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Sample records for important medicinal plant

  1. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  2. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  3. Engineered Biosynthesis of Medicinally Important Plant Natural Products in Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Siyuan; Zhan, Jixun

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce structurally and functionally diverse natural products. Some of these compounds possess promising health-benefiting properties, such as resveratrol (antioxidant) curcumin (anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anticancer), paclitaxel (anticancer) and artemisinin (antimalarial). These compounds are produced through particular biosynthetic pathways in the plants. While supply of these medicinally important molecules relies on extraction from the producing species, recent years have seen significant advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of plant natural products. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the two most widely used heterologous hosts for expression of enzymes and reconstitution of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. Total biosynthesis of many plant polyketide natural products such as curcumin and piceatannol in microorganisms has been achieved. While the late biosynthetic steps of more complex molecules such as paclitaxel and artemisinin remain to be understood, reconstitution of their partial biosynthetic pathways and microbial production of key intermediates have been successful. This review covers recent advances in understanding and engineering the biosynthesis of plant polyketides and terpenoids in microbial hosts. PMID:26456465

  4. A phytopharmacological review on an important medicinal plant - Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Yadu Nandan; Ota, Sarada; Srikanth, N.; Jamal, Mahvish; Wanjari, Manish

    2012-01-01

    Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. Aim of the current review is to search literature for the pharmacological properties, safety/toxicity studies, pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical investigation of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered. Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched. Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review. PMID:23049180

  5. The importance of botellas and other plant mixtures in Dominican traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J.; Ososki, Andreana; Kronenberg, Fredi; Yukes, Jolene; Wade, Christine; Jiménez, Francisco; Peguero, Brígido; Castillo, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Plant mixtures are understudied in ethnobotanical research Aim of the study To investigate the importance of plant mixtures (remedies consisting of at least two plants) in Dominican traditional medicine. Materials and Methods A Spanish language questionnaire was administered to 174 Dominicans living in New York City (NYC) and 145 Dominicans living in the Dominican Republic (DR), including lay persons (who self-medicate with plants) and specialists (traditional healers). Plants were identified through specimens purchased in NYC botánica shops and Latino grocery shops, and from voucher collections. Results The percentage of mixtures as compared to single plants in plant use reports varied between 32 to 41%, depending on the geographic location (NYC or DR) and participant status (lay person or specialist). Respiratory conditions, reproductive health and genitourinary conditions were the main categories for which Dominicans use plant mixtures. Lay persons reported significantly more mixtures prepared as teas, mainly used in NYC to treat respiratory conditions. Specialists mentioned significantly more botellas (bottled herbal mixtures), used most frequently in the DR to treat reproductive health and genitourinary conditions. Cluster analysis demonstrated that different plant species are used to treat respiratory conditions as compared to reproductive health and genitourinary conditions. Interview participants believed that combining plants in mixtures increases their potency and versatility as medicines. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the importance and complexity of plant mixtures in Dominican traditional medicine and the variation in its practices influenced by migration from the DR to NYC, shedding new light on the foundations of a particular ethnomedical system. PMID:20006697

  6. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  7. TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTOOR

    PubMed Central

    Vedavathy, S.; Sudhakar, A.; Mrdula, V.

    1997-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in tribal medicine from chittoor district have been surveyed and documented systematically. The paper deals with 202 medicinal plants, indexed along with important tribal applications for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556807

  8. Phytotoxicity evaluation and phytochemical analysis of three medicinally important plants from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Nazif; Haq, Ihsan-Ul; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-05-01

    This work examines the crude methanolic extracts of three medicinally important plants native to Pakistan for potent phytotoxic activities and important phytochemicals. These plants include Euphorbia wallichii, Bergenia ciliata and Phytolacca latbenia. The phytotoxic effects were checked at 10,000, 1000, and 100 µg/ml against two economically important standard target species, Triticum aestivum (monocot representative) and Brassica napus (dicot representative). The phytotoxicity effects on seed germination, seedling growth and seedling weight were checked. A simple, cost-effective in vitro phytotoxicity assay (that uses petri plates) was used to evaluate the allelopathic properties of crude extracts. At highest concentration, extracts from all the three plants showed phytotoxic activities such that P. latbenia > E. wallichii > B. ciliata. In seedling growth, root length was affected more than shoot length, whereas among the target species B. napus was found to be more sensitive towards extracts when compared with T. aestivum. Phytochemical analysis showed that P. latbenia is rich in saponins and terpenoids, while E. wallichii and B. ciliata are rich in tannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycoside. P. latbenia also carries a moderate amount of cardiac glycosides. PMID:23344824

  9. The chloroplast genome sequence of an important medicinal plant Dioscorea nipponica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan; Wang, Bo; Yang, Jun; Song, Chi; Wang, Ping; Chen, Shilin; Sun, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Dioscorea nipponica is an important medicinal plant belonging to Dioscoreaceae, a family which is vital for the evolution of monocotyledon. In the present study, the nucleotide sequence of the D. nipponica chloroplast genome was determined. It was an AT-rich (63.3%) chloroplast genome with 152,946 bp in length, containing a pair of 23,113 bp inverted repeats, which were separated by a large and a small single copy region of 83,557 bp and 23,064 bp in length, respectively. It encodes 120 unique genes, including 89 protein-coding genes, 27 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. The predicted gene-coding regions covered 58.7% of the genome sequences. Ten genes contained one intron, while two genes had two introns. Phylogenetic analyses showed the present chloroplast genome can be used as a potential supper barcode to distinguish D. nipponica from its closely related species. Furthermore, the chloroplast genome provides a molecular base for the next investigation on this important medicinal species. PMID:26017048

  10. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  11. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Y.C.; Prabhu, V.V.; Pal, R.S.; Mishra, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine from Rajasthan state have been surveyed and catagorised systematically. The paper deals with 205 medicinal plants, thoroughly indexed along with their important traditional application for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556743

  12. Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2010-08-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns. PMID:20563822

  13. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

  14. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an important medicinal plant Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hemsl. (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Kyu-Yeob; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Junki; Seong, Rack Seon; Shim, Young Hun; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hemsl. is a traditional medicinal herb belonging to the Asclepiadoideae subfamily, whose dried roots have been used as traditional medicine in Asia. The complete chloroplast genome of C. wilfordii was generated by de novo assembly using the small amount of whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of C. wilfordii was 161 241 bp long, composed of large single copy region (91 995 bp), small single copy region (19 930 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat regions (24 658 bp). The overall GC contents of the chloroplast genome was 37.8%. A total of 114 genes were annotated, which included 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that C. wilfordii is most closely related to Asclepias nivea (Caribbean milkweed) and Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) within the Asclepiadoideae subfamily. PMID:26358391

  15. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Gymnema sylvestre: an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pragya; Mishra, B N; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae), popularly known as "gurmar" for its distinct property as sugar destroyer, is a reputed herb in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The phytoconstituents responsible for sweet suppression activity includes triterpene saponins known as gymnemic acids, gymnemasaponins, and a polypeptide, gurmarin. The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for diabetes, besides being used for arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, cardiopathy, asthma, constipation, microbial infections, indigestion, and anti-inflammatory. G. sylvestre has good prospects in the treatment of diabetes as it shows positive effects on blood sugar homeostasis, controls sugar cravings, and promotes regeneration of pancreas. The herbal extract is used in dietary supplements since it reduces body weight, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and holds great prospects in dietary as well as pharmacological applications. This review explores the transition of a traditional therapeutic to a modern contemporary medication with an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the herb and its phytoconstituents. PMID:24511547

  16. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Gymnema sylvestre: An Important Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Pragya; Mishra, B. N.; Sangwan, Neelam S.

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae), popularly known as “gurmar” for its distinct property as sugar destroyer, is a reputed herb in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The phytoconstituents responsible for sweet suppression activity includes triterpene saponins known as gymnemic acids, gymnemasaponins, and a polypeptide, gurmarin. The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for diabetes, besides being used for arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, cardiopathy, asthma, constipation, microbial infections, indigestion, and anti-inflammatory. G. sylvestre has good prospects in the treatment of diabetes as it shows positive effects on blood sugar homeostasis, controls sugar cravings, and promotes regeneration of pancreas. The herbal extract is used in dietary supplements since it reduces body weight, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and holds great prospects in dietary as well as pharmacological applications. This review explores the transition of a traditional therapeutic to a modern contemporary medication with an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the herb and its phytoconstituents. PMID:24511547

  17. In vitro regeneration in Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) -an important medicinal plant of semi-arid ecosystem of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Mahender S; Shekhawat, Narpat S

    2013-04-01

    An efficient regeneration protocol for Sarcostemma acidum - an important medicinal plant has been established. Callus initiated from nodal explant on MS medium with 2.0 mg L(-1) of NAA + additives. Callus initiated was subcultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of NAA or 2,4-D. Out of these combinations, MS medium +1.0 mg L(-1) of NAA + additives was found to be effective for the multiplication of callus. Subculture was done after an interval of 20-22 days. For differentiation of callus BAP or Kinetin alone was found to be less effective. Maximum frequency of shoot regeneration recorded on MS medium +1.0 mg L(-1) of BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) of Kinetin and 0.1 mg L(-1) of NAA + additives. The in vitro differentiated shoots were excised and inoculated on 1/4 strength MS medium +2.0 mg L(-1) of IBA + 0.02 % activated charcoal for in vitro rooting. Maximum response (90 %) was recorded on this medium. In vitro differentiated shoots were inoculated on autoclaved soilrite® after treatment with root inducing auxins. Ex vitro rooting in this plant species has been reported for the first time. Eighty five percent of the shoots rooted under ex vitro conditions. Both in vitro and ex vitro rooted plantlets were hardened in a green house. PMID:24431495

  18. In vitro regeneration and optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated transformation in Artemisia Pallens, an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Alok, Anshu; Shukla, Vishnu; Pala, Zarna; Kumar, Jitesh; Kudale, Subhash; Desai, Neetin

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia pallens is an important medicinal plant. In-vitro regeneration and multiplication of A. pallens have been established using attached cotyledons. Different growth regulators were considered for regeneration of multiple shoots. An average of 36 shoots per explants were obtained by culturing attached cotyledons on Murashige and Skoog's medium containing 2 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA, after 45 days. The shoots were rooted best on half Murashige and Skoog's medium with respect to media containing 1 mg/L IBA or 1 mg/L NAA. Different parameters such as type of bacterial strains, OD600 of bacterial culture, co-cultivation duration, concentration of acetosyringone and explants type were optimized for transient expression of the reporter gene. Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring pCambia1301 plasmid carrying β-glucuronidase as a reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as plant selectable marker genes were used for genetic transformation of A. pallens. Hygromycin lethality test showed concentration of 15 mg/L were sufficient to inhibit the growth of attached cotyledons and multiple shoot buds of nontransgenics in selection media. Up to 83 % transient transformation was found when attached cotyledons were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain AGL1 for 2 days at 22 °C on shoot induction medium. The bacterial growth was eliminated by addition of cefotaxime (200 mg/L) in selection media. T0 transgenic plants were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and further by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using uidA and hpt gene specific primers. The study is useful in establishing technological improvement in A. pallens by genetic engineering. PMID:27436917

  19. Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, R; Sabna, B

    2008-04-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

  20. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  1. Medicinal plants in therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

    1985-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

  2. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants. PMID:26137675

  3. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of silver nanoparticles through leaves of Abrus precatorius L.: an important medicinal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddala, Bhumi; Nataru, Savithramma

    2015-01-01

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Abrus precatorius leaf extract with silver nitrate solution as reducing agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were analyzed through UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were disk shaped with an average size of 19 nm. These silver nanoparticles were evaluated for antibacterial activity. The diameter of inhibition zones around the disk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are resistant to silver nanoparticles, whereas Escherichia coli and Bacillus thuringiensis are susceptible when compared with the other two species. The results were compared with the ciprofloxacin-positive control and silver nitrate. It is concluded that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is very fast, easy, cost-effective and eco-friendly and without any side effects.

  4. Some important epochs in medicine.

    PubMed

    Dolan, J P; Holmes, G R

    1984-08-01

    One of the problems in attempting to chronicle briefly the great moments in the history of medicine is that, like the healing process itself, turning points are difficult to pinpoint. There have been surprisingly few "eurekas." In addition, unlike the history of corporate bodies or institutions (such as the church and the nation state) there is no continuous record, no deliberate account. However, the lack of such systemic recording has had its advantage in excluding the element of mythology and myopic partisanship. Since we must choose some kind of framework, we have (in addition to the arbitrary division into Ancient, Medieval, Modern Renaissance, and Enlightenment periods) taken a page from the works of August Comte, the eminent 19th Century philosopher, who divided all of history into three states: theologic (fictional), metaphysical (abstract), and scientific (positivistic). The division is convenient because it not only demonstrates the timelessness and transcendence of medicine, but it also makes it obvious that the cyclic nature of medical interests continues, even today, to offer a theologic, metaphysical, and scientific approach to the problems of health care. PMID:6379891

  5. [Importance of chaos research for psychosomatic medicine].

    PubMed

    Wyss, D

    1993-01-01

    After a critical review of the many unsettled questions in psychosomatic medicine the author emphasizes the importance of the results of the so-called-research in mathematics, physics, biology and internal medicine. He developed various models for a deeper understanding not only of health and sickness but specially of the body/soul-problem and demonstrates the importance and fertility of the chaos-investigation for the psychosomatic medicine. PMID:8212774

  6. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents. PMID:26463231

  7. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  8. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study. PMID:25921562

  9. In vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation in asakura-sanshoo (Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC. F. inerme Makino) an important medicinal plant

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaofang; Zhao, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Context: Asakura-sanshoo (Zanthoxylum piperitum [L.] DC. f. inerme Makino) is an important medicinal plant in East Asia. Transgenic technique could be applied to improve plant traits and analyze gene function. However, there is no report on regeneration and genetic transformation in Asakura-sanshoo. Aims: To establish a regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system in Asakura-sanshoo, which could be used for cultivar improvement and gene function analysis. Settings and Design: The various combinations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were explored for the optimal plant regeneration from petiole and stem of Asakura-sanshoo. The half-strength woody plant medium (WPM) with different concentrations of NAA and IBA was used to induce root. For genetic transformation, A. tumefaciens strain EHA-105 harboring the plasmid pBin-Ex-H-ipt which carries the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene, β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and kanamycin resistance gene neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) were used. The transformation efficiency was detected by the kanamycin resistant frequency. Materials and Methods: Petioles and stems were obtained from the in vitro cultured Asakura-sanshoo. The petiole and stem segments were precultured for 3 days, and then inflected using the bacterium at the concentration of OD600 0.5–0.8 for 10 min, followed by 3 days co-cultivation. Selection of the transgenic plants was carried out after 7 days the regeneration using gradient kanamycin at 30 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Successful transformed plants were confirmed by GUS histochemical assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and Southern blotting analysis. Results: The highest shoots regeneration was obtained on WPM supplement with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.2 mg/L NAA. The optimal rooting medium was half strength macro-element WPM. The kanamycin resistant frequency of petiole and

  10. Medicines and Drugs from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, William C.

    1997-07-01

    Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.

  11. Medicinal Plants with Antiplatelet Activity.

    PubMed

    El Haouari, Mohammed; Rosado, Juan A

    2016-07-01

    Blood platelets play an essential role in the hemostasis and wound-healing processes. However, platelet hyperactivity is associated to the development and the complications of several cardiovascular diseases. In this sense, the search for potent and safer antiplatelet agents is of great interest. This article provides an overview of experimental studies performed on medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity available through literature with particular emphasis on the bioactive constituents, the parts used, and the various platelet signaling pathways modulated by medicinal plants. From this review, it was suggested that medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity mainly belong to the family of Asteraceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Rhamnaceae, Liliaceae, and Zingiberaceae. The antiplatelet effect is attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, and other substances which correct platelet abnormalities by interfering with different platelet signalization pathways including inhibition of the ADP pathway, suppression of TXA2 formation, reduction of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and phosphoinositide breakdown, among others. The identification and/or structure modification of the plant constituents and the understanding of their action mechanisms will be helpful in the development of new antiplatelet agents based on medicinal plants which could contribute to the prevention of thromboembolic-related disorders by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27062716

  12. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2015-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields. PMID:25985355

  13. Role of TDZ in the quick regeneration of multiple shoots from nodal explant of Vitex trifolia L.--an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Rafique; Anis, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    The effect of thidiazuron (TDZ) has been investigated in shoot multiplication for a simple, efficient, rapid, and commercially applicable regeneration protocol of an important medicinal plant, Vitex trifolia. Multiple shoots were induced in nodal explants obtained from a mature tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with TDZ in various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 μM). Prolonged exposure of the culture to TDZ had an adverse affect. To avoid this, the cultures were transferred to TDZ-free MS medium or MS medium fortified with various concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) to enhance multiplication, proliferation, and elongation of induced shoots. Optimum shoot multiplication and elongation was achieved when TDZ-exposed explants were repeatedly subcultured on MS media containing a combination of 1.0 μM BA and 0.5 μM NAA. The highest shoot regeneration frequency (90 %) and maximum number (22.3 ± 0.2) of shoots per explant with shoot length of (5.2 ± 0.2 cm) was recorded on MS medium fortified with 5.0 μM TDZ. In vitro rooting of isolated shoots was achieved best in half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 μM NAA. Properly rooted plantlets were successfully hardened off and acclimatized in thermocol cups containing sterile Soilrite. These plantlets were then transferred to pots containing different potting substrate; percentage survival of the plantlets was highest in vermiculite/garden soil mixture (1:1) and successfully transfer to greenhouse under sunlight. PMID:23065400

  14. Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, E N; Sampietro, A R; Vattuone, M A

    2001-01-01

    Plants synthesise a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of ten Argentinean plants used in native medicine is reported. Antifungal assays included radial growth inhibition, disk and well diffusion assays and growth inhibition by broth dilution tests. The chosen test fungi were yeasts, microfungi and wood-rot causing Basidiomycetes. Extracts of Larrea divaricata, Zuccagnia punctata and Larrea cuneifolia displayed remarkable activity in the assays against the majority of the test fungi. In addition to the former plants, Prosopanche americana also inhibited yeast growth. PMID:11137353

  15. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from stem bark of Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston: an important medicinal plant and evaluation of their antimicrobial efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikala, A.; Linga Rao, M.; Savithramma, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.

    2014-11-01

    The use of different parts of plants for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered as a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. Herein, we report on rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous stem bark extract of Cochlospermum religiosum a medicinal plant. The reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The UV-Visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 445 nm, XRD showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure and the SEM images showed that the spherical-shaped silver nanoparticles were observed and the size range was found to be 20-35 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrate, polyphenols, and protein molecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of silver nanoparticles. These phytosynthesized SNPs were tested for their antimicrobial activity and it analyzed by measuring the inhibitory zone. Cochlospermum religiosum aqueous stem bark extract of SNPs showed highest toxicity to Staphylococcus followed by Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli and Bacillus and lowest toxicity towards Proteus. Whereas in fungal species highest inhibition zone against Aspergillus flavus followed by Rhizopus, Fusarium, and Curvularia, and minimum inhibition zone was observed against Aspergillus niger species. The outcome of this study could be useful for the development of value added products from indigenous medicinal plants of India for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  16. Artemisinins: their growing importance in medicine.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Sanjeev; Bustamante, Leyla; Haynes, Richard K; Staines, Henry M

    2008-10-01

    Artemisinins are derived from extracts of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) and are well established for the treatment of malaria, including highly drug-resistant strains. Their efficacy also extends to phylogenetically unrelated parasitic infections such as schistosomiasis. More recently, they have also shown potent and broad anticancer properties in cell lines and animal models. In this review, we discuss recent advances in defining the role of artemisinins in medicine, with particular focus on their controversial mechanisms of action. This safe and cheap drug class that saves lives at risk from malaria can also have important potential in oncology. PMID:18752857

  17. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  18. [Traightened on Chinese endemic seed plant species of medicine plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua-rong; Mu, Ze-jing; Du, Xiao-lang; He, Jun-wei; Cao, Lan; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-09-01

    This paper is in order to discussion with the composition and characteristics of Tibetan medicine plant resources, and promote the reasonable protection and utilization of the resources of Tibetan materia medica. Statistical analysis of species, distributions, and others of Chinese endemic seed plant from Tibetan medicine plants and usually used in the clinic of Tibetan medicine. The results showed that there are 523 species (25%) of Chinese endemic seed plant, belonging to 65 families and 162 genera, in about 2 000 varieties of Tibetan medicine plants recorded in relevant literatures. There are 180 Chinese endemic seed plant species (28%) belonging to 42 families and 72 genera from 625 medicine plants usually used in the clinic of Tibetan medicine. Specifically, the most of these Chinese endemic seed plant species are characteristic crude drug used in Tibetan medicine, and mainly or only distributed in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. And a few species of them were intersected with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and other ethnic medicines. In addition, about 10% are listed in China Species Red List. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most abundant areas of Areal-types of the Chinese endemic seed plant. This is the biological and ecological reason formation the characteristics of Tibetan medicine plant resources. Therefore, strengthen the research of Chinese endemic seed plants used in Tibetan medicine is great significance for the reasonable protection and utilization of Tibetan medicine plant resources. PMID:26978990

  19. Pharmacogenomics and its importance in pediatric medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shastry, Barkur S.

    2012-01-01

    Individual variation in drug response and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a serious problem in medicine. This individual variation in drug response could be due to multiple factors but there is strong evidence that genetic factors play a significant role in drug response variability and toxicity. Although substantial studies that link genetic variants to inter-individual difference in drug response in adults have been reported, such studies are comparatively rare in pediatric medicine. The ultimate goal of medical research is to improve human health in every disease and every patient. Many diseases such as asthma, autism, epilepsy, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder develop during childhood. Human development is a rapidly changing process. In children, there are differences in absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolizing capabilities of a drug compared with adults. Therefore, many pharmacological and toxicological actions of drugs in children are not predictable from adult experience. It is also possible that children may experience a different range of ADRs that may have long-term implications for their development. Therefore, an improved understanding of the drug transformation pathways for all age groups is necessary. Such studies could provide insight into the susceptibility of a child to ADRs. The availability of the complete sequence of human genome and the biochip technology may help in identifying the polymorphic variations in drug related genes. In this regard, pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies may play an important role in providing markers of increased risk or susceptibility. Based on this genetic information, children at risk can be identified before therapy is initiated and pediatric ADRs may be minimized. In this short article, an attempt has been made to emphasize the importance of pharmacogenomics in pediatrics.

  20. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  1. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

  2. From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  3. A Systematic Review of Iran's Medicinal Plants With Anticancer Effects.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Kooti, Wesam; Aslani, Elahe; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2016-04-01

    Increase in cases of various cancers has encouraged the researchers to discover novel, more effective drugs from plant sources. This study is a review of medicinal plants in Iran with already investigated anticancer effects on various cell lines. Thirty-six medicinal plants alongside their products with anticancer effects as well as the most important plant compounds responsible for the plants' anticancer effect were introduced. Phenolic and alkaloid compounds were demonstrated to have anticancer effects on various cancers in most studies. The plants and their active compounds exerted anticancer effects by removing free radicals and antioxidant effects, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The investigated plants in Iran contain the compounds that are able to contribute effectively to fighting cancer cells. Therefore, the extract and active compounds of the medicinal plants introduced in this review article could open a way to conduct clinical trials on cancer and greatly help researchers and pharmacists develop new anticancer drugs. PMID:26297173

  4. Historical review of medicinal plants' usage.

    PubMed

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. PMID:22654398

  5. Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivekanand

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinal plants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinal plant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies. PMID:22589384

  6. [Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24946536

  7. Medicinal plants for helminth parasite control: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadou, S; Githiori, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2007-10-01

    The use of medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal parasitism has its origin in ethnoveterinary medicine. Although until recently the majority of the evidence on the antiparasitic activity of medicinal plants was anecdotal and lacked scientific validity, there is currently an increasing number of controlled experimental studies that aim to verify and quantify such plant activity. There are indeed a large number of plants whose anthelmintic activity has been demonstrated under controlled experimentation, either through feeding the whole plant or administering plant extracts to parasitised hosts. However, contrary to traditional expectation, there are also a great number of plants with purported antiparasitic properties, which have not been reproduced under experimental conditions. In this paper, we discuss the source of such inconsistencies between ethnoveterinary wisdom and scientific experimentation. We focus on the strengths and weaknesses of the existing methodologies used in the controlled studies to determine the activity of antiparasitic plants. We discuss issues like the seasonal and environmental variability of the plant composition, and how this can affect their antiparasitic properties and highlight the importance of identifying the mechanisms of action of such plants and the target parasite species. In addition to their antiparasitic properties, medicinal plants may also have anti-nutritional properties, which can affect animal performance and behaviour. For this reason, we emphasise the need for considering additional dimensions when evaluating medicinal plants. We also question whether using similar criteria as those used for the evaluation of anthelmintics is the way forward. We propose that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the potential of medicinal plants in parasite control and maximise their benefits on parasitised hosts. PMID:22444894

  8. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

  9. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Maione, Francesco; Russo, Rosa; Khan, Haroon; Mascolo, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been the main remedy to treat various ailments for a long time and nowadays, many drugs have been developed from traditional medicine. This paper reviews some medicinal plants and their main constituents which possess anti-inflammatory activities useful for curing joint inflammation, inflammatory skin disorders, cardiovascular inflammation and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief overview of quick and easy reading on the role of medicinal plants and their main constituents in these inflammatory diseases. We hope that this overview will shed some light on the function of these natural anti-inflammatory compounds and attract the interest of investigators aiming at the design of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. PMID:26221780

  10. Medicinal Plants and Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Avni G.; Qazi, Ghulam N.; Ganju, Ramesh K.; El-Tamer, Mahmoud; Singh, Jaswant; Saxena, Ajit K.; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Taneja, Subhash C.; Bhat, Hari K.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Although great advancements have been made in the treatment and control of cancer progression, significant deficiencies and room for improvement remain. A number of undesired side effects sometimes occur during chemotherapy. Natural therapies, such as the use of plant-derived products in cancer treatment, may reduce adverse side effects. Currently, a few plant products are being used to treat cancer. However, a myriad of many plant products exist that have shown very promising anti-cancer properties in vitro, but have yet to be evaluated in humans. Further study is required to determine the efficacy of these plant products in treating cancers in humans. This review will focus on the various plant-derived chemical compounds that have, in recent years, shown promise as anticancer agents and will outline their potential mechanism of action. PMID:18781909

  11. Cytotoxicity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10 μg/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10 μg/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

  12. Parasitological and microbiological evaluation of Mixe Indian medicinal plants (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, M; Kuhnt, M; Wright, C W; Rimpler, H; Phillipson, J D; Schandelmaier, A; Warhurst, D C

    1992-02-01

    Medicinal plants are an important health resource in many regions of the Americas and are of particular importance to many Indian communities. Based on a recent ethnobotanical study in Mexico, we investigated the activity of 29 plant extracts against Entamoeba histolytica, three bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Micrococcus luteus) and two fungi (Cladosporium cucumerinum and Penicillium oxalicum). After separation of these extracts between CH2Cl2 and H2O the resulting phases were also evaluated. PMID:1501496

  13. A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people. PMID:24093789

  14. Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    2000-07-01

    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

  15. In vitro propagation by asymbiotic seed germination and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity studies of tissue culture raised plants of three medicinally important species of dendrobium.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shu-Fung; Nalawade, Satish Manohar; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Matthew, Susan; Chen, Chung-Li; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

    2004-05-01

    A simple and efficient plant propagation system has been developed by asymbiotic germination of seeds in three medicinally important Dendrobium species, namely, Dendrobium tosaense, Dendrobium moniliforme, and Dendrobium linawianum. Plants obtained from natural habitats were grown in the greenhouse. The flowers were hand pollinated. Seeds of the capsules derived after 12 weeks of hand-pollination germinated asymbiotically (50-74%) on half strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium with 3% sucrose and solidified with 0.9% Difco agar. Active growth in the germinated seedlings was achieved by re-culturing on full strength MS basal medium supplemented with 8% banana homogenate, 8% potato homogenate, 8% coconut water, 1.5% sucrose and 0.9% Difco agar. Healthy plantlets, transferred to plastic trays containing moss or moss and tree fern, successfully acclimatized (84-100%) in the greenhouse. A marked varied response was observed in the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of in vitro propagated plants, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical using a UV spectrophotometer assay. Methanolic extracts were prepared by dissolving the powdered plant material, obtained from six months old in vitro propagated plants, each about 5 g, in boiling methanol. The percentage of scavenging effect of D. tosaense extract was 95.9% at 0.4 mg/ml concentration, whereas D. monoliforme, and D. linawianum extracts scavenged 83.4% and 92.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml. All the extracts scavenged DPPH radical significantly in a concentration dependent manner. PMID:15133256

  16. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through

  17. [PUBLIC MEDICINE AND RESEARCH-- IMPORTANT AND CHALLENGING].

    PubMed

    Pillar, Giora; Shapira, Chen

    2015-06-01

    Fellows who travel to the US are familiar with the American concept of combining clinical medicine and research. Research activity enforces reading, being updated, thinking creatively initiating, opening horizons, and being in contact with researchers all over the world. Thus, performing research is advantageous not only for research itself, the public, the patients and the knowledge, but also for the development of the researcher, the hospital, and the academic institute with which the hospital is affiliated. However, given the huge clinical workload and obligations, along with the shortage of physicians, the time consuming nature of research activity and the difficulties in obtaining research funds, it is certainly not obvious that clinicians can manage to conduct research and publish it. Decision makers, policy determinants and the individual drive to academic progress, encourage research activity by physicians, albeit the external support is commonly theoretical and moral, and is not commonly combined with time or appropriate resource allocation. In the current issue of "Harefuah", physicians from the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center publish their own research and review articles. The hospital is the second largest in the Haifa region, providing services to a population of over a million people. The manuscripts reflect only a small sample of the research and clinical activities of the hospital. PMID:26281075

  18. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq

    2011-01-01

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22754058

  19. Gastric cytoprotection of bolivian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, E; Iglesias, I; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-06-01

    Several extracts obtained from Bolivian medicinal plants have been evaluated for cytoprotective activity on ethanol-induced ulcer formation in rats. Preliminary results suggest, that the majority of the plants tested showed a significant activity, the aqueous extracts of Phoradendron crassifolium and Franseria artemisioides being the most active, exerting a cytoprotective activity comparable to atropine. The analysis of the chemical constituents of the extracts studied showed the presence of tanins, saponins, flavonoids and coumarins. PMID:10837995

  20. Molluscicidal activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Hmamouchi, M; Lahlou, M; Agoumi, A

    2000-06-01

    Among 14 plants of Moroccan folk medicine tested for molluscicidal activity, ethyl acetate extract from Origanum compactum and hexane extracts from both Chenopodium ambrosioides and Ruta chalepensis were the most active (LC(90)=2.00, 2.23 and 2.23 mg l(-1), respectively) against the schistosomiasis-transmitting snail Bulinus truncatus. PMID:10844169

  1. Tyrosinase inhibitors from Bolivian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kubo, I; Yokokawa, Y; Kinst-Hori, I

    1995-05-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation monitored by mushroom tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) activity, afforded six inhibitors from three Bolivian medicinal plants, Buddleia coriacea, Gnaphalium cheiranthifolium, and Scheelea princeps. These inhibitors, which are all known phenolic compounds, inhibited the oxidation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) mediated by a mushroom tyrosinase. PMID:7623048

  2. Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L

    1998-12-01

    Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications. PMID:10030730

  3. Phytochemica: a platform to explore phytochemicals of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Shivalika; Ramakrishnan, Sai Mukund; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules (PDMs) are known to be a rich source of diverse scaffolds that could serve as the basis for rational drug design. Structured compilation of phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants can facilitate prospection for novel PDMs and their analogs as therapeutic agents. Atropa belladonna, Catharanthus roseus, Heliotropium indicum, Picrorhiza kurroa and Podophyllum hexandrum are important Himalayan medicinal plants, reported to have immense therapeutic properties against various diseases. We present Phytochemica, a structured compilation of 963 PDMs from these plants, inclusive of their plant part source, chemical classification, IUPAC names, SMILES notations, physicochemical properties and 3-dimensional structures with associated references. Phytochemica is an exhaustive resource of natural molecules facilitating prospection for therapeutic molecules from medicinally important plants. It also offers refined search option to explore the neighbourhood of chemical space against ZINC database to identify analogs of natural molecules at user-defined cut-off. Availability of phytochemical structured dataset may enable their direct use in in silico drug discovery which will hasten the process of lead identification from natural products under proposed hypothesis, and may overcome urgent need for phytomedicines. Compilation and accessibility of indigenous phytochemicals and their derivatives can be a source of considerable advantage to research institutes as well as industries. Database URL: home.iitj.ac.in/∼bagler/webservers/Phytochemica PMID:26255307

  4. Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah

    2006-02-01

    Plants have provided Man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesser-known systems of medicines are the African and Australian, Central and South American amongst others. The search for new molecules, nowadays, has taken a slightly different route where the science of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy are being used as guide to lead the chemist towards different sources and classes of compounds. It is in this context that the flora of the tropics by virtue of its diversity has a significant role to play in being able to provide new leads. Nonetheless the issue of sovereignty and property rights should also be addressed in line with the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD). This paper highlights the above, provides an overview of the classes of molecules present in plants and gives some examples of the types of molecules and secondary metabolites that have led to the development of these pharmacologically active extracts. The paper also presents some data on the use of plant products in the development of functional foods, addresses the needs for validation of plant extracts and always stressing on safety, efficacy and quality of phyto-medications. PMID:16105678

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Hemen; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Hemen; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate the reports published between 1993 and 2011 that address the heavy metal accumulation in 88 medicinal plant species. We compare the safe limits for heavy metals set by governmental agencies vs. the levels at which such metals actually exist in selected medicinal plants. We also evaluate the uses and effectiveness of medicinal plants in health care, and assess the hazards of medicinal plant uses, in view of the growing worldwide use of medicinal plants. From our extensive review of the literature, we discovered that a maximum permissible level (MPL) of Pb is exceeded in 21 plant medicine species, Cd in 44 species, and Hg in 10 species. Vetiveria zizanioides a potential candidate species for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases absorb a wide range of heavy metals from metal-contaminated soils. We believe that this species is the single most impressive example of a potentially hazardous medicinal plant. Based on our review, we endorse the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants is mainly caused by extraction of soluble metals from contaminated soil, sediments and air. One continuing problem in protecting consumers of plant-based medicines is that permissible levels of all heavy metals in herbal medicine have not yet been standardized by regulating governmental entities. Moreover, there are few limit tests that exist for heavy metal content of medicinal plants, or permissible limits for essential dietary minerals, in most medicinal plants. The dearth of such limits hamstrings development of medicinal plant research and delays the release of either new or improved versions of medicinal plants or their components. In the present review, we emphasize that medicinal plants are often subjected to heavy metal contamination and that the levels at which these heavy metals sometimes occur exceeds permissible levels for some species. Therefore, collecting medicinal plants from areas that are, or may be, contaminated should be

  6. Cultivation and breeding of Chinese medicinal plants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Heidi; Bauer, Rudolf; Friedl, Fritz; Heubl, Günther; Hummelsberger, Josef; Nögel, Rainer; Seidenberger, Rebecca; Torres-Londoño, Paula

    2010-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used in Germany and Europe. Due to the need for herbal drugs of consistent quality and reliable supply, methods for commercial field cultivation and post-harvest processing under south German conditions have been developed for selected plant species used in CHM since 1999. The project used an interdisciplinary approach covering all aspects from seed sourcing to medicinal application. This paper describes the outcome of the agricultural seed and field experiments, breeding program, botanical and chemical characterization of the experimental material, comparison of experimental and imported herbal material with respect to their pharmaceutical quality, transfer of production methods and plant material to specialized farmers, medicinal application and, finally, information for users along the chain of distribution about the benefits of the locally produced herbal material. PMID:21077027

  7. [Silphium from Cyrenaica, an extinct medicinal plant].

    PubMed

    Haas, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Silphium was both a spice and a medicinal plant. It was regarded as "one of the most precious gifts of Nature to man" (Pliny), and was one of the main sources of revenue contributing to Cyrenaica's wealth. It was so critical to the Cyrenian economy that most of their coins bore a picture of the plant. But, by the time of Nero, the plant had become extinct, probably as a result of overgrazing and overcropping. The botanical identification of silphium is dificult, but the plant was an Umbellifera and most closely resembled Ferula tingitana. Hippocrates, Celsus, Galen and Oribasius recommended it for quartan fever, but it was also said to be useful for many other diseases. PMID:18663988

  8. Medicinal plants used in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ providing contact with the environment and protecting the human body from unfavourable external factors. Skin inflammation, reflected adversely in its functioning and appearance, also unfavourably affects the psyche, the condition of which is important during treatment of chronic skin diseases. The use of plants in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases results from their influence on different stages of inflammation. The paper presents results of the study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant raw material related to its influence on skin. The mechanism of action, therapeutic indications and side effects of medicinal plants used for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin are described. PMID:24278070

  9. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  10. [Investigation of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia].

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhen-Fang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Qin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the species of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia, and their ethnopharmaceutical uses were comprehensively summarized by field investigation, systematical data analysis and comparison of relevant specimen and references. The results showed that six plants belonging to Orobanche were used as seven kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants attributing Boschniakia were used as ten kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants of Cistanche were used as three ethnic medicinal plants. The same plant was often used as different ethnic medicine in varied ethnic minorities. The effects of the ethnic medicines included yang-tonifying, hemostasis and analgesic activities. Hence, it is necessary to develop the rich plant resource of Orobanche for alleviation of Cistanche resources shortage. PMID:25911799

  11. Medicinal plants, human health and biodiversity: a broad review.

    PubMed

    Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain

  12. Effect of medicinal plants on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Budovsky, Arie; Yarmolinsky, Ludmila; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    In the United States alone, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. It is expected that the number of chronic wounds will increase worldwide due to the increase in age-related conditions and pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. An estimated excess of US$25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds, and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing healthcare costs, an aging population, and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide. While current therapeutic agents have generally inadequate efficacy and number of serious adverse effects, the medicinal plants have been used in medicine since ancient times and are well known for their abilities to promote wound healing and prevent infection without grave side effects. Thus, herbal therapy may be an alternative strategy for treatment of wounds. The purpose of this review is to provide the verified data on the medicinal plants of the world flora with wound healing activity including the biologically active substances belonging to these herbal preparations and describe in detail the various cellular and molecular mechanisms of their actions. PMID:25703533

  13. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    PubMed Central

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  14. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Devi, V Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples. PMID:22228938

  15. Medicinal Plants: Their Use in Anticancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell, M.; Rahman, P.K.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Globally cancer is a disease which severely effects the human population. There is a constant demand for new therapies to treat and prevent this life-threatening disease. Scientific and research interest is drawing its attention towards naturally-derived compounds as they are considered to have less toxic side effects compared to current treatments such as chemotherapy. The Plant Kingdom produces naturally occurring secondary metabolites which are being investigated for their anticancer activities leading to the development of new clinical drugs. With the success of these compounds that have been developed into staple drugs for cancer treatment new technologies are emerging to develop the area further. New technologies include nanoparticles for nano-medicines which aim to enhance anticancer activities of plant-derived drugs by controlling the release of the compound and investigating new methods for administration. This review discusses the demand for naturally-derived compounds from medicinal plants and their properties which make them targets for potential anticancer treatments. PMID:26594645

  16. Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6 mg mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5 mg mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3 mg mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08 mg mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  17. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  18. Styrylpyrone-class compounds from medicinal fungi Phellinus and Inonotus spp., and their medicinal importance.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2011-05-01

    Members of the genera Phellinus and Inonotus, including P. linteus, P. igniarius, P. ribis, I. obliquus and I. xeranticus are well-known medicinal fungi (mushrooms) and have been used in treatment of cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections and ulcer. Adverse effects of these medicinal mushrooms have not yet been reported, indicating the safe nature of these mushrooms. Polysaccharides, particularly β-glucan, are considered the compounds responsible for the biological activity of medicinal mushrooms. However, there is only a limited amount of evidence to indicate that polysaccharides are in fact responsible for the biological effects of these medicinal mushrooms. Recently, many research groups have begun identification of active low-MW compounds in medicinal mushrooms, with a focus on the yellow polyphenol pigments, which are composed of a styrylpyrone class of compounds. Interestingly, a representative group of medicinal fungi, including P. linteus, P. igniarius, P. ribis, I. obliquus and I. xeranticus were shown to produce a large and diverse range of styrylpyrone-type polyphenol pigments that exhibited various biological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-diabetic, anti-dementia and anti-viral effects. Styrylpyrone pigments in mushrooms are thought to have a role similar to that of flavonoids in plants. The unique and unprecedented carbon skeleton of fused styrylpyrone might be an attractive molecular scaffold for pharmacological applications. In this review, the structural diversity, biological effects and biogenesis of styrylpyrone-class polyphenols from medicinal fungi are described. PMID:21304532

  19. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O.; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or “memes”), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine. PMID:26483686

  20. Ethnogynaecological Assessment of Medicinal Plants in Pashtun's Tribal Society

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; AbdEIsalam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to document detailed ethnogynaecological knowledge of selected remote regions of Pashtun's tribe in northwest Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were designed to collect ethnogynaecological and ethnographic data. Total of 51 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were documented that were used by the women of studied regions for the treatment of 9 types of gynaecological complaints. Majority of the plants (19) were found used against menses followed by 11 plants each for gonorrhea and pregnancy. Bannu region has high number of gynaecological plants (22) followed by Karak (15). Women of the regions mostly used whole plants (33%) and leaves (31%) for various ethnomedicinal preparation of gynae. Fic results showed that all ailments in different areas scored high consensus ranges between 0.6 and 1.00. Majority of the female respondents (44%) were aged between 61 and 70 years, of which most were illiterate. Women in the remote regions of Pakistan have tremendous traditional knowledge in utilizing medicinal plants for their reproductive health. Plants with high Fic values should be cross-checked for their in vitro and in vivo validation. Young girls should be educated on the importance of ethnogynaecological practices to conserve this valuable knowledge. PMID:25756042

  1. [Fungi isolated from diseased medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Matsuhashi, M; Iida, O

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four fungal isolates were obtained from diseased Paeonia albiflora Pall. var. trichocarpa Bung., Astragalus membranaceus Bung., Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc., Ledebouriella seseloides Wolff and Bupleurum falcatum L. which were collected in the test field of Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Hygienic Sciences. Most of them were identified into 15 genera containing 8 species. Fungal species presumed to be pathogens of the host plants were as follows: Cladosporium paeoniae, Pestalotia paeoniicola, Glomerella cingulata, Hainesia lythri, Guignardia sp. and Alternaria sp. from P. albiflora, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. and Neocosmospora vasinfecta from A. membranaceus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from L. erythrorhizon, Rhizoctonia sp., Fusarium spp., Phoma sp. and Pyrenochaeta sp. from L. seseloides, and Fusarium sp., Alternaria alternata, Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., Phomopsis sp. and C. gloeosporioides from B. falcatum. Roots of B. falcatum were found to be parasitized by Meloidogyne sp. PMID:1364438

  2. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Gulay; Kamiloglu, Senem; Ozdal, Tugba; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile. PMID:26927038

  3. Medicinal plants against hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Usman A; Idrees, Sobia

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health concern which is responsible for most of the liver diseases. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to the high degree of strain variation. The current standard of care is a combination of pegylated interferon α with ribavirin and boceprevir/telaprevir. This treatment was partially effective and had significant side effects. Hence, there is a need to develop new antiviral agents that interfere with different stages of the HCV life cycle. Recent advances in the understanding of both the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HCV replication have provided the basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Several hundred plant species and their phyto-constituents have been isolated for screening against HCV, and some have been shown to have great medicinal value in preventing and/or ameliorating viral diseases in pre-clinical and clinical trials. This review summarizes medicinal plants and their phytochemicals which inhibit different stages of HCV life cycle and discuss their potential use in HCV therapy. PMID:24659884

  4. Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Methods Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. Results A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. Conclusion The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource. PMID:23281594

  5. Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

  6. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Tania; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

  7. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Konning, G H; Agyare, C; Ennison, B

    2004-01-01

    The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported. PMID:14693222

  8. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Fisseha; Demissew, Sebsebe; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2009-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'). Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71%) from natural vegetation and 27 (29%) from home gardens. Forty-five (62%) were used for humans, 15(21%) for livestock and 13(18%) for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2%) were Shrubs, 28(34.5%) herbs, 17 (20.9%) trees and 1(1.2%) climbers. The root (35.8%) was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4%) in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%). Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future

  9. Native medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil - priorities for conservation.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Joabe Gomes; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2009-09-01

    A majority of the native medicinal plants that are commercialized in Brazil are harvested from natural populations. In addition to this essentially unrestrained collecting, these plants have been heavily impacted by the cutting and the fragmentation of forest formations throughout the country. Considering the limited availability of natural resources, threats to species diversity, and the necessity of conservation efforts in light of the rapid exhaustion of natural ecosystems, it is becoming exceedingly important to establish conservation priorities. The present work sought to identify the native medicinal plants harvested for industrial purposes and to establish conservation priorities for the species of highest commercial value. To that end, a survey of Brazilian industrial products that use medicinal plants was undertaken in 54 shops in the city of Recife (Pernambuco, NE Brazil). The survey noted information concerning the commercial name of the product, its plant composition and pharmaceutical presentation, therapeutic indications, as well as the laboratory that produced it. Only native species were considered. A total of 74 different native species used to produce more than 300 types of products were encountered in the present survey. Twelve species demonstrated significant versatility (Species which had the highest numbers of different therapeutic indications and body systems), and 58.33% of these plants were trees. Destructive collecting predominates (58.11%), greatly affecting taxa collected exclusively from wild populations (86.49%). The intensive use of exclusively wild species and the destructive harvesting techniques employed in gathering them create serious problems that will threaten the availability of these resources to future generations. PMID:18726244

  10. Antiplasmodial properties of some Malaysian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Noor Rain, A; Khozirah, S; Mohd Ridzuan, M A R; Ong, B K; Rohaya, C; Rosilawati, M; Hamdino, I; Badrul, Amin; Zakiah, I

    2007-06-01

    Seven Malaysian medicinal plants were screened for their antiplasmodial activities in vitro. These plants were selected based on their traditional claims for treatment or to relieve fever. The plant extracts were obtained from Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). The antiplasmodial activities were carried out using the pLDH assay to Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain (sensitive strain) while the cytotoxic activities were carried out towards Madin- Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells using MTT assay. The concentration of extracts used for both screening assays were from the highest concentration 64 microg/ml, two fold dilution to the lowest concentration 0.03 microg/ml. Goniothalamus macrophyllus (stem extract) showed more than 60% growth inhibition while Goniothalamus scortechinii root and stem extract showed a 90% and more than 80% growth inhibition at the last concentration tested, 0.03 microg/ml. The G. scortechini (leaves extract) showed an IC50 (50% growth inhibition) at 8.53 microg/ml, Ardisia crispa (leaves extract) demonstrated an IC50 at 5.90 +/- 0.14 microg/ml while Croton argyratus (leaves extract) showed a percentage inhibition of more than 60% at the tested concentration. Blumea balsamifera root and stem showed an IC50 at 26.25 +/- 2.47 microg/ml and 7.75 +/- 0.35 microg/ ml respectively. Agathis borneensis (leaves extract) demonstrated a 50% growth inhibition at 11.00 +/- 1.41 microg/ml. The study gives preliminary scientific evidence of these plant extracts in line with their traditional claims. PMID:17568375

  11. In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram).

    PubMed

    Sadeq, Manal Ahmed; Pathak, Malabika Roy; Salih, Ahmed Ali; Abido, Mohammed; Abahussain, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting. After 4 weeks of culture, 100 % explants respond to shoot initiation on the medium containing 8.88 μM BAP and 5.71 μM IAA. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration is observed in the same media after second subculture of shoots. The highest rooting frequency is observed in the presence of 2.85 μM IAA. After root development, the plantlets are transferred to pots filled with soil and 60 % of plants survived after 45 days. This plant regeneration protocol is of great value for rapid desert plant propagation program. PMID:27108312

  12. Fascioliasis: a worldwide parasitic disease of importance in travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Bargues, M Dolores; O'Neill, Sandra; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic disease caused by the two parasite species Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This trematodiasis has never been claimed special relevance for travellers and migrants. However, the situation has drastically changed in the last two decades, in a way that fascioliasis should today be included in the list of diseases to be enhanced in Travel Medicine. Different kind of travellers have been involved in human infection reports: business travellers, tourists, migrants, expatriated workers, military personnel, religious missionaries, and refugees. Europe is the continent where more imported cases have been reported in many countries. More cases would have been probably reported in Europe if fascioliasis would be a reportable disease. In the Americas, most of the reports concern cases diagnosed in USA. Relative few patients have been diagnosed in studies on travellers performed in Asia. In Africa, most cases were reported in Maghreb countries. Blood eosinophilia and the ingestion of watercress or any other suggestive freshwater plant in anamnesis are extremely useful in guiding towards a fascioliasis diagnosis in a developed country, although may not be so in human endemic areas of developing countries. Several suggestive clinical presentation aspects may be useful, although the clinical polymorphism may be misleading in many cases. Non-invasive techniques are helpful for the diagnosis, although images may lead to confusion. Laparoscopic visualization should assist and facilitate procurement of an accurately guided biopsy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first choice in patients in the chronic phase. ERCP and sphincterotomy are used to extract parasites from the biliary tree. Fluke egg finding continues to be the gold standard and enables for burden quantification and establishing of the drug dose. Many serological and stool antigen detection tests have been developed. Immunological techniques present

  13. A systematic overview of the medicinal importance of sanguivorous leeches.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S M Abbas; Jameel, S S; Zaman, F; Jilani, Shazia; Sultana, A; Khan, Shariq A

    2011-03-01

    Leeches are a class of segmented invertebrates, known for their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since antiquity. In Europe, medicinal leeches have recently been rediscovered and are used by maxillofacial and other microsurgeons to aid salvage of compromised venous engorged tissue and amputations, such as digits, ears, and nasal tips. Because of their important salivary components, blood-sucking (sanguivorous) leeches, such as Hirudo medicinalis and related species, have engendered great interest from pharmaceutical companies searching for anticoagulants to prevent blood clotting during microsurgeries. Scientific research reveals that the beneficial effects of leeching, in addition to decongestion, include injection of a cocktail of several medicinally useful bioactive molecules present in their saliva. Owing to its therapeutic potential, the research is continuing as many new salivary compounds are being isolated and synthesized. PMID:21438647

  14. Classical taxonomy studies of medicinally important Ipomoea leari

    PubMed Central

    Porwal, Omji; Gupta, Saurabh; Nanjan, Moola Joghee; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea leari which belongs to the family Convolvulaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the whole plant is used for various disorders such as anti-inflammatory, psychotomimetic and anticancer activities. The current study seeks to standardize the parameters for this herb. Materials and Methods: The identification of the pharmacognostical, morphoanatomical characters of Ipomoea leari (leaf, stem and root) were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analyses. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values were determined by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The plant material was fixed in formalin-5 mL + acetic acid-5 mL + 70% ethyl alcohol-9 mL (FAA) and dehydrated with graded series of tertiary-butyl alcohol. Toluidine blue, a polychromatic stain was used for staining the sections and then whole components were observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Microscopically, leaf consists of prominent midrib and the lamina, both having dorsiventral symmetry. The stomata are actinocytic. The stem consists of an epidermal layer of one cell thickness, wide cortex, vascular cylinder and wide pith. The root measuring 1.6 mm thick was studied. It consists of uniformly thick and continuous periderm, wide cortex and thick vascular cylinder. Qualitative analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and phenols. The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of macroscopic, phytoconstituent and chromatographic analyses of Ipomoea leari. Various standard methods were adopted to carry out the investigation. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide valuable pharmacognostic information of Ipomoea leari for its identification. Our result's suggest that Ipomoea leari is a promising candidate as an

  15. Antioxidant activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, A; Çinbilgel, I; Gün, S Ş; Çetin, A

    2015-01-01

    DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of some less known plants, distributed in Burdur-Antalya provinces and consumed both as food and for the medicine, Asplenium ceterach L. (golden herb), Valeriana dioscoridis Sm. (valerian), Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (tiger herb), Cota pestalozzae (Boiss.) Boiss. (camomile), Eremurus spectabilis M. Bieb. (foxtail lily), Asphodeline lutea (L.) Rchb. (asphodel) and Smyrnium connatum Boiss. and Kotschy (hemlock) were investigated. As a result, the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was determined in C. pestalozzae extract (IC50 = 18.66 μg mL(-1)), the highest superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was determined in A. ceterach extract (IC50 = 145.17 and 372.03 μg mL(-1)). The highest TPC was determined in A. ceterach extract (59,26 μg mL(-1)) as gallic acid equivalent. Further bioactivity and phytochemistry studies on these plants may enlighten new drug discovery researches. PMID:25649168

  16. Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ács, András; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Barabás, Anikó

    2011-01-01

    Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defense, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study, the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819

  17. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  18. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  19. Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine has remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities in Zimbabwe. The local people have a long history of traditional plant usage for medicinal purposes. Despite the increasing acceptance of traditional medicine in Zimbabwe, this rich indigenous knowledge is not adequately documented. Documentation of plants used as traditional medicines is needed so that the knowledge can be preserved and the utilized plants conserved and used sustainably. The primary objective of this paper is to summarize information on traditional uses of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe, identifying research gaps and suggesting perspectives for future research. Methods This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials. Results A total of 93 medicinal plant species representing 41 families and 77 genera are used in south-central Zimbabwe. These plant species are used to treat 18 diseases and disorder categories, with the highest number of species used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by sexually transmitted infections, cold, cough and sore throat and gynaecological problems. Shrubs and trees (38% each) were the primary sources of medicinal plants, followed by herbs (21%) and climbers (3%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants documented in south-central Zimbabwe are well supported by literature, with 82.8% of the plant species having similar applications in other regions of Zimbabwe as well as other parts of the world and 89.2% having documented biological and pharmacological properties. Conclusion This study illustrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment and management of human diseases and ailments in south-central Zimbabwe. Traditional medicines still play an important

  20. Treatment of anxiety and depression: medicinal plants in retrospect.

    PubMed

    Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva, Dayane M; de Oliveira, Danillo R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are complex heterogeneous psychiatric disorders and leading causes of disability worldwide. This review summarizes reports on the fundamentals, prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, advancement in treatment of these diseases and preclinical assessment of botanicals. This review was conducted through bibliographic investigation of scientific journals, books, electronic sources, unpublished theses and electronic medium such as ScienceDirect and PubMed. A number of the first-line drugs (benzodiazepine, azapirone, antidepressant tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, etc.) for the treatment of these psychiatric disorders are products of serendipitous discoveries. Inspite of the numerous classes of drugs that are available for the treatment of anxiety and depression, full remission has remained elusive. The emerging clinical cases have shown increasing interests among health practitioners and patients in phytomedicine. The development of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs of plant origin takes advantage of multidisciplinary approach including but not limited to ethnopharmacological survey (careful investigation of folkloric application of medicinal plant), phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The selection of a suitable plant for a pharmacological study is a basic and very important step. Relevant clues to achieving this step include traditional use, chemical composition, toxicity, randomized selection or a combination of several criteria. Medicinal plants have been and continue to be a rich source of biomolecule with therapeutic values for the treatment of anxiety and depression. PMID:26851117

  1. Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Leslie Main

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region. PMID:16790066

  2. Rapid in vitro propagation of medicinally important Aquilaria agallocha *

    PubMed Central

    He, Meng-ling; Qi, Shu-yuan; Hu, Lan-juan

    2005-01-01

    Aquilaria agallocha can produce fragrant agarwood used for incense, traditional medicine and other products. An efficient plant regeneration system was established via organogenesis from shoots developed from seedlings of Aquilaria agallocha. Shoots generated many buds on MS medium supplemented with 1.3 μmol/L BA (6-benzylaminopurine) in the first 7 weeks, and the buds elongated on MS medium with 1.3 μmol/L BA+0.5 μmol/L NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) in another 7 weeks, 2.3 shoots 2 cm in length per explant were obtained within 14 weeks. Plantlets were rooted on 1/2 MS medium after being immersed in 5 μmol/L NAA for 48 h, 96.7% of the roots grew up two weeks later. All plantlets that survived acclimatization grew well in the pots. PMID:16052722

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of medicinal plant Pinellia ternata.

    PubMed

    Han, Limin; Chen, Chen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Zhe-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    Pinellia ternata is an important medicinal plant used in the treatment of cough, to dispel phlegm, to calm vomiting and to terminate early pregnancy, as an anti-ulcer and anti-tumor medicine. In this study, we found that the complete chloroplast genome of Pinellia ternata was 164 013 bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats of 25 625 bp separated by a large single-copy region and a small single-copy region of 89 783 bp and 22 980 bp, respectively. The chloroplast genome encodes 132 predicted functional genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 transfer RNA genes. The chloroplast DNA is GC-rich (36.7%). The phylogenetic analysis showed a strong sister relationship with Colocasia esculenta, which also strongly supports the position of Pinellia ternata. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Pinellia ternata reported here has the potential to advance population and phylogenetic studies of this medicinal plant. PMID:26153849

  4. Insight into the Presence of Stilbenes in Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Croatian Folk Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Skroza, Danijela; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Višnja

    2016-06-01

    Over the last years, great interest has arisen concerning plant stilbenes, especially resveratrol, which has a whole spectrum of positive biological activities. In this study, we investigated the presence of resveratrol monomers (trans- and cis- form) and naturally occurring derivatives of trans-resveratrol (piceid, astringin and isorhapontin) in phenolic extracts of twenty medicinal plants traditionally used in Croatian folk medicine. The investigated compounds were present in the samples, in free form or as glucosides, and the highest share was found in immortelle, common yarrow and Lamiaceae plants. The obtained results indicate that biological activity of selected medicinal plants can be related to the presence of this valuable group of phytochemicals. PMID:27534129

  5. Antimycobacterial agents from selected Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Acevedo, Laura; Guerrero, José A; Martínez, Sergio; Bye, Robert; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Franzblau, Scott; Timmermann, Barbara N; Mata, Rachel

    2005-09-01

    As part of the ICBG program Bioactive Agents from Dryland Biodiversity of Latin America, the present investigation was undertaken to explore the possible antimycobacterial potential of compounds derived from selected Mexican medicinal plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus (Polygonaceae), Larrea divaricata (Zygophyllaceae), Phoradendron robinsonii (Loranthaceae) and Amphipteryngium adstringens (Julianiaceae) led to the isolation of several antimycobacterial compounds. Four stilbenoids, two flavan-3-ols and three anthraquinones were isolated from R. hymenosepalus. Two flavonols and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were obtained from L. divaricata. Sakuranetin was the antimycobacterial agent isolated from P. robinsonii. Two known triterpenoids and the novel natural product 3-dodecyl-1,8-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were obtained from A. adstringens. In general, the isolates were identified by spectral means. The antimycobacterial activity of the secondary compounds isolated from the analysed species, as well as that of nine pure compounds previously isolated in our laboratories, was investigated; the MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 microg mL-1. Among the tested compounds, the glycolipids, sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids showed the best antimycobacterial activity. The antimycobacterial property of the glycolipids is reported for the first time. Although the tested compounds showed moderate antimycobacterial activity, their presence in the analysed species provides the rationale for their traditional use in the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:16105233

  6. An introduction to the medicinal plant genome project.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilin; Xiang, Li; Guo, Xu; Li, Qiushi

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, genomics has developed rapidly with the application of next-generation sequencing technology. However, very few studies have been carried out on genomics for medicinal plants. This paper introduces the genome research of medicinal plants, including genome sequencing, assembly, annotation, and functional genomics, to set up the foundation for the development of natural medicines and the selection of cultivars with good agricultural traits. This study places the study on traditional Chinese medicine into the frontier field of life science. PMID:21695623

  7. Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ofosuhene, Mark; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease has been a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Due to poverty or availability of traditional medicine these populations rely on herbal remedies. Currently, data on the anti-Mycobacterium ulcerans activity of plants, so far considered community-based knowledge, have been scientifically confirmed, concomitantly with some medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in general. Products derived from plants usually responsible for the biological properties may potentially control Mycobacterium ulcerans disease; numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials. Thus, the present work provides the first compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. This work shows that the natural products represent potential alternatives to standard therapies for use as curative medicine for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. PMID:26779539

  8. Molecular Identification of Commercialized Medicinal Plants in Southern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Åsa; Rydberg, Anders; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Björk, Lars; Martin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant trade is important for local livelihoods. However, many medicinal plants are difficult to identify when they are sold as roots, powders or bark. DNA barcoding involves using a short, agreed-upon region of a genome as a unique identifier for species– ideally, as a global standard. Research Question What is the functionality, efficacy and accuracy of the use of barcoding for identifying root material, using medicinal plant roots sold by herbalists in Marrakech, Morocco, as a test dataset. Methodology In total, 111 root samples were sequenced for four proposed barcode regions rpoC1, psbA-trnH, matK and ITS. Sequences were searched against a tailored reference database of Moroccan medicinal plants and their closest relatives using BLAST and Blastclust, and through inference of RAxML phylograms of the aligned market and reference samples. Principal Findings Sequencing success was high for rpoC1, psbA-trnH, and ITS, but low for matK. Searches using rpoC1 alone resulted in a number of ambiguous identifications, indicating insufficient DNA variation for accurate species-level identification. Combining rpoC1, psbA-trnH and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified to genus level. For a minority of the market samples, the barcoding identification differed significantly from previous hypotheses based on the vernacular names. Conclusions/Significance Endemic plant species are commercialized in Marrakech. Adulteration is common and this may indicate that the products are becoming locally endangered. Nevertheless the majority of the traded roots belong to species that are common and not known to be endangered. A significant conclusion from our results is that unknown samples are more difficult to identify than earlier suggested, especially if the reference sequences were obtained from different populations. A global barcoding database should therefore contain sequences from different populations of the same species to assure the

  9. AN INDEX OF THE AVAILABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS, USED IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE FROM JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine and its distribution in Jammu and Kashmir has been categorized systematically here. The paper deals with 246 medicinal plants and has to off-set an index which is not there so far. Out of 246 medicinal plants 12 plants are considered to be controversial. Substitutes, Adulterants of these plants which are being used in various parts of India were also recorded separately in this study. PMID:22557549

  10. A new medicinal plant from Amazonian Ecuador.

    PubMed

    van Asdall, W

    1983-12-01

    Dalbergaria tessmanii, a shrub of the Gesneriaceae locally abundant in the tropical forests of Ecuador, is variously ethnomedicinally employed. For example, none of several Shuar (Jívaro) herbal healers know or use it, but the one Shuar Shaman consulted extols its importance in reducing vaginal bleeding. Although Mestizo native consultants from the provincial capital of Morona-Santiago report its use in alleviating heart problems, those from Pastaza Province employ it to reduce menstrual flow. The Lowland Quechua apparently use it for this purpose as well. This plant has apparently not yet been chemically examined. Its reported use in several different cultural context suggest that it should be phytochemically investigated. PMID:6677821

  11. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities, a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies. PMID:25050282

  12. Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

  13. Report: Studies on antibacterial activity of some traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Israr, Fozia; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Azhar, Iqbal; Jabeen, Sabahat; Hasan, S M Farid

    2012-07-01

    Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents. PMID:22713958

  14. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    effort promotes integration of effective and accessible traditional practices with Western protocols. The Traditional Medicine surveys are particularly important because, in the absence of the clinical validation, the documentation of the consistent use of a given plant for specific indication by a large number of herbalists, across a wide range of ethnic traditions, maybe considered as a positive criterion for the promulgation of said use amongst PNG’s recently formed traditional healer associations. PMID:23249544

  15. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  16. Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status

    PubMed Central

    Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Patil, Ravindra Y

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity. PMID:23569804

  17. Medicinal plants: a source of anti-parasitic secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wink, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation), membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials. PMID:23114614

  18. Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred forest of the Karen and the Lawa in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many ecosystem services provided by forests are important for the livelihoods of indigenous people. Sacred forests are used for traditional practices by the ethnic minorities in northern Thailand and they protect these forests that are important for their culture and daily life. Swidden fallow fields are a dominant feature of the agricultural farming landscapes in the region. In this study we evaluate and compare the importance of swidden fallow fields and sacred forests as providers of medicinal plants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern Thailand. Methods We made plant inventories in swidden fallow fields of three different ages (1–2, 3–4, 5–6 years old) and in sacred forests around two villages using a replicated stratified design of vegetation plots. Subsequently we interviewed the villagers, using semi-structured questionnaires, to assess the medicinal use of the species encountered in the vegetation survey. Results We registered a total of 365 species in 244 genera and 82 families. Of these 72(19%) species in 60(24%) genera and 32(39%) families had medicinal uses. Although the sacred forest overall housed more species than the swidden fallow fields, about equal numbers of medicinal plants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means that a higher proportion (48% and 34%) of the species in the relatively species poor fallows were used for medicinal purposes than the proportion of medicinal plants from the sacred forest which accounted for 17–22%. Of the 32 medicinal plant families Euphorbiaceae and Lauraceae had most used species in the Karen and Lawa villages respectively. Conclusion Sacred forest are important for providing medicinal plant species to the Karen and Lawa communities in northern Thailand, but the swidden fallows around the villages are equally important in terms of absolute numbers of medicinal plant species, and more important if counted as proportion of the total number of species in a

  19. Pharmacokinetic profile of phytoconstituent(s) isolated from medicinal plants-A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Piyush; Shah, Rishi; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Mahadik, K R

    2015-10-01

    Herbal medicine, the backbone of traditional medicine, has played an important role in human health and welfare for a long period. Traditional therapeutic approaches of regional significance are found in Africa, South and Central America, China, India, Tibet, Indonesia, and the Pacific Islands. The considerable scientific significance and commercial potential of traditional medicines have resulted in increased international attention and global market demands for herbal medicines, especially Chinese herbal medicines. Herbal medicines currently are the primary form of health care for the poor in the developing countries, and also are widely used as a supplement or substitute for conventional drugs in developed countries. These traditional medicines have a pivotal role in the treatment of various ailments and more than 50% of drugs used in Western pharmacopoeia are isolated from herbs or derived from modifications of chemicals found in plants. Herbal medicines usually contain a complex mixture of various bioactive molecules, which make its standardization complicated, and there is little information about all compounds responsible for pharmacological activity. Several research papers have been published that claim pharmacological activity of herbal medicines but few are discussing the role of the exact phytoconstituent. Understanding the pharmacokinetic profile of such phytoconstituents is essential. Although there are research papers that deal with pharmacokinetic properties of phytoconstituents, there are a number of phytoconstituents yet to be explored for their kinetic properties. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic profile of 50 different therapeutically effective traditional medicinal plants from the year 2003 onward. PMID:26587392

  20. Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested. PMID:21707967

  1. A Friendly Relationship between Endophytic Fungi and Medicinal Plants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi or endophytes exist widely inside the healthy tissues of living plants, and are important components of plant micro-ecosystems. Over the long period of evolution, some co-existing endophytes and their host plants have established a special relationship with one and another, which can significantly influence the formation of metabolic products in plants, then affect quality and quantity of crude drugs derived from medicinal plants. This paper will focus on the increasing knowledge of relationships between endophytic fungi and medicinal plants through reviewing of published research data obtained from the last 30 years. The analytical results indicate that the distribution and population structure of endophytes can be considerably affected by factors, such as the genetic background, age, and environmental conditions of their hosts. On the other hand, the endophytic fungi can also confer profound impacts on their host plants by enhancing their growth, increasing their fitness, strengthening their tolerances to abiotic and biotic stresses, and promoting their accumulation of secondary metabolites. All the changes are very important for the production of bioactive components in their hosts. Hence, it is essential to understand such relationships between endophytic fungi and their host medicinal plants. Such knowledge can be well exploited and applied for the production of better and more drugs from medicinal plants. PMID:27375610

  2. A Friendly Relationship between Endophytic Fungi and Medicinal Plants: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi or endophytes exist widely inside the healthy tissues of living plants, and are important components of plant micro-ecosystems. Over the long period of evolution, some co-existing endophytes and their host plants have established a special relationship with one and another, which can significantly influence the formation of metabolic products in plants, then affect quality and quantity of crude drugs derived from medicinal plants. This paper will focus on the increasing knowledge of relationships between endophytic fungi and medicinal plants through reviewing of published research data obtained from the last 30 years. The analytical results indicate that the distribution and population structure of endophytes can be considerably affected by factors, such as the genetic background, age, and environmental conditions of their hosts. On the other hand, the endophytic fungi can also confer profound impacts on their host plants by enhancing their growth, increasing their fitness, strengthening their tolerances to abiotic and biotic stresses, and promoting their accumulation of secondary metabolites. All the changes are very important for the production of bioactive components in their hosts. Hence, it is essential to understand such relationships between endophytic fungi and their host medicinal plants. Such knowledge can be well exploited and applied for the production of better and more drugs from medicinal plants. PMID:27375610

  3. Antifungal activities of nine traditional Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Navarro García, V M; Gonzalez, A; Fuentes, M; Aviles, M; Rios, M Y; Zepeda, G; Rojas, M G

    2003-07-01

    Eighteen plant extracts from nine traditional Mexican medicinal plants were tested for antifungal activity against two dermatophyte fungal species (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum), one non-dermatophyte (Aspergillus niger), and one yeast (Candida albicans). The strongest effect was manifested by the hexane extracts from Eupatorium aschenbornianum and Sedum oxypetalum, as well as the methanol extracts from Lysiloma acapulcensis and Annona cherimolia. PMID:12787958

  4. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Şahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  5. Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Mishra, Aradhana; Kumar, Amit; Dave, Richa; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Shukla, Mridul Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen. Plants accumulate As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinal plants, from three districts [Chinsurah (Hoogly), Porbosthali (Bardhman), and Birnagar (Nadia)] of West Bengal, India, having a history of As pollution. A site-specific response was observed for Specific Arsenic Uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1) dw) in total number of 13 (8 aquatic and 5 terrestrial) collected plants. SAU was higher in aquatic plants (5-60 mg kg(-1) dw) than in terrestrial species (4-19 mg kg(-1) dw). The level of As was lower in medicinal plants (MPs) than in non-medicinal plants, however it was still beyond the WHO permissible limit (1 mg kg(-1) dw). The concentration of other elements (Cu, Zn, Se, and Pb) was found to be within prescribed limits in medicinal plants (MP). Among the aquatic plants, Marsilea showed the highest SAU (avg. 45 mg kg(-1) dw), however, transfer factor (TF) of As was the maximum in Centella asiatica (MP, avg. 1). Among the terrestrial plants, the maximum SAU and TF were demonstrated by Alternanthera ficoidea (avg. 15) and Phyllanthus amarus (MP, avg. 1.27), respectively. In conclusion, the direct use of MP or their by products for humans should not be practiced without proper regulation. In other way, one fern species (Marsilea) and some aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus difformis) might be suitable candidates for As phytoremediation of paddy fields. PMID:21713498

  6. Medicinal plants and ethnomedicine in peril: a case study from Nepal himalaya.

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Lamichhane Pandey, Mina; Mahat Kunwar, Laxmi; Bhandari, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters' and cultivators' abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change. PMID:24734114

  7. Medicinal Plants and Ethnomedicine in Peril: A Case Study from Nepal Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ripu M.; Lamichhane Pandey, Mina; Mahat Kunwar, Laxmi

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters' and cultivators' abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change. PMID:24734114

  8. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

  9. The Use of Medicinal Plants by Migrant People: Adaptation, Maintenance, and Replacement

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; Alencar, Nélson Leal; Vandebroek, Ina; Pieroni, Andrea; Hanazaki, Natalia; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of studying the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of migrant communities to understand the dynamics of plant resource use, we reviewed the scientific literature concerning the use of medicinal plants by migrant populations engaged in international or long-distance migrations. We considered the importance of two processes: (1) adaptation to the new flora of the host country (i.e., substitution and incorporation of plants in the pharmacopoeia) and (2) continued use and acquisition of the original flora from migrants' home countries (i.e., importation, cultivation, and/or continued use of plants that grow in both host and home environments). We suggest that, depending on the specific context and conditions of migration, different processes that determine the use and/or selection of plants as herbal medicines may become predominant. PMID:22110548

  10. Global health: the importance of evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Global health is a varied field that comprises research, evaluation and policy that, by its definition, also occurs in disparate locations across the world. This forum article is introduced by our guest editor of the Medicine for Global Health article collection, Gretchen Birbeck. Here, experts based across different settings describe their personal experiences of global health, discussing how evidence-based medicine in resource-limited settings can be translated into improved health outcomes. PMID:24228722

  11. Medicinal plants of the eastern region of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Novy, J W

    1997-01-01

    Sixty-eight plants used in the traditional medicinal practices of the Betsimisaraka and Tanala peoples of the eastern region of Madagascar are reported. Preparations and utilizations of these medicinal plants are as varied as the plants themselves. Some of the plants discussed are known to science, but because of the diversity of tribal groups in Madagascar, new preparations and utilizations of these plants were based on the ethnobotanical data collected from the Betsimisaraka and Tanala. Many of the plants discussed remain to be chemically tested. Ethnopharmacological information is in danger of being lost in Madagascar as slash and burn agriculture destroys much of the forest, and the elder traditional healers, often illiterate, pass away without handing down their knowledge. PMID:9032624

  12. An ethno-medicinal study of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Tajeddini, Pegah; Naghdi, Nasrollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the greatest public health problem and is considered as the silent epidemic of the 21st century. In Iran, there are approximately 1.5 million diabetic patients. Before the discovery of insulin, medicinal plants were widely used for the treatment of diabetes in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the indigenous plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Shiraz, southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured direct interviews were conducted with 25 herbalists to identify medicinal plants used to treat diabetes. Questionnaires were included herbalist personal information, plant local name, growth season, plant parts used, preparation methods, and traditional therapies. Results: The interview data indicated that, 24 medicinal plants from 19 families are used for the treatment of diabetes in Shiraz. The families with most antidiabetic species were Compositae (13%), Rosaceae (13%) and Cucurbitaceae (8%). The most frequently used plant parts were fruits (38%) and the most common preparation method was decoction (62%). For 45% of reported plants, pharmaceutical studies approved antidiabetic effects in animal or humane model of diabetes. Results of this study showed that the plants recommended by Shirazian herbalists have potential antidiabetic effects. Conclusions: It is suggested that the ingredients of indigenous plants be studied to determine therapeutic effects and mechanism of action. If they were safe and effective, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs. PMID:27047810

  13. ["Doliarina and iron powder": an important medicine at Peckolt Pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio Teixeira da; Dias, Marluce Oliveira; Pinto, Angelo da Cunha; Santos, Nadja Paraense Dos

    2015-12-01

    The pharmacist Theodoro Peckolt was one of the most important figures in the history of the chemistry of natural Brazilian products. Like other nineteenth-century pharmacists in Brazil, he developed formulations and sold them at his pharmacy in Rio de Janeiro, and these enjoyed great prestige in the eyes both of the public and the medical community. The article discusses the relation between the illness originally called "opilação" (ancylostomiasis, or hookworm) and nineteenth-century treatment. It focuses especially on Peckolt Pharmacy's "Doliarina and iron powder," a formulation extracted from the Ficus gomelleira rubber plant. One of the article's goals is to use modern methods to analyze Ficus gomelleira and identify the chemical composition of the drug. PMID:26625923

  14. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

  15. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of

  16. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug. PMID:24295044

  17. Introduction of Medicinal Plants Species with the Most Traditional Usage in Alamut Region

    PubMed Central

    Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herb’s clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH). PMID:24250441

  18. Plant Molecular Farming: Much More than Medicines.

    PubMed

    Tschofen, Marc; Knopp, Dietmar; Hood, Elizabeth; Stöger, Eva

    2016-06-12

    Plants have emerged as commercially relevant production systems for pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical products. Currently, the commercially available nonpharmaceutical products outnumber the medical products of plant molecular farming, reflecting the shorter development times and lower regulatory burden of the former. Nonpharmaceutical products benefit more from the low costs and greater scalability of plant production systems without incurring the high costs associated with downstream processing and purification of pharmaceuticals. In this review, we explore the areas where plant-based manufacturing can make the greatest impact, focusing on commercialized products such as antibodies, enzymes, and growth factors that are used as research-grade or diagnostic reagents, cosmetic ingredients, and biosensors or biocatalysts. An outlook is provided on high-volume, low-margin proteins such as industrial enzymes that can be applied as crude extracts or unprocessed plant tissues in the feed, biofuel, and papermaking industries. PMID:27049632

  19. Plant Molecular Farming: Much More than Medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschofen, Marc; Knopp, Dietmar; Hood, Elizabeth; Stöger, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Plants have emerged as commercially relevant production systems for pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical products. Currently, the commercially available nonpharmaceutical products outnumber the medical products of plant molecular farming, reflecting the shorter development times and lower regulatory burden of the former. Nonpharmaceutical products benefit more from the low costs and greater scalability of plant production systems without incurring the high costs associated with downstream processing and purification of pharmaceuticals. In this review, we explore the areas where plant-based manufacturing can make the greatest impact, focusing on commercialized products such as antibodies, enzymes, and growth factors that are used as research-grade or diagnostic reagents, cosmetic ingredients, and biosensors or biocatalysts. An outlook is provided on high-volume, low-margin proteins such as industrial enzymes that can be applied as crude extracts or unprocessed plant tissues in the feed, biofuel, and papermaking industries.

  20. Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

  1. Immunochemical Cross-Reactivity of β-Glucan in the Medicinal Plant, Sasa veitchii (Japanese Folk Medicine Kumazasa), and Medicinal Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshida, Mia; Ishibashi, Ken-Ichi; Takeshita, Kazuo; Tsuboi, Masamichi; Kanamori, Masato; Miura, Noriko N; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2016-01-01

    Fungal β-glucan is a representative pathogen-associated molecular pattern from mushroom, yeast, and fungi and stimulates innate as well as acquired immune systems. This β-glucan is widely applied in functional food to enhance immunity. Humans and animals generally become sensitized to this β-glucan and gradually produce specific antibodies to β-glucans. The extracts of plants have been used as folk medicine and are reported to possess various biological activities that are beneficial for human health, such as antitumor, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the immunochemical cross-reactivity of Sasa extract and fungal β-glucan was analyzed. We found that the anti-β-glucan antibody in human sera strongly cross-reacted with the Sasa extract. This result strongly suggested that plant extracts modulate the immunostimulating effects of medicinal mushrooms. The cooperative effects of plants and mushrooms may be an important issue for functional foods. PMID:27481152

  2. Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are used by 80% of people from developing countries to fulfill their primary health needs, occupying a key position on plant research and medicine. Taking into account that, besides their pharmaceutical importance, these plants contribute greatly to ecosystems' stability, a continuous documentation and preservation of traditional knowledge is a priority. The objective of this study was to organize a database of medicinal plants including their applications and associated procedures in Canhane village, district of Massingir, province of Gaza, Mozambique. Methods In order to gather information about indigenous medicinal plants and to maximize the collection of local knowledge, eleven informants were selected taking into account the dimension of the site and the fact that the vegetation presents a great homogeneity. The data were collected through intensive structured and semi-structured interviews performed during field research. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on field observations and herbarium collections. Results A total of 53 plant species have been reported, which were used to treat 50 different human health problems. More than half of the species were used for stomach and intestine related disturbances (including major diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery). Additionally, four species with therapeutic applications were reported for the first time, whose potential can further be exploited. The great majority of the identified species was also associated with beliefs and myths and/or used as food. In general, the community was conscientious and motivated about conservational issues and has adopted measures for the rational use of medicinal plants. Conclusions The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the Canhane village. The local community had a rich ethnobotanical knowledge and adopted sound management conservation practices. The data compiled in this study show the social importance of the

  3. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O. P.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Alnus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, phenols, steroids, and tannins. Diarylheptanoids are the dominant constituents within the genus Alnus, few of them exhibited antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor kappaB activation, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, farnesyl protein transferase, cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, HIF-1 in AGS cells, and the HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect in MT-4 cells. Some ellagitannines showed hepatoprotective activity even in a dose of 1 mg/kg which is ten-fold smaller compared with the dose of traditional flavonoid-based drugs. The members of genus Alnus are well known for their traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases like cancer, hepatitis, inflammation of uterus, uterine cancer, rheumatism, dysentery, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, etc. The aim of the present review is to summarize the various researches related to the chemistry and pharmacology of genus Alnus. PMID:22279375

  4. Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Sudanese Folk-medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, El-Hadi M.; Nour, Bakri Y.M.; Mohammed, Yousif G.; Khalid, Hassan S.

    2010-01-01

    Ten plants indigenous to Sudan and of common use in Sudanese folk-medicine, were examined in vitro for antimalarial activity against schizonts maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the major human malaria parasite. All plant samples displayed various antiplasmodial activity. Three plant extracts caused 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentrations of plant material ≤ 500 ug/ml. The two most active extracts that produced 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentration of plant material ≤ 50 μg/ml were obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa and the whole plant of Aristolochia bracteolata. The ten plants were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. The two most active plants showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids and tannins. PMID:20523878

  5. A comparison of traditional healers' medicinal plant knowledge in the Bolivian Andes and Amazon.

    PubMed

    Vandebroek, Ina; Van Damme, Patrick; Van Puyvelde, Luc; Arrazola, Susana; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2004-08-01

    Medicinal plant knowledge of two groups of traditional healers was thoroughly studied during a 2-year ethnobotanical survey in the Bolivian Andes (Quechua farmers from Apillapampa) and Amazon rainforest (Yuracaré-Trinitario slash-and-burn cultivators from Isiboro-Sécure National Park), respectively. Both areas represent ecologically and culturally diverse zones, differing in floristic diversity, physical accessibility to health care and degree of modernization, the latter evidenced by presence or intensity in use of modern services such as electricity, water distribution, and materials for house construction. It is generally believed that indigenous people have an impressive knowledge of useful plant species and that this knowledge reflects the plant wealth of their living environment. However, the present study shows that healers' knowledge of collected medicinal plants (expressed as percentage of plants known by name and use by the majority of healers) is higher in the Andean area characterised by a long history of anthropogenic activity, than in the biodiversity-rich rainforest (protected since 1965). Therefore, medicinal plant knowledge does not seem to depend on the level of plant diversity, degree of modernization or absence of Western health care infrastructure. Indeed, although Andean healers live in a floristically poorer environment, have adopted more modern services and have easier access to primary health care facilities, they are more knowledgeable about medicinal plants than rainforest healers who live isolated in an environment with considerable floristic/ecological variation and lack of Western health care. It is hypothesised that social factors underlying traditional medical practices (background of extensive family in traditional medicine) play an important role in transmission--and hence survival of knowledge on medicinal plants. PMID:15177839

  6. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars. PMID:25861351

  7. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd Allah, E F; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ullah, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  8. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd_Allah, E. F.; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  9. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

    2002-06-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

  10. [Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms].

    PubMed

    Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A

    2007-01-01

    The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane. PMID:19388583

  11. Cryopreservation of medicinal plants: role of melatonin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantees safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wo...

  12. Iranian medicinal plants for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Sarkhail, Parisa

    2013-05-01

    In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient. PMID:24498803

  13. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included. PMID:27169179

  14. [Microscopic and polariscopic characteristics of 30 medicinal plants of Polygonum].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Yu; Zhang, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Mian

    2012-09-01

    Polygonum L. s. str., belonging to Polygonaceae family, is a big genus with abundant medicinal plants. More than 10 plants are specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and many local medicinal standards and over 50 species are used as folk medicines. Owing to the similar morphologies and very small flowers and fruits, they are uneasily identified and often confused with each other and misused clinically. In order to provide a basis for identification of Polygonum s. str. plants, a histological study on stems and leaves of 30 species from Polygonum was undertaken by a routine/polarized light microscopy for the first time. The results showed that: (1) the transverse sections of stems of Polygonum are relatively similar, sclerenchyma such as xylem and fibres with strong polarization effects; (2) the surface views of leaves of Polygonum are distinguishable on distributions and types of stomata, with or without attachments (such as glandular hairs/scales or non-glandular hairs) and the polariscopic features of epidermal cell walls, stomata and cell contents. Observed under polarized light, it was found for the first time that stomata on leaf surface of some plants have a Maltese-cross effect with the arms of the cross intersecting at the stomatal opening. As a result, a key combining the microscopic and polariscopic characteristics of the stems as well as leaves was provided for identifying the 30 medicinal plants of Polygonum. The polarized light microscopic method was proven to be one of the quick, simple and effective techniques for the identification of medicinal plants and botanic crude materials. PMID:23227558

  15. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that

  16. Economically and ecologically important plant communities in high altitude coniferous forest of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Hassan; Al_yemeni, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A study on the economically important plant communities was carried out during summer 2008 in various parts of Malam Jabba valley, Swat. The principal aim of the study was phytosociological evaluation with special reference to the occurrence of commercially important medicinal plant species in coniferous forest of the study area. Secondly to prepare ethnobotanical inventory of the plant resources of the area, as well as to evaluate the conservation status of important medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) through rapid vulnerable assessment (RVA) procedure. The study documented 90 species of ethnobotanical importance, out of these 71 spp used as medicinal plant, 20 spp fodder plant, 10 spp vegetables, 14 spp wild fruit, 18 spp fuel wood, 9 spp furniture and agricultural tools, 9 spp thatching, fencing and hedges, 4 spp honey bee, 2 spp evil eyes, 2 spp religious and 3 spp as poison. Phytosociologically six plant communities were found, comprising five herbs-shrubs-trees communities and one meadow community. Further study is, therefore, required to quantify the availability of species and to suggest suitable method for their production and conservation. Recommendations are also given in the spheres of training in identification, sustainable collection, value addition, trade monitoring and cooperative system of marketing. PMID:23961104

  17. Economically and ecologically important plant communities in high altitude coniferous forest of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sher, Hassan; Al Yemeni, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    A study on the economically important plant communities was carried out during summer 2008 in various parts of Malam Jabba valley, Swat. The principal aim of the study was phytosociological evaluation with special reference to the occurrence of commercially important medicinal plant species in coniferous forest of the study area. Secondly to prepare ethnobotanical inventory of the plant resources of the area, as well as to evaluate the conservation status of important medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) through rapid vulnerable assessment (RVA) procedure. The study documented 90 species of ethnobotanical importance, out of these 71 spp used as medicinal plant, 20 spp fodder plant, 10 spp vegetables, 14 spp wild fruit, 18 spp fuel wood, 9 spp furniture and agricultural tools, 9 spp thatching, fencing and hedges, 4 spp honey bee, 2 spp evil eyes, 2 spp religious and 3 spp as poison. Phytosociologically six plant communities were found, comprising five herbs-shrubs-trees communities and one meadow community. Further study is, therefore, required to quantify the availability of species and to suggest suitable method for their production and conservation. Recommendations are also given in the spheres of training in identification, sustainable collection, value addition, trade monitoring and cooperative system of marketing. PMID:23961104

  18. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in

  19. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p < 0.05) were reported by informants of higher institution (14.3 ± 34) and

  20. The evolution of traditional knowledge: environment shapes medicinal plant use in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Hawkins, Julie A.; Greenhill, Simon J.; Pendry, Colin A.; Watson, Mark F.; Tuladhar-Douglas, Will; Baral, Sushim R.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is influenced by ancestry, inter-cultural diffusion and interaction with the natural environment. It is problematic to assess the contributions of these influences independently because closely related ethnic groups may also be geographically close, exposed to similar environments and able to exchange knowledge readily. Medicinal plant use is one of the most important components of traditional knowledge, since plants provide healthcare for up to 80% of the world's population. Here, we assess the significance of ancestry, geographical proximity of cultures and the environment in determining medicinal plant use for 12 ethnic groups in Nepal. Incorporating phylogenetic information to account for plant evolutionary relatedness, we calculate pairwise distances that describe differences in the ethnic groups' medicinal floras and floristic environments. We also determine linguistic relatedness and geographical separation for all pairs of ethnic groups. We show that medicinal uses are most similar when cultures are found in similar floristic environments. The correlation between medicinal flora and floristic environment was positive and strongly significant, in contrast to the effects of shared ancestry and geographical proximity. These findings demonstrate the importance of adaptation to local environments, even at small spatial scale, in shaping traditional knowledge during human cultural evolution. PMID:24523269

  1. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20). PMID:17032450

  2. Occurrence of preformed volatile nitrosamines in preparations of some Nigerian medicinal plants: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E

    2003-04-01

    Preparations of some tropical plants of medicinal importance collected from the savannah vegetational belt of Nigeria were analysed for preformed volatile N-nitrosamines. N-nitrosamines were analyzed by chemiluminescence detection on a thermal energy analyzer (TEA) following gas chromatographic (GC) separation. Only N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the range of 1.2-3.4 microg/kg was detected in four out of the 29 sample preparations. These preliminary data suggest that medicinal plant preparations may be due in part to microbial contamination, contributing to N-nitroso compound burden in many developing countries where ethnomedicine in still widely practised. PMID:12615127

  3. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K K

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  4. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-08-01

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health

  5. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  6. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    SciTech Connect

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-08-28

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health.

  7. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative

  8. Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20112179

  9. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ethnobotanical relevance Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. Methods A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant’s categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The

  10. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    PubMed Central

    Owuor, Bethwell O; Kisangau, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo). Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare. PMID:16451723

  11. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Siwai and Buin districts of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville

    PubMed Central

    Waruruai, Julie; Sipana, Beuluah; Koch, Michael; Barrows, Louis R.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Rai, Prem P

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Traditional knowledge of medicinal plant use in many regions of Papua New Guinea and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville is poorly described and rapidly disappearing. A program initiated by the University of Papua New Guinea to systematically document and preserve traditional knowledge of medicinal plant use was initiated with WHO help in 2001. Aim of the study To document and compare medicinal plant use in the Siwai and Buin Districts of the Island of Bougainville. Siwai and Buin districts represent two adjacent geographic regions of differing language traditions. Materials and methods This report is a combination of two University of Papua New Guinea reports generated using a University of Papua New Guinea and Papua New Guinea Department of Health approved survey questionnaire “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of Papua New Guinea”. Results Although Siwai and Buin Districts are adjacent in Southern Bougainville, there is considerable variation in the specific plants used medicinally and the specific uses of those plants that are used commonly in the two regions. In addition, many of the plants used in the region are widely distributed species that are used medicinally in other settings. Nevertheless, the high endemicity of plants and the extraordinary cultural diversity in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville has yielded description of the medicinal use of many plants that have not previously been reported in the wider scientific literature. Conclusions Efforts to document and preserve traditional knowledge of plant use in Papua New Guinea have yielded important new records of plants with potential application in the provision of health care for a developing nation with an under developed Western style rural health care system. This report documents substantial commonality in the general modes of medicinal plant preparation and in the health care applications of plant use in the Siwai

  12. Ayurvedic medicinal plants for Alzheimer's disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an age-associated, irreversible, progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by severe memory loss, unusual behavior, personality changes, and a decline in cognitive function. No cure for Alzheimer's exists, and the drugs currently available to treat the disease have limited effectiveness. It is believed that therapeutic intervention that could postpone the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease would dramatically reduce the number of cases in the next 50 years. Ayurvedic medicinal plants have been the single most productive source of leads for the development of drugs, and over a hundred new products are already in clinical development. Indeed, several scientific studies have described the use of various Ayurvedic medicinal plants and their constituents for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact mechanism of their action is still not clear, phytochemical studies of the different parts of the plants have shown the presence of many valuable compounds, such as lignans, flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, triterpenes, sterols, and alkaloids, that show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-cholinesterase, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. This review gathers research on various medicinal plants that have shown promise in reversing the Alzheimer's disease pathology. The report summarizes information concerning the phytochemistry, biological, and cellular activities and clinical applications of these various plants in order to provide sufficient baseline information that could be used in drug discovery campaigns and development process, thereby providing new functional leads for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22747839

  13. Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Najib Nik A Rahman, N; Furuta, T; Kojima, S; Takane, K; Ali Mohd, M

    1999-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that Malaysian medicinal plants, Piper sarmentosum, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa produced considerable antimalarial effects. Chloroform extract in vitro did show better effect than the methanol extract. The chloroform extract showed complete parasite growth inhibition as low as 0.05 mg/ml drug dose within 24 h incubation period (Andrographis paniculata) as compared to methanol extract of drug dose of 2.5 mg/ml but under incubation time of 48 h of the same plant spesies. In vivo activity of Andrographis paniculata also demonstrated higher antimalarial effect than other two plant species. PMID:10363840

  14. Important poisonous plants of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

  15. Local indigenous knowledge about some medicinal plants in and around Kakamega forest in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Nickson Erick

    2012-01-01

    Kakamega forest is Kenya’s only rainforest and is distinguishably rich in biodiversity but threatened by agricultural encroachment and other forms of human activity. It is also one of Kenya’s Important Bird Areas and a significant source of natural products to neighboring rural communities, such as medicinal plants, food, wood and other fibers. By using structured questionnaires for direct interviews, local indigenous knowledge was tapped through involvement of a focal group of elderly key informants in three blocks of the forest. Forty key species of medicinal plants used by local people were identified and recorded. Fifty-five percent of these were shrubs, thirty-two percent trees, seven-and-a-half percent lower plants such as herbs or forbs while five percent were climbers. About seventy percent of the medicinal plants occurred inside the forest itself and thirty percent around the edge and the immediate surroundings outside the forest. Thirty-eight (95%) of the plants were indigenous to Kenya and two (5%) exotic. Such extensive indigenous knowledge of the medicinal uses of the plants, including their distribution trends in the forest, may be tapped for decision support in rural health service planning, policy formulation for conserving the forest, tracking and mitigation of climate change impacts. PMID:24701341

  16. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.

    PubMed

    Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

  17. Medicinal plants: a public resource for metabolomics and hypothesis development.

    PubMed

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Jones, A Daniel; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; P Widrlechner, Mark; Nikolau, Basil J

    2012-01-01

    Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The

  18. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

    PubMed Central

    Patel, DK; Prasad, SK; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

  19. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  20. Ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants of the pantanal region (mato grosso, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  1. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants at Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yineger, Haile; Kelbessa, Ensermu; Bekele, Tamrat; Lulekal, Ermias

    2007-05-30

    An ethnobotanical study on veterinary medicinal plants of Bale Mountains National Park and adjacent areas was conducted from July 2003 to June 2004. Semi-structured interviews and observations were used to generate ethnoveterinary data from traditional healers residing in the park and buffer zones. A total of 25 animal ailments were reported, of which blackleg, Darissaa and hepatitis were the most frequently reported ailments. Seventy four veterinary medicinal plant species that were distributed among 64 genera and 37 families were recorded. The most utilized growth forms were herbs (35 species, 47.3%) followed by shrubs (28 species, 37.84%). Roots (54 species, 41.54%) followed by leaves (47 species, 36.15%) were the most frequently used plant parts for ethnoveterinary medicine. Usually, fresh materials (53 species, 43.44%) were preferred for medicine preparations. The most frequently used route of drug administration was oral (65 species, 42.76%) followed by dermal (55 species, 36.18%). Indigenous knowledge was mostly transferred to an elect of a family member in word of mouth indicating that it was prone to fragmentation or loss. PMID:17368989

  2. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan – Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

  3. Diversity of endophytic bacteria in medicinally important Nepenthes species

    PubMed Central

    Bhore, Subhash J.; Komathi, Vijayan; Kandasamy, Kodi I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nepenthes species are used in traditional medicines to treat various health ailments. However, we do not know which types of endophytic bacteria (EB) are associated with Nepenthes spp. Objective: The objective of this study was to isolate and to identify EB associated with Nepenthes spp. Materials and Methods: Surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissues from nine Nepenthes spp. collected from Peninsular Malaysia were used to isolate EB. Isolates were identified using the polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence similarity based method. Results: Cultivable, 96 isolates were analyzed; and the 16S rDNA sequences analysis suggest that diverse bacterial species are associated with Nepenthes spp. Majority (55.2%) of the isolates were from Bacillus genus, and Bacillus cereus was the most dominant (14.6%) among isolates. Conclusion: Nepenthes spp. do harbor a wide array of cultivable endophytic bacteria. PMID:24082746

  4. Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer. PMID:22128430

  5. Cytotoxicity of the rhizome of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shakhawoat; Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Yeasmin, Tanzima

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity of the crude ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L) Smith. and Curcuma zedoaria (C. zedoaria) Rosc. against Artemia salina Leach. Methods Fresh rhizomes of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. were extracted separately in cold with ethanol (2.5 L) and after concentration a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extracts of both plants was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Crude ethanol extracts of the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. showed the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 was 1.24 µg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii as compared with C. zedoaria Rosc. (LC50 was 33.593 µg/mL) after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions It can be concluded that the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. can be used as a source of cytotoxic agent. PMID:23569881

  6. To what extent are medicinal plants shared between country home gardens and urban ones? A case study from Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Violeta; Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma Ines; Pochettino, María Lelia

    2016-09-01

    Context Worldwide ethnobotanical research has shown the importance of home gardens as sources of medicinal plants. These resources are worthy of further study in the Argentinean Atlantic Forest due to the richness of medicinal flora and their importance for local people. Objective We studied richness, composition, cultural importance and medicinal uses of plants in home gardens of rural, semirural and urban areas in the Iguazú Department (Misiones, Argentina). Our hypothesis claims that people living in different environments have a similar array of medicinal plants in their gardens and they use them in a similar way. Materials and methods The analysis was based on 76 interviews and plant inventories of home gardens. During guided walks in gardens, voucher specimens were collected. To analyse composition, Simpson similarity index was applied and a new index was proposed to measure culturally salient species. Results All the environments had similar species composition with species differing in less than 30% of them. The most culturally salient taxa were Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae), in rural, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), in semirural, and Aloe maculata All. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), in urban areas. The body systems treated with medicinal plants were similar across study sites. Discussion The results suggest a "core repertoire" of medicinal plants and a widespread exchange of plants among local population. The cultural importance index informs us about plant adaptability, based on the efficacy and the versatility of medicinal resources. Conclusion In this changing context where mobility and migrations constitute everyday life, medicinal plants in home gardens are part of local healthcare sovereignty. PMID:26857000

  7. Rediscovering Medicinal Plants' Potential with OMICS: Microsatellite Survey in Expressed Sequence Tags of Eleven Traditional Plants with Potent Antidiabetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to

  8. Phytomedicine 101: plant taxonomy for preclinical and clinical medicinal plant researchers.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Plants are the primary source of medicine for most of the world. The most fundamental step in the scientific study of medicinal plants is establishing their botanical identity. Many studies lack voucher specimens, which serve as permanent records of scientific investigations. This omission makes positive identification impossible and hinders reproducibility. Even when vouchers are cited, scientific names are often mishandled. A random survey of titles and abstracts of 100 publications revealed 20 with taxonomic errors. Mistakes included a lack of author citations, misspellings, and use of older synonyms instead of currently accepted names. A seemingly minor orthographic error makes it impossible to search electronic databases for information about a species. Medicinal plant manuscripts and National Institutes of Health proposals commonly lack scientific rigor in dealing with botanical names and documentation. This article examines common taxonomic problems relevant to medicinal plant research and provides a basic guide to plant taxonomy for medicinal plant researchers. Voucher specimens and their preparation, plant identification, and botanical nomenclature are discussed. References and other resources to assist investigators are cited. PMID:19134447

  9. Potential anti-dengue medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Abd Kadir, Siti Latifah; Yaakob, Harisun; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden

    2013-10-01

    Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. Sixty-nine studies from 1997 to 2012 describe 31 different species from 24 families that are known for their anti-dengue activities. About ten phytochemicals have been isolated from 11 species, among which are compounds with the potential for development of dengue treatment. Crude extracts and essential oils obtained from 31 species showed a broad activity against Flavivirus. Current studies show that natural products represent a rich potential source of new anti-dengue compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed established the potential of identified species in contributing to dengue control. PMID:23591999

  10. The Shuttle and its importance to space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A.; Pool, S.; Rambaut, P.

    1980-01-01

    The physiological effects of space flights on humans are reviewed, and the opportunities offered by frequent and repetitive Space Shuttle flights for space medical research are discussed. The most significant changes encountered in the vestibular, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and hematopoietic systems during and after past space missions are indicated, and the time courses of the physiological shifts associated with space acclimatization and readaptation to a 1-g environment are summarized. Effects directly attributable to the absence of gravity, including postural changes and fluid shifts, are considered, and additional contributing factors to physiological changes imposed by the spacecraft operational environment are pointed out. Differences between the Space Shuttle missions and all previous missions in the areas of reentry profiles and varied crew composition are discussed, and results of experiments on the relative acceleration tolerances of men and women of different ages and the usefulness of the anti-g suit are presented. Directions for future research in space medicine available with the Shuttle are examined, with particular emphasis on the neurovestibular system cardiopulmonary dynamics, calcium metabolism, the erythropoietic system and the effects of space radiation.

  11. Anti-quorum sensing activity of medicinal plants in southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Adonizio, Allison L; Downum, Kelsey; Bennett, Bradley C; Mathee, Kalai

    2006-05-24

    Bacterial intercellular communication, or quorum sensing (QS), controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Anti-QS compounds are known to exist in marine algae and have the ability to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity. We hypothesized that terrestrial plants traditionally used as medicines may also produce anti-QS compounds. To test this hypothesis, 50 medicinal plants from southern Florida were screened for anti-QS activity using two biomonitor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Of these plants, six showed QS inhibition: Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae), Chamaecyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. (Euphorbiaceae), Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G. Don (Myrtaceae), Bucida burceras L. (Combretaceae), Tetrazygia bicolor (Mill.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae), and Quercus virginiana Mill. (Fagaceae). This study introduces not only a new mode of action and possible validation for traditional plant use, but also a potentially new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:16406418

  12. Changes in the trade in native medicinal plants in Brazilian public markets.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Maria das Graças Lins; Cosenza, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Flávia Liparini; Vasconcelos, Ariela Silva; Fagg, Christopher William

    2013-08-01

    Plants continue to be an important source of new bioactive substances. Brazil is one of the world's mega-diverse countries, with 20 % of the world's flora. However, the accelerated destruction of botanically rich ecosystems has contributed to a gradual loss of native medicinal species. In previous study, we have observed a fast and intensive change in trade of medicinal plants in an area of Amazon, where human occupation took place. In this study, we surveyed 15 public markets in different parts of Brazil in search of samples of 40 plants used in traditional medicine and present in first edition of Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia (FBRAS), published in 1926. Samples of plants commercialized as the same vernacular name as in Pharmacopoeia were acquired and submitted to analysis for authentication. A total of 252 plant samples were purchased, but the laboratory analyses showed that only one-half of the samples (126, 50.2 %) were confirmed as the same plant species so named in FBRAS. The high number of unauthenticated samples demonstrates a loss of knowledge of the original native species. The proximity of the market from areas in which the plant occurs does not guarantee that trade of false samples occurs. The impact of the commerce of the substitute species on their conservation and in public health is worrying. Strategies are necessary to promote the better use and conservation of this rich heritage offered by Brazilian biodiversity. PMID:23322507

  13. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Lychnophora pinaster: a study for the conservation of a native medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Haber, L H; Cavallari, M M; Santos, F R C; Marques, M O M; Gimenes, M A; Zucchi, M I

    2009-05-01

    Lychnophora pinaster Mart. (Asteraceae) is a Brazilian medicinal plant, extensively employed in popular medicine as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and healing agent. Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and optimized for L. pinaster from an enriched genomic library. The markers were used to analyse 37 plants from two native populations, generating an average number of 6.6 alleles per polymorphic locus. These loci are important tools for future studies of population genetics. PMID:21564752

  14. A Review on Antiulcer Activity of Few Indian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vimala, G.; Gricilda Shoba, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. PMID:24971094

  15. An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

    2007-07-01

    Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems

  16. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Manjusha; Kumar, Vipin; Malhotra, Hitesh; Singh, Surender

    2015-01-01

    Ethno Pharmacological Relevance: Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries where resources are meager. This review presents the plants profiles inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Materials and Methods: Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts/polyherbal formulations, toxicity studies for arthritis have been included in the review article. The profiles presented also include information about the scientific name, family, dose, methodology along with mechanism of action and toxicity profile. Research status of 20 potential plant species has been discussed. Further, geographical distribution of research, plants distribution according to families has been given in graphical form. Results: 485 plant species belonging to 100 families, traditionally used in arthritis are used. Among 100 plant families, malvaceae constitute 16, leguminasae 7, fabaceae 13, euphorbiaceae 7, compositae 20, araceae 7, solanaceae 12, liliaceae 9, apocynaceae, lauraceae, and rubiaceae 10, and remaining in lesser proportion. It was observed in our study that majority of researches are carried mainly in developing countries like India, China, Korea and Nigeria. Conclusion: This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti-arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose. PMID:26401403

  17. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Chandra Prakash; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Sajwan, Bikram Singh

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  19. The medicinal properties and phytochemistry of plants of the genus Terminalia (Combretaceae).

    PubMed

    Cock, I E

    2015-10-01

    Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Many Terminalia species have multiple beneficial effects for multiple diseases and ailments. Indeed, the Indian species Terminalia chebula is known as the king of plants in Ayurveda due to its broad range of medicinal uses. However, apart from the reported ethnopharmacological uses of many Terminalia species, surprisingly few studies have rigorously examined this important genus for their medical properties/mechanisms and phytochemistry. This is likely due to the high tannin content common to many Terminalia species and the perception that these tannins may be responsible for much of their beneficial properties. As the complexities of tannins make them poor candidates for drug design, most interest in Terminalia species has been for their pharmacognostic and nutraceutical value and they have often been overlooked as potentials for drug discovery. However, recent reports have identified many other interesting phytochemicals and demonstrated that these may be responsible for several of the reported bioactivities of the Terminalia species used in traditional medicinal systems. The last decade has seen a large increase in the number of studies into the use of Terminalia species as therapeutic agents. Several species used in Ayurvedic medicine (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia catappa, T. chebula) in particular have received much recent attention. Similarly, recent reports have also highlighted the medicinal potential of species from Africa, Australia and the Americas. The aim of this report is to summarise the recent research into the medicinal properties, phytochemistry and

  20. Medicinal Plants Used by Various Tribes of Bangladesh for Treatment of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Hossan, Shahadat; Khatun, Afsana; Seraj, Syeda; Jahan, Rownak

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that 300–500 million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous communities or tribes, who because of their living within or in close proximity to mosquito-infested forest regions, have high incidences of malaria. Over the centuries, the tribal medicinal practitioners have treated malaria with various plant-based formulations. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among various tribes of Bangladesh to identify the plants that they use for treatment of the disease. Surveys were conducted among seven tribes, namely, Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Murong, and Tripura, who inhabit the southeastern or northcentral forested regions of Bangladesh. Interviews conducted with the various tribal medicinal practitioners indicated that a total of eleven plants distributed into 10 families were used for treatment of malaria and accompanying symptoms like fever, anemia, ache, vomiting, and chills. Leaves constituted 35.7% of total uses followed by roots at 21.4%. Other plant parts used for treatment included barks, seeds, fruits, and flowers. A review of the published scientific literature showed that a number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses. Taken together, the plants merit further scientific research

  1. A Phytopharmacological Review on a Medicinal Plant: Juniperus communis

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Souravh; Gill, Naresh Singh; Rana, Nitan; Shandil, Shandeep

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus communis is a shrub or small evergreen tree, native to Europe, South Asia, and North America, and belongs to family Cupressaceae. It has been widely used as herbal medicine from ancient time. Traditionally the plant is being potentially used as antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, astringent, and antiseptic and in the treatment of various abdominal disorders. The main chemical constituents, which were reported in J. communis L. are α-pinene, β-pinene, apigenin, sabinene, β-sitosterol, campesterol, limonene, cupressuflavone, and many others. This review includes the last 20 years journals and various books update on this plant, representing its pharmacological activity and health benefits against various diseases. PMID:27419205

  2. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

  3. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

  4. Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

    2010-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

  5. Ethnobotany and research on medicinal plants in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K

    1994-01-01

    Vast ethnobotanical knowledge exists in India from ancient time. Since the 1950s the study of ethnobotany has intensified; 10 books and 300 papers have been published. Our work over four decades, both in the field and literary studies, has resulted in a dictionary of Indian folk-medicine and ethnobotany that includes 2532 plants. India has about 45,000 plant species; medicinal properties have been assigned to several thousand. About 2000 figure frequently in the literature; indigenous systems commonly employ 500. Despite early (4500-1500 BC) origins and a long history of usage, in the last two centuries Ayurveda has received little official support and hence less attention from good medical practitioners and researchers. Much work is now being done on the botany, pharmacognosy, chemistry, pharmacology and biotechnology of herbal drugs. The value of ethnomedicine has been realized; work is being done on psychoactive plants, household remedies and plants sold by street drug vendors. Statistical methods are being used to assess the credibility of claims. Some recent work in drug development relates to species of Commiphora (used as a hypolipidaemic agent), Picrorhiza (which is hepatoprotective), Bacopa (used as a brain tonic), Curcuma (antiinflammatory) and Asclepias (cardiotonic). A scrutiny of folk claims found 203 plants for evaluation. Less well known ethnomedicines have been identified that are used to treat intestinal, joint, liver and skin diseases. PMID:7736852

  6. Medicinal plants used by the Tamang community in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We can conserve cultural heritage and gain extensive knowledge of plant species with pharmacological potential to cure simple to life-threatening diseases by studying the use of plants in indigenous communities. Therefore, it is important to conduct ethnobotanical studies in indigenous communities and to validate the reported uses of plants by comparing ethnobotanical studies with phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Materials and methods This study was conducted in a Tamang community dwelling in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal. We used semi-structured and structured questionnaires during interviews to collect information. We compared use reports with available phytochemical and pharmacological studies for validation. Results A total of 161 plant species belonging to 86 families and 144 genera to cure 89 human ailments were documented. Although 68 plant species were cited as medicinal in previous studies, 55 different uses described by the Tamang people were not found in any of the compared studies. Traditional uses for 60 plant species were consistent with pharmacological and phytochemical studies. Conclusions The Tamang people in Makawanpur are rich in ethnopharmacological understanding. The present study highlights important medicinal plant species by validating their traditional uses. Different plant species can improve local economies through proper harvesting, adequate management and development of modern techniques to maximize their use. PMID:24410808

  7. Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The country of Madagascar is renowned for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, as well as the overwhelming pressures and threats placed on the natural resources by a growing population and climate change. Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the Malagasy for various reasons including limited access to healthcare, limited markets and traditional values. The objective of this study was to assess the modern utitilization of the Agnalazaha Forest by the local population in Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar, for medicinal plants used by women, and to establish a list of medicinal plants used by women sourced from Agnalazaha Forest. Methods Ethnobotanical studies were conducted over a period of five months in 2010 to determine the diversity of medicinal plants used by women in the commune of Mahabo-Mananivo. In all, 498 people were interviewed, both male and female ranging age from 15 to over 60 years old. Results 152 medicinal plants used by local people were collected during the ethnobotanical studies. Among the recorded species, eight native species are widely used by women. These species are known for their therapeutic properties in treating placental apposition and complications during childbirth as well as tropical illnesses such as malaria, filariasis, and sexual diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis. Conclusions Littoral forests are rare ecosystems that are highly threatened on the island nation of Madagascar. Our investigation into the use of medicinal plants sourced from and around the Agnalazaha Forest by the women of Mahabo-Mananivo reinforces the need for this natural resource as a first line of health care for rural families. PMID:24188563

  8. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 μg/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ≥50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 μg/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial

  9. Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Singh, KN; Jamwal, Pankaj; Lal, Brij

    2006-01-01

    The importance of medicinal plants in traditional healthcare practices, providing clues to new areas of research and in biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. However, information on the uses for plants for medicine is lacking from many interior areas of Himalaya. Keeping this in view the present study was initiated in a tribal dominated hinterland of western Himalaya. The study aimed to look into the diversity of plant resources that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Questionnaire surveys, participatory observations and field visits were planned to illicit information on the uses of various plants. It was found that 35 plant species are commonly used by local people for curing various diseases. In most of the cases (45%) under ground part of the plant was used. New medicinal uses of Ranunculus hirtellus and Anemone rupicola are reported from this area. Similarly, preparation of "sik" a traditional recipe served as a nutritious diet to pregnant women is also not documented elsewhere. Implication of developmental activities and changing socio-economic conditions on the traditional knowledge are also discussed. PMID:16545146

  10. Genomics and Evolution in Traditional Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal plant genomes and their environment, the correlation between genomic diversity and metabolite diversity, and so on. Use of the emerging high-end genomic technologies can be expanded from crop plants to traditional medicinal plants, in order to expedite medicinal plant breeding and transform them into living factories of medicinal compounds. The utility of molecular phylogeny and phylogenomics in predicting chemodiversity and bioprospecting is also highlighted within the context of natural-product-based drug discovery and development. Representative case studies of medicinal plant genome, phylogeny, and evolution are summarized to exemplify the expansion of knowledge pedigree and the paradigm shift to the omics-based approaches, which update our awareness about plant genome evolution and enable the molecular breeding of medicinal plants and the sustainable utilization of plant pharmaceutical resources. PMID:26461812

  11. Oleanolic acid and related derivatives as medicinally important compounds.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Nighat; Ata, Athar

    2008-12-01

    Oleanolic acid has been isolated from chloroform extract of Olea ferruginea Royle after removal of organic bases and free acids. The literature survey revealed it to be biologically very important. In this review the biological significance of oleanolic acid and its derivatives has been discussed. The aim of this review is to update current knowledge on oleanolic acid and its natural and semisynthetic analogs, focussing on its cytotoxic, antitumer, antioxidant, anti-inflamatory, anti-HIV, acetyl cholinesterase, alpha-glucosidase, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, spasmolytic activity, anti-angiogenic, antiallergic, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. We present in this review, for the first time, a compilation of the most relevant scientific papers and technical reports of the chemical, pre-clinical and clinical research on the properties of oleanolic acid and its derivatives. PMID:18618318

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze and record orally transmitted knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in Hallasan National Park of Korea. Methods Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. Results In this study, a total of 68 families, 141 genera, and 171 species of plants that showed 777 ways of usage were recorded. Looking into the distribution of the families, 14 species of Asteraceae occupied 11.1% of the total followed by 13 species of Rosaceae, 10 species of Rutaceae, and nine species of Apiaceae which occupied 5.0%, 7.1% and 3.0% of the whole, respectively. 32 kinds of plant-parts were used for 47 various medicinal purposes. Values for the informant consensus factor regarding the ailment categories were for birth related disorders (0.92), followed by respiratory system disorders (0.90), skin disease and disorders (0.89), genitourinary system disorders (0.87), physical pain (0.87), and other conditions. According to fidelity levels, 36 plant species resulted in fidelity levels of 100%. Conclusion Consequently, results of this study will legally utilize to provide preparatory measures against the Nagoya Protocol (2010) about benefit-sharing for traditional knowledge of genetic resources. PMID:23837693

  13. Bioactivity of Malva Sylvestris L., a Medicinal Plant from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Molavi, Ghader; Ghasemi, Ghader

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), an annual plant, has been already commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In the present work, we evaluate some bioactivities of the plant extracts. Materials and Methods The aired-dried plant flowers and leaves were extracted by soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic of the plant extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion method, MTT, and Lettuce assays, respectively. Results Both flowers and leaves of M. sylvestris methanol extracts exhibited strong antibacterial effects against Erwinia carotovora, a plant pathogen, with MIC value of 128 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The flowers extract also showed high antibacterial effects against some human pathogen bacteria strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus faecalis, with MIC value of 192, 200 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The plant methanol extracts had relatively high cytotoxic activity against MacCoy cell line. Conclusion We concluded that Malva sylvestris can be candidated as an antiseptic, a chemopreventive or a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23493458

  14. Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

    2009-09-25

    The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic

  15. Real-world research and its importance in respiratory medicine

    PubMed Central

    Brusselle, Guy; Roche, Nicolas; Freeman, Daryl; Chisholm, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Educational Aims To improve understanding of: The relative benefits and limitations of evidence derived from different study designs and the role that real-life asthma studies can play in addressing limitations in the classical randomised controlled trial (cRCT) evidence base.The importance of guideline recommendations being modified to fit the populations studied and the model of care provided in their reference studies. Key points Classical randomised controlled trials (cRCTs) show results from a narrow patient group with a constrained ecology of care. Patients with “real-life” co-morbidities and lifestyle factors receiving usual care often have different responses to medication which will not be captured by cRCTs if they are excluded by strict selection criteria. Meta-analyses, used to direct guidelines, contain an inherent meta-bias based on patient selection and artificial patient care. Guideline recommendations should clarify where they related to cRCT ideals (in terms of patient populations, medical resources and care received) and could be enhanced through inclusion of evidence from studies designed to better model the populations and care approaches present in routine care. Summary Clinical practice requires a complex interplay between experience and training, research, guidelines and judgement, and must not only draw on data from traditional or classical randomised controlled trials (cRCTs), but also from pragmatically designed studies that better reflect real-life clinical practice. To minimise extraneous variables and to optimise their internal validity, cRCTs exclude patients, clinical characteristics and variations in care that could potentially confound outcomes. The result is that respiratory cRCTs often enrol a small, non-representative subset of patients and overlook the important interplay and interactions between patients and the real world, which can effect treatment outcomes. Evidence from real-life studies (e.g. naturalistic or pragmatic

  16. Ethnobotanical appraisal and cultural values of medicinally important wild edible vegetables of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The association among food and health is momentous as consumers now demand healthy, tasty and natural functional foods. Knowledge of such food is mainly transmitted through the contribution of individuals of households. Throughout the world the traditions of using wild edible plants as food and medicine are at risk of disappearing, hence present appraisal was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal and cultural importance of wild edible vegetables used by the populace of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Methods Data was collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey and focus group conversation with key respondents of the study sites including 45 female, 30 children and 25 males. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report. Results A total of 45 wild edible vegetables belonging to 38 genera and 24 families were used for the treatment of various diseases and consumed. Asteraceae and Papilionoideae were found dominating families with (6 spp. each), followed by Amaranthaceae and Polygonaceae. Vegetables were cooked in water (51%) followed by diluted milk (42%) and both in water and diluted milk (7%). Leaves were among highly utilized plant parts (70%) in medicines followed by seeds (10%), roots (6%), latex (4%), bark, bulb, flowers, tubers and rhizomes (2% each). Modes of preparation fall into seven categories like paste (29%), decoction (24%), powder (14%), eaten fresh (12%), extract (10%), cooked vegetable (8%) and juice (4%). Ficus carica was found most cited species with in top ten vegetables followed by Ficus palmata, Bauhinia variegata, Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus viridis, Medicago polymorpha, Chenopodium album, Cichorium intybus, Amaranthus hybridus and Vicia faba. Conclusions Patterns of wild edible plant usage depend mainly on socio-economic factors compare to climatic conditions or wealth of flora but during past few decades have harshly eroded due to change in the life style of the

  17. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?

    PubMed

    Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2011-12-01

    An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention

  18. TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF GUREZ (KASHMIR) – AN ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kapahi, B.K.; Srivastava, T.N.; Sarin, Y.K.

    1993-01-01

    Gurez Valley is situated along the Krishna Ganga river and is less exploited. It has reserve forests. The forests are very rich in herbal wealth. The population of the area consists of the types Dard, Kashimiries; Gujars and Pathans. They have got much faith in herbs and the elders of the family mostly know the uses of the herbs and prescribe for the ailments to their families and neighbours. The folklores of 56 plants species belonging to 50 genera and 28 families and neighbourers. The folklores of 56 plants species belonging to 50 genera and 28 families and their mode of administration were collected during the survey of the area. Botanical names with author citations, plant family, local name, connection with altitude and medicinal uses have been enlisted. PMID:22556637

  19. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Cimanga, K; Vlietinck, A J

    1998-05-01

    Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC < 100 microg/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana, leaves and stem bark of Psidium guajava, stem bark of Dialum englerianum, Harungana madagascariensis and Mangifera indica, mature seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Morinda morindoides and Tithonia diversifolia. Metronidazole used as reference product showed a more pronounced activity than that of all plant extracts tested. PMID:9687082

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Medicinally Important Plantago ovata Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Shivanjali; Kaul, Sanjana; Sharma, Pooja; Gupta, Mehak; Shankar, Rama; Jain, Mukesh; Dhar, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    Plantago ovata is an economically and medicinally important plant of the family Plantaginaceae. It is used extensively for the production of seed husk for its application in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the transcriptome of P. ovata ovary was sequenced using Illumina Genome Analyzer platform to characterize the mucilage biosynthesis pathway in the plant. De novo assembly was carried out using Oases followed by velvet. A total of 46,955 non-redundant transcripts (≥100 bp) using ~29 million high-quality paired end reads were generated. Functional categorization of these transcripts revealed the presence of several genes involved in various biological processes like metabolic pathways, mucilage biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and antioxidants. In addition, simple sequence-repeat motifs, non-coding RNAs and transcription factors were also identified. Expression profiling of some genes involved in mucilage biosynthetic pathway was performed in different tissues of P. ovata using Real time PCR analysis. The study has resulted in a valuable resource for further studies on gene expression, genomics and functional genomics in P. ovata. PMID:26943165

  1. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Medicinally Important Plantago ovata Using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Shivanjali; Kaul, Sanjana; Sharma, Pooja; Gupta, Mehak; Shankar, Rama; Jain, Mukesh; Dhar, Manoj K

    2016-01-01

    Plantago ovata is an economically and medicinally important plant of the family Plantaginaceae. It is used extensively for the production of seed husk for its application in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the transcriptome of P. ovata ovary was sequenced using Illumina Genome Analyzer platform to characterize the mucilage biosynthesis pathway in the plant. De novo assembly was carried out using Oases followed by velvet. A total of 46,955 non-redundant transcripts (≥100 bp) using ~29 million high-quality paired end reads were generated. Functional categorization of these transcripts revealed the presence of several genes involved in various biological processes like metabolic pathways, mucilage biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and antioxidants. In addition, simple sequence-repeat motifs, non-coding RNAs and transcription factors were also identified. Expression profiling of some genes involved in mucilage biosynthetic pathway was performed in different tissues of P. ovata using Real time PCR analysis. The study has resulted in a valuable resource for further studies on gene expression, genomics and functional genomics in P. ovata. PMID:26943165

  2. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa.

    PubMed

    Grønhaug, Tom Erik; Glaeserud, Silje; Skogsrud, Mona; Ballo, Ngolo; Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2008-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%), different types of pain (14.0%) and dermatitis (7.4%). The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1%) and powdered plant material (28.4%). The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7%) and stem bark (18.6%). The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants. PMID:19111068

  3. [Tobacco--once a medicinal plant. Does it contain substances with medicinal properties?].

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco and its use was discovered by Christopher Columbus in parallel with the discovery of America. Soon after, tobacco became a known medicinal plant in Europe. Its harmful effects were gradually discovered, especially those of tobacco smoke, and now it is considered a toxic plant. Tobacco leaf has a monograph in German "Hagers Enzyklopädie derArzneistoffe und Drogen", which describes its old, already not valid, medicinal use and clearly shows the toxic effects. Epidemiological studies indicate about 50% lower incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers than in non-smokers. In turn, studies of the brains of smokers using positron emission tomography showed significantly decreased level of monoamine oxidase B--an enzyme which degrades dopamine--the neurotransmitter which the significant insufficiency of about 80-85%, is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. From the tobacco leaves there were isolated MAO-B inhibitors--naphthoquinone--2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and diterpenoid -trans,trans-farnesol, which occur also in tobacco smoke. In the last decade many papers have appeared on the neuroprotective activity of nicotine, the best known component of tobacco. through the effect of this compound on specific nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs), which interacts with nigrostriatal dopaminergic system as well as the possibility of using nicotine for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, tobacco was also found to contain inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Tobacco cannot be considered a medicinal plant, but some compounds occurring in that plant may find therapeutic use. PMID:24501813

  4. Antibacterial, Antifungal and antioxidant activities of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wazir, Asma; Mehjabeen, -; Jahan, Noor; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of three medicinal plants (Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica and Zanthoxylum armatum) were tested against Gentamicin (standard drug) on eleven gram positive and seventeen gram negative bacteria by agar well method. It was revealed that seven-gram negative and six gram positive bacterial species were inhibited by these plant extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined by broth micro-dilution method. The significant MIC value of Swertia chirata was 20mg/ml against Serratia marcesens, Zanthoxylum armatum was 10 mg/ml against Aeromonas hydrophila and Terminali bellerica was 20mg/ml against Acinetobacter baumanii as well as Serratia marcesens. Antifungal screening was done for methanolic extracts of these plants by agar well method with the 6 saprophytic, 5 dermatophytic and 6 yeasts. In this case Griseofulvin was used as a standard. All saprophytes and dermatophytes were showed resistance by these plants extracts except Microsporum canis, which was inhibited by Z. armatum and S. chirata extracts. The significant MIC value of Zanthoxylum armatum was 10mg/ml against Microsporum canis and Swertia chirata was 10mg/ml against Candida tropicalis. The anti-oxidant study was performed by DPPH free radical scavenging assay using ascorbic acid as a reference standard. Significant antioxidant activities were observed by Swertia chirata and Zanthoxylum armatum at concentration 200μg/ml was 70% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=937.5μg/ml) while Terminalia bellerica showed 55.6% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=100μg/ml). This study has shown that these plants could provide potent antibacterial compounds and may possible preventive agents in ROS related ailments. PMID:26045377

  5. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ghedira, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans), facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge. PMID:19857257

  6. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain

  7. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  8. Reproduction of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides via Somatic Embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Duchow, Stefanie; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Classen, Birgit

    2015-08-01

    The medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides DC. (Geraniaceae) was traditionally used for the treatment of the common cold and cough in South Africa. Today an aequous-ethanolic root extract from this plant is approved for the treatment of acute bronchitis and is globally marketed also as an immunostimulant. The increasing demand of the plant material for the industrial production indicates the need of new effective methods for the propagation of P. sidoides. Here we report somatic embryogenesis and in vitro plantlet regeneration from somatic cells of inflorescence shoots and petioles of P. sidoides. A one-week cultivation of explants in media containing different concentrations of thidiazuron (1, 2.2, 3, and 4 mg/L) followed by a cultivation period without phytohormones resulted in the induction of somatic embryos within 2-4 weeks. After 2-4 months, the embryos generated roots and could be transferred into a greenhouse, where flower formation took place and the development of seeds occurred with high germination rates. The root umckalin concentration, determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography, was comparable to that of seed-cultivated plants (100 ± 6 vs. 113 ± 10 µg umckalin/g dried roots). For the first time, direct somatic embryogenesis has been established as an appropriate cultivation method for P. sidoides plants used as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, genetically identical plants (chemical races) can be easily generated by this procedure. PMID:26287694

  9. Determination of elements by atomic absorption spectrometry in medicinal plants employed to alleviate common cold symptoms.

    PubMed

    Küçükbay, F Zehra; Kuyumcu, Ebru

    2014-09-01

    Eleven important medicinal plants generally used by the people of Turkey for the treatment of common cold have been studied for their mineral contents. Eleven minor and major elements (essential, non-essential and toxic) were identified in the Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. , Althaea officinalis L. , Verbascum phlomoides L., Euphorbia chamaesyce L., Zizyphus jujube Miller, Peganum harmala L., Arum dioscoridis Sm., Sambucus nigra L., Piperlongum L., Tussilago farfara L. and Elettaria cardamomum Maton by employing flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Microwave digestion procedure for total concentration was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal plants. Plant based biological certified reference materials (CRMs) served as standards for quantification. These elements are found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied plants. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of essential, non-essential and toxic elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal plants. PMID:25532362

  10. In vitro antimycobacterial and cytotoxic data on medicinal plants used to treat tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac D.; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    This article contains data on in vitro antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of hydroethanolic crude extracts from five selected medicinal plant species traditionally used to treat tuberculosis in Ghanaian ethnomedicine, see “Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana” [1]. The interpretation and discussion of these data and further extensive insights into drug discovery against tuberculosis from natural products of plant biodiversity can be found in “Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts” [2]. PMID:27115026

  11. In vitro antimycobacterial and cytotoxic data on medicinal plants used to treat tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nguta, Joseph M; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A; Otchere, Isaac D; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-06-01

    This article contains data on in vitro antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of hydroethanolic crude extracts from five selected medicinal plant species traditionally used to treat tuberculosis in Ghanaian ethnomedicine, see "Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana" [1]. The interpretation and discussion of these data and further extensive insights into drug discovery against tuberculosis from natural products of plant biodiversity can be found in "Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts" [2]. PMID:27115026

  12. Study of Chromosomes: Their Vital Importance in Agriculture, Biology, and Medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on chromosomes has enriched the disciplines of genetics, plant breeding, biology, and medicine, which, in turn, have contributed to human welfare. Although the foundation of genetics occurred in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequent discovery put genetics on a so...

  13. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  14. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of traditionally used medicinal plants of Ethiopia were evaluated. A total of 60 crude plant extracts were prepared from 30 plant species using CH2Cl2 and MeOH. Effect upon cell proliferation by the extracts, for both bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells, was assessed using resazurin as vital stain. Of all CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts evaluated against the trypanosomes, the CH2Cl2 extracts from five plants showed trypanocidal activity with an IC50 value below 20 microg/mL: Dovyalis abyssinica (Flacourtiaceae), IC50 = 1.4 microg/mL; Albizia schimperiana (Fabaceae), IC50 = 7.2 microg/mL; Ocimum urticifolium (Lamiaceae), IC50 = 14.0 microg/mL; Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), IC50 = 16.6 microg/mL; and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), IC50 = 17.1 microg/mL. A pronounced and selective killing of trypanosomes with minimal toxic effect on human cells was exhibited by Dovyalis abyssinica (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 125.0; MeOH extract, SI = 57.7) followed by Albizia schimperiana (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 31.3) and Ocimum urticifolium (MeOH extract, SI = 16.0). In conclusion, the screening of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants identified three species with good antitrypanosomal activities and low toxicity towards human cells. Dovyalis abyssinica might be a promising candidate for phytotherapy of trypanosomiasis. PMID:22351978

  15. Medicinal plants of the caatinga (semi-arid) vegetation of NE Brazil: a quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Muniz de Medeiros, Patrícia; de Almeida, Alyson Luiz S; Monteiro, Júlio Marcelino; Machado de Freitas Lins Neto, Ernani; Gomes de Melo, Joabe; dos Santos, Janaina Patrícia

    2007-12-01

    The caatinga (semi-arid vegetation) is a Brazilian biome with a significant but poorly studied biodiversity closely associated with a diverse cultural heritage. The present work focused on analyzing published information available concerning medicinal plants used by traditional communities. We sought to contribute to future phytochemical and pharmacological investigations by documenting the therapeutic uses of native caatinga plants within the aims of modern ethnopharmacological research. Twenty-one published works cited a total of 389 plant species used by indigenous and rural communities in northeastern Brazil for medicinal purposes. The relative importance index (RI) of each species in these inventories was calculated, and information concerning the plant's local status (spontaneous or cultivated), distribution, and habit was recorded. Of the 275 spontaneous (non-cultivated) species cited, 15.3% were endemic to the caatinga. A statistical relationship was verified between the relative importance of the species and their endemic status (p<0.05). Herbaceous plants were more numerous (169) than trees (90) or shrubs and sub-shrubs (130) at a statistically significant level (p<0.05). A survey of published information on the phytochemical and pharmacological status of the plants demonstrating the highest RI supported the veracity of their attributed folk uses. PMID:17900836

  16. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Yamin; Zia, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization. PMID:26004708

  17. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Babungo, Northwest Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinal plants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinal plants used for treating diseases. Methods Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's) who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. Results The survey identified and recorded 107 plants species from 54 plant families, 98 genera used for treating diseases in Babungo. The Asteraceae was the most represented plant family while herbs made up 57% of the total medicinal plants used. The leaf was the most commonly used plant part while concoction and decoction were the most common method of traditional drug preparation. Most medicinal plants (72%) are harvested from the wild and 45% of these have other non medicinal uses. Knowledge of the use of plants as medicines remains mostly with the older generation with few youth showing an interest. Conclusions A divers number of plants species are used for treating different diseases in Babungo. In addition to their use as medicines, a large number of plants have other non medicinal uses. The youth should be encouraged to learn the traditional medicinal knowledge to preserve it from being lost with the older generation. PMID:20156356

  18. Determination of diosgenin content in medicinal plants with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaru; Yang, Dingyu; Yu, Kun; He, Ji; Zhang, Yingjun

    2010-11-01

    Many medicinal plants contain diosgenin, which has a significant medicinal value. However, there is currently no effective and rapid analytical method to determine the diosgenin content of plants or products. In the present work we have developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitative determination of diosgenin in herbal medicines. Diosgenin was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) for immunization. A polyclonal antibody developed in rabbits against a diosgenin-BSA conjugate was shown to be specific for diosgenin. The developed ELISA assay was highly sensitive, specific, and easy to perform. In addition, it gave more precise results with less variation than other methods that have been used in the past, including gravimetric and spectrophotometric assays, and correlated well with high-performance liquid chromatography. The diosgenin content determined by ELISA varied widely, with the highest and lowest values in rhizomes or tubers of Paris polyphylla and Dioscorea opposita Thunb. "Jiao-ban Yam", respectively, differing by more than 9000-fold. These results suggest that the ELISA method can be used as a rapid, simple, sensitive, and accurate tool for quantitative analysis of samples containing diosgenin, and may provide an important criterion for quality evaluation and a valuable tool for quality control of diosgenin-containing medicinal plants. PMID:20549594

  19. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

  20. Cytogenetic characterization and genome size of the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme; Cardoso, Luísa; Oliveira, Helena; Santos, Conceição; Duarte, Patrícia; Sottomayor, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Catharanthus roseus is a highly valuable medicinal plant producing several terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) with pharmaceutical applications, including the anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine. Due to the interest in its TIAs, C. roseus is one of the most extensively studied medicinal plants and has become a model species for the study of plant secondary metabolism. However, very little is known about the cytogenetics and genome size of this species, in spite of their importance for breeding programmes, TIA genetics and emerging genomic research. Therefore, the present paper provides a karyotype description and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data for C. roseus, as well as a rigorous characterization of its genome size. Methodology The organization of C. roseus chromosomes was characterized using several DNA/chromatin staining techniques and FISH of rDNA. Genome size was investigated by flow cytometry using an optimized methodology. Principal results The C. roseus full chromosome complement of 2n = 16 includes two metacentric, four subtelocentric and two telocentric chromosome pairs, with the presence of a single nucleolus organizer region in chromosome 6. An easy and reliable flow cytometry protocol for nuclear genome analysis of C. roseus was optimized, and the C-value of this species was estimated to be 1C = 0.76 pg, corresponding to 738 Mbp. Conclusions The organization and size of the C. roseus genome were characterized, providing an important basis for future studies of this important medicinal species, including further cytogenetic mapping, genomics, TIA genetics and breeding programmes. PMID:22479673

  1. Establishment of research-oriented hospital: an important way for translational medicine development in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Meina; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Globally, one of the major trends is the development of translational medicine. The traditional hospital structure could not meet the demands of translational medicine development any longer and to explore a novel hospital structure is imperative. Following the times, China proposed and implemented a development strategy for a first-class modern research-oriented hospital. To establish a research-oriented hospital has become an important strategy to guide the scientific development of high-quality medical institutions and to advance translational medicine development. To facilitate translational medicine by developing research-oriented hospital, the Chinese Research Hospital Association (CRHA) has been established, which provides service of medicine, talents cultivation, scientific research and clinical teaching and covers areas of theoretical research, academic exchange, translational medicine, talents training and practice guiding. On the whole, research-oriented hospital facilitated translational medicine by developing interdisciplinary platform, training core competencies in clinical and translational research, providing financial support of translational research, and hosting journals on translational medicine, etc. PMID:25860972

  2. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus by lifestyle, diet and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Haque, N; Salma, U; Nurunnabi, T R; Uddin, M J; Jahangir, M F K; Islam, S M Z; Kamruzzaman, M

    2011-01-01

    Globally, the prevalence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases is increasing at an alarming rate and diabetes is one of them. If diabetes is not controlled then a lot of complication like coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy arise in diabetic patients and causes morbidity and/or mortality. Diabetes is increasing at an epidemic form and in near future the largest increases will take place in the regions dominated by developing economies. So, it will be a great social and economical burden to developing countries as well as the developed. But if we be aware about our diet and lifestyle and take proper medication we may prevent and reduce the prevalence of diabetes. Oral medicine plays an important role in management of diabetes. But most of the oral drugs are costly and have a lot of side effects. For this it is also necessary to take medicines with fewer or no side effects. And antidiabetic medicinal plants may play an important role in this case. In this article we have tried to describe how diet and lifestyle with using medicinal plants may help to prevent or maintain diabetes and help to reduce the mortality and morbidity due to diabetes or complication related to it. PMID:21913493

  3. Antiparasitic activity of some New Caledonian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Desrivot, Julie; Waikedre, Jean; Cabalion, Pierre; Herrenknecht, Christine; Bories, Christian; Hocquemiller, Reynald; Fournet, Alain

    2007-05-30

    Twenty-nine extracts of 18 medicinal plants used in New Caledonia by traditional healers to treat inflammation, fever and in cicatrizing remedies were evaluated in vitro against several parasites (Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trichomonas vaginalis and Caenorhabditis elegans). Among the selected plants, Scaevola balansae and Premna serratifolia L. were the most active against Leishmania donovani with IC(50) values between 5 and 10microg/ml. The almond and aril extracts from Myristica fatua had an IC(50) value of 0.5-5microg/ml against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Only Scaevola balansae extract presented a weak activity against Trichomonas vaginalis. The almond extract from Myristica fatua presented significant activity against Caenorhabditis elegans (IC(50) value of 6.6+/-1.2microg/ml). PMID:17329051

  4. Saponins: Anti-diabetic principles from medicinal plants - A review.

    PubMed

    Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents a global health problem. It is the most common of the endocrine disorders and is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to relative or absolute lack of insulin secretion or insulin actions. According to the World Health Organization projections, the diabetes population is likely to increase to 300 million or more by the year 2025. Current synthetic agents and insulin used effectively for the treatment of diabetes are scarce especially in rural areas, expensive and have prominent adverse effects. Complementary and alternative approaches to diabetes management such as isolation of phytochemicals with anti-hyperglycemic activities from medicinal plants is therefore imperative. Saponins are phytochemical with structural diversity and biological activities. This paper reviews saponins and various plants from which they were isolated as well as properties that make them ideal for antidiabetic remedy. PMID:25753168

  5. Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.

    2010-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of δ-hemolysin. Quantification of δ-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of δ-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of δ-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

  6. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

  7. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  8. [Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan. PMID:22073760

  9. Conference scene: molecular pharming: manufacturing medicines in plants.

    PubMed

    Lössl, Andreas G; Clarke, Jihong L

    2013-01-01

    Within the expanding area of molecular pharming, the development of plants for manufacturing immunoglobulins, enzymes, virus-like particles and vaccines has become a major focus point. On 21 September 2012, the meeting 'Molecular Pharming - recent progress in manufacturing medicines in plants', hosted by EuroSciCon, was held at the Bioscience Catalyst campus, Stevenage, UK. The scientific program of this eventful meeting covered diverse highlights of biopharming: monoclonal antibodies, virus-like particles from transient and chloroplast expression systems, for example, for Dengue and HPV, apolipoproteins from safflower seeds, and new production platforms, such as potato or hydroponics by rhizosecretion. This report summarizes the stimulating scientific presentations and fruitful panel discussions on the current topics in this promising research field. PMID:23256793

  10. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  11. Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

    2011-01-01

    Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ΔT° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon. PMID:22754066

  12. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of medicinal plants within two municipalities, Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, both in the department of Boyacá, Colombia and to assess the importance of native and introduced plants to healers, amateur healers and local people. As local healers including amateur healers have no history of introduced species our working hypotheses (H1-2) were that H1: native and introduced medicinal plant species are of equal importance and H2: healers and amateur healers do not differentiate in their preferences between native and introduced medicinal plant species. Methods Ten villages were included in the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used including questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, in- depth interviews, and open talks. Voucher specimens were collected in home gardens and during field walks. For data analysis, we calculated use value indices and Jaccard index and tested for the above hypothesis using Spearman rank-correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests. Results Eighty medicinal plant species were described by locals as the most frequently used. Of these, 78 species were taxonomically identified, distributed within 41 families and 74 genera, which included 35 native species and 43 introduced. The highest valued families were: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae. The species ranked highest according to their Use Values, in both municipalities, were Mentha suaveolens Ehrh., Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth, and Verbena littoralis Kunth. Introduced species were more important than native ones in Zetaquira, while there was no difference in importance in Campo Hermoso. While healers

  13. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%), bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%), malaria (14 plants; 28.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%), gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%), hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%), viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%), chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%), diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%), cancer (2 plants; 4.1%), inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism), HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%). Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0%) of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Kikuku

  14. Analyzing factors that influence the folk use and phytonomy of 18 medicinal plants in Navarra

    PubMed Central

    Akerreta, Silvia; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; López, Víctor; Calvo, María Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Background This article analyzes whether the distribution or area of use of 18 medicinal plants is influenced by ecological and cultural factors which might account for their traditional use and/or phytonymy in Navarra. This discussion may be helpful for comparative studies, touching as it does on other ethnopharmacological issues: a) which cultural and ecological factors affect the selection of medicinal plants; b) substitutions of medicinal plants in popular medicine; c) the relation between local nomenclature and uses. To analyze these questions, this paper presents an example of a species used for digestive disorders (tea and camomile: Jasonia glutinosa, J. tuberosa, Sideritis hyssopifolia, Bidens aurea, Chamaemelum nobile, Santolina chamaecyparissus...), high blood pressure (Rhamnus alaternus, Olea europaea...) or skin diseases (Hylotelephium maximum, H. telephium, Anagallis arvensis, A. foemina). Methods Fieldwork began on January 2004 and continued until December 2006. During that time we interviewed 505 informants in 218 locations in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews, and we subsequently made maps using Arc-View 8.0 program to determine the area of use of each taxon. Each map was then compared with the bioclimatic and linguistic map of Navarra, using the soil and ethnographic data for the region, and with other ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies carried out in Europe. Results The results clearly show that ecological and cultural factors influence the selection of medicinal plants in this region. Climate and substrate are the most important ecological factors that influence the distribution and abundance of plants, which are the biological factors that affect medicinal plant selection. Conclusion The study of edaphological and climatological factors, on the one hand, and culture, on the other, can help us to understand why a plant is replaced by another one for the same purposes, either in the

  15. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  16. Antinociceptive, antioxidant and phytochemical studies of Pakistani medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Ghias; Rauf, Abdur; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Khan, Haroon; Barkatullah; Ullah, Rooh

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the selected Pakistani medicinal plants (Chenopodium botrys, Micromeria biflora and Teucrium stocksianum) in-vivo followed by their antioxidant potential against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) in-vitro. The results demonstrated profound antinociceptive effect of both the crude methanolic extract of Chenopodium botrys (CBM) and subsequent aqueous fraction (CBW) of C. botrys with 80.76% and 84% pain relief in acetic acid induced writhing test at 100 mg/kg i.p respectively. Similarly the crude methanolic extract of Micromeria biflora (MBM) and its subsequent aqueous fraction (MBW) with 66.46% 78.08% pain reversal in acetic acid induced writhing test respectively at 100mg/kg i.p. However, the crude methanolic extract and isolated water fraction of Teucrium stocksianum (TS) did not show any significant effect at test doses. Both the crude extracts and aqueous fractions of selected medicinal plants exhibited marked scavenging effects on DPPH and therefore strongly support the antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of various classes of natural products (alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids etc.) and thus the current finding can be attributed to the presence of these compounds. In short, our findings provide a strong scientific background to the folk uses C. botrys and M. biflora in the management of various painful conditions. PMID:27166536

  17. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22301818

  18. A potential of some medicinal plants as an antiulcer agents

    PubMed Central

    Gadekar, R.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

    2010-01-01

    Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. There are two major factors that can disrupt the mucosal resistance to injury: non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) example, aspirin and Helicobacter pylori infection. Numerous natural products have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including peptic ulcer. There has been considerable pharmacological investigation into the antiulcer activity of some compounds. In this work, we shall review the literature on different medicinal plant and alkaloids with antiulcer activity. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. The experimental parameters used for antiulcer activity were cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, Diclofenac-induced ulcer model in rats, (HCl–ethanol)-induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress-induced ulcer in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer recurrence. About 70% of patients with peptic ulcer disease are infected by Helicobacter pylori and eradication of this microorganism seems to be curative for this disease. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinal plant more commonly used in the world for peptic ulcer and, if reported, the antiulcer activity. This article will be concerned only with the antiulcer and gastro-protective effects. PMID:22228953

  19. A potential of some medicinal plants as an antiulcer agents.

    PubMed

    Gadekar, R; Singour, P K; Chaurasiya, P K; Pawar, R S; Patil, U K

    2010-07-01

    Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. There are two major factors that can disrupt the mucosal resistance to injury: non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) example, aspirin and Helicobacter pylori infection. Numerous natural products have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including peptic ulcer. There has been considerable pharmacological investigation into the antiulcer activity of some compounds. In this work, we shall review the literature on different medicinal plant and alkaloids with antiulcer activity. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. The experimental parameters used for antiulcer activity were cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, Diclofenac-induced ulcer model in rats, (HCl-ethanol)-induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress-induced ulcer in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer recurrence. About 70% of patients with peptic ulcer disease are infected by Helicobacter pylori and eradication of this microorganism seems to be curative for this disease. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinal plant more commonly used in the world for peptic ulcer and, if reported, the antiulcer activity. This article will be concerned only with the antiulcer and gastro-protective effects. PMID:22228953

  20. Protein import into plant mitochondria: signals, machinery, processing, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Murcha, Monika W; Kmiec, Beata; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta; Whelan, James

    2014-12-01

    The majority of more than 1000 proteins present in mitochondria are imported from nuclear-encoded, cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins. This impressive feat of transport and sorting is achieved by the combined action of targeting signals on mitochondrial proteins and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. The mitochondrial protein import apparatus is composed of a number of multi-subunit protein complexes that recognize, translocate, and assemble mitochondrial proteins into functional complexes. While the core subunits involved in mitochondrial protein import are well conserved across wide phylogenetic gaps, the accessory subunits of these complexes differ in identity and/or function when plants are compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the model system for mitochondrial protein import. These differences include distinct protein import receptors in plants, different mechanistic operation of the intermembrane protein import system, the location and activity of peptidases, the function of inner-membrane translocases in linking the outer and inner membrane, and the association/regulation of mitochondrial protein import complexes with components of the respiratory chain. Additionally, plant mitochondria share proteins with plastids, i.e. dual-targeted proteins. Also, the developmental and cell-specific nature of mitochondrial biogenesis is an aspect not observed in single-celled systems that is readily apparent in studies in plants. This means that plants provide a valuable model system to study the various regulatory processes associated with protein import and mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25324401

  1. An Evidence-Based Review on Medicinal Plants Used as Insecticide and Insect Repellent in Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi Niroumand, Mina; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Karimpour Razkenari, Elahe; Amin, Gholamreza; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Context Insects can be the cause of major ecological problems; they can transmit microbes and parasites that affect humans, and damage food crops, trees, and homes. The total economic cost of insect-related damage and disease is immeasurable. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several medicinal plants have been identified as insecticides or insect repellents, but many of them are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the insecticidal or insect repellent activity of certain medicinal plants described in TIM. Evidence Acquisition Information about medicinal plants proposed as insecticides and insect repellents in the TIM was collected from the TIM literature, and searched in modern medical databases to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Results Modern investigations have supported the claims of the insecticidal activity of several plants, including Allium sativum, Artemisia absinthium, Citrullus colocynthis, Laurus nobilis, Mentha pulegium, Myrtus communis, Nerium oleander, Ocimum basilicum, and Origanum majorana. However, in the cases of plants like Iris florentina and Malva sylvestris, there is not enough evidence in modern medicine to prove their effectiveness with regard to their insecticidal and insect repellent activities. Conclusions This study confirmed the Iranian traditional medicine claims of the insecticidal and insect repellent activity of certain plants. Further pharmacological and clinical studies are recommended to evaluate the overall efficacy and possible mechanisms underlying these herbs. PMID:27186389

  2. Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saïd; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

  3. Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E

    2012-07-01

    Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

  4. Diuretic effects of selected Thai indigenous medicinal plants in rats.

    PubMed

    Sripanidkulchai, B; Wongpanich, V; Laupattarakasem, P; Suwansaksri, J; Jirakulsomchok, D

    2001-05-01

    Extracts of five indigenous Thai medicinal having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were investigated for their diuretic activity. Root extracts of Ananas comosus and Carica papaya, given orally to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, demonstrated significantly increased urine output (P < 0.01) which was 79 and 74%, respectively, of the effect of an equivalent dose of hydrochlorothiazide. Both plant extracts gave similar profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion to that of the hydrochlorothiazide. The analyses of the urinary osmolality and electrolyte excretion per unit time suggest the observed effect of A. comosus was intrinsic, whereas that of C. papaya may have resulted from a high salt content of this extract. However, our experimental evidence on the diuretic activities of the other three plants did not parallel their local utilization for dysuria. It was found that the rhizome of Imperata cylindrica apparently inhibited the urination of rats whereas the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus and the stem of Averrhoa carambola failed to demonstrate any diuretic activities. These results indicate that two of the plants investigated exert their action by causing diuresis. The other three plants need further investigation to determine their effectiveness in the treatment of dysuria. PMID:11297849

  5. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

  6. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

  7. Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Gary M.; Malmstrom, Robert D.; Kipp, Erica; Paul, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants. PMID:22500074

  8. Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wannissorn, Bhusita; Jarikasem, Siripen; Siriwangchai, Thammathad; Thubthimthed, Sirinun

    2005-03-01

    By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha arvensis var. piperacens, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum var. citratum showed promising antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested. PMID:15752638

  9. Toxicity studies of medicinal plants used in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Boukandou Mounanga, Marlaine; Mewono, Ludovic; Aboughe Angone, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional medicine is widely used in rural and urban areas also. This is essentially due to the prohibitive cost of pharmaceutical-based medicine and the low incomes of a major part of the population. In addition, the efficacies of many of these traditional and plant-based medicines are proven, but the fact remains that certain plants used in traditional medicine have toxic effects. It is in this perspective that we investigated by bibliographic literature on the toxicity of plants used in traditional medicine. It is crucial to gain knowledge on these plant-based medicines prepared and prescribed by practitioners, particularly in terms of toxicity, composition, specific efficacy of disease and to advise practitioners of this alternative medicine on the protection and security of patients. PMID:26087230

  10. Medicinal Plant Use and Health Sovereignty: Findings from the Tajik and Afghan Pamirs

    PubMed Central

    Karamkhudoeva, Munira; Ruelle, Morgan; Baumflek, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants are indicators of indigenous knowledge in the context of political volatility and sociocultural and ecological change in the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Medicinal plants are the primary health care option in this region of Central Asia. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that medicinal plants contribute to health security and sovereignty in a time of instability. We illustrate the nutritional as well as medicinal significance of plants in the daily lives of villagers. Based on over a decade and half of research related to resilience and livelihood security, we present plant uses in the context of mountain communities. Villagers identified over 58 cultivated and noncultivated plants and described 310 distinct uses within 63 categories of treatment and prevention. Presence of knowledge about medicinal plants is directly connected to their use. PMID:21258436

  11. Plants used as food and medicine by Polish migrants in Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Monika; Pieroni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the importance of food plants, both introduced and native, in the pharmacopoeia of the Polish community in Misiones, Argentina. Food species constitute a relevant portion of all botanicals used by Polish settlers in home therapies (41%), while introduced food species prevail among the continued herbal remedies used by the study group. We explain this pattern of use by food plant availability, their versatility as reflected in the number of medicinal applications, and also their importance in cross-cultural relations. Finally, we conclude that several food plants used by Polish migrants (e.g., Allium sativum, Mentha xpiperita, and Camellia sinensis) may have served to "strengthen" migrants' identity within the host country. PMID:25602720

  12. A survey of medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna district, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Ferdausi, Dilara; Mollik, Ariful Haque; Jahan, Rownak; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Haque, Wahid Mozammel

    2010-01-01

    Kavirajes or traditional medicinal practitioners form the primary healthcare providers of the predominantly rural population of Bangladesh. Kavirajes use a variety of medicinal plants for treatment of different ailments. The formulations prepared from medicinal plants vary considerably between Kavirajes of different regions of the country. The objective of this study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey amongst the Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna district, Bangladesh. That area is known to contain a diversity of medicinal plants. Information on 50 plant species was obtained. These medicinal plants belonged to 49 genera and 33 families. Twenty five plants were used to treat skin diseases and twenty three plants for treatment of intestinal tract disorders, which included constipation, indigestion, stomachache, diarrhea, and dysentery. Fourteen plants were also used by the Kavirajes to treat cancer or tumor. Nine plants were used as insecticide, eight for rheumatoid arthritis, and seven for wounds. Five plants were used to treat jaundice. Five plants were also utilized to treat animal and snake bites, which included tiger bites. Six plants were used to treat diabetes, and two each for the treatment of leprosy, and sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea. Five plants were used to treat impotency, while one plant was used as an abortifacient. Three plants were used to treat helminthiasis, which we found to be quite common amongst the population, while four plants were used to treat heart disorders. Taken together, these plant species offer considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds of pharmacological interest. PMID:21304618

  13. [Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Shipochliev, T

    1981-01-01

    Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

  14. Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Nazari, H; Imani, S; Amrollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists and natural-products scientists are combing the earth for phytochemicals and leads, which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities of the essential oils of some medicinal plants such as Stachys pubescens, Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus daenensis and Bupleurum falcatum against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria alternata. The essential oils were used to evaluate their MICs and MFCs compared to the amphotricin B as a standard drug. The essential oils were also analyzed by GC/MS. Essential oils isolated from the S. pubescens, T. kotschyanus and B. falcatum showed strong antifungal activities. The essential oil of T. daenensis exhibited a moderate activity against the selected fungi in comparison with the other plants' essential oils. In addition, the results showed that 26, 23, 22 and 15 components were identified from the essential oils of T. kotschyanus, S. pubescens, T. daenensis and B. falcatum, respectively. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. Regarding obtained results and that natural antimicrobial substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they convey potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems. PMID:24768063

  15. Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G

    2006-09-01

    Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852

  16. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2004-09-01

    Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229

  17. Antiinflammatory screening of the medicinal plant Gynura procumbens.

    PubMed

    Iskander, M N; Song, Y; Coupar, I M; Jiratchariyakul, W

    2002-01-01

    Gynura procumbens is used in Thai folk medicine to treat topical inflammation, rheumatism, and viral ailments. In the present work, attempts were made to verify the folk medicinal claim that the crude ethanolic extract of G. procumbens has antiinflammatory action and to relate the activity to particular fractions using a croton oil-induced mouse ear inflammation model. The original ethanolic extract of G. procumbens was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The residues were subjected to antiinflammatory evaluation. While the water extract did not show any antiinflammatory activity, the administration of the original organic extract significantly inhibited the increase in ear thickness in response to croton oil (n = 5). The activity of 0.75 mg/ear original organic extract showed similar antiinflammatory activity (inhibition 65.2%) to that of 6 mg/ear hydrocortisone 21-hemisuccinate sodium salt (inhibition 64.8%). The organic extract was then fractionated with a series of solvents in order of increasing polarity. Each fraction was dried, dissolved in acetone and monitored using the same bioassay. These experiments showed that the hexane and toluene fractions showed significant inhibitions of 44.6% and 34.8%, respectively. These two fractions had similar activities to 4 mg/ear of hydrocortisone (inhibition 35.0%). The possible chemical constituents in the extracts and fractions were investigated using thin layer chromatography and specific color reagents. These tests showed that steroids might be one class of antiinflammatory compounds in this plant. PMID:12602932

  18. Therapeutic Potential of the Medicinal Plant Aegle Marmelos (Linn.) Correa: Insight.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Kant; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Various plant species are used globally for therapeutic purposes and have been authenticated by the World Health Organization. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., one of only three species in the genus Aegle, is a subtropical, fruit-bearing, deciduous tree that grows throughout the hills and plains of sub-Himalayan countries. Plants with medicinal importance have been used in almost every culture since ancient times. Various studies are underway to understand more about the qualities and components of medicinal plants, including drug preparation, phytochemical analysis, cultivation, toxicology, and pharmacology. According to the Indian conventional system of medicine, A. marmelos can successfully treat many diseases and conditions; for example, its extracts have been found to reduce the intensities of hepatic lipid peroxidation and augment the levels of hepatic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione. The essential oils present in the foliage (leaves), fruits, and bark of A. marmelos provide strong antifungal action. A. marmelos is thus cytoprotective, works against ulcers and diarhea, promotes skin and bone healing, and acts as a hypoglycemic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, and anticancer agent. Such qualities have been well documented with scientific evidence. PMID:27279580

  19. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  20. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  1. [Instrumental analysis of medicinal plants and their drug products].

    PubMed

    Petri, G; Lemberkovics, E

    1994-05-01

    The experiences obtained during the development of gas chromatographic and other (GC, TLC and infrared spectrophotometric) methods for the 7th edition of the Hungarian Pharmacopoeia for essential oils and drugs containing essential oils are summarized with emphasis on the selection of suitable internal standard for the gas chromatographic assays. The qualitative and quantitative estimation of bitter compounds and polyphenoles e.g. flavonoids and procyanidines by means of ultraviolet and infrared spectrophotometry and HPLC is also described. Some HPLC methods for the determination of anthocyan and carotinoid derivatives are also presented. These are not yet included in the pharmacopoeia but are successfully used for the analytical investigation of commercially available medicinal plants and drug products made thereof. PMID:7942042

  2. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Jha, P. K.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Bhattarai, S.; Gewali, M. B.; Karmacharya, N.; Hipper, M.

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses. PMID:18955262

  3. Chemical constituents of marine medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Minqing; Dai, Haofu; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2009-05-01

    Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 μg/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.

  4. Medicinal plants used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems and female health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Infections of the reproductive tract, complications after childbirth, and reproductive problems continue to be a major health challenge worldwide. An impressive number of plant species is traditionally used to remedy such afflictions, and some have been investigated for their efficacy with positive results. A total of 105 plant species belonging to 91 genera and 62 families were documented and identified as herbal remedies for reproductive problems in Northern Peru. Most species used were Asteraceae (9.52%), followed by Lamiaceae and Fabaceae (8.57% and 6.67%). The most important families are clearly represented very similarly to their overall importance in the local pharmacopoeia. The majority of herbal preparations for reproductive afflictions were prepared from the leaves of plants (22.72%), the whole plant (21.97%), and stems (21.21%), while other plant parts were used less frequently. More than 60% of the cases fresh plant material was used to prepare remedies. Over 70% of the remedies were applied orally, while the remaining ones were applied topically. Many remedies were prepared as mixtures of multiple ingredients. Little scientific evidence exists to prove the efficacy of the species employed as reproductive disorder remedies in Northern Peru. Only 34% of the plants found or their congeners have been studied at all for their medicinal properties. The information gained on frequently used traditional remedies might give some leads for future targets for further analysis in order to develop new drugs. PMID:21040536

  5. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

  6. Ethnobotanical studies and economic evaluation of medicinal plants in Taounate province (Northern Morocco).

    PubMed

    El-Hilaly, Jaouad; Hmammouchi, Mohamed; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2003-06-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Taounate population in Northern Morocco to identify plants used in folk-medicine. Two distinct physiographic regions of the province, populated by two ethnic groups, were surveyed. Extensive investigation undertaken during the past 5 years has brought to light 102 medicinal plants belonging to 48 families. The scientific and vernacular names of plants, their ecological distribution, and the popular uses of the plant, the part of the plant used, the preparation and mode of administration are presented. Plants are widely used in indigenous pharmacopoeia to alleviate the common symptoms of cardiovascular (5.8%), gastrointestinal (24.9%), bronchopulmonary systems (9.8%), urogenital (12.2%) and skin (9.2%) diseases, and other disorders which are often associated with magic. The majority of medicinal plants grow in the wild (61%), while others are cultivated (37%) and some (1.9%) are domesticated. These plants are more abundant in the northern part (62%) of the province where they grow in forested areas. Among the 102 species inventoried, 13(12.7%) medicinal plants are widely commercialized in the region and exploited outside of the province. The data collected from 17 wholesalers, show the income derived from medicinal plants to be about USD 1,826,900 per year. This survey demonstrates that the medicinal plant sector in the province is a promising economic resource for developing this region, but it needs planned exploitation, and that the tribes should continue to master the folk-medicine. PMID:12738079

  7. From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weso, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

  8. A Review of Traditional Medicinal Plants from Kachin State, Northern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Aung, Hain Thanda; Sein, Myint Myint; Aye, Mya Mu; Thu, Zaw Min

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants are a vital source of medication in developing countries. In Kachin State, Northern Myanmar, the people have a long history of the use of traditional plants for medicinal purposes. This article deals with the 25 most used medicinal plants in Kachin State. They are: Drynariafortunei, Tetrastigma serrulatum, Bauhinia championii, Goniothalamus cheliensis, Juglans regia, Houttuynia cordata, Osmanthus fragrans, Pothos chinensis, Tabemaemontana coronaria, Eryngiumfoetidum, Chloranthus spicatus, Peperomia pellucida, Zanthoxylum armatum, Polygonumfagopyrum, Cymbidiumfloribundum, Amomum kravanh, Coscinium fenestratum, Solanum nigrum, Gnetum parvifolium, Desmodium triquetum, Begonia augustinec, Mappianthus iodoides, Erycibe obtusifolia, Schefflera venulosa, Holarrhena antidysenterica. The different traditional applications, the known chemical constituents and medicinal properties are reported for each plant. The efficacy of several of these plants has been supported by some scientific evidence, while other plants have to be submitted to further investigations to prove the beneficial medicinal properties attributed to them. PMID:27169181

  9. Medicinal plants popularly used in the Xingó region – a semi-arid location in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Cecília de Fátima CBR; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Maia, Maria Bernadete S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify plant species among the diverse flora of the caatinga ecosystem that are used therapeutically. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Piranhas and Delmiro Gouveia, in the Xingó region (state of Alagoas, NE Brazil). In order to identify the medicinal plants used in this region, semi-structured questionnaires were applied. The species cited were collected and sent to the Xingó Herbarium for taxonomic analysis. The relative importance (RI) of each species cited was calculated to verify their cultural importance. The therapeutic indications attributed to the species were classified under 16 body systems. A total of 187 medicinal species were cited, from 64 families and 128 genera. The main indications for medicinal plant use were against common colds, bronchitis, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, inflammations in general, and as tranquilizers. Approximately 16% (30 plant species) were versatile in relation to their use, with an Relative Importance value over 1, having been indicated for up to nine body systems. The body systems that stood out the most were: the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system, and infectious diseases. Most cited plant parts used for medicinal purposes were flowers, leaves, and inner stem bark. PMID:16556305

  10. Medicinal plants popularly used in the Xingó region - a semi-arid location in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cecília de Fátima C B R; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Maia, Maria Bernadete S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify plant species among the diverse flora of the caatinga ecosystem that are used therapeutically. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Piranhas and Delmiro Gouveia, in the Xingó region (state of Alagoas, NE Brazil). In order to identify the medicinal plants used in this region, semi-structured questionnaires were applied. The species cited were collected and sent to the Xingó Herbarium for taxonomic analysis. The relative importance (RI) of each species cited was calculated to verify their cultural importance. The therapeutic indications attributed to the species were classified under 16 body systems. A total of 187 medicinal species were cited, from 64 families and 128 genera. The main indications for medicinal plant use were against common colds, bronchitis, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, inflammations in general, and as tranquilizers. Approximately 16% (30 plant species) were versatile in relation to their use, with an Relative Importance value over 1, having been indicated for up to nine body systems. The body systems that stood out the most were: the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system, and infectious diseases. Most cited plant parts used for medicinal purposes were flowers, leaves, and inner stem bark. PMID:16556305

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Novaes, A P; Rossi, C; Poffo, C; Pretti Júnior, E; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V; Niero, R; Cechinel-Filho, V; Bürger, C

    2001-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of five Brazilian medicinal plants (Epidendrum monsenii, Marrubium vulgare, Rheedia gardneriana, Rubus imperialis and Wedelia paludosa) was studied on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract of these plants was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats. The results showed that all plants studied (except R. gardneriana) significantly lowered the blood glucose. These results suggest that these four medicinal plants could be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:11677867

  12. Therapeutically important proteins from in vitro plant tissue culture systems.

    PubMed

    Doran, Pauline M

    2013-01-01

    Plant cells cultured in liquid medium in bioreactors are now being used commercially to produce biopharmaceutical proteins. The emergence of in vitro plant cell culture as a production vehicle reflects the importance of key biosafety and biocontainment concerns affecting the competitiveness of alternative systems such as mammalian cell culture and agriculture. Food plant species are particularly attractive as hosts for in vitro protein production: the risk of transgene escape and food chain contamination is eliminated using containment facilities, while regulatory approval for oral delivery of drugs may be easier than if non-edible species were used. As in whole plants, proteolysis in cultured plant cells can lead to significant degradation of foreign proteins after synthesis; however, substantial progress has been made to counter the destructive effects of proteases in plant systems. Although protein secretion into the culture medium is advantageous for product recovery and purification, measures are often required to minimise extracellular protease activity and product losses due to irreversible surface adsorption. Disposable plastic bioreactors, which are being used increasingly in mammalian cell bioprocessing, are also being adopted for plant cell culture to allow rapid scale-up and generation of saleable product. This review examines a range of technical and regulatory issues affecting the choice of industrial production platform for foreign proteins, and assesses progress in the development of in vitro plant systems for biopharmaceutical production. PMID:23210789

  13. [Survey and analysis of circulation and cultivation of medicinal plants in Tangchang county].

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-cheng

    2014-12-01

    The article sort out the main planting information of Chinese medicinal materials in Tanchang county from 2012 to 2014, through doing a questionnaire survey, setting technical training and communicating with people who plant, process, and sell the Chinese medicinal materials in the main producing area in 25 villages and towns of Tanchang county. By analyzing the results, the author pointed out the current situation of Chinese medicinal material planting, processing, trading and also the existing problems, and gave a proposal and strategy to the industrial development of Chinese medicinal materials, therefore, set an example to the development of the county territory. PMID:25898598

  14. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Macía, Manuel J; García, Emilia; Vidaurre, Prem Jai

    2005-02-28

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants marketed in La Paz and El Alto cities in the Bolivian Andes, reported medicinal information for about 129 species, belonging to 55 vascular plant families and one uncertain lichen family. The most important family was Asteraceae with 22 species, followed by Fabaceae s.l. with 11, and Solanaceae with eight. More than 90 general medicinal indications were recorded to treat a wide range of illnesses and ailments. The highest number of species and applications were reported for digestive system disorders (stomach ailments and liver problems), musculoskeletal body system (rheumatism and the complex of contusions, luxations, sprains, and swellings), kidney and other urological problems, and gynecological disorders. Some medicinal species had magic connotations, e.g. for cleaning and protection against ailments, to bring good luck, or for Andean offerings to Pachamama, 'Mother Nature'. In some indications, the separation between medicinal and magic plants was very narrow. Most remedies were prepared from a single species, however some applications were always prepared with a mixture of plants, e.g. for abortion, and the complex of luxations and swellings. The part of the plant most frequently used was the aerial part (29.3%) and the leaves (20.7%). The remedies were mainly prepared as a decoction (47.5%) and an infusion (28.6%). Most of species were native from Bolivia, but an important 36.4% of them were introduced from different origins. There exists a high informant consensus for species and their medicinal indications. The present urban phytotherapy represents a medicinal alternative to treat main health problems and remains closer to the cultural and social context of this society. PMID:15707774

  15. Polyphenols from Bulgarian medicinal plants with anti-infectious activity.

    PubMed

    Ivancheva, S; Manolova, N; Serkedjieva, J; Dimov, V; Ivanovska, N

    1992-01-01

    Three Bulgarian medicinal plants--Geranium macrorrhizum L. and G. sanguineum L. (Geraniaceae), and Epilobium hirsutum L. (Onagraceae) were analyzed phytochemically. Different polyphenols like flavonoids and tannis have been found to be principal constituents of the plants. A series of water or alcohol extracts was obtained, and their anti-infectious activity was tested. A significant inhibitory effect of water-alcohol extract and of four fractions from the polyphenolic mixture of E. hirsutum on the reproduction of influenza viruses in vitro, in ovo, and in vivo was established. Four extracts from G. macrorrhizum and three extracts from G. sanguineum were studied for in vitro inhibition of the growth of some Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), and fungus (Candida albicans). Some geranium extracts caused a strong increase of the survival rate in an infection with K. pneumoniae in mice. Augmentation of the nonspecific host resistance in relation to the influence of the extracts on the classical complement activation pathway was also studied. PMID:1417697

  16. ELECTROCHEMICAL FINGERPRINT STUDIES OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS RICH IN FLAVONOIDS.

    PubMed

    Konieczyński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a size-exclusion column (SEC) with electrochemical (voltammetric) detection at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) was applied for studying the correlations between electroactive Cu and Fe species with phenolic groups of flavonoids. For comparison with electrochemical results, SEC-HPLC-DAD detection was used. The studied plant material comprised of: Betula verrucosa Ehrh., Equisetun arvense L., Polygonum aviculare L., Viola tricolor L., Crataegus oxyacantha L., Sambucus nigra L. and Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. Based upon the results, high negative correlation was found for the chromatographic peak currents at 45 min with the sum of Cu and Fe for the aqueous extracts of Sambucus, Crataegus and Betula species, and for the peak currents at 65 min of the aqueous extracts of Sambucus, Crataegus, Helichrysum and Betula botanical species. This behavior confirms that it is mainly the flavonoids with easily oxidizable phenolic groups which are strongly influenced by the presence of Cu and Fe. Moreover, the electrochemical profiles obtained thanks to the use of HPLC hyphenated with voltammetric detection can be potentially applied for fingerprint studies of the plant materials used in medicine. PMID:26647621

  17. Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Meechai, Imron; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn; Kummee, Sopa

    2014-04-01

    Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 μg/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 μg/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root. PMID:23835832

  18. Phenolic Constituents of Medicinal Plants with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; No, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ga Young; Li, Wei; Yang, Seo Young; Yang, Gyongseon; Schmidt, Thomas J; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect over one billion people all over the world. These diseases are classified as neglected because they impact populations in areas with poor financial conditions and hence do not attract sufficient research investment. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness), caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, is one of the NTDs. The current therapeutic interventions for T. brucei infections often have toxic side effects or require hospitalization so that they are not available in the rural environments where HAT occurs. Furthermore, parasite resistance is increasing, so that there is an urgent need to identify novel lead compounds against this infection. Recognizing the wide structural diversity of natural products, we desired to explore and identify novel antitrypanosomal chemotypes from a collection of natural products obtained from plants. In this study, 440 pure compounds from various medicinal plants were tested against T. brucei by in a screening using whole cell in vitro assays. As the result, twenty-two phenolic compounds exhibited potent activity against cultures of T. brucei. Among them, eight compounds-4, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18, 20, and 21-showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei, with IC50 values below 5 µM, ranging from 0.52 to 4.70 μM. Based on these results, we attempt to establish some general trends with respect to structure-activity relationships, which indicate that further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might enable the preparation of potentially useful compounds for treating HAT. PMID:27077842

  19. Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sutovská, M; Franová, S; Priseznaková, L; Nosálová, G; Togola, A; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Capek, P

    2009-04-01

    From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water-ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan ( approximately 60%), the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 14%) and the glucuronoxylan ( approximately 14%) in O. celtidifolia leaves, and pectic type of polysaccharides ( approximately 75%) with a lower content of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 17%) in C. febrifuga fruits. The plant polysaccharides showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vivo conditions. T. emetica and O. celtidifolia polysaccharides possessed significant cough-suppressive effect on chemically induced cough. Furthermore, values of specific airways resistance pointed on bronchodilatory property of polysaccharides isolated from O. celtidifolia. However, the crude extract from C. febrifuga in the same dose as T. emetica and O. celtidifolia did not influence the experimentally induced cough as well as reactivity of airways smooth muscle despite of the fact that the water-ethanol extract is recommended for cough therapy in Mali in the form of syrup. PMID:19150368

  20. Plants used by Mexican traditional medicine with presumable sedative properties: an ethnobotanical approach.

    PubMed

    Tortoriello, J; Romero, O

    1992-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine was made. The source was the national inquiry done by the IMSS-COPLAMAR health program (1983-1985) in which the plants used to treat mental disorders were selected and analyzed, in order to select the most frequent botanical species used in traditional medicine as sedatives, anticonvulsants and hypnotics. PMID:1308799

  1. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

  2. Asháninka medicinal plants: a case study from the native community of Bajo Quimiriki, Junín, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Asháninka Native Community Bajo Quimiriki, District Pichanaki, Junín, Peru, is located only 4 km from a larger urban area and is dissected by a major road. Therefore the loss of traditional knowledge is a main concern of the local headman and inhabitants. The present study assesses the state of traditional medicinal plant knowledge in the community and compares the local pharmacopoeia with the one from a related ethnic group. Methods Fieldwork was conducted between July and September 2007. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, collection of medicinal plants in the homegardens, forest walks, a walk along the river banks, participant observation, informal conversation, cross check through voucher specimens and a focus group interview with children. Results Four-hundred and two medicinal plants, mainly herbs, were indicated by the informants. The most important families in terms of taxa were Asteraceae, Araceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Piperaceae. Eighty-four percent of the medicinal plants were wild and 63% were collected from the forest. Exotics accounted to only 2% of the medicinal plants. Problems related to the dermal system, digestive system, and cultural belief system represented 57% of all the medicinal applications. Some traditional healers received non-indigenous customers, using their knowledge as a source of income. Age and gender were significantly correlated to medicinal plant knowledge. Children knew the medicinal plants almost exclusively by their Spanish names. Sixteen percent of the medicinal plants found in this community were also reported among the Yanesha of the Pasco Region. Conclusions Despite the vicinity to a city, knowledge on medicinal plants and cultural beliefs are still abundant in this Asháninka Native Community and the medicinal plants are still available in the surroundings. Nevertheless, the use of Spanish names for the medicinal plants and the shift of healing practices towards a

  3. [AM and its application in plant disease prevention of Chinese medicinal herbs cultivation].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenjuan; Yang, Guang; Chen, Meilan; Guo, Lanpin; Wang, Min

    2011-02-01

    To study the beneficial effect of AMF from the utilization achievement in the agroforestry research, we discuss the application of AM in medicinal plant disease prevention and control. This paper summarized the type of medicinal plant disease, the influence of plant disease and the commonly used prevention method in production. As for the adverse consequences caused by plant's non-infectious and infectious diseases, AM has some improvement function. Something will affect the function of AM in the prevention of medicinal plant disease, for example, the relationship between AMF and the plants, the quantity, the time and the environmental factors about AMF inoculation and so on. In order to achieve the useful effect of AM in the prevention of medicinal plant disease, we should choose the suitable condition during production in practice to carry on the vaccination. PMID:21585020

  4. Evaluation of two methods for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Wong, Chi-Chun; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chen, Feng

    2007-05-01

    The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants. A commonly used extraction method was used as a reference method. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays as well as the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the two traditional extraction methods could effectively extract antioxidants from medicinal plants. These extraction methods can be applied to the analysis and purification of antioxidants in plants, respectively. At home, people can use these methods to extract antioxidants from plants for consumption. In the food industry, these methods could be utilized to prepare crude extracts from plants containing antioxidants for use as food additives. PMID:17387460

  5. Medicinal and useful plants in the tradition of Rotonda, Pollino National Park, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions. Methods In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years. Results The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinal plants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported. Conclusions Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice. PMID:23522331

  6. Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants: problems, progress, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-Lin; Yu, Hua; Luo, Hong-Mei; Wu, Qiong; Li, Chun-Fang; Steinmetz, André

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are globally valuable sources of herbal products, and they are disappearing at a high speed. This article reviews global trends, developments and prospects for the strategies and methodologies concerning the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plant resources to provide a reliable reference for the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants. We emphasized that both conservation strategies (e.g. in situ and ex situ conservation and cultivation practices) and resource management (e.g. good agricultural practices and sustainable use solutions) should be adequately taken into account for the sustainable use of medicinal plant resources. We recommend that biotechnical approaches (e.g. tissue culture, micropropagation, synthetic seed technology, and molecular marker-based approaches) should be applied to improve yield and modify the potency of medicinal plants. PMID:27478496

  7. Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Karou, Simplice D.; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon Djikpo; Anani, Kokou; Ouattara, Lassina; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 μg/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 μg/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 μg/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. Conclusion: These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress. PMID:22518084

  8. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi From Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gashgari, Rukaia; Gherbawy, Youssuf; Ameen, Fuad; Alsharari, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The isolates were grouped into 35 distinct operational taxonomic units, based on the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer regions in the rRNA gene. The colonization frequency and the dominant fungi percentage of these endophytic fungi were calculated. A dual culture technique was adopted to investigate the antifungal activity of these endophytes. Results: Tamarix nilotica showed the highest endophytic diversity with a relative frequency of 27.27%, followed by Cressa cretica with a relative frequency of 19.27%. The most frequently isolated species was Penicillium chrysogenum with an overall colonization rate of 98.57%. Seven out of 35 endophytic fungi exhibited strong antifungal activity to all plant fungal pathogens tested. P. chrysogenum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. nygamai exhibited the highest inhibition against the human pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aspergillus sydowii, P. chrysogenum, and Eupenicillium crustaceum showed strong antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activity of these endophytic microorganisms could be exploited in biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. PMID:27099679

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Glucose Diffusion Relationship of Traditional Medicinal Antihyperglycemic Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Asgharpour, Fariba; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Asgharpour Alamdar, Sobgol; Rezaei, Mehrasa

    2013-01-01

    Plants with hypoglycemic properties are important in the treatment of diabetes. One of the mechanisms in reducing blood glucose is preventing the digestive absorption of glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinal plants collected from different regions of Iran and their effects on glucose diffusion decrease. The amounts of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were determined respectively by folin ciocalteu, querceting, sulfuric acid, FRAP and thiobarbituric acid - reactive substanses (TBARS) in eleven confirmed traditional antihyperglycemic medicinal plants prepared at 50g/l concentrations using the boiling method. Phenolic compounds of Eucalyptus globules (100.8± 0.01 mg /g), total flavonoids content of Juglans regia (16.9± 0.01 mg /g) and total polysaccharide amount of Allium satirum (0.28± 0.05) were the highest. Significant relationship was observed between the polyphenols and flavonoids (p <0.05). The grape seed extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (133± 0.02 mg/g) together with decreased glucose diffusion as well as increased polyphenols (p <0.05), but the increase in antioxidant activity was not related to glucose diffusion. Antihyperglycemic plant extracts containing higher polyphenols showed more efficiently in vitro glucose diffusion decrease, but no significant relationship was observed between antioxidant activity increase and glucose diffusion. PMID:24551809

  10. Ethnobotanical appraisal and medicinal use of plants in Patriata, New Murree, evidence from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reflects the empirical findings of an ethnobotanical survey which was undertaken in Patriata (New Murree) of district Rawalpindi in Pakistan. The aims and objectives of the study were to document indigenous knowledge of plants particularly of medicinal, veterinary, fruit, vegetable, fodder, fuel etc. Methods For this purpose, the whole area was surveyed for documenting folk knowledge using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 93 plants species belonging to 80 genera and 56 families were found in a variety of uses by the local people for the accomplishment of their basic needs. The study further employs binary logit regression model of medicinal uses of these plants so as to identify the probability of occurrence of medicinal use of woody or non-woody plants keeping other plant characteristics in view. Results Ethnobotanical data shows that most plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes (27.93% each), followed by fuel (16.90%), fruit (6.55%), vegetable (5.52%) and ethno-veterinary (3.79%). There is also an established association of medicinal use of plants to the fruits use. Non-woody plants have high tendency towards medicinal use of the plants as compared to woody plants. Annual plants are less likely to be directly associated with medicinal use of plants in the surveyed vegetation. Underground plant parts are more likely to be used for medicinal purposes as revealed from the Logit expressions. Conclusions The study revealed that most of the plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes. The results of Logit Model showed that the probabilities of plant species for their medicinal use are associated to the woody or non-woody, aerial or underground, perennial or annual characteristics of plants. One should be careful in completely generalizing the results as the survey findings are sensitive to the plant species and the vegetation under consideration. But it can be specified that there exists either some positive or negative

  11. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gazzaneo, Luiz Rodrigo Saldanha; de Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2005-01-01

    The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests. This study therefore sought to: collect information from local populations concerning the use of Atlantic Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed, and; calculate the informant consensus factor in relation to medicinal plant use. Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. The material collected represent 125 plants, distributed among 61 botanical families, with little participation of native plants. This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants used to treat blood-related problems, but cite a much more diverse group of plants to treat problems related to the respiratory and digestive systems – two important categories in studies undertaken in different parts of the world. The local medicinal flora is largely based on plants that are either cultivated or obtained from anthropogenic zones, possibly due to the use and access restrictions of the legally protected neighboring forest. Despite these restrictions, the species with the highest use-value by this community was Pithecellobium cochliocarpum (Gomez) Macb., a native plant of the Atlantic Forest. PMID:16270911

  12. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gazzaneo, Luiz Rodrigo Saldanha; de Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2005-01-01

    The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests. This study therefore sought to: collect information from local populations concerning the use of Atlantic Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed, and; calculate the informant consensus factor in relation to medicinal plant use. Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. The material collected represent 125 plants, distributed among 61 botanical families, with little participation of native plants. This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants used to treat blood-related problems, but cite a much more diverse group of plants to treat problems related to the respiratory and digestive systems - two important categories in studies undertaken in different parts of the world. The local medicinal flora is largely based on plants that are either cultivated or obtained from anthropogenic zones, possibly due to the use and access restrictions of the legally protected neighboring forest. Despite these restrictions, the species with the highest use-value by this community was Pithecellobium cochliocarpum (Gomez) Macb., a native plant of the Atlantic Forest. PMID:16270911

  13. Appraisals of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants Used by Folk Medicine Practitioners in the Prevention and Management of Malignant Neoplastic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kabidul Azam, Md. Nur; Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Biswas, Samanta

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which is categorized to differentiate into diverse cell types and move around in the body to sites of organogenesis that is key to the process of tumor genesis. All types of cancer fall into the group of malignant neoplastic diseases. In Bangladesh, cancer is now one of the foremost killer diseases and its personal, social, and economic bearing are huge. Plant-derived natural compounds (vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, paclitaxel, camptothecin, topotecan, and irinotecan) are useful for the treatment of cancer. Since there is no extensive ethnobotanical research study in Bangladesh regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants against neoplasms, therefore, a randomized ethnopharmacological surveys were carried out in 3 districts of Bangladesh to learn more about the usage of anticancer medicinal plants and their chemical constituents having antineoplastic activity. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to the folk medicine practitioners and medicinal plants as pointed out by them were photographed, collected, deposited, and identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The various plant parts have been used by the healers which included whole plant, leaves, fruits, barks, roots, and seeds. This study evaluated considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds with less side effects in the management and prevention of malignancy in cancer. PMID:27382642

  14. Appraisals of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants Used by Folk Medicine Practitioners in the Prevention and Management of Malignant Neoplastic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kabidul Azam, Md Nur; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Biswas, Samanta; Ahmed, Md Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which is categorized to differentiate into diverse cell types and move around in the body to sites of organogenesis that is key to the process of tumor genesis. All types of cancer fall into the group of malignant neoplastic diseases. In Bangladesh, cancer is now one of the foremost killer diseases and its personal, social, and economic bearing are huge. Plant-derived natural compounds (vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, paclitaxel, camptothecin, topotecan, and irinotecan) are useful for the treatment of cancer. Since there is no extensive ethnobotanical research study in Bangladesh regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants against neoplasms, therefore, a randomized ethnopharmacological surveys were carried out in 3 districts of Bangladesh to learn more about the usage of anticancer medicinal plants and their chemical constituents having antineoplastic activity. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to the folk medicine practitioners and medicinal plants as pointed out by them were photographed, collected, deposited, and identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The various plant parts have been used by the healers which included whole plant, leaves, fruits, barks, roots, and seeds. This study evaluated considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds with less side effects in the management and prevention of malignancy in cancer. PMID:27382642

  15. Health for sale: the medicinal plant markets in Trujillo and Chiclayo, Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas; Vandebroek, Ina; Jones, Ana; Revene, Zachary

    2007-01-01

    Traditional methods of healing have been beneficial in many countries with or without access to conventional allopathic medicine. In the United States, these traditional practices are increasingly being sought after for illnesses that cannot be easily treated by allopathic medicine. More and more people are becoming interested in the knowledge maintained by traditional healers and in the diversity of medicinal plants that flourish in areas like Northern Peru. While scientific studies of medicinal plants are underway, concern has arisen over the preservation of both the large diversity of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge of healing methods that accompanies them. To promote further conservation work, this study attempted to document the sources of the most popular and rarest medicinal plants sold in the markets of Trujillo (Mayorista and Hermelinda) and Chiclayo (Modelo and Moshoqueque), as well as to create an inventory of the plants sold in these markets, which will serve as a basis for comparison with future inventories. Individual markets and market stalls were subjected to cluster analysis based on the diversity of the medicinal plants they carry. The results show that markets were grouped based on the presence of: (1) common exotic medicinal plants; (2) plants used by laypeople for self-medication related to common ailments ("everyday remedies"); (3) specialized medicinal plants used by curanderos or traditional healers; and (4) highly "specialized" plants used for magical purposes. The plant trade in the study areas seems to correspond well with the specific health care demands from clientele in those areas. The specific market patterns of plant diversity observed in the present study represent a foundation for comparative market research in Peru and elsewhere. PMID:18070350

  16. Health for sale: the medicinal plant markets in Trujillo and Chiclayo, Northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas; Vandebroek, Ina; Jones, Ana; Revene, Zachary

    2007-01-01

    Traditional methods of healing have been beneficial in many countries with or without access to conventional allopathic medicine. In the United States, these traditional practices are increasingly being sought after for illnesses that cannot be easily treated by allopathic medicine. More and more people are becoming interested in the knowledge maintained by traditional healers and in the diversity of medicinal plants that flourish in areas like Northern Peru. While scientific studies of medicinal plants are underway, concern has arisen over the preservation of both the large diversity of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge of healing methods that accompanies them. To promote further conservation work, this study attempted to document the sources of the most popular and rarest medicinal plants sold in the markets of Trujillo (Mayorista and Hermelinda) and Chiclayo (Modelo and Moshoqueque), as well as to create an inventory of the plants sold in these markets, which will serve as a basis for comparison with future inventories. Individual markets and market stalls were subjected to cluster analysis based on the diversity of the medicinal plants they carry. The results show that markets were grouped based on the presence of: (1) common exotic medicinal plants; (2) plants used by laypeople for self-medication related to common ailments ("everyday remedies"); (3) specialized medicinal plants used by curanderos or traditional healers; and (4) highly "specialized" plants used for magical purposes. The plant trade in the study areas seems to correspond well with the specific health care demands from clientele in those areas. The specific market patterns of plant diversity observed in the present study represent a foundation for comparative market research in Peru and elsewhere. PMID:18070350

  17. De Novo Deep Transcriptome Analysis of Medicinal Plants for Gene Discovery in Biosynthesis of Plant Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Han, R; Rai, A; Nakamura, M; Suzuki, H; Takahashi, H; Yamazaki, M; Saito, K

    2016-01-01

    Study on transcriptome, the entire pool of transcripts in an organism or single cells at certain physiological or pathological stage, is indispensable in unraveling the connection and regulation between DNA and protein. Before the advent of deep sequencing, microarray was the main approach to handle transcripts. Despite obvious shortcomings, including limited dynamic range and difficulties to compare the results from distinct experiments, microarray was widely applied. During the past decade, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized our understanding of genomics in a fast, high-throughput, cost-effective, and tractable manner. By adopting NGS, efficiency and fruitful outcomes concerning the efforts to elucidate genes responsible for producing active compounds in medicinal plants were profoundly enhanced. The whole process involves steps, from the plant material sampling, to cDNA library preparation, to deep sequencing, and then bioinformatics takes over to assemble enormous-yet fragmentary-data from which to comb and extract information. The unprecedentedly rapid development of such technologies provides so many choices to facilitate the task, which can cause confusion when choosing the suitable methodology for specific purposes. Here, we review the general approaches for deep transcriptome analysis and then focus on their application in discovering biosynthetic pathways of medicinal plants that produce important secondary metabolites. PMID:27480681

  18. Can phylogeny predict chemical diversity and potential medicinal activity of plants? A case study of amaryllidaceae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During evolution, plants and other organisms have developed a diversity of chemical defences, leading to the evolution of various groups of specialized metabolites selected for their endogenous biological function. A correlation between phylogeny and biosynthetic pathways could offer a predictive approach enabling more efficient selection of plants for the development of traditional medicine and lead discovery. However, this relationship has rarely been rigorously tested and the potential predictive power is consequently unknown. Results We produced a phylogenetic hypothesis for the medicinally important plant subfamily Amaryllidoideae (Amaryllidaceae) based on parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of over 100 species. We tested if alkaloid diversity and activity in bioassays related to the central nervous system are significantly correlated with phylogeny and found evidence for a significant phylogenetic signal in these traits, although the effect is not strong. Conclusions Several genera are non-monophyletic emphasizing the importance of using phylogeny for interpretation of character distribution. Alkaloid diversity and in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and binding to the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) are significantly correlated with phylogeny. This has implications for the use of phylogenies to interpret chemical evolution and biosynthetic pathways, to select candidate taxa for lead discovery, and to make recommendations for policies regarding traditional use and conservation priorities. PMID:22978363

  19. 76 FR 67379 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... coffee twig beetle. In the PRA, the likelihood and consequences of introducing these pests into the... in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests...); Sarasinula plebeia (Caribbean leatherleaf slug); Succinea costaricana; Xylosandrus morigerus (brown...

  20. Unique components of the plant mitochondrial protein import apparatus.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Owen; Murcha, Monika W; Whelan, James

    2013-02-01

    The basic mitochondrial protein import apparatus was established in the earliest eukaryotes. Over the subsequent course of evolution and the divergence of the plant, animal and fungal lineages, this basic import apparatus has been modified and expanded in order to meet the specific needs of protein import in each kingdom. In the plant kingdom, the arrival of the plastid complicated the process of protein trafficking and is thought to have given rise to the evolution of a number of unique components that allow specific and efficient targeting of mitochondrial proteins from their site of synthesis in the cytosol, to their final location in the organelle. This includes the evolution of two unique outer membrane import receptors, plant Translocase of outer membrane 20 kDa subunit (TOM20) and Outer membrane protein of 64 kDa (OM64), the loss of a receptor domain from an ancestral import component, Translocase of outer membrane 22 kDa subunit (TOM22), evolution of unique features in the disulfide relay system of the inter membrane space, and the addition of an extra membrane spanning domain to another ancestral component of the inner membrane, Translocase of inner membrane 17 kDa subunit (TIM17). Notably, many of these components are encoded by multi-gene families and exhibit differential sub-cellular localisation and functional specialisation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. PMID:22406071

  1. Occurrence of taraxerol and taraxasterol in medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kiran; Zafar, Rasheeduz

    2015-01-01

    Indian soil germinates thousands of medicinal drugs that are cultivated with a purpose to obtain a novel drug. As it is a well-established fact that the structural analogs with greater pharmacological activity and fewer side-effects may be generated by the molecular modification of the functional groups of such lead compounds. This review throws light on two natural triterpenes - Taraxerol and Taraxasterol which have many important pharmacological actions including anti-cancer activity, their chemistry, biosynthesis aspects, and possible use of these compounds as drugs in treatment of cancer. A silent crisis persists in cancer treatment in developing countries, and it is intensifying every year. Although at least 50-60% of cancer victims can benefit from radiotherapy that destroys cancerous tumors, but search for the paramount therapy which will prove to be inexpensive with minimal side effects still persists. Various treatment modalities have been prescribed, along with conventional and non-conventional medicine but due to their adverse effects and dissatisfaction among users, these treatments are not satisfactory enough to give relief to patients. Hence, this review sparks the occurrence of Taraxerol (VI) and Taraxasterol (VII) in nature, so that the natural godowns may be harvested to obtain these potent compounds for novel drug development as well as discusses limitations of these lead compounds progressing clinical trials. PMID:26009688

  2. A Review of Swertia chirayita (Gentianaceae) as a Traditional Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Swertia chirayita (Gentianaceae), a popular medicinal herb indigenous to the temperate Himalayas is used in traditional medicine to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria, and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British, and the American pharmacopeias and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and other conventional medical systems. This ethnomedicinal herb is known mostly for its bitter taste caused by the presence of different bioactive compounds that are directly associated with human health welfare. The increasing high usage of Swertia chirayita, mostly the underground tissues, as well as the illegal overharvesting combined with habitat destruction resulted in a drastic reduction of its populations and has brought this plant to the verge of extinction. The increasing national and international demand for Swertia chirayita has led to unscrupulous collection from the wild and adulteration of supplies. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of the current state of scientific knowledge on the medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, safety evaluation as well as the potential role of plant biotechnology in the conservation of Swertia chirayita and to highlight its future prospects. Pharmacological data reported in literature suggest that Swertia chirayita shows a beneficial effect in the treatment of several ailments. However, there is lack of adequate information on the safety evaluation of the plant. The pharmacological usefulness of Swertia chirayita requires the need for conservation-friendly approaches in its utilization. Providing high-quality genetically uniform clones for sustainable use and thereby saving the genetic diversity of this species in nature is important. In this regard, plant biotechnological applications such as micropropagation, synthetic seed

  3. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products. PMID:26011474

  4. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products. PMID:26011474

  5. Use of medicinal plants for human health in Udzungwa Mountains Forests: a case study of New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kitula, Rukia A

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of local people on plant medicine from natural forests has a long tradition in Tanzania and is becoming increasingly popular among rural and urban communities due to among others increase in living costs. The study on utilization of medicinal plants for meeting heath care needs was carried out between March 2001 and March 2002 in New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania. The study aimed at generating necessary data for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project to draft sound Joint Forest Management plans. Specific objectives of the study among others were to assess knowledge associated with utilization of medicinal plants for health care needs as well as factors associated in using plant medicines in the study area. A questionnaire survey, market survey and literature review were used to collect information. Tools used for data analysis were Statistical Packages for Social Science and content analysis. A total of 45 plant species were documented curing about 22 human diseases. Medicinal plants were readily available throughout the year and plentiful in the forest reserve. Roots and leaves were the plant parts harvested for medicinal purposes. Processing of plant medicines involved boiling, pounding, soaking in water and chewing. Distance to health facility, income level of the household and beliefs contributed to the use of plant medicines. The study concluded that medicinal plants play an important role in providing primary health care to the rural communities. It is recommended that in achieving joint forest management (JFM), villagers adjacent to the forest reserve should be sensitised on the importance of JFM through seminars, workshops, drama, school songs or video show. During the development of a joint draft management plan, villagers as an informal institution must define their priority needs of use of parts of the forest in collaboration with the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project. PMID:17257410

  6. Is the use-impact on native caatinga species in Brazil reduced by the high species richness of medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira, Rosilane Ferreira

    2007-08-15

    A study of the diversity of uses of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge associated with the caatinga vegetation was undertaken in the semi-arid region of Pernambuco State, NE Brazil. We tested the utilitarian redundancy model (as an analogy to the ecological redundancy hypothesis) in evaluating the implications of the use of medicinal plants by rural communities to examine whether the presence of numerous species with analogous functions (identical therapeutic applications, for example) would reduce the use-impact on native species in the neighboring caatinga vegetation. Various techniques were used to collect information concerning medicinal plants and their applications from 19 residents considered "local specialists". The vegetation was sampled to determine the abundance of woody plants. Approximately 106 plants that fall into 67 local therapeutic categories were identified. Despite the fact that exotic species compose a significant fraction of the local medicinal flora, the native species represented the greatest percentage of local uses and indications. Amburana cearensis, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Anadenanthera colubrina, Sideroxylon obtusifolium, and Ziziphus joazeiro, for example, are highly sought after plants, and represent key species in terms of conservation and sustainable management. Our model of utilitarian redundancy has important consequences for testing ethnobotanical hypotheses, as well as for indicating strategies for biodiversity conservation. PMID:17616289

  7. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy For Metabolic Profiling of Medicinal Plants and Their Products.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    NMR spectroscopy has multidisciplinary applications, including excellent impact in metabolomics. The analytical capacity of NMR spectroscopy provides information for easy qualitative and quantitative assessment of both endogenous and exogenous metabolites present in biological samples. The complexity of a particular metabolite and its contribution in a biological system are critically important for understanding the functional state that governs the organism's phenotypes. This review covers historical aspects of developments in the NMR field, its applications in chemical profiling, metabolomics, and quality control of plants and their derived medicines, foods, and other products. The bottlenecks of NMR in metabolic profiling are also discussed, keeping in view the future scope and further technological interventions. PMID:26575437

  8. Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species), followed by trees (23%). The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13

  9. Importance of Selected Athletic Trainer Employment Characteristics in Collegiate, Sports Medicine Clinic, and High School Settings

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brent L.; Gansneder, Bruce M.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Szczerba, Joseph E.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Perrin, David H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: We examined employer importance ratings of 35 employee characteristics in the collegiate, sports medicine clinic, and high school settings and made comparisons among these settings. Design and Setting: All prospective employers were sent a survey. Of the 472 surveys mailed, 282 (60%) were returned, with a sample error rate of 1.9%. Subjects: All prospective employers listed on the NATA position vacancy notices from January 1, 1994 to October 1, 1994. Measurements: Employers were asked to rate 35 employee characteristics as “not important” “ minimally important,” “ important.” or “very important.” Additionally, employers chose 1 of 15 job descriptors that best identified their position vacancy. These 15 descriptors were then categorized into collegiate, sports medicine clinic, and high school settings. Discriminant analysis and analysis of variance procedures were used to determine if the 35 employee characteristics differed across the 3 settings. Results: The discriminant analysis produced 2 significant discriminant functions (P < .05) with 23 of the original 35 characteristics remaining in the analysis. The first function discriminated between the collegiate setting and the other settings, with the collegiate setting scoring the highest. The second function discriminated among all 3 groups, with the sports medicine clinic and high school settings scoring the highest and lowest, respectively. Additionally, the analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed that 21 of the characteristics remaining in the discriminant analysis differed across the 3 settings. Conclusions: Employers from all 3 settings rated educational program reputation, written recommendations, job interview performance, and NATA-BOC certification eligibility as important to very important. For the collegiate setting, 7 characteristics were rated above important and included such characteristics as possession of a master's degree and collegiate experience. For the sports medicine

  10. Plant extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants strongly inhibit hepatitis C virus infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Borris R. T.; Sahuc, Marie-Emmanuelle; Njayou, Frederic N.; Deloison, Gaspard; Mkounga, Pierre; Feudjou, William F.; Brodin, Priscille; Rouillé, Yves; Nkengfack, Augustin E.; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Séron, Karin

    2015-01-01

    According to some recent studies, Cameroon is one of the sub-Saharan African countries most affected by hepatitis C, with low access to the standard therapy based on the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. A first ethnobotanical survey, conducted in the Western region of Cameroon, reported the use of several medicinal plants in traditional medicine for the healing of liver-related disorders. Crude organic extracts of five plants surveyed were prepared and their effect against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection investigated. The HCV JFH1 strain cell culture system HCVcc was used. The antiviral activity was quantified by immunofluorescent labeling of HCV E1 envelope protein at 30 h post-infection in the presence of the plant extracts. Active compounds were then tested in time course infection experiments. Dose-response and cellular toxicity assays were also determined. Three extracts, methanol extracts from roots of Trichilia dregeana, stems of Detarium microcarpum and leaves of Phragmanthera capitata, showed anti-HCV activity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 16.16, 1.42, and 13.17 μg/mL, respectively. Huh-7 cells were incubated with the extracts for 72 h and it appears that T. dregeana extract is not toxic up to 200 μg/mL, D. microcarpum up to 100 μg/mL and P. capitata up to 800 μg/mL. All the three extracts showed a strong inhibition of HCV entry and no effect on replication or secretion. Taken together, these results showed that extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants are promising sources of anti-HCV agents. PMID:26029203

  11. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention, particularly those of the western

  12. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-Vázquez, María del Carmen; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was undertaken by analyzing distinguished books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, and peer-reviewed scientific articles and by consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, SCIELO, Medline, and Google Scholar. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological studies and (2) plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups as follows: (a) plant extracts evaluated for in vitro effects, (b) plant extracts with documented in vivo effects, (c) active compounds tested on in vitro studies, and (d) active compounds assayed in animal models. Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (19 plants) and in vivo (8 plants). A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro (11 compounds) and in vivo (2 compounds) assays. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents. PMID:27042188

  13. Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae): A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of This Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Silva, Juliana; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; da Silva-Jr, Arnóbio Antonio; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), widely known as “bellyache bush,” is a medicinal plant largely used throughout Africa and America. Several human and veterinary uses in traditional medicine are described for different parts and preparations based on this plant. However, critical reviews discussing emphatically its medicinal value are missing. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the traditional uses, as well as the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity data of J. gossypiifolia species, in view of discussing its medicinal value and potential application in complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant action of different extracts and/or isolated compounds as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, and anticancer agents, among others, supporting some of its popular uses. No clinical trial has been detected to date. Further studies are necessary to assay important folk uses, as well as to find new bioactive molecules with pharmacological relevance based on the popular claims. Toxicological studies associated with phytochemical analysis are important to understand the eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value. The present review provides insights for future research aiming for both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use and its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products. PMID:25002902

  14. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park, South-Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Belda, A; Zaragozí, B; Belda, I; Martínez, Je; Seva, E

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to inventory and analyse the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park. In respect to traditional uses, 93 species reported by local informants were therapeutic, 27 food, 4 natural dyes and 13 handcrafts. We developed a methodology that allowed the location of individuals or vegetation communities with a specific popular use. We prepared a geographic information system (GIS) that included gender, family, scientific nomenclature and common names in Spanish and Catalan for each species. We also made a classification of 39 medicinal uses from ATC (Anatomical, Therapeutic, Chemical classification system). Labiatae (n=19), Compositae (n=9) and Leguminosae (n=6) were the families most represented among the plants used to different purposes in humans. Species with the most elevated cultural importance index (CI) values were Thymus vulgaris (CI=1.431), Rosmarinus officinalis (CI=1.415), Eryngium campestre (CI=1.325), Verbascum sinuatum (CI=1.106) and Sideritis angustifolia (CI=1.041). Thus, the collected plants with more therapeutic uses were: Lippia triphylla (12), Thymus vulgaris and Allium roseum (9) and Erygium campestre (8). The most repeated ATC uses were: G04 (urological use), D03 (treatment of wounds and ulcers) and R02 (throat diseases). These results were in a geographic map where each point represented an individual of any species. A database was created with the corresponding therapeutic uses. This application is useful for the identification of individuals and the selection of species for specific medicinal properties. In the end, knowledge of these useful plants may be interesting to revive the local economy and in some cases promote their cultivation. PMID:24146454

  15. Re-examining hypotheses concerning the use and knowledge of medicinal plants: a study in the Caatinga vegetation of NE Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2006-01-01

    Background The Caatinga (dry land vegetation) is one of the most characteristic vegetation types in northeastern Brazil. It occupies a large percentage of the semi-arid region there, and generally supports two major types of economic activity: seasonal agriculture and the harvesting of plant products. However, very little information is available concerning the interaction of people with the plants of the Caatinga. Methods A study was undertaken with the participation of 31 adults from a rural community in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, in order to analyze the patterns of use of medicinal plant resources, and to test a number of hypotheses concerning their use and local knowledge about them. The sources of medicinal plants used by the local community, the differences in oral information concerning the use of plants with their effective uses, and the role of exotic plants in local folk medicine practices were examined. Results Forty-eight plant species were cited as having medicinal uses, of which 56.25% are native to the Caatinga region. The patterns of harvesting and the importance of these trees and shrubs as medicinal plants seem to be compatible with a hypothesis based on the seasonal availability of plant resources. There is no direct correlation between known medicinal plants and those used by the local population, which agrees with observations made in different tropical regions. However, this observation was not interpreted in terms of the idea of "erosion" of knowledge (commonly used to explain this lack of correlation), but rather to propose two new concepts: "mass knowledge" and "stock knowledge". Conclusion Native plants are a very significant component of locally used medicinal plants, although exotic plants are important for treating specific health problems – which leads the proposal of a hypothesis of diversification. PMID:16872499

  16. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanchun; Dao, Zhiling; Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Yitao; Long, Chunlin

    2009-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet) have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. Methods After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Results Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. Conclusion As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant traditional Tibetan

  17. Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

    2006-09-19

    Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

  18. Local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa and access to essential medicines: 'urban bias’ in access to imported medicines in Tanzania and its policy implications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International policy towards access to essential medicines in Africa has focused until recently on international procurement of large volumes of medicines, mainly from Indian manufacturers, and their import and distribution. This emphasis is now being challenged by renewed policy interest in the potential benefits of local pharmaceutical production and supply. However, there is a shortage of evidence on the role of locally produced medicines in African markets, and on potential benefits of local production for access to medicines. This article contributes to filling that gap. Methods This article uses WHO/HAI data from Tanzania for 2006 and 2009 on prices and sources of a set of tracer essential medicines. It employs innovative graphical methods of analysis alongside conventional statistical testing. Results Medicines produced in Tanzania were equally likely to be found in rural and in urban areas. Imported medicines, especially those imported from countries other than Kenya (mainly from India) displayed 'urban bias’: that is, they were significantly more likely to be available in urban than in rural areas. This finding holds across the range of sample medicines studied, and cannot be explained by price differences alone. While different private distribution networks for essential medicines may provide part of the explanation, this cannot explain why the urban bias in availability of imported medicines is also found in the public sector. Conclusions The findings suggest that enhanced local production may improve rural access to medicines. The potential benefits of local production and scope for their improvement are an important field for further research, and indicate a key policy area in which economic development and health care objectives may reinforce each other. PMID:24612518

  19. [Analysis of varieties and standards of Leguminosae plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lan; Du, Xiao-lang; Zhong, Wei-hong; Zhong, Wei-jin; He, Jun-wei; Mu, Ze-jing; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the domestic varieties and quality standard of Leguminosae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine were analyzed. The results showed that there were 36 genera and 142 species (including varieties), as well as 64 medicinal materials varieties of Leguminosae plants were recorded in relevant literatures. In relevant Tibetan standards and literatures, there are great differences in varieties, sources, used parts, and efficacy of medicinal plants. Among them, about 38.0% (including 54 species) of the endemic plants, about 25.4% (including 36 species) of the original plants have medicinal standard legal records, except 9 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine general quality standard more fairly completed, the most varieties have only description about characters, identification, etc. Therefore it is necessary to reinforce study for the herbal textual, resources and the use present situation, chemical components and biological activity, quality standard, medicinal terms specification, to promote establishment of quality standard system for variety-terminologies-sources of Tibetan medicinal plants. PMID:27245043

  20. [Analysis of varieties and standards of Scrophulariaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lan; Mu, Ze-jing; Zhong, Wei-hong; Zhong, Wei-jin; He, Jun-wei; Du, Xiao-lang; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the popular domestic varieties and quality standard of Scrophulariaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine were analyzed. The results showed that there were 11 genera and 99 species (including varieties), as well as 28 medicinal materials varieties of Scrophulariaceae plants were recorded in the relevant literatures. In relevant Tibetan standards arid literatures, there are great differences in varieties, sources, parts, and efficacies of medicinal plant. Among them, about 41.4% (including 41 species) of endemic plants, about 15.2% (including 15 species) of the original plants have medicinal standard legal records, except the medicinal materials of Scrophalaria ningpoensis, Lagotis brevituba, Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Veronica eriogyne general, most varieties have not completed quality standard. Consequently it is necessary to reinforce the herbal textual, resources and the use present situation investigation, the effects of the species resources material foundation and biological activity, quality standard, specification the medical terms of the plants, and promote Tibetan medicinal vareties-terminologies-sources such as the criterion and quality standard system for enriching the varieties of Tibetan medicinal materials and Chinese medicinal resources. PMID:27141684

  1. Antitrypanosomal screening and cytotoxic effects of selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S; Rasedee, A; Mohd-Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2014-03-01

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 μg/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 μg/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:24862048

  2. Medicinal plants referred in Kautilya's Arthaśastra.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Vinod Kumar; Prasad, P V V

    2004-01-01

    Kautilya's Arthaśastra which was written somewhere in 321-300 B.C. on ancient Indian Polity, holds a unique place in Indian history and culture. It was discovered at Tanjavore district of Mysore in Karnataka. The Manuscript of Arthaśastra (Devanagiri script) traced by Sri Munisri Jinavijayajee of Patna. Mr. Shyama Sastry had first published the translated text in 1909 as Volume 37 of the Bibliotheca Sanskrta of Mysore. There are 150 chapters in this work. The author of this work, Kautilya is also known as Visnugupta or Canakya. The author himself in the concluding verse of the Arthaśastra quoted his name as Visnugupta. The later writers on his works also designated his name as Cinakya. It was also translated into German and Russian languages. The plants and herbs having medicinal value were compiled the Arthaśastra to bring out the knowledge of the period and how the people honored, patronized, considered their own indigenous system as a part of their life. Same information is being presented in this article. PMID:17152611

  3. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; García, A; Rodríguez, C A; Rivero, R

    2003-08-01

    The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)<30 micro g/ml in the DPPH radical reduction assay and IC(50)<32 micro g/ml in lipid peroxidation inhibition testing. Pimenta dioica and Curcuma longa L. showed also a 20% inhibition of the in vitro induced z.rad;OH attack to deoxyglucose. Further antimutagenesis assay in Escherichia coli IC 188 evidenced that only Pimenta dioica prevents DNA damage by TBH to the test bacteria. A role of antioxidant enzymes is presumed in this case, as judged by a different response in the isogenic Escherichia coli IC 203 deficient in catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and the discrete inhibition of oxidative mutagenesis also observed when pre-treatment of the extract was assayed. Eugenol, the main constituent of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate. PMID:12860316

  4. Personal networks: a tool for gaining insight into the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean (Austrian) migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigations into knowledge about food and medicinal plants in a certain geographic area or within a specific group are an important element of ethnobotanical research. This knowledge is context specific and dynamic due to changing ecological, social and economic circumstances. Migration processes affect food habits and the knowledge and use of medicinal plants as a result of adaptations that have to be made to new surroundings and changing environments. This study analyses and compares the different dynamics in the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru. Methods A social network approach was used to collect data on personal networks of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyroleans who have migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru and their descendants. A statistical analysis of the personal network maps and a qualitative analysis of the narratives were combined to provide insight into the process of transmitting knowledge about food and medicinal plants. Results 56 personal networks were identified in all (food: 30; medicinal plants: 26) across all the field sites studied here. In both sets of networks, the main source of knowledge is individual people (food: 71%; medicinal plants: 68%). The other sources mentioned are print and audiovisual media, organisations and institutions. Personal networks of food knowledge are larger than personal networks of medicinal plant knowledge in all areas of investigation. Relatives play a major role as transmitters of knowledge in both domains. Conclusions Human sources, especially relatives, play an important role in knowledge transmission in both domains. Reference was made to other sources as well, such as books, television, the internet, schools and restaurants. By taking a personal network approach, this study reveals the mode of transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants within a migrational context. PMID:24398225

  5. Comparative analysis of diosgenin in Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants by UPLC-DAD-MS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dioscorea is a genus of flowering plants, and some Dioscorea species are known and used as a source for the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin. To screen potential resource from Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants for diosgenin extraction, a rapid method to compare the contents of diosgenin in various plants is crucial. Results An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) method was developed for identification and determination of diosgenin in various plants. A comprehensive validation of the developed method was conducted. Twenty-four batches of plant samples from four Dioscorea species, one Smilax species and two Heterosmilax species were analyzed by using the developed method. The present method presented good sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Diosgenin was found in three Dioscorea species and one Heterosmilax species, namely D. zingiberensis, D. septemloba, D. collettii and H. yunnanensis. Conclusion The method is suitable for the screening of diosgenin resources from plants. D. zingiberensis is an important resource for diosgenin harvesting. PMID:25107333

  6. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, μg /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

  7. The soil microbial community predicts the importance of plant traits in plant-soil feedback.

    PubMed

    Ke, Po-Ju; Miki, Takeshi; Ding, Tzung-Su

    2015-04-01

    Reciprocal interaction between plant and soil (plant-soil feedback, PSF) can determine plant community structure. Understanding which traits control interspecific variation of PSF strength is crucial for plant ecology. Studies have highlighted either plant-mediated nutrient cycling (litter-mediated PSF) or plant-microbe interaction (microbial-mediated PSF) as important PSF mechanisms, each attributing PSF variation to different traits. However, this separation neglects the complex indirect interactions between the two mechanisms. We developed a model coupling litter- and microbial-mediated PSFs to identify the relative importance of traits in controlling PSF strength, and its dependency on the composition of root-associated microbes (i.e. pathogens and/or mycorrhizal fungi). Results showed that although plant carbon: nitrogen (C : N) ratio and microbial nutrient acquisition traits were consistently important, the importance of litter decomposability varied. Litter decomposability was not a major PSF determinant when pathogens are present. However, its importance increased with the relative abundance of mycorrhizal fungi as nutrient released from the mycorrhizal-enhanced litter production to the nutrient-depleted soils result in synergistic increase of soil nutrient and mycorrhizal abundance. Data compiled from empirical studies also supported our predictions. We propose that the importance of litter decomposability depends on the composition of root-associated microbes. Our results provide new perspectives in plant invasion and trait-based ecology. PMID:25521190

  8. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between July and September 2011 through semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises and field observations. For the interviews, 72 knowledgeable informants were sampled using purposive sampling method. For the different ranking exercises, key informants were identified with the help of elders and local administrators from informants that were already involved in the interviews. Results The study revealed 114 medicinal plant species belonging to 100 genera and 53 families. The plants were used to treat 47 human and 19 livestock diseases. Of the species, the majority (74%) were obtained from the wild. Herbs were the most utilized plants, accounting for 44% of the species, followed by shrubs (29%). Leaf was the most commonly used plant part accounting for 42.98% of the plants, followed by roots (25.73%). Preference ranking exercise on selected plants used against abdominal pain indicated the highest preference of people for Solanum marginatum. Direct matrix ranking showed Cordia africana as the most preferred multipurpose plant in the community. Preference ranking of selected scarce medicinal plants indicated Myrica salicifolia as the most scarce species, followed by Boscia salicifolia and Acokanthera schimperi. According to priority ranking, drought was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by overgrazing and firewood collection. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still playing significant role in the management of various human and livestock diseases in

  9. Precursors of N-nitroso compounds in some Nigerian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Spiegelhalder, B

    1994-04-29

    Twenty-seven tropical plants of medicinal importance were analysed for primary and secondary amines by chemiluminescence detection on a Thermal Energy Analyzer (TEA) modified for use on 'nitrogen mode' following derivatization with benzene sulphonyl chloride (BSC) and gas chromatographic (GC) separation of their sulphonamides. Nitrite was determined by colorimetry at 540 nm after diazotization with sulphanilamide and coupling with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine to form an azo dye. Nitrate was determined as nitrite following on-line reduction by granulated cadmium. Dimethylamine in the range of 0.5 ppm to 18.2 ppm was detected in 96% of samples, while pyrrolidine ranged between 0.7 ppm and 12.78 ppm in 14 samples. Isobutylamine, methylamine and ethylamine were the most ubiquitous primary amines. Largest number of secondary amines (four) was found in Azadirachta indica (Neem) while largest number of primary amines (six) was detected in Azadirachta indica and Tamarindus indica (Tsamiya) which also contained the highest amount of total primary amines (148.8 ppm). Nitrate and nitrite were seldom found in plant extracts whose pH were generally below 7.0. These findings suggests that early exposures to precursors of N-nitroso compounds via medicinal plants might contribute to total risk posed by environmental carcinogens in Nigeria. PMID:8187049

  10. Antimicrobial biosynthetic potential and genetic diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gohain, Anwesha; Gogoi, Animesh; Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Singh, Bhim P; Gupta, Vijai K; Sharma, Rajeev; Saikia, Ratul

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes are one of the primary groups that share symbiotic relationships with medicinal plants and are key reservoir of biologically active compounds. In this study, six selective medicinal plants were targeted for the first time for endophytic actinomycetes isolation from Gibbon Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam, India, during winter and summer and 76 isolates were obtained. The isolates were found to be prevalent in roots followed by stem and leaves. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 16 genera, including rare genera, Verrucosispora, Isoptericola and Kytococcus, which have never been previously reported as endophytic. The genus Streptomyces (66%) was dominant in both seasons. Shannon's diversity index showed that Azadirachta indica (1.49), Rauwolfia serpentina (1.43) and Emblica officinalis (1.24) were relatively good habitat for endophytic actinomycetes. Antimicrobial strains showed prevalence of polyketide synthase (PKS) type-II (85%) followed by PKS type-I (14%) encoded in the genomes. Expression studies showed 12-fold upregulation of PKSII gene in seventh day of incubation for Streptomyces antibioticus (EAAG90). Our results emphasize that the actinomycetes assemblages within plant tissue exhibited biosynthetic systems encoding for important biologically active compounds. PMID:26347302

  11. Bonellia albiflora: A Mayan Medicinal Plant That Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moo-Puc, Rosa; Chale-Dzul, Juan; Caamal-Fuentes, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have been carried out on the medical flora of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula in search for new therapeutic agents, in particular against cancer. In this paper, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of the extract of Bonellia albiflora, a plant utilized in the traditional Mayan medicine for treatment of chronic injuries of the mouth. We carried out the methanolic extracts of different parts of the plant by means of extraction with the Soxhlet equipment. We conducted liquid-liquid fractions on each extract with solvents of increasing polarity. All extracts and fractions were evaluated for cytotoxic activity versus four human cancer cell lines and one normal cell line through a tetrazolium dye reduction (MTT) assay in 96-well cell culture plates. The methanolic root-bark extract possessed much greater cytotoxic activity in the human oropharyngeal cancer cell line (KB); its hexanic fraction concentrated the active metabolites and induced apoptosis with the activation of caspases 3 and 8. The results demonstrate the cytotoxic potential of the B. albiflora hexanic fraction and substantiate the importance of the study of the traditional Mayan medicinal plants. PMID:23843884

  12. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  13. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  14. Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants’ antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p < 0.01) anti-E. coli activities. Not all medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359

  15. Cadmium induces hypodermal periderm formation in the roots of the monocotyledonous medicinal plant Merwilla plumbea

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Lišková, Desana; Kulkarni, Manoj G.; Stirk, Wendy A.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Merwilla plumbea is an important African medicinal plant. As the plants grow in soils contaminated with metals from mining activities, the danger of human intoxication exists. An experiment with plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) was performed to investigate the response of M. plumbea to this heavy metal, its uptake and translocation to plant organs and reaction of root tissues. Methods Plants grown from seeds were cultivated in controlled conditions. Hydroponic cultivation is not suitable for this species as roots do not tolerate aquatic conditions, and additional stress by Cd treatment results in total root growth inhibition and death. After cultivation in perlite the plants exposed to 1 and 5 mg Cd L−1 in half-strength Hoagland's solution were compared with control plants. Growth parameters were evaluated, Cd content was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and root structure was investigated using various staining procedures, including the fluorescent stain Fluorol yellow 088 to detect suberin deposition in cell walls. Key Results The plants exposed to Cd were significantly reduced in growth. Most of the Cd taken up by plants after 4 weeks cultivation was retained in roots, and only a small amount was translocated to bulbs and leaves. In reaction to higher Cd concentrations, roots developed a hypodermal periderm close to the root tip. Cells produced by cork cambium impregnate their cell walls by suberin. Conclusions It is suggested that the hypodermal periderm is developed in young root parts in reaction to Cd toxicity to protect the root from radial uptake of Cd ions. Secondary meristems are usually not present in monocotyledonous species. Another interpretation explaining formation of protective suberized layers as a result of periclinal divisions of the hypodermis is discussed. This process may represent an as yet unknown defence reaction of roots when exposed to elemental stress. PMID:21118841

  16. [Medicinal plants in France, between pharmacy and herb trade: historical and legislative aspects].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013. PMID:25818399

  17. Genetic transformation of the figwort, Scrophularia buergeriana Miq., an Oriental medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Park, S-U; Chae, Y-A; Facchini, P J

    2003-08-01

    Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. (figwort) contains a diverse group of bioactive natural products and is used to treat a variety of ailments, including fever, constipation, neuritis, and laryngitis. A transformation protocol was established for S. buergeriana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Kanamycin-resistant plants were regenerated from leaf explants co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain GV3101. The shoot regeneration medium was supplemented with 2 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine and 70 mg l(-1) putrescine to improve the efficiency of organogenesis. Detection of the neomycin phosphotransferase gene, the presence of high levels of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) transcripts and enzyme activity, and the histochemical localization of GUS confirmed the genetic transformation of S. buergeriana. This work demonstrates the potential of using A. tumefaciens to efficiently transfer foreign genes into a commercially and culturally important Oriental medicinal plant. PMID:12910369

  18. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Nicasio-Torres, María del Pilar; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Tortoriello, Jaime; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant. PMID:22966243

  19. In vitro biological effects of two anti-diabetic medicinal plants used in Benin as folk medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracts from Polygonum senegalensis (Polygonaceae) and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Meliaceae) are two important traditionally used medicinal plants in rural Benin to treat many diseases and notably type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of those plants extract: Polygonum senegalensis leaves, and Pseudocedrela kotschyi root. Methods Hydro-alcoholic (50%) extracts were analyzed for their phytochemical content and tested for their inhibition potency on α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antioxidant activities were assessed using the DPPH, ORAC, FRAP and DCFH-DA (cell based) assay. Finally, the antibacterial activity was evaluated using MIC determination on four Gram-positive cocci (Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus), three Gram-negative bacilli (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and the yeast Candida albicans. Results Each extract presented significant α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activities. Polygonum senegalensis leaf extracts were the most active in each in vitro assay with an IC50 = 1.5 μg/ml for α-glucosidase inhibition and an IC50 = 6.8 μg/ml for DPPH scavenging, - 4.5 μmol Fe II/g of dry matter - 9366 μmol Trolox / g DW - for FRAP and ORAC values, respectively. IC50 = 2.3 μg GA / ml for DCFH-DA assay. Concerning its antibacterial activity, a growth inhibitory effect was observed only against three Gram negative bacilli: B. subtilis, E. faecalis, S. aureus and the yeast C. albicans at high concentration. Conclusion The results showed that the semi alcoholic extract of the two studied plants possess α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, antioxidant potency, and low antibacterial effect. PMID:23452899

  20. Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to its diverse geographical and habitat conditions, northern Pakistan harbors a wealth of medicinal plants. The plants and their traditional use are part of the natural and cultural heritage of the region. This study was carried out to document which medicinal plant species and which plant parts are used in the region of Swat, which syndrome categories are particularly concerned, and which habitat spectrum is frequented by collectors. Finally, we assessed to which extent medicinal plants are vulnerable due to collection and habitat destruction. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in the Miandam area of Swat, North Pakistan. Data were collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and locals by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires. Results A total of 106 ethno-medicinal plant species belonging to 54 plant families were recorded. The most common growth forms were perennial (43%) and short-lived herbs (23%), shrubs (16%), and trees (15%). Most frequently used plant parts were leaves (24%), fruits (18%) and subterranean parts (15%). A considerable proportion of the ethno-medicinal plant species and remedies concerns gastro-intestinal disorders. The remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction or powder and were mainly taken orally. Eighty out of 106 ethno-medicinal plants were indigenous. Almost 50% of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while slightly more than 50% were found in semi-natural, though extensively grazed, woodland and grassland vegetation. Three species (Aconitum violaceum, Colchicum luteum, Jasminum humile) must be considered vulnerable due to excessive collection. Woodlands are the main source for non-synanthropic indigenous medicinal plants. The latter include many range-restricted taxa and plants of which rhizomes and other subterranean parts are dug out for further processing as medicine. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still widely used for treatment

  1. The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of

  2. Valorizing the 'Irulas' traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest, India

    PubMed Central

    Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Newmaster, Steven G

    2009-01-01

    A mounting body of critical research is raising the credibility of Traditional Knowledge (TK) in scientific studies. These studies have gained credibility because their claims are supported by methods that are repeatable and provide data for quantitative analyses that can be used to assess confidence in the results. The theoretical importance of our study is to test consensus (reliability/replicable) of TK within one ancient culture; the Irulas of the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest (KRF), India. We calculated relative frequency (RF) and consensus factor (Fic) of TK from 120 Irulas informants knowledgeable of medicinal plants. Our research indicates a high consensus of the Irulas TK concerning medicinal plants. The Irulas revealed a diversity of plants that have medicinal and nutritional utility in their culture and specific ethnotaxa used to treat a variety of illnesses and promote general good health in their communities. Throughout history aboriginal people have been the custodians of bio-diversity and have sustained healthy life-styles in an environmentally sustainable manner. However this knowledge has not been transferred to modern society. We suggest this may be due to the asymmetry between scientific and TK, which demands a new approach that considers the assemblage of TK and scientific knowledge. A greater understanding of TK is beginning to emerge based on our research with both the Irulas and Malasars; they believe that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment. These aboriginal groups chose to share this knowledge with society-at-large in order to promote a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability. PMID:19366462

  3. Uses of medicinal plants by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Gabriele; Godínez, Daimy; Beyra, Angela; Barreto, Adelaida

    2009-01-01

    Background Haitian migrants played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted to collect information on medicinal plant use by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba. Methods Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with Haitian immigrants and their descendants, direct observations, and by reviewing reports of traditional Haitian medicine in the literature. Results Informants reported using 123 plant species belonging to 112 genera in 63 families. Haitian immigrants and their descendants mainly decoct or infuse aerial parts and ingest them, but medicinal baths are also relevant. Some 22 herbal mixtures are reported, including formulas for a preparation obtained using the fruit of Crescentia cujete. Cultural aspects related to traditional plant posology are addressed, as well as changes and adaptation of Haitian medicinal knowledge with emigration and integration over time. Conclusion The rapid disappearance of Haitian migrants' traditional culture due to integration and urbanization suggests that unrecorded ethnomedicinal information may be lost forever. Given this, as well as the poor availability of ethnobotanical data relating to traditional Haitian medicine, there is an urgent need to record this knowledge. PMID:19450279

  4. Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants Used by the Basotho Tribe of Eastern Free State: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Balogun, Fatai Oladunni; Tshabalala, Natu Thomas; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Various treatment options particularly the usage of herbs have been effective against diabetes because they have no adverse effects. Interestingly, South Africa, especially the Basotho tribe, is blessed with numerous medicinal plants whose usage in the treatment of DM has been effective since the conventional drugs are expensive and often unaffordable. The present study attempted to update the various scientific evidence on the twenty-three (23) plants originating from different parts of the world but widely used by the Sotho people in the management of DM. Asteraceae topped the list of sixteen (16) plant families and remained the most investigated according to this review. Although limited information was obtained on the antidiabetic activities of these plants, it is however anticipated that government parastatals and scientific communities will pay more attention to these plants in future research. PMID:27437404

  5. Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants Used by the Basotho Tribe of Eastern Free State: A Review.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Fatai Oladunni; Tshabalala, Natu Thomas; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Various treatment options particularly the usage of herbs have been effective against diabetes because they have no adverse effects. Interestingly, South Africa, especially the Basotho tribe, is blessed with numerous medicinal plants whose usage in the treatment of DM has been effective since the conventional drugs are expensive and often unaffordable. The present study attempted to update the various scientific evidence on the twenty-three (23) plants originating from different parts of the world but widely used by the Sotho people in the management of DM. Asteraceae topped the list of sixteen (16) plant families and remained the most investigated according to this review. Although limited information was obtained on the antidiabetic activities of these plants, it is however anticipated that government parastatals and scientific communities will pay more attention to these plants in future research. PMID:27437404

  6. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of various skin disorders by a rural community in northern Maputaland, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    allopathic medicine by most of the interviewees strengthens previous studies on the importance that traditional medicine can have in the primary health care system in this rural community. Studies to validate the potential of these plants independently and in their various combinations is underway to provide insight into the anti-infective role of each plant. PMID:23870616

  7. Medicinal wild plant knowledge and gathering patterns in a Mapuche community from North-western Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Estomba, Diego; Ladio, Ana; Lozada, Mariana

    2006-01-01

    Medicinal plant use has persisted as a long standing tradition in the Mapuche communities of Southern Argentina and Chile. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the rural Curruhuinca community located near the mountain city of San Martin de los Andes, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were carried out on 22 families in order to examine the present use of medicinal plants and their reputed therapeutic effects. Ecological variables, such as distance to the gathering site and biogeographical origin were also analyzed. Our results showed that the Curruhuinca dwellers cited 89 plant species for medicinal purposes, both of native and exotic origin. They know about 47 native plants, of which they use 40, and they know of 42 exotic medicinal plants of which they use 34. A differential pattern was observed given that only native species, relevant for the traditional Mapuche medicine, were collected at more distant gathering sites. The interviewees mentioned 268 plant usages. Those most frequently reported had therapeutic value for treating digestive ailments (33%), as analgesic/anti-inflammatory (25%) and antitusive (13%). Native species were mainly cited as analgesics, and for gynecological, urinary and "cultural syndrome" effects, whereas exotic species were mainly cited for digestive ailments. The total number of medicinal plants known and used by the interviewees was positively correlated with people's age, indicating that this ancient knowledge tends to disappear in the younger generations. PMID:16157460

  8. The root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering, higher biomass and altered secondary metabolites of the medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aparajita; Kamal, Shwet; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar; Varma, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of plant probiotic fungus Piriformospora indica on the medicinal plant C. forskohlii. Interaction of the C. forskohlii with the root endophyte P. indica under field conditions, results in an overall increase in aerial biomass, chlorophyll contents and phosphorus acquisition. The fungus also promoted inflorescence development, consequently the amount of p-cymene in the inflorescence increased. Growth of the root thickness was reduced in P. indica treated plants as they became fibrous, but developed more lateral roots. Because of the smaller root biomass, the content of forskolin was decreased. The symbiotic interaction of C. forskohlii with P. indica under field conditions promoted biomass production of the aerial parts of the plant including flower development. The plant aerial parts are important source of metabolites for medicinal application. Therefore we suggest that the use of the root endophyte fungus P. indica in sustainable agriculture will enhance the medicinally important chemical production. PMID:22301976

  9. Acute toxicity and mutagenic activity of Mexican plants used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; Navarrete, Andrés; Mata, Rachel

    2007-03-21

    The present work was undertaken to determine safety parameters of selected Mexican medicinal plants chosen on the basis of their frequency of medicinal use and commercial importance. The medicinal herbs included Amphipteryngium adstringens, Hintonia standleyana, Hintonia latiflora, Piper sanctum, Haemathoxylon brasiletto, Iostephane heterophylla, Valeriana procera, Arracacia tolucensis, Brickellia veronicaefolia, Scaphyglottis livida, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri, Poliomintha longiflora and Gnaphalium sp. In the acute toxicity studies in mice performed according to the Lorke procedure, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri and Poliomintha longiflora were the most toxic with LD(50) values between 1085 and 2mg/kg. The Ames test revealed that Gnaphalium sp. and Valeriana procera extracts induced mutations of S. typhimurium TA98 with or without the S9 microsomal fraction, and TA100 in the presence of the enzymatic fraction, respectively. The tincture of Valeriana procera, however, was non-mutagenic. Finally, in the Artemia salina lethality test Brickellia veronicaefolia, Arracacia tolucensis, Poliomintha longiflora and Piper sanctum caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC(50) in the range of 37-227 microg/mL. PMID:17101253

  10. Characterization of phenolic compounds in flowers of wild medicinal plants from Northeastern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2012-05-01

    Crataegus monogyna, Cytisus multiflorus, Malva sylvestris and Sambucus nigra have been used as important medicinal plants in the Iberian Peninsula since a long time ago, and are claimed to have various health benefits. This study aimed to determine the phenolic profile and composition of wild medicinal flowers of those species. The analysis was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Flavonoids, and particularly flavonols and flavones, were the main groups in almost all the studied samples. C. multiflorus sample gave the highest levels of total flavonoids (54.5 mg/gdw), being a chrysin derivative the most abundant flavone found (22.3 mg/gdw). C. monogyna revealed the highest concentration in phenolic acids (5.5 mg/gdw) that were not found in C. multiflorus sample; 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid found in the first species, being a procyanidin trimer also found (1.4 mg/gdw). Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (0.84 mg/gdw) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (14.9 mg/gdw) were the main flavonols present in M. sylvestris and S. nigra, respectively. Due to the well established antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds, the studied wild medicinal flowers could be selected for processing extracts with health-promoting properties or to be incorporate into functional beverages or products with bioactive properties related to oxidative stress. PMID:22342808

  11. Importance of anchor genomes for any plant genome project

    PubMed Central

    Messing, Joachim; Llaca, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Progress in agricultural and environmental technologies is hampered by a slower rate of gene discovery in plants than animals. The vast pool of genes in plants, however, will be an important resource for insertion of genes, via biotechnological procedures, into an array of plants, generating unique germ plasms not achievable by conventional breeding. It just became clear that genomes of grasses have evolved in a manner analogous to Lego blocks. Large chromosome segments have been reshuffled and stuffer pieces added between genes. Although some genomes have become very large, the genome with the fewest stuffer pieces, the rice genome, is the Rosetta Stone of all the bigger grass genomes. This means that sequencing the rice genome as anchor genome of the grasses will provide instantaneous access to the same genes in the same relative physical position in other grasses (e.g., corn and wheat), without the need to sequence each of these genomes independently. (i) The sequencing of the entire genome of rice as anchor genome for the grasses will accelerate plant gene discovery in many important crops (e.g., corn, wheat, and rice) by several orders of magnitudes and reduce research and development costs for government and industry at a faster pace. (ii) Costs for sequencing entire genomes have come down significantly. Because of its size, rice is only 12% of the human or the corn genome, and technology improvements by the human genome project are completely transferable, translating in another 50% reduction of the costs. (iii) The physical mapping of the rice genome by a group of Japanese researchers provides a jump start for sequencing the genome and forming an international consortium. Otherwise, other countries would do it alone and own proprietary positions. PMID:9482827

  12. Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n = 74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (≤ 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and

  13. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    found to be leaves (123 species), stems (55), fruits (28), roots (17), and bark (14). No differences were noted in the number of medicinal plant species identified among people, but differences were significant in their knowledge with respect to the number of uses among people of the three municipalities studied; people from both, scrublands and oak-pine forest know similar number of species and number of uses. Men and women of the three different municipalities knew statistically the same number of species and number of uses. There was no correlation between resident’s age and number of species known and resident’s age and number of uses either in Galeana or in Aramberri, but, there was high correlation among these variables in Zaragoza. Conclusion In southern Nuevo León people use at least 5% of the total State flora as medicinal plants, and most of these species are included in few plant families. Most of medicinal species are wild and indigenous to the region. The two most important major plant communities, scrublands and oak-pine forest provide almost the same number of medicinal species. A third of the medicinal flora recorded are used in all three municipalities, most of them are wild. Leaves, stems and fruits are the plant parts most commonly used for healing, and boiling is the most common method used for this purpose. Men and women from the three municipalities are familiar with nearly the same number of species; however, their knowledge of the number of uses varies significantly. In Galeana and Aramberri there was no correlation between a person’s age and number of species recognized, however, in Zaragoza, there existed a high correlation between these two factors. PMID:23231862

  14. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekalo, Tesfaye Hailemariam; Woodmatas, Sebsebe Demissew; Woldemariam, Zemede Asfaw

    2009-01-01

    Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District); it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach. Results A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3%) and 14 (12%) species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6%) are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90%) were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5%) for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5%) were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8%) followed by fire (22.3%) and construction (19%). Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34) were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community), which accounted for 61.8%. Conclusion Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process of threatening

  15. Importance of Gravity for Plant Growth and Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Flight experiments on the importance of gravity to plant growth and behavior are reported. The following studies were undertaken: (1) hyperastic responses to incremental changes of an axially imposed centripetal force; (2) Spacelab-1 experiments, methods for preparing soil in flight hardware containers were impound, to ensure desired moisture content and minimal contamination probability; (3) mesocotyl growth patterns were established by Avena lore exposure to red light during early seedling outogency; (4) the development of flight hardware; (5) choice of member of seedlings in each cube; (6) data processing and reduction; (7) clinostat validation; circummutation in space was more vigorous than on Earth based clinostat.

  16. Cameroonian medicinal plants: a bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey and chemotaxonomic classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Cameroon herbs are traditionally used to meet health care needs and plans are on the way to integrate traditional medicine in the health care system, even though the plans have not been put into action yet. The country however has a rich biodiversity, with ~8,620 plant species, some of which are commonly used in the treatment of several microbial infections and a range of diseases (malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, diabetes and tuberculosis). Methods Our survey consisted in collecting published data from the literature sources, mainly from PhD theses in Cameroonian university libraries and also using the author queries in major natural product and medicinal chemistry journals. The collected data includes plant sources, uses of plant material in traditional medicine, plant families, region of collection of plant material, isolated metabolites and type (e.g. flavonoid, terpenoid, etc.), measured biological activities of isolated compounds, and any comments on significance of isolated metabolites on the chemotaxonomic classification of the plant species. This data was compiled on a excel sheet and analysed. Results In this study, a literature survey led to the collection of data on 2,700 secondary metabolites, which have been previously isolated or derived from Cameroonian medicinal plants. This represents distinct phytochemicals derived from 312 plant species belonging to 67 plant families. The plant species are investigated in terms of chemical composition with respect to the various plant families. A correlation between the known biological activities of isolated compounds and the ethnobotanical uses of the plants is also attempted. Insight into future direction for natural product search within the Cameroonian forest and Savanna is provided. Conclusions It can be verified that a phytochemical search of active secondary metabolites, which is inspired by knowledge from the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants could be very vital in a drug

  17. Nitrosation of Nigerian medicinal plant preparations under 'chemical' and 'simulated' gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Lamorde, A G; Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1995-01-01

    Preparations of some tropical plants of medicinal importance, collected from the savannah vegetational belt of Nigeria, were nitrosated and analysed for volatile N-nitrosamines formed under chemical and simulated gastric conditions. N-Nitrosamines were determined on a Thermal Energy Analyser following gas chromatographic separation. Mean concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the range of 7 to 58 ppb and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in the range of 23 to 26 ppb were formed in 31 and 7%, respectively, of the preparations using artificial gastric juice (simulated gastric condition). Under chemically optimal conditions, relatively high levels of NDMA (72-2008 ppb), NDEA (23-1528 ppb) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (20-405 ppb) were formed in 100, 75 and 32% of the preparations, respectively; N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine were formed in fewer preparations. These findings suggest that the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds from precursors present in medicinal plants might be another source of human exposure to environmental carcinogens in Nigeria and other developing countries. PMID:7821876

  18. Diversity and Taxonomy of Endophytic Xylariaceous Fungi from Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Xing, Yong-Mei; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Da-Wei; Liang, Han-Qiao; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa) were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery. PMID:23472167

  19. [Distribution and growing possibilities of the medicinal woody plants in Lithuania].

    PubMed

    Baroniene, Valerija; Liagiene, Danguole

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the work was to collect and to publicize data about distribution and growing possibilities of native, introduced and suitable for introduction woody plants, containing some established medicinal properties, as a resource of material for medicinal preparations. It was established that 748 species of medicinal woody plants could be grown under Lithuanian climatic conditions: there are 65 native species of medicinal trees and shrubs, 421 introduced species and in addition 262 species of woody plants can be introduced. Out of all these plants, 368 species (49%) can be easily propagated and grown and are winter-hardy. The growing of 285 species (38%) is more difficult to some degree because of their more complicated propagation or care or less hardiness. Ninety-five species (13%) can be grown only in specialized collections. Thus, there are 262 species of woody medicinal plants, which can be introduced into Lithuania. In total 368 species of woody plants are promising as the resources of medicinal preparations in a broad scale and 285 species have medium perspectives. PMID:15299986

  20. Evaluation of mycotoxins, mycobiota, and toxigenic fungi in selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Arshad; Bashir, Shumaila; Hussain, Mubbashir

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used worldwide to treat a variety of ailments. Due to the provenance of medicinal plants, they are subjected to contamination by moulds, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The investigation was designed to throw light on mycological and mycotoxicological status of some medicinal plants from Pakistan and the result showed 30 % and 26.7 % samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Mould contamination was present in 90 % samples, of which 70 % exceeded the permissible limits. Opium poppy, licorice root, and Indian rennet were most contaminated samples. The predominant moulds found were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium spp. and 31 % of the 47 isolates tested were found to be toxigenic. The findings indicate that the contamination in the medicinal plants may contribute to adverse human health problems. This information would prove helpful for regulatory agencies to establish limits for these contaminants in medicinal plants and will explore ways for export of herbal products to countries where more stringent permissible limits of mycotoxins exist. The study is first of its kind in the country reporting natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants in Pakistan. PMID:25209636

  1. Effect of some plants' extracts used in Sudanese folkloric medicines on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Muddathir, Abd Elkhaliq; El-Tahir, Kamal; Khan, Azmat Ali; Algadir, Haidar Abd; Osman, Wadah Jamal Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Investigations for anti-inflammatory potential and categorization of Sudanese medicinal plants according to their potency. Anti-inflammatory effect of plants' extracts of 17 genera were studied using the carrageenan induced inflammation in rats' paws. The plant extracts were obtained using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent and administered intra peritoneally at the concentration of 2g/kg body weight. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of these Sudanese medicinal plants to treat various inflammatory diseases. 63.9% of plants extracts showed marked inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (78.3% out of this percentage represented by methanolic extract), 27.8% showed no activity and 8.3% enhanced the carrageenan induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of many of these plants has not been reported previously, yet they have been extensively used in Sudanese folkloric medicine. The result of this study justify the traditional medicinal use of the evaluated plants species in treating inflammatory disorders and helped in categorizing the investigated plants into most useful, moderately useful and least useful category for inflammatory diseases. Out of the 17 investigated plant species 05 belongs to most useful and 06 belongs to moderately useful category. However, toxicity studies are required to prove the safety of these plant materials. PMID:25553680

  2. Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

  3. Development of Transcriptomic Resources for Interrogating the Biosynthesis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids in Medicinal Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Childs, Kevin L.; Fedewa, Greg; Hamilton, John P.; Liscombe, David K.; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Mandadi, Kranthi K.; Nims, Ezekiel; Runguphan, Weerawat; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Varbanova-Herde, Marina; DellaPenna, Dean; McKnight, Thomas D.; O’Connor, Sarah; Buell, C. Robin

    2012-01-01

    The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs), includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer (vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin), hypertension (reserpine, ajmalicine), malaria (quinine), and as analgesics (7-hydroxymitragynine). Our understanding of the biochemical pathways that synthesize these commercially relevant compounds is incomplete due in part to a lack of molecular, genetic, and genomic resources for the identification of the genes involved in these specialized metabolic pathways. To address these limitations, we generated large-scale transcriptome sequence and expression profiles for three species of Asterids that produce medicinally important MIAs: Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus, and Rauvolfia serpentina. Using next generation sequencing technology, we sampled the transcriptomes of these species across a diverse set of developmental tissues, and in the case of C. roseus, in cultured cells and roots following elicitor treatment. Through an iterative assembly process, we generated robust transcriptome assemblies for all three species with a substantial number of the assembled transcripts being full or near-full length. The majority of transcripts had a related sequence in either UniRef100, the Arabidopsis thaliana predicted proteome, or the Pfam protein domain database; however, we also identified transcripts that lacked similarity with entries in either database and thereby lack a known function. Representation of known genes within the MIA biosynthetic pathway was robust. As a diverse set of tissues and treatments were surveyed, expression abundances of transcripts in the three species could be estimated to reveal transcripts associated with development and response to elicitor treatment. Together, these transcriptomes and expression abundance matrices provide a rich resource for

  4. Development of transcriptomic resources for interrogating the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids in medicinal plant species.

    PubMed

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Childs, Kevin L; Fedewa, Greg; Hamilton, John P; Liscombe, David K; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Mandadi, Kranthi K; Nims, Ezekiel; Runguphan, Weerawat; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Varbanova-Herde, Marina; Dellapenna, Dean; McKnight, Thomas D; O'Connor, Sarah; Buell, C Robin

    2012-01-01

    The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs), includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer (vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin), hypertension (reserpine, ajmalicine), malaria (quinine), and as analgesics (7-hydroxymitragynine). Our understanding of the biochemical pathways that synthesize these commercially relevant compounds is incomplete due in part to a lack of molecular, genetic, and genomic resources for the identification of the genes involved in these specialized metabolic pathways. To address these limitations, we generated large-scale transcriptome sequence and expression profiles for three species of Asterids that produce medicinally important MIAs: Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus, and Rauvolfia serpentina. Using next generation sequencing technology, we sampled the transcriptomes of these species across a diverse set of developmental tissues, and in the case of C. roseus, in cultured cells and roots following elicitor treatment. Through an iterative assembly process, we generated robust transcriptome assemblies for all three species with a substantial number of the assembled transcripts being full or near-full length. The majority of transcripts had a related sequence in either UniRef100, the Arabidopsis thaliana predicted proteome, or the Pfam protein domain database; however, we also identified transcripts that lacked similarity with entries in either database and thereby lack a known function. Representation of known genes within the MIA biosynthetic pathway was robust. As a diverse set of tissues and treatments were surveyed, expression abundances of transcripts in the three species could be estimated to reveal transcripts associated with development and response to elicitor treatment. Together, these transcriptomes and expression abundance matrices provide a rich resource for

  5. De novo Assembly of Leaf Transcriptome in the Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Divate, Mayur; Mittapelli, Suresh R.; Khareedu, Venkateswara R.; Vudem, Dashavantha R.

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant containing various bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids. Despite its importance in herbal medicine, no ready-to-use transcript sequence information of this plant is made available in the public data base, this study mainly deals with the sequencing of RNA from A. paniculata leaf using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform followed by the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 189.22 million high quality paired reads were generated and 1,70,724 transcripts were predicted in the primary assembly. Secondary assembly generated a transcriptome size of ~88 Mb with 83,800 clustered transcripts. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 49,363 transcripts were annotated constituting upto 58.91% of the identified unigenes. Annotation of transcripts—using kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database—revealed 5606 transcripts plausibly involved in 140 pathways including biosynthesis of terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor analysis showed 6767 unique transcripts belonging to 97 different transcription factor families. A total number of 124 CYP450 transcripts belonging to seven divergent clans have been identified. Transcriptome revealed 146 different transcripts coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids of which 35 contained terpene synthase motifs. This study also revealed 32,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 23,168 transcripts. Assembled sequences of transcriptome of A. paniculata generated in this study are made available, for the first time, in the TSA database, which provides useful information for functional and comparative genomic analysis besides identification of key enzymes involved in the various pathways of secondary metabolism. PMID:27582746

  6. De novo Assembly of Leaf Transcriptome in the Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Divate, Mayur; Mittapelli, Suresh R; Khareedu, Venkateswara R; Vudem, Dashavantha R

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant containing various bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids. Despite its importance in herbal medicine, no ready-to-use transcript sequence information of this plant is made available in the public data base, this study mainly deals with the sequencing of RNA from A. paniculata leaf using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform followed by the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 189.22 million high quality paired reads were generated and 1,70,724 transcripts were predicted in the primary assembly. Secondary assembly generated a transcriptome size of ~88 Mb with 83,800 clustered transcripts. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 49,363 transcripts were annotated constituting upto 58.91% of the identified unigenes. Annotation of transcripts-using kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database-revealed 5606 transcripts plausibly involved in 140 pathways including biosynthesis of terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor analysis showed 6767 unique transcripts belonging to 97 different transcription factor families. A total number of 124 CYP450 transcripts belonging to seven divergent clans have been identified. Transcriptome revealed 146 different transcripts coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids of which 35 contained terpene synthase motifs. This study also revealed 32,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 23,168 transcripts. Assembled sequences of transcriptome of A. paniculata generated in this study are made available, for the first time, in the TSA database, which provides useful information for functional and comparative genomic analysis besides identification of key enzymes involved in the various pathways of secondary metabolism. PMID:27582746

  7. Medicinal plants used by the Yi ethnic group: a case study in central Yunnan

    PubMed Central

    Long, Chunlin; Li, Sumei; Long, Bo; Shi, Yana; Liu, Benxi

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnomedicinal investigation conducted from 1999–2002 in Chuxiong, central Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The Yi medicine has made a great contribution to the ethnomedicinal field in China. Neither case studies nor integrated inventories have previously been conducted to investigate the traditional Yi plants. This paper aims to argue the status and features of medicinal plants used in traditional Yi societies through a case study. Methods The approaches of ethnobotany, anthropology, and participatory rural appraisal were used in the field surveys. Twenty-two informants in four counties were interviewed during eight field trips. Medicinal plant specimens were identified according to taxonomic methods. Results One hundred sixteen medicinal plant species were found to be useful by the local people in the treatment of various diseases or disorders, especially those relating to trauma, gastrointestinal disorders and the common cold. Among these 116 species, 25 species (21.55%) were found to have new curative effects and 40 species (34.48%) were recorded for their new preparation methods; 55 different species were used in treating wounds and fractures, and 47 were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Traditional Yi herbal medicines are characterized by their numerous quantities of herbaceous plants and their common preparation with alcohol. Conclusion Totally 116 species in 58 families of medicinal plants traditionally used by the Yi people were inventoried and documented. The characteristics of medicinal plants were analyzed. Some new findings (such as new curative effects and new preparation methods) were recorded These newly gathered ethnobotanical and medicinal data are precious sources for the future development of new drugs, and for further phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:19389251

  8. Medicinal Plants Used in Mali for the Treatment of Malaria and Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Haidara, Mahamane; Bourdy, Geneviève; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Braca, Alessandra; Traore, Korotoumou; Giani, Sergio; Sanogo, Rokia

    2016-03-01

    Today, ethno-pharmacology is a very important resource in order to discover new therapies for the current diseases. Moreover, another good justification for the ethno-pharmacological approach is to obtain new, effective, less expensive and simple therapies, limiting at the same time the cost of pharmaceutical research. Two major anti-malarial drugs widely used today, i.e. quinine and artemisinin, came respectively from Peruvian and Chinese ancestral treatments reported in the traditional medicines. In this contest, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new drugs, due to the critical epidemiological situation of this disease and to the growth of resistances. In Mali, malaria and liver diseases remain one of the leading public health problems. Many medicinal plants are often used, in local traditional medicine, for the treatment at the same time of malaria and liver diseases, including hepatic syndromes, jaundice, hepatitis and other hepatic disorders. Moreover, in the local language Bamanan, the word "Sumaya" is used both for malaria and some liver diseases. In addition, we noted that some of the improved traditional phytomedicines produced by the Department of Traditional Medicine are prescribed by modern doctors both for malaria and liver diseases. In this review, pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical data on Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae), Cochlospermum tinctorium Perr. ex A. Rich (Cochlospermaceae), Combretum micranthum G.Don (Combretaceae), Entada africana Guillet Perr. (Mimosaceae), Erythrina senegalensis A. DC (Fabaceae), Mitragyna inermis (Willd) Kuntze (Rubiaceae), Nauclea latifolia Smith syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce (Rubiaceae), Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Polygalaceae), Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae), and Vernonia colorata (Willd) Drake (Asteraceae) are reported. Some of the collected data could be used to improve the actual herbal drugs and to propose new phytomedicines for the management of malaria and

  9. World Trade in Medicinal Plants from Spanish America, 1717–1815

    PubMed Central

    Gänger, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global ‘spread’ of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their ‘exotic’ charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437

  10. Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2003-03-01

    Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains unexplored. In a few cases, active chemical constituents were identified. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon, Symplocos racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica, Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental models. This paper presents a limited review of plants used in Ayurvedic medicine. PMID:15866825

  11. Exploring the potential of endophytes from medicinal plants as sources of antimycobacterial compounds.

    PubMed

    Alvin, Alfonsus; Miller, Kristin I; Neilan, Brett A

    2014-01-01

    Natural product drug discovery has regained interest due to low production costs, structural diversity, and multiple uses of active compounds to treat various diseases. Attention has been directed towards medicinal plants as these plants have been traditionally used for generations to treat symptoms of numerous diseases. It is established that plants harbour microorganisms, collectively known as endophytes. Exploring the as-yet untapped natural products from the endophytes increases the chances of finding novel compounds. The concept of natural products targeting microbial pathogens has been applied to isolate novel antimycobacterial compounds, and the rapid development of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has significantly increased the need for new treatments against this pathogen. It remains important to continuously screen for novel compounds from natural sources, particularly from rarely encountered microorganisms, such as the endophytes. This review focuses on bioprospecting for polyketides and small peptides exhibiting antituberculosis activity, although current treatments against tuberculosis are described. It is established that natural products from these structure classes are often biosynthesised by microorganisms. Therefore it is hypothesised that some bioactive polyketides and peptides originally isolated from plants are in fact produced by their endophytes. This is of interest for further endophyte natural product investigations. PMID:24582778

  12. 7 CFR 301.11 - Notice of quarantine; prohibition on the interstate movement of certain imported plants and plant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... movement of certain imported plants and plant parts. 301.11 Section 301.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Imported Plants and Plant Parts § 301.11 Notice of quarantine; prohibition...

  13. Plant pigments (antioxidants) of medicinal plants Malva silvestris L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Redzić, Sulejman; Hodzić, Nizama; Tuka, Mijat

    2005-05-01

    Qualitative-quantitative structure of plant pigments in wild plants Malva silvestrs L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae), which were collected in 20 locations in Sarajevo area and surroundings, was tested during spring and summer in 2003. Acetone extracts of both categories were made and rising paper-chromatography done for the purpose of qualitative analysis. Quantitative analysis was done by spectrophotometry. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and xanthophylls presence was confirmed by separation of pigments from acetone extract of these plant species. Spectrophotometric analysis of acetone extracts showed these results (given in mg/L): chlorophyll a 2,386, chlorophyll b 0,332 and carrotenoides 1,037. Data given in mg/g dry substance are: chlorophyll a 1,193x10(-2), chlorophyll b 1,66x10(-3), and carrotenoides 5,185x10(-3). Pigments structure (in mg/L) in species Malva moschata is 1,6 for chlorophyll; 1,419 for chlorophyll b; and 0,364 for carrotenoides. Data given in mg/g are: chlorophyll a 8x10(-3), chlorophyll b 7,09x10(-3), and carrotenoides 1,82x10(-3). Considering that species Malva moschata L. grows on ecologically clear soils as opposed to well-known medicinal species Malva sylvestris L., and considering the production of phytomass, phytochemical structure and pharmacological influence it can be considered very medical and be given advantage over this wider spread category. PMID:16053456

  14. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain

    PubMed Central

    Belda, Antonio; Peiró, Victoriano; Seva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge. PMID:22611428

  15. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Belda, Antonio; Peiró, Victoriano; Seva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge. PMID:22611428

  16. Local knowledge in community-based approaches to medicinal plant conservation: lessons from India

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shailesh; Gardner, James

    2006-01-01

    Background Community-based approaches to conservation of natural resources, in particular medicinal plants, have attracted attention of governments, non governmental organizations and international funding agencies. This paper highlights the community-based approaches used by an Indian NGO, the Rural Communes Medicinal Plant Conservation Centre (RCMPCC). The RCMPCC recognized and legitimized the role of local medicinal knowledge along with other knowledge systems to a wider audience, i.e. higher levels of government. Methods Besides a review of relevant literature, the research used a variety of qualitative techniques, such as semi-structured, in-depth interviews and participant observations in one of the project sites of RCMPCC. Results The review of local medicinal plant knowledge systems reveals that even though medicinal plants and associated knowledge systems (particularly local knowledge) are gaining wider recognition at the global level, the efforts to recognize and promote the un-codified folk systems of medicinal knowledge are still inadequate. In country like India, such neglect is evident through the lack of legal recognition and supporting policies. On the other hand, community-based approaches like local healers' workshops or village biologist programs implemented by RCMPCC are useful in combining both local (folk and codified) and formal systems of medicine. Conclusion Despite the high reliance on the local medicinal knowledge systems for health needs in India, the formal policies and national support structures are inadequate for traditional systems of medicine and almost absent for folk medicine. On the other hand, NGOs like the RCMPCC have demonstrated that community-based and local approaches such as local healer's workshops and village biologist program can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge with the formal sciences (in this case botany and ecology) and generate positive impacts at various levels. PMID:16603082

  17. Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinal plants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinal plants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL) value was calculated for each claimed medicinal plant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinal plants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinal plants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinal plants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major

  18. Anti-tumor activity of Phyllanthus niruri (a medicinal plant) on chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Verma, Preeti; Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, P K

    2009-01-01

    Chemoprevention is an important strategy to control the process of carcinogenesis. The potential of using medicinal herbs as cancer chemopreventive nutraceuticals and functional food is promising. Thus, there is a need for exploring drugs/agents which act as chemopreventive agents. Phyllanthus niruri is a well known medicinal plant which has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as hepatoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, analgesic, antispasmodic and antidiabetic. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of the whole plant, in 7-9 week old male Swiss albino mice, on the two stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by a single topical application of 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a)anthracene (100 microg/100 microl acetone) and two weeks later promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/three times a week) till the end of experiment (16 weeks). The oral administration of P. niruri at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/b.wt. at peri- (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application) and post- (i.e. starting from the croton oil application) initiational phase of papillomagenesis caused significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burden and cumulative number of papillomas as compared to carcinogen-treated controls. Furthermore, the average latent period was significantly increased in the PNE treated group. The results thus suggest that P. niruri extract exhibits significant anti-tumor activity, which supports the traditional medicinal utilization of this plant. PMID:20192590

  19. Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.

    PubMed

    Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-08-01

    The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374

  20. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  1. Medicinal plants of Otwal and Ngai Sub Counties in Oyam District, Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinal plant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinal plant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinal plant species between the young and the older generation. PMID:21241484

  2. Plants of the Olympic Coastal Forests: ancient knowledge of materials and medicines and future heritage.

    PubMed

    Forlines, D R; Tavenner, T; Malan, J C; Karchesy, J J

    1992-01-01

    The indigenous people of the west coast of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula have used a wide variety of forest plants for centuries to make materials and medicines. The late David Forlines shared at least eight generations of the knowledge of uses of these plants for materials and medicines with us in hopes that this information might be used 'to help science catch up with the old people.' Dyes, paints and adhesives were some of the materials made. The medicines were often administered as teas, but in some cases, fresh plant material was required. Some parallels were found to European and Chinese uses of similar species. Plants from the family Rosaceae had the greatest number of medicinal uses, but several other plant families known to contain polyphenols were also encountered. The role of polyphenols in the use of these plants is difficult to estimate because in many cases the plants have not been studied chemically. A preliminary screening indicated that many of the plants were rich in procyanidins and associated compounds. PMID:1417699

  3. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Tanmay; Patra, Amal Kumar; Dastidar, Santanu Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status. Methods With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. Results A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development. PMID:25183132

  4. Antiviral activities of Indonesian medicinal plants in the East Java region against hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The overall prevalence of HCV infection is 2%, representing 120 million people worldwide. Current standard treatment using pegylated interferon and ribavirin is effective in only 50% of the patients infected with HCV genotype 1, and is associated with significant side effects. Therefore, it is still of importance to develop new drugs for treatment of HCV. Antiviral substances obtained from natural products, including medicinal plants, are potentially good targets to study. In this study, we evaluated Indonesian medicinal plants for their anti-HCV activities. Methods Ethanol extracts of 21 samples derived from 17 species of medicinal plants explored in the East Java region were tested. Anti-HCV activities were determined by a cell culture method using Huh7.5 cells and HCV strains of 9 different genotypes (1a to 7a, 1b and 2b). Results Four of the 21 samples tested showed antiviral activities against HCV: Toona sureni leaves (TSL) with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.9 and 2.0 μg/ml against the HCV J6/JFH1-P47 and -P1 strains, respectively, Melicope latifolia leaves (MLL) with IC50 of 3.5 and 2.1 μg/ml, respectively, Melanolepis multiglandulosa stem (MMS) with IC50 of 17.1 and 6.2 μg/ml, respectively, and Ficus fistulosa leaves (FFL) with IC50 of 15.0 and 5.7 μg/ml, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that TSL and MLL inhibited both at the entry and post-entry steps while MMS and FFL principally at the entry step. TSL and MLL inhibited all of 11 HCV strains of all the genotypes tested to the same extent. On the other hand, FFL showed significantly weaker inhibitory activities against the HCV genotype 1a strain, and MMS against the HCV strains of genotypes 2b and 7a to a lesser extent, compared to the other HCV genotypes. Conclusions Ethanol extracts of TSL, MLL, MMS and FFL showed antiviral

  5. Antiplasmodial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Plants Used in Traditional Medicine of Iran for the Treatment of Fever.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Somayeh; Ghiaee, Azadeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is the most serious parasitic disease and one of the oldest recorded diseases in the world. Because of the resistance of malaria parasites to current drugs, it is necessary to discover new antiplasmodial drugs. Traditional medicine is one of the important sources of new antiplasmodial drugs. In this study, twenty methanolic extracts from different parts of sixteen medicinal plants used in traditional medicine of Iran for the treatment of "Nobeh fever" and/ or fever were screened for in-vivo antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei and cytotoxic effect on Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK). Eleven species (55%) were found to have antiplasmodial activity. Methanolic extract from Rosa damascena Mill. reduced parasitemia by 57.7% compared to untreated control mice at intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection doses of 10 mg/Kg per day for 4 days. This is the first report that mentioned in-vivo antiplasmodial activity of Rosa damascena Mill. PMID:26185511

  6. Antiplasmodial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Plants Used in Traditional Medicine of Iran for the Treatment of Fever

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Somayeh; Ghiaee, Azadeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is the most serious parasitic disease and one of the oldest recorded diseases in the world. Because of the resistance of malaria parasites to current drugs, it is necessary to discover new antiplasmodial drugs. Traditional medicine is one of the important sources of new antiplasmodial drugs. In this study, twenty methanolic extracts from different parts of sixteen medicinal plants used in traditional medicine of Iran for the treatment of “Nobeh fever” and/ or fever were screened for in-vivo antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei and cytotoxic effect on Madin–Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK). Eleven species (55%) were found to have antiplasmodial activity. Methanolic extract from Rosa damascena Mill. reduced parasitemia by 57.7% compared to untreated control mice at intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection doses of 10 mg/Kg per day for 4 days. This is the first report that mentioned in-vivo antiplasmodial activity of Rosa damascena Mill. PMID:26185511

  7. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-08-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. PMID:27155527

  8. Potential of medicinal plants as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in food industry: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis Alberto; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Siddiqui, Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approved in many countries, the use of natural safe and effective preservatives is a demand of food consumers and producers. This paper proposes medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases, as a source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Medicinal plants are rich in terpenes and phenolic compounds that present antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; in addition, the literature revealed that these bioactive compounds extracted from other plants have been effective in food systems. In this context, the present hypothesis paper states that bioactive molecules extracted from medicinal plants can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in the food industry. PMID:24446991

  9. Anticandidal activity of medicinal plants and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains of clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Bora, Limpon

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vitro anticandidal activity of some medicinal plants and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains against Candida species. The antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of five medicinal plants, namely, Cinnamomum porrectum, Lippia nudiflora, Cestrum nocturnum, Trachyspermum ammi, and Sida carpinifolia were studied. The medicinal characteristics of these plants were compared with commercially used antibiotics. The antimicrobial assay was done by agar well diffusion and the broth dilution method. Among the plants used, T. ammi and C. nocturnum were found to be more potent than the others. Twenty P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from various clinical specimens. The total inhibitions obtained were found to be 47%, 38%, and 36% in blood agar, whereas in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) the inhibitions were 57%, 48%, and 37%, respectively. PMID:25592881

  10. Search for new type of PPARγ agonist-like anti-diabetic compounds from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Potent ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) such as thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone, troglitazone, etc.) improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the levels of adiponectin, an important adipocytokine associated with insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Several constituents from medicinal plants were recently reported to show PPARγ agonist-like activity in 3T3-L1 cells, but did not show agonistic activity at the receptor site different from thiazolidinediones. Our recent studies on PPARγ agonist-like constituents, such as hydrangenol and hydrangeic acid from the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii, piperlonguminine and retrofractamide A from the fruit of Piper chaba, and tetramethylkaempferol and pentamethylquercetin from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora, are reviewed. PMID:24882400

  11. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions.

    PubMed

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  12. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  13. Inhibition of gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase activity by compounds from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cristina Setim; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Mayer, Bárbara; dos Santos, Ana Cristina; Twardowschy, André; Santos, Cid Aimbiré de Moraes; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade

    2011-09-01

    H+, K(+)-ATPase enzyme is a therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric disturbances. Several medicinal plants and isolated compounds inhibit the acid gastric secretion through interaction with the proton pump. In order to add new properties to some natural constituents, five compounds, a benzylated derivative of vincoside, a diterpene (abietic acid) and three alkaloids (cephaeline, vinblastine and vindoline), were tested for their activities on gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase isolated from rabbit stomach. All the compounds inhibited H+, K(+)-ATPase activity with varied potency. The IC50 value for benzylvincoside was 121 (50-293) microM, and for abietic acid 177 (148-211) microM. The alkaloids cephaeline, vinblastine and vindoline inhibited the H+, K(+)-ATPase activity with IC50 values of 194, 761 and 846 microM, respectively. The results suggest that benzylvincoside, abietic acid and cephaeline can be important sources for the development of anti-secretor agents. PMID:21941891

  14. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Vijayaram, Seerangaraj; Kannan, Suruli; Saravanan, Konda Mani; Vasantharaj, Seerangaraj; Sathiyavimal, Selvam; P, Palanisamy Senthilkumar

    2016-05-01

    The presence study was aimed to catalyze the primary metabolites and their confirmation by using GC-MS analysis and antibacterial potential of leaf extract of two important medicinal plant viz., Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial potential of the methanol leaf extract of the studied species was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellap neumoniae, Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus using by agar well diffusion method. The higher zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100μl concentration of methanol leaf extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of studied species shows that presence of phytochemical compounds like steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. GC-MS analysis confirms the occurrence of 20 different compounds in the methanol leaf extract of the both studied species. PMID:27166527

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ping; Shao, Yanhua; Li, Qian; Gao, Junli; Zhang, Runjing; Lai, Xiaoping; Wang, Deqin; Zhang, Huiye

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Andrographis paniculata, an important medicinal plant with great economic value, has been studied in this article. The genome size is 150,249 bp in length, with 38.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,300 bp) are separated by a large single copy region (LSC, 82,459 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,190 bp). The chloroplast genome contains 114 unique genes, 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. In these genes, 15 genes contained 1 intron and 3 genes comprised of 2 introns. PMID:25856518

  16. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, M; Arbain, D; Islam, A K M Shafiqul; Ahmad, M S; Ahmad, M N

    2016-12-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau (Ehretis laevis), Cemumar (Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong (Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. PMID:26887579

  17. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, M.; Arbain, D.; Islam, A. K. M. Shafiqul; Ahmad, M. S.; Ahmad, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α- d-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau ( Ehretis laevis), Cemumar ( Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong ( Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C.

  18. Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium. Methods 137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Results 37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration). Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum. Conclusions The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:23351780

  19. Souroubea sympetala (Marcgraviaceae): a medicinal plant that exerts anxiolysis through interaction with the GABAA benzodiazepine receptor.

    PubMed

    Mullally, Martha; Cayer, Christian; Kramp, Kari; Otárola Rojas, Marco; Sanchez Vindas, Pablo; Garcia, Mario; Poveda Alvarez, Luis; Durst, Tony; Merali, Zul; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2014-09-01

    The mode of action of the anxiolytic medicinal plant Souroubea sympetala was investigated to test the hypothesis that extracts and the active principle act at the pharmacologically important GABAA-benzodiazepine (GABAA-BZD) receptor. Leaf extracts prepared by ethyl acetate extraction or supercritical extraction, previously determined to have 5.54 mg/g and 6.78 mg/g of the active principle, betulinic acid, respectively, reduced behavioural parameters associated with anxiety in a rat model. When animals were pretreated with the GABAA-BZD receptor antagonist flumazenil, followed by the plant extracts, or a more soluble derivative of the active principle, the methyl ester of betulinic acid (MeBA), flumazenil eliminated the anxiety-reducing effect of plant extracts and MeBA, demonstrating that S. sympetala acts via an agonist action on the GABAA-BZD receptor. An in vitro GABAA-BZD competitive receptor binding assay also demonstrated that S. sympetala extracts have an affinity for the GABAA-BZD receptor, with an EC50 value of 123 μg/mL (EtOAc leaf extract) and 154 μg/mL (supercritical CO2 extract). These experiments indicate that S. sympetala acts at the GABAA-BZD receptor to elicit anxiolysis. PMID:25140794

  20. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva’a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner–Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa’s expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space. PMID:27445461

  1. Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents. PMID:20442821

  2. Evaluation of the In Vitro Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial, and Antitrypanosomal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Saudi and Yemeni Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M.; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F.; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of twenty-five medicinal plants distributed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen was evaluated. The plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined on MRC-5 cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 < 10 μg/mL and high selectivity (SI). Seven plants showed interesting antiprotozoal activity in one or more models. Extracts of Caralluma penicillata and Acalypha ciliata showed fairly good activity against P. falciparum with IC50 of 6.7 and 10.8 μg/mL and adequate selectivity (SI > 9.6 and >5.9). Interesting activity against L. infantum was obtained with Verbascum bottae (IC50 of 3.2 μg/mL, SI 10.2) and Solanum glabratum (IC50 8.1 μg/mL, SI 3.4). The extracts of C. penicillata, Leucas virgata, Loranthus regularis, and V. bottae exhibited moderate activity against T. brucei (IC50 8.5, 8.1, 8.3, and 2.3 μg/mL; SI > 7.6, 7.7, 4.3, and >14.1). These results partly support the traditional use of some of the selected medicinal plants and warrant further investigations into the putative active constituents. PMID:24963330

  3. The concept of intensive medicine. A systems approach of importance to medical engineers.

    PubMed

    Horisberger, B

    1976-07-20

    The paper demonstrates how planning, organizing, equipping, and running all Intensive Care Unit (ICU) should be carried out, using a systems approach, and by keeping in mind that quality and degree of overall performance is a function of effectiveness and efficiency. The interactions of the ICU with its "environment" are discussed; a method of estimating the size of the ICU is mentioned. Then, the elements determining performance are analyzed: personnel, pathophysiologic states of the patients, financial and material resources. Furthermore, the problem of goal-oriented systems synthesis is outlined and suggestions for more detailed studies on the structure of some of the "subsystems" are put forward. The paper summarizes some important consequences for medical engineering as applied to intensive medicine. PMID:995074

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine utilization in Texas hospices: prevalence, importance, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Olotu, Busuyi S; Brown, Carolyn M; Lawson, Kenneth A; Barner, Jamie C

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, importance, and challenges of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in Texas hospices. Mail surveys were sent to 369 hospices in Texas, and 110 useful surveys were returned. Results showed that a majority (n = 62, 56.4%) of hospices offer CAM to their clients, with the most popularly offered CAMs being massage, music, and relaxation therapies. Despite the availability of CAM services in most hospices, and that the utilization of CAM has the potential to improve overall quality of life of patients, our results showed that a sizeable proportion of patients in these hospices are not utilizing the provided CAMs. Funding and personnel constraints were substantial obstacles to offering CAM. PMID:23625931

  5. Traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by local healers in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yineger, Haile; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments in the study area. In the current study, it was reported that 27 plant species belonging to 27 genera and 18 families were commonly used to treat various human ailments. Most of these species (85.71%) were wild and harvested mainly for their leaves (64.52%). The most cited ethnomedicinal plant species was Alysicarpus quartinianus A. Rich., whose roots and leaves were reported by traditional healers to be crushed in fresh and applied as a lotion on the lesions of patients of Abiato (Shererit). No significant correlation was observed between the age of traditional healers and the number of species reported and the indigenous knowledge transfer was found to be similar. More than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of a single species for remedy preparations. Plant parts used for remedy preparations showed significant difference with medicinal plant species abundance in the study area. PMID:17547765

  6. Evaluation of fungal burden and aflatoxin presence in packed medicinal plants treated by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Simone; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Rossi, Maria Helena; Nogueira, Juliana Hellmeister de Campos; Reis, Tatiana Alves Dos; Corrêa, Benedito

    2010-05-01

    This study was developed to evaluate the fungal burden, toxigenic molds, and mycotoxin contamination and to verify the effects of gamma radiation in four kinds of medicinal plants stored before and after 30 days of irradiation treatment. Eighty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, and Cassia angustifolia) purchased from drugstores, wholesale, and open-air markets in São Paulo city, Brazil, were analyzed. The samples were treated using a (60)Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For enumeration of fungi on medicinal plants, serial dilutions of the samples were plated in duplicate onto dichloran 18% glycerol agar. The control samples revealed a high burden of molds, including toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of CFU per gram in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days of storage, using a dose of 10 kGy and maintaining samples in a protective package. No aflatoxins were detected. Gamma radiation treatment can be used as an effective method for preventing fungal deterioration of medicinal plants subject to long-term storage. PMID:20501045

  7. A study of the medicinal plants used by the Marakwet Community in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The medicinal plants used by herbalists in Kenya have not been well documented, despite their widespread use. The threat of complete disappearance of the knowledge on herbal medicine from factors such as deforestation, lack of proper regulation, overexploitation and sociocultural issues warrants an urgent need to document the information. The purpose of the study was to document information on medicinal plants used by herbalists in Marakwet District towards the utilization of indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge for the advancement of biomedical research and development. Methods Semi- structured oral interviews were conducted with 112 practicing herbalists. The types of plants used were identified and the conditions treated recorded. Results Herbal practice is still common in the district, and 111 plants were identified to have medicinal or related uses. Different herbal preparations including fruits and healing vegetables are employed in the treatment of various medical conditions. Veterinary uses and pesticides were also recorded. Conclusion The study provides comprehensive ethnobotanical information about herbal medicine and healing methods among the Marakwet community. The identification of the active ingredients of the plants used by the herbalists may provide some useful leads for the development of new drugs. PMID:24555424

  8. [Use of medicinal plants among people attending two reference hospitals in Cuzco, Peru].

    PubMed

    Oblitas, Gladys; Hernández-Córdova, Gustavo; Chiclla, Analí; Antich-Barrientos, María; Ccorihuamán-Cusitito, Lucero; Romaní, Franco

    2013-03-01

    In order to determine the frequency and characteristics of the use of medicinal plants in patients from two third-level hospitals in the city of Cusco, a cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2011. For data collection, an instrument was built and validated through experts' judgment. The sample included 250 people selected in a non-probabilistic way. 83.2 and 75.3% informed having had used medicinal plants sometime during their lives and in the last month, respectively; additionally, 85.7 indicated that they wished their doctor would have prescribed them medicinal plants. Their most frequent uses include digestive problems (62.4%) as well as urinary (42.4%) and respiratory problems (40.4%). We conclude that the use of medicinal plants is widely spread among users of two hospitals in the city of Cusco. Utilization patterns show that patients wished the physicians of the health system prescribed medicinal plants in their consults. PMID:23612815

  9. Study of ion suppression for phenolic compounds in medicinal plant extracts using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Faccin, H; Viana, C; do Nascimento, P C; Bohrer, D; de Carvalho, L M

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study on the various sources of ion suppression in UHPLC-MS-MS analysis was carried out for 24 phenolic antioxidants in 6 different extracts of medicinal plants from Amazonia. The contributions of matrix effects, mobile-phase additives, analyte co-elution and electric charge competition during ionization to the global ion suppression were evaluated. Herein, the influence of mobile-phase additives on the ionization efficiency was found to be very pronounced, where ion suppression of approximately 90% and ion enhancement effects greater than 400% could be observed. The negative effect caused by the wrong choice of internal standard (IS) on quantitative studies was also evaluated and discussed from the perspective of ion suppression. This work also shows the importance of performing studies with this approach even for very similar matrices, such as varieties of medicinal plants from the same species, because different effects were observed for the same analyte. PMID:26709070

  10. Assessment of litter degradation in medicinal plants subjected to ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S B; Kumari, Rima

    2013-07-01

    Litter decomposition is an important component of global carbon budget. Elevated influx of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) as a consequence of depletion of stratospheric ozone (O3) layer may affect litter decomposition directly or/modifying the plant tissue quality. Chemical composition of plant can affect litter decomposition. In the present study, three important medicinal plant species i.e. Acorus calamus, Ocimum sanctum and Cymbopogon citratus were exposed to two levels of supplemental UV-B (sUV and sUV,) during the growth period and examined the changes in leaf quality and degradation of leaf litters. The sUV, treatment (+3.6 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) increased the rate of decomposition by 45% and 31% respectively; in leaf litters from O. sanctum and C. citratus, while no significant effect was noticed in A. calamus leaf litter. Higher accumulation of sclerenchymatous tissue around vascular bundles and increased concentrations of total phenols by 39 mg g(-1) probably lowered the decomposition rate; finding k value: 0.0049 g g(-1) d(-1) in leaf litters of A. calamus. The C/N ratio was increased by 14% at sUV2 in C. citratus, whereas in O. sanctum it decreased by 13.6% after treatment. Results of the present experiment illustrates that firstly UV-B can modify the decomposition rate of leaf litter of test plant species, secondly it can alter the tissue chemistry particularly leaf phenolics, N and P concentrations strongly and thus affecting the decay rate and thirdly UV-B effects on decay rate and leaf chemistry is species specific. PMID:24640251

  11. A Drug-Target Network-Based Approach to Evaluate the Efficacy of Medicinal Plants for Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jiangyong; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2013-01-01

    The use of plants as natural medicines in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has long been of special interest. In this work, we developed a docking score-weighted prediction model based on drug-target network to evaluate the efficacy of medicinal plants for T2DM. High throughput virtual screening from chemical library of natural products was adopted to calculate the binding affinity between natural products contained in medicinal plants and 33 T2DM-related proteins. The drug-target network was constructed according to the strength of the binding affinity if the molecular docking score satisfied the threshold. By linking the medicinal plant with T2DM through drug-target network, the model can predict the efficacy of natural products and medicinal plant for T2DM. Eighteen thousand nine hundred ninety-nine natural products and 1669 medicinal plants were predicted to be potentially bioactive. PMID:24223610

  12. Analysis of arsenic induced physiological and biochemical responses in a medicinal plant, Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Fauzia; Tandon, P K; Srivastava, Sudhakar

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera has been an important herb in the Ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems for centuries in India. However, these grow as weeds mostly in the wastelands, which receive contaminated water from municipal and industrial sources. In the present investigation, plants of Withania somnifera were exposed to various concentrations of arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII) (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 μM) for 10 days and analysed for accumulation of arsenic (As) and physiological and biochemical changes. Plants showed more As accumulation upon exposure to AsIII (320 μg g(-1) DW in roots and 161 μg g(-1) DW in leaves) than to AsV (173 μg g(-1) DW in roots and 100 μg g(-1) DW in leaves) after 10 days of treatment. Consequently, AsIII exposure caused more toxicity to plants as compared to that AsV, as evaluated in terms of the level of photosynthetic pigments and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation), particularly at higher concentrations and on longer durations. Plants could tolerate low concentrations (variable for AsIII and AsV) until longer durations (10 days) and high concentrations for shorter durations (1-5 days) through increase in antioxidant enzymes and by augmented synthesis of thiols. In conclusion, As tolerance potential of Withania plants on one hand advocates its prospective use for remediation under proper supervision and on the other demonstrates possible threat of As entry into humans due to medicinal uses. PMID:25648550

  13. Anthocyanins: Analysis and Distribution in Selected Medicinal Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are water soluble plant secondary metabolites responsible for the blue, purple, and red color of many plant tissues. They have been shown to be strong antioxidants, and may exert a wide range of health benefits through antioxidant or other mechanisms. Anthocyanins occur primarily as gly...

  14. Anthocyanins: analysis and distribution in selected medicinal plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are water soluble plant secondary metabolites responsible for the blue, purple, and red color of many plant tissues. They have been shown to be strong antioxidants, and may exert a wide range of health benefits through antioxidant or other mechanisms. Anthocyanins occur primarily as g...

  15. The ethnobotanical study of local Mediterranean food plants as medicinal resources in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, D; Obon, C; Inocencio, C; Heinrich, M; Verde, A; Fajardo, J; Llorach, R

    2005-03-01

    We studied medicinal and food plant species, recording an extraordinary number of species and uses in Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia and Valencia in Spain. Focusing on two demographically distinct regions - Castilla-La Mancha and Lower Segura Valley. A high proportion of the flora (20 to 30 %) is known for its medicinal properties, and, interestingly, a high number of medicinal-food plants (5 to 7 %) is recorded. The concept of "Local Food" involves the whole repertory of species that characterises the local diet (incl. local cultivars and non-cultivated gathered food plants). The number of food plant species varies between 15 and 25 % of the vascular flora, and for the gathered food plants (GFP) this decreases to a 3 to 8 %. Those GFP that are also used for medicinal purposes are only 2 to 4 % of the total vascular flora. The relevant plant families are very similar in relative numbers along the different areas: Compositae, Rosaceae and Umbelliferae, followed of Boraginaceae, Liliaceae, Cruciferae, and Caryophyllaceae. Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae and Gramineae are less uniformly represented or in lesser numbers. The high species diversity does not imply a general dietary relevance of this particular plant family. For instance Caryophyllaceae with a relatively low number of species comprises the "collejas" (Silene vulgaris) that have shown to be the more widely consumed species. Information regarding 145 species has been recorded. Among the Gathered Food Plant Species 81 are used in medicine, in double proportion than the cultivated food plants. 61 are orally administered, in the same form as food. PMID:15800388

  16. Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina): An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. Methods Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration). Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. Results A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men) and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating digestive disorders. Together

  17. The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.

    PubMed

    Héthelyi, E; Tétényi, P; Dabi, E; Dános, B

    1987-11-01

    In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

  18. Cytotoxicity, mode of action and antibacterial activities of selected Saudi Arabian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flora of Saudi Arabia is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the Arabian Peninsula and comprises very important genetic resources of crop and medicinal plants. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the organic extracts from twenty six Saudi Arabian medicinal plants. The study was also extended to the investigation of the effects of the extracts from the four best plants, Ononis serrata (SY160), Haplophyllum tuberculatum (SY177), Pulicaria crispa (SY179), and Achillea beiberstenii (SY-200) on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, caspases activities and mitochondrial function in leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line. Methods A resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on a panel of human cancer cell lines whilst the microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The best activity on leukemia cell lines were recorded with SY177 (IC50 of 9.94 μg/mL) and SY179 (IC50 of 1.81 μg/mL) against CCRF-CEM as well as Ach-b (IC50 of 9.30 μg/mL) and SY160 (IC50 of 5.06 μg/mL) against HL60 cells. The extracts from SY177 and SY179 were also toxic against the seven solid cancer cell lines studied with the highest IC50 values of 31.64 μg/mL (SY177 against Hep-G2 cells). SY177 and Ach-b induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases whilst SY160 and SY179 induced arrest in G0/G1 phase. All the four plant extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells with the alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In the antibacterial assays, only Ach-b displayed moderate antibacterial activities against E. coli and E. aerogenes ATCC strains (MIC of 256 μg/mL), AG100ATeT and K. pneumoniae ATCC strains (MIC of 128 μg/mL). Conclusions Finally, the results of the present

  19. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    for malaria, tropical ulcer, gastro-intestinal parasites, gallstone, eye diseases and snake bite. The jel extracted from dried and ground plant material, called SIBRI (Oromo language), was acclaimed as a cleaner of the human colon. Concoction made from leaf, seed and flower of Azadirachta indica was given for treatment of malaria, fungal infections and intestinal worms. Root preparations from Hydnora johannis were prescribed as remedy for diarrhoea, haemorrhage, wound and painful body swelling, locally called GOFLA (Oromo language). Conclusions The study documented many well known and effective medicinal species of relevance for human healthcare, including for the treatment of malaria which is rampant in the area as it is in many parts of Ethiopia. This underscores the importance of the traditional medicinal plants for the people living in the area and the potential of the resource for development. Consequently, the study area deserves urgent conservation priority coupled with mechanisms for the protection of the associated indigenous medical lore as well as development and effective use of the medicinal plant resource. PMID:23082858

  20. Therapeutic significance and pharmacological activities of antidiarrheal medicinal plants mention in Ayurveda: A review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashish; Seth, Ankit; Maurya, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a serious problem affecting 3-5 billion people per year around the world, especially children of below 5 years. 70% of the world population uses traditional and indigenous medicine for their primary health care. The facts of these indigenous remedies are passed verbally and sometimes as documents. Since ancient time, Ayurveda is the main system of healing in South East Asian countries. Indian literature from ayurvedic texts and other books claim the potency of several plants in the treatment of diarrhea. As the global prospective of ayurvedic medicine is increasing, interest regarding the scientific basis of their action is parallely increasing. Researchers are doing experiments to establish the relation between the claimed action and observed pharmacological activities. In the present article, an attempt was made to compile the scientific basis of medicinal plants used to cure diarrhea in Ayurveda. Literature was collected via electronic search (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, and Google Scholar) from published articles that reports antidiarrheal activity of plants that were mentioned in Ayurveda classics. A total of 109 plant species belonging to 58 families were reported for their antidiarrheal activity. Several Indian medicinal plants have demonstrated promising antidiarrheal effects, but the studies on the antidiarrheal potentials of these plants are not taken beyond proof of concept stage. It is hoped that the article would stimulate future clinical studies because of the paucity of knowledge in this area. PMID:27366356

  1. InDiaMed: A Comprehensive Database of Indian Medicinal plants for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tota, Kumudini; Rayabarapu, Nihar; Moosa, Sowmya; Talla, Venu; Bhyravbhatla, Balaji; Rao, Srinivasa

    2013-01-01

    According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), India has 62.4 million people with diabetes and by 2030 it is predicted that the number will rise to 100 million. Studies claim that there are around 410 experimentally proven Indian medicinal plants which have anti-diabetic activity, of which the mechanism of action of 109 plants has been elucidated or reported. So, the need of the hour is to explore the claims of Indian medicinal flora and open up the facets of many Indian plants which are being examined for their beneficial role in diabetes. So, we created a database (InDiaMed) of Indian medicinal plants that captures their role in anti-diabetic activity. InDiaMed's features include chemical, pharmacological, biochemical and geographical information of the medicinal plant, scientifically relevant information of the plant, and the coherent research done on it in the field of diabetes. The database also includes the list of poly-herbal formulations which are used for treatment of diabetes in India. Availability http://www.indiamed.info PMID:23750084

  2. Therapeutic significance and pharmacological activities of antidiarrheal medicinal plants mention in Ayurveda: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ashish; Seth, Ankit; Maurya, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a serious problem affecting 3-5 billion people per year around the world, especially children of below 5 years. 70% of the world population uses traditional and indigenous medicine for their primary health care. The facts of these indigenous remedies are passed verbally and sometimes as documents. Since ancient time, Ayurveda is the main system of healing in South East Asian countries. Indian literature from ayurvedic texts and other books claim the potency of several plants in the treatment of diarrhea. As the global prospective of ayurvedic medicine is increasing, interest regarding the scientific basis of their action is parallely increasing. Researchers are doing experiments to establish the relation between the claimed action and observed pharmacological activities. In the present article, an attempt was made to compile the scientific basis of medicinal plants used to cure diarrhea in Ayurveda. Literature was collected via electronic search (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, and Google Scholar) from published articles that reports antidiarrheal activity of plants that were mentioned in Ayurveda classics. A total of 109 plant species belonging to 58 families were reported for their antidiarrheal activity. Several Indian medicinal plants have demonstrated promising antidiarrheal effects, but the studies on the antidiarrheal potentials of these plants are not taken beyond proof of concept stage. It is hoped that the article would stimulate future clinical studies because of the paucity of knowledge in this area. PMID:27366356

  3. The role of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kooti, Wesam; Farokhipour, Maryam; Asadzadeh, Zahra; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Asadi-Samani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder and plenty of medical plants are used in traditional medicines to treat diabetes. These plants have no side effects and many existing medicines are derived from the plants. The purpose of this systematic review is to study diabetes and to summarize the available treatments for this disease, focusing especially on herbal medicine. Methods Required papers about diabetes and effective plants were searched from the databases, including Science direct, PubMed, Wiley, Scopus, and Springer. Keywords in this study are ”medicinal plants”, “diabetes”, “symptom”, “herbal”, and “treatment”. Out of the 490 collected articles (published in the period between 1995 and 2015), 450 were excluded due to non-relevance or lack of access to the original article. Results Diabetes is mainly due to oxidative stress and an increase in reactive oxygen species that can have major effects. Many plants contain different natural antioxidants, in particular tannins, flavonoids, C and E vitamins that have the ability to maintain β-cells performance and decrease glucose levels in the blood. Conclusion According to published results, it can be said that medical plants are more affordable and have less side effects compared synthetic drugs, and are more effective in treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26955456

  4. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants used by herbalists in Eastern province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kareru, P G; Gachanja, A N; Keriko, J M; Kenji, G M

    2007-01-01

    The aqueous extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by herbalists in Mbeere, and Embu districts of Eastern province, Kenya, were tested for their inhibitory activity against three selected strains of bacteria. All the selected plant extracts (infusions: 1.0 g sample in 100 ml water) investigated showed activity against Escherichia coli with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 5.8-18.0 mm. Terminalia brownii gave the largest inhibition zones against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Vernonia lasiopus and Tithonia diversifolia were inactive to S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Eighteen and sixteen plants showed sensitivity of greater than 10 mm against S. aureus and B. subtilis, respectively. All control discs gave zones of inhibition of 12-24 mm, which were larger than those of the extracts. The present study validated the use of the selected medicinal plants by the herbalists in the treatment of bacterial ailments caused by the strains of bacteria investigated. Medicinal plants used for non-bacterial diseases also exhibited sensitivity towards bacterial strains tested. This implied they could be used as multi-purpose medicinal plants. PMID:20162055

  5. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Review of Recent Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Hamid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Moradi Nafchi, Atefeh; Saberianpour, Shirin; Rafieian Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of teenagers and may continue to adulthood. There are about two million visits to physicians per year for teenagers and the direct cost of acne treatment in the US exceeds $1 billion per year. Evidence Acquisition: A wide variety of treatment regimens exist for acne vulgaris including benzoil peroxide, retinoids, isotretinoids, keratolytic soaps, alpha hydroxy acids, azelaic acid, salicilic acid as well as hormonal, anti-androgen or antiseborrheic treatments. However, none of these methods is free of side effects and their exact role in therapy is not clear. In this paper apart from presenting the possible causes of acne vulgaris and its available drugs, recently published papers about medicinal plants used in the treatment of acne vulgaris were reviewed. Results: Consumption of alternative and complementary medicine, including medicinal plants, is increasing and is common amongst patients affected by acne and infectious skin diseases. Medicinal plants have a long history of use and have been shown to possess low side effects. These plants are a reliable source for preparation of new drugs. Conclusions: Many plants seem to have inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses in vitro. However, there are a few clinical evidences about the effectiveness and safety of these plants in the treatment of acne and other skin infections. PMID:26862380

  6. Ozone - plant surface reactions an important ozone loss term?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Fischer, Lukas; Canaval, Eva; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Tissier, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billions dollar per year. Plant injuries have been related to the uptake of ozone through stomatal pores and oxidative effects damaging the internal leaf tissue. But a striking question remains: How much ozone enters the plant through open stomata and how much ozone is lost by chemical reactions at the plant surface? Until now surface losses are estimated from measured total ozone deposition fluxes and calculated stomatal conductance values. While stomatal conductance of CO2 and H2O is well understood and extensively used in describing plant atmosphere gas exchange, stomatal conductance of ozone is not well known. Here we use different Nicotiana tabacum varieties and find that surface reactions of ozone with diterpenoids synthesized by glandular trichomes reduce ozone flux through open stomata. Our measurements reveal that fast ozone loss at the plant surface is accompanied with prompt release of oxygenated volatile compounds. In the ozone fumigation experiments of different Nicotiana tabacum varieties the release of specific volatile oxy-VOCs allowed to identify the semi volatile precursor compounds at the plant surface. Ozone fumigation experiments with Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), two common species in the Northern Hemisphere, show also a significant ozone loss at the plant surface for Picea abies. Fluid dynamic calculations of ozone transport in the diffusive leaf boundary layer reveal a vertical but no horizontal ozone gradient thus reducing ozone fluxes through the pores in case of efficient ozone scavenging plant surfaces. We explain this efficient ozone protection mechanism by the porous surface architecture of plants in combination with unsaturated semi-volatile compounds deposited at the plant surface. These results show that unsaturated semi-volatile compounds at

  7. Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

  8. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Eshetu, Gebremedhin Romha; Dejene, Tewedros Ayalew; Telila, Lidet Befkadu; Bekele, Daniel Fekadu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants, their preparation, and application methods used by traditional healers in treating different animal diseases, in four districts with different culture and languages in southern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was obtained through in-depth direct interview with the local healers and field observations. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the reported ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for each category of diseases to identify the agreements of the informants on the reported cures. Preference ranking was used to assess the degree of effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against most prevalent animal diseases in the area. Results: The healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete and none of them was ready to transfer their knowledge either freely or on incentive bases to other people; they need to convey their knowledge only to their selected scions after getting very old. A total of 49 plant species used to treat 26 animal ailments were botanically classified and distributed into 34 families. The most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were leaves (38.8%), followed by whole roots (20.4%). Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth was the most preferred effective treatment against external parasite and skin problem, which is the most prevalent disease with the highest ICF (0.68). Conclusion: The study suggests that the community of the study districts depend largely on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments though the healers have a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. Commonly reported plant species need to be tested for their antimicrobial activities in vitro and validated their active ingredients in order to recommend effective preparations and

  9. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shabir; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M.; Fouad, H.; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems. PMID:25374941

  10. Phytochemical and biological activities of four wild medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Shad, Anwar Ali; Ahmad, Shabir; Ullah, Riaz; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M; Fouad, H; Ur Rehman, Najeeb; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems. PMID:25374941

  11. In vitro anticancer screening of 24 locally used Nigerian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants that are used as traditional medicine represent a relevant pool for selecting plant candidates that may have anticancer properties. In this study, the ethnomedicinal approach was used to select several medicinal plants native to Nigeria, on the basis of their local or traditional uses. The collected plants were then evaluated for cytoxicity. Methods The antitumor activity of methanolic extracts obtained from 24 of the selected plants, were evaluated in vitro on five human cancer cell lines. Results Results obtained from the plants screened indicate that 18 plant extracts of folk medicine exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan was found to demonstrate potent anti-cancer activity in this study exhibiting IC50 = 0.2-1.3 μg/ml. Conclusions Based on the significantly potent activity of some plants extracts reported here, further studies aimed at mechanism elucidation and bio-guided isolation of active anticancer compounds is currently underway. PMID:23565862

  12. Phytochemical Analysis and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Medicinal Plants Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sougata; Derle, Abhishek; Ahire, Mehul; More, Piyush; Jagtap, Soham; Phadatare, Suvarna D.; Patil, Ajay B.; Jabgunde, Amit M.; Sharma, Geeta K.; Shinde, Vaishali S.; Pardesi, Karishma; Dhavale, Dilip D.; Chopade, Balu A.

    2013-01-01

    Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera are traditional medicinal plants that can be considered as sources of natural antioxidants. Herein we report the phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging activity of their sequential extracts. Phenolic and flavonoid content were determined. Scavenging activity was checked against pulse radiolysis generated ABTS•+ and OH radical, in addition to DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by biochemical methods followed by principal component analysis. G. glauca leaf extracts were rich in phenolic and flavonoid content. Ethyl acetate extract of D. bulbifera bulbs and methanol extract of G. glauca stem exhibited excellent scavenging of pulse radiolysis generated ABTS•+ radical with a second order rate constant of 2.33×106 and 1.72×106, respectively. Similarly, methanol extract of G. glauca flower and ethyl acetate extract of D. bulbifera bulb with second order rate constants of 4.48×106 and 4.46×106 were found to be potent scavengers of pulse radiolysis generated OH radical. G. glauca leaf and stem showed excellent reducing activity and free radical scavenging activity. HPTLC fingerprinting, carried out in mobile phase, chloroform: toluene: ethanol (4: 4: 1, v/v) showed presence of florescent compound at 366 nm as well as UV active compound at 254 nm. GC-TOF-MS analysis revealed the predominance of diphenyl sulfone as major compound in G. glauca. Significant levels of n-hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid were also present. Diosgenin (C27H42O3) and diosgenin (3á,25R) acetate were present as major phytoconstituents in the extracts of D. bulbifera. G. glauca and D. bulbifera contain significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties that can be exploited as a potential source for herbal remedy for oxidative stress induced diseases. These results rationalize further investigation in the potential discovery of new natural bioactive principles from these two important medicinal plants. PMID:24367520

  13. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Mongolia Medicine Artemisia frigida and Phylogenetic Relationships with Other Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuixian; Young, Hugh A.; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yong Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. Conclusion The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome sequence will be

  14. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats.

    PubMed

    Sanhokwe, Marcia; Mupangwa, Johnfisher; Masika, Patrick J; Maphosa, Viola; Muchenje, Voster

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003), and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22%) was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%). The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites. PMID:27247061

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Important Molecular Networks and Metabolic Pathways of the Plant, Chlorophytum borivilianum

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Shikha; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Singh, Kashmir

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum, an endangered medicinal plant species is highly recognized for its aphrodisiac properties provided by saponins present in the plant. The transcriptome information of this species is limited and only few hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are available in the public databases. To gain molecular insight of this plant, high throughput transcriptome sequencing of leaf RNA was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 22,161,444 single end reads were retrieved after quality filtering. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph) and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 101,141 assembled transcripts were obtained, with coverage size of 22.42 Mb and average length of 221 bp. Guanine-cytosine (GC) content was found to be 44%. Bioinformatics analysis, using non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), enzyme commission (EC) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) databases, extracted all the known enzymes involved in saponin and flavonoid biosynthesis. Few genes of the alkaloid biosynthesis, along with anticancer and plant defense genes, were also discovered. Additionally, several cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and glycosyltransferase unique sequences were also found. We identified simple sequence repeat motifs in transcripts with an abundance of di-nucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 43.1%) markers. Large scale expression profiling through Reads per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (RPKM) showed major genes involved in different metabolic pathways of the plant. Genes, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and unique sequences from this study provide an important resource for the scientific community, interested in the molecular genetics and functional genomics of C. borivilianum. PMID:24376689

  16. Certain progress in the treatment of coronary heart disease with traditional medicinal plants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, K J

    1981-01-01

    A case of coronary heart disease in China was confirmed by the necropsy of a female body unearthed from the tomb at Changsha. It proved that such a case existed about 2,100 years ago. Research in reducing the frequency of myocardial infarction by traditional medicinal plants showed the effect of several herbs. The traditional aromatic and warm herbal medicines may have the possibility of relieving coronary arterial spasm. The clinical and experimental observations proved that the Huoxue-huayu plants' action against blood platelet aggregation and against attack was effective. PMID:6307037

  17. [Identification and expression analysis of WRKY transcription factors in medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhirong; Wang, Xingchun; Xue, Jin'ai; Meng, Lingzhi; Li, Runzhi

    2013-06-01

    WRKY transcription factors, one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants, involve in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as stress responses. However, little is known about the types and functions of WRKY transcription factors in Catharanthus roseus, an important medicinal plant. In this study, we identified 47 CrWRKY transcriptional factors from 26 009 proteins in Catharanthus roseus, and classified them into three distinct groups (G1, G2 and G3) according to the structure of WRKY domain and evolution of the protein family. The expression profiling showed that these CrWRKY genes expressed in a tissue/organ specific manner. The 47 CrWRKY genes were clustered into three types of expression patterns. The first type includes the CrWRKYs highly expressed in flowers and the protoplast treated with methy jasmonate (MeJA) or yeast extraction (YE). The second type contains the CrWRKYs highly expressed in stem and hairy root. The third type represents the CrWRKYs highly expressed in root, stem, leaf, seedling and the hairy root treated by MeJA. Real time quantitative PCR was employed to further identify the expression patterns of the 16 selected CrWRKY genes in various organs, the MeJA-treated protoplasts and hairy roots of Catharanthus roseus, and similar results were obtained. Notably, the expresion of more than 1/3 CrWRKY genes were regulated by MeJA or YE, indicating that these CrWRKYs are likely involed in the signalling webs which modulate the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloid and plant responses to various stresses. The present results provide a framework for functional identification of the CrWRKYs and understanding of the regulation network of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus. PMID:24063238

  18. In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-04-01

    Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

  19. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    More, G; Tshikalange, T E; Lall, N; Botha, F; Meyer, J J M

    2008-10-28

    Ethanol extracts of eight plant