, there was no influence on the quasi-static responses of dentin. However, the endurance limit of dentin treated with the dental burs (28 MPa) and abrasive air jet (35 MPa) were approximately 36% and 20% lower than that of the control (44 MPa), respectively. Both cutting processes caused a significant reduction (p?0.0001) in fatigue strength. An accumulative damage model was developed to characterize fatigue of the control and bur treated dentin as well as provide a model for fatigue life prediction. The damage models were derived as a function of number of loading cycles (N), and ratio of applied stress to ultimate strength (r). The developed models provide estimations for the initial state of damage, the state of damage during the life, as well as the damage accumulation rate for cyclic loading of dentin. Using the experimental findings, a Damage Effect Model (DEM) was also developed to describe the influence of flaws introduced by bur treatment on fatigue of dentin. The DEM showed that the damage caused by bur treatment is uniform and independent of tubule orientation. Using the developed DEM for dentin with 0° tubule orientation, material constants of bur treated dentin with 90° orientation were estimated and used in predicting fatigue for controlled experimental conditions involving a notched fatigue approach. Overall, the results of this study provide fundamental knowledge concerning the influence of aging and cutting processes on the fatigue properties of dentin. These findings are of substantial importance to the field of restorative dentistry, and potentially establish the need for treating senior patients with an approach that is unique from that of younger patients. The damage models developed in this investigation are the first that have been developed for hard tissues, and provide a foundation for future research aimed at modeling fatigue processes in hard tissues including bone and dentin.

  8. California Geological Survey: Geologic Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This index provides access to a selection of geologic maps of California, as well as an overview of geologic and other mapping activities in the state. The index, which can be accessed by clicking on an interactive map of the state, contains lists of selected geologic maps in California prepared by the Regional Geologic Mapping Project (RGMP). The RGMP staff monitors the literature and collects references that contain geologic mapping that may be useful for future compilations. In addition, the site has information about Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping, The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping Program, North Coast Watersheds Assessment Program, The Timber Harvesting Plan Enforcement Program, and The Seismic Hazards Mapping Program. A set of links is provided to other sources of geologic maps and map information.

  9. Geologic Maps and Geologic Structures: A Texas Example

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roger Steinberg

    This Historical Geology lab exercise is an accompaniment to lab class instruction about geologic structures (folding and faulting) and geologic maps. It also serves as an excellent introduction to the Geology of the state of Texas. "Coloring" geologic maps, an important part of the exercise, may seem like a very elementary learning technique. But this lab engages students actively, and since the subject is often already somewhat familiar to them, emphasizing both the geology and geography of Texas, students receive it enthusiastically. This activity could be adapted to other regions, since most states have color 8 1/2 by 11 geologic maps available. A color map could be scanned and modified in Photoshop to create a simplified black and white version as was done in the assignment handout.

  10. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  11. Geologic analyses of LANDSAT-1 multispectral imagery of a possible power plant site employing digital and analog image processing. [in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovegreen, J. R.; Prosser, W. J.; Millet, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A site in the Great Valley subsection of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province in eastern Pennsylvania was studied to evaluate the use of digital and analog image processing for geologic investigations. Ground truth at the site was obtained by a field mapping program, a subsurface exploration investigation and a review of available published and unpublished literature. Remote sensing data were analyzed using standard manual techniques. LANDSAT-1 imagery was analyzed using digital image processing employing the multispectral Image 100 system and using analog color processing employing the VP-8 image analyzer. This study deals primarily with linears identified employing image processing and correlation of these linears with known structural features and with linears identified manual interpretation; and the identification of rock outcrops in areas of extensive vegetative cover employing image processing. The results of this study indicate that image processing can be a cost-effective tool for evaluating geologic and linear features for regional studies encompassing large areas such as for power plant siting. Digital image processing can be an effective tool for identifying rock outcrops in areas of heavy vegetative cover.

  12. North Cascades Geology: Geologic Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article describes the period of geologic time spanned by the rocks of the North Cascades area of Washington. Users can access a simplified geologic time scale that provides links to geologic events in the North Cascades region. These include the deposition of various terranes, periods of intrusion and metamorphism, the beginning of the Cascade volcanic arc, and periods of major glaciation. Links to related materials are also provided.

  13. Atmospheric Chemistry of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: The Importance of Photolysis as a Fate Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raff, J. D.; Hites, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are heavily used as flame-retardants in polyurethane foam and synthetic commercial fibers. These semivolatile compounds have between 2 and 10 bromines and have been found to undergo long-range atmospheric transport to remote regions such as the Arctic Circle, where they enter food chains and biomagnify in top predators. Unfortunately, existing environmental fate models are unable to accurately describe the long-range transport potential of these compounds due to a lack of comprehensive data on the physical and chemical properties of PBDEs, especially those that describe photolysis in the vapor and particle phases. We have used a small-volume reaction chamber coupled to a mass spectrometer to measure the gas-phase quantum yields of select PBDEs relative to well-characterized actinometers. Our results are used to derive photolysis lifetimes of PBDEs and enable us, in conjunction with our measured OH rate constants and estimates of deposition velocities, to understand and quantify the most important loss processes for PBDEs in the atmosphere.

  14. Rhizosphere processes are quantitatively important components of terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycles.

    PubMed

    Finzi, Adrien C; Abramoff, Rose Z; Spiller, Kimberly S; Brzostek, Edward R; Darby, Bridget A; Kramer, Mark A; Phillips, Richard P

    2015-05-01

    While there is an emerging view that roots and their associated microbes actively alter resource availability and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, the ecosystem consequences of such rhizosphere effects have rarely been quantified. Using a meta-analysis, we show that multiple indices of microbially mediated C and nitrogen (N) cycling, including SOM decomposition, are significantly enhanced in the rhizospheres of diverse vegetation types. Then, using a numerical model that combines rhizosphere effect sizes with fine root morphology and depth distributions, we show that root-accelerated mineralization and priming can account for up to one-third of the total C and N mineralized in temperate forest soils. Finally, using a stoichiometrically constrained microbial decomposition model, we show that these effects can be induced by relatively modest fluxes of root-derived C, on the order of 4% and 6% of gross and net primary production, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that rhizosphere processes are a widespread, quantitatively important driver of SOM decomposition and nutrient release at the ecosystem scale, with potential consequences for global C stocks and vegetation feedbacks to climate. PMID:25421798

  15. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  16. Yellowstone Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yellowstone National Park

    This Yellowstone National Park website provides geological information about the Park. Links include geologic highlights, hydrothermal features, reports by park geologists, and scientists' talks (videos). A wide array of information can be found on these links and the webpage is expanding as more topics are added.

  17. Yosemite Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Park Service maintains the Yosemite National Park Web site and the corresponding Geology page. This Web site gives an overview of the geologic history of the site, tells how the Sierra Nevada range formed, explains the basics of granitic rock, shows how glaciers carved out the canyons, and much more.[JAB

  18. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  19. Geology Major www.geology.pitt.edu/undergraduate/geology.html

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Geology Major www.geology.pitt.edu/undergraduate/geology.html Revised: 03/2013 Geology is a scientific discipline that aims to understand every aspect of modern and ancient Earth. A degree in geology the field of geology, environmental and geotechnical jobs exist for people with BS degrees. A master

  20. The spatial distribution of heavy metals across the Arctic is related to local geology, natural processes, and anthro-

    E-print Network

    Ford, Jesse

    The spatial distribution of heavy metals across the Arctic is related to local geology, natural, and the characteristics of the receptor compartments. The spatial distribution of heavy metals leading to biotic exposure concentration is a key step toward linking the sources of anthropogenic release of heavy metals, distribution

  1. The importance of cochlear processing for the formation of auditory brainstem and frequency following responses.

    PubMed

    Dau, Torsten

    2003-02-01

    A model for the generation of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and frequency following responses (FFRs) is presented. The model is based on the concept introduced by Goldstein and Kiang [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 30, 107-114 (1958)] that evoked potentials recorded at remote electrodes can theoretically be given by convolution of an elementary unit waveform (unitary response) with the instantaneous discharge rate function for the corresponding unit. In the present study, the nonlinear computational auditory-nerve model recently developed by Heinz et al. [ARLO 2(3), 91-96 (2001)] was used to calculate the instantaneous discharge rate ri(t) for fibers i in the frequency range from 0.1 and 10 kHz. The summed activity across frequency was convolved with a unitary response which is assumed to reflect contributions from different cell populations within the auditory brainstem, recorded at a given pair of electrodes on the scalp. Predicted potential patterns are compared with experimental data for a number of stimulus and level conditions. Clicks, chirps as defined in Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1530-1540 (2000)], long-duration stimuli comprising the chirp, as well as tones and slowly varying tonal sweeps were considered. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of the basilar-membrane traveling wave and auditory-nerve processing for the formation of ABR and FFR. Specifically, the results support the hypothesis that the FFR to low-frequency tones represents synchronized activity mainly stemming from mid- and high-frequency units at more basal sites, and not from units tuned to frequencies around the signal frequency. PMID:12597187

  2. Processing of the glycosomal matrix-protein import receptor PEX5 of Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Gualdrón-López, Melisa [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)] [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Michels, Paul A.M., E-mail: paul.michels@uclouvain.be [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ? Most eukaryotic cells have a single gene for the peroxin PEX5. ? PEX5 is sensitive to in vitro proteolysis in distantly related organisms. ? TbPEX5 undergoes N-terminal truncation in vitro and possibly in vivo. ? Truncated TbPEX5 is still capable of binding PTS1-containing proteins. ? PEX5 truncation is physiologically relevant or an evolutionary conserved artifact. -- Abstract: Glycolysis in kinetoplastid protists such as Trypanosoma brucei is compartmentalized in peroxisome-like organelles called glycosomes. Glycosomal matrix-protein import involves a cytosolic receptor, PEX5, which recognizes the peroxisomal-targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) present at the C-terminus of the majority of matrix proteins. PEX5 appears generally susceptible to in vitro proteolytic processing. On western blots of T. brucei, two PEX5 forms are detected with apparent M{sub r} of 100 kDa and 72 kDa. 5?-RACE-PCR showed that TbPEX5 is encoded by a unique transcript that can be translated into a protein of maximally 72 kDa. However, recombinant PEX5 migrates aberrantly in SDS–PAGE with an apparent M{sub r} of 100 kDa, similarly as observed for the native peroxin. In vitro protease susceptibility analysis of native and {sup 35}S-labelled PEX5 showed truncation of the 100 kDa form at the N-terminal side by unknown parasite proteases, giving rise to the 72 kDa form which remains functional for PTS1 binding. The relevance of these observations is discussed.

  3. Digital Geology of Idaho

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-02-17

    If you have ever wanted to learn about the geology of Idaho, this site is a great way to explore everything from Coeur d'Alene to the Sawtooth Mountains. This digital version of a course offered at Idaho State University systematically divides Idaho geology into a set of different teaching modules. The modules cover topics like the Idaho Batholith, the Columbia River Basalts, and the Lake Bonneville Flood. Each module contains maps, charts, diagrams, and photographs that illuminate the various geological processes that have formed, and continue to form, in each region of the state. Many of the modules also have fly-throughs that superimpose color-coded geology on 3-D topographic maps to provide a graphic visualization Idaho's rivers. Additionally, the site contains slide shows and a set of teaching exercises.

  4. Geologic hazards and Alaska's communities in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolken, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    Observations indicate that changes in climate modify or intensify geomorphic processes in high-latitude regions. Changes in these processes can increase the magnitude and frequency of geologic hazards leading to casualties, damages to property and infrastructure, and a host of socio-economic problems. Numerous communities in Alaska are threatened by geologic hazards and are currently involved in adaptation or mitigation efforts to cope with these risks. In many communities, relocation is the preferred method for managing risk, but a lack of baseline geoscience data prohibits a sound evaluation of geologic hazards and recent landscape change and prevents informed community decision making. In an attempt to bridge this information gap, the Climate Change Hazards Program at the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) is collecting baseline geoscience data, quantifying landscape change, and conducting hazards assessments in and around imperiled communities in Alaska. An important and challenging step in each study is effectively communicating scientific results to community residents, other government agencies, and policy makers, which requires communication beyond peer-reviewed publications. Community visits, public meetings, and workshops are potentially important mechanism for disseminating important geologic hazards information to stakeholders in Alaska. Current DGGS pilot projects in the areas of Kivalina and Koyukuk illustrate the need for conducting geologic hazards assessments and properly disseminating scientific information.

  5. The Importance of Analyzing Longitudinal Data in a Formative Evaluation Process: Applying Statistical Quality Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, John W.; Newman, Isadore

    One may receive the most benefit from an evaluation of an educational program or the performance of a teacher if the evaluation process is approached from a Total Quality Management (TQM) point of view. Under the philosophy of TQM, the purpose of any evaluation process is to provide feedback for the continual improvement of the educational process…

  6. Exploring the Williams Syndrome Face-Processing Debate: The Importance of Building Developmental Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Thomas, Michael; Annaz, Dagmara; Humphreys, Kate; Ewing, Sandra; Brace, Nicola; Van Duuren, Mike; Pike, Graham; Grice, Sarah; Campbell, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Background: Face processing in Williams syndrome (WS) has been a topic of heated debate over the past decade. Initial claims about a normally developing ("intact") face-processing module were challenged by data suggesting that individuals with WS used a different balance of cognitive processes from controls, even when their behavioural scores fell…

  7. Exploring the Williams syndrome face-processing debate: the importance of building developmental trajectories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Karmiloff-Smith; Michael Thomas; Dagmara Annaz; Kate Humphreys; Sandra Ewing; Nicola Brace; Mike Van Duuren; Graham Pike; Sarah Grice; Ruth Campbell

    2004-01-01

    Background: Face processing in Williams syndrome (WS) has been a topic of heated debate over the past decade. Initial claims about a normally developing ('intact') face-processing module were chal- lenged by data suggesting that individuals with WS used a different balance of cognitive processes from controls, even when their behavioural scores fell within the normal range. Measurement of evoked brain

  8. Geologic History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medina, Philip

    This unit introduces younger students to the concept of relative versus absolute time and how geologists determine the age of geologic events and features. Topics include the laws that determine relative age (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, included fragments, and others), and how to re-construct the geologic history of an area using these relationships. There is also information on geologic correlation and the use of index fossils to determine relative age. The section on absolute time discusses some ways of measurement (tree rings, radioactive dating) and introduces the concepts of natural selection and mass extinctions. A vocabulary and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

  9. Geologic Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William L. Newman

    1997-01-01

    The Earth is very old -- 4.5 billion years or more -- according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

  10. Use of Library Readings to Augment Conventional Geology Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nold, John Lloyd

    1989-01-01

    Examples of sets of questions on library readings designed to lead students into articles and emphasize important information and associated literature are presented for introductory geology courses, historical geology, structural geology, mineralogy, and petrology. (Author/CW)

  11. Geologic Evolution of Eastern Hellas, Mars: Styles and Timing of Volatile-driven Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crown, David A.; Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Mest, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    The east rim of the Hellas basin and the surrounding highlands comprise a geologically significant region for evaluating volatile abundance, volatile distribution and cycling, and potential changes in Martian environmental conditions. This region of the Martian surface exhibits landforms shaped by a diversity of geologic processes and has a well-preserved geologic record, with exposures of Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian units, as well as spans a wide range in both latitude and elevation due to the magnitude of Hellas basin. In addition, geologically contemporaneous volcanism and volatile-driven activity in the circum-Hellas highlands provide important ingredients for creating habitats for potential Martian life.

  12. Laboratory studies of potentially important atmospheric processes involving oxides of nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estupinan, Edgar Garcia

    2001-12-01

    The work presented in this dissertation comprises two major objectives. The first objective has been to carry out an investigation of the production of N2O from reactions of electronically and vibrationally excited atmospheric trace species with N2 (using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy as the N2O detection method). The second objective of this study has been to accurately investigate the kinetics of the important stratospheric reaction O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO (k1) (using the technique of laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence). Investigation of N2O production from the collisional deactivation of electronically excited NO 2 and OH by N2 and from the interaction of nascent O 3 with N2 have resulted in upper limit quantum yields which render all three processes as insignificant sources of atmospheric N 2O. The following expression adequately describes the observed temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for the reaction O(1D) + N2 + M --> N2O + M (k2) in its third order low-pressure limit over the temperature range 220-324 K: k2,0(T) = (2.72 +/- 0.08) × 10-36 (T/300)-(0.92 +/- 0.37) cm6 molecule-2 s-1, where the uncertainties represent precision at the 2? level. The accuracy of the reported rate coefficients is estimated to range from 30 to 40%. Preliminary calculations indicate that reaction 2 represents a source of about 0.2 Tg N2O per year to the atmosphere (i.e., about 1% of the currently estimated global source budget of N 2O). This is the first suggested mechanism that generates N2O photochemically in the atmosphere that is capable of explaining the altitude dependence of the N2O isotopic signature. The following Arrhenius expression adequately describes the observed temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for reaction 1: k1(T ) = (4.21 +/- 0.25) × 10-12 exp[(273 +/- 18)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1, where the uncertainties represent precision at the 2? level. The accuracy of the reported values for k 1(T) is estimated to be +/-6% over the entire temperature range investigated (221-425 K). Incorporation of our kinetics results for reaction 1 into models of stratospheric chemistry would lead to somewhat lower mid-stratospheric ozone levels than would be obtained using results of previous studies.

  13. The relative importance of hydrophobicity in determining runoff-infiltration processes in burned forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenberg, Lea; Malkinson, Dan; Voogt, Annelies; Leska, Danny; Argaman, Eli; Keesstra, Saskia

    2010-05-01

    Wildfires induce fundamental changes to vegetation and soil structure/texture which conseqeuntly have major impacts on infiltration capacity, overland flow generation, runoff and sediment yields. The relative importance, however, of fire-induced soil water repellency (WR) on hydrological and erosional processes is somewhat controversial, partially, as the direct effects of soil WR in-situ field conditions have been difficult to isolate. It is generally accepted that hydrophobicity is caused by the formation of organic substances in forest soils, while burning is considered to enhance this process. Given the complex response of the soil-vegetation system to burning, soil WR is only one of several affecting soil hydrology. Other factors include the physical sealing of soils triggered by rain drops energy, the increase in soil erodibility due to changes in soil aggregates, and the role of the ash in sealing the burned surface. The degree and spatial distribution of WR burned varies considerably with fire severity, soil and vegetation type, soil moisture content and time since burning. Nevertheless, given the inverse relationship between soil moisture and hydrophobicity, the role of the latter in determining overland flow during wet winters when the soil is mostly inundated, is marginal. Following a 60 ha wildfire, which took place at the Pe'eram catchment during July 2009, we assessed the spatio-temporal distribution of WR in a burned Pinus halepensis forest. The site, located in the Upper Galille, Israel, was severely burned; the combustion removed all understory vegetation and burned down some of the trunks, leaving a thick layer of ash. The soils composed of reddish-brown clay loam forest soil and terra rossa on limestone bedrock, greyish light rendzina characterises the marl and chalk exposures. To consider the effect of distance from trees, in-situ hydrophobicity was assessed within a week, month and five months after the fire, using the WDPT test. Measurements were taken in concentric circles around the burned trees at two soil depths. We complemented this investigation by conducting a series of laboratory simulations. Non-burned soil was taken for laboratory analysis and rainfall simulations. Four treatment types were conducted: non-burned soil, non-burned soil + pine needles, burned soil without ash (300°C/15 min. after adding pine needles) and burned soil with the residue ash (300°C/15 min. after adding pine needles). Hydrophobicity was measured in all trays. Constant rainfall intensity of 30 mm/hr was simulated until terminal infiltration rates were reached. The experimental trays were oven dried and simulated again to imitate the effect of second rainstorm. Preliminary results indicate strong surface WR (60% >180s) at a distance of 1m and at the subsurface (50% >180s) directly by the trunk. In the control non-burned site stronger WR was found in proximity to the trunks. While in the burned sites extreme values (>300s) were apparent (15-35%) and correlated with distance from the trunk, no corresponding patterns were noticed in the control trees. The attempt to create homogeneous layer of WR under controlled laboratory conditions yielded a scattered pattern of repellency, similar to the field conditions. In contrast to expected, the bare soil and bare soil covered by needles exhibited the highest and lowest infiltration rates, respectively, while the burned hydrophobic soils demonstrated intermediate rates. It is thus suggested that in some soils, WR might enhance infiltration capacity by creating a complex mosaic of runoff-generating and runoff-absorbing micro-patches. In the experimental non-burned soil a rapid crusting of the surface provided lateral connectivity whilst the accumulation of litter and organic matter blanket the surface and enhance the vertical conductivity. To better understand the role of WR in generating hydrological response, it is required to consider the 3D 'sponge like' properties of the WR soils.

  14. Geologic Timeline

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Dive into the depths of time with this Geologic Timeline. The farther you scroll down, the farther back in time you'll travel. Also, the longer a period is on this page, the longer it lasted in history!

  15. Importance of the 1n-stripping process in the 6Li + 159Tb reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, M. K.; Mukherjee, A.; Roy, Subinit; Basu, P.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Palit, R.; Parkar, V. V.; Ray, M.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Santra, S.

    2013-12-01

    The inclusive cross sections of the ? particles produced in the reaction 6Li + 159Tb have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The measured cross sections are found to be orders of magnitude larger than the calculated cross sections of 6Li breaking into ? and d fragments, thus indicating contributions from other processes. The experimental cross sections of 1n-stripping and 1n-pickup processes have been determined from an entirely different measurement, reported earlier. Apart from incomplete fusion and d-transfer processes, the 1n-stripping process is found to be a significant contributor to the inclusive ?-particle cross sections in this reaction.

  16. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-encounter Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    Jeffrey M. Moore (NASA Ames) and the New Horizons Science Team Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four small known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique, lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been significant to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, these putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observation. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto System's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by the New Horizons cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate on the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e. those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration), and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of the prospects for endogenic activity in the form of tectonics and cryo-volcanism.

  17. Status report on the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Lemiszki, P.J.; Foreman, J.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Dreier, R.B.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Lee, Suk Young (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Lietzke, D.A. (Lietzke (David A.), Rutledge, TN (United States)); McMaster, W.M. (McMaster (William M.), Heiskell, TN (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This report provides an introduction to the present state of knowledge of the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and a cursory introduction to the hydrogeology. An important element of this work is the construction of a modern detailed geologic map of the ORR (Plate 1), which remains in progress. An understanding of the geologic framework of the ORR is essential to many current and proposed activities related to land-use planning, waste management, environmental restoration, and waste remediation. Therefore, this report is also intended to convey the present state of knowledge of the geologic and geohydrologic framework of the ORR and vicinity and to present some of the available data that provide the basic framework for additional geologic mapping, subsurface geologic, and geohydrologic studies. In addition, some recently completed, detailed work on soils and other surficial materials is included because of the close relationships to bedrock geology and the need to recognize the weathered products of bedrock units. Weathering processes also have some influence on hydrologic systems and processes at depth.

  18. 9 CFR 130.4 - User fees for processing import permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...by products, organisms, vectors, or germ plasm (embryos or semen) or to transport organisms or vectors1 Initial permit Per...Application for Import or In Transit Permit (Animals, Animal Semen, Animal Embryos, Birds, Poultry, or Hatching...

  19. Relating Major Surface Processes to the Deep Earth — The Importance of the Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, P. E.; Szatmari, P.

    2012-12-01

    Many global scale tectonic, oceanic and climate changes began in the Tertiary with global tectonics as the underlying driving force and changed the world. In full flower by the beginning of the Middle Miocene around 16 Ma, these changes continued through the Late Miocene into the present so we can firmly say that most of our modern world, continental glaciations excepted, began in the Middle and Late Miocene. We summarize in a flow diagram how the major earth surface processes active in the Miocene are related to the Deep Earth as understood by recent advances in seismic tomography. This 11 Ma interval had two global orogenic zones, the Alpine-Tethyan orogen from Gibraltar across southern Asia into Vietnam and around the Pacific Rim, both crustal expressions of downwellings taking place, especially in the upper mantle. These downwellings are balanced by upwellings in the lower mantle in and on the rim of the African and Pacific superplumes, which are large, low-shear velocity provinces; part of the rising plumes originated from the most extensively melted regions of the core-mantle boundary layer, D", where heat flow from the outer core is highest. Together these up-and downwellings indicate that mantle convection extended, at least periodically, through the whole mantle and reflected lateral variations in convection and heat flow in the cooling and slowly crystallizing outer core. Correlation of mantle convection with surface features is most evident in the uppermost mantle whose dynamic topography is readily reflected by the subsidence and tilting of continents moving toward the downwelling zones. Because they are closely synchronous, these two orogenic belts had enormous consequences for the earth's surface, and because they are close to us in time, they are easy to study and sample. Thus the Miocene is ideal to study for both its many global intra connections and for their link to the Deep Earth. As these two orogenies developed, they changed a global warm water ocean into our present cooler, more fragmented system with a cooler atmosphere. Higher plateaus and uplifted mountains deflected jet streams, expanded rain shadows promoting desertification, favored initial mountain glaciation, and helped cool air temperatures. Upwelling was enhanced on both sides of the Pacific basin, silica production shifted from the Atlantic to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, more mud and sand were brought to the ocean causing many passive margins to prograde, and hemipelagic mud became more abundant off continental margins. At the very end of the Miocene even the Mediterranean dried up, as it was isolated by the Alpine orogeny at Gibraltar. Onshore, epeirogenic uplift was widespread both in the interiors of the continents and along many of their margins. Active convergent margins changed continental tilts, completely altered some rivers, and formed new ones with new deltas, some on the other side of a continent. The above changes greatly altered the surface environment and induced many significant changes in flora and fauna and their distribution and have great economic importance. Many of the major geochemical cycles of the ocean and atmosphere also experienced major changes at this time. We posit that the generalizations ultimately emerging from the Miocene will apply to all the Phanerozoic and far back into the Precambrian and that are all tied to Deep Earth.

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis Informed by Geological History Supports Multiple, Sequential Invasions of the Mediterranean Basin by the Angiosperm Family Araceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guilhem Mansion; Gideon Rosenbaum; Nicola Schoenenberger; Gianluigi Bacchetta; Josep Rosselló; Elena Conti

    2008-01-01

    Despite the remarkable species richness of the Mediterranean flora and its well-known geological history, few studies have investigated its temporal and spatial origins. Most importantly, the relative contribution of geological processes and long-distance dispersal to the composition of contemporary Mediterranean biotas remains largely unknown. We used phylogenetic analyses of sequences from six chloroplast DNA markers, Bayesian dating methods, and ancestral

  1. Integration of the first and second generation bioethanol processes and the importance of by-products.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Patrik R; Erlandsson, Per; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has obstacles in the investment costs and uncertainties in the process. One solution is to integrate it with the running dry mills of ethanol from grains. However, the economy of these mills, which dominate the world market, are dependent on their by-products DDGS (Distiller's Dried Grains and Solubles), sold as animal feed. The quality of DDGS therefore must not be negatively influenced by the integration. This puts restraints on the choice of pretreatment of lignocelluloses and utilizing the pentose sugars by food-grade microorganisms. The proposed solution is to use food related filamentous Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and to produce fungal biomass as a high-grade animal feed from the residues after the distillation (stillage). This also has the potential to improve the first generation process by increasing the amount of the thin stillage directly sent back into the process, and by decreasing the evaporator based problems. PMID:24582951

  2. Chlorination processing of local planetary ores for oxygen and metallurgically important metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, D. C.

    1989-01-01

    The use of chlorine to extract, reclaim, and purify metals has attractive possibilities for extraterrestrial processing of local planetary resources. While a complete cyclic process has been proposed for the recovery of metallurgically significant metals and oxygen, herein the chlorination step of the cycle is examined. An experimental apparatus for reacting refractory materials, such as ilmenite, in a microwave induced plasma is being built. Complex equilibria calculations reveal that stable refractory materials can, under the influence of a plasma, undergo chlorination and yield oxygen as a by-product. These issues and the potential advantages for plasma processing in space are reviewed. Also presented is a discussion of the complex equilibria program used in the analysis.

  3. Laboratory studies of atomic collision processes of importance in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbings, R. F.; Smith, K.

    1984-01-01

    Progress in the following research supported under NSG 7386 is reported: (1) measurement of differential cross sections for atomic and molecular collisions relevant to analysis and modeling of data from Pioneer 11, Pioneer 12, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2; (2) analysis of measured differential cross section results to provide scattering data in forms that are easy to apply to atmospheric modeling work; (3) analysis of the data to give basic information on the molecular potentials involved in the scattering process; and (4) development and initial use of apparatus to study dissociative processes in neutral molecules.

  4. Reports of planetary geology program, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of the Planetary Geology Program were addressed including outer solar system satellites, asteroids, comets, Venus, cratering processes and landform development, volcanic processes, aeolian processes, fluvial processes, periglacial and permafrost processes, geomorphology, remote sensing, tectonics and stratigraphy, and mapping.

  5. Measuring Edge Importance: A Quantitative Analysis of the Stochastic Shielding Approximation for Random Processes on Graphs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of cellular physiological mechanisms often involve random walks on graphs representing transitions within networks of functional states. Schmandt and Galán recently introduced a novel stochastic shielding approximation as a fast, accurate method for generating approximate sample paths from a finite state Markov process in which only a subset of states are observable. For example, in ion-channel models, such as the Hodgkin–Huxley or other conductance-based neural models, a nerve cell has a population of ion channels whose states comprise the nodes of a graph, only some of which allow a transmembrane current to pass. The stochastic shielding approximation consists of neglecting fluctuations in the dynamics associated with edges in the graph not directly affecting the observable states. We consider the problem of finding the optimal complexity reducing mapping from a stochastic process on a graph to an approximate process on a smaller sample space, as determined by the choice of a particular linear measurement functional on the graph. The partitioning of ion-channel states into conducting versus nonconducting states provides a case in point. In addition to establishing that Schmandt and Galán’s approximation is in fact optimal in a specific sense, we use recent results from random matrix theory to provide heuristic error estimates for the accuracy of the stochastic shielding approximation for an ensemble of random graphs. Moreover, we provide a novel quantitative measure of the contribution of individual transitions within the reaction graph to the accuracy of the approximate process. PMID:24742077

  6. Educating and Involving Parents in the Response to Intervention Process: The School's Important Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, E. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Parents are encountering a new system that addresses struggling learners. This system is called "response to intervention" or "RTI." Schools are using this philosophy and process to direct choices about school curriculum, ongoing assessment procedures, and decisions about special education services. One positive result of the RTI system is that…

  7. The importance of establishing an international network of tissue banks and regional tissue processing centers.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    During the past four decades, many tissue banks have been established across the world with the aim of supplying sterilized tissues for clinical use and research purposes. Between 1972 and 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency supported the establishment of more than sixty of these tissue banks in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and Eastern Europe; promoted the use of the ionizing radiation technique for the sterilization of the processed tissues; and encouraged cooperation between the established tissue banks during the implementation of its program on radiation and tissue banking at national, regional and international levels. Taking into account that several of the established tissue banks have gained a rich experience in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and medical use of sterilized tissues, it is time now to strengthen further international and regional cooperation among interested tissue banks located in different countries. The purpose of this cooperation is to share the experience gained by these banks in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and used of different types of tissues in certain medical treatments and research activities. This could be done through the establishment of a network of tissue banks and a limited number of regional tissue processing centers in different regions of the world. PMID:23765095

  8. Leaching the Poison--The Importance of Process and Partnership in Working with Yolngu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marika, Rarriwuy; Yunupingu, Yalmay; Marika-Mununggiritj, Raymattja; Muller, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The popular construction of rural places as "white" spaces has significant repercussions for ethnic, Indigenous and "other" groups who do not always fit within prescribed dominant processes. This paper provides new insights for rural scholarship through an engagement with Indigenous specific experiences of governance and decision making in rural…

  9. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF BUSINESS PROCESSES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CRM SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis H. Bibiano; Enric Mayol; Joan A. Pastor

    Business Processes (BP) are nowadays an essential element in any organizational structure of a commercial enterprise. They are employed to understand, manage and coordinate the activities of the company as well as to guide issues concerning the creation of value. Information technologies (IT) are a set of tools that have helped BP to coordinate better and to obtain the desired

  10. Pennsylvania Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Three decades after it was published, the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania was described as "the most remarkable series of reports ever issued by any survey." Considering the diversity of other geological reports, this was no small compliment. Drawing on support from the Marion and Kenneth Pollock Libraries Program Fund, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries' Digital Preservation Unit was able to digitize not only this fabled Survey, but also the Third and Fourth Surveys as well. Visitors can use the search engine on the homepage to look for items of interest, or they can just browse through the collection at their leisure. The surveys include various maps and illustrations that track mineral deposits and the disposition and location of other natural resources. Additionally, users can look through a miscellaneous set of publications from the early 20th century related to survey work performed by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  11. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Work conducted in the Planetary Geology program is summarized. The following categories are presented: outer solar system satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; cratering processes and landform development; volcanic processes and landforms; aolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes and landform development; periglacial and permafrost processes; structure, tectonics and stratigraphy; remote sensing and regolith studies; geologic mapping, cartography and geodesy.

  12. The U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal: A web service architecture and implementation for geo-climate data access and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunicki, T.; Blodgett, D. L.; Booth, N. L.; Suftin, I.; Walker, J. I.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental modelers from fields of study including climatology, hydrology, geology, and ecology need common, cross-discipline data sources and processing methods to enable working with large remote datasets. Watershed modelers, for example, need downscaled climate model data and land-cover data summaries to predict streamflow for various future climate scenarios. In turn, ecological modelers need the predicted streamflow conditions to understand how habitat of biotic communities might be affected. The U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal project addresses these needs by providing a flexible application built on open-standard Web services that integrates and streamlines data retrieval and analysis. Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services (WPS) were developed to allow interoperable access to data from servers delivering both defacto standard Climate and Forecast (CF) convention datasets and OGC standard Web Coverage Services (WCS). The Geo Data Portal can create commonly needed derivatives of data in numerous formats. As an example use case, a user can upload a shapefile specifying a region of interest (e.g. a watershed), pick a climate simulation, and retrieve a spreadsheet of predicted daily maximum temperature in that region up to 2100. Outcomes of the Geo Data Portal project support the rapid development of user interfaces for accessing and manipulating environmental data. The Geo Data Portal resulting from this project will be demonstrated accessing a range of climate and landscape data.

  13. Putting the pieces together: the geology of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Geologic processes involved in the collisions of the various pieces of today's Alaska were also important to the generation and concentration of Alaska's mineral deposits. The recent theories of plate tectonics and several types of subduction zones are particularly appropriate to Alaska because the Aleutian Islands form a classic example of a subduction zone in action today. Southern Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula show many examples of subduction zones that have existed through geologic times. Rocks from different geological environments found close together has led to the concept of tectonstratigraphic terranes. Currently, Alaska has been subdivided into more than 50 tectonstratigraphic terranes by the US Geological Survey, but some may be subdivisions of larger, major terranes. Questions still to be answered are how much of Alaska was involved in the plate movement, when did the land arrive in Alaska, and what made up ancient Alaska. 6 figures.

  14. Geological flows

    E-print Network

    Yu. N. Bratkov

    2008-11-19

    In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.

  15. Surficial Geologic Map of Maine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students become familiar with the nature and use of the Surficial Geologic Map of Maine and gain practice in using maps other than topographic maps. They will discover that surficial geology deals primarily with the geologically youthful, unconsolidated sedimentary materials that exist at, or close to the surface of a specific area and are important because the surface deposits filter and control the access of water to the water table. Students also learn that the study of surficial geology is important for siting of waste disposal facilities and for resources such as sand, gravel, and clay. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where surficial geological maps are available.

  16. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  17. Importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry - Studies with a one-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Keesee, R. G.; Hamill, P.

    1982-01-01

    A one-dimensional, time-dependent model of tropospheric air composition is developed which incorporates several heterogeneous physical and chemical processes. The model includes the interaction of gases, aerosols, and hydrometeors through the physical mechanisms of nucleation, condensation, evaporation, coagulation, coalescence, and deliquescence. Precipitation, sedimentation, and dry deposition act to remove material from the atmosphere, while chemical transformations occur both in the vapor and the condensed phases. The model also incorporates the sources and vertical diffusion of gases and particles, as well as changes in the solar intensity caused by light-scattering from aerosols and clouds. Preliminary simulations made using this model indicate that rainout and washout processes strongly influence the distributions of tropospheric gases and aerosols under certain conditions.

  18. Cold plasma processing of local planetary ores for oxygen and metallurgically important metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, D. C.; Bullard, D.; Ortega, R.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of a cold plasma in chlorination processing is described. Essential equipment and instruments were received, the experimental apparatus assembled and tested, and preliminary experiments conducted. The results of the latter lend support to the original hypothesis: a cold plasma can both significantly enhance and bias chemical reactions. In two separate experiments, a cold plasma was used to reduce TiCl4 vapor and chlorinate ilmenite. The latter, reacted in an argon-chlorine plasma, yielded oxygen. The former experiment reveals that chlorine can be recovered as HCl vapor from metal chlorides in a hydrogen plasma. Furthermore, the success of the hydrogen experiments has lead to an analysis of the feasibility of direct hydrogen reduction of metal oxides in a cold plasma. That process would produce water vapor and numerous metal by-products.

  19. The potential importance of bacterial processes in regulating rate of lake acidification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Kelly; J. W. Rudd; R. B. Cook; D. W. Schindler

    1982-01-01

    Rates of microbial reduction of Oâ, Fe\\/sup 3 +\\/, Mn\\/sup 4 +\\/, NOâ⁻, and total generation of COâ and CHâ were measured in the hypolimnia of three Canadian Shield lakes. Methanogenesis accounted for 72-80% of anoxic carbon generation, while sulfate reduction contributed 16-20%. The remainder of anoxic carbon generation (2-8%) originated from all of the other processes combined (nitrate, iron,

  20. Processing single-use medical devices for use in surgery - importance, status quo and potential.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Colin M

    2008-01-01

    In summary, it is possible with the technology and scientific knowledge currently available to allow products intended for single use to be reprocessed using validated and certified processing procedures, while maintaining the full function and without any loss in quality. How many times a product can be re-processed must be determined separately for each individual medical technology device; it is not possible to make any kind of blanket statement as to the permissible number of cycles. This is due to the differing construction, the various combinations of materials and the diverse demands made of each device during clinical use. The exigency of the reprocessing issue is evident both to the user and the primary manufacturer. For the user, where there is a correspondingly high-quality primary product with suitably costed, technically-sound and certified reprocessing procedures, repeat usage can mean real savings while maintaining full functionality in each use. For the primary manufacturers of highly specialised instruments, only part of which can be represented by the medical facility in terms of a corresponding DRG (Diagnosis-Related Group), it is reprocessing that opens the door to widespread routine clinical use. The patient, in turn, benefits greatly from this, since his demand for medical treatment using the most up-to-date technology is taken into account. If processing complies in full with medical technology and hygiene directives, from the medical point of view (without being able to definitively evaluate each individual case using this criterion) the specific advantages of the reprocessing procedure are obvious. In order to establish broad acceptance for the purposes of good marketing, corresponding controlling and quality instruments have to be developed to allow the decision-making process regarding the permissibility of the reprocessing of a certain device and the number of times it can be reprocessed using this procedure to be made transparent.Taking this a step further, possibilities arise for the establishment of corresponding quality-assurance instruments on the part of the clinical establishments involved, within which reprocessed products, in the interest of quality assurance, can be referred back to the processor in the event of defective function and can also be removed from clinical use prior to completing the intended number of processing cycles. Furthermore, it can be assumed that the widespread use of reprocessing procedures in today's high-cost single-use medical device sector will have a long-term cost/price-regulating effect for the primary products, to the benefit of the users. Thus, the heated debate regarding the safety of processing procedures that have already been certified and validated in accordance with current industry standards should be evaluated in particular from the point of view of the justified fears of the leading manufacturers with regard to their currently established market share. From a purely surgical point of view, the reprocessing of disposable products should be welcomed as a revolution. The main criteria for surgeons and medics should always be the benefit for the patient. If the quality is ensured through corresponding processing and validation procedures based on recognised certificates, then economic arguments take precedence. Cases in which a DRG (and thus a payment calculation) does not fully cover the use of medical devices are conceivable. Withholding medically necessary services on grounds of the costs, or making these services available to a limited extent only, is not acceptable from the medical point of view and furthermore goes beyond what is ethically acceptable. Each procedure, even the systematic use of reprocessing of suitable medical technology disposable items, should, where the quality is guaranteed, be supported unequivocally. Taken a step further, this branch of the economy will have a long-lasting price-regulating effect on the primary producers market. PMID:20204093

  1. Measuring Student Understanding of Geological Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-01-01

    There have been few discoveries in geology more important than "deep time"--the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology, and…

  2. Directions of the US Geological Survey Landslide Hazards Reduction Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Reduction Program includes studies of landslide process and prediction, landslide susceptibility and risk mapping, landslide recurrence and slope evolution, and research application and technology transfer. Studies of landslide processes have been recently conducted in Virginia, Utah, California, Alaska, and Hawaii, Landslide susceptibility maps provide a very important tool for landslide hazard reduction. The effects of engineering-geologic characteristics of rocks, seismic activity, short and long-term climatic change on landslide recurrence are under study. Detailed measurement of movement and deformation has begun on some active landslides. -from Author

  3. Sea-floor geology and sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Cross Rip Channel, Nantucket Sound, offshore southeastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S.D.; Schaer, J.D.; Wright, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Gridded multibeam bathymetry covers approximately 10.4 square kilometers of sea floor in the vicinity of Cross Rip Channel in Nantucket Sound, offshore southeastern Massachusetts. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H12007, these acoustic data, and the sea-floor sediment sampling and bottom photography stations subsequently occupied to verify them, show the composition and terrain of the seabed and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. This report is part of an expanding series of cooperative studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management that provide a fundamental framework for research and resource-management activities (for example, windfarms, pipelines, and dredging) along the inner continental shelf offshore of Massachusetts.

  4. Project Earth Science: Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brent A. Ford

    2001-01-01

    Now you can literally explain what it's like "between a rock and a hard place!" Use Project Earth Science: Geology to introduce your students to plate tectonics and teach them what causes volcanoes and earthquakes. Lead explorations of these and other larger-than-the-classroom geological phenomena with the teacher-tested, Standards -based activities. Earth's physical evolution and dynamic processes are carefully explained in language accessible to students and teachers. Supplemental readings provide educators with the background information to answer student questions and concerns.

  5. Power Systems Analysis Final Project Report UNI: tdp2114 1 Abstract--This document outlines the importance of, process

    E-print Network

    Lavaei, Javad

    the importance of, process associated with, and difficulty of both the maintenance and maintenance scheduling that a generator is down means that a consumer is not receiving power, the power company is losing money costs of losing all the money from not producing the power while the generator is under maintenance

  6. Leeds Internship Programme Internships are an important part of the learning process for many of our students. Through

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    Leeds Internship Programme Internships are an important part of the learning process for many of our students. Through Campaign funding for the Leeds Internship Programme, we will offer more of our the funds to pay for an internship. Equally, students who would be ideally suited to such an opportunity

  7. Why Is Evolution Important? The discovery and understanding of the processes of evolution represent one of the most

    E-print Network

    Lanterman, Aaron

    #12;Why Is Evolution Important? The discovery and understanding of the processes of evolution represent one of the most powerful achievements in the history of science. Evolution successfully explains education in our schools is being undermined by efforts to introduce non-scientific concepts about evolution

  8. pH Influences the Importance of Niche-Related and Neutral Processes in Lacustrine Bacterioplankton Assembly.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lijuan; Jeppesen, Erik; He, Dan; Wang, Jianjun; Liboriussen, Lone; Xing, Peng; Wu, Qinglong L

    2015-05-01

    pH is an important factor that shapes the structure of bacterial communities. However, we have very limited information about the patterns and processes by which overall bacterioplankton communities assemble across wide pH gradients in natural freshwater lakes. Here, we used pyrosequencing to analyze the bacterioplankton communities in 25 discrete freshwater lakes in Denmark with pH levels ranging from 3.8 to 8.8. We found that pH was the key factor impacting lacustrine bacterioplankton community assembly. More acidic lakes imposed stronger environmental filtering, which decreased the richness and evenness of bacterioplankton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and largely shifted community composition. Although environmental filtering was determined to be the most important determinant of bacterioplankton community assembly, the importance of neutral assembly processes must also be considered, notably in acidic lakes, where the species (OTU) diversity was low. We observed that the strong effect of environmental filtering in more acidic lakes was weakened by the enhanced relative importance of neutral community assembly, and bacterioplankton communities tended to be less phylogenetically clustered in more acidic lakes. In summary, we propose that pH is a major environmental determinant in freshwater lakes, regulating the relative importance and interplay between niche-related and neutral processes and shaping the patterns of freshwater lake bacterioplankton biodiversity. PMID:25724952

  9. Geologic Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 24 questions on the topic of geologic time, which covers dating techniques and unconformities. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate feedback.

  10. Antarctica Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains information about the continent of Antarctica. There is a classroom practice and instructional module. The students will be able to describe the general geology of the land under the Antarctic ice and to explain from where the rocks may have come.

  11. Solution conditions determine the relative importance of nucleation and growth processes in ?-synuclein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Alexander K.; Galvagnion, Céline; Gaspar, Ricardo; Sparr, Emma; Vendruscolo, Michele; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Linse, Sara; Dobson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of amyloid fibrils by the intrinsically disordered protein ?-synuclein is a hallmark of Parkinson disease. To characterize the microscopic steps in the mechanism of aggregation of this protein we have used in vitro aggregation assays in the presence of preformed seed fibrils to determine the molecular rate constant of fibril elongation under a range of different conditions. We show that ?-synuclein amyloid fibrils grow by monomer and not oligomer addition and are subject to higher-order assembly processes that decrease their capacity to grow. We also find that at neutral pH under quiescent conditions homogeneous primary nucleation and secondary processes, such as fragmentation and surface-assisted nucleation, which can lead to proliferation of the total number of aggregates, are undetectable. At pH values below 6, however, the rate of secondary nucleation increases dramatically, leading to a completely different balance between the nucleation and growth of aggregates. Thus, at mildly acidic pH values, such as those, for example, that are present in some intracellular locations, including endosomes and lysosomes, multiplication of aggregates is much faster than at normal physiological pH values, largely as a consequence of much more rapid secondary nucleation. These findings provide new insights into possible mechanisms of ?-synuclein aggregation and aggregate spreading in the context of Parkinson disease. PMID:24817693

  12. Cold plasma processing of local planetary ores for oxygen and metallurgically important metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, D. C.; Bullard, D.; Ortega, R.

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of a cold or nonequilibrium plasma in chlorination processing is discussed. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was successfully chlorinated at temperatures between 700 and 900 C without the aid of carbon. In addition to these initial experiments, a technique was developed for determining the temperature of a specimen in a plasma. Development of that technique has required evaluating the emissivity of TiO2, ZrO2, and FeOTiO2 and analyzing the specimen temperature in a plasma as a function of both power absorbed by the plasma and the pressure of the plasma. The mass spectrometer was also calibrated with TiCl4 and CCl4 vapor.

  13. Extracting important information from Chinese Operation Notes with natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Weide; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Zuofeng; Feng, Kaiyan; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Extracting information from unstructured clinical narratives is valuable for many clinical applications. Although natural Language Processing (NLP) methods have been profoundly studied in electronic medical records (EMR), few studies have explored NLP in extracting information from Chinese clinical narratives. In this study, we report the development and evaluation of extracting tumor-related information from operation notes of hepatic carcinomas which were written in Chinese. Using 86 operation notes manually annotated by physicians as the training set, we explored both rule-based and supervised machine-learning approaches. Evaluating on unseen 29 operation notes, our best approach yielded 69.6% in precision, 58.3% in recall and 63.5% F-score. PMID:24486562

  14. Morphometric parameters of living human in-vitro fertilization embryos; importance of the asynchronous division process.

    PubMed

    Roux, C; Joanne, C; Agnani, G; Fromm, M; Clavequin, M C; Bresson, J L

    1995-05-01

    A total of 304 human pronuclear zygotes and cleaved embryos from the 2- to 9-cell stages, obtained during invitro fertilization attempts, were photographed and retrospectively analysed after transfer for their morphology and size in relation to their developmental stage, using the Imagenia programme of a Biocom 500 image analyser. Morphometric parameters were calculated from the perimeters, surface measurements, theoretical diameters and circularity factors for the different structures analysed. This report provides the morphometric characteristics of living embryos. For the whole population the mean values were: 157.4 microns for the external zona pellucida diameter, 121.8 microns for the internal zona pellucida diameter, 17.9 microns for the thickness of the zona pellucida and 117.2 microns for the embryo cell mass diameter. The morphometric characteristics of the pronuclear-stage population were significantly different from the cleaved cell stages. If the zona pellucida and cell mass embryo diameters increased slowly from the 2- to 9-cell stages, embryonic external diameters were higher and zona pellucida thicknesses were lower in odd than even number blastomere embryos. Preliminary results show that in cases where implantation occurs, the embryo has a lower zona pellucida thickness. A comparison of the different embryo cell stages confirmed the existence of an asynchronous division process during early embryo development. Global results show no evidence of morphometric differences between subpopulations of the embryos according to their microscopic grading. Deviations from the normal asynchronous division process, however, appear to be a new parameter to take into account during embryo scoring.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7657766

  15. The Importance of Water for High Fidelity Information Processing and for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Is water an absolute prerequisite for life? Life depends on a variety of non-covalent interactions among molecules, the nature of which is determined as much by the solvent in which they occur as by the molecules themselves. Catalysis and information processing, two essential functions of life, require non-covalent molecular recognition with very high specificity. For example, to correctly reproduce a string consisting of 600,000 units of information (e.g ., 600 kilobases, equivalent to the genome of the smallest free living terrestrial organisms) with a 90% success rate requires specificity > 107 : 1 for the target molecule vs. incorrect alternatives. Such specificity requires (i) that the correct molecular association is energetically stabilized by at least 40 kJ/mol relative to alternatives, and (ii) that the system is able to sample among possible states (alternative molecular associations) rapidly enough to allow the system to fall under thermodynamic control and express the energetic stabilization. We argue that electrostatic interactions are required to confer the necessary energetic stabilization vs. a large library of molecular alternatives, and that a solvent with polarity and dielectric properties comparable to water is required for the system to sample among possible states and express thermodynamic control. Electrostatic associations can be made in non-polar solvents, but the resulting complexes are too stable to be "unmade" with sufficient frequency to confer thermodynamic control on the system. An electrostatic molecular complex representing 3 units of information (e.g., 3 base pairs) with specificity > 107 per unit has a stability in non-polar solvent comparable to that of a carbon-carbon bond at room temperature. These considerations suggest that water, or a solvent with properties very like water, is necessary to support high-fidelity information processing, and can therefore be considered a critical prerequisite for life.

  16. Stable Isotope Signatures Illustrate the Importance of Fog and Cloud Water in Ecohydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Fog and cloud water, when part of an ecohydrologically significant local climate pattern, can contribute to stream flow, groundwater recharge, soil moisture, and plant uptake in coastal and mountain watersheds. Stable isotopes of water, 18O and 2H, can be used to quantify different sources of precipitation, and to assess the role of fog or cloud water within the ecosystem. Fog and cloud water are usually enriched in 18O and 2H relative to rain at the same site, explained in part by the effect of temperature on stable isotope fractionation - relatively higher temperatures close to the land surface tend to keep the vapor/condensed phase system from evolving to lower isotopic ratios. Land immersed in coastal fog or orographic clouds receives droplet sizes from fog to light rain. Isotopic composition of fog-sized droplets may be similar to the small raindrops, so stable isotopes reflect precipitation source to a greater extent than precipitation size. As a result, isotopic water balance determinations can show higher amounts of cloud water than determinations using fog collectors, canopy water balances, eddy covariance, and other methods. Examples from Hawaii and Puerto Rico illustrate the use of stable isotope methods in cloud forest studies. On East Maui in Hawaii, clouds intercept the mountain slopes between 600 and 2200 m on both windward and leeward sides of the island. Puerto Rico's eastern mountains receive cloud water input at their highest altitudes, between 900-1100 m. At all sites, stable isotopes of cloud water and rain were measured using passive fog and rain collectors; weather stations and throughfall gages provided additional data. Estimates of cloud water as a fraction of total precipitation input from isotopic mixing models and the canopy water balance calculations were 29% and 15%, respectively, on leeward Maui and 27% and 32% on windward Maui. Cloud water input in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico was estimated to be 45-56% of total precipitation from isotope mixing model results, compared with 10-16% from studies using physical methods. Determination of cloud height and atmospheric temperature for individual rain events and for weekly rain samples confirmed the isotopic signature of orographic cloud water and helped quantify the importance of that weather pattern to the forest ecohydrology. Isotopic composition of stream water indicated that orographic cloud water is an important component of headwater streamflow year-round (62% in Puerto Rico, 37% in Maui). In Puerto Rico, quantifying the isotopic signatures of rain from different weather patterns showed that streams had a higher proportion of orographic precipitation than the bulk rainfall, highlighting the importance of low-intensity cloud water precipitation in maintaining baseflow. On Maui, ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) xylem water isotopic composition indicated different water use strategies by the trees at the windward and leeward sites, which had different precipitation regimes. Isotope analyses work very well for tracing the pathways of cloud water within watersheds, and results can lead to a better understanding of the role of fog and cloud water in coastal and mountain ecosystems.

  17. Asymptotic normalization coefficient and important astrophysical process 15N(p,?)160

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Banu, A.; Bem, P.; Burjan, V.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; La Cognata, M.; Pisko?, Š.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Šime?ková, E.; Spitaleri, C.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we report the application of the ANC method for the determination of the non-resonant radiative capture amplitude for the important astrophysical CNO cycle reaction 15N(p, ?) 16O, which provides a leak from the CN cycle into the CNO bi-cycle and CNO tri-cycle. It is contributed by the resonance capture to the ground state through two strong 1- resonances and non-resonant capture to the ground state, which interferes with the resonant capture terms. To determine more accurately the contribution from the non-resonant capture we determined the proton ANCs for the ground and seven excited states of 16O by measuring the angular distributions of the peripheral 15N(3He, d)16O proton transfer reaction. Using these ANCs and proton and ? resonance widths determined from an R-matrix fit to the data from the 15N(p, ?)12C reaction, we calculated the astrophysical S factor for the 15N(p, ?)16O reaction. The results indicate that the direct capture contribution was previously overestimated. We find the astrophysical factor to be S(0) = 36.0 ± 6.0 keVb, which is about a factor of two lower than the presently accepted value. We conclude that for every 2200 ± 300 cycles of the main CN cycle one CN catalyst is lost due to this reaction.

  18. Sedimentary RocksSedimentary Rocks Geology 200

    E-print Network

    Kammer, Thomas

    Sedimentary RocksSedimentary Rocks Geology 200 Geology for Environmental ScientistsGeology for Environmental Scientists #12;Major Concepts · Sedimentary rocks form by the processes of weathering, erosion · Sedimentary structures are critical to interpreting sedimentary rocks. #12;The Rock CycleThe Rock Cycle #12

  19. On the importance of being bilingual: Word stress processing in a context of segmental variability.

    PubMed

    Abboub, Nawal; Bijeljac-Babic, Ranka; Serres, Josette; Nazzi, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    French-learning infants have language-specific difficulties in processing lexical stress due to the lack of lexical stress in French. These difficulties in discriminating between words with stress-initial (trochaic) and stress-final (iambic) patterns emerge by 10months of age in the easier context of low variability (using a single item pronounced with a trochaic pattern vs. an iambic pattern) as well as in the more challenging context of high segmental variability (using lists of segmentally different trochaic and iambic items). These findings raise the question of stress pattern perception in simultaneous bilinguals learning French and a second language using stress at the lexical level. Bijeljac-Babic, Serres, Höhle, and Nazzi (2012) established that at 10 months of age, in the simpler context of low variability, such bilinguals have better stress discrimination abilities than French-learning monolinguals. The current study explored whether this advantage extends to the more challenging context of high segmental variability. Results first establish stress pattern discrimination in a group of bilingual 10-month-olds learning French and one language with (variable) lexical stress, but not in French-learning 10-month-old monolinguals. Second, discrimination in bilinguals appeared not to be affected by the language balance of the infants, suggesting that sensitivity to stress patterns might be maintained in these bilingual infants provided that they hear at least 30% of a language with lexical stress. PMID:25644083

  20. Transcriptional regulation of important cellular processes in skeletal myogenesis through interferon-?.

    PubMed

    Grzelkowska-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna; Wicik, Zofia; Majewska, Alicja; Tokarska, Justyna; Grabiec, Kamil; Koz?owski, Marcin; Milewska, Marta; B?aszczyk, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of interferon (IFN)-? on the transcriptomic profile of differentiating mouse C2C12 myogenic cells. Global gene expression was evaluated using whole mouse genome oligonucleotide microarrays, and the results were validated through real-time PCR. IFN-? (1?ng/mL) increased myoblast proliferation but decreased cell respiration and myosin heavy chain content and slightly decreased the fusion index in differentiating C2C12 cell cultures. The genes upregulated through IFN-? were involved in cell cycle; regulation of cell proliferation; programmed cell death; chemotaxis; and cytokine, growth factor, and peptidase activity, whereas the genes downregulated through IFN-? primarily contributed to the regulation of transcription, cell-cell signaling, nitrogen compound biosynthesis, ser/thr protein kinase signaling, and regulation of the Wnt pathway. In conclusion, IFN-? affects the expression of numerous genes associated with the regulation of several processes in myogenesis. The effects of IFN-? on cellular transcription include (1) alteration of cytokine/growth factor expression, promoting cell proliferation and migration but inhibiting differentiation, (2) impairment of pro-myogenic transcription, (3) disruption of cell adhesion and sarcolemma/cytoskeleton organization, and (4) increased peptidase activity leading to enhanced proteolysis and apoptosis. PMID:25237846

  1. Influence of Introgression and Geological Processes on Phylogenetic Relationships of Western North American Mountain Suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Unmack, Peter J.; Dowling, Thomas E.; Laitinen, Nina J.; Secor, Carol L.; Mayden, Richard L.; Shiozawa, Dennis K.; Smith, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western USA and into northern Mexico. They are typically found in medium gradient, middle-elevation reaches of rivers over rocky substrates. This study (1) compares molecular data with morphological and paleontological data for proposed species of Pantosteus, (2) tests hypotheses of their monophyly, (3) uses these data for phylogenetic inferences of sister-group relationships, and (4) estimates timing of divergence events of identified lineages. Using 8055 base pairs from mitochondrial DNA protein coding genes, Pantosteus and Catostomus are reciprocally monophyletic, in contrast with morphological data. The only exception to a monophyletic Pantosteus is P. columbianus whose mtDNA is closely aligned with C. tahoensis because of introgression. Within Pantosteus, several species have deep genetic divergences among allopatric sister lineages, several of which are diagnosed and elevated to species, bringing the total diversity in the group to 11 species. Conflicting molecular and morphological data may be resolved when patterns of divergence are shown to be correlated with sympatry and evidence of introgression. PMID:24619087

  2. Chip-off-the-old-rock: the study of reservoir-relevant geological processes with real-rock micromodels.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; de Haas, Thomas W; Fadaei, Hossein; Sinton, David

    2014-11-21

    We present a real-rock micromodel approach whereby microfluidic channels are fabricated in a naturally occurring mineral substrate. The method is applied to quantify calcite dissolution which is relevant to oil/gas recovery, CO2 sequestration, and wastewater disposal in carbonate formations - ubiquitous worldwide. The key advantage of this method is the inclusion of both the relevant substrate chemistry (not possible with conventional microfluidics) and real-time pore-scale resolution (not possible with core samples). Here, microchannels are etched into a natural calcite crystal and sealed with a glass slide. The approach is applied to study acidified brine flow through a single channel and a two-dimensional micromodel. The single-channel case conforms roughly to a 1-D analytical description, with crystal orientation influencing the local dissolution rate an additional 25%. The two-dimensional experiments show highly flow-directed dissolution and associated positive feedback wherein acid preferentially invades high conductivity flow paths, resulting in higher dissolution rates ('wormholing'). These experiments demonstrate and validate the approach of microfabricating fluid structures within natural minerals for transport and geochemical studies. More broadly, real-rock microfluidics open the door to a vast array of lab-on-a-chip opportunities in geology, reservoir engineering, and earth sciences. PMID:25236399

  3. A Comparison of Multivariate and Pre-Processing Methods for Quantitative Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Geologic Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. B.; Morris, R. V.; Clegg, S. M.; Bell, J. F., III; Humphries, S. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument selected for the Curiosity rover is capable of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).[1] We used a remote LIBS instrument similar to ChemCam to analyze 197 geologic slab samples and 32 pressed-powder geostandards. The slab samples are well-characterized and have been used to validate the calibration of previous instruments on Mars missions, including CRISM [2], OMEGA [3], the MER Pancam [4], Mini-TES [5], and Moessbauer [6] instruments and the Phoenix SSI [7]. The resulting dataset was used to compare multivariate methods for quantitative LIBS and to determine the effect of grain size on calculations. Three multivariate methods - partial least squares (PLS), multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP ANNs) and cascade correlation (CC) ANNs - were used to generate models and extract the quantitative composition of unknown samples. PLS can be used to predict one element (PLS1) or multiple elements (PLS2) at a time, as can the neural network methods. Although MLP and CC ANNs were successful in some cases, PLS generally produced the most accurate and precise results.

  4. Influence of introgression and geological processes on phylogenetic relationships of Western North American mountain suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Dowling, Thomas E; Laitinen, Nina J; Secor, Carol L; Mayden, Richard L; Shiozawa, Dennis K; Smith, Gerald R

    2014-01-01

    Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western USA and into northern Mexico. They are typically found in medium gradient, middle-elevation reaches of rivers over rocky substrates. This study (1) compares molecular data with morphological and paleontological data for proposed species of Pantosteus, (2) tests hypotheses of their monophyly, (3) uses these data for phylogenetic inferences of sister-group relationships, and (4) estimates timing of divergence events of identified lineages. Using 8055 base pairs from mitochondrial DNA protein coding genes, Pantosteus and Catostomus are reciprocally monophyletic, in contrast with morphological data. The only exception to a monophyletic Pantosteus is P. columbianus whose mtDNA is closely aligned with C. tahoensis because of introgression. Within Pantosteus, several species have deep genetic divergences among allopatric sister lineages, several of which are diagnosed and elevated to species, bringing the total diversity in the group to 11 species. Conflicting molecular and morphological data may be resolved when patterns of divergence are shown to be correlated with sympatry and evidence of introgression. PMID:24619087

  5. Brines in Crustal Processes: Important Roles Inferred From Experimental Studies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    Concentrated salt solutions are increasingly implicated as active agents in many fluid-mediated deep- and mid-crust processes, including rock-melting, charnockitic alteration, trace-element depletion and enrichment, regional metasomatism including dehydration and rehydration, albitization, deep-crustal oxidation, and formation of economic mineral deposits. Unique properties of saline aqueous fluids at high P and T, recently revealed by experimental work, provide new explanations for these metasomatic features and encourage further search for a brine connection in other outstanding problems of metamorphism. Specific properties of high P-T NaCl solutions favorable for deep-crustal metasomatism are high solubility for some rock-forming components, especially CaO and FeO, even at high salt concentration, very low H2O activity as a consequence of pressure-induced dissociation, allowing compatibility with anhydrous (granulite facies) mineral assemblages, and high ability to infiltrate mineral grain boundaries. The high affinity of alkali chloride brines for CaO can explain trace element mobility in high grade metamorphism, by virtue of the high solubility of apatite, and the puzzling phenomenon of subsolidus charnockitic alteration, as in South India, in which orthopyroxene is formed from the incongruent dissolution of calcic amphibole. The great pressure effect on lowering H2O activity in concentrated pore-fluid brines causes fluid-present melting points of crustal rocks to swerve sharply to higher temperatures with increasing depth, in contrast to the behavior in the presence of pure H2O. This fact could account for the formation of swarms of granite intrusions in shear-zone-related settings, such as the Caledonide granites of Scotland and northern Ireland. It is postulated that salty solutions of deep-seated origin inhibit melting as they rise through the lower crust, but induce large-scale melting at mid-crust levels because of increase of H2O activity by release of pressure. Sulfide ore deposits of various kinds including the porphyry Cu-Mo ores can be explained by the action of CaSO4-bearing brines of magmatic origin. The changes in composition of Cl-rich fluids in contact with feldspathic rocks with falling temperature could explain regional albitization in the lower grade portions of the great Precambrian metamorphic belts such as the Limpopo Belt of South Africa. Of the several possible sources of concentrated salty fluids, the most appealing for wide application is effluents from volatile-rich basaltic intrusions, which also provide heat for regional metamorphism and temperature gradients convenient for geochemical segregation and ore mineral accumulation.

  6. Geology Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  7. Teaching Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The study of geology at the University of Colorado has a long and distinguished history, and in recent years they have also become increasingly interested in providing online teaching resources in the field. Educators will be glad to learn about this site's existence, as they can scroll through a list of interactive demonstrations that can be utilized in the classroom. Specifically, these demonstrations include a shaded interactive topographical map of the western United States, a magnetic field of the Earth, and several animated maps of various National Park sites. The site comes to a compelling conclusion with the inclusion of the geology department's slide library, which can be used without a password or registration.

  8. A network model shows the importance of coupled processes in the microbial N cycle in the Cape Fear River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, David E.; Lisa, Jessica A.; Song, Bongkeun; Tobias, Craig R.; Borrett, Stuart R.

    2012-06-01

    Estuaries serve important ecological and economic functions including habitat provision and the removal of nutrients. Eutrophication can overwhelm the nutrient removal capacity of estuaries and poses a widely recognized threat to the health and function of these ecosystems. Denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are microbial processes responsible for the removal of fixed nitrogen and diminish the effects of eutrophication. Both of these microbial removal processes can be influenced by direct inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen substrates or supported by microbial interactions with other nitrogen transforming pathways such as nitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). The coupling of nitrogen removal pathways to other transformation pathways facilitates the removal of some forms of inorganic nitrogen; however, differentiating between direct and coupled nitrogen removal is difficult. Network modeling provides a tool to examine interactions among microbial nitrogen cycling processes and to determine the within-system history of nitrogen involved in denitrification and anammox. To examine the coupling of nitrogen cycling processes, we built a nitrogen budget mass balance network model in two adjacent 1 cm3 sections of bottom water and sediment in the oligohaline portion of the Cape Fear River Estuary, NC, USA. Pathway, flow, and environ ecological network analyses were conducted to characterize the organization of nitrogen flow in the estuary and to estimate the coupling of nitrification to denitrification and of nitrification and DNRA to anammox. Centrality analysis indicated NH4+ is the most important form of nitrogen involved in removal processes. The model analysis further suggested that direct denitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification had similar contributions to nitrogen removal while direct anammox was dominant to coupled forms of anammox. Finally, results also indicated that partial nitrification-anammox may play an important role in anammox nitrogen removal in the Cape Fear River Estuary.

  9. Tour of Park Geology: Shoreline Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to shoreline geology fieldnotes for National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas. When appropriate, fieldnotes include visitor information, geology, maps, photographs, multimedia resources, geologic research, and teacher features (lessons for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the parks included on this site: Acadia National Park, Everglades National Park, and Padre Island National Seashore.

  10. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  11. Atmospheric peroxides in a polluted subtropical environment: seasonal variation, sources and sinks, and importance of heterogeneous processes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Tilgner, Andreas; Yeung, Chungpong; Wang, Zhe; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Xu, Zheng; Yuan, Chao; Gao, Yuan; Poon, Steven; Herrmann, Hartmut; Lee, Shuncheng; Lam, Ka Se; Wang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxides play an important role in atmospheric chemistry, but knowledge of their abundances, sources, and sinks from heterogeneous processes remains incomplete. Here we report the measurement results obtained in four seasons during 2011-2012 at a suburban site and a background site in Hong Kong. Organic peroxides were found to be more abundant than H2O2, which is in contrast to most previous observations. Model calculations with a multiphase chemical mechanism suggest important contributions from heterogeneous processes (primarily transition metal ion [TMI]-HOx reactions) to the H2O2 budget, accounting for about one-third and more than half of total production rate and loss rate, respectively. In comparison, they contribute much less to organic peroxides. The fast removal of H2O2 by these heterogeneous reactions explains the observed high organic peroxide fractions. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the role of heterogeneous processes depends on the abundance of soluble metals in aerosol, serving as a net H2O2 source at low metal concentrations, but as a net sink with high metal loading. The findings of this study suggest the need to consider the chemical processes in the aerosol aqueous phase when examining the chemical budget of gas-phase H2O2. PMID:24410023

  12. Relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in driving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblage during the spreading of a toxic plant.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guoxi; Liu, Yongjun; Mao, Lin; Jiang, Shengjing; Zhang, Qi; Cheng, Gang; An, Lizhe; Du, Guozhen; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-01-01

    Both deterministic and stochastic processes are expected to drive the assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but little is known about the relative importance of these processes during the spreading of toxic plants. Here, the species composition and phylogenetic structure of AM fungal communities colonizing the roots of a toxic plant, Ligularia virgaurea, and its neighborhood plants, were analyzed in patches with different individual densities of L. virgaurea (represents the spreading degree). Community compositions of AM fungi in both root systems were changed significantly by the L. virgaurea spreading, and also these communities fitted the neutral model very well. AM fungal communities in patches with absence and presence of L. virgaurea were phylogenetically random and clustered, respectively, suggesting that the principal ecological process determining AM fungal assemblage shifted from stochastic process to environmental filtering when this toxic plant was present. Our results indicate that deterministic and stochastic processes together determine the assemblage of AM fungi, but the dominant process would be changed by the spreading of toxic plants, and suggest that the spreading of toxic plants in alpine meadow ecosystems might be involving the mycorrhizal symbionts. PMID:24748393

  13. Relative Importance of Deterministic and Stochastic Processes in Driving Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Assemblage during the Spreading of a Toxic Plant

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Lin; Jiang, Shengjing; Zhang, Qi; Cheng, Gang; An, Lizhe; Du, Guozhen; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-01-01

    Both deterministic and stochastic processes are expected to drive the assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but little is known about the relative importance of these processes during the spreading of toxic plants. Here, the species composition and phylogenetic structure of AM fungal communities colonizing the roots of a toxic plant, Ligularia virgaurea, and its neighborhood plants, were analyzed in patches with different individual densities of L. virgaurea (represents the spreading degree). Community compositions of AM fungi in both root systems were changed significantly by the L. virgaurea spreading, and also these communities fitted the neutral model very well. AM fungal communities in patches with absence and presence of L. virgaurea were phylogenetically random and clustered, respectively, suggesting that the principal ecological process determining AM fungal assemblage shifted from stochastic process to environmental filtering when this toxic plant was present. Our results indicate that deterministic and stochastic processes together determine the assemblage of AM fungi, but the dominant process would be changed by the spreading of toxic plants, and suggest that the spreading of toxic plants in alpine meadow ecosystems might be involving the mycorrhizal symbionts. PMID:24748393

  14. Results from an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal,Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes near Geological NuclearWaste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q.-S; Oda, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhang, C.-Y.

    2007-10-23

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

  15. Precise determination of ?88Sr in rocks, minerals, and waters by double-spike TIMS: A powerful tool in the study of chemical, geologic, hydrologic and biologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Premo, Wayne R.; Mel'nikov, Nikolay N.; Emsbo, Poul

    2014-01-01

    We present strontium isotopic (88Sr/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr) results obtained by 87Sr–84Sr double spike thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (DS-TIMS) for several standards as well as natural water samples and mineral samples of abiogenic and biogenic origin. The detailed data reduction algorithm and a user-friendly Sr-specific stand-alone computer program used for the spike calibration and the data reduction are also presented. Accuracy and precision of our ?88Sr measurements, calculated as permil (‰) deviations from the NIST SRM-987 standard, were evaluated by analyzing the NASS-6 seawater standard, which yielded ?88Sr = 0.378 ± 0.009‰. The first DS-TIMS data for the NIST SRM-607 potassium feldspar standard and for several US Geological Survey carbonate, phosphate, and silicate standards (EN-1, MAPS-4, MAPS-5, G-3, BCR-2, and BHVO-2) are also reported. Data obtained during this work for Sr-bearing solids and natural waters show a range of ?88Sr values of about 2.4‰, the widest observed so far in terrestrial materials. This range is easily resolvable analytically because the demonstrated external error (±SD, standard deviation) for measured ?88Sr values is typically ?0.02‰. It is shown that the “true” 87Sr/86Sr value obtained by the DS-TIMS or any other external normalization method combines radiogenic and mass-dependent mass-fractionation effects, which cannot be separated. Therefore, the “true” 87Sr/86Sr and the ?87Sr parameter derived from it are not useful isotope tracers. Data presented in this paper for a wide range of naturally occurring sample types demonstrate the potential of the ?88Sr isotope tracer in combination with the traditional radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr tracer for studying a variety of biological, hydrological, and geological processes.

  16. Medical Geology in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Davies

    \\u000a A large body of evidence points to significant health effects resulting from our interactions with the physical environment\\u000a and we continue to recognise connections between geological materials and processes and human and animal disease. In Africa,\\u000a these relationships have been observed for many years, but only recently have any real attempts been made to formalise their\\u000a study. Africa is a

  17. The importance of ergonomics in the design conceptual process: Daciano da Costa - a case study on practicing and teaching.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper, which stems from a developing research project, aims to disseminate among the international scientific community the thought of Daciano da Costa (1930-2005) given the importance he conferred to Ergonomics, throughout his teaching career and his professional practice as a reference figure in the Design of the twentieth century in Portugal. We focus on the important role played by Ergonomics within the conceptual Design process, through the case study Daciano da Costa.What Daciano brought to the practice and teaching was a modernization of processes, a new perspective on the emerging themes of design, like ergonomics. Daciano believed that designing was providing a service. This task was understood as the building of a relationship with users. One of his distinguished features was the particular attention he paid to the unique aspects of the scale of proximity: the scale of the hand, of the immediate gesture, of the body. As a professor he insisted not so much on the end product, but rather on the recognition of the research process and how it was conducted. When designing, developing and supervising the exercises he set, ergonomic factors were one of his main concerns. PMID:22317615

  18. A Handbook for Geology Students Why study Geology?.............................................................................................3

    E-print Network

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    1 A Handbook for Geology Students #12;2 Contents Why study Geology ..................................................................................7 Why Appalachian Geology?................................................................................10 Geology Faculty and Staff

  19. Turning Geological Data into Reliable Mineral Resource Estimates1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Vann

    This paper deals with the building of geological interpretations from necessarily limited geological data and the use of such interpretations in the estimation of mineral resources. Since geological interpretations are a type of scientific model, the process of constructing such models in terms of the objectives and mechanics involved is briefly reviewed. Particular aspects of geological interpretations relevant to resource

  20. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    SciTech Connect

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  1. Spirit's Traverse to the Columbia Hills: Systematic Variations in Clast Morphometry and Texture of Pebble to Cobble Sized Clasts, With Implications for Geological Processes and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, F. D.; Farmer, J. D.; Team, M.

    2005-05-01

    During the course of Spirit's traverse from the Columbia Memorial Station to the Columbia Hills a systematic set of PanCam observations called the clast survey were taken to look for evidence of fluvial activity affecting the morphology of pebble to cobble sized material. These PanCam observations employed a single frame, blue filter shot at 4 bits/pixel looking just above the deck in front of the rover at an angle centering the frame at -72 degrees. These images were taken at 42 sites during the course of the traverse from the landing site to the base of the Columbia Hills. This traverse encountered approximately 6 different geological units that were inferred from orbital data including thermal inertia estimates from Odyssey's THEMIS instrument, as well as geomorphic features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbital Camera (MOC). Clast survey observations enabled quantification of changes in the size, roundness, sphericity, sorting, density (clasts/meter2), dispersion (nearest neighbor distances) and vesicularity of clasts over the course of Spirit's traverse across the plains to the base of the Columbia Hills. The overall goal was to look for trends in the above parameters that could allow an objective discrimination between basic erosional/depositional processes, including impact, fluvial, debris flow, glacial, and aeolian. To assist the interpretation of this data set, a variety of potential terrestrial analogs were investigated using the same clast survey parameters that were employed during Spirit's traverse. Each terrestrial analog was selected to represent an end member geologic process that could have shaped local clast distribution and morphology. These data sets were analyzed using SAS/STAT statistical software, employing Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensionality of the data set, focus attention on the relationships between independent variables, and to identify factors that, taken together, could provide an objective basis for discriminating between geological processes. During the course of the traverse, significant changes were observed in clast size when moving from the continuous ejecta blanket of Bonneville crater (high thermal inertia) onto the intercrater plains (low thermal inertia). However, this trend was not apparent when crossing the continuous ejecta of two smaller craters, Lahontan and Missoula. In fact, clast sizes for these two craters compared more closely to the smooth intercrater plains unit previously mapped from orbit. Over the traverse, significant variations were observed in the distribution of vesicular clasts and in clast density. Changes in vesicularity are interpreted as relfecting local changes in the distribution and impact excavation depths of buried lava flow surfaces. Observed trends in clast size correlated well with thermal inertia values, as estimated from orbital (THEMIS) data. Over the course of the traverse, clast roundness and sorting remained remarkably consistent, with mean estimates falling between sub-angular to subrounded, and poorly sorted. These observations do not support previous suggestions of water-based depositional systems (fluvial, debris flow, or glacial processes) at the Spirit landing site, based on orbital data. Instead, observed trends are consistent with a heavily cratered, wind modified ejecta surface, developed above a flow-dominated basaltic volcanic sequence.

  2. Illinois State Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) homepage provides information on geologic mapping, earthquakes, fossils, groundwater, wetlands, glacial geology, bedrock geology, and Lake Michigan geology. Educational materials include field trip guides, short publications on Illinois geology for students and teachers, online tours, single-page maps, and a geologic column. Other materials include databases and collections of GIS data, well records, drill cores, and mining information; a bibliography of Illinois geology; online maps and data; and information on water and land use, resource development, and geologic hazards.

  3. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I (also known as Kamehameha the Great) and is often associated with the founding of the Hawaiian Kingdom (Greene, 1993). The temple was constructed to incur the favor of the king's personal war god Kuka'ilimoku during the time that Kamehameha I waged several battles in an attempt to extend his control over all the Hawaiian Islands. The park is also the site of the older Mailekini Heiau, which was used by the ancestors of Kamehameha I, and an offshore, submerged temple, Hale O Kapuni Heiau, that was dedicated to the shark god. The park occupies the scenic Hill of the Whale overlooking Kawaihae Bay and Pelekane Beach. The seaward-sloping lands of PUHE lie at the convergence of lava flows formed by both Mauna Kea and Kohala Volcanoes. The park coastline is mostly rocky, with the exception of a small beach developed at the north boundary where an intermittent stream enters the sea. The park is bounded to the north by Kawaihae Harbor, to the south by Samuel M. Spencer Beach Park, and to the west by a broad submerged reef. The adjacent reef area is discussed in detail in the accompanying report by Cochran and others (2006). They mapped from the shoreline to depths of approximately 40 m, where the shelf drops off to a sand-covered bottom. PUHE park boundaries extend only to the mean high-tide line, however, landscape impacts created by development around the park are of concern to Park management.

  4. The Geologic History of the Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundquist, E. T.; Visser, K.

    2003-12-01

    Geologists, like other scientists, tend to view the global carbon cycle through the lens of their particular training and experience. The study of Earth's history requires a view both humbled by the knowledge of past global transformations and emboldened by the imagination of details not seen in the fragments of the rock record. In studying the past behavior of the carbon cycle, geologists are both amazed by unexpected discoveries and reassured by the extent to which "the present is the key to the past." Understanding the present-day carbon cycle has become a matter of societal urgency because of concerns about the effects of human activities on atmospheric chemistry and global climate. This public limelight has had far-reaching consequences for research on the geologic history of the carbon cycle as well as for studies of its present and future. The burgeoning new "interdiscipline" of biogeochemistry claims among its adherents many geologists as well as biologists, chemists, and other scientists. The pace of discovery demands that studies of the geologic history of the carbon cycle cannot be isolated from the context of present and future events.This chapter describes the behavior of the carbon cycle prior to human influence. It describes events and processes that extend back through geologic time and include the exchange of carbon between the Earth's surface and the long-term reservoirs in the lithosphere. Chapter 8.10 emphasizes carbon exchanges that are important over years to decades, with a focus on relatively recent human influences and prospects for change during the coming century. Chapter 4.03 presents an overview of the biogeochemistry of methane, again with emphasis on relatively recent events. In these chapters as well as in the present chapter, relationships between the carbon cycle and global climate are a central concern. Together, these chapters provide an overview of how our knowledge of the present-day carbon cycle can be applied both to contemporary issues and to the record of the past. Similarly, these chapters collectively reflect the collaborative efforts of biogeochemists to utilize information about past variations in the carbon cycle to understand both Earth's history and modern changes.This chapter begins with an overview of the carbon exchanges and processes that control the variations observed in the geologic record of the carbon cycle. Then examples of past carbon-cycle change are described, beginning with the most recent variations seen in cores drilled from glaciers and the sea floor, and concluding with the distant transformations inferred from the rock record of the Precambrian. Throughout this treatment, three themes are prominent. One is that different processes control carbon cycling over different timescales. A second theme is that relatively "abrupt" changes have played a central role in the evolution of the carbon cycle throughout Earth's history. The third theme is that the geologic cycling of carbon over all timescales passes through the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and "it is this common course that unites the entire carbon cycle and allows even its most remote constituents to influence our environment and biosphere" (Des Marais, 2001).The description of geologic events in this chapter includes examples from a broad span of the geologic record, but does not distribute attention in proportion to the distribution of geologic time in Earth's history. Readers will note, in particular, a disproportional emphasis on the Quaternary period, the most recent but briefest of geologic periods. The reason for this emphasis is twofold. First, the quality of the available Quaternary record of carbon-cycle change is far better than that available for earlier geologic periods. Second, the Quaternary record reveals a particularly illuminating array of details about interactions among the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the hydrosphere - the subset of the carbon cycle that must be understood in order to comprehend carbon cycling over nearly all times and t

  5. Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Meakin

    2010-03-01

    Although many geological processes take place on time scales that are very long compared with the human experience, essentially all geological processes, fast or slow, are far from equilibrium processes. Surprisingly often, geological processes lead to the formation of quite simple and distinctive patterns, which hint at an underlying simplicity in many complex geological systems.. The ability to predict the seasons was critically important to early human society, and Halley’s prediction of the return of the comet that bears his name is still considered to be a scientific milestone. Spatial patterns have also attracted attention because of their aesthetic appeal, which depends in subtle ways on a combination of regularity and irregularity. In recent decades, rapid growth in the capabilities of digital computers has facilitated the simulation of pattern formation processes, and computer simulations have become an important tool for evaluating theoretical concepts and for scientific discovery. Computer technology in combination with other technologies such as high resolution digital cameras, scanning microprobes (atomic force microscopy AFM), confocal microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), for example) has facilitated the quantitative characterization of patterns over a wide range of scales and has enabled rapid advances in our ability to understand the links between large scale pattern formation and microscopic processes. The ability to quantitatively characterize patterns is important because it enables a more rigorous comparison between the predictions of computer models and real world patterns and their formation.In some cases, the idea that patterns with a high degree of regularity have simple origins appears to be justified, but in other cases, such as the formation of almost perfectly circular stone rings due to freeze-thaw cycles simple patterns appear to be the consequence of quite complex processes. In other cases, it has been shown that very simple non-linear processes can lead to extremely complicated patterns, and that some apparently complex disordered systems can be described quantitatively in terms of simple fractal models.

  6. Geological Survey research, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    'Geological Survey Research 1975 ' is the 16th annual synopsis of the results of U.S. Geological Survey investigations. These studies are largely directed toward the development of knowledge that will assist the Nation to use and conserve the land and its physical resources wisely. They are wide ranging in scope and deal with almost every facet of solid-earth science and fact finding. Many of the studies are continuations of investigations that have been in progress for several years. But others reflect the increased attention being given to problems that have assumed greater importance in recent years--problems relating to mineral fuels and mineral resources, water quality, environmental impact of mineral resources, land-use analysis, earthquake hazards reduction, subsidence, and the applications of LANDSAT data, to cite a few examples. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Thermal Conduction - A Tool for Exploring Geological Processes on the Earth and Other Bodies in our Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Grosfils

    Thermal conduction is a fundamental physical process, one which controls many aspects of the volcanic and tectonic evolution of bodies within our solar system. Using transmission of thermal energy through the crust of the Earth as an initial, physically intuitive conceptual model, the module's background material will (a) help students deduce the thermal conduction equation-a second order differential which can be constructed from first principles, (b) evaluate volume-adjusted conduction incorporating internal heat generation and temperature change, and (c) explore special forms of the equation such as steady state conduction and thermal diffusion.

  8. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  9. Geological Time Scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.

  10. Magellan stereo images and Venusian geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Saunders, R. S.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Parker, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Areas of Venus imaged by Magellan radar with multiple viewing conditions provide unique data that will contribute to the solution of venusian geologic problems and provide a basis for quantitative comparison of venusian landforms with those on other planetary bodies. Three sets of images with different viewing conditions have been acquired: (1) left-looking with variable incidence angles (cycle 1 profile), (2) right-looking with nearly constant incidence angles (cycle 2 profile), and (3) left-looking with variable incidence angles that are almost always smaller than those in (1) (cycle 3 profiles). The unique data provided by paired images of the same scene with different incidence angles arises from image displacements caused by the relief of individual landforms at scales comparable to the ground-range and azimuth resolutions of the images. There are two aspects of the data: (1) Stereopsis achieved by simultaneous viewing of paired left-looking images of the same scene permits three-dimensional perception and interpretation of the morphologies of landforms at resolutions much finer than the altimetry footprints. (2) Measurements of differences of image displacements (parallax) on paired images with known imaging geometries provide quantitative estimates of the relief and shapes of landforms. The potential scientific contributions of the data can be grouped into two interrelated classes: (A) geologic mapping, analysis, and interpretation and (B) topical studies that involve topographic measurements. Stereopsis, without quantitative measurements, enhances geologic mapping, analysis, and interpretation of the rock units of Venus to a degree that cannot be overestimated. In geologic mapping, assemblages of landforms, assessments of backscatter and variations in backscatter, and fine-scale topography are used to define and characterize geologic map units that represent laterally continuous deposits or rock units. Stereopsis adds the important dimension of local relief for characterization of geologic units at a scale that is not possible with Magellan altimetry or products derived from the altimetry. Relative ages of the geologic units are determined using the well-known principles of superposition and intersection. Here, the perception of relief is invaluable because superposition relations among the geological units are more readily and clearly established. The recognition of folds, faults, and fault systems, regardless of their orientations, is facilitated with stereopsis so that sequences of deformation of the geologic units can be determined and structural analyses vastly improved. Shapes of landforms are readily perceived so that they can be properly interpreted. The end result of the mapping, analyses, and interpretations is a geologic history of Venus that includes the sequences of formation and deformation of various geologic units. Measurements of relief at the finest scale possible are necessary for numerous topical studies. Standard altimetry will provide the necessary information on the relief of most large landforms, but it tends to underestimate the relief of small landforms and distorts their shapes. Although special processing of the altimeter echoes improves the estimates of the relief and shapes of some landforms, there are uncertainties in the interpretations of the echoes. Examples of topical studies requiring measurements of relief are given.

  11. Geodiversity: Exploration of 3D geological model space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.

    2013-05-01

    The process of building a 3D model necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional models. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during model construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the modelling process. Uncertainties are introduced into the 3D model during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single model. Practices such as these are likely to result in a model that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a 3D model of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological 3D models that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between models in order to understand the effect uncertainty has models geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the model suite. End-member models geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the model suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine important geometrical characteristics. The configuration of the model space is determined through identifying ‘outlier’ model examples, which potentially represent undiscovered model ‘species’.

  12. West's Geology Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ian West

    This is one of the world's largest geological web sites, with more than 200 web pages comprised of geological field guides, with hundreds of full screen color photographs of varied geological features, and with associated bibliographies. All of the field guides are for geologic locations in England. Also included is a large directory of internet sites sorted by topic. Topics range from mineral and rock types, to geologic time periods, fossils, plate tectonics, geochronology, mapping, and geologic surveys.

  13. Mass Wasting and Ground Collapse in Terrains of Volatile-Rich Deposits as a Solar System-Wide Geological Process: The Pre-Galileo View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Zent, Aaron P.

    1996-01-01

    The polar terrains of Mars are covered in many places with irregular pits and retreating scarps, as are some of the surfaces of the outer-planet satellites. These features are interpreted by us as diagnostic of exogenic degradation due to the loss of a volatile rock-forming matrix or cement. In this study we propose that sublimation degradation is a plausible Solar Systemwide geological process. Candidate examples have been identified on Mars, Io, and Triton, and possibly Europa and Ganymede. We envision this process as having two end-member expressions (pits and scarps), for which we hypothesize two end-member mechanisms (massive localized lenses and areally extensive basal layers). In this study we focus on the role this process may play on the surfaces of the galilean satellites. Our principle modeling results are that for these satellites, H2S, CO2, and NH3 are the only viable candidate volatiles for sublimation degradation of landforms, in light of galilean satellite cosmochemistry. For Io's polar regions only H2S, and then only from slopes that face the Sun and have thin lags, is volatile enough to cause the observed sublimation-induced erosion at those latitudes. SO2 is not a viable candidate as an agent of erosion, especially for these polar landforms. In the case of Europa, only CO2 and H2S are viable candidates (given surface age constraints). Both species could be efficient eroders in nonpolar regions. H2S could generate erosion within the polar regions if the deposition and erosion conditions were essentially identical as those we invoked for Io's polar regions. For Ganymede (and Callisto) NH3 might be an agent of erosion in equatorial terrains of great age. The sublimation of CO2 and H2S is much more robust than NH3. The much slower rate of sublimation degradation from NH3 might be detectable by Galileo and used as a compositional indicator.

  14. Geological structure, recharge processes and underground drainage of a glacierised karst aquifer system, Tsanfleuron-Sanetsch, Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gremaud, Vivian; Goldscheider, Nico; Savoy, Ludovic; Favre, Gérald; Masson, Henri

    2009-12-01

    The relationships between stratigraphic and tectonic setting, recharge processes and underground drainage of the glacierised karst aquifer system ‘Tsanfleuron-Sanetsch’ in the Swiss Alps have been studied by means of various methods, particularly tracer tests (19 injections). The area belongs to the Helvetic nappes and consists of Jurassic to Palaeogene sedimentary rocks. Strata are folded and form a regional anticlinorium. Cretaceous Urgonian limestone constitutes the main karst aquifer, overlain by a retreating glacier in its upper part. Polished limestone surfaces are exposed between the glacier front and the end moraine of 1855/1860 (Little Ice Age); typical alpine karrenfields can be observed further below. Results show that (1) large parts of the area are drained by the Glarey spring, which is used as a drinking water source, while marginal parts belong to the catchments of other springs; (2) groundwater flow towards the Glarey spring occurs in the main aquifer, parallel to stratification, while flow towards another spring crosses the entire stratigraphic sequence, consisting of about 800 m of marl and limestone, along deep faults that were probably enlarged by mass movements; (3) the variability of glacial meltwater production influences the shape of the tracer breakthrough curves and, consequently, flow and transport in the aquifer.

  15. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. GeoTemp™ 1.0: A MATLAB-based program for the processing, interpretation and modelling of geological formation temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, Ludovic P.; Chanu, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-08-01

    The evaluation of potential and resources during geothermal exploration requires accurate and consistent temperature characterization and modelling of the sub-surface. Existing interpretation and modelling approaches of 1D temperature measurements are mainly focusing on vertical heat conduction with only few approaches that deals with advective heat transport. Thermal regimes are strongly correlated to rock and fluid properties. Currently, no consensus exists for the identification of the thermal regime and the analysis of such dataset. We developed a new framework allowing the identification of thermal regimes by rock formations, the analysis and modelling of wireline logging and discrete temperature measurements by taking into account the geological, geophysical and petrophysics data. This framework has been implemented in the GeoTemp software package that allows the complete thermal characterization and modelling at the formation scale and that provides a set of standard tools for the processing wireline and discrete temperature data. GeoTempTM operates via a user friendly graphical interface written in Matlab that allows semi-automatic calculation, display and export of the results. Output results can be exported as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets or vector graphics of publication quality. GeoTemp™ is illustrated here with an example geothermal application from Western Australia and can be used for academic, teaching and professional purposes.

  17. Geologic exploration of solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wood

    1987-01-01

    The processes that must have operated on the early Earth have been deduced from evidence from ancient surfaces of the Moon and planets. In particular, such comparative studies have demonstrated that only two geologic processes have been widespread throughout the history of the solar system: impact cratering and volcanism. Impact craters have formed throughout solar system history, indeed the planets

  18. The importance of involving high-school chemistry teachers in the process of defining the operational meaning of 'chemical literacy'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwartz, Yael; Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Hofstein, Avi

    2005-03-01

    The ongoing reform in science education in many countries, including Israel, has attainment of scientific literacy for all as one of its main goals. In this context, it is important to provide teachers with the opportunity to construct meaning for the term science literacy and by doing so to obtain a clear understanding of the new teaching goals. Here we report on a study in which teachers, as part of their professional development, were involved in defining the term 'chemical literacy'; they discussed the need for it, and suggested educational experiences that are necessary in order to attain it. The programme was conducted as part of a reform in the content, as well as in the pedagogy, of chemistry education in Israel. The collected data provide some insights regarding the process by which the teachers' perception of 'chemical literacy' developed and the way actual school practice influences teachers' perception of 'chemical literacy'.

  19. Objective Subsurface Geological Modeling using Geological Columns - A case study for the Kisarazu Distinct, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geological models of subsurface structure play an important role in disaster assessment, environmental preservation, and underground utilization. These models are often constructed subjectively based on geological data obtained from field survey. However, reliability of subjective model depends on modeler's knowledge and experience as well as on quality of basic data. In order to ensure a more stable reliability of the model, objective approach is necessary. The purpose of this study is to establish an objective geological modeling method. For the purpose of this study, we constructed a subsurface geological model focusing on mathematical treatment of stratigraphy. Study area is the Kisarazu distinct, in the middle part of Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Basic data for modeling are 44 geological columns. In the modeling, firstly, we constructed a Logical Model of Geological Structure (LMGS) that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The LMGS is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. Secondly, we generated Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of geological boundary surfaces using geological columns. Thirdly, we constructed an objective geological model using the LMGS and the DEMs. Finally, we visualized the model in 2D and 3D using GRASS GIS. As a result, in the areas with high number of geological columns, geological map and geological cross-sections derived from objective model were in good agreement with the ones derived from subjective model reported in other studies. In the areas with low number of geological columns, the objective map and cross-sections were somewhat different from subjective ones. In conclusion, the results indicate that objective model may give new findings about subsurface structure. In addition, the objective model gives a more stable reliability than the subjective model because the former ensures traceability of modeling procedures. The LMGS is unfit for complicated geological structures like lens. For the solution of this problem, we need to improve theoretical base of the LMGS.

  20. Colorado Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) is an agency of state government within the Department of Natural Resources whose mission is to help reduce the impact of geologic hazards on the citizens of Colorado, to promote the responsible economic development of mineral and mineral fuel resources, to provide geologic insight into water resources, and to provide geologic advice and information to a variety of constituencies. This site contains extensive information about Colorado geology such as maps, a geologic time scale for the state, program information, and state field trip information. This site hosts the Avalanche Information Center which contains avalanche forecasting and education center details. Publications report on geologic hazards, land use, environmental geology, mineral resources, oil, gas, coal, geologic mapping and earthquake information for the state. There are online editions of RockTalk, which is a quarterly newsletter published by the Colorado Geological Survey dealing with all aspects of geology throughout the state of Colorado. Links are provided for more resources.

  1. GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    E-print Network

    G. A. Gross; C. F. Gower; D. V. Lefebure; Commodities (byproducts) Ti

    CAPSULE DESCRIPTION: Ilmenite, hemo-ilmenite or titaniferous magnetite accumulations as cross-cutting lenses or dike-like bodies, Ia> ers or disseminations within anorthositiclgabbroicinoritic rocks. These deposits can be subdivided into an ilmenite subtype (anorthosite-hosted titanium-iron) and a titaniferous magnetite subtype (gabbro-anorthosite-hosted iron-titanium). TECTONIC SETTING: Commonly associated with anorthosite-gabbro-norite-monzonite (mangerite)charnockite granite (AMCG) suites that are conventionally interpreted to be anorogenic and/or extensional. Some of the iron-titanium deposits occur at continental margins related to island arc magmatism followed by an episode of erogenic compression. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT i GEOLOGICAL SETTING: Deposits occur in intrusive complexes which typically are emplaced at deeper levels in the crust. Progressive differentiation of liquids residual from anorthosite-norite magmas leads to late stage intrusions enriched in Fe and Ti oxides and apatite. AGE OF MINERALIZATION: Mainly Mesoproterozoic (1.65 to 0.90 Ga) for the ihnenite deposits, but this may be a consequence of a particular combination of tectonic circumstances, rather than any a priori temporal control. The Fe-Ti deposits with titaniferous magnetite do not appear to be restricted in time. HOST/ASSOCIATED ROCKS: Hosted by massive, layered or zoned intrusive complexes- anorthosite, norite,

  2. Arsenic in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams, sediments, and shallow groundwater: effects from different geologic sources and anthropogenic inputs on biogeochemical and physical mobilization processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Mumford, Adam C.; Benzel, William M.; Szabo, Zoltan; Shourds, Jennifer L.; Young, Lily Y.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams generally exceed the State Surface Water Quality Standard (0.017 micrograms per liter (µg/L)), but concentrations seldom exceed 1 µg/L in filtered stream-water samples, regardless of geologic contributions or anthropogenic inputs. Nevertheless, As concentrations in unfiltered stream water indicate substantial variation because of particle inputs from soils and sediments with differing As contents, and because of discharges from groundwater of widely varying chemistry. In the Inner Coastal Plain, streams draining to lower reaches of the Delaware River traverse As-rich glauconitic sediments of marine origin in which As contents typically are about 20 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) or greater. In some of these sedimentary units, As concentrations exceed the New Jersey drinking-water maximum contaminant level (5 µg/L) in shallow groundwater that discharges to streams. Microbes, fueled by organic carbon beneath the streambed, reduce iron (Fe) and As, releasing As and Fe into solution in the shallow groundwater from geologic materials that likely include (in addition to glauconite) other phyllosilicates, apatite, and siderite. When the groundwater discharges to the stream, the dissolved Fe and As are oxidized, the Fe precipitates as a hydroxide, and the As sorbs or co-precipitates with the Fe. Because of the oxidation/precipitation process, dissolved As concentrations measured in filtered stream waters of the Inner Coastal Plain are about 1 µg/L, but the total As concentrations (and loads) are greater, substantially amplified by As-bearing suspended sediment in stormflows. In the Outer Coastal Plain, streams draining to the Atlantic Ocean traverse quartz-rich sediments of mainly deltaic origin where the As content generally is low ( With a history of agriculture in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, anthropogenic inputs of As, such as residues from former pesticide applications in soils, can amplify any geogenic As in runoff. Such inputs contribute to an increased total As load to a stream at high stages of flow. As a result of yet another anthropogenic influence, microbes that reduce and mobilize As beneath the streambeds are stimulated by inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although DOC is naturally occurring, anthropogenic contributions from wastewater inputs may deliver increased levels of DOC to subsurface soils and ultimately groundwater. Arsenic concentrations may increase with the increases in pH of groundwater and stream water in developed areas receiving wastewater inputs, as As mobilization caused by pH-controlled sorption and desorption reactions are likely to occur in waters of neutral or alkaline pH (for example, Nimick and others, 1998; Barringer and others, 2007b). Because of the difference in As content of the geologic materials in the two sub-provinces of the Coastal Plain, the amount of As that is mobile in groundwater and stream water is, potentially, substantially greater in the Inner Coastal Plain than in the Outer Coastal Plain. In turn, streams within the Inner and Outer Coastal Plain can receive substantially more As in groundwater discharge from developed areas than from environments where DOC appears to be of natural origin.

  3. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory: Processing, taxonomy, and quality control of benthic macroinvertebrate samples

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This US Geological Survey Open-File Report (00-212) describes analytical techniques for benthic macroinvertebrates. Available in .pdf format, the 49-page report includes information on such analytical techniques as chemical equipment supplies, taxonomic identification, and more.

  4. REMOTE SENSING GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    E-print Network

    REMOTE SENSING IN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF BRAZIL August/2010 Mônica Mazzini Perrotta Remote Sensing Division Head #12;SUMMARY The Geological Survey of Brazil mission The Remote Sensing Division Main remote sensing data used in CPRM geologic projects Future perspective: the Spectral Library of Geological Survey

  5. Maryland Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) homepage contains information from MGS programs on hydrogeology, hydrology, coastal and estuarine geology, environmental geology and mineral resources; an online guide to Maryland geology; and information on oyster habitat restoration projects. There are also maps, data, information on MGS publications, MGS news, and online educational resources.

  6. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  7. GEOLOGY (GEOL) Robinson Foundation

    E-print Network

    Dresden, Gregory

    177Geology GEOLOGY (GEOL) Robinson Foundation PROFESSOR HARBOR ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS KNAPP, CONNORS ASSISTANT PROFESSORS GREER, RAHL MAJORS BACHELOR OF SCIENCE A major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Science degree consists of 50 credits as follows: 1. Geology 160, 185, 211, 311, 330, 350

  8. Geologic investigations of the WIPP Site: overview and issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned for the disposal of defense waste in bedded salt of southeastern New Mexico. Since 1975, the geologic investigations have progressed through preliminary site selection and geologic characterization phases and are now primarily concerned with the long-term geological processes that may affect the site. These processes are grouped by hydrology, dissolution, geochemical, tectonic,

  9. Geologic Maps and Mapping

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides access to resources on geologic mapping, and to sources of geologic maps. There is an introduction to geologic mapping, which summarizes its principles and practices, and a history of United States Geological Survey (USGS) mapping activities from 1879 to the present, as well as links to papers on the values and hazards associated with geologic maps and mapping. Online sources of maps include the USGS Geologic Map Database, other federal map products (FEDMAP), state geological survey products (STATEMAP), and university map products (EDMAP).

  10. Tennessee Division of Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the Geology Division of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. It provides information on the division's programs, including geologic hazards research, public service, education programs, basic and applied research on geology and mineral resources, publication of geologic information, permitting of oil and gas wells, and regulation of Tennessee's oil and gas industry. Materials include a catalog of publications, maps, geologic bulletins, and the Public Information series of pamphlets; the Geology Division Newsletter; and information on the state's mineral industry. There is also a section on the Gray Fossil Site, an unusual assemblage of fossils and sedimentary geology encountered during road construction near the town of Gray, Tenessee.

  11. Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is harmonised and stored it in a database. The analysis of the database allows to compile and print the 1:5000 scale urban geological map according to the 1:5000 topographic grid of Catalonia. The map is composed by a principal map, geologic cross sections and several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also includes the main artificial deposits (such as infilled river valleys and road embankments), very recent or current superficial deposits, contours of outcropping areas, structural data and other relevant information gathered in stations, sampling points, boreholes indicating the thickness of artificial deposits and the depth of the pre-quaternary basement, contour lines of the top of the pre-quaternary basement surface and, water level data. The complementary maps and charts may change depending on the gathered data, the geological features of the area and the urban typology. However, the most representative complementary maps that includes the printed urban map are the quaternary subsurface bedrock map and the isopach map of thickness of quaternary and anthropogenic deposits. The map also includes charts and tables of relevant physical and chemical parameters of the geological materials, harmonised downhole lithological columns from selected boreholes, and, photographs and figures illustrating the geology of the mapped area and how urbanisation has changed the natural environment. The object of this systematic urban mapping survey is to provide a robust database to be used in targeted studies related to urban planning, geoengineering works, soil pollution and other important environmental issues that society should deal in the future.

  12. GWM-a ground-water management process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Mulligan, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    GWM is a Ground?Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three?dimensional ground?water model, MODFLOW?2000. GWM uses a response?matrix approach to solve several types of linear, nonlinear, and mixed?binary linear ground?water management formulations. Each management formulation consists of a set of decision variables, an objective function, and a set of constraints. Three types of decision variables are supported by GWM: flow?rate decision variables, which are withdrawal or injection rates at well sites; external decision variables, which are sources or sinks of water that are external to the flow model and do not directly affect the state variables of the simulated ground?water system (heads, streamflows, and so forth); and binary variables, which have values of 0 or 1 and are used to define the status of flow?rate or external decision variables. Flow?rate decision variables can represent wells that extend over one or more model cells and be active during one or more model stress periods; external variables also can be active during one or more stress periods. A single objective function is supported by GWM, which can be specified to either minimize or maximize the weighted sum of the three types of decision variables. Four types of constraints can be specified in a GWM formulation: upper and lower bounds on the flow?rate and external decision variables; linear summations of the three types of decision variables; hydraulic?head based constraints, including drawdowns, head differences, and head gradients; and streamflow and streamflow?depletion constraints. The Response Matrix Solution (RMS) Package of GWM uses the Ground?Water Flow Process of MODFLOW to calculate the change in head at each constraint location that results from a perturbation of a flow?rate variable; these changes are used to calculate the response coefficients. For linear management formulations, the resulting matrix of response coefficients is then combined with other components of the linear management formulation to form a complete linear formulation; the formulation is then solved by use of the simplex algorithm, which is incorporated into the RMS Package. Nonlinear formulations arise for simulated conditions that include water?table (unconfined) aquifers or head?dependent boundary conditions (such as streams, drains, or evapotranspiration from the water table). Nonlinear formulations are solved by sequential linear programming; that is, repeated linearization of the nonlinear features of the management problem. In this approach, response coefficients are recalculated for each iteration of the solution process. Mixed?binary linear (or mildly nonlinear) formulations are solved by use of the branch and bound algorithm, which is also incorporated into the RMS Package. Three sample problems are provided to demonstrate the use of GWM for typical ground?water flow management problems. These sample problems provide examples of how GWM input files are constructed to specify the decision variables, objective function, constraints, and solution process for a GWM run. The GWM Process runs with the MODFLOW?2000 Global and Ground?Water Flow Processes, but in its current form GWM cannot be used with the Observation, Sensitivity, Parameter?Estimation, or Ground?Water Transport Processes. The GWM Process is written with a modular structure so that new objective functions, constraint types, and solution algorithms can be added.

  13. Altered zinc transport disrupts mitochondrial protein processing/import in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Eleonora; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Wong, Sarah; Omanska-Klusek, Alicja; Barrow, Cedrick; Iwahashi, Christine; Garcia-Arocena, Dolores; Sakaguchi, Danielle; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Hagerman, Randi; Hagerman, Paul J.; Giulivi, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that affects individuals who are carriers of small CGG premutation expansions in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Mitochondrial dysfunction was observed as an incipient pathological process occurring in individuals who do not display overt features of FXTAS ( 1). Fibroblasts from premutation carriers had lower oxidative phosphorylation capacity (35% of controls) and Complex IV activity (45%), and higher precursor-to-mature ratios (P:M) of nDNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins (3.1-fold). However, fibroblasts from carriers with FXTAS symptoms presented higher FMR1 mRNA expression (3-fold) and lower Complex V (38%) and aconitase activities (43%). Higher P:M of ATPase ?-subunit (ATPB) and frataxin were also observed in cortex from patients that died with FXTAS symptoms. Biochemical findings observed in FXTAS cells (lower mature frataxin, lower Complex IV and aconitase activities) along with common phenotypic traits shared by Friedreich's ataxia and FXTAS carriers (e.g. gait ataxia, loss of coordination) are consistent with a defective iron homeostasis in both diseases. Higher P:M, and lower ZnT6 and mature frataxin protein expression suggested defective zinc and iron metabolism arising from altered ZnT protein expression, which in turn impairs the activity of mitochondrial Zn-dependent proteases, critical for the import and processing of cytosolic precursors, such as frataxin. In support of this hypothesis, Zn-treated fibroblasts showed a significant recovery of ATPB P:M, ATPase activity and doubling time, whereas Zn and desferrioxamine extended these recoveries and rescued Complex IV activity. PMID:21558427

  14. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; processing, taxonomy, and quality control of benthic macroinvertebrate samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, Stephen R., II; Carter, James L.; Grotheer, Scott A.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Short, Terry M.

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative methods to process benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) samples have been developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Quality Laboratory Biological Group. The qualitative processing method is based on visually sorting a sample for up to 2 hours. Sorting focuses on attaining organisms that are likely to result in taxonomic identifications to lower taxonomic levels (for example, Genus or Species). Immature and damaged organisms are also sorted when they are likely to result in unique determinations. The sorted sample remnant is scanned briefly by a second person to determine if obvious taxa were missed. The quantitative processing method is based on a fixed-count approach that targets some minimum count, such as 100 or 300 organisms. Organisms are sorted from randomly selected 5.1- by 5.1-centimeter parts of a gridded subsampling frame. The sorted remnant from each sample is resorted by a second individual for at least 10 percent of the original sort time. A large-rare organism search is performed on the unsorted remnant to sort BMI taxa that were not likely represented in the sorted grids. After either qualitatively or quantitatively sorting the sample, BMIs are identified by using one of three different types of taxonomic assessment. The Standard Taxonomic Assessment is comparable to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocol III and typically provides Genus- or Species-level taxonomic resolution. The Rapid Taxonomic Assessment is comparable to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocol II and provides Familylevel and higher taxonomic resolution. The Custom Taxonomic Assessment provides Species-level resolution whenever possible for groups identified to higher taxonomic levels by using the Standard Taxonomic Assessment. The consistent use of standardized designations and notes facilitates the interpretation of BMI data within and among water-quality studies. Taxonomic identifications are quality assured by verifying all referenced taxa and randomly reviewing 10 percent of the taxonomic identifications performed weekly by Biological Group taxonomists. Taxonomic errors discovered during this review are corrected. BMI data are reviewed for accuracy and completeness prior to release. BMI data are released phylogenetically in spreadsheet format and unprocessed abundances are corrected for laboratory and field subsampling when necessary.

  15. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing inadvertently...MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS General Records...manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing...

  16. Mathematical Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Daniel F.

    1978-01-01

    Geomathematics is a developing field that is being used in practical applications. Classification is an important element and the dynamic-cluster method (DCM), a nonhierarchial procedure, was introduced this past year. A method for testing the degree of cluster distinctness was developed also. (MA)

  17. (abstract) Topographic Signatures in Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Evans, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Topographic information is required for many Earth Science investigations. For example, topography is an important element in regional and global geomorphic studies because it reflects the interplay between the climate-driven processes of erosion and the tectonic processes of uplift. A number of techniques have been developed to analyze digital topographic data, including Fourier texture analysis. A Fourier transform of the topography of an area allows the spatial frequency content of the topography to be analyzed. Band-pass filtering of the transform produces images representing the amplitude of different spatial wavelengths. These are then used in a multi-band classification to map units based on their spatial frequency content. The results using a radar image instead of digital topography showed good correspondence to a geologic map, however brightness variations in the image unrelated to topography caused errors. An additional benefit to the use of Fourier band-pass images for the classification is that the textural signatures of the units are quantative measures of the spatial characteristics of the units that may be used to map similar units in similar environments.

  18. Differentiating the relative importance of land cover change and geomorphic processes on fine sediment sequestration in a logged watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprak, Alan; Magilligan, Francis J.; Nislow, Keith H.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Snyder, Noah P.; Dade, W. Brian

    2013-03-01

    Timber harvest often results in accelerated soil erosion and subsequent elevated fine (< 2 mm) sediment delivery to channels causing deleterious effects to numerous aquatic species, particularly salmonid fishes. Here we determine, through sediment physical analyses (pebble counts, embeddedness surveys, and interstitial shelter space counts) and geochemical analyses (7Be and 210Pbex activities), the amount and timing of delivery of fine sediment currently found on streambeds of the Narraguagus River watershed in coastal Maine. The role of recent timber harvest, documented via aerial photo spatial analysis, on fine sediment delivery is contrasted with the ability of the glacially influenced topography and surficial geology to deliver fine sediment to streams and to influence channel substrate. Results show that of the land use and geomorphic variables examined, only 210Pbex activities were significantly correlated with the amount of upstream harvest (r2 = 0.49). Concurrently, we find that unit stream power (particularly the slope component) explains much of the variability in channel substrate and that slope and stream power are largely influenced by the legacy of Pleistocene glaciation on channel form. Results suggest a conceptual model whereby fine sediment delivery as a result of late twentieth century timber harvest is likely dampened because of the low gradient landscape of coastal Maine. While geochemical tracers indicate recent fine sediment delivery in harvested areas, channels are likely capable of quickly winnowing these fines from the channel bed. These results further suggest that under contemporary land use conditions, the geomorphic and geologic setting represents a first-order control on channel substrate and habitat suitability for salmonid fishes, including federally endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), in coastal drainages of northeastern Maine.

  19. Geology for a changing world 2010-2020-Implementing the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gundersen, Linda C.S.; Belnap, Jayne; Goldhaber, Martin; Goldstein, Arthur; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Jones, John W.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Thompson, Robert S.; Back, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a science strategy for the geologic activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the years 2010-2020. It presents six goals with accompanying strategic actions and products that implement the science directions of USGS Circular 1309, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017.' These six goals focus on providing the geologic underpinning needed to wisely use our natural resources, understand and mitigate hazards and environmental change, and understand the relationship between humans and the environment. The goals emphasize the critical role of the USGS in providing long-term research, monitoring, and assessments for the Nation and the world. Further, they describe measures that must be undertaken to ensure geologic expertise and knowledge for the future. The natural science issues facing today's world are complex and cut across many scientific disciplines. The Earth is a system in which atmosphere, oceans, land, and life are all connected. Rocks and soils contain the answers to important questions about the origin of energy and mineral resources, the evolution of life, climate change, natural hazards, ecosystem structures and functions, and the movements of nutrients and toxicants. The science of geology has the power to help us understand the processes that link the physical and biological world so that we can model and forecast changes in the system. Ensuring the success of this strategy will require integration of geological knowledge with the other natural sciences and extensive collaboration across USGS science centers and with partners in Federal, State, and local agencies, academia, industry, nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, the American public. The first four goals of this report describe the scientific issues facing society in the next 10 years and the actions and products needed to respond to these issues. The final two goals focus on the expertise and infrastructure needed to ensure the long-term sustainability of the geological sciences in the USGS. The ultimate goal of USGS science and of the strategy laid out in this document is to contribute to the development of a sustainable society that operates in harmony with the Earth systems that society depends upon. As we begin the second decade of the 21st century, our Nation faces growing challenges in resource availability, climate and environmental change, and natural hazards. Meeting these challenges will require strong collaboration across the natural and social sciences and extensive partnerships with both the public and private sectors. The six goals described in this document represent a mix of scientific focus areas and operational necessities that together provide a comprehensive roadmap for USGS geologic science to effectively contribute to the USGS mission, providing science for a changing world.

  20. National Park Service: Tour of Park Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The tour of Park geologic resources includes pages specific to individual National Parks, Monuments, Recreation Areas, Preserves, Seacoasts, Reserves, and Recreation Areas. These pages are indexed by park name, state, or by one of the following topics: basin and range, caves, Colorado Plateau, fossils, glaciers, hot springs, human use, mountain building, oldest rocks, plate tectonics, river systems, sand dunes, shoreline geology, or volcanoes. Organization of each of the pages typically follows a NPS template with categories for park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia, and "teacher features" (educational resources and links for teaching geology with National Park examples.) Common subjects that are addressed at various park sites include: minerals, rocks, fossils, cave and karst systems, coastlines, glaciers, volcanoes, faults, landforms, landslides, structures, fluvial systems, sediments, soils, stratigraphic relations, processes that form or act on geologic features and their chemical compositions, and the history of the planet and its life forms.

  1. Marine Geology: Research Beneath the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) details the history of marine geology. The scope of this field, tools and equipment used, and methods of study are covered. The report also discusses resource potential of the marine environment, plate tectonics, the effects of marine processes, and new frontiers intended to expand our understanding of the oceans.

  2. Geologic Measurements using Rover Images: Lessons from Pathfinder with Application to Mars 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.

    1999-01-01

    The Pathfinder Sojourner rover successfully acquired images that provided important and exciting information on the geology of Mars. This included the documentation of rock textures, barchan dunes, soil crusts, wind tails, and ventifacts. It is expected that the Marie Curie rover cameras will also successfully return important information on landing site geology. Critical to a proper analysis of these images will be a rigorous determination of rover location and orientation. Here, the methods that were used to compute rover position for Sojourner image analysis are reviewed. Based on this experience, specific recommendations are made that should improve this process on the '01 mission.

  3. Glossary of Geologic Terms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page from Iowa State University presents a general glossary of geologic terms. The site would be a good reference for geology coursework. This glossary of geologic terms is based on the glossary in Earth: An Introduction to Geologic Change, by S. Judson and S.M. Richardson (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1995). Where possible, definitions conform generally, and in some cases specifically, to definitions given in Robert L Bates and Julia A Jackson (editors), Glossary of Geology, 3rd ed., American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia, 1987.

  4. Successful Drug Development Despite Adverse Preclinical Findings Part 1: Processes to Address Issues and Most Important Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Prentice, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected adverse preclinical findings (APFs) are not infrequently encountered during drug development. Such APFs can be functional disturbances such as QT prolongation, morphological toxicity or carcinogenicity. The latter is of particular concern in conjunction with equivocal genotoxicity results. The toxicologic pathologist plays an important role in recognizing these effects, in helping to characterize them, to evaluate their risk for man, and in proposing measures to mitigate the risk particularly in early clinical trials. A careful scientific evaluation is crucial while termination of the development of a potentially useful drug must be avoided. This first part of the review discusses processes to address unexpected APFs and provides an overview over typical APFs in particular classes of drugs. If the mode of action (MoA) by which a drug candidate produces an APF is known, this supports evaluation of its relevance for humans. Tailor-made mechanistic studies, when needed, must be planned carefully to test one or several hypotheses regarding the potential MoA and to provide further data for risk evaluation. Safety considerations are based on exposure at no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) of the most sensitive and relevant animal species and guide dose escalation in clinical trials. The availability of early markers of toxicity for monitoring of humans adds further safety to clinical studies. Risk evaluation is concluded by a weight of evidence analysis (WoE) with an array of parameters including drug use, medical need and alternatives on the market. In the second part of this review relevant examples of APFs will be discussed in more detail. PMID:22272031

  5. Weird Geology: The Devil's Tower

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee Krystek

    This page features a brief introduction to the several theories about the geological processes that formed Devil's Tower, which rises 1,267 feet above the nearby Belle Fourche River and is still considered a sacred place by some Native American Tribes. Information on climbing the tower as well as images and a cross section are provided.

  6. Relative Geologic Time and the Geologic Time Scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bret Bennington

    Students are given a short introduction to fossils, strata, Steno's law of superposition, and the development of the geologic time scale from initial description of systems, through the realization that fossils could be used to correlate between systems, to the assembly of the modern geologic time scale. Then, each student in the course is given a sheet of paper with a simple stratigraphic column and associated fossils representing a geologic system on one side and a short description of the location and history of discovery of the system on the other. On a large wall, students then assemble four geologic columns from their systems representing mainland Europe, Great Britain, the Eastern U.S. and the Western U.S. using the fossils illustrated on their sheets to correlate systems. The instructor guides this process by placing the first system on the wall and by providing some narration as the columns take shape. Europe and Great Britain are assembled first, one sheet at a time, providing when completed the framework of the modern geologic time scale. Once this is up on the wall, the remaining students can assemble the other two columns in minutes using fossils to correlate between American and European systems. A temporal gap in the Grand Canyon sequence provides an opportunity to discuss the incompleteness of the rock record in any one place and a system composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks with no fossils is used to point out the difference between radiometric (absolute) and biostratigraphic (relative) dating.

  7. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, A.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C.; Choate, J.; Salathé, E. P.; Stöckle, C. O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-01

    Regional climate change impact (CCI) studies have widely involved downscaling and bias correcting (BC) global climate model (GCM)-projected climate for driving land surface models. However, BC may cause uncertainties in projecting hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to future climate due to the impaired spatiotemporal covariance of climate variables and a breakdown of physical conservation principles. Here we quantify the impact of BC on simulated climate-driven changes in water variables (evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, snow water equivalent (SWE), and water demand for irrigation), crop yield, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region. We also quantify the impacts on net primary production (NPP) over a small watershed in the region (HJ-Andrews). Simulation results from the coupled ECHAM5-MPI-OM model with A1B emission scenario were first dynamically downscaled to 12 km resolution with the WRF model. Then a quantile-mapping-based statistical downscaling model was used to downscale them into 1/16° resolution daily climate data over historical and future periods. Two climate data series were generated, with bias correction (BC) and without bias correction (NBC). Impact models were then applied to estimate hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to both BC and NBC meteorological data sets. These impact models include a macroscale hydrologic model (VIC), a coupled cropping system model (VIC-CropSyst), an ecohydrological model (RHESSys), a biogenic emissions model (MEGAN), and a nutrient export model (Global-NEWS). Results demonstrate that the BC and NBC climate data provide consistent estimates of the climate-driven changes in water fluxes (ET, runoff, and water demand), VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) and NO emissions, mean crop yield, and river DIN export over the PNW domain. However, significant differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ-Andrews's ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at regional scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies versus directly modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; for example, BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality, for which VOCs are a primary indicator.

  8. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, A.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C.; Choate, J.; Salathé, E. P.; Stöckle, C. O.; Adam, J. C.

    2013-11-01

    Regional climate change impact (CCI) studies have widely involved downscaling and bias-correcting (BC) Global Climate Model (GCM)-projected climate for driving land surface models. However, BC may cause uncertainties in projecting hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to future climate due to the impaired spatiotemporal covariance of climate variables and a breakdown of physical conservation principles. Here we quantify the impact of BC on simulated climate-driven changes in water variables (evapotranspiration, ET; runoff; snow water equivalent, SWE; and water demand for irrigation), crop yield, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Region. We also quantify the impacts on net primary production (NPP) over a small watershed in the region (HJ Andrews). Simulation results from the coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM model with A1B emission scenario were firstly dynamically downscaled to 12 km resolutions with WRF model. Then a quantile mapping based statistical downscaling model was used to downscale them into 1/16th degree resolution daily climate data over historical and future periods. Two series climate data were generated according to the option of bias-correction (i.e. with bias-correction (BC) and without bias-correction, NBC). Impact models were then applied to estimate hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to both BC and NBC meteorological datasets. These impact models include a macro-scale hydrologic model (VIC), a coupled cropping system model (VIC-CropSyst), an ecohydrologic model (RHESSys), a biogenic emissions model (MEGAN), and a nutrient export model (Global-NEWS). Results demonstrate that the BC and NBC climate data provide consistent estimates of the climate-driven changes in water fluxes (ET, runoff, and water demand), VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) and NO emissions, mean crop yield, and river DIN export over the PNW domain. However, significant differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews's ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  9. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M. L.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J. H.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C. L.; Choate, J. S.; Salathe, E.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-16

    Regional climate change impact (CCI) studies have widely involved downscaling and bias-correcting (BC) Global Climate Model (GCM)-projected climate for driving land surface models. However, BC may cause uncertainties in projecting hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to future climate due to the impaired spatiotemporal covariance of climate variables and a breakdown of physical conservation principles. Here we quantify the impact of BC on simulated climate-driven changes in water variables(evapotranspiration, ET; runoff; snow water equivalent, SWE; and water demand for irrigation), crop yield, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Region. We also quantify the impacts on net primary production (NPP) over a small watershed in the region (HJ Andrews). Simulation results from the coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM model with A1B emission scenario were firstly dynamically downscaled to 12 km resolutions with WRF model. Then a quantile mapping based statistical downscaling model was used to downscale them into 1/16th degree resolution daily climate data over historical and future periods. Two series climate data were generated according to the option of bias-correction (i.e. with bias-correction (BC) and without bias-correction, NBC). Impact models were then applied to estimate hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to both BC and NBC meteorological datasets. These im20 pact models include a macro-scale hydrologic model (VIC), a coupled cropping system model (VIC-CropSyst), an ecohydrologic model (RHESSys), a biogenic emissions model (MEGAN), and a nutrient export model (Global-NEWS). Results demonstrate that the BC and NBC climate data provide consistent estimates of the climate-driven changes in water fluxes (ET, runoff, and water demand), VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) and NO emissions, mean crop yield, and river DIN export over the PNW domain. However, significant differences rise from projected SWE, crop yield from dry lands, and HJ Andrews’s ET between BC and NBC data. Even though BC post-processing has no significant impacts on most of the studied variables when taking PNW as a whole, their effects have large spatial variations and some local areas are substantially influenced. In addition, there are months during which BC and NBC post-processing produces significant differences in projected changes, such as summer runoff. Factor-controlled simulations indicate that BC post-processing of precipitation and temperature both substantially contribute to these differences at region scales. We conclude that there are trade-offs between using BC climate data for offline CCI studies vs. direct modeled climate data. These trade-offs should be considered when designing integrated modeling frameworks for specific applications; e.g., BC may be more important when considering impacts on reservoir operations in mountainous watersheds than when investigating impacts on biogenic emissions and air quality (where VOCs are a primary indicator).

  10. Harmonisation of geological data to support geohazard mapping: the case of eENVplus project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolloni, Carlo; Krivic, Matija; Novak, Matevž; Pantaloni, Marco; Šinigoj, Jasna

    2014-05-01

    In the eENVplus project, which aims is to unlock huge amounts of environmental datamanaged by the national and regional environmental agencies and other public and private organisations, we have developed a cross-border pilot on the geological data harmonisation through the integration and harmonisation of existing services. The pilot analyses the methodology and results of the OneGeology-Europe project, elaborated at the scale of 1:1M, to point out difficulties and unsolved problems highlighted during the project. This preliminary analysis is followed by a comparison of two geological maps provided by the neighbouring countries with the objective to compare and define the geometric and semantic anomalous contacts between geological polygons and lines in the maps. This phase will be followed by a detailed scale geological map analysis aimed to solve the anomalies identified in the previous phase. The two Geological Surveys involved into the pilot will discuss the problems highlighted during this phase. Subsequently the semantic description will be redefined and the geometry of the polygons in geological maps will be redrawn or adjusted according to a lithostratigraphic approach that takes in account the homogeneity of age, lithology, depositional environment and consolidation degree of geological units. The two Geological Surveys have decided to apply the harmonisation process on two different dataset: the first is represented by the Geological Map at the scale of 1:1,000,000, partially harmonised within the OneGeology-Europe project that will be re-aligned with GE INSPIRE data model to produce data and services compliant with INSPIRE target schema. The main target of Geological Surveys is to produce data and web services compliant with the wider international schema, where there are more options to provide data, with specific attributes that are important to obtain the geohazard map as in the case of this pilot project; therefore we have decided to apply GeoSciML 3.2 schema to the dataset that represents Geological Map at the scale of 1:100,000. Within the pilot will be realised two main geohazard examples with a semi-automatized procedure based on a specific tool component integrated in the client: a landslide susceptibility map and a potential flooding map. In this work we want to present the first results obtained with use case geo-processing procedure in the first test phase, where we have developed a dataset compliant with GE INSPIRE to perform the landslide and flooding susceptibility maps.

  11. Geology on a Sand Budget

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jacqueline Kane

    2004-09-01

    Earth science teaches know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, only to use the models for a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. Modeling geologic processes and features with sand is an effective way for teachers to promote student understanding of Earth science topics, quickly assess students' prior knowledge, and identify common misconceptions.

  12. A Geological Wonder: Niagara Falls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 9-12. It focuses on the geological history of the Niagara Falls area, as well as the physical and geological processes that have formed this region. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  13. Geological Sciences 330 Fall 2007 Sedimentary Geology

    E-print Network

    : Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Week 3 17 Sept Sedimentary Textures and Rock Classification 19 Sept Fluid Dynamics (2 & 3) Lab 2: Sedimentary Rock Classification Week 4 24 Sept Sediment Entrainment and DepositionGeological Sciences 330 Fall 2007 Sedimentary Geology This course is intended to provide

  14. Two-step Processing Is Not Essential for the Import and Assembly of Functionally Active Iron-Sulfur Protein into the Cytochrome bc1

    E-print Network

    Trumpower, Bernard L.

    -Sulfur Protein into the Cytochrome bc1 Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae* (Received for publication, July 22 import into Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochon- dria. To test whether two-step processing is necessary and MIP during import into Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (9), whereas the iron-sulfur protein

  15. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  16. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  18. Louisiana Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Louisiana Geological Survey, located at Louisiana State University, developed this website to promote its goal to provide geological and environmental data that will allow for environmentally sound natural resource development and economic decisions. Users can find general information about the Survey's mission, staff, plan, and history. The website features the research and publications of the Basin Research, Cartographic, Coastal, Geologic Mapping, and Water and Environmental sections. Researchers can discover stratigraphic charts of Louisiana, information on lignite resources, and other geologic data.

  19. South Carolina Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The South Carolina Geological Survey (SCGS) homepage contains information about state mapping, education and outreach programs, and recent news. For educators, there is the Earth Science education series of publications which includes presentations and page-size graphics on such topics as earthquakes, plate tectonics, geologic time, fossils, and others. Other materials include information on mineral resources, links to organizations in and about South Carolina geology, the South Carolina core repository, the Geologic Map of South Carolina, and others.

  20. Teaching Sedimentary Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains a variety of resources for faculty members who teach undergraduate sedimentary geology. You will find links to a growing collection of activities and assignments, internet and computer resources, useful articles, presentations from the summer 2006 workshop on teaching sedimentary geology, and lots of creative ideas for teaching sedimentary geology.

  1. Environmental geology in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Philip

    1976-01-01

    In Australia the concept of environmental geology is developing slowly from mainly engineering based activities to resource planning and utilization. This is particularly so with increasing activity in urban geology and in some States environmental geology influences land use and zoning. Since 1972 there have been clearly stated national policies in regard to the planned development of Australia's mineral and

  2. Geological Survey Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If your research or interests lie in the geology of South Dakota, then the state's Geological Survey Program Web site is for you. Offered are online publications and maps, a geologic reference database, a lithologic logs database, digital base maps, a water quality database, and several other quality information sources worth checking out.

  3. Unraveling Geological History: Glaciers and Faults at Discovery Park, Seattle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Trileigh Tucker

    This introductory geology field exercise asks students to make individual observations about parts of an outcrop, then combine their observations in larger teams to interpret the overall geological history of the exposure. Content learning includes stratigraphy, faulting, and local geologic history; process learning includes data gathering and recording, hypothesis formation, and outlining helpful evidence that could be gathered in the future.

  4. MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Geology

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Geology College of Sciences geoscience.unlv.edu/ Mission of the College: MPE-A 130 www.unlv.edu/sciences/advising About the Geology Career Geoscientists are stewards understanding of Earth processes and history. Value of the Geology Degree Opportunities for interesting

  5. Inverse Modelling in Geology by Interactive Evolutionary Computation

    E-print Network

    Boschetti, Fabio

    Inverse Modelling in Geology by Interactive Evolutionary Computation Chris Wijns a,b,, Fabio of geological processes, in the absence of established numerical criteria to act as inversion targets, requires evolutionary computation provides for the inclusion of qualitative geological expertise within a rigorous

  6. Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 Harbor section

    E-print Network

    Harbor, David

    Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 ­ Harbor section The objectives of this lab are for you to learn the basic geologic structures in 3-D and to develop some facility in interpreting the nature of geologic structures from geologic maps and geologic cross sections. A big part

  7. Phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs have been determined by geological processes and climate change in the Late Cenozoic

    PubMed Central

    Ak?n, Çi?dem; Bilgin, C. Can; Beerli, Peter; Westaway, Rob; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Uzzell, Thomas; Bilgin, Metin; Hotz, Hansjürg; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Plötner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Aim Our aims were to assess the phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs and to estimate divergence times using different geological scenarios. We related divergence times to past geological events and discuss the relevance of our data for the systematics of eastern Mediterranean water frogs. Location The eastern Mediterranean region. Methods Genetic diversity and divergence were calculated using sequences of two protein-coding mitochondrial (mt) genes: ND2 (1038 bp, 119 sequences) and ND3 (340 bp, 612 sequences). Divergence times were estimated in a Bayesian framework under four geological scenarios representing alternative possible geological histories for the eastern Mediterranean. We then compared the different scenarios using Bayes factors and additional geological data. Results Extensive genetic diversity in mtDNA divides eastern Mediterranean water frogs into six main haplogroups (MHG). Three MHGs were identified on the Anatolian mainland; the most widespread MHG with the highest diversity is distributed from western Anatolia to the northern shore of the Caspian Sea, including the type locality of Pelophylax ridibundus. The other two Anatolian MHGs are restricted to south-eastern Turkey, occupying localities west and east of the Amanos mountain range. One of the remaining three MHGs is restricted to Cyprus; a second to the Levant; the third was found in the distribution area of European lake frogs (P. ridibundus group), including the Balkans. Main conclusions Based on geological evidence and estimates of genetic divergence we hypothesize that the water frogs of Cyprus have been isolated from the Anatolian mainland populations since the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), i.e. since c. 5.5-5.3 Ma, while our divergence time estimates indicate that the isolation of Crete from the mainland populations (Peloponnese, Anatolia) most likely pre-dates the MSC. The observed rates of divergence imply a time window of c. 1.6-1.1 million years for diversification of the largest Anatolian MHG; divergence between the two other Anatolian MHGs may have begun about 3.0 Ma, apparently as a result of uplift of the Amanos Mountains. Our mtDNA data suggest that the Anatolian water frogs and frogs from Cyprus represent several undescribed species. PMID:22473251

  8. Importance of microhabitat and acorn burial on Quercus ilex early recruitment: non-additive effects on multiple demographic processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Gómez

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of microhabitat and seed burial on the main demographic processes operating during the early recruitment of Quercus ilex, such as postdispersal seed predation, seed germination, and seedling emergence, survival and growth. The effect of burial was positive over all the processes analysed in this study, since predation rate was lower (63.6% vs. 88%), whereas germination

  9. Indicators of Early and Late Processing Reveal the Importance of Within-Trial-Time for Theories of Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Lachnit, Harald; Thorwart, Anna; Schultheis, Holger; Lotz, Anja; Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin

    2013-01-01

    In four human learning experiments (Pavlovian skin conductance, causal learning, speeded classification task), we evaluated several associative learning theories that assume either an elemental (modified unique cue model and Harris’ model) or a configural (Pearce’s configural theory and an extension of it) form of stimulus processing. The experiments used two modified patterning problems (A/B/C+, AB/BC/AC+ vs. ABC-; A+, BC+ vs. ABC-). Pearce’s configural theory successfully predicted all of our data reflecting early stimulus processing, while the predictions of the elemental theories were in accord with all of our data reflecting later stages of stimulus processing. Our results suggest that the form of stimulus representation depends on the amount of time available for stimulus processing. Our findings highlight the necessity to investigate stimulus processing during conditioning on a finer time scale than usually done in contemporary research. PMID:23826092

  10. The importance of basic factors in innovation processes and their effects on innovation capability of Malaysian-owned manufacturing companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd; Omar, Aminuddin; Shahabuddin, Faridatulazna Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Innovation is the core ingredient in the competitiveness of today's businesses. Any company that cannot innovate will be losing its competitiveness. While the study on innovation at conceptual level is widely available, there is still lack of deep understanding of how innovation factors impact each stage of the processes of innovation that happen in Malaysian companies. This process-factor approach and understanding may help the government focuses its assistance on relevant factors at relevant process according to the size of the company. This study examines how companies are affected by fundamental factors needed in innovation. Based on results of MYTIC Study 2012 on the level of Technological Innovation Capability (TIC) of Malaysian companies using the RDCB framework, the significance of each innovation factor in each innovation process is determined. This study shows that human resource factor gives more impact than other factors in most processes. Also, financial and human resource factors are likely dictated by the size of the company.

  11. Geology and our future: summary of a workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This report highlights the significance of the geological sciences to the nation and to society. Discussions include understanding plate tectonics and surface processes, exploring the continental crust, ocean basins and the deep earth, applications of geology to social problems such as mineral resources, waste disposal, siting of critical facilities, geological hazards, water resources management, and coastal zones. The state of health of geological research is also discussed. (ACR)

  12. A simple approach to 3D geological modelling and visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Baojun; Shi Bin; Song Zhen

    2009-01-01

    3D geological modeling has become one of the most reliable and effective means of displaying geological structures, but most\\u000a commercial software products for 3D geological modeling need special techniques and much pre-processing work as well as being\\u000a expensive and complicated to operate. In this paper, a simple approach to building a 3D geological model is proposed, integrating\\u000a such popular software

  13. GEOL 4501 - Geology Seminar The Geologic Record of Climate Change Spring 2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Bartley

    DESCRIPTION: In this seminar course, we will explore the geologic record of pre- Holocene climate change. The geologic record preserves numerous lines of evidence for ancient climate change that record, with varying degrees of fidelity, the numerous climatic changes experienced by the Earth during its 4.5 billion year history. We will examine several important intervals of climate change in ?deep

  14. Evolution of U fractionation processes through geologic time : consequences for the variation of U deposit types from Early Earth to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuney, M.

    2009-12-01

    U deposits are known at nearly all stages of the geological cycle, but are not known prior to 2.95 Ga. Also, U deposit types vary greatly from Mesoarchean to Present. Most of these changes through time can be attributed to major modifications in the geodynamic evolution of the Earth, in magmatic fractionation processes, in the composition of the Atmosphere and in the nature of life. The first U-rich granites able to crystallize uraninite, appeared at about 3.1 Ga. They correspond to the most fractionated terms of high-K calcalkaline suites, resulting from crystal fractionation of magmas possibly derived from melting of mantle wedges enriched in K, U, Th. Highly fractionated peraluminous leucogranites, able to crystallize uraninite, appeared at about 2.6 Ga. Erosion of these two granite types led to the detrital accumulation of uraninite that formed the first U deposits on Earth: the Quartz Pebble Conglomerates from 2.95 to 2.4 Ga. From 2.3 Ga onwards, uprise of oxygen level in the atmosphere led to the oxidation of U(IV) to U(VI), U transport in solution, and exuberant development of marine algae in epicontinental platform sediments. From 2.3 to 1.8 Ga large amounts of U, previously accumulated as U(IV) minerals, were dissolved and trapped preferentially in passive margin settings, in organic-rich sediments, and which led to the formation of the world’s largest Paleoproterozoic U provinces, e.g. : the Wollaston belt, Canada and the Cahill Formation, Australia. During and after the worldwide 2.1-1.75 Ga orogenic events, responsible for the formation of the Nuna supercontinent, U trapped in these formations was the source for several types of mineralization: (i) metamorphosed U-mineralized graphitic schists, calcsilicates and meta-arkoses, (ii) diagenetic-hydrothermal remobilization with the formation of the first deposits related to redox processes at 2.0 Ga (Oklo, Gabon), (iii) partial melting of U-rich metasediments forming the uraninite disseminations in pegmatoids (Charlebois, Canada), (iv) hydrothermal remobilization in veins (Beaverlodge, Canada) at about 1.75 Ga, and (v) U mineralization related to Na-metasomatism (Lagoa Real, Brazil ; Central Ukraine). After 1.75 Ga, a long period of tectonic quiescence occurred on the Earth, and large intracontinental basins, comprising at their base thick oxidized siliciclastic sequences were formed in many parts of the Nuna. In the Athabasca (Canada) and Kombolgie (Australia) basins, the siliciclastic sediments represented huge aquitards for sodic brines derived from overlying evaporites. The brines became calcic when infiltrated into the basement and leached U dominantly from Paleoproterozoic epicontinental sediments, their anatectic derivatives and high-K-U granites, to form the unconformity related U deposits. By the end of Silurian, with the apparition of land plants, deposits hosted by continental to marginal marine sandstone (roll front, tabular, tectono-lithologic, paleovalleys) became widespread. The largest volcanic related U-deposits are mostly known during the Mesozoic and calcrete are only known during late Caenozoic to Quaternary, but this may by due to the non preservation from erosion of such deposits formed at very shallow levels.

  15. Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2013-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek is a perennial stream draining a suburban area in Aurora, Colorado, where selenium concentrations have consistently exceeded the State of Colorado aquatic-life standard for selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter since the early 2000s. In cooperation with the City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department, a synoptic water-quality study was performed along an 18-kilometer reach of Toll Gate Creek extending from downstream from Quincy Reservoir to the confluence with Sand Creek to develop a detailed understanding of streamflow and concentrations and loads of selenium in Toll Gate Creek. Streamflow and surface-water quality were characterized for summer low-flow conditions (July–August 2007) using four spatially overlapping synoptic-sampling subreaches. Mass-balance methods were applied to the synoptic-sampling and tracer-injection results to estimate streamflow and develop spatial profiles of concentration and load for selenium and other chemical constituents in Toll Gate Creek surface water. Concurrent groundwater sampling determined concentrations of selenium and other chemical constituents in groundwater in areas surrounding the Toll Gate Creek study reaches. Multivariate principal-component analysis was used to group samples and to suggest common sources for dissolved selenium and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen stable-isotope ratios, groundwater-age interpretations, and chemical analysis of water-soluble paste extractions from core samples are presented, and interpretation of the hydrologic and geochemical data support conclusions regarding geologic sources of selenium and the processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed. Streamflow conditions observed and measured during the synoptic water-quality study represent summer base-flow conditions and rainfall conditions for July 2007. The lack of large tributary inflows and the spatial distribution of small tributary inflows, seeps, and springs indicate that diffuse and discrete groundwater inflow supports streamflow during low-flow conditions along the entire 18-kilometer stream reach. Concentrations of dissolved selenium within all subreaches of Toll Gate Creek exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter in 2007. Concentrations of selenium in the upper portion of the Toll Gate Headwaters subreach (TGH) remained close to the aquatic-life standard at about 5 micrograms per liter. Downstream from a concrete-lined channel section, inflows with selenium concentrations greater than the stream contribute selenium load to surface water. However, stream selenium concentrations were less than 20 micrograms per liter all along Toll Gate Creek. Concentrations of selenium in groundwater were in general substantially greater than the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter and at some locations were greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standard for selenium of 50 micrograms per liter. The distribution of selenium concentrations in groundwater, springs, and the 11 inflows with the greatest selenium concentrations indicates that shallow groundwater in surficial materials and the Denver Formation bedrock is a source of selenium loading to Toll Gate Creek and that selenium loading is distributed along the entire length of the study reach downstream from the concrete-lined channel. Water-quality and solids-sampling results from this study indicate weathering processes release water-soluble selenium from the underlying Denver Formation claystone bedrock with subsequent cycling of selenium in the aquatic environment of Toll Gate Creek. Exposure of the Denver Formation selenium-bearing bedrock to oxidizing atmospheric conditions, surface water, and groundwater, oxidizes selenide, held as a trace element in pyrite or in complexes with organic matter, to selenite and selenate. Secondary weathering products including iron oxides and selenium-bearing salts have accumulated in the weathered zone in the semiarid climate and also can serve as sources or sinks of selenium. P

  16. Virtual-Geology.Info

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At virtual-geology.info, Roger Suthren, a professor at Oxford Brookes University, offers educational materials on geologic phenomena throughout the world. Users can take virtual field trips to study the geology of Scotland, Alaska, and France. In the Regional Geology link, visitors can view wonderful pictures of the volcanoes of Germany, Italy, France, and Greece. Educators can find images of sediments and sedimentary rocks which can be used in a variety of classroom exercises. The website supplies descriptions and additional educational links about sedimentology and environmental geology.

  17. Arkansas Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Arkansas Geological Survey (AGS) homepage aims to develop and provide knowledge of the geology and hydrogeology of the State, and to stimulate development and effective management and utilization of the mineral, fossil-fuel, and water resources of Arkansas while protecting the environment. The AGC collects and disperses geologic data consisting of geologic maps, historical data concerning resources, and various datasets concerning water, fossil-fuel, and mineral resources of Arkansas. The site contains publications that can be ordered, sections about Arkansas geology, a list of mineral producers of Arkansas, and reports on mineral resources.

  18. Airborne electromagnetic data and processing within Leach Lake Basin, Fort Irwin, California: Chapter G in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedrosian, Paul A.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bloss, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    From December 2010 to January 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys of Leach Lake Basin within the National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California. These data were collected to characterize the subsurface and provide information needed to understand and manage groundwater resources within Fort Irwin. A resistivity stratigraphy was developed using ground-based time-domain electromagnetic soundings together with laboratory resistivity measurements on hand samples and borehole geophysical logs from nearby basins. This report releases data associated with the airborne surveys, as well as resistivity cross-sections and depth slices derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data. The resulting resistivity models confirm and add to the geologic framework, constrain the hydrostratigraphy and the depth to basement, and reveal the distribution of faults and folds within the basin.

  19. Kansas Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Kansas Geological Survey, operated by the University of Kansas in connection with its research and service program, is to conduct geological studies and research and to collect, correlate, preserve, and disseminate information leading to a better understanding of the geology of Kansas, with special emphasis on natural resources of economic value, water quality and quantity, and geologic hazards. The website includes information about the High Plains and Ogallala aquifers, the Upper Arkansas corridor, the Dakota aquifer, county and state geologic maps, an online bibliography of Kansas geology, publications, a photo archive, a digital petroleum atlas, a petroleum primer for the state, gravity and magnetic maps, Hugoton project information, and details about the Hutchinson Kansas natural gas fires. The educational resources section contains a mineral information page for the state, and GeoKansas, which provides information on state geology for schools.

  20. Probing the importance of ionic liquid structure: a general ionic liquid effect on an S(N)Ar process.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Eden E L; Hawker, Rebecca R; Yau, Hon Man; Croft, Anna K; Harper, Jason B

    2013-11-21

    The effect of a range of ionic liquids, with systematic variations in the cation and anion, on the rate constant of an aromatic substitution process was investigated. Temperature-dependent kinetic data allowed calculation of activation parameters for the process in each solvent. These data demonstrate a generalised ionic liquid effect, with an increase in rate constant observed in each ionic solvent, though the microscopic origins of the rate constant enhancement differ with the nature of the ionic liquid. PMID:24088815

  1. Geologic Time: The Story of a Changing Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Itâ??s hard imagining how one could fit the entirety of geologic time onto one website, but the staff members of the department of paleobiology at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History have done an excellent job with this site. The intent of the site is to provide an interactive timeline of geological history, beginning with the Hadean eon and proceeding all the way to the current day. After a compelling introductory section, visitors are led into the elegant timeline interface which allows them to explore the siteâ??s primary contents. Using a drag tool, visitors can move around the span of the different geological eons, eras, periods, and epochs in a direct fashion. Clicking on each of the icons within each division of time brings up a brief overview of each segment, along with a map of each period, complete with various renderings of the conditions that existed on the Earth at the time. Visitors will also appreciate the â??Foundational Conceptsâ? area, which provides a foundation for understanding the nature of geology, such as the importance of different dating methods and earth processes. Overall, this site is extraordinarily helpful, both for the general public and for more seasoned amateur geologists.

  2. Geologic Time: The Story of a Changing Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    It's hard imagining how one could fit the entirety of geologic time onto one website, but the staff members of the department of paleobiology at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History have done an excellent job with this site. The intent of the site is to provide an interactive timeline of geological history, beginning with the Hadean eon and proceeding all the way to the current day. After a compelling introductory section, visitors are led into the elegant timeline interface which allows them to explore the site's primary contents. Using a drag tool, visitors can move around the span of the different geological eons, eras, periods, and epochs in a direct fashion. Clicking on each of the icons within each division of time brings up a brief overview of each segment, along with a map of each period, complete with various renderings of the conditions that existed on the Earth at the time. Visitors will also appreciate the "Foundational Concepts" area, which provides a foundation for understanding the nature of geology, such as the importance of different dating methods and earth processes. Overall, this site is extraordinarily helpful, both for the general public and for more seasoned amateur geologists.

  3. D Geological Framework Models as a Teaching Aid for Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team

    2010-12-01

    3D geological models have great potential as a resource for universities when teaching foundation geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for all students of geology. Today’s earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including the application of schema’s, spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, memorising figures, mental manipulation and interpretation, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves and the rocks. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. Learning issues faced by students may also be encountered by experts, policy managers, and stakeholders when dealing with environmental problems. Therefore educational research of student learning in earth science may also improve environmental decision making. 3D geological framework models enhance the learning of Geosciences because they: ? enable a student to observe, manipulate and interpret geology; in particular the models instantly convert two-dimensional geology (maps, boreholes and cross-sections) into three dimensions which is a notoriously difficult geospatial skill to acquire. ? can be orientated to whatever the user finds comfortable and most aids recognition and interpretation. ? can be used either to teach geosciences to complete beginners or add to experienced students body of knowledge (whatever point that may be at). Models could therefore be packaged as a complete educational journey or students and tutor can select certain areas of the model or educational material to incorporate it into an existing area of the syllabus such as a field trip, project work or a certain taxing geological concept such as dip and strike. ? can easily be utilised by students unable to attend university conventionally (illness or disability), distance learning students or for extra curricular activities and continuing professional development courses. ? can be used repeatedly and in such a way as to continually build on geoscience aspects - this practice will improve the student’s geospatial skills. ? can be compared with that seen directly in the field which aids the student in recognising particular patterns or sequences. It also demonstrates how different and complex geology looks in the field and thus how important it is not to rely on models alone. ? are interactive and the accompanying educational material is engaging, dealing with authentic, contemporary scientific problems meaning the student will have to ask questions, think critically and solve problems. ? can often be more practical and better financial alternatives to some teaching methods currently employed. ? incorporate strategies where students first explore, are then introduced to terminology and concepts, finally students apply their knowledge to different, but related problems. This can be further reinforced and explored with fellow students.

  4. Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa, Ver. 2.0

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    The US Geological Survey offers the Map Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geologic Provinces of Africa Web site and report. The agency's goal for the pieces includes assessing the undiscovered and technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. The site includes various descriptions of what the map depicts and how data was processed using Geographic Information Systems. Once the interactive map is activated, users can search and click the map of Africa to view geologic provinces, oil and gas fields, as well as the various surface geological classifications. Although the interface is a bit cumbersome and works best with a fast Internet connection, the unique information provided should draw the attention of those interested in geology. [JAB

  5. lipids and lipid families likely play important structural and signaling roles in the cell division process, and indicate that

    E-print Network

    Shorter, James

    from Cell, 156, Jackrel, M. E., et al., Potentiated Hsp104 Variants Antagonize Diverse Proteotoxic Society. Eukaryotic cells modify proteins with a single or multiple copies of ubiquitin, providinglipids and lipid families likely play important structural and signaling roles in the cell division

  6. Importance of physical processes on near-surface nutrient distributions in summer in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    E-print Network

    Belabbassi, Leila

    2001-01-01

    and cyclonic eddies on nutrient distribution may be important in enhancing productivity over the study region during summer. On average, during each summer, the amount of nitrate reaching the outer shelf and slope in the nutrient-depleted, low-salinity river...

  7. 7 CFR 361.8 - Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain Canadian-origin screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...screenings. (a) Imported seed that is found to contain noxious weed seeds at a level higher than the tolerances set forth in...or by APHIS; if the seed is found to be within the noxious weed tolerances set forth in § 361.6(b), the seed may be...

  8. 7 CFR 361.8 - Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain Canadian-origin screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...screenings. (a) Imported seed that is found to contain noxious weed seeds at a level higher than the tolerances set forth in...or by APHIS; if the seed is found to be within the noxious weed tolerances set forth in § 361.6(b), the seed may be...

  9. 7 CFR 361.8 - Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain Canadian-origin screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...screenings. (a) Imported seed that is found to contain noxious weed seeds at a level higher than the tolerances set forth in...or by APHIS; if the seed is found to be within the noxious weed tolerances set forth in § 361.6(b), the seed may be...

  10. 7 CFR 361.8 - Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain Canadian-origin screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...screenings. (a) Imported seed that is found to contain noxious weed seeds at a level higher than the tolerances set forth in...or by APHIS; if the seed is found to be within the noxious weed tolerances set forth in § 361.6(b), the seed may be...

  11. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near Monkey Bayou at the southern end of the Chandeleur Islands. Numerical simulation of waves and sediment transport supports the geophysical results and indicates that vast areas of the lower shoreface are affected and are undergoing erosion during storm events, that there is little or no fair weather mechanism to rework material into the littoral system, and that as a result, there is a net loss of sediment from the system. Lidar surveys revealed that the island chain immediately after Hurricane Katrina lost about 84 percent of its area and about 92 percent of its prestorm volume. Marsh platforms that supported the islands' sand prior to the storm were reduced in width by more than one-half. Repeated lidar surveys document that in places the shoreline has retreated about 100 m under the relatively low-energy waves since Hurricanes Katrina and Rita; however, this retreat is nonuniform. Recent high-resolution geophysical surveys of the sea floor and subsurface within 5-6 km of the Chandeleur Islands during 2006 and 2007 show that, in addition to the sand that is rebuilding portions of the island chain, a large volume of sand is contained in Hewes Point, in an extensive subtidal spit platform that has formed at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands. Hewes Point appears to be the depositional terminus of the alongshore transport system. In the southern Chandeleurs, sand is being deposited in a broad tabular deposit near Breton Island called the southern offshore sand sheet. These two depocenters account for approximately 70 percent of the estimated sediment volume located in potential borrow sites. An additional large potential source of sand for restoration lies in the St. Bernard Shoals, which are estimated to contain approximately 200 ? 106 m3 of sand. Successful restoration planning for the Breton National Wildlife Refuge should mimic the natural processes of early stages of barrier island evolution including lateral transport to the flanks of the island chain

  12. 59 FR- Proposal To Establish Procedures for the Safe Processing and Importing of Fish and Fishery Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-01-28

    ...Iceland, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, and New Zealand. In summary, FDA anticipates...Commercially Processed Oysters From the Gulf Coast,'' Journal of Food Protection...Q. et al., ``Survey of the U.S. Gulf Coast for the Presence of Clostridium...

  13. An Assessment of the Economic Importance of the San Carlos Island Shrimp Processing Industry to the Lee County Economy

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    to the Lee County Economy Chuck Adams, David Mulkey, and Alan Hodges Food and Resource Economics Department the shrimp processing industry on San Carlos Island contributes to the Lee County economy. Most of the shrimp of the revenues earned on a trip are spent within the Lee County economy. During seasons when shrimp landings

  14. Phonemic Awareness Is a More Important Predictor of Orthographic Processing than Rapid Serial Naming: Evidence from Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the relationship between rapid serial naming (RSN) and orthographic processing in Russian, an asymmetrically transparent orthography. Ninety-six students (M age = 13.73) completed tests of word and pseudoword reading fluency, spelling, orthographic choice, phonological choice, phoneme awareness (PA), and RSN. PA was a better predictor…

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMERCIAL PROCESSING FOR THE PROTEIN VALUE OF FOOD PRODUCTS I. SOYBEAN, COCONUT AND SUNFLOWER SEED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. MITCHELL; T. S. HAMILTON; J. E. BEADLES

    In studies of the protein values of food products the emphasis seems to be shifting from the protein values of individual foods to the effect upon these values of the commercial processes used in preparing them for human consumption and in storing them for future use. It is true that individual foods show wide differences in the nutritive value of

  16. Water, Water Everywhere! [Narrator] Water, Water Everywhere Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every process

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Water, Water Everywhere! [Narrator] Water, Water Everywhere Water is all around us, and its naturally as a liquid, gas, and solid. The process by which water moves around the Earth, from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land, and back to the ocean, is called the water cycle. Water regulates climate, storing

  17. James Hutton: The Founder of Modern Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article reports on the life and influence of James Hutton, considered the founder of modern geology. It covers the existing thinking about Earth's creation, how Hutton's scientific training and his work as a farmer came together in his pursuit of geology, his important contributions to the new science of geology, and the influence his work had on future generations of scientists. The article explains why the boundary between the two rock types at Siccar Point in Scotland is now called the Hutton Unconformity and defines his key concept, the Theory of Uniformitarianism.

  18. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  19. CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage: Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena - From Pore-scale Processes to Macroscale Implications -

    SciTech Connect

    Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2013-05-31

    Global energy consumption will increase in the next decades and it is expected to largely rely on fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels is intimately related to CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for global warming. Geological CO{sub 2} storage aims to mitigate the global warming problem by sequestering CO{sub 2} underground. Coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical phenomena determine the successful operation and long term stability of CO{sub 2} geological storage. This research explores coupled phenomena, identifies different zones in the storage reservoir, and investigates their implications in CO{sub 2} geological storage. In particular, the research: Explores spatial patterns in mineral dissolution and precipitation (comprehensive mass balance formulation); experimentally determines the interfacial properties of water, mineral, and CO{sub 2} systems (including CO{sub 2}-water-surfactant mixtures to reduce the CO{sub 2}- water interfacial tension in view of enhanced sweep efficiency); analyzes the interaction between clay particles and CO{sub 2}, and the response of sediment layers to the presence of CO{sub 2} using specially designed experimental setups and complementary analyses; couples advective and diffusive mass transport of species, together with mineral dissolution to explore pore changes during advection of CO{sub 2}-dissolved water along a rock fracture; upscales results to a porous medium using pore network simulations; measures CO{sub 2} breakthrough in highly compacted fine-grained sediments, shale and cement specimens; explores sealing strategies; and experimentally measures CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} replacement in hydrate-bearing sediments during. Analytical, experimental and numerical results obtained in this study can be used to identify optimal CO{sub 2} injection and reservoir-healing strategies to maximize the efficiency of CO{sub 2} injection and to attain long-term storage.

  20. Bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic Margin for marine geological investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Gardner, James V.

    2013-01-01

    Bathymetric terrain models of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing technologies of bathymetric data have facilitated the creation of high-resolution bathymetric surfaces that approach the resolution of similar surfaces available for onshore investigations. These bathymetric terrain models provide a detailed representation of the Earth’s subaqueous surface and, when combined with other geophysical and geological datasets, allow for interpretation of modern and ancient geological processes. The purpose of the bathymetric terrain model presented in this report is to provide a high-quality bathymetric surface of the Atlantic margin of the United States that can be used to augment current and future marine geological investigations. The input data for this bathymetric terrain model, covering almost 305,000 square kilometers, were acquired by several sources, including the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Geophysical Data Center and the Ocean Exploration Program, the University of New Hampshire, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. These data have been edited using hydrographic data processing software to maximize the quality, usability, and cartographic presentation of the combined terrain model.

  1. 'Best practice' development and transfer in the NHS: the importance of process as well as product knowledge.

    PubMed

    Newell, Sue; Edelman, Linda; Scarbrough, Harry; Swan, Jacky; Bresnen, Mike

    2003-02-01

    A core prescription from the knowledge management movement is that the successful management of organizational knowledge will prevent firms from 'reinventing the wheel', in particular through the transfer of 'best practices'. Our findings challenge this logic. They suggest instead that knowledge is emergent and enacted in practice, and that normally those involved in a given practice have only a partial understanding of the overall practice. Generating knowledge about current practice is therefore a precursor to changing that practice. In this sense, knowledge transfer does not occur independently of or in sequence to knowledge generation, but instead the process of knowledge generation and its transfer are inexorably intertwined. Thus, rather than transferring 'product' knowledge about the new 'best practice' per se, our analysis suggests that it is more useful to transfer 'process' knowledge about effective ways to generate the knowledge of existing practice, which is the essential starting point for attempts to change that practice. PMID:12626022

  2. Mathematical Problem Solving and Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Both Executive and Phonological Processes Are Important

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lee Swanson; Carole Sachse-Lee

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the relationship between working memory (WM) and mathematical problem solving in children with learning disabilities (LD). Children with LD (age 11.5 years) were compared to chronologically age-matched (CA-M) and younger comprehension\\/computation achievement-matched children (age 8.9 years) on measures of verbal and visual-spatial WM, phonological processing, components of problem solving, and word-problem solving

  3. A program for mass spectrometer control and data processing analyses in isotope geology; written in BASIC for an 8K Nova 1120 computer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Hope, J.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described which uses a minicomputer to control a surface ionization mass spectrometer in the peak switching mode, with the object of computing isotopic abundance ratios of elements of geologic interest. The program uses the BASIC language and is sufficiently flexible to be used for multiblock analyses of any spectrum containing from two to five peaks. In the case of strontium analyses, ratios are corrected for rubidium content and normalized for mass spectrometer fractionation. Although almost any minicomputer would be suitable, the model used was the Data General Nova 1210 with 8K memory. Assembly language driver program and interface hardware-descriptions for the Nova 1210 are included.

  4. The Geological Society of London

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Geological Society of London promotes "the geosciences and the professional interests of UK geoscientists." The website offers media, geological, and society news. Researchers can find out about upcoming conferences covering a variety of geological topics as well as information on a series of journals. Everyone interested in geology can find materials on geological careers, including required education, qualifications, and funding. The website provides teaching resources on volcanoes, geologic hazards, and other geological phenomena.

  5. Louisiana Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS). The site includes general information about LGS and its various offices, as well as an overview of the Basin Research Energy Section, the oil, gas, and coal research section of LGS. The publications and data page features a catalog and ordering information for documents on mineral resources, fossils, water resources, geological bulletins and maps, and many others, as well as a selection of downloadable maps, including 30 x 60 minute geologic quadrangles, a generalized geologic map of the state with accompanying text, and an online map viewer of the state with selectable layers (geology, water bodies, cultural features, and Landsat imagery). There is also an online listing of well logs, grouped by parish, online listings of core samples, grouped by state, and downloadable public information documents on a variety of geologic topics.

  6. Generalizing geological maps with the GeoScaler software: The case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnoff, Alex; Huot-Vézina, Gabriel; Paradis, Serge J.; Boivin, Ruth

    2012-03-01

    Map generalization is rapidly becoming an important task in surficial and bedrock geology as broader regional and cross-boundary compilations are made from maps originally describing more specific areas. However, the entire process is still not defined in sufficient detail and relatively few automated tools are available. Moreover, the existing tools are primarily designed for generalization of topographic maps and do not address the needs specific to geology. Here we present two case studies describing our approach to the generalization of surficial and bedrock geology maps, respectively. To accomplish the task, we employed the GeoScaler software developed at the Laboratoire de cartographie numérique et de photogrammétrie (LCNP) of the Quebec division of the Geological Survey of Canada (Version 2009). The software is free over the Internet but requires an ArcGIS (ArcInfo) license. Four surficial geology maps at 1:250,000 scale were produced from 14 maps scaled at 1:100,000, while a single compilation of six bedrock maps was generalized from 1:125,000 to 1:500,000 scale. We describe the general considerations required to approach any generalization exercise, applied software, objectives, input data, major generalization steps, and the final results. All generalized maps were favorably evaluated by experts in geological mapping and the surficial maps have been published.

  7. Geology and distribution of impact craters on Venus - What are they telling us?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Strom, R. G.; Moore, H. J.; Soderblom, L. A.; Kirk, R. L.; Chadwick, D. J.; Dawson, D. D.; Gaddis, L. R.; Boyce, J. M.; Russell, Joel

    1992-01-01

    Data on the distribution of impact craters on Venus are analyzed in relation to the geologic history of Venus and the effects of high ambient pressures and temperatures on the cratering process itself. The cratering record of Venus is discussed in terms of size, number, spatial distribution, and state of preservation of craters. The morphology of Venusian craters is examined as a function of the diameter, and features unique to these craters are discussed. Attention is also given to several craters that illustrate important features of Venusian crater; surface 'splotches' that are closely related in origin to impact craters; and implications of the distribution of severely modified craters for Venus' recent geologic history.

  8. Geologic Time : Online Edition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Offered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a general interest publication, this site is an online edition of a text by the same name, offering a concise overview of the concepts associated with the age of the Earth. The online edition was revised in October of 1997 to reflect current thinking on this topic. Section headers are Geologic Time, Relative Time Scale, Major Divisions of Geologic Time, Index Fossils, Radiometric Time Scale, and Age of the Earth.

  9. The Geology of Virginia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the College of William of Mary Department of Geology comes the Geology of Virginia Web site. From the Appalachian Plateau to the coastal plain, visitors can explore the geology and physical characteristics of the diverse landscape of the commonwealth of Virginia through simple descriptions and well designed graphics. Even if you don't live in the area, the site does a good job of capturing the interest of anyone looking for quality material on the presented subjects.

  10. North Carolina Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) examines, describes, and maps the state's geology and mineral resources and publishes reports and maps. The site contains lists of publications, maps, aerial photographs, frequently asked questions about North Carolina geology, and mineral and professional information. Project Earth Science is designed to provide relevant and accurate earth science education information for the state's high school students and earth/environmental science teachers.

  11. Pennsylvania Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey. Users can access digital maps, data, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), information on economic resources, and information on field mapping in the state. Classroom resources include a set of lesson plans on Pennsylvania geology; 'Rock Boxes', a set of rock samples which can be ordered; information on mineral collecting; and a series of educational publications, page-sized maps, and the 'Trail of Geology' park guide.

  12. Icelandic Geology Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas, Georg R.

    The main feature of this site from Hamrahlio College of Reykjavik, Iceland is an interactive geological map of Iceland showing lava flows and glaciers. Other highlights include links to related Icelandic geology pages (e.g., The Effect of Diatom Mining, Iceland's Ministry of the Environment), news sources and journals, and Icelandic geological societies (not all are in English). A recommended resource for glaciologists, volcanologists, and educators in earth science.

  13. Editor's Note: Geology Is Fundamental (December 2006)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chris Ohana

    2006-12-01

    Geology is fundamental. The usual triad of sciences (chemistry, physics, and biology) is also clearly important. Not much can be explained without physics, for example. But geology, the history of Earth, is an application of these sciences that deserves more attention. It can be immediately seen around us whether we live in Arizona or Iowa. This issue presents lessons that will introduce Earth science concepts to your students and make them applicable in your classroom.

  14. Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 Harbor section

    E-print Network

    Harbor, David

    Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 ­ Harbor section Read Ch. 7 before you begin. The objectives of this lab are for you to learn the basic geologic structures in 3-D and to develop some facility in interpreting the nature of geologic structures from geologic

  15. Environmental Geology Major www.geology.pitt.edu/uprogs.html

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Environmental Geology Major www.geology.pitt.edu/uprogs.html Revised: 04/2004 Environmental geology in environmental geology provides the diverse skills required to work in many different employment settings issues. Within the field of geology, environmental and geotechnical jobs exist for people with BS degrees

  16. Department of Geology and Geological Engineering University of Mississippi Announces

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    Department of Geology and Geological Engineering University of Mississippi Announces Krista Pursuing a degree within the Geology & Geological Engineering department Record of financial need the University of Mississippi with a Bachelor of Science degree in geological engineering in 1982. After earning

  17. Structural Geology 'Research' Conference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Willis

    In this assignment students read and discuss a peer-reviewed journal article and prepare for and attend our class 'research' conference. In the conference they present on an area of current research as discussed in the journal article they read, and they practice formulating questions about other's research. Outcomes: 1. Read and discuss a structural geology peer-reviewed journal article. 2. Prepare a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of a current research topic in structural geology. 3. View and understand several diverse areas within geology and geophysics that use structural geology in research. 4. Ask questions relevant to a research presentation.

  18. Understanding Geologic Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cara Burberry

    This is an exercise in which students are reintroduced to geologic maps and encouraged to "deconstruct" the map into constituent elements in order to understand the geologic history of the area. The preceding lectures in the course have recapitulated material that the students have covered in Introduction to Physical Geology. During class, the students work through the maps that were part of lab exercises in the Intro level course, so that basic concepts are recalled (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, basic faults and folds). The final product is a geologic history of this map area.

  19. Geologic Mapping Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew Smith

    This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.

  20. Effects of wildfire, rainfall and region on desert lizard assemblages: the importance of multi-scale processes.

    PubMed

    Pastro, Louise A; Dickman, Christopher R; Letnic, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Vertebrate populations are influenced by environmental processes that operate at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Wildfire is a disturbance that can affect vertebrate populations across large spatial scales, although vertebrate responses are frequently influenced by processes operating at smaller spatial scales such as topography, interspecific interactions and regional history. Here, we investigate the effects of a broad-scale wildfire on lizard assemblages in a desert region. We predicted that a rainfall gradient within the region affected by the wildfire would influence lizard responses to the fire by encouraging post-fire succession to proceed more rapidly in high-rainfall areas, and would be enabled in turn by more rapid vegetation recovery. To test our prediction, we censused lizards, measured rainfall, undertook vegetation surveys and sampled invertebrate abundance across burnt and unburnt habitat ecotones within three regional areas situated along a gradient of long-term annual rainfall. Lizard diversity was not affected by fire or region and lizard abundance was influenced only by region. Lizard assemblage composition was also only influenced by region, but this did not relate to differences in rainfall or habitat as we had predicted. Regional differences in lizard assemblages related instead to food availability. The observed differences also likely reflected regional differences in the strength of biotic interactions with predators and changes in land use. Our study shows that assemblage responses to a disturbance were not uniform within a large desert region and instead were influenced by other environmental processes operating simultaneously at multiple temporal and spatial scales. PMID:23494288

  1. How to connect to the University of Exeter VPN service *****Important Part of the process of using the VPN service involves the automatic

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    How to connect to the University of Exeter VPN service *****Important ­Part of the process of using the VPN service involves the automatic download and installation of Juniper Network Connect software of VPN service 1. Open your web browser and navigate to https://secure.exeter.ac.uk, the following page

  2. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of 205 reports from Principal investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology Program succinctly summarize work conducted and reflect the significant accomplishments. The entries are arranged under the following topics: (1) Saturnian satellites; (2) asteroids, comets and Galilean satellites; (3) cratering processes and landform development; (4) volcanic processes and landforms; (5) Aerolian processes and landforms; (6) fluvial, preglacial, and other processes of landform development; (7) Mars polar deposits, volatiles, and climate; (8) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (9) remote sensing and regolith chemistry; (10) cartography and geologic mapping; and (11) special programs.

  3. Geology explorer: virtual geologic mapping and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini-Eidukat, Bernhardt; Schwert, Donald P.; Slator, Brian M.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing internet-based freeware for virtual mapping and geologic interpretation. This takes the form of a synthetic, virtual world, Planet Oit, where students are given the means and the equipment to carry out geologic investigation and interpretation as a geologist would in the field. The environment is designed to give students an authentic experience that includes elements of: (1) exploration of a spatially oriented, virtual, world; (2) practical, field oriented, expedition planning and decision-making; and (3) scientific problem solving (i.e. a "hands on" approach to mapping, geologic investigation, data acquisition, and interpretation). The game-like environment is networked, multi-player, and simulation-based. Planet Oit can be visited on the Internet at http://oit.cs.ndsu.nodak.edu/

  4. The importance of the riparian zone and in-stream processes in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed and agricultural watersheds - A review of the scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Macalady, Donald L.

    2010-08-01

    SummaryWe reviewed published studies from primarily glaciated regions in the United States, Canada, and Europe of the (1) transport of nitrate from terrestrial ecosystems to aquatic ecosystems, (2) attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone of undisturbed and agricultural watersheds, (3) processes contributing to nitrate attenuation in riparian zones, (4) variation in the attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone, and (5) importance of in-stream and hyporheic processes for nitrate attenuation in the stream channel. Our objectives were to synthesize the results of these studies and suggest methodologies to (1) monitor regional trends in nitrate concentration in undisturbed 1st order watersheds and (2) reduce nitrate loads in streams draining agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals that undisturbed headwater watersheds have been shown to be very retentive of nitrogen, but the importance of biogeochemical and hydrological riparian zone processes in retaining nitrogen in these watersheds has not been demonstrated as it has for agricultural watersheds. An understanding of the role of the riparian zone in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed watersheds is crucial because these watersheds are increasingly subject to stressors, such as changes in land use and climate, wildfire, and increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In general, understanding processes controlling the concentration and flux of nitrate is critical to identifying and mapping the vulnerability of watersheds to water quality changes due to a variety of stressors. In undisturbed and agricultural watersheds we propose that understanding the importance of riparian zone processes in 2nd order and larger watersheds is critical. Research is needed that addresses the relative importance of how the following sources of nitrate along any given stream reach might change as watersheds increase in size and with flow: (1) inputs upstream from the reach, (2) tributary inflow, (3) water derived from the riparian zone, (4) groundwater from outside the riparian zone (intermediate or regional sources), and (5) in-stream (hyporheic) processes.

  5. Geologic investigations of outer planets satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Four tests are examined: (1) investigation of volcanism on Io; Interim results of thermal and structural modeling of volcanism on Io are presented, (2) a study of the ancient heavily cratered regions on Ganymede, (3) a geologic comparison of the cratering record on Ganymede and Callisto, and (4) a geological and chemical investigation of internal resurfacing processes on the Saturnian satellites. Tasks 2, 3, and 4 utilize Voyager imaging data.

  6. Mapping watershed potential to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials to receiving streams, southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Hoos, Anne B.; Harned, Douglas; Garcia, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of the southeastern United States SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) water-quality model implementation, the U.S. Geological Survey created a dataset to characterize the contribution of phosphorus to streams from weathering and erosion of surficial geologic materials. SPARROW provides estimates of total nitrogen and phosphorus loads in surface waters from point and nonpoint sources. The characterization of the contribution of phosphorus from geologic materials is important to help separate the effects of natural or background sources of phosphorus from anthropogenic sources of phosphorus, such as municipal wastewater or agricultural practices. The potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from naturally occurring geologic materials to streams was characterized by using geochemical data from bed-sediment samples collected from first-order streams in relatively undisturbed watersheds as part of the multiyear U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Survey. The spatial pattern of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration is offered as a tool to represent the best available information at the regional scale. One issue may weaken the use of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration as a surrogate for the potential for geologic materials in the watershed to contribute to instream levels of phosphorus-an unknown part of the variability in bed-sediment phosphorus concentration may be due to the rates of net deposition and processing of phosphorus in the streambed rather than to variability in the potential of the watershed's geologic materials to contribute phosphorus to the stream. Two additional datasets were created to represent the potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials disturbed by mining activities from active mines and

  7. The relative importance of gas-phase and heterogeneous processes for polar chlorine activation and subsequent ozone depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Rolf; Wegner, Tobias; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Kirner, Ole; Drdla, Katja

    2013-04-01

    Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles are composed of different compounds and exist both in crystalline and in liquid form. Heterogeneous reactions occur on the surfaces and in the bulk of PSCs; these reactions are a prerequisite of polar halogen catalysed ozone loss. Both the formation of PSC particles and their heterogeneous reactivity is strongly temperature dependent. Here we discuss under which conditions the heterogeneous reactivity, and thus the composition of PSC particles, is important for polar ozone loss and under which conditions the speed of gas-phase reactions is rate limiting for chlorine activation and polar ozone loss. We discuss different cases of chlorine activation, both for the Arctic and the Antarctic. We find that for a variety of conditions, including the onset of chlorine activation in early winter, the subsequent completion of chlorine in the course of winter, and in the period of very rapid ozone loss in Antarctic spring, the speed of heterogeneous reactions is not a controlling factor for activation and subsequent ozone loss. However, we present also a case in Arctic spring, where gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions compete. Further, a sensitivity simulation is performed with the chemistry-climate model EMAC; it can be shown that the significance of heterogeneous reactions on ice particles, in comparison to liquid particles, is subordinate regarding chlorine activation and ozone depletion in Antarctic spring.

  8. Volcanic and geologic database projects of the Geological Survey of Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, S.; Nakano, S.; Hoshizumi, H.; Itoh, J.; Urai, M.; Nishiki, K.

    2009-12-01

    Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) is presently implementing the GEO-DB project, which aims to integrate all kinds of geological information in GSJ. GSJ published more than 50 CD-ROM series and established more than 20 databases at the Research Information Database (RIO-DB) of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Presently, four volcanic databases are open to the public: (1) Quaternary volcano database (RIO-DB), (2) Active volcano database (RIO-DB), and (3) ASTER satellite image database of major volcanoes. The Quaternary volcano database contains information such as volcanic type, history, age and pictures of more than 300 Quaternary volcanoes in Japan. More detailed volcanic information will be added to the database in the near future. The active volcano database contains information of active volcanoes in Japan such as the catalog of eruptive events during the last 10,000 years and geological maps of active volcanoes. The ASTER satellite image database provides sequential ASTER satellite image datasets of major volcanoes in the world. Collaboration between Quaternary and active volcano databases and the VOGRIPA project is the next important activity at the Geological Survey of Japan. The Geological Survey of Japan introduced the Integrated Geological Map Database (GeoMapDB) in 2006. The GeoMapDB is based on a WebGIS technology, which makes it possible to browse, overlay and search geological maps online. The database contains geological maps with scales ranging from 1:2 million to 1:25,000. Links to aforementioned volcanic database and active fault database in RIO-DB are also available. OneGeology is an international initiative of the geological surveys of the world and a flagship project of the ‘International Year of Planet Earth’. It aims to create dynamic geological map of the world available at the world wide web. Geological Surveys from 109 countries of the world are participating in this project. The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST is promoting OneGeology in Asia. The OneGeology portal was officially launched in 2008. Volcanic hazard maps are available for most major active volcanoes in Japan. A web-based GIS system combining various types of information with real time numerical simulations are very important for the next generation of volcanic hazard maps. Volcanic gravity flow simulations using the energy cone model were developed on GEO Grid system in AIST. An interactive user interface is available on the GEO Grid website. The pyroclastic flow simulation is open to all scientists and local government officials at http://geoapp.geogrid.org/gridsphere.

  9. Sample Preparation for Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Geological Samples by ICP-MS: A Critical Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederico Garcia Pinto; Rainério Escalfoni Junior; Tatiana Dillenburg SaintPierre

    2012-01-01

    The presence of rare earth elements (REE) in geological materials provides important information about the formation and the geochemical processes suffered by the rocks. Therefore, there is a constant necessity for accurate data and reliable and fast analytical methods. However, the low concentrations of these elements typically found in rocks require quantification by sufficiently sensitive techniques, such as Inductively Coupled

  10. The importance of sub-mesoscale processes for the exchange of properties through the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, M.; Chioua, J.; Romero, J.; Vázquez, A.; Macías, D.; Dastis, C.; Ramírez-Romero, E.; Echevarria, F.; Reyes, J.; García, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a detailed analysis of the sub-mesoscale transport processes in the Strait of Gibraltar. The interest is focussed on the Camarinal Sill region, and special attention is paid to the across-strait transport processes, the divergences and convergences in the central zone, and the small-scale circulation patterns along the northern coastal margin. The analysis is based on high-resolution (7 m) SST images acquired by an air-borne hyper-spectral scanner, and has been complemented with a rhodamine-release experiment, continuous thermo-salinograph records, acoustic Doppler current (ADCP) profiles from both moorings and vessel-mounted experiments, and numerical modelling. It is deduced from the analysis that the coupling between the upwelling processes, induced by the internal tide and the generation of large-amplitude internal waves, and the cyclonic eddies formed on the coastal margin, seems to be the mechanism that explains the chlorophyll maxima frequently found on the coastal margin of the studied area. Further, as a consequence of the small-scale patterns of circulation induced by the internal waves, the suspended substances are displaced from the coastal margins toward the central zones and later are carried by the westward current toward the convergence zones created by the internal waves, where they may be retained and accumulate. Then, in the eastward phase of the tidal current over the Camarinal Sill, these nuclei of concentrated substances (nutrients, chlorophyll, and plankton) are transported toward the Alboran Sea, where they must contribute, in part, to the primary productivity there. High-resolution (7 m) SST images acquired by an Airborne Hyper-spectral Scanner (AHS) provided by the Spanish Institute of Aerospace Techniques (INTA). Measurements made along vessel transects crossing the studied zone, of current velocity and echo-intensity profiles acquired by ADCP, and sea surface temperature, salinity and released rhodamine (see Fig. 1). Several conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) profiles taken at selected points within the region of the Camarinal Sill. Current velocity time-series recorded at two mooring placements within the studied zone (see Fig. 1). Numerical modelling of the tidal-induced hydro-dynamics. The most of the data used in the study have been collected during the oceanographic campaign “GIBRALTAR 2008” carried out onboard the R/V ‘Sarmiento de Gamboa’ during September and October 2008. The data used in this article were collected on September 17th 2008, in spring tides conditions, when the largest amplitude internal waves in Camarinal Sill are generated. As complementary information, we also make use of ADCP measurements taken onboard the R/V ‘García del Cid’ during a survey carried out in October 2004, and some satellite images of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll.

  11. Importance of fat oxidation in starch-based emulsions in the generation of the process contaminant furan.

    PubMed

    Owczarek-Fendor, Agnieszka; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Scholl, Georges; Adams, An; Van Lancker, Fien; Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Uytterhoeven, Veronique; Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    The formation of the possibly carcinogenic process contaminant furan was studied in starch-based emulsions during heat treatments as applied for sterilization. Fresh and oxidized soybean, sunflower, high-oleic sunflower, olive, linseed, and rapeseed oils were compared. Results indicated that both the oil type, in particular, the fatty acid composition, and the oxidation degree of the oil determined the susceptibility of the oils to generate furan upon heating. Thus, oils containing the nutritionally relevant omega-3 unsaturated alpha-linolenic acid proved to be able to generate significant amounts of furan if the oils were oxidized. No clear relationship between p-anisidine values of various oils and the amount of generated furan could be observed. However, in the case of soybean oil, significantly more furan was produced upon an increase in oxidation degree. Surprisingly, furan formation in food-relevant systems containing fresh lipids proved to be a minor route (up to 1.5 ppb furan) compared to a previously studied vitamin C containing model system (up to 13 ppb furan). PMID:20690672

  12. Importance of protamine phosphorylation to histone displacement in spermatids: can the disruption of this process be used for male contraception

    SciTech Connect

    Balhorn, R.; Hud, N.V.; Corzett, M.; Mazrimas, J.

    1995-06-01

    Protamine is a small protein that packages DNA in the sperm of most vertebrates. Shortly after its synthesis, the serine and threonine residues in each protamine are phosphorylated and the modified proteins are deposited onto DNA, displacing the histones and other chromatin proteins. We have hypothesized that the phosphorylation of protamine 1 induces protamine dimerization and these dimers are required for efficient histone displacement. Histone displacement by protamines in late-step spermatids appears to be essential for the production of fertile sperm in man and other mammals, and the disruption of this process could provide a new approach for male contraception. As a first step towards testing this theory, we have initiated a set of in vitro experiments to determine whether of not protamine phosphorylation is essential for histone displacement. Thee results of these experiments, although incomplete, confirm that unphosphorylated protamine cannot effectively displace histone from DNA. Polyarginine molecules twice the size of a protamine molecule and salmine dimer were found to be more effective. These results are consistent with the theory that the disruption of protamine phosphorylation may prove to be a useful new approach for male contraception if it can be shown to facilitate or induce protamine dimerization.

  13. On the role of the interactions of ions with external magnetic fields in physiologic processes and their importance in chronobiology.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, W

    2002-01-01

    Homage to the scientific work of Franz Halberg is inevitably connected with the development and importance of chronobiology and its applications in chronomedicine. We show that nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems with feedsideward coupling give rise to oscillations between different limit cycles favoring either inhibition or stimulation of the growth or decay of a component. The inclusion of the diffusion part of each concentration distribution offers the possibility of also taking into account the interaction of charged constituents with external magnetic fields. Concentration oscillations between different limit cycles of the constituents can thus be stabilized. It is assumed that the z-component of the external magnetic field is related to the rather weak solar magnetic field (ca. 10(-9) Tesla). Periods of about one week result for some positive (Mg2+, Ca2+, K+) and negative (e.g. Cl-) ions and some organic acids containing phosphates. The resonance time of a free proton H+ determining the oscillations of the pH-value is about 1 day and that of OH1 is about 3.5 days (half a week). The influence of the geomagnetic field (x- or y-component) in the same range is of a few to ca. 20-30 minutes in the case of charged proteins. An essential condition for this separation is that in general the geomagnetic field does not coincide with the z-component of the solar magnetic field. As an example, the role of the timedependence of the growth and ATP-concentration of the irradiation of the tumor spheroid C3H-MA (mammary adenocarcinoma of mice) is presented. PMID:11980358

  14. Structural Geology Techniques

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dutch, Steven

    The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.

  15. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  16. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  17. National Geologic Map Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) is an Internet-based system for query and retrieval of earth-science map information, created as a collaborative effort between the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists. Its functions include providing a catalog of available map information; a data repository; and a source for general information on the nature and intended uses of the various types of earth-science information. The map catalog is a comprehensive, searchable catalog of all geoscience maps of the United States, in paper or digital format. It includes maps published in geological survey formal series and open-file series, maps in books, theses and dissertations, maps published by park associations, scientific societies, and other agencies, as well as publications that do not contain a map but instead provide a geological description of an area (for example, a state park). The geologic-names lexicon (GEOLEX) is a search tool for lithologic and geochronologic unit names. It now contains roughly 90% of the geologic names found in the most recent listing of USGS-approved geologic names. Current mapping activities at 1:24,000- and 1:100,000-scale are listed in the Geologic Mapping in Progress Database. Information on how to find topographic maps and list of geology-related links is also available.

  18. External Resource: Geologic Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This NASA sponsored webpage, Center for Educational Technologies, teaches students about Geologic Time. The age of Earth is so long compared to all periods of time that we humans are familiar with, it has been given a special name: Geologic time. The age

  19. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  20. Marine Geological Discoveries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site by a Norwegian researcher features descriptions of marine geological formations: pockmarks, mud volcanoes, deep-water coral reefs, and gas hydrates. Using ROV technology, he has taken photos of these deep seafloor features, and compares them to geological structures seen on land, and even on the moon.

  1. California Geological Survey - Landslides

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Geological Survey

    This page from the CA Geological Survey (CGS) presents information on landslides as well as maps and products of various past and present CGS programs to map and respond to landslides in the state of California, including the Forest and Watershed Geology Program, the Seismic Hazards Zonation Program, the Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping project, and the Landslide Map Index.

  2. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  3. Geologic Time Online Edition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial will help students learn and understand the concepts of geologic time and the age of the Earth. They will investigate the geologic time scale and learn about the use of index fossils and radiometric dating to determine the age of rock formations and fossils.

  4. Earthquakes and Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ozsvath

    In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

  5. Wyoming State Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.

  6. Assessing the Relative Importance of Local and Regional Processes on the Survival of a Threatened Salmon Population

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jessica A.; Teel, David J.; Peterson, William T.; Baptista, Antonio M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)) and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and a copepod community index (CCI)) accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998–2008 (R2>0.70). However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009–2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50–448% of observed value) compared with those based on the NPGO (68–212%) or biological indices (CPUE and CCI: 83–172%). Overall, the PDO index was remarkably informative in earlier years but other basin-scale and biological indices provided more accurate indications of survival in recent years. PMID:24924741

  7. Assessing the relative importance of local and regional processes on the survival of a threatened salmon population.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jessica A; Teel, David J; Peterson, William T; Baptista, Antonio M

    2014-01-01

    Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)) and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and a copepod community index (CCI)) accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998-2008 (R2>0.70). However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009-2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50-448% of observed value) compared with those based on the NPGO (68-212%) or biological indices (CPUE and CCI: 83-172%). Overall, the PDO index was remarkably informative in earlier years but other basin-scale and biological indices provided more accurate indications of survival in recent years. PMID:24924741

  8. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  9. Virtual Tour of Maine Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.

  10. Appraising U.S. Geological Survey science records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center has legislative charters to preserve and make accessible land remote sensing records important to the United States. This essay explains the appraisal process developed by EROS to ensure the science records it holds and those offered to it align with those charters. The justifications behind the questions employed to weed and to complement the EROS archive are explained along with the literature reviewed supporting their inclusion. Appraisal results are listed by individual collection and include the recommendations accepted by EROS management. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

  11. What Should We Looking for in Martian Meteorites? Is Evidence of Crustal Process or Mantle Process More Important...and to Whom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Dyar, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The "sampling" of Mars, both remotely and by meteorites, provides evidence for a range of reducing and oxidizing environments. Processes that modified the crust and mantle on Mars are clearly as diverse as those on the Earth with regard to oxygen fugacity. Increasingly compelling evidence for the presence of water in the near surface regime provides a potentially oxidizing near-surface environment, especially when coupled with increasing hydrogen loss from the planet through time. Dewatering of the mantle and the purported absence of global crust-mantle recycling perhaps accounts for the apparent reducing regime that dominates the source regions of many of the meteorite samples when compared to samples of the Earth's mantle.

  12. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Merging of the USGS Atlas of Mercury 1:5,000,000 Geologic Series; Geologic Mapping of the V-36 Thetis Regio Quadrangle: 2008 Progress Report; Structural Maps of the V-17 Beta Regio Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of Isabella Quadrangle (V-50) and Helen Planitia, Venus; Renewed Mapping of the Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V-54), Venus; Mapping the Sedna-Lavinia Region of Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Guinevere Planitia Quadrangle of Venus; Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons; Geological Mapping of the North Polar Region of Venus (V-1 Snegurochka Planitia): Significant Problems and Comparisons to the Earth's Archean; Venus Quadrangle Geological Mapping: Use of Geoscience Data Visualization Systems in Mapping and Training; Geologic Map of the V-1 Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle: Progress Report; The Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus: Characterization of the Venus Midlands; Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping; Geologic Map of the Meskhent Tessera Quadrangle (V-3), Venus: Evidence for Early Formation and Preservation of Regional Topography; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus: A Progress Report; Geology of the Lachesis Tessera Quadrangle (V-18), Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Juno Chasma Quadrangle, Venus: Establishing the Relation Between Rifting and Volcanism; Geologic Mapping of V-19, V-28, and V-53; Lunar Geologic Mapping Program: 2008 Update; Geologic Mapping of the Marius Quadrangle, the Moon; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report; New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars; Geologic Evolution of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002, and -25007; Mapping Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region, Mars; Geology of Holden Crater and the Holden and Ladon Multi-Ring Impact Basins, Margaritifer Terra, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabasca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: First Year Results and Second Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: Amazonian Results; Recent Geologic Mapping Results for the Polar Regions of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars (MC-8 SE and MC-23 NW) and the Northern Lowlands of Venus (V-16 and V-15); Geologic Mapping of the Zal, Hi'iaka, and Shamshu Regions of Io; Global Geologic Map of Europa; Material Units, Structures/Landforms, and Stratigraphy for the Global Geologic Map of Ganymede (1:15M); and Global Geologic Mapping of Io: Preliminary Results.

  13. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial Action Selection Report, Appendix B of Attachment 2: Geology report, Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which describes the proposed remedial action for the Naturita site. An extensive amount of data and supporting information has been generated and evaluated for this remedial action. These data and supporting information are not incorporated into this single document but are included or referenced in the supporting documents. The RAP consists of this RAS and four supporting documents or attachments. This Attachment 2, Geology Report describes the details of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Dry Flats disposal site.

  14. Geologic effects on groundwater salinity and discharge into an estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russonielloa, Christopher J.; Fernandeza, Cristina; Brattonb, John F.; Banaszakc, Joel F.; Krantzc, David E.; Andresd, Scott; Konikowe, Leonard F.; Michaela, Holly A.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be an important pathway for transport of nutrients and contaminants to estuaries. A better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic controls on these fluxes is critical for their estimation and management. We examined geologic features, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at an estuarine study site. Seismic data showed the existence of paleovalleys infilled with estuarine mud and peat that extend hundreds of meters offshore. A low-salinity groundwater plume beneath this low-permeability fill was mapped with continuous resistivity profiling. Extensive direct SGD measurements with seepage meters (n = 551) showed fresh groundwater discharge patterns that correlated well with shallow porewater salinity and the hydrogeophysical framework. Small-scale variability in fresh and saline discharge indicates influence of meter-scale geologic heterogeneity, while site-scale discharge patterns are evidence of the influence of the paleovalley feature. Beneath the paleovalley fill, fresh groundwater flows offshore and mixes with saltwater before discharging along paleovalley flanks. On the adjacent drowned interfluve where low-permeability fill is absent, fresh groundwater discharge is focused at the shoreline. Shallow saltwater exchange was greatest across sandy sediments and where fresh SGD was low. The geologic control of groundwater flowpaths and discharge salinity demonstrated in this work are likely to affect geochemical reactions and the chemical loads delivered by SGD to coastal surface waters. Because similar processes are likely to exist in other estuaries where drowned paleovalleys commonly cross modern shorelines, the existence and implications of complex hydrogeology are important considerations for studies of groundwater fluxes and related management decisions.

  15. Geologic effects on groundwater salinity and discharge into an estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russoniello, Christopher J.; Fernandez, Cristina; Bratton, John F.; Banaszak, Joel F.; Krantz, David E.; Andres, A. Scott; Konikow, Leonard F.; Michael, Holly A.

    2013-08-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be an important pathway for transport of nutrients and contaminants to estuaries. A better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic controls on these fluxes is critical for their estimation and management. We examined geologic features, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at an estuarine study site. Seismic data showed the existence of paleovalleys infilled with estuarine mud and peat that extend hundreds of meters offshore. A low-salinity groundwater plume beneath this low-permeability fill was mapped with continuous resistivity profiling. Extensive direct SGD measurements with seepage meters (n = 551) showed fresh groundwater discharge patterns that correlated well with shallow porewater salinity and the hydrogeophysical framework. Small-scale variability in fresh and saline discharge indicates influence of meter-scale geologic heterogeneity, while site-scale discharge patterns are evidence of the influence of the paleovalley feature. Beneath the paleovalley fill, fresh groundwater flows offshore and mixes with saltwater before discharging along paleovalley flanks. On the adjacent drowned interfluve where low-permeability fill is absent, fresh groundwater discharge is focused at the shoreline. Shallow saltwater exchange was greatest across sandy sediments and where fresh SGD was low. The geologic control of groundwater flowpaths and discharge salinity demonstrated in this work are likely to affect geochemical reactions and the chemical loads delivered by SGD to coastal surface waters. Because similar processes are likely to exist in other estuaries where drowned paleovalleys commonly cross modern shorelines, the existence and implications of complex hydrogeology are important considerations for studies of groundwater fluxes and related management decisions.

  16. Geology of Earth's Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

  17. Behavior of Feature Selection in LIBS Spectroscopy as a Function of Varying Distance and Data Pre-Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmosino, M. L.; Breves, E. A.; Dyar, M. D.; Ozanne, M. V.; Clegg, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-03-01

    This study uses the lasso approach to examine the importance of varying distance and data pre-processing (baseline subtraction) on results of multivariate elemental analysis of LIBS data on geological samples.

  18. Economic geology: Volatile destruction Bruno Scaillet1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    carried by magmas plays a pivotal role in many geological processes. A great chemical affinity exists in the separation process1 , but direct evidence has been lacking. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Nadeau et al.2 associated with this tectonic setting. After water and carbon dioxide, sulphur is the third most abundant

  19. Digital geological mapping with tablet PC and PDA: A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, P.; Bruciatelli, L.; Domingos, F.; Jones, R. R.; De Donatis, M.; Wilson, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Both the hardware and software available for digital geological mapping (DGM) have advanced considerably in recent years. Mobile computers have become cheaper, lighter, faster and more power efficient. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) have become cheaper, smaller and more accurate, and software specifically designed for geological mapping has become available. These advances have now reached a stage where it is effective to replace traditional paper-based mapping techniques with those employing DGM methodologies. This paper attempts to assess and evaluate two currently available DGM systems for geological outcrop mapping: one based on a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) running ESRI "ArcPad", and the second based on a Tablet PC running "Map IT" software. Evaluation was based on field assessment during mapping of a well-exposed coastal section of deformed Carboniferous and Permian rocks at N. Tynemouth in NE England. Prior to the field assessment, several key criteria were identified as essential attributes of an effective DGM system. These criteria were used as the basis for the assessment and evaluation process. Our findings suggest that the main concerns presented by sceptics opposed to DGM have largely been resolved. In general, DGM systems using a Tablet PC were found to be most suitable for a wide range of geological data collection tasks, including detailed outcrop mapping. In contrast, systems based on a PDA, due to small screen and limited processing power, were best suited for more basic mapping and simple data collection tasks. In addition, PDA-based systems can be particularly advantageous for mapping projects in remote regions, in situations where there is a limited power supply or where total weight of equipment is an important consideration.

  20. Sand Sea Wonders: Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes the geology of The Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve. Active links allow students to explore the geologic timeline, geologic cross section in animation, and the wind regime. A reversing dune is shown in animation and other dunes such as star, parabolic, barchan, and transverse are discussed. Another section illustrates sand recycling by seasonal streams. A sand deposits map shows topography, dunes watershed, old national monument boundary, roads, and surface water and a section called 'How Much Sand' quantifies the description. Artwork on this site includes both adult and 'Hands on the Land' student artwork while photography depicts dunes, landscape, animals, plants, and human history.

  1. Indiana Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS). Site materials include information on Earth science issues such as groundwater, mapping, coal and mineral resources, oil and gas, and seismic hazards. There is also information on the geologic time scale and stratigraphic record, rocks and minerals, fossils (including nautiloids of the Ordovician period in Indiana), caves and karst topography in Indiana, and glacial geology. The Geographic Information Ssytems (GIS) and mapping section includes a GIS atlas for the state, an online map viewer, links to the Indiana coal mine information system, petroleum database management system, and a download page where users can access GIS datasets for the state.

  2. Florida Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) homepage provides data, research materials and interpretations on aquifer systems, geologic frameworks, landforms, energy and non-energy mineral resources, and geologic hazards which which can be used to address issues of conservation and protection, sustainable development, human health protection, and implementation of successful environmental regulatory programs. Educational materials for earth science and the pre-historic development of the state are also provided. These include topics such as sinkholes, data and maps, rock and mineral identification, minerals, hydrogeology, and fossils.

  3. Formation evaluation: Geological procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

  4. Geology by Lightplane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Louis Maher, Jr.

    This site contains 360 color aerial photographs of geologically significant landscapes in the western United States, as well as in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Kentucky. The photos are meant to be useful teaching aides for introductory geology classes to establish the relationship between the overall landscape and ground-based geological features. The photos are reduced to a width of 640 pixels and are arranged geographically. Each picture is accompanied by a caption that provides geographic orientation, location, and the date it was taken. 2000-pixel-wide versions can be downloaded from a linked FTP site.

  5. Engineering-Geological Maps of Geological Factors of the Environment in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliak, František; Br?ek, Martin

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed very frequent natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, storms and similar. In most cases, disasters are caused by geological factors, especially geobarriers. Geobarriers threaten the life and works of man or reduce the effectiveness of the construction and operation of technical works, or harm the environment by negative anthropogenic influences. An important task in assessing the technical and environmental aspects of particular engineering activity is to assess the impact of constructions on the production and protection of the environment. The important part of the environment is the geological environment. In this paper, we give an overview of geological factors of the environment and the way how they are illustrated in the engineering-geological maps made in Slovakia.

  6. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  7. Geology before Pluto: Pre-encounter considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Alan D.; Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Bierhaus, Edward B.; Bray, Veronica J.; Spencer, John R.; Binzel, Richard P.; Buratti, Bonnie; Grundy, William M.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Reitsema, Harold J.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold; Young, Leslie A.; Beyer, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be imminently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto system's landscapes. In this paper, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by the New Horizons cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then we broadly review the major geological processes that could potentially operate on the surfaces of Pluto and its major moon Charon. We first survey exogenic processes (i.e. those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration), and the work of wind. We conclude with an assessment of the prospects for endogenic activity in the form of tectonics and cryovolcanism.

  8. Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante

    2013-04-01

    Successful IYPE activities and implementation of Geoheritage day in Lithuania increased public awareness in geology. A series of projects introducing geology to the general public and youth, supported by EU funds and local communities, were initiated. Researchers from the scientific and applied geology institutions of Lithuania participated in these projects and provided with the geological data. In one case, the Lithuanian Survey of Protected Areas supported the installation of a series of geological exhibitions in several regional and national parks. An animation demonstrating glacial processes was chosen for most of these because the Lithuanian surface is largely covered with sedimentary deposits of the Nemunas (Weichselian) glaciation. Researchers from the Lithuanian Geological Survey used the mapping results to demonstrate real glacial processes for every chosen area. In another case, 3D models showing underground structures of different localities were based on detailed geological maps and profiles obtained for that area. In case of the Sartai regional park, the results of previous geological research projects provided the possibility to create a movie depicting the ca. 2 Ga geological evolution of the region. The movie starts with the accretion of volcanic island arcs on the earlier continental margin at ca. 2 Ga and deciphers later Precambrian tectonic and magmatic events. The reconstruction is based on numerous scientific articles and interpretation of geophysical data. Later Paleozoic activities and following erosion sculptured the surface which was covered with several ice sheets in Quaternary. For educational purpose, a collection of minerals and rocks at the Forestry Institute was used to create an exhibition called "Cycle of geological processes". Forestry scientists and their students are able to study the interactions of geodiversity and biodiversity and to understand ancient and modern geological processes leading to a soil formation. An aging exposition at the Museum of Erratic Boulders in NW Lithuania is being rearranged for educational purposes, to show the major rock types and their origins more clearly. A new exhibition is supplemented with computer portals presenting geological processes, geological quizzes, animations etc. Magmatism, metamorphism, sedimentation and other geological processes are demonstrated using erratic boulders brought by glaciers from Scandinavia and northern Russia. A part of the exhibition is devoted to glaciation processes and arrival of ice sheets to Lithuania. Visitors are able to examine large erratic boulder groups in a surrounding park and to enjoy beautiful environment. The exhibition also demonstrates mineral resources of Lithuania, different fossils and stones from a human body. In all cases it was recognised that a lack of geological information limits the use of geology for public outreach. Ongoing scientific research is essential in many places as well as a mediator's job for interpreting the results of highly specialised research results and to adapt them for public consumption.

  9. Global geologic map of Ganymede

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Geoffrey C.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Head, James W.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louise M.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.; Kay, Johnathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Ganymede is the largest satellite of Jupiter, and its icy surface has been formed through a variety of impact cratering, tectonic, and possibly cryovolcanic processes. The history of Ganymede can be divided into three distinct phases: an early phase dominated by impact cratering and mixing of non-ice materials in the icy crust, a phase in the middle of its history marked by great tectonic upheaval, and a late quiescent phase characterized by a gradual drop in heat flow and further impact cratering. Images of Ganymede suitable for geologic mapping were collected during the flybys of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 (1979), as well as during the Galileo Mission in orbit around Jupiter (1995–2003). This map represents a synthesis of our understanding of Ganymede geology after the conclusion of the Galileo Mission. We summarize the properties of the imaging dataset used to construct the map, previously published maps of Ganymede, our own mapping rationale, and the geologic history of Ganymede. Additional details on these topics, along with detailed descriptions of the type localities for the material units, may be found in the companion paper to this map (Patterson and others, 2010).

  10. Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, George E.

    2004-01-01

    Geological mapping and topical studies, primarily in the southern Acidalia Planitia/Cydonia Mensae region of Mars is presented. The overall objective was to understand geologic processes and crustal history in the northern lowland in order to assess the probability that an ocean once existed in this region. The major deliverable is a block of 6 1:500,000 scale geologic maps that will be published in 2004 as a single map at 1:1,000,000 scale along with extensive descriptive and interpretive text. A major issue addressed by the mapping was the relative ages of the extensive plains of Acidalia Planitia and the knobs and mesas of Cydonia Mensae. The mapping results clearly favor a younger age for the plains. Topical studies included a preliminary analysis of the very abundant small domes and cones to assess the possibility that their origins could be determined by detailed mapping and remote-sensing analysis. We also tested the validity of putative shorelines by using GIs to co-register full-resolution MOLA altimetry data and Viking images with these shorelines plotted on them. Of the 3 proposed shorelines in this area, one is probably valid, one is definitely not valid, and the third is apparently 2 shorelines closely spaced in elevation. Publications supported entirely or in part by this grant are included.

  11. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  12. North Dakota Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.

  13. IU GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES graduatehandbookappendices

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    jknjau Geol Sci Assoc. Professor Greg Olyphant Hydrogeology, Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology 5. Professor Chen Zhu Hydrogeology, Mass Transport, Water-Rock-Gas-Microbe Interactions 5-8852 MSBII 424 czhu

  14. Bedrock Geology Mapping Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Miller

    This field mapping and map-making exercise is a capstone project for a course on Geological Maps. Over a weekend (~12 hours of field work), students collect lithologic and structural data from outcrops scattered over a one square mile area. Back in the classroom, students digitally compile their field data (outcrop, structure measurements, traverse locations) into ArcMAP. They infer geologic linework (faults and contacts) and units from this data in ArcMAP and then export these data layers into Illustrator. In Illustrator, they add ancillary map components (a cross section, description of map units, correlation diagram, map symbol legend,...) to create a final map at a 1:10,000 scale. Their maps are printed out on 11"x17" paper and saved as a pdf file. This exercise helps the students to appreciate how field data is collected and how these geologic facts are interpretively organized into a four-dimensional picture that is a geologic map.

  15. Interactive Geologic Timeline Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Environmental Literacy and Inquiry Working Group at Lehigh University

    In this learning activity, students use a web-based geologic timeline to examine temperature, CO2 concentration, and ice cover data to investigate how climate has changed during the last 715 million years.

  16. Geology and Human Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The link between geology and human health may not seem obvious, but it many ways geology can affect public health in a variety of crucial ways. Certainly, the relationship between geological factors and water and air quality is one that continues to interest policy makers and others. This site explores these issues, and it was created by the people at Carleton College's Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty initiative. Here visitors can make use of a wide range of educational and supporting materials, including classroom activities, key visualizations, and collections of external links. First-time users may wish to start at the "Resources for Educators" area, which includes a brief overview titled "Essential components of geology and human health" and several helpful posters. The remaining materials can be viewed in sections that include "Bookshelf", "Visualizations", and "Internet Resources".

  17. Web Geologic Time Scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of California-Berkeley Museum of Paleontology (last mentioned in the June 16, 1995 Scout Report) has recently updated its Web Geologic Time Scale, an online feature that helps users learn about the geologic timeline and explore related museum exhibits. The familiar geologic timeline appears on the main page of the Web site, with hypertext links for each division of time. Every page of the Web Geologic Time Machine site is liberally sprinkled with links to related UCMP Web pages; think of it as a portal to all online information available from the museum. Altogether, this Web site provides a well-organized and comprehensive resource for learning how the planet has changed over time, and would be a great addition to earth or life sciences classroom material for a broad range of grades.

  18. USGS Geologic Hazards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Geologic Hazards section of the US Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research into the causes of geological phenomena such as landslides and earthquakes. The homepage connects visitors to the Geologic Hazards team's three main areas of endeavor. Geomagnetism provides links to the National Geomagnetic Information Center; Magnetic Observatories, Models, and Charts; and the Geomagnetic Information Node, which receives geomagnetic observatory data from around the world. The Landslide group studies the "causes and mechanisms of ground failure" to prevent "long-term losses and casualties." Their section provides links to the program and information center, publications, events, and current projects. The Earthquakes department hosts a wealth of information, including neotectonics, engineering seismology, and paleoseismology. Interactive maps are also provided.

  19. Devil's Tower Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Park Service (NPS)

    This site from the National Park Service briefly addresses the geology of Devil's Tower. The evolution of various theories on the formation of the tower are discussed. A slide show of the emplacement of the tower is also available.

  20. Photos of structural geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marli Miller

    This page contains four categories of structural geology photos: brittle structures, ductile structures, active tectonics, and unconformities. All photos are freely downloadable and are at resolutions sufficient for power point.

  1. Johnston Geology Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Johnston Geology Museum is part of the Emporia State University Earth Science Department. There is an online virtual tour of the collection which includes a Cretaceous mosasaur, a giant ground sloth, mastodon bones and tusk, brachiopods, Paleozoic corals, sedimentary structures, minerals and crystals. The Museum contains geological specimens predominantly from Kansas, and include the world famous Hamilton Quarry Fossil Assemblage, the Tri-State Mining Display, petrified tree stumps, and the Hawkins and the Calkins Indian Artifact Collections.

  2. Interpreting Geologic Sections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Morris

    Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

  3. Manitoba Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site offers materials on Manitoba geology and minerals, mining and mineral exploration, a Digital Elevation Model of Southern Manitoba (DEMSM) landforms including oblique views, an interactive GIS map gallery of minerals and geology, a study of paleofloods in the Red River Basin including photographs illustrating how scientists delineated the paleofloods, and information on the Manitoba Protected Areas Initiative. Some maps and reports are available to download.

  4. Geologic Time Discussion Analogies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Noah Fay

    The slides provide a fun way of discussing the immensity of geologic time and help to grasp the age of the earth, the time gaps between major geologic events, and the relative minuteness of humans time on earth. After the discussion with the class, students are given opportunity to develop their own analogies using "everyday" things (other than the calendar and money examples used in this activity).

  5. In vivo processing of DNase colicins E2 and E7 is required for their import into the cytoplasm of target cells.

    PubMed

    Mora, Liliana; de Zamaroczy, Miklos

    2014-01-01

    DNase colicins E2 and E7, both of which appropriate the BtuB/Tol translocation machinery to cross the outer membrane, undergo a processing step as they enter the cytoplasm. This endoproteolytic cleavage is essential for their killing action. A processed form of the same size, 18.5 kDa, which corresponds to the C-terminal catalytic domain, was detected in the cytoplasm of bacteria treated with either of the two DNase colicins. The inner-membrane protease FtsH is necessary for the processing that allows the translocation of the colicin DNase domain into the cytoplasm. The processing occurs near residue D420, at the same position as the FtsH-dependent cleavage in RNase colicins E3 and D. The cleavage site is located 30 amino acids upstream of the DNase domain. In contrast, the previously reported periplasm-dependent colicin cleavage, located at R452 in colicin E2, was shown to be generated by the outer-membrane protease OmpT and we show that this cleavage is not physiologically relevant for colicin import. Residue R452, whose mutated derivatives led to toxicity defect, was shown to have no role in colicin processing and translocation, but it plays a key role in the catalytic activity, as previously reported for other DNase colicins. Membrane associated forms of colicins E2 and E7 were detected on target cells as proteinase K resistant peptides, which include both the receptor-binding and DNase domains. A similar, but much less proteinase K-resistant form was also detected with RNase colicin E3. These colicin forms are not relevant for colicin import, but their detection on the cell surface indicates that whole nuclease-colicin molecules are found in a stable association with the outer-membrane receptor BtuB of the target cells. PMID:24840776

  6. In Vivo Processing of DNase Colicins E2 and E7 Is Required for Their Import into the Cytoplasm of Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Liliana; de Zamaroczy, Miklos

    2014-01-01

    DNase colicins E2 and E7, both of which appropriate the BtuB/Tol translocation machinery to cross the outer membrane, undergo a processing step as they enter the cytoplasm. This endoproteolytic cleavage is essential for their killing action. A processed form of the same size, 18.5 kDa, which corresponds to the C-terminal catalytic domain, was detected in the cytoplasm of bacteria treated with either of the two DNase colicins. The inner-membrane protease FtsH is necessary for the processing that allows the translocation of the colicin DNase domain into the cytoplasm. The processing occurs near residue D420, at the same position as the FtsH-dependent cleavage in RNase colicins E3 and D. The cleavage site is located 30 amino acids upstream of the DNase domain. In contrast, the previously reported periplasm-dependent colicin cleavage, located at R452 in colicin E2, was shown to be generated by the outer-membrane protease OmpT and we show that this cleavage is not physiologically relevant for colicin import. Residue R452, whose mutated derivatives led to toxicity defect, was shown to have no role in colicin processing and translocation, but it plays a key role in the catalytic activity, as previously reported for other DNase colicins. Membrane associated forms of colicins E2 and E7 were detected on target cells as proteinase K resistant peptides, which include both the receptor-binding and DNase domains. A similar, but much less proteinase K-resistant form was also detected with RNase colicin E3. These colicin forms are not relevant for colicin import, but their detection on the cell surface indicates that whole nuclease-colicin molecules are found in a stable association with the outer-membrane receptor BtuB of the target cells. PMID:24840776

  7. YUCCA MOUNTAIN: Earth-Science Issues at a Geologic Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane C. S. Long; Rodney C. Ewing

    2004-01-01

    ? Abstract The nation has over 40,000 metric tonnes (MT) of nuclear waste des- tined for disposal in a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. In this review, we highlight some,of the important,geoscience,issues associated with the project and place them,in the context of the process by which,a final decision on Yucca Mountain will be made. The issues include understanding,how,water could infiltrate

  8. Geoscape Vancouver: Living with our Geological Landscape

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is about the geology and dynamic landscape of the Vancouver, British Columbia area. The people of Vancouver live where the Fraser River breaches the coastal mountains to reach the inland sea of the Strait of Georgia. This landscape is underlain by a variety of earth materials and is continually shaped by earth processes - a geological landscape or geoscape. The processes include colliding crustal plates and mountain-building, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and the work of water, and past glaciers. References are given to printed and web resources for additional information.

  9. Impact, and its implications for geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Ursula B.

    1988-01-01

    The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

  10. Applications of ISES for geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The principal applications for onboard data processing and real-time data transmission in the geological sciences are the detection of early warning signs of potential catastrophic events and the rapid assessment of impact and damage following major events. Also, the opportunity for quick look and supporting data during field investigations should not be disregarded. The Eos platforms are ideal for these applications because of the variety of earth sensing instruments and their differing modes of operation. Further study is required to define the role for each instrument and to assess how they can aid each other in establishing an improved output product.

  11. Illustrated Glossary of Geologic Terms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Geology Department at Iowa State University, this handy illustrated glossary of geological terms is an excellent quick reference resource for students. Continuously upgraded with links to illustrations and text, this geological lexicon is based on the glossary in the textbook Earth: An Introduction to Geological Change by S. Judson and S.M. Richardson. Alphabetical tabs and internal links to related terms let users move quickly around this useful aid for geology students.

  12. Geomorphology and Structural Geology of Saturnalia Fossae and Adjacent Structures in the Northern Hemisphere of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, J. E. C.; Yin, A.; Russell, C. T.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Williams, D. A.; Blewett, D. T.; Ruesch, O.; Hiesinger, H.; Le Corre, L.; Mercer, C.; Yingst, R. A.; Garry, W. B.; Jaumann, R.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Schröder, S. E.; Ammannito, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.

    2014-02-01

    This work examines the link between impact cratering processes and structural and geologic features in Vesta’s northern hemisphere through a mapping study of the Saturnalia Fossae, adjacent structural features and geologic units.

  13. The Lagoon of Venice: geological setting, evolution and land subsidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Brambati; Laura Carbognin; Tullio Quaia; Pietro Teatini; Luigi Tosi

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with the geological setting, history and subsidence of the Venetian Plain. Major attention is paid to the Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphic sequence in the Lagoon of Venice, in relation to its origin that dates back to 6-7 kyr BP. Geological land subsidence, which played an important role in the origin and the evolution of the lagoon, and anthropogenic subsidence,

  14. Quaternary Geologic Map of Connecticut and Long Island Sound Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet Radway; Schafer, John P.; London, Elizabeth Haley; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Lewis, Ralph S.; Thompson, Woodrow B.

    2005-01-01

    The Quaternary geologic map (sheet 1) and explanatory figures and cross sections (sheet 2) portray the geologic features formed in Connecticut during the Quaternary Period, which includes the Pleistocene (glacial) and Holocene (postglacial) Epochs. The Quaternary Period has been a time of development of many details of the landscape and of all the surficial deposits. At least twice in the late Pleistocene, continental ice sheets swept across Connecticut. Their effects are of pervasive importance to the present occupants of the land. The Quaternary geologic map illustrates the geologic history and the distribution of depositional environments during the emplacement of glacial and postglacial surficial deposits and the landforms resulting from those events.

  15. Autoradiographic study on healing process of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in rat. Possible importance of Brunner's glands in ulcer healing

    SciTech Connect

    Fuse, Y.; Tsuchihashi, Y.; Sugihara, H.; Kodama, T.; Takino, T.; Fujita, S.

    1988-09-01

    The healing process of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was studied by (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography. After the development of ulcer in the duodenum, cell proliferation was markedly activated not only in the crypts but also in the Brunner's glands near the ulcer. In the initial stages of ulcer healing, they both contributed to form the surface covering regenerating epithelium. Granulation tissue also proliferated at the base of the ulcer. In later stages of ulcer healing, new crypts were formed in the floor of the ulcer. New villi regenerated from these crypts and Brunner's glands regenerated by proliferation in situ. The ulcer base then was completely covered with new villi and granulation tissue was replaced by dense fibrous connective tissue. The present study suggested that the Brunner's glands, together with the crypts of Lieberkuehn, play an important role in the healing process of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies cellular processes affecting intracellular aggregation of Alzheimer's amyloid-?42: importance of lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, S.; Traini, M.; Dawes, I. W.; Perrone, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-? (A?)–containing plaques are a major neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two major isoforms of A? peptide associated with AD are A?40 and A?42, of which the latter is highly prone to aggregation. Increased presence and aggregation of intracellular A?42 peptides is an early event in AD progression. Improved understanding of cellular processes affecting A?42 aggregation may have implications for development of therapeutic strategies. A?42 fused to green fluorescent protein (A?42-GFP) was expressed in ?4600 mutants of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide deletion library to identify proteins and cellular processes affecting intracellular A?42 aggregation by assessing the fluorescence of A?42-GFP. This screening identified 110 mutants exhibiting intense A?42-GFP–associated fluorescence. Four major cellular processes were overrepresented in the data set, including phospholipid homeostasis. Disruption of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylethanolamine metabolism had a major effect on intracellular A?42 aggregation and localization. Confocal microscopy indicated that A?42-GFP localization in the phospholipid mutants was juxtaposed to the nucleus, most likely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/ER membrane. These data provide a genome-wide indication of cellular processes that affect intracellular A?42-GFP aggregation and may have important implications for understanding cellular mechanisms affecting intracellular A?42 aggregation and AD disease progression. PMID:24870034

  17. The Evolution of Dinosaurs Over Geologic Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan asks high school students to combine their knowledge of evolution, geologic time, and dinosaurs into a discussion of how these three topics overlap with regard to dinosaur evolution in the Cretaceous period. Students will read about the work of paleontologist Paul Sereno and list the dinosaurs he has discovered as well as the locations in which they were found and the time periods in which they lived; review the periods of geologic time; review the theory of evolution and write a paragraph explaining how geographic isolation would contribute to the evolutionary process; write paragraphs describing the changes to the continental layout of the Earth during the Cretaceous period; write paragraphs relating geological changes to dinosaur evolution during the Cretaceous period; and create posters or computer presentations illustrating the Earth during the Cretaceous period and the evolution processes of dinosaur species during this time.

  18. The Teacher-Friendly Guide to the Geology of Your Region

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-08-15

    The guides give teachers the background to make sense of regional and local geology in terms of a basic sequence of historical events and processes. The guides help teachers to meet national and state science standards by providing concrete examples of geologic processes that are closer to home than many classic textbook examples. The guides explain why geological features occur when and where they do in order to help students to remember and predict the nature of local geology.

  19. The geologic mapping of asteroid Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Yingst, A.; Garry, B.

    2014-07-01

    As part of NASA's Dawn mission [1,2] we conducted a geologic mapping campaign to provide a systematic, cartography-based initial characterization of the global and regional geology of asteroid Vesta. The goal of geological maps is to place observations of surface features into their stratigraphic context to develop a geologic history of the evolution of planetary surfaces. Geologic mapping reduces the complexity of heterogeneous planetary surfaces into comprehensible portions, defining and characterizing discrete material units based upon physical attributes related to the geologic processes that produced them, and enabling identification of the relative roles of various processes (impact cratering, tectonism, volcanism, erosion and deposition) in shaping planetary surfaces [3,4]. The Dawn Science Team produced cartographic products of Vesta from the Framing Camera images, including global mosaics as well as 15 regional quadrangles [5], which served as bases for the mapping. We oversaw the geologic mapping campaign during the Nominal Mission, including production of a global geologic map at scale 1:500,000 using images from the High Altitude Mapping Orbit [6] and 15 quadrangle geologic maps at scale 1:250,000 using images from the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit [7]. The goal was to support the Dawn Team by providing geologic and stratigraphic context of surface features and supporting the analysis of data from the Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) and the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND). Mapping was done using ArcGIS™ software, in which quadrangle mapping built on interpretations derived from the global geologic map but were updated and modified to take advantage of the highest spatial resolution data. Despite challenges (e.g., Vesta's highly sloped surface [8] deforms impact craters and produces mass movements that buries contacts), we were successfully able to map the whole surface of Vesta and identify a geologic history as represented in our maps and the resulting time-stratigraphic system and geologic timescale. Key results from the geologic mapping of Vesta include: 1) surface units are dominated by features and materials produced by two major impact events, the older Veneneia and younger Rheasilvia impacts at the south pole 2) both impacts produced a ridge-and-trough terrain as a tectonic response to the impacts, mapped as the Saturnalia Fossae and the Divalia Fossae Formations, respectively 3) stratigraphic analysis of Vesta's heavily cratered terrains show that portions of the original crust are preserved and predate the Veneneia impact 4) the Marcia impact event marks the beginning of Vesta's final stratigraphic period, including exposure of fresh bright and dark material and preservation of young bright-rayed and dark-rayed craters. We conclude that a geologic mapping campaign, including both global and regional mapping, can be conducted during the limited planetary nominal mission timeline, and is an excellent way to engage younger team members (graduate students and postdocs) in mission data analysis activities.

  20. OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.