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Sample records for important item fire

  1. MANAGING IMPORTED FIRE ANTS IN URBAN AREAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two species of imported fire ants (red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri) and their sexually reproducing hybrid are invasive insects whose stings can cause serious medical problems. Imported fire ants interfere with outdoor activities and ha...

  2. Biological Control of Imported Fire Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1998, the Alabama Fire Ant Management Program has been releasing natural enemies of imported fire ants. These natural enemies are being studied to determine their impact on fire ants. It is hoped that eventually the overall number of fire ants in Alabama can be reduced through biological cont...

  3. Biological control of red imported fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Imported Fire Ants (IFA), the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and the Black Imported Fire Ant, S. richteri Forel, were introduced into the United States in the early 1900s and currently inhabit over 320 million acres in the southern United States and Puerto Rico. Red ...

  4. How Important Are Items on a Student Evaluation? A Study of Item Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Stacey Barlow; Naegle, Natali; Bartkus, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    Although student evaluations of teaching (SETs) have been the subject of numerous research studies, the salience of SET items to students has not been examined. In the present study, the authors surveyed 484 students from a large public university. The authors suggest that not all items are viewed equally and that measures of item salience can…

  5. Fire ant-detecting canines: a complementary method in detecting red imported fire ants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Min; Chi, Wei-Lien; Lin, Chung-Chi; Tseng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Wang-Ting; Kung, Yu-Ling; Lien, Yi-Yang; Chen, Yang-Yuan

    2011-02-01

    In this investigation, detection dogs are trained and used in identifying red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and their nests. The methodology could assist in reducing the frequency and scope of chemical treatments for red imported fire ant management and thus reduce labor costs and chemical use as well as improve control and quarantine efficiency. Three dogs previously trained for customs quarantine were retrained to detect the scents of red imported fire ants. After passing tests involving different numbers of live red imported fire ants and three other ant species--Crematogaster rogenhoferi Mayr, Paratrechina longicornis Latreille, and Pheidole megacephala F.--placed in containers, ajoint field survey for red imported fire ant nests by detection dogs and bait traps was conducted to demonstrate their use as a supplement to conventional detection methods. The most significant findings in this report are (1) with 10 or more red imported fire ants in scent containers, the dogs had >98% chance in tracing the red imported fire ant. Upon the introduction of other ant species, the dogs still achieved on average, a 93% correct red imported fire ant indication rate. Moreover, the dogs demonstrated great competence in pinpointing emerging and smaller red imported fire ant nests in red imported fire ant-infested areas that had been previously confirmed by bait trap stations. (2) Along with the bait trap method, we also discovered that approximately 90% of red imported fire ants foraged within a distance of 14 m away from their nests. The results prove detection dogs to be most effective for red imported fire ant control in areas that have been previously treated with pesticides and therefore containing a low density of remaining red imported fire ant nests. Furthermore, as a complement to other red imported fire ant monitoring methods, this strategy will significantly increase the efficacy of red imported fire ant control in cases of individual mount treatment

  6. ACOUSTICAL ANALYSIS OF WINGBEAT FREQUENCIES FOR ALATE IMPORTED FIRE ANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red imported fire ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta Buren and the black imported fire ant (BIFA), Solenopsis richteri Forel coexist in the state of Mississippi along with reproductively viable F1 hybrids of these two species. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the wingbeat fre...

  7. GLYCEROL IN NEST MATERIAL OF RED IMPORTED FIRE ANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red imported fire ant is a nest-building ant species. Workers build the nest by excavating soils. It was reported that red imported fire ants incorporated ant-derived compounds in their nest soil, such as cuticular hydrocarbons (Vander Meer R. K. unpublished data) and venom alkaloids (Blum, M. S. ...

  8. Effect of Surfactants on Red Imported Fire Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven surfactants were evaluated for their immobilizing and killing effects against the red imported fire ant. Reported here are the data on workers. Research on other castes is in progress. Although fire ants can be immobilized in most aqueous surfactant solutions within minutes, they can recov...

  9. MODELING DYNAMIC THERMAL PROPERTIES OF IMPORTED FIRE ANT MOUNDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-based thermal infrared imagery, 3-dimensional modeling, and spatial analyses were used to model daily fluctuation in the temperature of imported fire ant mounds and their surroundings. The thermal center of the mound moved in a predictable fashion from east-southeast to west-southwest during...

  10. Imported Fire Ant Mound Building in Response to Simulated Rainfall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imported fire ant (Solenopsis richteri x invicta) mounds in northeastern Mississippi were subjected to four treatments from late July through early September, 2006: application of water (7.5 L) and placement of an inverted 19 L bucket on top; application of water only; application of an inverted buc...

  11. Dynamic Thermal Structure of Imported Fire Ant Mounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to characterize surface temperatures of imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid) mounds as it relates to sun position and shape of the mounds, to better understand factors that affect absorption of solar radiation by the nest mound and ...

  12. Items regarded as important for satisfaction in daily life by elderly residents in Kitakyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Y; Hachisuka, K; Matsuda, S

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine what items were important for satisfaction in the daily life of elderly Japanese people living at home. The subjects consisted of 996 persons living in Yahatanishi Ward, Kitakyushu City, Japan, two percent of residents aged 60 years or over, who were randomly selected from the official register of voters. A questionnaire was sent to the subjects to determine their profiles and asking them to select the five items they considered most important for satisfaction in daily life from 35 predetermined items. The items with a significant difference using a chi 2 test between age groups, gender, place of residence, living conditions and level of disability were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The top five items selected were "good health" (86%), "social security and pension" (47%), "self-care independence" (45%), "marital satisfaction" (34%), and a "good relationship with relatives" (33%). Logistic regression analysis showed gender, age group, living conditions, and level of disability significantly affected the preference for selection of 12 items. Men or younger persons regarded "health" and a "good relationship with a spouse" as very important, whereas women, older persons, or persons with a disability considered "self-care independence" and the "ability to walk" as important. The items selected for satisfaction in daily life and the order of preference yield important information about rehabilitative and social welfare services for elderly persons living at home. PMID:11570048

  13. Abundance of -1,6-piperideine alkaloids in imported fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Workers of imported fire ants, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid (S. invicta × S. richteri), are vicious stingers. Since the venomous sting is a significant medical problem to humans, the chemistry of imported f...

  14. The relative importance of climatic, environmental, and anthropogenic factors on fire activity in Africa using the MODIS active fire product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. L.; Eckmann, T. C.; Still, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    Wildland fires are local-scale phenomena that have global-scale impacts due to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols. Fires are also thought to fundamentally influence ecosystem structure and function, particularly in grasslands and savannas. Satellite observations of fire events facilitate studies of the spatial distribution and frequency of fire activity, even on continental scales, and yet few studies have explored in detail the controls on such fire events. In a preliminary effort to contribute to these broad scientific issues, we integrate several sources of satellite and other spatially explicit datasets to investigate the relative importance of climate and ecosystem controls on fire activity in woody- and herbaceous-dominated biomes. Specifically, for a single year, we analyze fire occurrence in Africa--as detected by the MODIS active fire product--as a function of latitude, time of year, land-cover type, vegetation growth form, climate, and percentage C4 vegetation cover. Additionally, we integrate satellite-observed lightning activity and a spatially explicit dataset of human population density to categorize fire regimes as either human dominated (i.e., majority of ignitions are related to anthropogenic activity) or 'natural' fire ecosystems (i.e., majority of ignitions are related to lightning activity). This work will be the basis of future modeling efforts to assess the relationships among climate, fire activity, and vegetation structure, particularly in C4 grass-dominated biomes, which are thought to be dependent on regular fires for their maintenance and growth.

  15. Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world but toxic bait systems affect non-target ant species and can not be used in sensitive ecosystems. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of food resources back to the colony....

  16. Determining importance and grading of items and activities for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeKlever, R.; Verna, B.

    1993-12-31

    Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN), in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project, has been responsible for the Title 2 designs of the initial structures, systems, and components for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and the creation of the design output documents for the Surface-Based Testing (SBT) programs. The ESF and SBT programs are major scientific contributors to the overall site characterization program which will determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain to contain a proposed High Level Nuclear Waste (HLNW) repository. Accurate, traceable and objective characterization and testing documentation that is germane to the protection of public health and safety, and the environment, and that satisfies all the requirements of 10 CFR Part 60(1), must be established, evaluated and accepted. To assure that these requirements are satisfied, specific design functions and products, including items and activities depicted within respective design output documents, are subjected to the requirements of an NRC and DOE-approved Quality Assurance (QA) program. An evaluation (classification) is applied to these items and activities to determine their importance to radiological safety (ITS) and waste isolation (ITWI). Subsequently, QA program controls are selected (grading) for the items and activities. RSN has developed a DOE-approved classification process that is based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and that uses accident/impact scenarios. Results from respective performance assessment and test interference evaluations are also integrated into the classification analyses for various items. The methodology and results of the RSN classification and grading processes, presented herein, relative to ESF and SBT design products, demonstrates a solid, defensible methodological basis for classification and grading.

  17. The importance of geoethics in the "Land of Fires"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro

    2014-05-01

    How was it possible that one of the most fertile soil worldwide called by Romans "Campania Felix", became one of the largest mass poisoning in a Western country? Answer is in the tons of toxic wastes illegally dumped into the fields all around area between Naples and Caserta, which now is known as "Terra dei Fuochi" (The Land of Fires - due to illegal wastes burning). In last 25 years two main emergencies affected Campania, one official started in 1994 due to local waste management system problems, another more hidden and older due to criminal gangs which earn money by illegal disposal of toxic wastes. Those two emergencies are interconnected and have grown in absence of respect for people's health and unknowledge of environmental themes. Apart from judging legal issues, the only evidence visible to public opinion is that during waste emergencies in Campania, decision makers, admitting also their good faith, didn't consider enough environmental risks and decided, in order to solve emergency, to dump wastes in not geological feasible sites, such as landfills at the feet of Vesuvio national park or in abandoned quarries such as Chiaiano tuff pit, exposing local inhabitant and economic activities to high risks. This work wants to underline that geoethics is fundamental as much as the need of geologists participation to whole remediation processes and to raising environmental awareness in the society. Maybe these themes seems to be trivial but geological competences are very important in understanding of pollution risks. This knowledge is practically obscure to decision makers and people, often media provides uncorrected informations which improve the fear of population. In example the idea that whole groundwater in the area is polluted is wrong and is strongly reducing the purchase of agricultural products of the area, and the only way to assess real contamination is site-specific characterization. Indeed Campania plain has a complex stratigraphic architecture with

  18. 78 FR 70530 - Notice of Determination; New and Revised Treatments for the Imported Fire Ant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    .... 305.3(a)(1), we published a notice \\2\\ in the Federal Register on March 6, 2013 (78 FR 14510-14511... Imported Fire Ant Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Imported Fire Ant Program in the Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) Treatment Manual. In a...

  19. Esterase in imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicata and S. richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): activity, kinetics and variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri, is closely related to the notorious red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Despite being very similar in biology and behavior, S. invicta is a much more successful invader. In contrast to S. invicta that has invaded numberous countries and regions,...

  20. Study on the Repellency of Callicarpenal and Intermedeol against Workers of Imported Fire Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repellency of callicarpenal and intermedeol, two terpenoids isolated from American beautyberry and Japanese beautyberry, were tested against workers of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and a hybrid of these two species using diggi...

  1. Positive-strand RNA viruses infecting the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black imported fire ant (Solenopsis richteri) and red imported fire ant (S. invicta) are invasive species that were introduced into the United States between 1918 and 1945. Since that time, they have expanded their U.S. range to include some 138 million hectares from Virginia, south to Florida,...

  2. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of flammability by the use of materials obtained from foamy polyimide resins is developed. The ability of these materials to provide fire protection is demonstrated. The development of processes for producing resilient cell foam for use in aircraft seating, thermal acoustical insulation, floor and wall panels, coated glass fabrics, and molded hardware.

  3. Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Bunn, Barry; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2010-07-01

    The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is considered one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. Toxic bait systems are used widely for control, but they also affect non-target ant species and cannot be used in sensitive ecosystems such as organic farms and national parks. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of large food resources back to the colony, with Z,E-alpha-farnesene responsible for the orientation of workers along trails. We prepared Z,E-alpha-farnesene, (91% purity) from extracted E,E-alpha-farnesene and demonstrated disruption of worker trail orientation after presentation of an oversupply of this compound from filter paper point sources (30 microg). Trails were established between queen-right colony cells and food sources in plastic tubs. Trail-following behavior was recorded by overhead webcam, and ants were digitized before and after presentation of the treatment, using two software approaches. The linear regression statistic, r(2) was calculated. Ants initially showed high linear trail integrity (r(2) = 0.75). Within seconds of presentation of the Z,E-alpha-farnesene treatment, the trailing ants showed little or no further evidence of trail following behavior in the vicinity of the pheromone source. These results show that trailing fire ants become disorientated in the presence of large amounts of Z,E-alpha-farnesene. Disrupting fire ant recruitment to resources may have a negative effect on colony size or other effects yet to be determined. This phenomenon was demonstrated recently for the Argentine ant, where trails were disrupted for two weeks by using their formulated trail pheromone, Z-9-hexadecenal. Further research is needed to establish the long term effects and control potential for trail disruption in S. invicta. PMID:20549330

  4. An investigation into effective methodologies for latent fingerprint enhancement on items recovered from fire.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Sarah Jane; Cordingley, Thomas H; Francis, Sean C

    2016-07-01

    A common assumption is that fire destroys fingerprint evidence. Recent studies have sought to challenge this assumption. This study presents a comparative evaluation of soot removal and fingerprint enhancement techniques, following fire(s) to ascertain optimal process efficacy for recovering fingerprints. Two car burns and a cremation oven were used to determine the temperature range. Temperatures of 300, 450 and 600°C were used in simulated, controlled fires wherein cars had prints deposited on rear view mirrors. Burning occurred in a shipping container designed to approximate the variables relating to car arson. Soot removal was undertaken by tape lifting, sodium hydroxide solution, or liquid latex casting. The fingerprint enhancement techniques comprised black magnetic, aluminium and black suspension powders, or cyanoacrylate fuming with BY40 dye. A fingerprint expert classified prints as un/identifiable according to standards to be submitted as evidence in court. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed on the data using a p value of <0.05 to determine statistical significance. Temperature was the biggest factor affecting fingerprint recovery. There were no statistically significant differences found between any of the soot removal methods used. Higher counts of identifiable prints were recovered with black magnetic powder and cyanoacrylate/BY40 compared to the other methods used but these findings were not statistically significant. It is recommended that recovery of fire-exposed fingerprints (which are not protected) is undertaken where suspected maximum temperatures are <450°C. Evaluation of optimal soot removal and fingerprint enhancement techniques should be conducted on a case by case basis. PMID:27320395

  5. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Seasonally-Acquired Imported Fire Ant Mound Features (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, residential, and commercial settings. Ground-based hyperspectral studies focused on the seasonal monitoring of reflectance characteristics of imported f...

  6. Distribution patterns of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on a sheep and goat farm in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imported fire ant colonies were quantified in 1000 m2 circular subplots spaced about 125 m apart on a sheep and goat farm in Oklahoma. Mound counts and cumulative above-ground mound volume were used as measures of fire ant population density, and were subjected to regression analyses to determine e...

  7. Combining biological and chemical controls for the management of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two South American natural enemies of imported fire ants were first detected or released in the United States approximately 10 years ago. The fire ant pathogen, Thelohania solenopsae Knell, Allen, and Hazard, was found in the U.S. in 1996 and a parasitic phorid fly from Brazil, Pseudacteon tricuspi...

  8. Statewide survey of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) populations in Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) (IFA) now occupy 52 counties (~ 5.4 million hectares) in Tennessee and are continuing their range expansion northward. To better understand the distribution of IFA species in Tennessee, the state was divided into 16.1 ' 16.1 km grids and a single fire ant colony...

  9. Deterrency and Toxicity of Essential Oils to Argentine and Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory assays were conducted to evaluate deterrency and contact toxicity of six essential oils to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In choice tests, both Argentine ants and fire ants crossed barriers treated with multiple rates...

  10. Release and establishment of the little decapitating fly Pseudacteon cultellatus on imported fire ants in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The little decapitating fly Pseudacteon cultellatus from Argentina was released as a self-sustaining biological control agent against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Florida to parasitize small fire ant workers associated with multiple-queen colonies. This fly appears to be establi...

  11. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Materials were developed to improve aircraft interior materials by modifying existing polymer structures, refining the process parameters, and by the use of mechanical configurations designed to overcome specific deficiencies. The optimization, selection, and fabrication of five fire resistant, low smoke emitting open cell foams are described for five different types of aircraft cabin structures. These include: resilient foams, laminate floor and wall paneling, thermal/acoustical insulation, molded shapes, and coated fabrics. All five have been produced from essentially the same polyimide precursor and have resulted in significant benefits from transfer of technology between the various tasks.

  12. Impact of imidacloprid on new queens of imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used in managing pest ants, including the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. There is increasing evidence that neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal concentrations have profound effects on social insects. However, the sublethal effect of neonicot...

  13. Red imported fire ant impacts on upland arthropods in Southern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epperson, D.M.; Allen, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) have negative impacts on a broad array of invertebrate species. We investigated the impacts of fire ants on the upland arthropod community on 20???40 ha study sites in southern Mississippi. Study sites were sampled from 19972000 before, during, and after fire ant bait treatments to reduce fire ant populations. Fire ant abundance was assessed with bait transects on all sites, and fire ant population indices were estimated on a subset of study sites. Species richness and diversity of other ant species was also assessed from bait transects. Insect biomass and diversity was determined from light trap samples. Following treatments, fire ant abundance and population indices were significantly reduced, and ant species diversity and richness were greater on treated sites. Arthropod biomass, species diversity and species richness estimated from light trap samples were negatively correlated with fire ant abundance, but there were no observable treatment effects. Solenopsis invicta has the potential to negatively impact native arthropod communities resulting in a potential loss of both species and function.

  14. Ant-seed mutualisms: Can red imported fire ants sour the relationship?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zettler, J.A.; Spira, T.P.; Allen, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    Invasion by the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has had negative impacts on individual animal and plant species, but little is known about how S. invicta affects complex mutualistic relationships. In some eastern forests of North America, 30% of herbaceous species have ant-dispersed seeds. We conducted experiments to determine if fire ants are attracted to seeds of these plant species and assessed the amount of scarification or damage that results from handling by fire ants. Fire ants removed nearly 100% of seeds of the ant-dispersed plants Trillium undulatum, T. discolor, T. catesbaei, Viola rotundifolia, and Sanguinaria canadensis. In recovered seeds fed to ant colonies, fire ants scarified 80% of S. canadensis seeds and destroyed 86% of V. rotundifolia seeds. Our study is the first to document that red imported fire ants are attracted to and remove seeds of species adapted for ant dispersal. Moreover, fire ants might damage these seeds and discard them in sites unfavorable for germination and seedling establishment. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment Draft Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied on For Safety.'' The NRC staff has developed the draft RIS to clarify the NRC's technical position on existing regulatory requirements for the quality and reliability of basic......

  16. The Importance of Computational Skill for Answering Items in a Mathematics Problem-Solving Test: Implications for Construct Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Robert Al; Ansley, Timothy N.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of computational skill for answering items in the quantitative thinking subtest of the Iowa Tests of Educational Development was investigated. Results show that computational skill is not a major factor contributing to the examinee's score on the subtest. (Author/GK)

  17. AN INSECT PEST FOR AGRICULTURAL, URBAN, AND WILDLIFE AREAS: THE RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), is an insect pest of particular importance in California due to its potential impact on public health, agriculture, and wildlife. In 1997, RIFAs hitchhiked to the Central Valley on honeybee hives brought in from Texas for pollination of a...

  18. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Elliott, Brad; Jin, Xixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial property of volatiles produced by red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, against Beauveria bassiana, a common entomopathogenic fungus, was demonstrated. The germination rate of B. bassiana spores was significantly reduced after they were exposed to volatiles within an artificial ant nest. Since the air that contained the same level of O2 and CO2 as that in artificial fire ant nests did not suppress the germination rate of B. bassiana, the observed reduction of germination rate must be caused by the toxicity of nest volatiles. Nest fumigation may be an important component of the social immune system in S. invicta. PMID:26467352

  19. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Elliott, Brad; Jin, Xixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial property of volatiles produced by red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, against Beauveria bassiana, a common entomopathogenic fungus, was demonstrated. The germination rate of B. bassiana spores was significantly reduced after they were exposed to volatiles within an artificial ant nest. Since the air that contained the same level of O2 and CO2 as that in artificial fire ant nests did not suppress the germination rate of B. bassiana, the observed reduction of germination rate must be caused by the toxicity of nest volatiles. Nest fumigation may be an important component of the social immune system in S. invicta.

  20. Seasonal Shifts in the Hyperspectral Characterization of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safe, expedient, and cost-effective field- to landscape-scale treatments of imported fire ant (IFA) infestations require technological developments that exploit the use of remotely-sensed contrasting features to detect cryptic mounds in heavily-managed turfgrass. Ground-based implementation of hyper...

  1. Effects of simulated and natural rainfall on summer mound construction by imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imported fire ant (Solenopsis richteri x invicta) mounds in northeastern Mississippi were subjected to four treatments from late July through early September, 2006: application of water (7.5 L) and placement of an inverted 19 L bucket on top; application of water only; application of an inverted buc...

  2. SEASONAL SHIFTS IN THE HYPERSPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED FIRE ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) MOUND FEATURES IN TURFGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safe, expedient, and cost-effective field- to landscape-scale treatments of imported fire ant (IFA) infestations require technological developments that exploit the use of remotely-sensed contrasting features to detect cryptic mounds in heavily-managed turfgrass. Ground-based implementation of hyper...

  3. Applied Ecology and Control of Imported Fire Ants and Argentine Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), are invasive species that are major pests in urban, natural, and agricultural habitats. The goal of this dissertation was to study aspects the chemical sensitivity, behavior, and ecology of each specie...

  4. IMPORTED FIRE ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) MOUND SHAPE CHARACTERISTICS ALONG A NORTH-SOUTH GRADIENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imported fire ant mound shape characteristics (south facing slope angle and area, mound height, and basal elongation in the plane of the ground) were quantified in 2005 and 2006 at a number of locations from about 30° 25’ N (Long Beach, Mississippi, USA) to 35° 3’ N (Fayetteville, Tennessee, USA). ...

  5. Invasion Biology on Your Campus: Investigating the Red Imported Fire Ant in the Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forys, Elizabeth A.; Kelly, William B.; Ward, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity on invasion biology to improve students' cognitive skills as well as manual skills. Requires students to develop hypotheses in which a common invasive species will succeed. Focuses on the red imported fire ant in the Southeastern United States, which is a non-native invasive species. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  6. Ecological dominance of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in its native range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the widespread impacts invasive species can have in introduced populations, little is know about patterns of co-existence between invaders and similar taxa in their native range. This study examines interactions between the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and other above-gro...

  7. Piperideine Alkaloids from the Poison Gland of the Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well known that the major chemical components in the venom of the red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are 2-methyl-6-alkyl or alkenyl piperidines. After isolating the extracts of poison glands and whole worker bodies with a column chromatography, we have obtained fractions conta...

  8. Qualitative analysis of red imported fire ant nests constructed in silica gel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, build nests by excavating soil. Incorporation of ant-derived chemicals in nesting material has long been known, however only a few chemicals have been identified. This paucity of identified ant-derived chemicals may be due to the interference from ...

  9. Contact toxicities of Anuran Skin Alkaloids against the Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly 500 alkaloids, representing over 20 structural classes, have been identified from the skin of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). These cutaneous compounds, which are derived from leaf-litter arthropods eaten by the frogs, generally are believed to deter predators. We tested the red imported fire a...

  10. Toxicity of formic acid against red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Formic acid is a common defensive chemical of formicine ants. Ants often compete with other ants for resources. However, the toxicity of formic acid to any ant species has not been well understood. This study examined the toxicity of formic acid against the red imported fire ants, Sole...

  11. An overview of the Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Mainland China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren is a serious invasive insect which is native to South America. Its presence was first reported in mainland China in 2005. To date it has been identified in four provinces in mainland China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Fujian) in a total of 30 counti...

  12. Sampling High-Altitude and Stratified Mating Flights of Red Imported Fire Ant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the exception of an airplane equipped with nets, no method has been developed that successfully samples red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, sexuals in mating/dispersal flights throughout their potential altitudinal trajectories. We developed and tested a method for sampling queens ...

  13. STUDIES ON ATTRACTIVENESS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ARTIFICIAL ENTOMOPHAGE DIET FED TO HYBRID IMPORTED FIRE ANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An artificial entomophage diet (Cohen, U. S. Patent # 5,834,177. November 10, 1998) was offered to Solenopsis invicta Buren x Solenopsis richteri Forel (hybrid imported fire ant) in a series of choice tests. Foraging workers collected approx. 27 times more reconstituted diet than freeze-dried diet...

  14. Toxicity and efficacy of two emulsifiable concentrates of 2-tridecanone against red imported fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: 2-tridecanone is a major constitute of defensive secretion in tawny crazy ants, Nylanderia fulva that is the only ant species reported to be able to displace red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta in the field. 2-tridecanone was proven to be toxic to S. invicta. Although 2-tridecan...

  15. CHEMISTRY OF THE FECES OF THE RED IMPORTED FIRE ANTS, SOLENOPSIS INVICTA BUREN (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an ant colony, feces are not just metabolic waste; they often affect colony functions. Knowledge on the chemistry of the feces may be helpful in understanding their effect on the ant behavior. Feces of workers, larvae, alates and queens of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, were...

  16. Semiochemicals released by electrically stimulated red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Vander Meer, R K; Slowik, T J; Thorvilson, H G

    2002-12-01

    The red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren, has evolved sophisticated chemical communication systems that regulate the activities of the colony. Among these are recruitment pheromones that effectively attract and stimulate workers to follow a trail to food or alternative nesting sites. Alarm pheromones alert, activate, and attract workers to intruders or other disturbances. The attraction and accumulation of fire ant workers in electrical equipment may be explained by their release of pheromones that draw additional worker ants into the electrical contacts. We used chemical analysis and behavioral bioassays to investigate if semiochemicals were released by electrically shocked fire ants. Workers were subjected to a 120 V, alternating-current power source. In all cases, electrically stimulated workers released venom alkaloids as revealed by gas chromatography. We also demonstrated the release of alarm pheromones and recruitment pheromones that elicited attraction and orientation. Arrestant behavior was observed with the workers not electrically stimulated but near those that were, indicating release of unkown behavior-modifying substances from the electrically stimulated ants. It appears that fire ants respond to electrical stimulus by generally releasing exocrine gland products. The behaviors associated with these products support the hypothesis that the accumulation of fire ants in electrical equipment is the result of a foraging worker finding and closing electrical contacts, then releasing exocrine gland products that attract other workers to the site, who in turn are electrically stimulated. PMID:12564802

  17. Red imported fire ant impacts on wildlife: A decade of research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Epperson, D.M.; Garmestani, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    The negative impacts of biological invasion are economically and ecologically significant and, while incompletely quantified, they are clearly substantial. Ants (family Formicidae) are an important, although often overlooked, component of many terrestrial ecosystems. Six species of ants are especially striking in their global ability to invade, and their impacts. This paper focuses on the impacts of the most destructive of those species, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), and focuses on impacts on native vertebrates. Red imported fire ants often become the dominant ant species in infested areas outside of their native range due to their aggressive foraging behavior, high reproductive capability and lack of predators and/or other strong competitors. The evidence suggests that mammals, birds and herpetofauna are vulnerable to negative impacts from fire ants, and some species are more likely to experience negative population-level impacts than other species. Assessing the ecological impacts of fire ants on wild animal populations is logistically difficult, and very few studies have combined replicated experimental manipulation with adequate spatial (>10 ha) and temporal (>1 y) scale. Thus, most studies have been observational, opportunistic, small-scale or 'natural' experiments. However, significant research, including an increase in experimental and mechanistic investigations, has occurred during the past decade, and this has led to information that can lead to better management of potentially affected species.

  18. Fires

    MedlinePlus

    Whether a fire happens in your home or in the wild, it can be very dangerous. Fire spreads quickly. There is no time to gather ... a phone call. In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a ...

  19. Indirect effects of red imported fire ants on Attwater's prairie‐chicken brood survival

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Rebecca E.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Toepfer, John E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The invasive red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) has negatively affected a host of taxonomic groups throughout its acquired North American range. Many studies have hypothesized indirect trophic impacts, but few documented those impacts. We evaluated invertebrate abundance as a factor limiting juvenile survival of the endangered Attwater's prairie‐chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), and whether fire ants reduce invertebrate numbers and biomass. From 2009–2013, we monitored survival of Attwater's prairie‐chicken broods (n = 63) with radio telemetry during the first 2 weeks post‐hatch and collected daily invertebrate samples at brood sites. Broods located in areas with the highest median invertebrate count (338 invertebrates/25 sweeps) had a survival probability of 0.83 at 2 weeks post‐hatch compared to 0.07 for broods located in areas with the lowest median invertebrate count (18 invertebrates/25 sweeps). During 2011–2012, we evaluated the reduction of fire ants on invertebrate numbers and biomass by aerially treating areas with Extinguish Plus™ in an impact‐reference study design. Treated fields had 27% more individual invertebrates and 26% higher invertebrate biomass than reference fields. Our results clearly document that invertebrate abundance affects Attwater's prairie‐chicken brood survival and that fire ants may indirectly contribute to low brood survival by suppressing invertebrate abundance. We posit that within the fire ant's acquired North American range, fire ants are likely contributing to declines of other insectivorous species. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26900176

  20. Are Springs Important in the Post-fire Revegetation of Semiarid, Snow-dominated, Mountainous Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsinnajinnie, L.; Frisbee, M. D.; Wilson, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Semiarid, mountainous watersheds are particularly susceptible to wildfires due to their dense forests and dry conditions. These watersheds are critically important sources of water and habitat for human and ecological communities in an otherwise water-scarce environment. Forest fires severely impact these watersheds through loss of vegetation, increases in erosion, decreases in water quality, and decreases in recharge. In addition, soil hydrophobicity, overland runoff, and erosion in post-fire watersheds create conditions where it is difficult for burned areas to re-vegetate within the months following a wildfire. What role do perennial springs play in post-fire re-vegetation? We hypothesize that revegetation originates around perennial springs since the springs and spring-runs are continual sources of water where new seeds can sprout and where burned vegetation can recover. We test this hypothesis in a snow-dominated, semiarid, mountainous watershed in the Chuska Mountains, located on the Navajo Nation in New Mexico and Arizona, following a wildfire that occurred in June 2014. NDVI was estimated in the watershed before and after the June 2014 fire using remotely sensed data. Photographs from digital trail cameras were used to capture the growth of vegetation/absence of growth on burned slopes with/without springs following the fire. The remote sensing data and trail camera photos indicate that revegetation is concentrated around springs. Springs act as "fountains" for regrowth of vegetation in the watershed following wildfires since they are dependable sources of clean water in a post-fire landscape commonly characterized by decreased infiltration and decreased water quality. An improved understanding of the role of springs in post-wildfire revegetation may enhance and prioritize watershed restoration and protection practices following a wildfire.

  1. The importance of fires and floods on tree ages along mountainous gravel-bed streams.

    PubMed

    Charron, I; Johnson, E A

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines the commonly accepted assumption in the riparian literature that areas adjacent to streams do not burn. Using time-since-fire distributions, derived from stand-origin maps for a watershed in the front ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, we found that the areas adjacent to streams and the whole study watershed have similar fire frequencies. In addition, the relative importance of fires and floods is regulated by a change in channel morphology associated with the creation of bars. The results demonstrate that fires solely control tree establishment along straight streams without bars, while the influence of floods is observed at the onset of lateral- and point-bar formation. This occurs because bars are formed in-channel and require smaller discharges in order to be flooded, compared to higher terraces. Consequently, bars are the only surfaces being flooded more frequently than they are being burned. Thus, overall the results indicate that, on this watershed, areas adjacent to streams are not less likely to burn than the uplands, except for lateral and point bars. The generality of these results to other systems should be tested as they have important implications for current forest ecological definition of "riparian zones," which typically include all fluvially derived landforms, from the channel banks to the terraces. Indeed, this study suggests that along smaller, headwater, gravel-bed mountain watersheds, the forests found on terraces are only influenced by fire and not fluvial processes and should therefore not be included in the riparian zone, while the forests on bars are the only surfaces currently being influenced by fluvial processes. Such a change in definition has implications for both ecologists and forest managers aiming to protect areas along streams as they now must take into account the effects of two disturbances on these small gravel-bed streams. PMID:17069369

  2. Fly pupae as attractant carriers for toxic baits for red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Williams, D F; Lofgren, C S; Vander Meer, R K

    1990-02-01

    Eight laboratory-reared ant species were fed baits of house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae treated with hydramethylnon. Two fire ant species, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis geminata (F.), and Pheidole morrissi (Forel) were killed; average percentage of mortality of the five other species was less than 20%. In contrast, all species that were fed the commercial fire ant bait containing hydramethylnon (Amdro) died or were adversely affected. In the field, applications of house fly pupae and eye gnat, Hippelates pusio Loew, pupae dipped in acetone solutions of fenoxycarb significantly reduced population indices of the red imported fire ant, S. invicta, compared with commercial formulations of fenoxycarb (Logic) and hydramethylnon (Amdro). Field observations showed that the pupae of either species can be carried or moved by one or two worker ants. The smooth, hard cuticle of the pupae make them easy to handle and apply with application equipment. The current cost of house fly pupae is considerably more than the cost of a granular carrier, pregel defatted corn grits. However, if mass-production methods reduce this price differential, fly pupae could become an effective and more species-specific fire ant bait carrier. PMID:2324379

  3. Expanding habitat of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta): a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S F; deShazo, R D; Moffitt, J E; Williams, D F; Buhner, W A

    2000-04-01

    Residents in the southeastern United States would hardly describe life with the aggressive imported fire ant as peaceful coexistence. The continued spread of these insects has produced agricultural problems, changes in the ecosystem, and increasing numbers of subjects with sting sequelae, including hypersensitivity reactions, secondary infections, and rare neurologic sequelae. Evolutionary changes have facilitated their expansion northward into Virginia and westward into California, and increasing urbanization will likely permit further expansion. Recent reports of building invasion with sting attacks inside occupied dwellings, including health care facilities, heighten public health concerns. This article reviews the medically important entomology, clinical aspects of stings, and the current approaches to chemical control of fire ants. We also propose directions for future research and treatment. PMID:10756216

  4. Seasonal Changes in Broadband Spectral Reflectance Characteristics of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) disrupt soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, and residential settings. Ground-based implementation of hyperspectral techniques in the detection and seasonal monitoring of imported fire ant col...

  5. Seasonal Dynamics of Hyperspectral Reflectance Patterns Influencing Detection of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management affecting an estimated 8.1 million hectares in sod production, recreational, and residential settings in the southeastern U.S. Reflectance characteristics of imported fire ant mound features (i.e., ant m...

  6. Key factors controlling microbial community response after a fire: importance of severity and recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombao, Alba; Barreiro, Ana; Martín, Ángela; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in forest ecosystems, especially after fire when vegetation is destroyed and soil is bared. Fire severity and recurrence might be one of main factors controlling the microbial response after a wildfire but information about this topic is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of fire regimen (recurrence and severity) on soil microbial community structure by means of the analysis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA). The study was performed with unburned and burned samples collected from the top layer of a soil affected by a high severity fire (Laza, NW Spain) heated under laboratory conditions at different temperatures (50°C, 75°C, 100°C, 125°C, 150°C, 175°C, 200°C, 300°C) to simulate different fire intensities; the process was repeated after further soil recovery (1 month incubation) to simulate fire recurrence. The soil temperature was measured with thermocouples and used to calculate the degree-hours as estimation of the amount of heat supplied to the samples (fire severity). The PLFA analysis was used to estimate total biomass and the biomass of specific groups (bacteria, fungi, gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria) as well as microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) and PLFA data were analyzed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) in order to identify main factors determining microbial community structure. The results of PCA, performed with the whole PLFA data set, showed that first component explained 35% of variation and clearly allow us to differentiate unburned samples from the corresponding burned samples, while the second component, explaining 16% of variation, separated samples according the heating temperature. A marked impact of fire regimen on soil microorganisms was detected; the microbial community response varied depending on previous history of soil heating and the magnitude of changes in the PLFA pattern was related to the amount of heat supplied to the

  7. 40 CFR 1054.630 - What provisions apply for importation of individual items for personal use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... require a U.S. Customs Service bond for engines you import under this section. (c) The provisions of this... CFR 1068.101(a)(2) and (b)(5). ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL...

  8. Parasitoids and competitors influence colony-level responses in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdiabadi, Natasha J.; Kawazoe, Elizabeth A.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

    2004-11-01

    Social insect colonies respond to challenges set by a variable environment by reallocating work among colony members. In many social insects, such colony-level task allocation strategies are achieved through individual decisions that produce a self-organized adapting group. We investigated colony responses to parasitoids and native ant competitors in the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). Parasitoid flies affected fire ants by decreasing the proportion of workers engaged in foraging. Competitors also altered colony-level behaviours by reducing the proportion of foraging ants and by increasing the proportion of roaming majors, whose role is colony defence. Interestingly, the presence of both parasitism and competition almost always had similar effects on task allocation in comparison to each of the biotic factors on its own. Thus, our study uniquely demonstrates that the interactive effect of both parasitism and competition is not necessarily additive, implying that these biotic factors alter colony behaviour in distinct ways. More generally, our work demonstrates the importance of studying the dynamics of species interactions in a broader context.

  9. Impact of red imported fire ant infestation on northern bobwhite quail abundance trends in southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Willey, R.D.; Myers, P.E.; Horton, P.M.; Buffa, J.

    2000-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus L.) populations are declining throughout their range. One factor contributing to the decline in the southeastern United States may be the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren). Recent research in Texas has documented that red imported fire ants can have a significant impact on northern bobwhite quail. That research was conducted in areas where fire ants are predominately polygynous (multiple queen). Polygynous infestations have much higher mound densities than the monogynous (single queen) form. In most of the southeastern United States, fire ants are predominately monogynous. We determined if there was a relationship between the invasion of monogynous red imported fire ants and abundance trends in northern bobwhite quail in the southeastern United States. For Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina we compared average northern bobwhite quail abundance based on Christmas Bird Count data for each county before and after fire ant invasion, and conducted regression analyses on bobwhite quail abundance and year preinvasion, and abundance and year postinvasion. Regionally, northern bobwhite quail were more abundant before (0.067 ??0.018 bobwhite quail per observer hour) than after fire ants invaded (0.019 ?? 0.006; Z = -3.746, df = 18, P 30-yr variation in invasion dates.

  10. Distribution patterns of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on a sheep and goat farm in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Vogt, James T; Allen, Margaret L; Wallet, Bradley; Boykin, Debbie; Smith, Wayne A

    2009-06-01

    Imported fire ant colonies were quantified in 1,000-m(2) circular subplots spaced approximately 125 m apart on a sheep and goat farm in Oklahoma. Social form (percent polygyny), mound density, cumulative above-ground mound volume, and average mound volume were subjected to multiple regression analyses to examine trends related to landscape metrics and habitat characteristics. Monogyne populations were spatially autocorrelated, and polygyne mounds tended to be smaller and more numerous. A model incorporating the effects of percent polygyny, canopy cover, and 1-d cumulative incident solar radiation explained 34% of the variation in mound density. Percent polygyny was not significantly related to cumulative mound volume, which provides a better estimate of overall ant biomass. A model incorporating the effects of 1-d cumulative incident solar radiation on the summer solstice, elevation, canopy cover, distance from cisterns, distance from water, and distance from trees explained 42% of the variation in cumulative mound volume. Monogyne mounds in areas that were flat and close to water in low-lying areas were largest. Results indicate that remotely sensed data in combination with publicly available U.S. Geological Survey data may be useful in predicting areas of high and low fire ant abundance at a field scale. PMID:19508763

  11. Repellent Effect of Formic Acid Against the Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies showed that the formic acid secreted by tawny crazy ants not only has fumigation toxicity to the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Chen et al. 2013), but also can detoxify fire ant venom (LeBrun et al. 2014). These lead us to a field study to determine if low concentrations of formic acid might be useful in repelling S. invicta. Filter paper discs treated with 1.3% or 5% formic acid (v: v) or distilled water (control) were placed on each of the 46 S. invicta mounds and a disturbance was created. For a minute or less, there were significantly more defending ants on the control discs than that on the paper discs treated with formic acid. After food was added and for the next 40 min, there were significantly more foraging ants on the control discs compared to the treated discs. At 50 min into the test, the number of foraging ants on the control and 1.3% formic acid-treated discs was similar, but both were significantly higher than that on the 5% formic acid-treated discs. In addition, the active foraging (≥10 ants stayed on or around the food) and burying behavior (soil particles were deposited around the food) continued to be inhibited by 5% formic acid. The potential application and ecological significant of this repellent effect is discussed. PMID:26700488

  12. Hunger in red imported fire ants and their behavioral response to two liquid bait products.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kathryn S; Hooper-Bùi, Linda M

    2005-12-01

    To help manage red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, invasion, several types of pest management systems have been developed, including baits. To accurately test liquid bait effectiveness in the laboratory, we determined that starvation time of 96 h is required for laboratory fire ants to simulate foraging ants in the field. We measured density and viscosity of two commercial baits and 20% sugar water at 25 degrees C and then compared amount of material consumed per ant at these physical properties. Mean densities of 20% sugar water, Dr. Moss, and Terro were 1.051, 1.287, and 1.354 g/ml, respectively, and viscosity of each bait treatment varied in the same order but more drastically (1.7, 32, and 400 centipoises, respectively). Field and laboratory studies demonstrated that bait acceptability may be affected by toxicant and physical properties. Baits that are more dense have more mass per volume and may cause the ant to cease feeding with a lower crop load than when they feed on sugar water. Ants that feed on formulated baits exhibit feeding behaviors different from those that occur when feeding on sugar water. At first glance, one might conclude that the difference is because of the toxicant, but our findings suggest that physical properties of baits may be a factor in this change in feeding behavior. PMID:16539145

  13. Drivers of post-fire successional trajectories in arctic tundra: the importance of physical and biophysical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. V.; Jiang, Y.; Rastetter, E. B.; Drysdale, J.; Kremers, K.; Shaver, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Fires in arctic tundra are rare with return intervals in the hundreds to thousands of years, but these events have large implications for carbon and energy fluxes in an environmentally changing and sensitive ecosystem. Permafrost degradation, species composition shifts, and ecosystem function alterations are just a few of the potential consequences of fire that could feedback on future climate change. Here we describe remote sensing, eddy covariance, thaw depth, and biomass measurements along an arctic tundra chronosequence to understand long-term post-fire carbon and energy budgets. Historical remote sensing and fire perimeter data were used to choose sites that were representative of a 0-6, 18, and 36 year old fire scar, which were paired with a representative nearby unburned control. Fires caused successional changes to carbon and energy budgets through changes to the soil thermal regime, caused by decreased organic layer from combustion, and shifts from tussock to grass and shrub dominated systems. Measurements and modeling with the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model indicate that nutrients played a key role in these shifts and that these dynamics change are controlled by biophysical conditions immediately after fire (i.e. residual organic layer depth) and climate during early succession. Results highlight the importance of initial conditions in determining the successional trajectory of arctic tundra and yield important insights on how these systems will respond to future climate change.

  14. A growing importance of large fires in conterminous United States during 1984-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Pan, Shufen; Liu, Yongqiang; Wang, Yuhang

    2015-12-01

    Fire frequency, extent, and size exhibit a strong linkage with climate conditions and play a vital role in the climate system. Previous studies have shown that the frequency of large fires in the western United States increased significantly since the mid-1980s due to climate warming and frequent droughts. However, less work has been conducted to examine burned area and fire emissions of large fires at a national scale, and the underlying mechanisms accounting for the increases in the frequency of large fires are far from clear. In this study, we integrated remote-sensed fire perimeter and burn severity data sets into the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model to estimate carbon emissions from large fires (i.e., fires with size larger than 1000 acres or 4.05 km2) in conterminous United States from 1984 to 2012. The results show that average area burned by large fires was 1.44 × 104 km2 yr-1 and carbon emissions from large fires were 17.65 Tg C yr-1 during the study period. According to the Mann-Kendall trend test, annual burned area and pyrogenic carbon emissions presented significant upward trends at the rates of 810 km2 yr-1 and 0.87 Tg C yr-1, respectively. Characteristic fire size (fire size with the largest contribution to the total burned area) in the period of 2004-2012 increased by 176.1% compared to the period of 1984-1993. We further found that the larger fires were associated with higher burn severity and occurred more frequently in the warmer and drier conditions. This finding implies that the continued warming and drying trends in the 21st century would enhance the total burned area and fire emissions due to the contributions of larger and more severe wildfires.

  15. Impact of imidacloprid on new queens of imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used in managing pest insects, including the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. There is increasing evidence that neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal concentrations have profound effects on social insects. However, the sublethal effect of neonicotinoids on S. invicta has never been investigated. In this study, the newly mated queens were fed with water containing 0.01 or 0.25 μg/ml imidacloprid. Imidacloprid at both concentrations did not cause any increase in queen mortality during the founding stage; however, it significantly reduced queens' brood tending ability. In the 0.25 μg/ml imidacloprid treatment, the time to larval emergence was significantly delayed and no pupae or adult workers were produced. This study provides clear evidence that imidacloprid at sublethal concentrations has a significant detrimental impact on S. invicta queens and the development of incipient colonies. PMID:26643971

  16. Impact of imidacloprid on new queens of imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used in managing pest insects, including the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. There is increasing evidence that neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal concentrations have profound effects on social insects. However, the sublethal effect of neonicotinoids on S. invicta has never been investigated. In this study, the newly mated queens were fed with water containing 0.01 or 0.25 μg/ml imidacloprid. Imidacloprid at both concentrations did not cause any increase in queen mortality during the founding stage; however, it significantly reduced queens’ brood tending ability. In the 0.25 μg/ml imidacloprid treatment, the time to larval emergence was significantly delayed and no pupae or adult workers were produced. This study provides clear evidence that imidacloprid at sublethal concentrations has a significant detrimental impact on S. invicta queens and the development of incipient colonies. PMID:26643971

  17. Ecological dominance of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in its native range.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Luis A; Livore, Juan P; Delgado, Alicia; Briano, Juan A

    2008-05-01

    Despite the widespread impacts invasive species can have in introduced populations, little is known about competitive mechanisms and dominance hierarchies between invaders and similar taxa in their native range. This study examines interactions between the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and other above-ground foraging ants in two habitats in northeastern Argentina. A combination of pitfall traps and baits was used to characterize the ant communities, their dominance relationships, and to evaluate the effect of phorid flies on the interactions. Twenty-eight ant species coexisted with S. invicta in a gallery forest gap, whereas only ten coexisted with S. invicta in a xerophytic forest grassland. S. invicta was the most numerically dominant species in the richest and complex habitat (gallery forest); however it performed better as discoverer and dominator in the simpler habitat. S. invicta was active during day and night. In spite of its poor capacity to discover resources, S. invicta showed the highest ecological dominance and the second-best behavioral dominance after Camponotus blandus. S. invicta won 78% of the interactions with other ants, mostly against its most frequent competitor, Pheidole cf. obscurithorax, dominating baits via mass recruitment and chemical aggression. P. cf. obscurithorax was the best food discoverer. S. invicta won 80% of the scarce interactions with Linepithema humile. Crematogaster quadriformis was one of the fastest foragers and the only ant that won an equal number of contests against S. invicta. The low presence of phorid flies affected the foraging rate of S. invicta, but not the outcome of interspecific interactions. This study revealed that the red imported fire ant ecologically dominated other terrestrial ants in its native range; however, other species were able to be numerically dominant or co-dominant in its presence. PMID:18305962

  18. Toxicity and repellency of compounds from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) to red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2013-02-01

    The toxicity and repellency of the bioactive chemicals of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) powder, eugenol, eugenol acetate, and beta-caryophyllene were evaluated against workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Clove powder applied at 3 and 12 mg/cm2 provided 100% ant mortality within 6 h, and repelled 99% within 3 h. Eugenol was the fastest acting compound against red imported fire ant compared with eugenol acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and clove oil. The LT50 values inclined exponentially with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested. However, repellency did not increase with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested, but did with the increase in exposure time. Eugenol, eugenol acetate, as well as beta-caryophyllene and clove oil may provide another tool for red imported fire ant integrated pest management, particularly in situations where conventional insecticides are inappropriate. PMID:23448024

  19. Infection characteristics of Solenopsis invicta virus-2 in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solenopsis invicta virus-2 (SINV-2) is the second virus identified from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, Buren. SINV-2 is unique among positive—strand RNA viruses from insects by possessing four cistrons in a monopartite genome. Fire ant colonies testing positive for SINV-2 by RT-PCR did not exhi...

  20. The importance of mammalian torpor for survival in a post-fire landscape

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Clare; Körtner, Gerhard; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires have increased in frequency and intensity worldwide with climate change as a main driving factor. While a number of studies have focused on population changes in regard to fires, there are essentially no quantitative data on behavioural and physiological adjustments that are vital for the persistence of individuals during and after fires. Here we show that brown antechinus, a small insectivorous marsupial mammal, (i) endured a prescribed fire in situ, (ii) remained in their scorched home range despite unburned areas nearby, and (iii) substantially increased post-fire torpor use and thus reduced foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Hence, torpor is a physiological adaptation that, although not quantified in this context previously, appears to play a key role in post-fire survival for this and other heterothermic species. PMID:26063748

  1. Essential Balm: A Strong Repellent Against Foraging and Defending Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Wen, Yuzhen; Ma, Tao; Chen, Xuan; Liu, Zhitao; Zhu, Chengqi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Strecker, Rachel; Henderson, Gregg; Hooper-Bùi, Linda M; Chen, Xiaoyang; Sun, Zhaohui; Wen, Xiujun; Wang, Cai

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, the repellent effects of essential balm, a traditional medicine product in China, was tested against foraging and defending red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, under laboratory and field conditions. The laboratory study showed that both band- (width = 1 cm) and patch-smearing of essential balm at each concentration (0.5, 1, or 2 μl/cm(2)) significantly decreased the number of S. invicta foragers within the 6-h observation period. Moreover, band-smearing of 2 μl/cm(2) essential balm and patch-smearing of 0.5, 1, and 2 μl/cm(2) essential balm inhibited most S. invicta foraging activity at 3, 6, 6, and 24 h into the experiment, respectively. The field study showed that after a disturbance was created on the S. invicta mound, there were significantly less defending ants on the substance treated (patch-smeared) with 0.5, 1, and 2 μl/cm(2) essential balm than the controls, but the number of ants on the substance of these three concentrations was similar. Our study suggested that essential balm is a strong repellent against foraging and defending S. invicta and could be applied when temporary protection from S. invicta is needed. PMID:27298425

  2. Implementation of Hyperspectral Techniques in the Remote Detection of Imported Fire Ants Mounds (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cultivated Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safe, expedient, and cost-effective treatments of imported fire ant (IFA) infestations require technological developments that exploit the use of remotely-sensed contrasting features to detect cryptic mounds in heavily-managed turfgrass. Ground-based implementation of hyperspectral techniques in the...

  3. Potential economic impact of introduction and spread of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutrich, J.J.; VanGelder, E.; Loope, L.

    2007-01-01

    Globally, many invasive alien species have caused extensive ecological and economic damage from either accidental or intentional introduction. The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has created billions of dollars in costs annually, spreading as an invasive species across the southern United States. In 1998, the red imported fire ant spread into California creating a highly probable future introduction via shipped products to Hawaii. This paper presents the estimation of potential economic impacts of the red imported fire ant (RIFA) to the state of Hawaii. Evaluation of impacts focuses on the economic sectors of (1) households, (2) agriculture (cattle and crop production), (3) infrastructure (cemeteries, churches, cities, electrical, telephone, and cable services, highways, hospitals and schools), (4) recreation, tourism and business (hotels/resort areas, golf courses, commercial businesses and tourists), and (5) government expenditures (with minimal intervention). The full annual economic costs of the red imported fire ant to Hawaii are estimated (in US$ 2006) to be $211 million/year, comprised of $77 million in damages and expenditures and $134 million in foregone outdoor opportunities to households and tourists. The present value of the projected costs of RIFA over a 20-year period after introduction total $2.5 billion. RIFA invasions across the globe indicate that economic cost-effective action in Hawaii entails implementation of prevention, early detection and rapid response treatment programs for RIFA. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influences of Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis spp.) Pedoturbation on Soils and Turfgrass in a Mississippi Sod Production Agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) actively modify the physical and biogeochemical properties of soil impacting soil quality as well as crop nutrient management efforts at field and landscape scales. Soil alterations result from worker ants’ nest construction and foraging a...

  5. Seasonal Dynamics of Imported Fire Ant Pedoturbation on Soils and Turfgrass in a Mississippi Sod Production Agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) affect soil quality and crop nutrient management efforts at field and landscape scales. Worker ants actively modify the physical and biogeochemical properties of soil; these alterations are the direct result of nest construction, foraging,...

  6. Extracted Venom and Cuticular Compounds of Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis spp., and Chemotaxonomic Applications Across a Persistent Hybrid Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of cuticular biomolecular assemblages for imported fire ants permit basic distinctions among colonies of S. invicta, S. richteri, and their hybrids; thus, providing opportunities to investigate details of landscape ecology for this species complex as well as to assess levels of inva...

  7. 7 CFR 301.81-11 - Imported fire ant detection, control, exclusion, and enforcement program for nurseries producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... be maintained free of the imported fire ant. As part of this treatment program, all exposed soil... colonies. (c) Exclusion. (1) For plants grown on the premises, treatment of soil or potting media...

  8. 7 CFR 301.81-11 - Imported fire ant detection, control, exclusion, and enforcement program for nurseries producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... be maintained free of the imported fire ant. As part of this treatment program, all exposed soil... colonies. (c) Exclusion. (1) For plants grown on the premises, treatment of soil or potting media...

  9. 7 CFR 301.81-11 - Imported fire ant detection, control, exclusion, and enforcement program for nurseries producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... be maintained free of the imported fire ant. As part of this treatment program, all exposed soil... colonies. (c) Exclusion. (1) For plants grown on the premises, treatment of soil or potting media...

  10. 7 CFR 301.81-11 - Imported fire ant detection, control, exclusion, and enforcement program for nurseries producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... be maintained free of the imported fire ant. As part of this treatment program, all exposed soil... colonies. (c) Exclusion. (1) For plants grown on the premises, treatment of soil or potting media...

  11. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid field detection of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an aggressive, highly invasive pest ant species from South America that has been introduced into North America, Asia and Australia. Quarantine efforts have been imposed in the United States to minimize the spread of the ant. There remains an acute ...

  12. Solenopsis invicta virus (sinv-1) infection and insecticide interactions in the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling invasive species is a growing concern; however, pesticides can be detrimental for non-target organisms. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) has aggressively invaded approximately 138 million ha in the USA and causes over $6 billion in damage and ...

  13. Red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) control with a corn grit bait of fenoxycarb without soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Williams, D F; Banks, W A; Vander Meer, R K; Lofgren, C S

    1991-06-01

    The standard fenoxycarb fire ant bait formulation (Logic), composed of pregel defatted corn grits and soybean oil toxicant, was modified by eliminating the soybean oil. This formulation without soybean oil contained greater than 2 times more fenoxycarb and was as effective as the standard bait formulation against laboratory colonies of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In field tests, the modified and standard baits were equally effective in controlling fire ants after 6, 12, and 18 wk. Individual worker ants obtained from plots treated with fenoxycarb baits without soybean oil had greater than 47 times less fenoxycarb than did workers from the plots treated with the standard fenoxycarb baits containing soybean oil. PMID:1885843

  14. Indirect competition facilitates widespread displacement of one naturalized parasitoid of imported fire ants by another.

    PubMed

    LeBrun, E G; Plowes, R M; Gilbert, L E

    2009-05-01

    Species abundances in natural systems are usually close to some equilibrium, making mechanisms that maintain or prevent species coexistence difficult to discern. Biological control projects provide an opportunity to observe systems transition between equilibriums as a result of the influence of the newly introduced species. In the southeastern United States and Texas, species of phorid fly parasitoids are being sequentially introduced as control agents for imported fire ants. The first two species introduced, Pseudacteon tricuspis and P. curvatus, partition the host niche based upon body size and co-exist broadly in their native range in Argentina, indicating they would form a co-existing and complementary suite of parasitoids in North America. This study examines the interaction between these parasitoids at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Surprisingly, data at all scales reveal that as P. curvatus establishes at a site it competitively displaces P. tricuspis. However, the speed of this reduction appears to differ between ecoregions, suggesting that the rate of displacement depends on environment. At the site where P. curvatus has been established the longest, this population interaction approaches complete displacement. Tests of potential mechanisms causing this displacement reveal that direct competition for host workers alters the operational sex ratio of the P. tricuspis population, but the strength of this effect is insufficient to explain the displacement. Experiments reveal the operation of a strong, indirect effect whereby locally common species preempt reproductive opportunities from rarer species by inducing host behavioral defenses. Finally, a re-examination of published data from their native range reveals that a previously overlooked negative relationship between the densities of these two species also exists there, suggesting that the same processes as those reported here also operate in South America. PMID:19537540

  15. Quantifying the Relative Importance and Potential Interactive Effects of Multiple Indices When Predicting Fire Risk and Severity in the Western US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyser, A. R.; Westerling, A.

    2007-12-01

    The national fire plan was implemented after the landmark fire season of 2000 as a response to a perceived increasing threat of severe wildfires. Subsequently, the Landfire project was initiated to develop a national dataset comprising vegetation condition, wildland fuels and fire regimes, and ecosystem status to support the national fire plan. A key product in this dataset to predict areas at risk for severe fires is the fire regime condition class (FRCC). The FRCC is an index of the degree of departure from the historical fire regime. This departure is a metric of the difference between current landscape vegetation composition and the range of historical reference vegetation characteristics; this difference can result from changes in vegetation characteristics and/or the spatial fire regime. The FRCC index is derived relative to simulated reference conditions, which in turn are based on Landsum, a landscape fire succession model. In addition to land management decisions, factors such as nitrogen deposition, ozone and climate affect both reference and current vegetation characteristics. It is an open question as to whether FRCC is sensitive enough to capture the full suite of potential effects on fire regimes. We are interested in examining vegetation change (via FRCC), nitrogen deposition, ozone concentration and climate variability in terms of their utility in predicting spatial variability in fire regime characteristics. Our analysis includes statistical examination of the multiple effects of nitrogen deposition, ozone, climate indices, and FRCC on fire frequency, size, and severity in California and the Western United States. We will assess how these four factors might act alone to influence fire, and their relative importance as co-determinants of fire risks. Our results will quantify how distinct FRCC is from climate and its efficacy as a predictor of fire risk and severity. Of particular interest is the extent to which FRCC predicts spatial variability in

  16. Aerosol delivery of trail pheromone disrupts red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, foraging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxic bait systems are widely used for control of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. We prepared the trail pheromone Z,E-a-farnesene (91% purity) from isomerised apple extracts and tested disruption of worker trail orientation using an aer...

  17. Population genetic structure of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Taiwan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We generated and analyzed microsatellite genotypic data and mtDNA sequence data from the fire ant Solenopsis invicta collected from two separate infested areas (Taoyuan and Chiayi) in Taiwan to infer the population and colony structure of these recently established populations. These genetic analyse...

  18. Susceptibility and behavioral response of red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to selected entomogenous nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae & Heterorhabditidae).

    PubMed

    Drees, B M; Miller, R W; Vinson, S B; Georgis, R

    1992-04-01

    Pathogenicity of infective juveniles of selected Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. toward developing and reproductive stages of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, was tested under laboratory conditions. At 10(3)-10(5) infective juveniles per Petri dish, mortality of reproductive larvae, pupae, and alates ranged from 28 to 100% at higher doses after 96 h at 23-25 degrees C. Steinernema carpocapsae All was the most consistent species tested; this nematode caused mortality of fire ant larvae, pupae, and alates of 82-94, 64-96, and 38-99%, respectively. Although not susceptible to nematode infection, worker ants vigorously preened nematodes from brood, alates, and themselves. In a field study, S. carpocapsae (5 x 10(6) and 2 x 10(6) drench, 2 x 10(6) infective juvenile infection) was applied to active fire ant mounds in 3.8-liter suspensions. Hydramethylnon (75 ml), a water drench, a water injection, and untreated fire ant mounds were marked and treated. Overall activity in mounds treated with nematodes of hydramethylnon ranged from 40 to 48%. Satellite mound activity accounted for 32-44% of overall activity in mounds treated with nematodes 2 wk after treatment. However, 6 wk after treatment, activity in mounds treated with hydramethylnon was 44%; activity of mounds treated with nematodes ranged from 52 to 80%. Satellite mound activity accounted for 0-24% of overall activity. Whereas a soil drench of S. carpocapsae showed potential as a control method for the red imported fire ant, colony relocation after nematode treatment could limit overall efficacy unless application techniques are developed to overcome or take advantage of the movement. PMID:1593012

  19. Arginine kinase: differentiation of gene expression and protein activity in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haichuan; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Lee; Lin, Qin; Liu, Nannan

    2009-02-01

    Arginine kinase (AK), a primary enzyme in cell metabolism and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-consuming processes, plays an important role in cellular energy metabolism and maintaining constant ATP levels in invertebrate cells. In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed between larvae and adults, queens and workers, and female alates (winged) and queens (wingless), AK cDNA was obtained from the red imported fire ant. The cDNA sequence of the gene has open reading frames of 1065 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 355 amino acid residues that includes the substrate recognition region, the signature sequence pattern of ATP:guanidino kinases, and an "actinin-type" actin binding domain. Northern blot analysis and protein activity analysis demonstrated that the expression of the AK gene and its protein activity were developmentally, caste specifically, and tissue specifically regulated in red imported fire ants with a descending order of worker> alate (winged adult) female> alate (winged adult) male> larvae> worker pupae approximately alate pupae. These results suggest a different demand for energy-consumption and production in the different castes of the red imported fire ant, which may be linked to their different missions and physiological activities in the colonies. The highest level of the AK gene expression and activity was identified in head tissue of both female alates and workers and thorax tissue of workers, followed by thorax tissue of female alates and abdomen tissue of male alates, suggesting the main tissues or cells in these body parts, such as brain, neurons and muscles, which have been identified as the major tissues and/or cells that display high and variable rates of energy turnover in other organisms, play a key role in energy production and its utilization in the fire ant. In contrast, in the male alate, the highest AK expression and activity were found in the abdomen, suggesting that here energy demand may relate to sperm formation

  20. Dose response of red imported fire ant colonies to Solenopsis invicta virus 3.

    PubMed

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D

    2015-10-01

    Baiting tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) dose on fire ant colonies. Actively growing early-stage fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) laboratory colonies were pulse-exposed for 24 hours to six concentrations of SINV-3 (10(1), 10(3), 10(5), 10(7), 10(9) genome equivalents/μl) in 1 ml of a 10 % sucrose bait and monitored regularly for two months. SINV-3 concentration had a significant effect on colony health. Brood rating (proportion of brood to worker ants) began to depart from the control group at 19 days for the 10(9) concentration and 26 days for the 10(7) concentration. At 60 days, brood rating was significantly lower among colonies treated with 10(9), 10(7), and 10(5) SINV-3 concentrations. The intermediate concentration, 10(5), appeared to cause a chronic, low-level infection with one colony (n = 9) supporting virus replication. Newly synthesized virus was not detected in any fire ant colonies treated at the 10(1) concentration, indicating that active infections failed to be established at this level of exposure. The highest bait concentration chosen, 10(9), appeared most effective from a control aspect; mean colony brood rating at this concentration (1.1 ± 0.9 at the 60 day time point) indicated poor colony health with minimal brood production. No clear relationship was observed between the quantity of plus genome strand detected and brood rating. Conversely, there was a strong relationship between the presence of the replicative genome strand and declining brood rating, which may serve as a predictor of disease severity. Recommendations for field treatment levels to control fire ants with SINV-3 are discussed. PMID:26162304

  1. Topography and climate are more important drivers of long-term, post-fire vegetation assembly than time-since-fire in the Sonoran Desert, US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shryock, Daniel F.; Esque, Todd C.; Chen, Felicia

    2015-01-01

    We find substantial evidence that environmental filters, rather than TSF, drive the majority of variability in long-term, post-fire vegetation assembly within the Sonoran Desert. Careful consideration of spatial variability in abiotic conditions may benefit post-fire vegetation modelling, as well as fire management and restoration strategies.

  2. Importance of climate, forest fires and human population size on the long-term boreal forest dynamics in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuosmanen, Niina; Seppä, Heikki; Alenius, Teija; Bradshaw, Richard; Clear, Jennifer; Filimonova, Fludmila; Heikkilä, Maija; Renssen, Hans; Tallavaara, Miikka; Reitalu, Triin

    2016-04-01

    Palaeoecological data provides valuable information for understanding the processes behind the past changes in forest composition, and hence can provide important knowledge regarding the potential effects of future changes in climate on boreal vegetation. Furthermore, it is essential to consider both regional and local factors in order to better understand the processes behind the boreal forest dynamics. The relative importance of climate, forest fires and human population size on long-term boreal forest composition were statistically investigated at regional and local scales in Fennoscandia. Statistical method variation partitioning was employed to assess the relative importance of these three variables. Fossil pollen data reflecting long-term boreal forest composition, at both regional (lake records) and local (small hollow records) scales from Russia, Finland and Sweden, were used as response matrix. Climate, generated from a climate model and oxygen isotope data, past forest fires generated from sedimentary charcoal data and human population size derived from radiocarbon dated archaeological findings were used as potential drivers of long-term boreal vegetation. Though the results clearly demonstrate that climate is the main driver of long-term vegetation changes at the regional scale, the role of climate notably is smaller at local scale and the influence of local site specific factors increases. However, the relative importance of forest fires on long-term changes in boreal forest composition remain generally low both at regional and local scale. The relatively low importance of both climate and forest fires on the variation in long-term boreal forest composition at local scale demonstrates the complexity of factors affecting stand-scale forest dynamics. In general, the relative importance of human population size on long-term changes in boreal vegetation was low. However, this was the first time that this type of human population size data was statistically

  3. Efficacy of broadcast and perimeter applications of S-methoprene bait on the red imported fire ant in grazed pastures.

    PubMed

    Aubuchon, Matthew D; Mullen, G R; Eubanks, M D

    2006-06-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), is a major pest in the United States because of its painful sting. Toxic bait has been an important management tool against fire ants, but site registrations prohibit applications of most baits on grazed pastures. Extinguish, containing the insect growth regulator methoprene, was selected for this study because it has a broad site registration that includes grazed pastures. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy for control of red imported fire ants by using broadcast applications of methoprene bait at a label rate of 1,121 g/ha versus applications around the perimeter of a target area at the reduced rate of 280 g/ha. Grazed pastures in Lee County, Alabama, and Chambers County, Alabama, were selected for this study, with broadcast treatments, perimeter treatments, and controls replicated three times at each site. All mounds were counted and rated using the USDA population index before applications and then at 8 and 16 wk posttreatment. Perimeter applications did not significantly reduce S. invicta mound abundance, but bait treatments significantly reduced mound abundance at 16 wk posttreatment at site 1 where applications were conducted in early evening. However, broadcast applications were not effective at site 2 where treatments were conducted in early morning with warmer temperatures. Emergence of winged alates was observed at 12 wk posttreatment, followed by a high density of incipient mounds that may have masked the full treatment effect of methoprene applications at site 2. Methoprene bait was effective in reducing abundance of S. invicta only when full label rates were applied. PMID:16813290

  4. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid field detection of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Valles, Steven M; Strong, Charles A; Callcott, Anne-Marie A

    2016-07-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an aggressive, highly invasive pest ant species from South America that has been introduced into North America, Asia, and Australia. Quarantine efforts have been imposed in the USA to minimize further spread of the ant. To aid the quarantine efforts, there remains an acute need for a rapid, field portable method for the identification of these ants. In this report, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind the S. invicta venom protein 2 produced by S. invicta. Using these monoclonal antibodies we developed a lateral flow immunoassay that provides a rapid and portable method for the identification of S. invicta ants. The lateral flow immunoassay was validated against purified S. invicta venom protein 2 and 33 unique ant species (representing 15 % of the total species and 42 % of the Myrmicinae genera found in Florida), and only S. invicta and the S. invicta/richteri hybrid produced a positive result. These monoclonal antibodies were selective to S. invicta venom protein 2 and did not bind to proteins from congeners (i.e., S. geminata or S. richteri) known to produce a S. invicta venom protein 2 ortholog. This S. invicta lateral flow immunoassay provides a new tool for regulatory agencies in the USA to enforce quarantine protocols and limit the spread of this invasive ant. Graphical Abstract Field method to detect and identify the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. PMID:27108280

  5. Influence of the proximity and amount of human development and roads on the occurrence of the red imported fire ant in the lower Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forys, E.A.; Allen, C.R.; Wojcik, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the influence of both the proximity and extent of human developments and paved roads on the presence of the predatory, non-indigenous, red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). This species was inadvertently introduced into the United States at the port of Mobile, Alabama, around 1930 and rapidly spread to many southeastern states, including Florida. More recently, S. invicta colonized the Florida Keys, an area with a high proportion of rare and endemic vertebrate and invertebrate species. We placed bait transects in transitional salt-marsh, pineland, and hardwood hammocks on 13 of the lower Florida Keys and compared habitat type, the shortest distance of the bait transect to a development or road, and area of development and roads 50, 70, 100, and 150 m around each bait transect for areas with and without red imported fire ants. Red imported fire ants were detected on 21 of the 80 transects and were equally abundant in all habitat types. While all of the development and road variables differed significantly between bait transects with and without red imported fire ants, transects that were closest to roads and that had the largest amount of development within a 150 m radii had the highest probability of presence of red imported fire ants. Recovery efforts for endangered species in areas invaded by red imported fire ants should include analyses of the cumulative impacts of roads and developments in areas near protected lands. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of fire on decomposition: assessing the relative importance of soil environment versus charring on decomposition in boreal conifer forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manies, K.; Turetsky, M. R.; Harden, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Boreal forests are experiencing significant changes in climate and disturbance regimes, including increases in the frequency and severity of fires. Fires impact the carbon (C) cycle of this region in many ways, including through changes to C inputs to the ecosystem (i.e., loss of all living vegetation, followed post-fire regrowth), changes in mycorrhizal relationships, the altering soil temperature and moisture regimes, and the charring of surface organic soil. All of these factors have the potential to impact decomposition rates. We were interested in comparing the relative importance of changes in soil temperature and moisture (soil environmental conditions) versus surface organic soil quality (charring) on decomposition rates. To disentangle the effects of environmental factors versus charring on mass loss, we performed a reciprocal transplant experiment. Our design included burned and unburned feather moss litter, collected from the field and placed within litterbags, which were then placed into triplicate burned and unburned black spruce dominated stands in interior Alaska. Litterbags were collected after one, three, and seven years, after which mass loss and changes in C and N pools were quantified. Exponential decomposition (k) values varied with litter type (burned/unburned) by environment (burned/unburned site) interactions. Averaged across both types of environments, decomposition rates were almost double for unburned versus burned litter. Decomposition rates were approximately 30 percent faster for unburned versus burned sites. Our results to date show that changes to soil quality due to charring have a larger effect in controlling post-burn decomposition rates than changes in soil environmental conditions.

  7. Interaction of RECQ4 and MCM10 is important for efficient DNA replication origin firing in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Kliszczak, Maciej; Sedlackova, Hana; Pitchai, Ganesha P.; Streicher, Werner W.; Krejci, Lumir; Hickson, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly coordinated process that is initiated at multiple replication origins in eukaryotes. These origins are bound by the origin recognition complex (ORC), which subsequently recruits the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase in a Cdt1/Cdc6-dependent manner. In budding yeast, two essential replication factors, Sld2 and Mcm10, are then important for the activation of replication origins. In humans, the putative Sld2 homolog, RECQ4, interacts with MCM10. Here, we have identified two mutants of human RECQ4 that are deficient in binding to MCM10. We show that these RECQ4 variants are able to complement the lethality of an avian cell RECQ4 deletion mutant, indicating that the essential function of RECQ4 in vertebrates is unlikely to require binding to MCM10. Nevertheless, we show that the RECQ4-MCM10 interaction is important for efficient replication origin firing. PMID:26588054

  8. Quantifying Responses of Dung Beetles to Fire Disturbance in Tropical Forests: The Importance of Trapping Method and Seasonality

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Rafael Barreto; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Zagury; Souza, Mateus; Silveira, Juliana M.; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how biodiversity responds to environmental changes is essential to provide the evidence-base that underpins conservation initiatives. The present study provides a standardized comparison between unbaited flight intercept traps (FIT) and baited pitfall traps (BPT) for sampling dung beetles. We examine the effectiveness of the two to assess fire disturbance effects and how trap performance is affected by seasonality. The study was carried out in a transitional forest between Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) and Amazon Forest. Dung beetles were collected during one wet and one dry sampling season. The two methods sampled different portions of the local beetle assemblage. Both FIT and BPT were sensitive to fire disturbance during the wet season, but only BPT detected community differences during the dry season. Both traps showed similar correlation with environmental factors. Our results indicate that seasonality had a stronger effect than trap type, with BPT more effective and robust under low population numbers, and FIT more sensitive to fine scale heterogeneity patterns. This study shows the strengths and weaknesses of two commonly used methodologies for sampling dung beetles in tropical forests, as well as highlighting the importance of seasonality in shaping the results obtained by both sampling strategies. PMID:22028831

  9. Fatty Amines from Little Black Ants, Monomorium minimum, and Their Biological Activities Against Red Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, are significant invasive pests. Certain native ant species can compete with S. invicta, such as the little black ant, Monomorium minimum. Defensive secretions may contribute to the competition capacity of native ants. The chemistry of ant defensive secretions in the genus Monomorium has been subjected to extensive research. The insecticidal alkaloids, 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolidines and 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolines have been reported to dominate the venom of M. minimum. In this study, analysis of defensive secretions of workers and queens of M. minimum revealed two primary amines, decylamine and dodecylamine. Neither amine has been reported previously from natural sources. Toxicity and digging suppression by these two amines against S. invicta were examined. Decylamine had higher toxicity to S. invicta workers than dodecylamine, a quicker knockdown effect, and suppressed the digging behavior of S. invicta workers at lower concentration. However, the amount of fatty amines in an individual ant was not enough to knockdown a fire ant or suppress its digging behavior. These amines most likely work in concert with other components in the chemical defense of M. minimum. PMID:26254063

  10. Increased incidence of red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) presence in loggerhead sea turtle (Testudines: Cheloniidae) nests and observations of hatchling mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parris, L.B.; Lamont, M.M.; Carthy, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Hatching sea turtles may be at risk to fire ant predation during egg incubation, and especially at risk once pipped from the egg, prior to hatchling emergence from the nest. In addition to direct mortality, fire ants have the potential to inflict debilitating injuries that may directly affect survival of the young. The increased incidence of red imported fire ant induced mortality and envenomization of loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings on Cape San Blas suggests this invasive ant species may pose a serious threat to the future of this genetically distinct population.

  11. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In social insects, antimicrobial secretions are often used collectively for the benefit of the whole colony, which is an important component in social immunity. Many ant species build nests in which air circulation can be controlled. Volatile antimicrobial agents would be ideal in implementing socia...

  12. Multiplatform inversion of the 2013 Rim Fire smoke emissions using regional-scale modeling: important nocturnal fire activity, air quality, and climate impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, P. E.; Peterson, D. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Hair, J. W.; Butler, C. F.; Fenn, M. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Dibb, J. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Toon, B.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Large wildfire events are increasingly recognized for their adverse effects on air quality and visibility, thus providing motivation for improving smoke emission estimates. The Rim Fire, one of the largest events in California's history, produced a large smoke plume that was sampled by the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) DC-8 aircraft with a full suite of in-situ and remote sensing measurements on 26-27 August 2013. We developed an inversion methodology which uses the WRF-Chem modeling system to constrain hourly fire emissions, using as initial estimates the NASA Quick Fire Emissions Dataset (QFED). This method differs from the commonly performed top-down estimates that constrain daily (or longer time scale) emissions. The inversion method is able to simultaneously improve the model fit to various SEAC4RS airborne measurements (e.g., organic aerosol, carbon monoxide (CO), aerosol extinction), ground based measurements (e.g., AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD), CO), and satellite data (MODIS AOD) by modifying fire emissions and utilizing the information content of all these measurements. Preliminary results show that constrained emissions for a 6 day period following the largest fire growth are a factor 2-4 higher than the initial top-down estimates. Moreover, there is a tendency to increase nocturnal emissions by factors sometimes larger than 20, indicating that vigorous fire activity continued during the night. This deviation from a typical diurnal cycle is confirmed using geostationary satellite data. The constrained emissions also have a larger day-to-day variability than the initial emissions and correlate better to daily area burned estimates as observed by airborne infrared measurements (NIROPS). Experiments with the assimilation system show that performing the inversion using only satellite AOD data produces much smaller correction factors than when using all available data

  13. Fire Inspection Guide for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Corp. Commission, Richmond.

    A functional explanation of the "School Fire Prevention Inspection Form" is provided for use by local school and fire department personnel in the Virginia School Fire Prevention Inspection Program. Many helpful suggestions are made for safeguarding occupants of public school buildings from fire hazards. Items discussed are--(1) exit doors, (2)…

  14. Bronchodilatory therapy with nebuhaler: how important is the delay between firing the dose and inhaling?

    PubMed

    Newman, S P; Woodman, G; Morén, F; Clarke, S W

    1988-07-01

    Metered dose inhalers are sometimes used in conjunction with NebuhalerR, a 750 ml holding chamber, but the permissible delay time between actuating the aerosol into Nebuhaler and commencing inhalation is unknown. We have compared in 10 asthmatic patients the bronchodilator responses following inhalations of terbutaline sulphate from Nebuhaler after delays of 1, 5 and 30 seconds and following placebo inhalation. Terbutaline sulphate was administered as 2 puffs, each of 250 micrograms, separated by approximately 15 minutes. After each delay time, terbutaline produced increases in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and maximum expiratory flow following exhalation of 75% of the forced vital capacity (V max25) significantly greater than those after placebo (P less than 0.01). Changes in PEFR did not vary significantly among the three delay times, but the increases in FEV1 and in V max25 were significantly reduced with 30 seconds' delay. It is concluded that the delay between actuation into Nebuhaler and commencing inhalation can be extended from 1 second to 5 seconds without significant loss of drug efficacy, and that further extension to 30 seconds causes only a small loss of bronchodilatation: hence the delay time is unlikely to be of major importance in clinical practice. PMID:3073806

  15. Esterase in imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): activity, kinetics and variation.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Rashid, T; Feng, G

    2014-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri are two closely related invasive ants native to South America. Despite their similarity in biology and behavior, S. invicta is a more successful invasive species. Toxic tolerance has been found to be important to the success of some invasive species. Esterases play a crucial role in toxic tolerance of insects. Hence, we hypothesized that the more invasive S. invicta would have a higher esterase activity than S. richteri. Esterase activities were measured for workers and male and female alates of both ant species using α-naphthyl acetate and β-naphthyl acetate as substrates. Esterase activities in S. invicta were always significantly higher than those in S. richteri supporting our hypothesis. In S. invicta, male alates had the highest esterase activities followed by workers then female alates for both substrates. In S. richetri, for α-naphthyl acetate, male alates had the highest activity followed by female alates then workers, while for β-naphthyl acetate, female alates had the highest activity followed by male alates then workers. For workers, S. richteri showed significantly higher levels of variation about the mean esterase activity than S. invicta. However, S. invicta showed significantly higher levels of variation in both female and male alates. PMID:25408118

  16. Fire Ant Decapitating Fly Cooperative Release Programs (1994–2008): Two Pseudacteon Species, P. tricuspis and P. curvatus, Rapidly Expand Across Imported Fire Ant Populations in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Callcott, Anne-Marie A.; Porter, Sanford D.; Weeks, Ronald D.; “Fudd” Graham, L. C.; Johnson, Seth J.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    Natural enemies of the imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren S. richteri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and their hybrid, include a suite of more than 20 fire ant decapitating phorid flies from South America in the genus Pseudacteon. Over the past 12 years, many researchers and associates have cooperated in introducing several species as classical or self-sustaining biological control agents in the United States. As a result, two species of flies, Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier and P. curvatus Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae), are well established across large areas of the southeastern United States. Whereas many researchers have published local and state information about the establishment and spread of these flies, here distribution data from both published and unpublished sources has been compiled for the entire United States with the goal of presenting confirmed and probable distributions as of the fall of 2008. Documented rates of expansion were also used to predict the distribution of these flies three years later in the fall of 2011. In the fall of 2008, eleven years after the first successful release, we estimate that P. tricuspis covered about 50% of the fire ant quarantined area and that it will occur in almost 65% of the quarantine area by 2011. Complete coverage of the fire ant quarantined area will be delayed or limited by this species' slow rate of spread and frequent failure to establish in more northerly portions of the fire ant range and also, perhaps, by its preference for red imported fire ants (S. invicta). Eight years after the first successful release of P. curvatus, two biotypes of this species (one biotype occurring predominantly in the black and hybrid imported fire ants and the other occurring in red imported fire ants) covered almost 60% of the fire ant quarantined area. We estimate these two biotypes will cover almost 90% of the quarantine area by 2011 and 100% by 2012 or 2013. Strategic selection of several distributional gaps

  17. A General Task-Oriented Teacher Competencies Checklist: Item Importance and Placement in Training as Judged by Prospective and Present Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Harold H.

    This study is designed to develop a checklist of teacher competencies (TECOMP I) based on an analysis of teaching tasks in keeping with a cybernetic model, to secure and analyze critical responses to the checklist items, to relate these judgments to the characteristics of the several items, and to clarify issues regarding the construction and…

  18. Comparing electroantennogram and behavioral responses of two Pseudacteon phorid fly species to body extracts of Black, Red and Hybrid imported fire ants, Solenopsis spp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Ochieng, Samuel A; He, Xiaofang; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2012-10-01

    Several phorid fly species were introduced to the southern United States for biological control of the invasive imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri (Black), Solenopsis invicta (Red), and their Hybrid S. richteri×S. invicta (Hybrid). It has been previously reported that the Jaguariuna biotype of Pseudacteon tricuspis and the Formosan biotype of Pseudacteon curvatus could distinguish among the three fire ant species with greater preference for Hybrid and Red fire ants. We hypothesized that phorid flies might use host derived chemical cues to differentiate ant species. To determine possible differential olfactory sensitivity of phorid fly species to different fire ant species, we compared electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of both sexes of P. tricuspis and P. curvatus to body extracts of Black, Red and Hybrid fire ants. As worker sizes of Black and Hybrid fire ants used in this study were much larger than that of Red fire ant (the average weight for Black, Red and Hybrid workers was 1.707, 0.863, 1.223mg per ants, respectively), at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 worker equivalent, body extracts of Black and Hybrid fire ant elicited significantly greater EAG response in both sexes of P. tricuspis than that of Red fire ant. Similarly, the EAG response in female P. curvatus to body extract of Black fire ant was significantly greater than to body extract of Red fire ant. To eliminate worker size influence on EAG response in phorid flies, we conducted a second EAG study using a dose of 1mg ant equivalent (body extract from 1mg of worker). No difference in EAG responses was recorded to body extract obtained from the same amount of workers among the three fire ant species (we consider viable Hybrid fire ant as a species in this paper), suggesting that worker size differences contributed to difference in EAG response in the first EAG study. In both EAG studies, male P. tricuspis showed significantly greater EAG responses than male P. curvatus to all three fire ant

  19. Fire ant decapitating fly cooperative release programs (1994-2008): Two Pseudacteon species (P. tricuspis, P. curvatus) rapidly expand across imported fire and populations in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural enemies of the imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) include a suite of more than 20 phorid decapitating flies from South America in the genus Pseudacteon. Over the past 12 years, many researchers and associates have coop...

  20. A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta).

    PubMed

    Klobuchar, Emily A; Deslippe, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants. PMID:12216859

  1. A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klobuchar, Emily; Deslippe, Richard

    2002-05-01

    We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

  2. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for commercial aircraft and spacecraft using a basic polyimide resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    A terpolyimide precursor was developed which can be foamed by microwave methods and yields foams possessing the best seating properties. A continuous process, based on spray drying techniques, permits production of polyimide powder precursors in large quantities. The constrained rise foaming process permits fabrication of rigid foam panels with improved mechanical properties and almost unlimited density characteristics. Polyimide foam core rigid panels were produced by this technique with woven fiberglass fabric bonded to each side of the panel in a one step microwave process. The fire resistance of polyimide foams was significantly improved by the addition of ceramic fibers to the powder precursors. Foams produced from these compositions are flexible, possess good acoustical attenuation and meet the minimum burnthrough requirements when impinged by high flux flame sources.

  3. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) of the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): An example of the problems facing the analysis of widely divergent proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the odorant binding proteins (OBPs) of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, obtained from analyses of a single EST library and data generated from separate 454 sequencing runs of two normalized cDNA libraries. We identified a total of 18 OBPs in this ant, which is the smallest ...

  4. Solenopsis invicta virus-1 tissue tropism and intracolony infection rate in the red imported fire ant: A quantitative PCR-based study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to measure the Solenopsis invicta virus 1 (SINV-1) load in tissues, individuals, and among colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Among tissues examined from SINV-1-infected adults and larvae, the alimentary canal (specifically the mi...

  5. Isolation and characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3, a new positive-strand RNA virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the discovery of a new virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) represents the third virus identified from this ant species using the metagenomics approach. The single (positive)-strand RNA, monopartite, bicistronic genome of SINV-3 wa...

  6. BEHAVIORAL INTERACTIONS OF THE BLACK IMPORTED FIRE ANT (SOLENOPSIS RICHTERI FOREL) AND ITS PARASITOID FLY (PSEUDACTEON CURVATUS BORGMEIER) AS REVEALED BY HIGH-SPEED VIDEO.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-speed video recordings were used to study the interactions between the phorid fly (Pseudacteon curvatus), and the black imported fire ant (Solenopsis richteri) in the field. Phorid flies are extremely fast agile fliers that can hover and fly in all directions. Wingbeat frequency recorded with...

  7. Persistent barrage firing in cortical interneurons can be induced in vivo and may be important for the suppression of epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Norimitsu; Tang, Clara S-M; Bekkers, John M

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits are typically maintained in a state of dynamic equilibrium by balanced synaptic excitation and inhibition. However, brain regions that are particularly susceptible to epilepsy may have evolved additional specialized mechanisms for inhibiting over-excitation. Here we identify one such possible mechanism in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. Recently it was reported that some types of GABAergic interneurons can slowly integrate excitatory inputs until eventually they fire persistently in the absence of the original stimulus. This property, called persistent firing or retroaxonal barrage firing (BF), is of unknown physiological importance. We show that two common types of interneurons in cortical regions, neurogliaform (NG) cells and fast-spiking (FS) cells, are unique in exhibiting BF in acute slices (~85 and ~23% success rate for induction, respectively). BF can also be induced in vivo, although the success rate for induction is lower (~60% in NG cells). In slices, BF could reliably be triggered by trains of excitatory synaptic input, as well as by exposure to proconvulsant bath solutions (elevated extracellular K(+), blockade of GABAA receptors). Using pair recordings in slices, we confirmed that barrage-firing NG cells can produce synaptic inhibition of nearby pyramidal neurons, and that this inhibition outlasts the original excitation. The ubiquity of NG and FS cells, together with their ability to fire persistently following excessive excitation, suggests that these interneurons may function as cortical sentinels, imposing an activity-dependent brake on undesirable neuronal hyperexcitability. PMID:24659955

  8. Persistent barrage firing in cortical interneurons can be induced in vivo and may be important for the suppression of epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Norimitsu; Tang, Clara S.-M.; Bekkers, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits are typically maintained in a state of dynamic equilibrium by balanced synaptic excitation and inhibition. However, brain regions that are particularly susceptible to epilepsy may have evolved additional specialized mechanisms for inhibiting over-excitation. Here we identify one such possible mechanism in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. Recently it was reported that some types of GABAergic interneurons can slowly integrate excitatory inputs until eventually they fire persistently in the absence of the original stimulus. This property, called persistent firing or retroaxonal barrage firing (BF), is of unknown physiological importance. We show that two common types of interneurons in cortical regions, neurogliaform (NG) cells and fast-spiking (FS) cells, are unique in exhibiting BF in acute slices (~85 and ~23% success rate for induction, respectively). BF can also be induced in vivo, although the success rate for induction is lower (~60% in NG cells). In slices, BF could reliably be triggered by trains of excitatory synaptic input, as well as by exposure to proconvulsant bath solutions (elevated extracellular K+, blockade of GABAA receptors). Using pair recordings in slices, we confirmed that barrage-firing NG cells can produce synaptic inhibition of nearby pyramidal neurons, and that this inhibition outlasts the original excitation. The ubiquity of NG and FS cells, together with their ability to fire persistently following excessive excitation, suggests that these interneurons may function as cortical sentinels, imposing an activity-dependent brake on undesirable neuronal hyperexcitability. PMID:24659955

  9. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Clones. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    To reduce the cost of item writing and to enhance the flexibility of item presentation, items can be generated by item-cloning techniques. An important consequence of cloning is that it may cause variability on the item parameters. Therefore, a multilevel item response model is presented in which it is assumed that the item parameters of a…

  10. Carbon dynamics in the future forest: the importance of long-term successional legacy and climate-fire interactions.

    PubMed

    Loudermilk, E Louise; Scheller, Robert M; Weisberg, Peter J; Yang, Jian; Dilts, Thomas E; Karam, Sarah L; Skinner, Carl

    2013-11-01

    Understanding how climate change may influence forest carbon (C) budgets requires knowledge of forest growth relationships with regional climate, long-term forest succession, and past and future disturbances, such as wildfires and timber harvesting events. We used a landscape-scale model of forest succession, wildfire, and C dynamics (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the effects of a changing climate (A2 and B1 IPCC emissions; Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory General Circulation Models) on total forest C, tree species composition, and wildfire dynamics in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California, and Nevada. The independent effects of temperature and precipitation were assessed within and among climate models. Results highlight the importance of modeling forest succession and stand development processes at the landscape scale for understanding the C cycle. Due primarily to landscape legacy effects of historic logging of the Comstock Era in the late 1880s, C sequestration may continue throughout the current century, and the forest will remain a C sink (Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance > 0), regardless of climate regime. Climate change caused increases in temperatures limited simulated C sequestration potential because of augmented fire activity and reduced establishment ability of subalpine and upper montane trees. Higher temperatures influenced forest response more than reduced precipitation. As the forest reached its potential steady state, the forest could become C neutral or a C source, and climate change could accelerate this transition. The future of forest ecosystem C cycling in many forested systems worldwide may depend more on major disturbances and landscape legacies related to land use than on projected climate change alone. PMID:23821586

  11. Effect of the red imported fire ant on cotton aphid population density and predation of bollworm and beet armyworm eggs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Rodrigo; Knutson, Allen; Bernal, Julio S

    2004-04-01

    The effects of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, populations and its predation of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), (both Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs were evaluated in cotton under field conditions during 2001 and 2002 in central and northern Texas. In central Texas, cotton aphid populations were approximately 5.5 times greater and predation of sentinel bollworm eggs 2 times greater in the presence of S. invicta versus in its absence, although aphid populations did not reach economic levels. Most predation of beet armyworm egg masses, measured via direct nocturnal observations, was due to S. invicta (68%) and cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (21%), where S. invicta was present, and by the mite Abrolophus sp. (52%), spiders (13%), and minute pirate bug (Orius sp.) (13%) where S. invicta was absent. Predation of sentinel bollworm eggs and beet armyworm egg masses was approximately 1.5 and 4.1 times greater, respectively, in the presence of S. invicta versus in their absence. In the presence of S. invicta, the relative frequencies of minute pirate bug and cotton fleahopper were higher, and of S. invicta and native ants lower in beat bucket samples compared with their relative frequencies in nocturnal observations of predation upon beet armyworm egg masses. In the absence of S. invicta seven of eight predators sampled were similarly represented in beat bucket samples and nocturnal observations of beet armyworm egg mass predation, whereas minute pirate bug occurred at a higher frequency in beat bucket samples relative to nocturnal observations. These observations suggested that the relative frequencies of minute pirate bug, cotton fleahopper, S. invicta and native ants in beat bucket samples do not closely reflect the frequency with which these predators prey on noctuid eggs. Overall, the results of this study show

  12. Relations between Vocabulary Development and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Item Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Greffe, Christelle; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    Although many studies have shown an association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development, the precise nature of this association is not yet clear. The current study reexamined this relation in 4- to 6-year-olds by designing verbal STM tasks that maximized memory for either item or serial order information. Although…

  13. A MODIFIED REARING SYSTEM FOR PRODUCTION OF PSEUDACTEON CURVATUS BORGMEIER (DIPTERA: PHORIDAE) THAT PARASITIZE IMPORTED FIRE ANTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A self-contained, climate-controlled box for exposing fire ants to attack by Pseudacteon parasitoids was developed. The initial system, which is being used to rear Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier, consists of large (approx. 244 cm L X 97 cm W X 50 cm H), well-ventilated boxes ("attack boxes") house...

  14. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Two simulations were run with WRF-Chem using the complex volatility basis set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent data sets for comparison including airborne measurements of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) column observations from four satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement between the model runs and both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration

  15. Revealing important nocturnal and day-to-day variations in fire smoke emissions through a multiplatform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Peterson, David A.; Silva, Arlindo; Anderson, Bruce; Ziemba, Luke D.; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Hair, Johnathan; Butler, Carolyn; Fenn, Marta; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Perring, Anne E.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Markovic, Milos Z.; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Streets, David G.; Yan, Fang; Dibb, Jack; Yokelson, Robert; Toon, O. Brian; Hyer, Edward; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2015-05-01

    We couple airborne, ground-based, and satellite observations; conduct regional simulations; and develop and apply an inversion technique to constrain hourly smoke emissions from the Rim Fire, the third largest observed in California, USA. Emissions constrained with multiplatform data show notable nocturnal enhancements (sometimes over a factor of 20), correlate better with daily burned area data, and are a factor of 2-4 higher than a priori estimates, highlighting the need for improved characterization of diurnal profiles and day-to-day variability when modeling extreme fires. Constraining only with satellite data results in smaller enhancements mainly due to missing retrievals near the emissions source, suggesting that top-down emission estimates for these events could be underestimated and a multiplatform approach is required to resolve them. Predictions driven by emissions constrained with multiplatform data present significant variations in downwind air quality and in aerosol feedback on meteorology, emphasizing the need for improved emissions estimates during exceptional events.

  16. Revealing important nocturnal and day-to-day variations in fire smoke emissions through a multiplatform inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Saide, Pablo E.; Peterson, David A.; de Silva, Arlindo; Anderson, Bruce; Ziemba, Luke D.; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Hair, Jonathan; Butler, Carolyn; Fenn, Marta; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Perring, Anne E.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Markovic, Milos Z.; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Streets, David G.; Yan, Fang; Dibb, Jack; Yokelson, Robert; Toon, O. Brian; Hyer, Edward; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2015-05-16

    We couple airborne, ground-based, and satellite observations; conduct regional simulations; and develop and apply an inversion technique to constrain hourly smoke emissions from the Rim Fire, the third largest observed in California, USA. Emissions constrained with multiplatform data show notable nocturnal enhancements (sometimes over a factor of 20), correlate better with daily burned area data, and are a factor of 2–4 higher than a priori estimates, highlighting the need for improved characterization of diurnal profiles and day-to-day variability when modeling extreme fires. Constraining only with satellite data results in smaller enhancements mainly due to missing retrievals near the emissions source, suggesting that top-down emission estimates for these events could be underestimated and a multiplatform approach is required to resolve them. Predictions driven by emissions constrained with multiplatform data present significant variations in downwind air quality and in aerosol feedback on meteorology, emphasizing the need for improved emissions estimates during exceptional events.

  17. Fire Safety Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Fire protection is one of the most important considerations in the construction and operation of industrial plants and commercial buildings. Fire insurance rates are determined by fire probability factors, such as the type of construction, ease of transporting personnel, and the quality and quantity of fire protection equipment available. Because…

  18. Anaphylaxis caused by stings from the Solenopsis invicta, lava-pés ant or red imported fire ant.

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Ants are social insects with species of medical interest, such as the fire ants (Solenopsis sp.). The sting causes inflammation, vesicles and sterile pustules, which may cause allergic phenomena and even anaphylactic shock. We describe a patient who suffered a large number of stings and an episode of syncope with fall in blood pressure and complete regression of symptoms after resuscitation and medication for anaphylaxis. Considering the clinical manifestations and images of wheals and blisters on the patient's feet at the time of syncope, this report should serve as a warning for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition and even for counseling and prevention regarding patients exposed to this risk. PMID:26312665

  19. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  20. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, to an alarm pheromone component and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Guan, Di; Lu, Yong-Yue; Liao, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Lei; Chen, Li

    2014-12-10

    A characteristic behavior in ants is to move rapidly to emission sources of alarm pheromones. The addition of ant alarm pheromones to bait is expected to enhance its attractiveness. To search for candidate compounds for bait enhancement in fire ant control, 13 related alkylpyrazine analogues in addition to synthetic alarm pheromone component were evaluated for electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral activities in Solenopsis invicta. Most compounds elicited dose-dependent EAG and behavioral responses. There exists a correlation between the EAG and behavioral responses. Among the 14 tested alkylpyrazines, three compounds, 2-ethyl-3,6(5)-dimethyl pyrazine (1), 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine (7), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (12), elicited significant alarm responses at a dose range of 0.1-1000 ng. Further bait discovery bioassay with the three most active alkylpyrazines demonstrated that food bait accompanied by sample-treated filter paper disk attracted significantly more fire ant workers in the first 15 min period. EAG and behavioral bioassays with pure pheromone isomers accumulated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine was significantly more active than 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine. PMID:25415443

  1. Item Difficulty Modeling of Paragraph Comprehension Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Joanna S.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent assessment research joining cognitive psychology and psychometric theory has introduced a new technology, item generation. In algorithmic item generation, items are systematically created based on specific combinations of features that underlie the processing required to correctly solve a problem. Reading comprehension items have been more…

  2. Cloning and Expression of Multiple Cytochrome P450 Genes: Induction by Fipronil in Workers of the Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baizhong; Zhang, Lei; Cui, Rukun; Zeng, Xinnian; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous compounds can induce the expression of cytochrome P450 genes. The insect cytochrome P450 genes related to insecticide resistance are likely to be expressed as the “first line of defense” when challenged with insecticides. In this study, four cytochrome P450 genes, SinvCYP6B1, SinvCYP6A1, SinvCYP4C1, and SinvCYP4G15, were firstly isolated from workers of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and sequenced. The fipronil induction profiles of the four cytochrome P450 genes and the two previously isolated CYP4AB1 and CYP4AB2 were characterized in workers. The results revealed that the expression of SinvCYP6B1, SinvCYP6A1, CYP4AB2, and SinvCYP4G15, increased 1.4-fold and 1.3-fold more than those of acetone control, respectively, after 24 h exposure to fipronil at concentrations of 0.25 μg mL−1 (median lethal dose) and 0.56 μg mL−1 (90% lethal dose), while no significant induction of the expression of CYP4AB1 and SinvCYP4C1 was detected. Among these genes, SinvCYP6B1 was the most significantly induced, and its maximum expression was 3.6-fold higher than that in acetone control. These results might suggest that multiple cytochrome P450 genes are co-up-regulated in workers of the fire ant through induction mechanism when challenged with fipronil. These findings indicated that cytochrome P450 genes play an important role in the detoxification of insecticides and provide a theoretical basis for the mechanisms of insecticide metabolism in the fire ant. PMID:26982576

  3. Cloning and Expression of Multiple Cytochrome P450 Genes: Induction by Fipronil in Workers of the Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baizhong; Zhang, Lei; Cui, Rukun; Zeng, Xinnian; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous compounds can induce the expression of cytochrome P450 genes. The insect cytochrome P450 genes related to insecticide resistance are likely to be expressed as the "first line of defense" when challenged with insecticides. In this study, four cytochrome P450 genes, SinvCYP6B1, SinvCYP6A1, SinvCYP4C1, and SinvCYP4G15, were firstly isolated from workers of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and sequenced. The fipronil induction profiles of the four cytochrome P450 genes and the two previously isolated CYP4AB1 and CYP4AB2 were characterized in workers. The results revealed that the expression of SinvCYP6B1, SinvCYP6A1, CYP4AB2, and SinvCYP4G15, increased 1.4-fold and 1.3-fold more than those of acetone control, respectively, after 24 h exposure to fipronil at concentrations of 0.25 μg mL-1 (median lethal dose) and 0.56 μg mL-1 (90% lethal dose), while no significant induction of the expression of CYP4AB1 and SinvCYP4C1 was detected. Among these genes, SinvCYP6B1 was the most significantly induced, and its maximum expression was 3.6-fold higher than that in acetone control. These results might suggest that multiple cytochrome P450 genes are co-up-regulated in workers of the fire ant through induction mechanism when challenged with fipronil. These findings indicated that cytochrome P450 genes play an important role in the detoxification of insecticides and provide a theoretical basis for the mechanisms of insecticide metabolism in the fire ant. PMID:26982576

  4. Induced Effects on Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Forager Size Ratios by Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae): Implications on Bait Size Selection.

    PubMed

    Reed, J J; Puckett, R T; Gold, R E

    2015-10-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are adversely affected by phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon by instigating defensive behaviors in their hosts, and in turn reducing the efficiency of S. invicta foraging. Multiple Pseudacteon species have been released in Texas, and research has been focused on the establishment and spread of these introduced biological control agents. Field experiments were conducted to determine bait particle size selection of S. invicta when exposed to phorid populations. Four different particle sizes of two candidate baits were offered to foragers (one provided by a pesticide manufacturer, and a laboratory-created bait). Foragers selectively were attracted to, and removed more 1-1.4-mm particles than any other bait size. The industry-provided bait is primarily made of particles in the 1.4-2.0 mm size, larger than what was selected by the ants in this study. While there was a preference for foragers to be attracted to and rest on the industry-provided blank bait, S. invicta removed more of the laboratory-created bait from the test vials. There was an abundance of workers with head widths ranging from 0.5-0.75 mm collected from baits. This was dissimilar from a previous study wherein phorid flies were not active and in which large workers were collected in higher abundance at the site. This implies that phorid fly activity caused a shift for red imported fire ant colonies to have fewer large foragers. PMID:26314020

  5. The Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) Kept Y not F: Predicted sNPY Endogenous Ligands Deorphanize the Short NPF (sNPF) Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bajracharya, Prati; Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Pietrantonio, Patricia V.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides and their receptors play vital roles in controlling the physiology and behavior of animals. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF) signaling regulates several physiological processes in insects such as feeding, locomotion, circadian rhythm and reproduction, among others. Previously, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) sNPF receptor (S. invicta sNPFR), a G protein-coupled receptor, was immunolocalized in queen and worker brain and queen ovaries. Differential distribution patterns of S. invicta sNPFR protein in fire ant worker brain were associated both with worker subcastes and with presence or absence of brood in the colony. However, the cognate ligand for this sNPFR has not been characterized and attempts to deorphanize the receptor with sNPF peptides from other insect species which ended in the canonical sequence LRLRFamide, failed. Receptor deorphanization is an important step to understand the neuropeptide receptor downstream signaling cascade. We cloned the full length cDNA of the putative S. invicta sNPF prepropeptide and identified the putative “sNPF” ligand within its sequence. The peptide ends with an amidated Tyr residue whereas in other insect species sNPFs have an amidated Phe or Trp residue at the C-terminus. We stably expressed the HA-tagged S. invicta sNPFR in CHO-K1 cells. Two S. invicta sNPFs differing at their N-terminus were synthesized that equally activated the sNPFR, SLRSALAAGHLRYa (EC50 = 3.2 nM) and SALAAGHLRYa (EC50 = 8.6 nM). Both peptides decreased the intracellular cAMP concentration, indicating signaling through the Gαi-subunit. The receptor was not activated by sNPF peptides from other insect species, honey bee long NPF (NPY) or mammalian PYY. Further, a synthesized peptide otherwise identical to the fire ant sequence but in which the C-terminal amidated amino acid residue ‘Y’ was switched to ‘F’, failed to activate the sNPFR. This discovery will now allow us to investigate the function of sNPY and

  6. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  7. A Note on Item-Restscore Association in Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Svend

    2011-01-01

    To rule out the need for a two-parameter item response theory (IRT) model during item analysis by Rasch models, it is important to check the Rasch model's assumption that all items have the same item discrimination. Biserial and polyserial correlation coefficients measuring the association between items and restscores are often used in an informal…

  8. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  9. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  10. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  11. Generalized Full-Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement. Current methods are limited to single-group analysis and inflexible in the types of item response models supported. We propose a flexible multiple-group item bifactor analysis framework that supports a variety of…

  12. The Importance of Permafrost Thaw, Fire and Logging Disturbances as Driving Factors of Historical and Projected Carbon Dynamics in Alaskan Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, H.; Zhang, Y.; McGuire, A. D.; He, Y.; Johnson, K. D.; D'Amore, D. V.; Zhou, X.; Bennett, A.; Breen, A. L.; Biles, F. E.; Bliss, N. B.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kurkowski, T. A.; Pastick, N.; Rupp, S. T.; Wylie, B. K.; Zhu, Z.; Zhuang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dynamics of natural ecosystems are influenced by disturbance regimes of various frequencies and magnitudes. With global change, these disturbances are projected to increase in frequency and/or magnitude and may have significant effects on future net carbon balance, especially in high latitude ecosystems where carbon stocks are among the largest on Earth and climate change is substantial. In Alaska, permafrost degradation and fire in the boreal and arctic regions and logging in the southern coastal region are the main disturbances that affect ecosystems. Large uncertainties related to the effects of these disturbances on the capacity of these regions to store carbon still exist mainly due to difficulty in representing permafrost degradation in current ecosystem models. We ran the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), which explicitly simulates the carbon cycle and permafrost dynamics, coupled with a disturbance model (the Alaska Frame Based Ecosystem Code, ALFRESCO) to assess the relative importance of permafrost thaw, wildfire, and forest management on historical and projected carbon balance and carbon stocks in Alaska, from 1950 to 2100, at a 1-km resolution. Our simulations showed that the increase in plant productivity in response to warming in boreal and arctic regions is offset by soil carbon loss due to permafrost degradation and wildfire combustion during both historical and future simulations. Fire disturbances act as a catalyst accelerating permafrost degradation and associated soil carbon loss. In addition, our preliminary results for south coastal regions of Alaska indicate that logging of second growth forests could influence carbon dynamics in that region. Overall, these results have implications for land management strategies and illustrate the importance of taking into account multiple types of disturbance regimes in ecosystem models for Alaska.

  13. Expressed sequence tags from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: annotation and utilization for discovery of viruses.

    PubMed

    Valles, Steven M; Strong, Charles A; Hunter, Wayne B; Dang, Phat M; Pereira, Roberto M; Oi, David H; Williams, David F

    2008-09-01

    An expression library was created and 2304 clones sequenced from a monogyne colony of Solenopsis invicta. The primary intention of the project was to utilize homologous gene identification to facilitate discovery of viruses infecting this ant pest that could potentially be used in pest management. Additional genes were identified from the ant host and associated pathogens that serve as an important resource for studying these organisms. After assembly and removal of mitochondrial and poor quality sequences, 1054 unique sequences were yielded and deposited into the GenBank database under Accession Nos. EH412746 through EH413799. At least nine expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified as possessing microsatellite motifs and 15 ESTs exhibited significant homology with microsporidian genes. These sequences most likely originated from Thelohania solenopsae, a well-characterized microsporidian that infects S. invicta. Six ESTs exhibited significant homology with single-stranded RNA viruses (3B4, 3F6, 11F1, 12G12, 14D5, and 24C10). Subsequent analysis of these putative viral ESTs revealed that 3B4 was most likely a ribosomal gene of S. invicta, 11F1 was a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus contaminant introduced into the colony from the cricket food source, 12G12 appeared to be a plant-infecting tenuivirus also introduced into the colony as a field contaminant, and 3F6, 14D5, and 24C10 were all from a unique ssRNA virus found to infect S. invicta. The sequencing project illustrates the utility of this method for discovery of viruses and pathogens that may otherwise go undiscovered. PMID:18329665

  14. Isolation and characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3, a new positive-strand RNA virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    SciTech Connect

    Valles, Steven M.; Hashimoto, Yoshifumi

    2009-06-05

    We report the discovery of a new virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) represents the third virus discovered from this ant species using the metagenomics approach. The single (positive)-strand RNA, monopartite, bicistronic genome of SINV-3 was sequenced in entirety (GenBank accession number (FJ528584)), comprised of 10,386 nucleotides, and polyadenylated at the 3' terminus. This genome size was confirmed by Northern analysis. The genome revealed 2 large open reading frames (ORFs) in the sense orientation with an untranslated region (UTR) at each end and between the two ORFs. The 5' proximal ORF (ORF 1) encoded a predicted protein of 299.1 kDa (2580 amino acids). The 3' proximal ORF (ORF 2) encoded a predicted protein of 73.2 kDa (651 amino acids). RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), helicase, and protease domains were recognized in ORF 1. SDS-PAGE separation of purified SINV-3 particles yielded 2 bands (ostensibly capsid proteins) with a combined molecular mass of 77.3 kDa which was similar to the mass predicted by ORF 2 (73.2 kDa). Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved amino acid sequences containing domains I to VIII of the RdRp from dicistroviruses, iflaviruses, plant small RNA viruses, picornaviruses, and 4 unassigned positive-strand RNA viruses revealed a trichotomous phenogram with SINV-3 and Kelp fly virus comprising a unique cluster. Electron microscopic examination of negatively stained samples of SINV-3 revealed isometric particles with apparent projections and a diameter of 27.3 +- 1.3 nm. SINV-3 was successfully transmitted to uninfected workers by feeding. The minus (replicative) strand of SINV-3 was detected in worker ants indicating replication of the virus. The possibility of using SINV-3 as a microbial control agent for fire ants is discussed.

  15. Effects of piperidine and piperideine alkaloids from the venom of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, on Pythium ultimum Trow growth in vitro and the application of piperideine alkaloids to control cucumber..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium ultimum Trow is a plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses on many economically important crops. Chemical seed treatment has been used for disease control. In searching for alternatives, the venom alkaloids from red imported fire ant were tested against P. ultimum in vitro and to ...

  16. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS OF PHORID FLY (PSEUDACTEON CURVATUS BORGMEIER) AND BLACK IMPORTED FIRE ANT (SOLENOPSIS RICHTERI FOREL) INTERACTIONS WITH HIGH-SPEED VIDEOGRAPHY)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-speed video recordings of phorid fly and fire ant interactions can easily be made in the field at field mounds. We successfully recorded flying phorid flies and walking fire ants at 10,000 frames per second. This was sufficient to allow later viewing of individual wingbeats of the phorid flie...

  17. Bacterial community survey of Solenopsis invicta Buren (red imported fire ant) colonies in the presence and absence of Solenopsis invicta virus (SINV).

    PubMed

    Powell, Christopher M; Hanson, John D; Bextine, Blake R

    2014-10-01

    Insect bacterial symbionts contribute to many essential biological functions of their hosts and can also influence host fecundity and fitness. The physiological contribution symbionts provide can aid in immune response and xenobiotic detoxification. Both of these immune factors can directly impact strategies aimed at managing insect populations. One biological control strategy that shows promise in insects is the use of single-stranded RNA viruses within the group Dicistroviridae. The Solenopsis invicta Virus (SINV; Dicistroviridae), a ssRNA virus, has been proposed as a potential biological control agent for the urban pest S. invicta Buren or red imported fire ant (RIFA). SINV has been shown to be prevalent in RIFA populations of Texas and Florida; however, mortality is associated with high viral load. In other insect microbe systems, presence of particular bacteria induced resistance against Dicistrovirus. If this type of relationship is present in the RIFA-SINV system, their bacterial community could reduce the effectiveness of SINV as a biological control system. The advantage of 454 pyro-sequencing is that it enables classification of unculturable bacteria. This study examines the bacterial community in brood, workers, and reproductive cast members from colonies with and without SINV infection. Manipulation of the bacterial community may alter virus infection and replication within the mid-gut. Understanding the differences in the microbial community of ant colonies may provide insights that will refine current efforts designing control strategies for this important urban pest. PMID:24934994

  18. Effect of broadcast baiting on abundance patterns of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and key local ant genera at long-term monitoring sites in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    McNaught, Melinda K; Wylie, F Ross; Harris, Evan J; Alston, Clair L; Burwell, Chris J; Jennings, Craig

    2014-08-01

    In 2001, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) was identified in Brisbane, Australia. An eradication program involving broadcast bait treatment with two insect growth regulators and a metabolic inhibitor began in September of that year and is currently ongoing. To gauge the impacts of these treatments on local ant populations, we examined long-term monitoring data and quantified abundance patterns of S. invicta and common local ant genera using a linear mixed-effects model. For S. invicta, presence in pitfalls reduced over time to zero on every site. Significantly higher numbers of S. invicta workers were collected on high-density polygyne sites, which took longer to disinfest compared with monogyne and low-density polygyne sites. For local ants, nine genus groups of the 10 most common genera analyzed either increased in abundance or showed no significant trend. Five of these genus groups were significantly less abundant at the start of monitoring on high-density polygyne sites compared with monogyne and low-density polygyne sites. The genus Pheidole significantly reduced in abundance over time, suggesting that it was affected by treatment efforts. These results demonstrate that the treatment regime used at the time successfully removed S. invicta from these sites in Brisbane, and that most local ant genera were not seriously impacted by the treatment. These results have important implications for current and future prophylactic treatment efforts, and suggest that native ants remain in treated areas to provide some biological resistance to S. invicta. PMID:25195416

  19. Automated Item Selection Using Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.; And Others

    This paper presents a new heuristic approach to interactive test assembly that is called the successive item replacement algorithm. This approach builds on the work of W. J. van der Linden (1987) and W. J. van der Linden and E. Boekkooi-Timminga (1989) in which methods of mathematical optimization are combined with item response theory to…

  20. Insecticidal, fumigant, and repellent activities of sweet wormwood oil and its individual components against red imported fire ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Tang, Liang; Hu, Wei; Wang, Kun; Zhou, You; Li, Hong; Huang, Congling; Chun, Jiong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    In total, 29 compounds from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) oil were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The five active components were D-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol. The effectiveness of A. annua oil, as well as d-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol, as fumigants, contact insecticides, and repellents, were tested on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren. The results indicated that A. annua oil has no significant topical toxicity; however, the spray contact test revealed that it has strong insecticidal activity and the inhibitory effect is stronger during closed exposure than during open exposure. In the fumigant test, cineole and D-camphor exhibited strong fumigant toxicity on minor and major S. invicta workers. They also caused 100% mortality at 5, 3, 2, and 1 mg/centrifuge tube but not at 0.5 mg/centrifuge tube. The mortality rates of linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol exceeded 80% at 5, 3, and 2 mg/centrifuge tube. In the repellent test, cineole and d-camphor showed significant repellency at 100, 10, and 1 mg/kg. However, linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol significantly facilitated digging at 10 and 1 mg/kg. PMID:25525106

  1. Identification, expression, and immuno-reactivity of Sol i 2 & Sol i 4 venom proteins of queen red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Stephanie A; Haghipour-Peasley, Jilla; Hoffman, Donald R; Deslippe, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    We report on two low-molecular weight proteins that are stored in the venom of queen red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). Translated amino acid sequences identified one protein to have 74.8% identity with the Sol i 2w worker allergen, and the other protein was found to have 96/97% identity with Sol i 4.01w/4.02w worker allergens. Both Sol i 2 and Sol i 4 queen and worker proteins were expressed using pEXP1-DEST vector in SHuffle™ T7 Express lysY Escherichia coli. Proteins were expressed at significant concentrations, as opposed to the μg/ml amounts by our previous expression methods, enabling further study of these proteins. Sol i 2q protein bound weakly to human IgE, sera pooled from allergic patients, whereas Sol i 2w, Sol i 4.01w, and Sol i 4q proteins bound strongly. Despite Sol i 2w and Sol i 2q proteins having 74.8% identity, the queen protein is less immuno-reactive than the worker allergen. This finding is consistent with allergic individuals being less sensitive to queen than worker venom. PMID:22683679

  2. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214... Alternate item(s). As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(2), insert the following provision: Alternate Item(s) (JAN... .** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer...

  3. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214... Alternate item(s). As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(2), insert the following provision: Alternate Item(s) (JAN... .** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer...

  4. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214... Alternate item(s). As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(2), insert the following provision: Alternate Item(s) (JAN... .** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer...

  5. Random Item IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    It is common practice in IRT to consider items as fixed and persons as random. Both, continuous and categorical person parameters are most often random variables, whereas for items only continuous parameters are used and they are commonly of the fixed type, although exceptions occur. It is shown in the present article that random item parameters…

  6. Holocene changes in fire frequency in the Daihai Lake region (north-central China): indications and implications for an important role of human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Xiao, Jule; Cui, Linlin; Ding, Zhongli

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) content in a sediment core from Daihai Lake, Inner Mongolia, was analyzed to reconstruct a high-resolution history of fires occurring in northern China during the Holocene and to examine the impacts of natural changes and human activities on the fire regime. The black carbon mass sedimentation rate (BCMSR) was disintegrated into two components: the background BCMSR and the BCMSR peak, with the BCMSR peak representing the frequency of fire episodes. Both the background BCMSR and the magnitude of the BCMSR peak display a close relation with the percentage of tree pollen from the same sediment core, suggesting that regional vegetation type would be a factor controlling the intensity of fires. The inferred fire-episode frequency for the Holocene exhibits two phases of obvious increases, i.e., the first increase from <5 to ˜10 episodes/1000 yrs occurring at 8200 cal. yrs BP when the vegetation of the lake basin shifted from grasses to forests and the climate changed from warm/dry to warm/humid condition, and the further increase to a maximum frequency of 13 episodes/1000 yrs occurring at 2800 cal. yrs BP when herbs and shrubs replaced the forests in the lake basin and the climate became cool/dry. Both increases in the fire frequency contradict the previous interpretation that fires occurred frequently in the monsoon region of northern China when steppe developed under the cold/dry climate. We thus suggest that human activities would be responsible for the increased frequencies of fires in the Daihai Lake region in terms that the appearance of early agriculture and the expansion of human land use were considered to take place in northern China at ca 8000 and 3000 cal. yrs BP, respectively.

  7. GP-9s are ubiquitous proteins unlikely involved in olfactory mediation of social organization in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Leal, Walter S; Ishida, Yuko

    2008-01-01

    The red imported fire ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta, is an invasive species, accidentally introduced in the United States that can cause painful (sometimes life-threatening) stings to human, pets, and livestock. Their colonies have two social forms: monogyne and polygyne that have a single and multiple functional queens, respectively. A major gene (Gp-9), identified as a putative pheromone-binding protein on the basis of a modest amino acid sequence identity, has been suggested to influence the expression of colony social organization. Monogyne queens are reported to possess only the GP-9B alleles, whereas polygyne queens possess both GP-9B and GP-9b. Thus, both social forms are reported to express GP-9B, with GP-9b being a marker expressed in polygynes but it is absent in monogynes. Here, we report two types of polygyne colonies, one that does not express GP-9b (monogyne-like) and the other expressing both proteins, GP-9B and GP-9b. Given their expression pattern, GP-9s are hemolymph proteins, which are more likely to be involved in the transport of lipids and small ligands within the homocoel. GP-9B existed in two forms, one of them is phosphorylated. The helical-rich content of the protein resembles the secondary structures of a beetle hemolymph protein and moth pheromone-binding proteins. An olfactory role is unlikely given the lack of specific expression in the sensillar lymph. In marked contrast to GP-9s, a chemosensory protein, SinvCSP, is demonstrated to be specifically expressed in the antennae. Within the antennae, expression of SinvCSP is restricted to the last two segments, which are known to house olfactory sensilla. PMID:19018280

  8. Implications of stridulation behavior in the red and black imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquess, Jake

    Stridulation elicits a variety of behavioral responses in the Formicidae: distress, alarm and recruitment of nestmates. The intent of my research is to broaden the understanding of stridulation by investigating the morphology, multiple behaviors in which stridulation has been observed, and the behavioral response to the playback of these stridulatory signals in two closely related species, Solenopsis invicta, S. richteri, and their hybrid. A SEM examination of head width and the stridulatory organs of imported fire ant workers found the number of ridges on the "file" ( pars striden) to be positively correlated with body size. The increase in ridge number in relation to body size suggests that the number of pulses in each pulse train of the stridulation signal should increase as body size increases. Stridulation was not correlated with excavation behavior, but grinding, an incidental sound resulting from soil excavation, is a reliable indicator of excavation behavior. Absence of stridulation upon initial discovery of the food source and low amount of stridulation observed with ten or less ants present at the food source indicates that stridulation does not serve as an initial short range recruitment signal to nearby nestmates. Furthermore, over 90% of the total stridulation observed was recorded with 30 or more ants present at the food source. Finally, the time between calls decreased and the number of stridulations increased as more ants arrived at the food source. Stridulation in dyadic encounters between ants occurs almost exclusively during non-nestmate conspecitic interactions. Restrained ants or "defenders" accounted for 92.9% of the total stridulation observed compared to just 3.4% for "attackers." Restraint between the head and thorax or "neck" evoked the highest level of stridulation in majors. Stridulation during non-nestmate interactions is size specific, as trials involving majors had nearly twice as much stridulation (88.3%), than trials with mediums

  9. Minimum Redundancy Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, John A.; Jackson, Douglas N.

    1976-01-01

    Illustrates a multivariate approach to item analysis. Previous formulation is extended by investigating techniques simultaneously taking into account scale variance with the goal of reducing the average correlation between scales. Study examines problems in determining optimum values for combinations of item parameters selected for personality…

  10. Phase 2 fire hazard analysis for the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Sadanaga, C.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The fire hazard analysis assesses the risk from fire in a facility to ascertain whether the fire protection policies are met. This document provides a preliminary FHA for the CSB facility. Open items have been noted in the document. A final FHA will be required at the completion of definitive design, prior to operation of the facility.

  11. Understory Fires

    NASA Video Gallery

    The flames of understory fires in the southern Amazon reach on average only a few feet tall, but the fire type can claim anywhere from 10 to 50 percent of a burn area's trees. Credit: NASA/Doug Morton

  12. Texas Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wind-Whipped Fires in East Texas     View Larger Image ... western side of the storm stoked fires throughout eastern Texas, which was already suffering from the worst one-year drought on record ...

  13. Fire Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An early warning fire detection sensor developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter is being evaluated as a possible hazard prevention system for mining operations. The incipient Fire Detector represents an advancement over commercially available smoke detectors in that it senses and signals the presence of a fire condition before the appearance of flame and smoke, offering an extra margin of safety.

  14. MODIS NDVI Response Following Fires in Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, G.; Kovacs, K.; Kharuk, V. I.

    2003-01-01

    The Siberian boreal forest is considered a carbon sink but may become an important source of carbon dioxide if climatic warming predictions are correct. The forest is continually changing through various disturbance mechanisms such as insects, logging, mineral exploitation, and especially fires. Patterns of disturbance and forest recovery processes are important factors regulating carbon flux in this area. NASA's Terra MODIS provides useful information for assessing location of fires and post fire changes in forests. MODIS fire (MOD14), and NDVI (MOD13) products were used to examine fire occurrence and post fire variability in vegetation cover as indicated by NDVI. Results were interpreted for various post fire outcomes, such as decreased NDVI after fire, no change in NDVI after fire and positive NDVI change after fire. The fire frequency data were also evaluated in terms of proximity to population centers, and transportation networks.

  15. Enhanced Fire Events Database to Support Fire PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Baranowsky; Ken Canavan; Shawn St. Germain

    2010-06-01

    Abstract: This paper provides a description of the updated and enhanced Fire Events Data Base (FEDB) developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The FEDB is the principal source of fire incident operational data for use in fire PRAs. It provides a comprehensive and consolidated source of fire incident information for nuclear power plants operating in the U.S. The database classification scheme identifies important attributes of fire incidents to characterize their nature, causal factors, and severity consistent with available data. The database provides sufficient detail to delineate important plant specific attributes of the incidents to the extent practical. A significant enhancement to the updated FEDB is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields and fire characterization details added to more rigorously capture the nature and magnitude of the fire and damage to the ignition source and nearby equipment and structures

  16. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  17. A Stepwise Test Characteristic Curve Method to Detect Item Parameter Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-01-01

    An important assumption of item response theory is item parameter invariance. Sometimes, however, item parameters are not invariant across different test administrations due to factors other than sampling error; this phenomenon is termed item parameter drift. Several methods have been developed to detect drifted items. However, most of the…

  18. Using a Linear Regression Method to Detect Outliers in IRT Common Item Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yong; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Hanwei

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating alternate test forms under the common item nonequivalent groups design. When the item response theory (IRT) method is applied in equating, inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores. It is prudent to evaluate inconsistency in parameter…

  19. Robust Scale Transformation Methods in IRT True Score Equating under Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…

  20. Item Writer Judgments of Item Difficulty versus Actual Item Difficulty: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how accurate one item writer can be on item difficulty estimates and whether factors affecting item writer judgments correspond to predictors of actual item difficulty. The items were based on conversational dialogs (presented as videos online) that focus on pragmatic functions. Thirty-five 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-year learners…

  1. Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis for monitoring natural hazards that impact vegetation cover: the importance of the nonphotosynthetic fraction in understanding landscape response to drought, fire, and hurricane damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okin, G. S.

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing provides a unique ability to monitor natural hazards that impact vegetation hydrologically. Here, the use of a new multitemporal remote sensing technique that employs free, coarse multispectral remote sensing data is demonstrated in monitoring short- and long-term drought, fire occurrence and recovery, and damage to hurricane-related mangrove ecosystems and subsequent recovery of these systems. The new technique, relative spectral mixture analysis (RSMA), provides information about the nonphotosynthetic fraction (nonphotosynthetic vegetation plus litter) of ground cover in addition to the green vegetation fraction. In some cases, RSMA even provides an improved ability to monitor changes in the green fraction compared to traditional vegetation indices or standard remote sensing products. In arid and semiarid regions, the nonphotosynthetic fraction can vary on an annual basis significantly more than the green fraction and is thus perfectly suited for monitoring drought in these regions. Mortality of evergreen trees due to long-term drought also shows up strongly in the nonphotosynthetic fraction as green vegetation is replaced by dry needles and bare trunks. The response of the nonphotosynthetic fraction to fire is significantly different from that of drought because of the combustion of nonphotosynthetic material. Finally, damage to mangrove ecosystems from hurricane damage, and their subsequent recovery, is readily observable in both the green and nonphotosynthetic fractions as estimated by RSMA.

  2. The Effect of Stylistic Changes on Item Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Kathleen A.

    When test questions are not intended to measure language skills, it is important to know if language is an extraneous characteristic that affects item performance. This study investigates whether certain stylistic changes in the way items are presented affect item performance on examinations for a health profession. The subjects were medical…

  3. Relevance of Item Analysis in Standardizing an Achievement Test in Teaching of Physical Science in B.Ed Syllabus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, S. Maria Josephine Arokia; Edannur, Sreekala

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on the analysis of test items constructed in the paper of teaching Physical Science for B.Ed. class. It involved the analysis of difficulty level and discrimination power of each test item. Item analysis allows selecting or omitting items from the test, but more importantly item analysis is a tool to help the item writer improve…

  4. Evaluating Item Discrimination Power of WHOQOL-BREF from an Item Response Model Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ting Hsiang; Yao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important component of health. By using the methodology of psychometric theory, we examine the item properties of the WHOQOL-BRIEF. Samejima's graded response model with natural metrics of the logistic response function was fitted. The results showed items with negative natures were less discriminating. Items…

  5. The Role of Item Models in Automatic Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2012-01-01

    Automatic item generation represents a relatively new but rapidly evolving research area where cognitive and psychometric theories are used to produce tests that include items generated using computer technology. Automatic item generation requires two steps. First, test development specialists create item models, which are comparable to templates…

  6. Item Response Models for Examinee-Selected Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Jin, Kuan-Yu; Qiu, Xue-Lan; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In some tests, examinees are required to choose a fixed number of items from a set of given items to answer. This practice creates a challenge to standard item response models, because more capable examinees may have an advantage by making wiser choices. In this study, we developed a new class of item response models to account for the choice…

  7. Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of…

  8. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, six companies mined fire clay in Missouri, Ohio and South Carolina. Production was estimate to be 300 kt with a value of $8.3 million. Missouri was the leading producer state followed by Ohio and South Carolina. For the third consecutive year, sales and use of fire clays have been relatively unchanged. For the next few years, sales of fire clay is forecasted to remain around 300 kt/a.

  9. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  10. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  11. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  12. Generalized Full-Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement. Current methods are limited to single group analysis and inflexible in the types of item response models supported. We propose a flexible multiple-group item bifactor analysis framework that supports a variety of multidimensional item response theory models for an arbitrary mixing of dichotomous, ordinal, and nominal items. The extended item bifactor model also enables the estimation of latent variable means and variances when data from more than one group are present. Generalized user-defined parameter restrictions are permitted within or across groups. We derive an efficient full-information maximum marginal likelihood estimator. Our estimation method achieves substantial computational savings by extending Gibbons and Hedeker’s (1992) bifactor dimension reduction method so that the optimization of the marginal log-likelihood only requires two-dimensional integration regardless of the dimensionality of the latent variables. We use simulation studies to demonstrate the flexibility and accuracy of the proposed methods. We apply the model to study cross-country differences, including differential item functioning, using data from a large international education survey on mathematics literacy. PMID:21534682

  13. Post-fire reconstructions of fire intensity from fire severity data: quantifying the role of spatial variability of fire intensity on forest dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Patrick; Oborne, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Large, high-intensity fires have direct and long-lasting effects on forest ecosystems and present a serious threat to human life and property. However, even within the most catastrophic fires there is important variability in local-scale intensity that has important ramifications for forest mortality and regeneration. Quantifying this variability is difficult due to the rarity of catastrophic fire events, the extreme conditions at the time of the fires, and their large spatial extent. Instead fire severity is typically measured or estimated from observed patterns of vegetation mortality; however, differences in species- and size-specific responses to fires often makes fire severity a poor proxy for fire intensity. We developed a statistical method using simple, plot-based measurements of individual tree mortality to simultaneously estimate plot-level fire intensity and species-specific mortality patterns as a function of tree size. We applied our approach to an area of forest burned in the catastrophic Black Saturday fires that occurred near Melbourne, Australia, in February 2009. Despite being the most devastating fire in the past 70 years and our plots being located in the area that experienced some of the most intense fires in the 350,000 ha fire complex, we found that the estimated fire intensity was highly variable at multiple spatial scales. All eight tree species in our study differed in their susceptibility to fire-induced mortality, particularly among the largest size classes. We also found that seedling height and species richness of the post-fire seedling communities were both positively correlated with fire intensity. Spatial variability in disturbance intensity has important, but poorly understood, consequences for the short- and long-term dynamics of forests in the wake of catastrophic wildfires. Our study provides a tool to estimate fire intensity after a fire has passed, allowing new opportunities for linking spatial variability in fire intensity to

  14. Fire Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  15. Returning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  16. Arizona Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... the second largest fire in Arizona history. More than 2,000 people are working to contain the fire, which is being driven by high winds and ... bright desert background. The areas with no data (shown in black and present at the oblique angles) are locations where the variable ...

  17. Siberian Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... of fires across Siberia and the Russian Far East, northeast China and northern Mongolia. Fires in Eastern Siberia have been increasing in ... spatial contrast. The heights correspond to elevations above sea level. Taking into account the surface elevation, the smoke plumes range ...

  18. Limited life item management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaglen, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Plans are available for age-sensitive hardware management. Control plan identifies shelf life or age control requirements for materials considered age sensitive, use sensitive, or time service or shelf life controlled items, and describes methods of arriving at age controls through adherence to detailed specifications.

  19. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  20. Presence of the fire ant pathogen Kneallhazia solenopsae in fire ant decapitating phorid flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogens and parasites from South America are being evaluated for the biological control of imported fire ants in the U.S. Fire ant decapitating flies that developed in fire ants infected with the fire ant pathogen Kneallhazia (formerly Thelohania) solenopsae also acquired the pathogen. K. soleno...

  1. Fire and smoke retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  2. 44 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 323 - List of Essential Survival Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and substitutes. Oral electrolytes. Oxygen. Surgical antiseptics. Sulfa drugs. Synthetic plasma volume... window coverings. Water pipe and hose, plus fittings—all types including fire hose. Group B None. vii. general use items Group A None. Group B Batteries, wet and dry cell. Bulldozers. Fire fighting...

  3. Development and assessment of floor and ceiling items for the PROMIS physical function item bank

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Disability and Physical Function (PF) outcome assessment has had limited ability to measure functional status at the floor (very poor functional abilities) or the ceiling (very high functional abilities). We sought to identify, develop and evaluate new floor and ceiling items to enable broader and more precise assessment of PF outcomes for the NIH Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies using NIH PROMIS item improvement protocols with expert review, participant survey and focus group methods. In Study 1, respondents with low PF abilities evaluated new floor items, and those with high PF abilities evaluated new ceiling items for clarity, importance and relevance. In Study 2, we compared difficulty ratings of new floor items by low functioning respondents and ceiling items by high functioning respondents to reference PROMIS PF-10 items. We used frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations to analyze the data. Results In Study 1, low (n = 84) and high (n = 90) functioning respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and disability scores of 0.62 and 0.30. More than 90% of the 31 new floor and 31 new ceiling items were rated as clear, important and relevant, leaving 26 ceiling and 30 floor items for Study 2. Low (n = 246) and high (n = 637) functioning Study 2 respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores of 1.62 and 0.003. Compared to difficulty ratings of reference items, ceiling items were rated to be 10% more to greater than 40% more difficult to do, and floor items were rated to be about 12% to nearly 90% less difficult to do. Conclusions These new floor and ceiling items considerably extend the measurable range of physical function at either extreme. They will help improve instrument performance in populations with broad functional ranges and those concentrated at

  4. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length...

  5. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven...

  6. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven...

  7. Extending item response theory to online homework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.

  8. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  9. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  10. Item-focussed Trees for the Identification of Items in Differential Item Functioning.

    PubMed

    Tutz, Gerhard; Berger, Moritz

    2016-09-01

    A novel method for the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) by means of recursive partitioning techniques is proposed. We assume an extension of the Rasch model that allows for DIF being induced by an arbitrary number of covariates for each item. Recursive partitioning on the item level results in one tree for each item and leads to simultaneous selection of items and variables that induce DIF. For each item, it is possible to detect groups of subjects with different item difficulties, defined by combinations of characteristics that are not pre-specified. The way a DIF item is determined by covariates is visualized in a small tree and therefore easily accessible. An algorithm is proposed that is based on permutation tests. Various simulation studies, including the comparison with traditional approaches to identify items with DIF, show the applicability and the competitive performance of the method. Two applications illustrate the usefulness and the advantages of the new method. PMID:26596721

  11. Mexico Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Smoke from Fires in Southern Mexico     View Larger Image ... southern Mexico sent smoke drifting northward over the Gulf of Mexico. These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  12. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California     View Larger Image ... that had not burned in decades, and years of extended drought contributed to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern ...

  13. Faculty Development on Item Writing Substantially Improves Item Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Naghma; van der Vleuten, Cees; Alfaris, Eiad Abdelmohsen

    2012-01-01

    The quality of items written for in-house examinations in medical schools remains a cause of concern. Several faculty development programs are aimed at improving faculty's item writing skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a faculty development program in item development. An objective method was developed and used…

  14. Item Sampling: Optimum Number of People and Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Mabel L. Y.; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    Using a computer-based Monte Carlo approach to generate item responses, the results of this study indicate that, when item discrimination indices are considered, item-examinee sampling procedures having the same number of observations have different standard errors in estimating both test mean and test variance. With certain types of tests, a…

  15. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by…

  16. Component Identification and Item Difficulty of Raven's Matrices Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy E.; Kluever, Raymond C.

    Item components that might contribute to the difficulty of items on the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) were studied. Subjects providing responses to CPM items were 269 children aged 2 years 9 months to 11 years 8 months, most of whom were referred for testing as potentially gifted. A second…

  17. Parents of preschool fire setters: perceptions of the child-play fire hazard.

    PubMed

    Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Faranda, Donna M; Porth, Don; Lim, Nicholas K

    2006-09-01

    The present study sought to learn about risk perceptions held by parents of preschool fire-setters. A 41-item survey was distributed to 60 parents whose children, aged 6 years and younger, had previously set fires and who were involved in intervention programmes throughout the US. Most parents did not think their children would play with matches/lighters, or knew how to use these items, although some had witnessed their children playing with matches/lighters previously. Most parents reported having taken precautions to keep matches/lighters out of reach and also educating their children about fire. Regardless, children not only set fires, but in 40% of cases climbed to access the match/lighter. Parents' perceptions of their children's proclivity for fire play were not consistent with their actual fire-play behaviour. Parents underestimated the likelihood that their children would play with matches/lighters. Although most reportedly undertook preventative measures aimed at thwarting fire play, these strategies were ineffective. Traditionally relied upon precautionary techniques, such as storing lighters out of reach and discussing the dangers of fire, were not sufficient to stem interest and resultant fire play. PMID:16943160

  18. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  19. Reconstruction of fire spread within wildland fire events in Northern Eurasia from the MODIS active fire product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, T. V.; Csiszar, I. A.

    2007-04-01

    Russian boreal forests have been reshaped by wildland fire for millennia. While fire is a natural component of boreal ecosystems, it impacts various aspects of the environment and affects human well-being. Often fires occur over large remote areas with limited access, which makes their ground-based observation difficult. A significant progress has been made in mapping burned area from satellite imagery, which provides consistent and fairly unbiased estimates of fire impact on areas of interest at multiple scales. Although the information provided by burned area products is highly important, the spatio-temporal dynamics of individual fire events and their impact are less known. In high northern latitudes of Northern Eurasia, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) makes up to four daily observations from each of the Terra and Aqua satellites providing consistent data on fire development with high temporal frequency. Here we introduce an approach to reconstruct the development of fire events based on active fire detections from MODIS. Fire Spread Reconstruction (FSR) provides a means for characterization of fire occurrence over large territories from remotely sensed data. Individual fire detections are clustered within a GIS environment based on a set of rules determining proximity between fire observations in space and time. FSR determines the number of fire events, their approximate size, duration, and fire spread rate and allows for the analysis of fire occurrence and spread as a function of vegetation, fire season, fire weather and other parameters. FSR clusters were compared to burned scars mapped from Landsat7/ETM+ imagery over Yakutia (Russia). While some smaller burn scars were found to be formed through a continuous burning of a single fire event, large burned areas in Siberia were created by a constellation of fire events incorporating over 100 individual fire clusters. Geographic regions were found to have a stronger influence on the rates of

  20. Evolution of Fire Ant Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The imported fire ants that entered the United States over 70 years ago have spread within the country to over 129.5 million ha. Efforts to stop the expansion and suppress fire ant populations have resulted in changing methods of control. Initial efforts focused on treating individual nests with h...

  1. Fire and climate in Mongolia (1532-2010 Common Era)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessl, Amy E.; Brown, Peter; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Cockrell, Shawn; Leland, Caroline; Cook, Ed; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Pederson, Neil; Saladyga, Thomas; Suran, Byambagerel

    2016-06-01

    Recent increases in wildland fire, warming temperatures, and land use change have coincided in many forested regions, making it difficult to parse causes of elevated fire activity. Here we use 20 multicentury fire scar chronologies (464 fire scar samples) from Mongolia to evaluate the role of climate forcing of fire in the context of livestock grazing and minimal fire suppression. We observe no change in fire return intervals post-1900; however, since the 1500s, periods of drought are coincident with more fire and shorter fire return intervals. We observe same year and some antecedent year effects of drought on fire, a pattern typical of semiarid forests elsewhere. During the instrumental period, drought remains an important driver of fire; however, limited fire activity in recent decades may be due to the coincidence of drought and intensive grazing that have synergized to reduce fuel continuity and fire spread.

  2. Glass fabric fire barrier for silicone rubber parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmer, K. L.

    1969-01-01

    Preformed knitted glass-fabric covers are placed about silicone rubber items in such a way as to completely isolate them from the effects of adjacent fire. These covers permit retention of the desirable resilient properties of the silicone rubber while forming a very effective fire barrier.

  3. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .../capacity, and is properly equipped to handle both fire fighting and flood control. (b) Each vessel must... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire...

  4. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire...

  5. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire...

  6. Decisions that Make a Difference in Detecting Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Rios, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous statistical procedures for detecting items that function differently across subgroups of examinees that take a test or survey. However, in endeavouring to detect items that may function differentially, selection of the statistical method is only one of many important decisions. In this article, we discuss the important decisions…

  7. Polytomous Latent Scales for the Investigation of the Ordering of Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligtvoet, Rudy; van der Ark, L. Andries; Bergsma, Wicher P.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    We propose three latent scales within the framework of nonparametric item response theory for polytomously scored items. Latent scales are models that imply an invariant item ordering, meaning that the order of the items is the same for each measurement value on the latent scale. This ordering property may be important in, for example,…

  8. A Strategy for Controlling Item Exposure in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Ip, Edward H.; Fuh, Cheng-Der

    2008-01-01

    Although computerized adaptive tests have enjoyed tremendous growth, solutions for important problems remain unavailable. One problem is the control of item exposure rate. Because adaptive algorithms are designed to select optimal items, they choose items with high discriminating power. Thus, these items are selected more often than others,…

  9. A Framework for Examining the Utility of Technology-Enhanced Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Interest in and use of technology-enhanced items has increased over the past decade. Given the additional time required to administer many technology-enhanced items and the increased expense required to develop them, it is important for testing programs to consider the utility of technology-enhanced items. The Technology-Enhanced Item Utility…

  10. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  11. Effects of Ignoring Item Interaction on Item Parameter Estimation and Detection of Interacting Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-Te; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the effects of ignoring item interaction on item parameter estimation and the efficiency of using the local dependence index Q[subscript 3] and the SAS NLMIXED procedure to detect item interaction under the three-parameter logistic model and the generalized partial credit model. Through simulations, it was found that ignoring…

  12. The importance of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} for sulphation of gaseous KCl - An experimental investigation in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Kassman, Haakan; Baefver, Linda; Aamand, Lars-Erik

    2010-09-15

    This paper is based on results obtained during co-combustion of wood pellets and straw in a 12 MW circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. Elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were used as additives to convert the alkali chlorides (mainly KCl) to less corrosive alkali sulphates. Their performance was then evaluated using several measurement tools including, IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous alkali chlorides), a low-pressure impactor (particle size distribution and chemical composition of extracted fly ash particles), and deposit probes (chemical composition in deposits collected). The importance of the presence of either SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} for gas phase sulphation of KCl is also discussed. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. A more efficient sulphation of gaseous KCl was achieved with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} even when the S/Cl molar ratio was less than half compared to sulphur. Thus the presence of gaseous SO{sub 3} is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} for the sulphation of gaseous KCl. (author)

  13. Ring the Alarm! A Memo to the Schools on Fire and Human Beings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    An analysis is presented of the handling of the human elements in fire safety. Emphasis is given to considerations such as how fires kill children, the school's responsibility for fire safety, causes of human failure, and the necessity for organized emergency programs and drills. Also included is a check list of items concerned with protection…

  14. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-04-21

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals.

  15. Item Effects in Recognition Memory for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…

  16. How Item Writers Understand Depth of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Viger, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    An important part of test development is ensuring alignment between test forms and content standards. One common way of measuring alignment is the Webb (1997, 2007) alignment procedure. This article investigates (a) how well item writers understand components of the definition of Depth of Knowledge (DOK) from the Webb alignment procedure and (b)…

  17. Extending Item Response Theory to Online Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for…

  18. IRT Model Selection Methods for Dichotomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Taehoon; Cohen, Allan S.

    2007-01-01

    Fit of the model to the data is important if the benefits of item response theory (IRT) are to be obtained. In this study, the authors compared model selection results using the likelihood ratio test, two information-based criteria, and two Bayesian methods. An example illustrated the potential for inconsistency in model selection depending on…

  19. Techniques for fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukowski, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is given of the basis for an analysis of combustable materials and potential ignition sources in a spacecraft. First, the burning process is discussed in terms of the production of the fire signatures normally associated with detection devices. These include convected and radiated thermal energy, particulates, and gases. Second, the transport processes associated with the movement of these from the fire to the detector, along with the important phenomena which cause the level of these signatures to be reduced, are described. Third, the operating characteristics of the individual types of detectors which influence their response to signals, are presented. Finally, vulnerability analysis using predictive fire modeling techniques is discussed as a means to establish the necessary response of the detection system to provide the level of protection required in the application.

  20. Development of the PROMIS® Nicotine Dependence Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine dependence is a core construct important for understanding cigarette smoking and smoking cessation behavior. This article describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing nicotine dependence among daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of nicotine dependence items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess dependence. Results: A total of 32 items were included in the Nicotine Dependence item banks; 22 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 5 are unique to daily smokers, and 5 are unique to nondaily smokers. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Nicotine Dependence item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.97 and 0.97, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. SFs common to daily and nondaily smokers consist of 8 and 4 items (reliability = 0.91 and 0.81, respectively). Results from simulated CATs showed that dependence can be assessed with very good precision for most respondents using fewer than 6 items adaptively selected from the item banks. Conclusions: Nicotine dependence on cigarettes can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via one of the SFs, by using CATs, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118226

  1. Development of the PROMIS® Health Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Stucky, Brian D.; Cerully, Jennifer; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers’ health-related outcome expectancies are associated with a number of important constructs in smoking research, yet there are no measures currently available that focus exclusively on this domain. This paper describes the development and evaluation of item banks for assessing the health expectancies of smoking. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of health expectancies items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated the performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess health expectancies. Results: A total of 24 items were included in the Health Expectancies item banks; 13 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 6 are unique to daily, and 5 are unique to nondaily. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Health Expectancies item banks are unidimensional, reliable (reliability = 0.95 and 0.96, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.87). Results from simulated CATs showed that health expectancies can be assessed with good precision with an average of 5–6 items adaptively selected from the item banks. Conclusions: Health expectancies of smoking can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via SFs, CATs, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118229

  2. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS ... Data Web Services Latest Detected Fire Activity Other MODIS Products Frequently Asked Questions About Active Fire Maps ...

  3. [Analysis of human tissue samples for volatile fire accelerants].

    PubMed

    Treibs, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    In police investigations of fires, the cause of a fire and the fire debris analysis regarding traces of fire accelerants are important aspects for forensic scientists. Established analytical procedures were recently applied to the remains of fire victims. When examining lung tissue samples, vapors inhaled from volatile ignitable liquids could be identified and differentiated from products of pyrolysis caused by the fire. In addition to the medico-legal results this evidence allowed to draw conclusions as to whether the fire victim was still alive when the fire started. PMID:24855737

  4. Dalhousie Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Fred W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes steps taken by the Weldon Law Library at Dalhousie University in salvaging books damaged in a major fire, including procedures and processes used in packing, sorting, drying, and cleaning the books. The need for a disaster plan for specific libraries is emphasized, and some suggestions are made. (CDD)

  5. FIRE BLIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pears and woody ornamentals of the rose family. The disease is indigenous to North America and has been studied for more than one century. E. amylovora can infect blossoms, stems, immature fruits, woody branch...

  6. Appalachian Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of smoke from forest fires in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia was taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on November 15, 2001. Smoke is visible extending over the Chesapeake Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Colorado Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... (MISR). The images were captured on June 9, 2002, on the second day of the Hayman fire, when only about 13 percent of the total 137,000 ... x 565 kilometers. They use data from blocks 58 to 61 within World Reference System-2 path 32. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's ...

  8. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  9. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  10. Fire frequency, area burned, and severity: A quantitative approach to defining a normal fire year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, J.A.; Key, C.H.; Kolden, C.A.; Kane, J.T.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Fire frequency, area burned, and fire severity are important attributes of a fire regime, but few studies have quantified the interrelationships among them in evaluating a fire year. Although area burned is often used to summarize a fire season, burned area may not be well correlated with either the number or ecological effect of fires. Using the Landsat data archive, we examined all 148 wildland fires (prescribed fires and wildfires) >40 ha from 1984 through 2009 for the portion of the Sierra Nevada centered on Yosemite National Park, California, USA. We calculated mean fire frequency and mean annual area burned from a combination of field- and satellite-derived data. We used the continuous probability distribution of the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values to describe fire severity. For fires >40 ha, fire frequency, annual area burned, and cumulative severity were consistent in only 13 of 26 years (50 %), but all pair-wise comparisons among these fire regime attributes were significant. Borrowing from long-established practice in climate science, we defined "fire normals" to be the 26 year means of fire frequency, annual area burned, and the area under the cumulative probability distribution of dNBR. Fire severity normals were significantly lower when they were aggregated by year compared to aggregation by area. Cumulative severity distributions for each year were best modeled with Weibull functions (all 26 years, r2 ??? 0.99; P < 0.001). Explicit modeling of the cumulative severity distributions may allow more comprehensive modeling of climate-severity and area-severity relationships. Together, the three metrics of number of fires, size of fires, and severity of fires provide land managers with a more comprehensive summary of a given fire year than any single metric.