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Objective: To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Methods: Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18-64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using survey module of STATA 12. Results: The majority of adults believe it is important that government regulates food policy options under consideration: nutrition information on food labels (97% versus 2% who think it is not important); health rating on food labels (95% versus 3%); food advertising (83% versus 11%); and the supply of environmentally friendly food (86% versus 9%). Conclusions: Community perception is that government control or regulation of food labelling, food advertising and the supply of environmentally friendly food is important. Implications: Curbing excess weight gain and related disease burden is a public health priority. Australian governments are considering food regulatory interventions to assist the public to improve their dietary intake. These findings should provide reassurance to government officials considering these regulatory measures. PMID:24090332
Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W
Background Chemoprophylaxis is recommended for at-risk travellers visiting malaria endemic regions. The majority of travellers with imported malaria have not used this, and travellers visiting friends and relatives have the largest burden of malaria and the lowest compliance to chemoprophylaxis. In 1995, the UK’s Department of Health (DH) implemented a policy to make travellers fully responsible for the cost when purchasing chemoprophylaxis. This policy was not implemented in three Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in London due to concern about the potential increase of imported malaria in their residents, and they maintained the public subsidy. An impact evaluation of the policy change was undertaken to determine if the continued subsidy reduced the incidence of imported malaria in one of the boroughs where the subsidy was maintained when compared to a borough where no subsidy was provided. Methods Between 2007 and 2010 prescriptions for malaria chemoprophylaxis were collected from pharmacy records and PCTs, and all cases of imported malaria reported from the tertiary hospital in each of the two boroughs were compared. Results The dispensed chemoprophylaxis prescriptions were nearly 8.8 times higher in Lambeth (where subsidized drugs were provided), than in Hackney. A Poisson model revealed significantly fewer reports of imported malaria per capita were made in Lambeth compared to Hackney (p?=?0.042). Conclusions The difference in malaria reports between the boroughs only just reached statistical significance, despite the considerable difference in chemoprophylaxis prescribing between the boroughs. Some travellers may not consider using chemoprophylaxis, irrespective of the cost. Regular evaluations of the recent policy changes in areas where malaria is subsidized will be important.
|This study examines how public debate can shape school district policy. Using qualitative methods and an interdisciplinary framework that weaves an interpretive approach to policy implementation with the language policy and planning literature, the analysis demonstrates that immigrant voices were mostly absent in a debate over a new dual-language…
The mapping of the human genome and related advances in genetics are stimulating the development of publicpolicies on genetics. Certain notions that currently prevail in publicpolicy development overall – including the importance of protecting privacy of information, an interest in cost-effectiveness, and the power of the anecdote – will help determine the future of publicpolicy on genetics.
Publicpolicy is an area of increasing study. Of concern in this presentation is the consensus-building feature of policymaking in the United States. The role of government in following the procedures established to achieve consensus and the importance of citizen participation in this open process cannot be under-estimated. The five central features of American consensus building are separation of powers, multiple levels of government, citizen participation, policymaker accountability, and individual freedoms. These features frame the efforts of those who shape the publicpolicies that determine the ways laws are made and enforced and public funds are spent.
There is a pressing need to reduce both the prevalence and impact of obesity. This review begins with a discussion of the roles of treatment and prevention. Two overriding issues, weight bias and the addictive nature of food, are covered because of their importance not only to the individuals affected but also to publicpolicy. We then cover promising policy areas in which changes can be implemented to support healthy behaviors: school policy, food marketing, food labeling and packaging, and taxes on unhealthy foods. The roles of the food industry and federal, state, and local governments are also discussed. PMID:22224839
Gearhardt, Ashley N; Bragg, Marie A; Pearl, Rebecca L; Schvey, Natasha A; Roberto, Christina A; Brownell, Kelly D
|The 2010 PublicPolicy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010
|The 2009 PublicPolicy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009
The 2009 PublicPolicy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009
This article is devoted to publicpolicies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.
The 2008 PublicPolicy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008
The 2010 PublicPolicy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010
Established in January 2005, the New England PublicPolicy Center at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston provides high-quality analysis of importantpolicy and economic issues that affect the entire New England region. The materials on their site are contained within five primary sections, which include "Publications", "Conferences & Events", and "Data & Resources". On their homepage, the "What's New" section provides information about recent publications and calls for visiting scholar applications. In the "Publications" area, visitors can browse around by topic, author, and series. Additionally, the "Data & Resources" area provides access to the monthly publication "New England Economic Indicators" and interactive data sets contained in the form of tables and charts. This same section also contains links to resources within the Boston Federal Reserve, such as community development indicators.
American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) publicpolicy agenda, rooted in an uncompromising commitment to opportunity for the nation's students, is expressed through the following core principles: (1) Higher education is a common good that provides significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole; (2) America's…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011
|American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) publicpolicy agenda, rooted in an uncompromising commitment to opportunity for the nation's students, is expressed through the following core principles: (1) Higher education is a common good that provides significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole; (2) America's…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011
|This paper is the seventh in a biennial series summarizing state and federal publicpolicy issues affecting higher education. The purpose is to provide board members and other higher education officials with brief descriptions of the most importantpublicpolicy issues. In one way or another, most of the publicpolicy issues cited in this paper…
Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2003
An introduction to the Journal of Forensic Psychology's new section on “Ethics, Psychology, and PublicPolicy,” this essay outlines the contours that characterize the interrelationship between ethics, psychology, and publicpolicy. Offering a broad and inclusive framework for understanding this interrelationship, it lays out and comments upon several spheres of analysis - the practical\\/professional, law, lawmaking, and publicpolicy, justice
Recently prominent nutrition scientists across the world have opposed continuation of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) programmes and recommended gradual phasing out VAS for pre-school children. A few eminent nutrition scientists in India have echoed this view, arguing that vitamin deficiency (VAD) is no longer a public health problem in India. We review the evidence, highlighting the high rates of VAD among pre-school children in India, (clinical, subclinical, and dietary deficiency) and argue that in India VAD remains an immensely importantpublic health problem and it is crucial to strengthen and continue the existing VAS programme in India, and in other developing countries until such time as their children's dietary consumption of vitamin A is improved adequately and blood vitamin A levels reach optimal levels. PMID:23760134
Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this importantpublic health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders.
Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P
The mapping of the human genome and related advances in genetics are stimulating the development of publicpolicies on genetics. Certain notions that currently prevail in publicpolicy development overall--including the importance of protecting privacy of information, an interest in cost-effectiveness, and the power of the anecdote--will help determine the future of publicpolicy on genetics. Information areas affected include discrimination by insurers and employers, confidentiality, genetic databanks, genetic testing in law enforcement, and court-ordered genetic testing in civil cases. Service issues address clinical standards, insurance benefits, allocation of resources, and screening of populations at risk. Supply issues encompass funding of research and clinical positions. Likely government actions include, among others: (1) Requiring individual consent for the disclosure of personal information, except when such consent would impose inordinate costs; (2) licensing genetic databases; (3) allowing courts to use personal information in cases where a refusal to use such information would offend the public; (4) mandating health insurers to pay for cost-effective genetic services; (5) funding pharmaceutical research to develop tailored products to prevent or treat diseases; and (6) funding training programs. PMID:12032682
Publicpolicy and epidemiology function in a dynamic environment influenced by political, economic, social, and other factors.\\u000a As demonstrated by the national health goal to eliminate health disparities among population groups by 2010, it will be important\\u000a to have policies that demonstrate an understanding of societal determinants of health. Publicpolicies related to vaccine\\u000a preventable diseases have a long history
Emerging from two graduate seminars designed to increase the involvement of home economists in publicpolicy, this publication includes course outlines, models, and papers on selected issues concerning family-related government policy. The structure and requirements of the two seminars, held in 1978 at the University of Kentucky, are described. A…
|Presents a view on publicpolicy and the importance of biology. Discusses issues such as securing research funds, teaching of evolution and other curriculum issues, lobbying, and the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) PublicPolicy Office. (YDS)|
AbstractThe poor productivity performance of the UK and the EU when compared with the US has been a major driver of policy reforms over the past decade. This paper considers what the evidence suggests about why we have lagged behind the US, considering among other factors the importance of globalisation and outsourcing, the role for publicpolicy intervention and what
The Task Force on PublicPolicy was created to examine ways for behavior analysts to be more functional citizen scientists in the policymaking arena. This report informs readers about the contexts and processes of policymaking; and it outlines issues regarding the roles of behavior analysts in crating policy-relevant conceptual analyses, generating research data, and communicating policy-relevant information. We also discuss a possible role for the professional association in enhancing analysis, research, and advocacy on policies relevant to the public interest.
Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernstein, Gail S.; Czyzewski, Mare J.; Greene, Brandon F.; Hannah, Gerald T.; Iwata, Brian A.; Jason, Leonard A.; Mathews, R. Mark; Morris, Edward K.; Otis-Wilborn, Amy; Seekins, Tom; Winett, Richard A.
|Publicpolicy and the unrelenting web of government intervention has adversely affected the U.S. industrial competition position over the last 25 years. This trend and how it can be reversed are examined. (RM)|
... 10 Study looks at informed consent, privacy issues American Journal of Medical Genetics spotlights GPPC research on biobanking. 09/07/10 Genetics and PublicPolicy Center to study researchers' views on bio-bank research The National Human Genome ...
|The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of publicpolicy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…
When the public sector of a country becomes so indebted that its fi scal sustainability is potentially at risk, then monetary policy has to be, perforce, closely integrated with debt management and fiscal policy. This was the case in the United Kingdom in the decades after World War II. By the 1980s, however, debt ratios had fallen and fi scal
At every turn now, one encounters sharply debated issues and importantpublicpolicies that rest on chemical information. This is true in practically any arena where public interest intersects with the material world: health care practice and public health; energy; quality of air, water, and food; manufacturing standards and product liability; criminal justice; national and international security, including the defense against terrorism. The scale can be truly global, as in the case of the current debate over climate change, which extends into international efforts to regulate gaseous emissions. Sometimes the relevant chemical measurements and applicable theory are sound and their scope is appropriate to the policy; often they are inadequate and a policy or debate overreaches the analytical capability needed to support it. In the decades ahead, the issues with us today will become even more pressing and will drive a still greater reliance on analytical chemistry. This presentation will have four parts covering (a) illustrations of the impact of analytical chemistry on public debate and publicpolicy, including instances where analytical capabilities actually gave rise to new issues and policies, (b) the manner in which chemical information is handled and understood in public debates, (c) areas of analytical chemistry that will be critical to sound publicpolicy in the future, and (d) implications for the education of leaders and general citizens of modern societies.
|This book deals with the question of identifying the optimal mix between public and private programs and provides some guides concerning the appropriate role of government in the manpower area. There is a need for public manpower programs which give some long range direction to manpower policies and which give continuing emphasis to the…
This selective annotated guide highlights some of the key, but relatively unknown sources of information on Black political involvement and Black publicpolicy concerns in contemporary America. The guide emphasizes current works - particularly directories, almanacs, and government reports- that provide statistical data on the political and socioeconomic status of American Blacks. It notes major contemporary book-length studies of public
|This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…
|Many public school choice programs use centralized mechanisms to match students with schools in absence of market-clearing prices. Among them, the Boston mechanism is one of the most widely used. It is well-known that truth-telling may not be optimal under the Boston mechanism, which raises the concern that the mechanism may create a disadvantage…
The article is a review of studies on alcohol-related problems and publicpolicies for consumption reduction addressing recent national and international scientific evidences. In this way, literature review was carried out on alcohol-related publicpolicies through searches in MEDLINE, SCiELO and LILACS databases. Policies for alcohol consumption reduction have been implemented in different countries to minimize its effects on people's health and safety but only recently such strategies and interventions have been scientifically evaluated. It is discussed better cost-effectiveness policies for reducing harmful effects and socioeconomic costs associated with alcohol use through the development of strategies favoring changes in behavior and harmful consumption contexts that can be applicable to different communities. PMID:17923906
Judged by the principle of intertemporal Pareto optimality, insecure property rights and the greenhouse effect both imply overly rapid extraction of fossil carbon resources. A gradual expansion of demand-reducing publicpolicies -- such as increasing ad-valorem taxes on carbon consumption or increasing subsidies for replacement technologies -- may exacerbate the problem as it gives resource owners the incentive to avoid
Reflecting upon the thought of W.E.B. DuBois, it is argued that the black person's fundamental problem today is not one of race but rather is a hard core economic class problem. The implications of this analysis for social strategy and publicpolicy are discussed. (EH)
Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, publicpolicy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current publicpolicy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures. PMID:10309721
A summary is given of a few of the more important things that economists know about the way science and technology affect the performance of the economic system, suggestions on what might be the proper objectives for publicpolicy, and the identification ...
To many, genomics is merely exploitable technology for the leviathan of biotechnology. This is both shallow and short sighted. Genomics is applied knowledge based on profound and evolving science about how living things develop, how healthy or sick we are, and what our future will be like. In health care, genomics technologies are disruptive yet potentially cost-effective because they enable primary prevention, the antidote to runaway costs and declining productivity. The challenges to integration are great, however, and many bioethical and social-policy implications are alarming. Because it is poorly understood today, we must debate genomics vigorously if we are to act wisely. Publicpolicy must lead. PMID:18252856
The report reviews demand for American exports and seaport capabilities in terms of system development. Current operations and challenges of the intergovernmental publicpolicy system are examined for general, intergovernmental publicpolicy related to tr...
P. L. Shaw L. Brandt G. Leonard J. Matzer E. Segelhorst
Publicpolicy in healthcare affects physician and patient choices. In many ways it may limit choices. These choices present conflicts that are discussed here. Some issues depend on the laws enacted to enable either a single-payer system or that mixed with a private-payer system. In each case, the systems attain some cost controls through means such as gatekeepers, long wait lists, authorization processes, national fee schedules, complex coding schemes, or placing physicians on salary. National health systems are compared here. No one system has proven completely satisfactory, and each has its advantages. There are many factors that contribute to the escalating costs of care that lead to many healthcare publicpolicies to constrain costs. Initiatives to incentivize preventive actions are a more positive step, but ones that are difficult to define in detail. PMID:24182385
Sound science also needs to translate into publicpolicy. Earth science and publicpolicy should be integrated, not only in the government but also in our classrooms. This website will provide ideas and resources for educators to add elements of publicpolicy to existing geoscience courses, to create new learning materials that relate earth science and policy, or to see how policy issues can be taught across the geoscience curriculum.
Recent studies have begun to document the changing organizational forms of youth gangs in the United States. The emergence\\/re-emergence of these gangs, often accompanied by increased violence and involvement in drug use and\\/or trafficking, poses major publicpolicy issues. However, little empirical research has been conducted on this subject, and very few studies have been based on interviews with gang
|The relationship of publicpolicy and independent higher education is examined, and the antecedents of an intentional publicpolicy are traced. A comprehensive publicpolicy for the independent sector, which was issued in 1974 by the National Council of Independent Colleges and Universities (NCICU) is discussed in the context of social ideals and…
Striking disparities between Japanese policy and Japanese public opinion foreshadow increasing U.S. policy difficulties. Scholars must study and report effectively the opinion of foreign as well as American publics because the foreign publics are often surprisingly influential on their own governmental policy.
This paper is based on two academic papers written for a Bachelor of Nursing program. The first part of the paper consists of an analysis of publicpolicy in the area of Maternity Services in Australia, and more particularly, in Victoria. The analysis follows the work of Richard Simeon, a Canadian publicpolicy analyst, who has drawn strands of both economic and social analysis together. His work asserts that socio economic factors lead to an environment in which power is held by particular groups in society. These powerful groups then have a greater input into the development of values and ideology for that society, that then effect institutions involved in the policy making process. Analysis shows that the re-emergence of Midwifery and the imminent changes in Maternity Services have occurred due to the increasing power of women in society at a time when economic constraints have forced governments to look at ways of rationalising health care. The second part of the paper identifies the traditional characteristics of profession and critically appraises these from a feminist perspective. Discussion includes the concepts of medical dominance, power, the power of caring and existential advocacy. An argument is presented that profession as traditionally portrayed is not necessary for midwives, will not solve the problem of medical dominance, will alienate consumers and will ultimately lead to disunity. Such disunity would cause fragmentation of the powerbase that has led to changes thus far. PMID:2275635
Human behavioral responses to potential hazards are mediated by the beliefs held about those hazards. This holds whether the "behavior" under consideration is the provision of advice about the hazard, statements of support for policies that address the hazard, or personal behaviors in response to the hazard. This paper focuses on beliefs about radiation and the implications of those beliefs for views about radiation protection by both scientists and members of the U.S. public. We use data from a large sample of scientists, collected in 2002, and a series of surveys of the U.S. public collected in 2007. Among scientists, we focus on how beliefs about radiation are related to policy prescriptions for radiation protection. Among members of the lay public the focus shifts to the relationship between beliefs about radiation risks and policy preferences for nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy options. The importance of the differences and similarities in the patterns of beliefs of scientists and the lay public are discussed. PMID:19820463
Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Silva, Carol L; Murray, Christopher
Historical examples illustrating the political aspects of energy policymaking focus on conventional energy sources with a potential for near-term policy conflicts: nuclear energy, petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Synthetic fuels receive considerable attention because they represent the nation's most-expensive and -ambitious energy gamble of the 1980s. There is less mention of solar technologies because they have been far less important
|A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and publicpolicy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and publicpolicy, and national politics and…
...2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publicationpolicy. 5.1 Section 5.1 ...FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL Â§ 5.1 Publicationpolicy. (a) Pursuant to chapter...Federal Register shall publish a serial publication called the Federal Register to...
...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publicationpolicy. 5.1 Section 5.1 ...FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL Â§ 5.1 Publicationpolicy. (a) Pursuant to chapter...Federal Register shall publish a serial publication called the Federal Register to...
This is a half semester seminar aimed at improving students' abilities to understand and critically evaluate surveys and public opinion polls, particularly those related to publicpolicy. The course begins with an overview of contrasting perspectives on the role of public opinion in democratic government. From here we look at the evolution of public opinion polling in the U.S. and
As the American automobile industry's problems deepened in 1980 to include layoffs of 300,000 auto workers and billion-dollar losses in domestic operations, and just as Ford began producing front-wheel drive cars to compete with Japanese imports, Harvard Business Review interviewed Philip Caldwell, chairman of the Ford Motor Company. Mr. Caldwell describes the predicament of the automobile industry and relates it to the state of the economy. He proposes interim protection for the industry, resolution of the chaos characterizing business-government relations, and adoption of a national industrial policy.
Mass media plays a crucial role in information distribution and thus in the political market and publicpolicy making. Theory predicts that information provided by mass media reflects the media’s incentives to provide news to different types of groups in society, and affects these groups’ influence in policy-making. We use data on agricultural policy from 67 countries, spanning a wide
This is the summary of a meeting where a group of experts, representing several health organizations and academic departments from different parts of Brazil, created a consensus about the main alcohol policies which should be implemented by different levels of the Brazilian government. The World Health Organization has been suggesting for 30 years the actions that should be implemented for the public good. Two important conclusions were reached: 1) The research establishes beyond doubt that public health measures of proven effectiveness are available to serve the public good by reducing the widespread costs and pain related to alcohol use; 2) To that end, it is appropriate to deploy responses that influence both the total amount of alcohol consumed by a population and the high-risk contexts and drinking behaviours that are so often associated with alcohol-related problems. To conceive of these intrinsically complementary approaches as contractory alternatives would be a mistake. The objectives of the consensus are: 1) To make the scientific evidences more available to the Brazilian policy makers; 2) To facilitate the evaluation of the available strategies according their effectivity, scientific support, cost and cultural adaptability; 3) To make the Brazilian health professionals familiar with the priorities of alcohol policies. PMID:15729450
The concepts of 'lesson drawing' and 'policy transfer' have become increasingly influential ways of understanding publicpolicy, especially in the UK. However, the main proponents of the concepts, Rose for 'lesson drawing' and Dolowitz and Marsh for 'policy transfer', have dif- ficulty in providing convincing answers to three questions that are important for them and those engaged in similar studies.
There has been a rapid increase in recent years in invasive species and animal management economic research. Expanded interest in the topic has been partially driven by the practical importance of publicpolicy to deal effectively with invasive species, given its public good aspects. This paper shows that the basic criteria of public goods: non-rivalry and non-excludability, apply directly to
Daniel A. Sumner; Jose E. Bervejillo; Lovell S. Jarvis
|A manual to help students analyze publicpolicy issues in a systematic and well-informed way is presented, with emphasis on the conceptual, information-gathering, and analytical skills required. The text is intended for two major audiences: (1) introductory college-level courses in political science, publicpolicy, or social science research; and…
Although scholars have begun to explore the determinants of public attitudes toward trade policy, we still do not know whether these attitudes have policy consequences. This paper presents the first systematic analysis of this question. I find that higher public support for free trade leads to lower tariffs, but only in democracies. I also find that democracy leads to lower
De Leon and Steelman (2001) addressed three deficiencies in publicpolicy programs. This paper focuses on the first of these, arguing that publicpolicy students can and should be exposed to a comprehensive classification of types of ethical analysis. It then briefly addresses the two other deficiencies, again with recourse to recent…
Speech, language, and composition professionals should take a leadership role in working toward a national publicpolicy on language. The declining rates of literacy and educational achievement in AfroAmerican communities serve as evidence that such a policy is needed. However, the policy would govern language teaching and language use throughout…
If more informed voters receive favorable policies, then mass media should influence policy because it provides most of the information people use in voting. This paper uses a simple model to analyze the effect of mass media provision of news on a number of policy issues: redistribution, the size of the government sector, rents and corruption, the effectiveness of lobby
At a time when Congress is facing critical decisions with respect to criminal justice policy, the participation of criminologists in the formation of policies remains negligible. A commitment by criminologists to policy research that examines the links between economic conditions and crime would constitute an enlightened approach to crime control.…
This empirical research investigates how political sophistication moderates framing effects on public opinion and attitudes. It explores when framing effects occur and who could be immune to such framing. Experimental results with multivariate analyses indicate that political sophistication enhances or reduces framing effects in shaping public views and stances, subject to the nature of publicpolicy. When a publicpolicy
Immigrant workers are a large segment of the lower echelon of the U.S. labor force, and as many as 3.6 to 6 million of these workers and their families are living in the U.S. illegally. This paper examines who the recent immigrants are: explains why their current situation in the U.S. is an importantpublic health matter; discusses the ethical and policy issues stemming from their health needs and from illegal status; and concludes with a brief look at some implications of the Simpson-Mazzoli Immigration and Reform Act, currently before Congress. The paper suggests that the illegal status of undocumented workers intensifies their health risks; that the immigrants' responsibility for budget short-falls in public services is not as clearcut as frequently assumed; and that legislation aimed at regulating the status of immigrant workers in the U.S. is unlikely to solve many of the central problems. PMID:6512224
Public health policy has a profound impact on health status. Missing from the literature is a clear articulation of the definition of evidence-based policy and approaches to move the field forward. Policy-relevant evidence includes both quantitative (e.g., epidemiological) and qualitative information (e.g., narrative accounts). We describe 3 key domains of evidence-based policy: (1) process, to understand approaches to enhance the likelihood of policy adoption; (2) content, to identify specific policy elements that are likely to be effective; and (3) outcomes, to document the potential impact of policy. Actions to further evidence-based policy include preparing and communicating data more effectively, using existing analytic tools more effectively, conducting policy surveillance, and tracking outcomes with different types of evidence.
As Healthy Communities initiatives mature, many of them are discovering that their work in building community consensus for improved health care and other quality-of-life issues can be transformed into publicpolicy. This article shows how Healthy Communities initiatives have had important effects on policy making at both the county and state level in several cities and states.
Policy change continues to be an increasingly effective means of advancing the agenda of comprehensive cancer control. Efforts have moved progressively from describing how publicpolicy can enhance the comprehensive cancer control agenda to implementation of publicpolicy best practices at both the state and federal levels. The current political and economic contexts bring additional challenges and opportunities to the efforts surrounding comprehensive cancer control and policy. The purpose of this paper is to highlight recent policy successes, to illustrate the importance of policy as a means of advancing the comprehensive cancer control agenda, and to discuss continued policy action as we move forward in a time of healthcare reform and continuing economic uncertainty.
Daniel, Kelley; Gurian, Gary L.; Petherick, J. T.; Stockmyer, Chris; David, Annette M.; Miller, Sara E.
|This policy statement from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities addresses the benefits of public higher education. Along with introductory and concluding sections, the statement addresses access, academic quality, research and public service, accountability, public financial support, and balanced governance. The statement…
Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by publicpolicies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their publicpolicy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their publicpolicy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their publicpolicy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of publicpolicy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess publicpolicy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities. PMID:23113418
Alternative policies to the present government monopoly of the uranium enrichment process are discussed in this monograph. Alternative policies analyzed are continued government monopoly and operation by the Department of Energy, establishment of a government corporation, and complete relinquishing of government control with the private sector taking the risks of constructing additional capacity. The material is divided into 6 chapters.
Targeting publicpolicy is a necessary part of a successful underage drinking prevention effort. This 'Community How to Guide on PublicPolicy' details how coalitions and organizations can effectively work to change publicpolicies that impact underage dr...
Extreme policies of prohibition or the current permissive strategies are counterproductive and call for a nuanced public health approach that integrates both the regulation of availability of alcohol as well as helps in rigorously enforcing the law. PMID:21192518
This report examined the emerging scientific and medical feasibility of xenotransplantation (transplantation of cells tissues, and whole organs from one species to another) and explored the ethical and publicpolicy issues applicable to the possibility of...
Appropriate population?based data and epidemiological analyses are essential for such medical and public health interventions as genetic counseling, genetic screening, and prenatal tests for genetic conditions. At the Federal level, genetics and epidemiology are important in several current publicpolicy matters: (1) Protection of people from chemical hazards and radiation has focused on scientific evaluation of risks of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis,
|Statistical studies often show public opinion strongly affecting publicpolicy. But the studies may overestimate the effect because they focus on issues--those especially important to the public--on which governments are most likely to be responsive. This article considers what the opinion-policy linkage would be if less-important issues were…
The Internships in PublicPolicy program, funded by the National Science Foundation and administered by the Massachusetts Internship Office, was a pilot project designed to test whether the emerging professional talents or graduate students in the social ...
The example of the Tuloso-Midway Independent School District of Corpus Christi, Texas, points out the community support benefits to be gained from an effective public relations policy. Such policies should be develped before a crisis destroys opportunities for widespread support. The system should assess its current communications needs first,…
Utilitarian philosophy holds that publicpolicy should aim at advancing human happiness. This moral theory meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on ideological grounds as undesirable. As a result the principle is marginal in policy \\u000amaking. In this chapter I consider these classic philosophical qualms in the light of recent empirical research on life-satisfaction.
|Publicpolicies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…
Provides extensive information on nurse policy internships and learning opportunities and a realistic sense of what it is like to work and learn in the publicpolicy domain. A table provides the following information on 15 fellowship programs: type, purpose, eligibility, financial data, duration, and contact for applications. (JOW)
|This paper intends to discuss the policy of admission to Jordanian public universities. This admission rules are variable and open to almost 100% of the graduates from secondary schools. This might refer to the historical events and economic conditions that the country has gone through since its establishment. Furthermore, the admission policy is…
|The synthesis "PublicPolicies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the digital campuses.…
Investigational, conceptual, and interventional advances in the neurosciences strain consensus in research ethics, clinical ethics, legal ethics, and jurisprudence and demand innovative adaptation in publicpolicy. I review these advances, ask how they might change a range of policies, and conclude that their implications — particularly relating to aggression — are likely to have been underestimated.
The synthesis "PublicPolicies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the digital campuses.…
Publicpolicies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…
Issues pertaining to children often struggle to become publicpolicy priorities. A clear demonstration of this phenomenon is the degree to which children are supported in the federal budget in comparison to other priorities. If issues pertaining to children struggle for the policy spotlight, subissues pertaining to them face an even greater…
Translational medicine entails not only “from-bench-to-bedside” but also preventive medicine. The present article proposes a conceptual framework of translational research from scientific research to health care policy and public health policy. We highlight the importance of translational medicine to bridge between research and policy and share our experience of translating medical research to public health policy in China as well as obstacles and challenges we are facing in the translation process.
...importers, and foreign manufacturers. (a) This policy states...Basically, the Policy states that...protect the American consumer from...importers and foreign manufacturers...giving the American consumer the...Commission's policy to assure that importers and foreign...
...importers, and foreign manufacturers. (a) This policy states...Basically, the Policy states that...protect the American consumer from...importers and foreign manufacturers...giving the American consumer the...Commission's policy to assure that importers and foreign...
...importers, and foreign manufacturers. (a) This policy states...Basically, the Policy states that...protect the American consumer from...importers and foreign manufacturers...giving the American consumer the...Commission's policy to assure that importers and foreign...
Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted. PMID:20176304
|A major problem in American publicpolicy making is the difficulty of balancing domestic energy resource development with enhancement of environmental quality. Social restraints on energy-environment solutions necessitate the balancing of alternative futures. The interests of government, industry, and the public must all be considered in…
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and character of policy statements in epidemiologic reports. METHODS: The first author followed a standardized protocol and reviewed a random sample of articles selected from the American Journal of Epidemiology, Annals of Epidemiology, and Epidemiology. The second author reviewed all articles with policy statements and a 10% sample without such statements. RESULTS: Overall, 23.8% of the articles contained policy statements. Annals of Epidemiology and the American Journal of Epidemiology had similar frequencies of articles with policy statements (30% and 26.7%, respectively), while Epidemiology evidenced the lowest frequency (8.3%). The majority of policy statements (55%) pertained to public health practice; 27.5% involved clinical practice, and the remainder (17.5%) focused on corporate policies, regulatory actions, or undefined arenas. The frequency of policy statements differed according to first author's affiliation, type of publication, area of research, research design, and study population. CONCLUSIONS: Although a minority of publications included policy statements, the inclusion of a statement seemed to be influenced by specific study characteristics.
Beliefs about the effectiveness of rape prevention strategies influence public cooperation in their implementation. To acquaint publicpolicy makers with these beliefs and to help them assess their impact, a three-city telephone survey of adults was conducted using a random sampling of ages, races, male and female, married and unmarried, from all…
WWS 539 surveys the philosophy, practice and politics of public health in the U.S. The course provides an introduction to the principles of epidemiology and explores the social, political and institutional forces that shape public health policy. We will consider the determinants of health at the individual level, as well as at the population level. We will investigate the government's
|This paper examines the political behavior of local school boards in terms of two models of political governance. The first model discussed is the "sacred vs. secular" model that distinguishes between "sacred" governing bodies that reach consensus in private and generally support the sociocultural status quo and "secular" bodies that make policy…
\\u000a Over the past 25 years, criminal profiling as a tool for solving crimes has been popularized with the public through literature,\\u000a film, and television. Additionally, profiling’s successful contribution to the resolution of a few high-profile cases has\\u000a also served to increase the practice’s standing in the public square. But fundamentally, the fate of criminal profiling as\\u000a a tool of law
As a native son of Washington, it makes sense that Thomas S. Foley might have a policy institute named after him, particularly given his long track record of public service as the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Based at Washington State University, the mission of the Thomas S. Foley Institute for PublicPolicy and Public Service is "to foster civic education, public service, and publicpolicy research in a nonpartisan, cross-disciplinary setting." First-time visitors to the site can get acclimated to the material by checking out the latest report from the Foley Institute or watching one of the recent videos from the Institute, such as "Women in Public Service" and an interview with Bill Gates, Sr. On the left-hand of the homepage, visitors will find six additional thematic areas, including "Events", "Internships", "Foley Archives", and "PublicPolicy Research". Finally, the site also includes links to social media and a link where users can sign up to receive updates from the Institute.
|The essays in this collection explore issues related to publicpolicy and higher education. They are intended to provide foundational readings in publicpolicy and to explore contemporary publicpolicy issues facing higher education. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of the Policy Process" (Randall B. Ripley); (2) "Promoting Policy Theory:…
Goodchild, Lester F., Ed.; Lovell, Cheryl D., Ed.; Hines, Edward R., Ed.; Gill, Judith I., Ed.
This paper reviews the challenges facing the public health workforce in developing countries and the main policy issues that must be addressed in order to strengthen the public health workforce. The public health workforce is diverse and includes all those whose prime responsibility is the provision of core public health activities, irrespective of their organizational base. Although the public health workforce is central to the performance of health systems, very little is known about its composition, training or performance. The key policy question is: Should governments invest more in building and supporting the public health workforce and infrastructure to ensure the more effective functioning of health systems? Other questions concern: the nature of the public health workforce, including its size, composition, skills, training needs, current functions and performance; the appropriate roles of the workforce; and how the workforce can be strengthened to support new approaches to priority health problems. The available evidence to shed light on these policy issues is limited. The World Health Organization is supporting the development of evidence to inform discussion on the best approaches to strengthening public health capacity in developing countries. WHO's priorities are to build an evidence base on the size and structure of the public health workforce, beginning with ongoing data collection activities, and to map the current public health training programmes in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe. Other steps will include developing a consensus on the desired functions and activities of the public health workforce and developing a framework and methods for assisting countries to assess and enhance the performance of public health training institutions and of the public health workforce.
In the major reforms to higher education being introduced throughout the world, market and “market-like” policy instruments are assuming increasing importance. Long perceived as a unique characteristic of the U.S. system of higher education, experiments with market competition in academic labor markets, institutional finance, student support, and the allocation of research funds are now evident in the higher education policy
|Analysis of the voting patterns in six states on the 1976 initiatives for a moratorium on nuclear power plants. Demographic characteristics were found to be unimportant variables, while percentage of people enrolled in colleges and universities, percentage of land in farms, and relative cost of electricity were found to be important. Stresses…
|Raising some of the most challenging questions in the field, this call-to-arms focuses on the important services gifted programs provide, the potential crisis gifted educators face, and what must be done to keep the gifted child movement alive and well. Key features include: (1) James J. Gallagher's unflinching account of the issues that continue…
Raising some of the most challenging questions in the field, this call-to-arms focuses on the important services gifted programs provide, the potential crisis gifted educators face, and what must be done to keep the gifted child movement alive and well. Key features include: (1) James J. Gallagher's unflinching account of the issues that continue…
|The impacts of market-related policies and revenues on higher education are not uniform but globalisation has opened most institutions to new pressures. The public funding models developed 50 years ago underestimated the full cost of mass higher education as an entitlement while the sheer scale of resources needed to sustain a comprehensive…
Perhaps no element of the current conflict in Iraq engenders more emotion and acrimony within the military than debate concerning the role and influence of the news media on public opinion and national policy. Debates regarding this subject are nothing ne...
erhaps no element of the current conflict in Iraq engenders more emotion and acrimony within the military than debate concerning the role and in- fluence of the news media on public opinion and national policy. Debates re- garding this subject are nothing new. Since at least the Civil War, anecdotal assertions associated with media influence on American wars have caused
The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) has identified publicpolicy issues of interest to its membership in 1997, including those in budget and appropriations, college costs and pricing, distance learning and technology, environmental health and safety, federal audit and accounting standards, Higher Education…
This paper shows how the measurement of population happiness can inform publicpolicy. In this context happiness refers to mood happiness, commonly referred to as Subjective Wellbeing (SWB). The essential character of SWB is that it is normally positive. It is held to be positive by a management system called SWB Homeostasis. If this management system fails, due to the
|The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) has identified publicpolicy issues of interest to its membership in 1997, including those in budget and appropriations, college costs and pricing, distance learning and technology, environmental health and safety, federal audit and accounting standards, Higher…
The original hypothesis of this research was that China has developed publicpolicies to protect the rights and interests of its ethnic minorities. Using literature and web materials from different sources, however, the authors were unable to obtain findings to test this hypothesis. Nevertheless, from an analysis of 31 articles and books, eight research and news websites, and three Chinese
This article reviews the evolution of ethical problems in the first generation of experimental fetal therapy and the prevailing approaches to them. The problems include: review of risks\\/benefits, case selection, informed consent, twin pregnancies, and refusal of proven fetal therapy. The article further discusses ethical and publicpolicy issues in the lack of U.S. federal support for fetal diagnosis, fetal
There have been spectacular large gifts by private individuals for overseas development in recent years, and remarkable numbers of people have responded to appeals by development charities. The aim of this paper is to consider how such overseas giving is best modelled and the implications for publicpolicy. Existing theories of charitable giving provide insight but are not fully satisfactory
Purpose – This article aims to provide an overview on key trends in public sector policy and professional development and how they intersect with gender and diversity. It seeks to explore new configurations in the relationship between gender and the professions and to develop a matrix for the collection of articles presented in this volume. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors link
The paper provides the analytical definition of public credit policy for avoiding systemic risk and for industrial restructuring. It contains the results of econometric estimations of intensity of links between some financial variables and default dynamics of representative firms. The estimations are performed using French industrial firms' database. 1. Intoduction How can one evaluate the capacities of any country to
Every day elected and appointed government officials make publicpolicy decisions that have an impact on the way cooperatives and their members do business. Yet most cooperatives have little or nothing in the way of plans to influence those decisions. The...
In this laboratory exercise students will have an opportunity to examine the crystal structures, optical properties and health hazards of the common asbestos minerals. The laboratory will reinforce optical microscopic skills that students have learned in mineralogy and show them how mineralogy can be critical to understanding a current publicpolicy issue.
|This collection of papers aims to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The first section, "An Evolving PublicPolicy Education" examines the history of public education; address current issues such as leadership models, ethics in policy formation and policy education; and forecasts…
The PublicPolicy Institute of California provides timely research papers and policy briefs on various issues affecting the Golden State, including those related to public education financing, economic development, immigration, and transportation. As of late, they have also been beefing up their online map room area, which is a great resource for those with an interest in policy matters, geography, and urban studies. The interactive maps here are divided into four categories, including housing, population, water, and environment. With each map, visitors can click through to learn about different details and features, and many of the maps have additional layers of data as well. Perhaps the most interesting maps here include "Inland Empire Demographics: 2005 and 2015" and "Home Affordability in California's Counties".
In this paper, we argue that one's publicpolicy stance reliably influences how one judges individual cases of policy application. And to the extent that stereotypes and prejudice have reliable effects on publicpolicy judgments, they have important effects on individual judgments. To test these hypotheses, we assessed subjects' perceptions and judgments of two target groups: gays and welfare recipients.
Kristin L. Maurer; Bernadette Park; Charles M. Judd
Evaluability assessment, also commonly known as exploratory evaluation, has assisted the field of public health to improve programs and to develop a pragmatic, practice-based research agenda. Evaluability assessment was originally developed as a low-cost pre-evaluation activity to prepare better for conventional evaluations of programs, practices, and some policies. For public health programs, however, it serves several other important purposes: (a)
Laura C. Leviton; Laura Kettel Khan; Debra Rog; Nicola Dawkins; David Cotton
Debates about which policy initiatives can prevent or reduce the damage that illicit drugs cause to the public good are rarely informed by scientific evidence. Fortunately, evidence-based interventions are increasingly being identified that are capable of making drugs less available, reducing violence in drug markets, lessening misuse of legal pharmaceuticals, preventing drug use initiation in young people, and reducing drug use and its consequences in established drug users. We review relevant evidence and outline the likely effects of fuller implementation of existing interventions. The reasoning behind the final decisions for action might be of a non-scientific nature, focused more on what the public and policy-makers deem of value. Nevertheless, important opportunities exist for science to inform these deliberations and guide the selection of policies that maximise the public good. PMID:22225672
Recent social science literature has paid increasing attention to the concept of trust, albeit with differing definitions and constituents and also with differing emphases on societal origins, functions, and implications. Recently, discussion has shifted to the role of trust in hazard management and, more broadly, to the fundamental role of trust in modern society. In this paper, we provide answers to the following questions, in an attempt to refocus the discussion and identify a more productive research approach to the relationship of trust and public participation in risk policy issues: -What is trust? What are the differing conceptions and dimensions of trust that have been identified in the literature? -What are the social functions of trust? -What is the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? Why is trust particularly important for agencies such as the Department of Energy (DOE) that are responsible for development and implementation of policies involving technological risk? -How should we define the research problem in examining the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? What are the key research questions to be addressed? Federal agencies have introduced public participation as a means of addressing public distrust and enhancing their ability to make decisions that can be implemented. In some cases, such as the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board, public participation was explicitly identified as an organizational response that was needed to re-establish public trust and confidence in the Department of Energy (DOE). However, our review of the literature on both trust and public participation and our experience in developing criteria for evaluating public participation initiatives have resulted in our questioning the wisdom of establishing trust as a goal of public participation and caused us to examine the relationship between trust and public participation.
Bradbury, Judith A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Branch, Kristi M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Focht, Will; Ragnar E. Lofstedt and George Cvetkovich
Synthetic vitreous fibers play an important role in today's economy. Glass fibers, as an example, have found uses in more than 30,000 products that include insulations, reinforcements, fire resistant fabrics, and protective armor. Vitreous fibers also play a direct role in energy conservation. For example, in 1992, a study by Arthur D. Little found that the annual production of fiber glass batts and blowing wool used in U.S. buildings--only a fraction of the current production and use of glass wool--saved the equivalent of 33.4 million barrels of oil in 1992, avoiding the need for nearly 6800 megawatts of power. This is equivalent to 34 new 200-megawatt power plants. An ongoing commitment by the manufacturers to assure the safety of their products paralleled the growth of the vitreous fiber industry. Soon after commercialization of glass wool manufacturing in the mid-1930s, worker concerns about silica gave rise to the first study on the health of fiber glass workers (Siebert, 1942). Since that time, there have been hundreds of studies, published papers, and international reviews that have evaluated potential health effects and exposures associated with synthetic vitreous fibers. PMID:7724850
"The Journal of Engineering and PublicPolicy is an electronic compendium of research papers prepared by engineering students participating in the annual Washington Internships for Students of Engineering (WISE)." Papers are currently available for the first six years of the program, and those for 2003 will be available later in the fall. A continuing theme studied by many of the WISE students is homeland security, ranging from critical infrastructure protection to computer and Internet security. Other topics include communications, transportation, engineering policy, and more.
The report presents the findings of an Assessment of Consumer Information Processing Research in Relation to PublicPolicy Needs. The first section studies the publicpolicy setting. The main body of the digest reviews, examines, and interprets the existi...
In the past two decades there has been little critical examination of the prevailing methods of controlling prostitution in\\u000a the United States. This article examines selected problems in the control of prostitution in the United States and critically\\u000a assesses three major alternatives to the prevailing policy of criminalization. Alternative approaches are evaluated using\\u000a the criteria of public preferences, efficient use
State law and policies established by legislative bodies represent an important machinery for amplifying the effects of behavior change efforts in individuals and groups. This study shows the inter-relationships of public health policy, behavior, attitude, knowledge of the general public and how their outcomes can affect health and safety, policy formulation, enactment, implementation, policy evaluation and its revision or repeal. Observational and interview surveys of the driving public were conducted over an eighteen month period (1987-1989) in Kansas. Results showed major differences in the public's knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward the new mandatory seatbelt law across different geographic locations of metropolitan, urban and suburban areas. The new law had the support of more than half of those interviewed. The public's knowledge and attitude on the seatbelt use and law were far from being ideal. Much work is needed to convince about 27% of the driving public who declared they never use their seatbelts and would ignore any law/policy that would force them to comply. PMID:10116578
|This issue deals with the future of an age-based publicpolicy. Articles discuss the history of age-based publicpolicy; the competing bases for benefits; population dynamics; Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare; employer policies; and local and state policies. Describes California's Linkages Program. (JOW)|
The growing importance of public health is evidenced by its increasing responsibilities. Public health was historically known for its contribution towards reduction and control of infectious diseases through such efforts as environmental sanitation (by securing safe air and water), hygienic practices, the elimination of smallpox and polio (through immunization), and reduction of overcrowding. As chronic diseases replaced infectious diseases as
This paper jointly examines the importance of parental influences, prices, and tobacco control policies on the smoking behavior of youths. Data are drawn from the Audits & Surveys (A&S) 1996 survey of high school students across the United States from "The Study of Smoking and Tobacco Use Among Young People" to examine the impact of parental…
|This paper jointly examines the importance of parental influences, prices, and tobacco control policies on the smoking behavior of youths. Data are drawn from the Audits & Surveys (A&S) 1996 survey of high school students across the United States from "The Study of Smoking and Tobacco Use Among Young People" to examine the impact of parental…
The rapid growth of data communications and remote-access computing has outpaced the ability of industrial organizations to adapt to change, and at the same time has outpaced the ability of government policy making organizations to guide the evolution of this new technology. This book focuses on a number of important issues awaiting resolution by…
Multiple gestations, or multifetal pregnancies,raise a number of significant policy questionsconcerning the well being of women and the wellbeing of the children fetuses might become.Important questions for feminists pertain notonly to multifetal pregnancy itself, but alsoto the medical interventions associated withthese pregnancies. In this paper, we addressthe questions of how many embryos should betransferred in assisted reproduction, how manyfetuses should
Involuntary commitment and custodialization were the principal tenets of British colonial publicpolicy provisions for the management of the violent, disturbed mentally ill in Jamaica and the West Indies. Over the fifty years following Jamaica's political independence from Britain, a community engagement mental health programme has developed through a decolonization process that has negated involuntary certification, incarceration and custodialization, has promoted family therapy and short stay treatment in conventional primary and secondary care health facilities, and has promoted reliance on traditional and cultural therapies that have been extremely successful in the treatment of mental illness and the reduction of stigma in Jamaica. Collaborations involving The University of the West Indies, the Jamaican Ministry of Health and the Pan American Health Organization have been seminal in the development of the decolonizing of publicpolicy initiatives, negating the effects of involuntary certification that had been imposed on the population by slavery and colonization. This collaboration also catalysed the psychiatric training of medical, nursing and mental health practitioners and the execution of community mental health policy in Jamaica. PMID:23240482
The provision of public Internet access and related networked services by public libraries is affected by a number of information policy issues. This article analyzes the policy dimensions of Internet connectivity in public libraries in light of the data and findings from a national survey of public libraries conducted by the authors of this article. After providing a summary of
Paul T. Jaeger; John Carlo Bertot; Charles R. McClure; Lesley A. Langa
|The provision of public Internet access and related networked services by public libraries is affected by a number of information policy issues. This article analyzes the policy dimensions of Internet connectivity in public libraries in light of the data and findings from a national survey of public libraries conducted by the authors of this…
Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Langa, Lesley A.
Founded in 1998, the National Center for PublicPolicy and Higher Education is an independent, nonprofit, and nonpartisan organization dedicated to "ensuring educational opportunity, affordability, and quality in American higher education." The Center's work focuses around several important questions, such as "Who should be served by higher education?" and "How can state and federal policies stimulate and encourage increased quality?" Perhaps the most important information the site provides are the reports issued and researched by the Center. Recent papers of note include "College Affordability in Jeopardy" (released February 2003), "Coping with Recession," and "Competition and Collaboration in California Higher Education." Another helpful feature provided on the site is National Crosstalk, a quarterly publication published by the Center, which features news stories, opinion pieces from persons in higher education, and interviews. The site is rounded out by a collection of links relevant to American higher education and the opportunity for visitors to sign up to receive email updates from the Center.
Translating the new science of growth into constructive policy will not happen naturally. Rather, the emerging science will need to be reframed to address certain core policy requirements. First, the complexity of early genetic and environmental interactions should be respected as their impact may vary in different, real-world settings. Second, the scale of impact is important to gauge as early-life interactions, while real, may not account for a large portion of later outcomes. Third, judgments regarding critical periods and the amenability of early-life influences to later intervention should be made cautiously as the etiologic nature or timing of early-life interactions do not, per se, determine if their life course effects are amenable to later interventions. Fourth, there is a need for incremental efficacy, such that the new science significantly enhances the impact of extant policy-based interventions. Finally, the translation of the new developmental science into policy should be viewed in a historical context and responsive to social and cultural needs. This provides a basis for reframing the new science of growth in a manner that best ensures that the science receives the constructive policy response it so urgently demands. PMID:23502155
The management of research related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is discussed as a question of publicpolicy at the federal level. Issues addressed include the slowness of the biomedical community to recognize the problem and initiate research; the lack of integration among research efforts by different federal agencies; problems related to crisis management and scarce resources; inadequate exchange of technical information; and the failure to see AIDS as a long-term research problem with biomedical, social science, and economic dimensions. PMID:4055348
This essay examines the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties and argues that the debate provides an important glimpse into values shaping American foreign policy. Three different foreign policy dramas are found to be competing for public acceptance during the canal debate: the Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics dramas. The essay argues
This article empirically investigates the effect of national identity on public opinion towards European Union (EU) control over immigration policy. The EU has recently gained some control over immigration policy, but has faced strong opposition from reluctant national politicians. This study argues that public opinion is an important factor in explaining such reluctance. I propose a hypothesis of national identity
Mandatory education systems form a central pillar of modern social policy sectors. For two of the countries in North America, the expansion of mass public schooling followed similar trajectories. Despite surface-level similarities, there are important differences in the two countries that require explanation. Without national intervention, the Canadian provinces have instituted similar policies fashioning a de facto national education policy
This article addresses problems facing universities because of external pressures for changes in their teaching, research, and governance and management policies and practices to align them with publicpolicies. The view is put that governments are introducing publicpolicies in times of economic recession to achieve rationalisation of human, physical and financial resources in higher education and to foster initiatives
|Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous publicpolicy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related publicpolicy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging…
Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Kietzman, Kathryn G.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Hensel, Brian K.; Miles, Toni P.; Segev, Dorry L.; Zerzan, Judy
The paper studies empirically the fiscal policy instruments by which governments try to influence election outcomes in 24 developing countries for the 1973–1992 period. The study finds that the main vehicle for expansionary fiscal policies around elections is increasing public expenditure rather than lowering taxes, and public investment cycles seem particularly prominent. Institutional mechanisms which constrain discretionary expenditure policies and
Local health policies are not as evidence based as they could be if the public health impacts of policies were easier to simulate. Here we address the inaccessibility of high quality models of public health and policy presenting the concepts of a new simulation framework, IMPACT, built on Semantic Web principles. Model and simulation data are persisted with rich semantics
The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The publicpolicy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the publicpolicy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set forth by Justice Harry Blackmun in Roe vs. Wade. This approach gives a woman freedom to decide to have an abortion during the first 2 trimesters of her pregnancy only. This approach has essentially dictated publicpolicy in the US since 1973. The last position considered is that which maintains that a woman's right to equality demands that she have sole control over whether or not to have an abortion. PMID:8118140
Although US children and youth remain an underserved group, some members of the psychological community have become deeply involved since the 1970s in shaping publicpolicy toward this population. Efforts include examination of the relationship between knowledge and policy, the process of policy formulation, the efficacy of programs for children, and training programs in child development and social policy.
Ruby Takanishi; Patrick H. DeLeon; Michael S. Pallak
Public management policies have changed significantly in numerous countries in recent times. Policy entrepreneurs remain active in this policy domain, which encompasses government?wide rules and routines in the areas of expenditure planning and financial management, civil service and labor relations, procurement, organization and methods, and audit and evaluation. Case?oriented comparative research provides policy entrepreneurs with historically and theoretically informed knowledge
Public management policies have changed significantly in numerous countries in recent times. Policy entrepreneurs remain active in this policy domain, which encompasses government-wide rules and routines in the areas of expenditure planning and financial management, civil service and labor relations, procurement, organization and methods, and audit and evaluation. Case-oriented comparative research provides policy entrepreneurs with historically and theoretically informed knowledge
ublic policy making is not merely a technical function of gov ernment; rather it is a complex interactive process influenced by the diverse nature of socio-political and other environmental forces. These environmental forces that form the policy context lead to the variation in policies and influences the output and impact. Due to the contextual differences, publicpolicies of the developed
Aims Data suggest that hyperpalatable foods may be capable of triggering an addictive process. Although the addictive potential of foods continues to be debated, important lessons learned in reducing the health and economic consequences of drug addiction may be especially useful in combating food-related problems. Methods In the current paper, we review the potential application of policy and public health approaches that have been effective in reducing the impact of addictive substances to food-related problems. Results Corporate responsibility, public health approaches, environmental change, and global efforts all warrant strong consideration in reducing obesity and diet-related disease. Conclusions Although there exist important differences between foods and addictive drugs, ignoring analogous neural and behavioral effects of foods and drugs of abuse may result in increased food-related disease and associated social and economic burdens. Public health interventions that have been effective in reducing the impact of addictive drugs may have a role in targeting obesity and related diseases.
Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Grilo, Carlos M.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Potenza, Marc N.
Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday life. Environmental health practitioners rely on a complex web of regulators and policy bodies to ensure the protection of public health, yet few understand the full extent of this web. A lack of understanding can hamper public health response and impede policy development. In this paper we map the public health chemicals policy landscape in Australia and conclude that an understanding of this system is essential for effective environmental health responses and policy development. PMID:23490093
Unlike alcohol, which is legal and regulated, current publicpolicy makes drugs such as heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, and marijuana illegal. This article summarizes the history of drug and alcohol use in the United States, compares our publicpolicies on alcohol to those on drugs, and shows the direct link between alcohol or drug use and crime, corruption, violence, and health problems in other countries and in our own. A rational approach to formulating a workable publicpolicy is presented. PMID:16355066
The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a necessary step in tackling with greater efficiency the health problems still prevalent in the region. PMID:21526307
Education of the public and the resulting policies in many matters are grossly inadequate. Included as a small list of four samples of failings in vital matters are: 1. Societal Cohesiveness: A profound change in the school system will yield great benefit for the nation (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/publicservice.html.). 2. Lack of understanding regarding the coming avian flu pandemic (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/ElyFluMES.pdf). 3. Severe Hg intoxication from dentistry due to profound multifaceted ignorance (Ely JTA, Mercury induced Alzheimer's disease: accelerating incidence? Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001; 67(6),800-6). 4. The end of the world by global warming due to Christian religion forcing family planning money to be withheld from UN leading to population excess (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/CO2runaway.html).
The regional Federal Reserve Banks located across the United States produce a range of reports on economic indicators, housing statistics, local industry, and other related topics. The New England PublicPolicy Center (NEPPC) at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston has been archiving its working papers series since 2005, and visitors to this site can look over all of the published titles. Currently, there are over 25 papers by NEPPC staff members available here. Some of the more recent titles include "Are American Homeowners Locked Into Their Houses? The Impact of Housing Market Conditions on State-to-State Migration" and "Childhood Lead and Academic Performance in Massachusetts." The site also includes a full range of social media links, which makes it easy to share these valuable works with others.
We make recommendations for ethics research in publicpolicy based on the experience of public administration. In many ways, literature in public administration on ethics relates appropriately to publicpolicy, albeit with specific gaps and specific peculiarities. The specific gaps apply particularly to aspects of publicpolicy that are not especially emphasized in public administration (e.g., ethics in policy formulation
Description: The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern ... The main publicpolicy instruments for managing urban growth and ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, email@example.com if you notice any errors which ...
...2013-01-01 false Public information policy. 294.201 Section...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AVAILABILITY OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION The Public Information Function Â§ 294.201...
Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322
Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health.
For much of its history, environmental economics has sought to modify publicpolicy in order to achieve efficient use and management of environmental resources. The results of this attempt, however, have been dismaying for the most part, and environment publicpolicy continues to differ from the course of action prescribed by economic analysis. Some economists have begun to acknowledge that
Studies on the relationship between research and development (R&D) and public policymaking processes are reviewed. Attention is directed to R&D utilization in Sweden and other countries. The publications are grouped into four categories: policymaking and knowledge utilization, research policy, higher education policy, and knowledge utilization in…
The paper explores the concept of sustainable development and its ethical and publicpolicy implications for engineering. Sustainable development involves achieving objectives in three realms: ecological (sustainable scale), economic (efficient allocation) and social (just distribution). The success of publicpolicy to promote sustainable development is dependent upon achieving all three objectives of a sustainable society. However, questions of just distribution
|This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…
Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.
This paper briefly considers the history of public health delivery in England, its transition from local government to NHS leadership and back again, and the consequences of that shift in terms of transport policy as a determinant of health and wellbeing. General principles of modern public health thinking are outlined, emphasising the need for policy choices to consider the Rose
The present research investigates publicpolicy concerning teacher education in Brazil. It is a critical rereading of historical documents focusing on laws, legal documents, projects, institutional and publicpolicies and teaching careers developed by the Brazilian state, as well as social and scientific organisations. Emphasis is given to current…
We are interested in the relationship between publicpolicies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between publicpolicy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…
|Publicpolicy for agriculture and natural resources must change as farming and the use of resources change, but policy also changes to reflect new understandings. The new understandings that will shape future agricultural policy may not come from food producers or agricultural scientists, and may not assume that expanding production is the…
Illegal migration into the United States continues to be an important and contentious issue in the early stages of the twenty-first century. An important aspect of the contemporary migration debate is public opinion toward the various policy and control initiatives that have recently been discussed. This study used public opinion data from a 2006 study conducted by the Pew Research
The contentious nature-nurture debate in developmental psychology is poised to reach a rapprochement with contemporary concepts of gene-environment interaction, transaction, and fit. Discoveries over the past decade have revealed how neither genes nor the environment offers a sufficient window into human development. Rather, the most important discoveries have come from unearthing the manner in which the environment alters gene expression (and how genes impose limits on environmental effects), how biology and the environment influence each other across time, and how maximizing gene-environment fit leads to optimal outcomes for children. The manner in which these factors operate in tandem should direct future scholarship, practice, and publicpolicy.
Policies and guidelines designed to provide media program consistency and continuity in the Rosholt School District (Wisconsin) are presented together with a report on a study conducted to determine policies conducive to good media practice. Each of the t...
|This paper is the eighth in the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) biennial series summarizing federal and state public-policy issues affecting higher education. This document's list of top public-policy issues comprises a daunting inventory for boards and chief executives to consider. Security demands of the…
Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2005
This paper attempts to clean up some of the muddled thinking that obscures the distinction between theory and practice in educational administration. The author also applies his argument to the issue of possible gaps between policy formulation and policy implementation. The author begins by noting that there is a common misapprehension that in…
The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Formerly secret internal tobacco industry documents provide evidence of a 50-year conspiracy to "resist smoking restrictions, restore smoker confidence and preserve product liability defence". The documents reveal industry-wide collusion on legal, political and socially important issues to the tobacco industry and clearly demonstrate that the industry is not disposed to act ethically or responsibly. Societal action is therefore required to ensure that the public health takes precedence over corporate profits. Recommendations for reducing the political influence of the tobacco industry include the following. Every tobacco company in every market should publicly disclose what it knew about the addictiveness and harm caused by tobacco, when it obtained this information, and what it did about it. The industry should be required to guarantee internationally recognized basic consumer rights to its customers. Trade associations and other industry groupings established to deceive the public should be disbanded. These recommendations should be incorporated into WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:10994263
ABSTRACT: The capacity of a political system to respond to the preferences of its citizens is central to democratic theory and practice. Research and theory about the impact of public opinion on policymaking has produced decidedly mixed views. A number of analysts find a strong and persisting impact of public opinion on publicpolicy. Other analysts reject the idea that
This paper examines how marketing management tools can be used to shape publicpolicy and solve problems in the public sector. Marketing management focuses on utility transfer through transaction processes. Governments increasingly listen to its citizens, for instance through governance networks, where citizens try, often by invitation, to influence decisions to be made by public organisations. Frequent privatization of utilities,
To understand the public beliefs about breastfeeding policies in various settings and to examine the associations of these beliefs with sociodemographic characteristics, we analyze the data from the 2001 Healthstyles survey, which is an annual national mail survey to US adults. We found that establishing workplace breastfeeding policies and lactation rooms in public places are the most acceptable breastfeeding policies surveyed, especially among African Americans and low-income populations. The overall population appears to approve of breastfeeding in public, but less-educated or older people (aged >/=45 years) are less likely to do so. In general, there is relatively less public support for breastfeeding education in high schools. The results indicate that many Americans, especially African Americans and those with low household income, believe that women who breastfeed need extra support both at work and in public places. A variety of policy strategies would be appropriate to create a favorable environment for breastfeeding. PMID:15215778
In this paper we examine public perceptions of criminal justice policy and public attitudes toward victims. We are particularly interested in exploring the relationship between the use of social science data and the adoption of publicpolicy affecting victims of crime. To do this we analyze a representative sample of over 450 residents of the Chicago metropolitan area in 1983. The specific issues examined include attitudes toward rape (e.g., whether caused by victim's behavior), prosecution of marital rape, plea bargaining, sentencing of predatory offenders, and the relative importance and efficacy of rehabilitation, incapacitation, and retribution as goals of punishment. Overall, the results suggest that age and education have the most important influence on public attitudes regarding these criminal justice policies. Surprisingly, victimization status does not emerge as a salient predictor of criminal justice perceptions. We conclude with a call for greater use of social science surveys as information input into local and federal decision making on criminal justice policy. PMID:2278951
A public health perspective based on social justice and a population health point of view emphasizes pharmacy policy innovations regarding safety and costs. Such policies that effectively reduce costs include controlling profits, establishing profit targets, extending prescription providers, revising prescription classification schemes, emphasizing generic medications, and establishing formularies. Public education and universal programs may reduce costs, but co-pays and "cost-sharing" do not. Switching medications to over-the-counter (OTC) status, pill splitting, and importing medication from abroad are poor substitutes for authentic public health pharmacy policy. Where policy changes yield savings, public health insists that these savings should be used to increase access and improve population health. In the future, pharmacy policies may emphasize public health accountability more than individual liberty because of potential cost savings to society. Fear of litigation, as an informal mechanism of focusing manufacturer's attention on safety, is inefficient; public health pharmacy policy regarding safety looks toward a more active regulatory role on the part of government. A case study of direct-to-consumer advertising illustrates the complexity of public health pharmacy policy. PMID:19821192
Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt; Lal, Lincy S; Glasser, Jay H
|The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…
The costs of smoking are extensive, not only in fiscal terms but also in terms of human suffering. A review of several major publicpolicies reveals that concerted efforts by all levels of government and by the public can have an effect on the rate of consumption of tobacco. Specifically, increases in price through taxation, anti-smoking messages, restrictions on smoking behaviour and increased public pressure are effective in reducing smoking. Serious joint efforts in the area of publicpolicy should be pursued to control the effects of this hazardous practice in Canada.
The document proposes that recent scientific discoveries indicate that a genetic technology will come into being in the foreseeable future, and that the practice of this technology will give rise to immense problems of publicpolicy necessitating social c...
Science.gov - We Participate ... Description: Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. ... while continuing to maintain the rigor and accountability that earns scientific knowledge its privileged status in contemporary society.
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
The study presents an analysis of the contact lens industry in the United States, emphasizing the role of economics and publicpolicy in shaping past and future development. The analysis shows the evolution and present configuration and the structural and...
In order to develop and implement new governmental policies in educational research and development (R&D) which meet the needs of R&D specialists and the concerns of the public, it is important to understand the complexity of the research-development-knowledge utilization cycle and to develop a strategy which serves the public interest but…
This study examines the nature of public participation in implementing household source reduction of municipal solid waste in order to inform the development of waste policy. The objectives are to determine the degree of public participation in household source reduction, the importance given to this waste strategy relative to other waste management approaches with an emphasis on recycling, but also
|"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Debating Education: Obama and Romney Promote Education Records, Importance of Education to the Economy and Public Safety…
This article examines critically the position of African-American women in relation to public and higher education policies. Post-baccalaureate students (graduate and professional), faculty, and administrators are the foci. The article examines the following: (1) legislative, judicial, and executive decisions influencing African-American women; (2) the development and implementation of public and higher education policies with special focus on the State of
Laws are, in many cases, instruments of publicpolicies and may strongly influence landscape design. Examples of such laws in Brazil are: the National System of Protected Areas (SNUC); and the Forest Code which regulates private land-use. Both laws are currently under public discussion, bringing to the table issues of science-based policy, and the attempt, by different sectors\\/groups, to influence
Abstract Publicpolicy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy publicpolicy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a “policy effectiveness–feasibility loop” (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform publicpolicy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach.
Abstract This paper presents a review of the international literature on globalisation and labour markets and goes on to consider the policy implications especially for wages, taxes, social security and education. It then goes on to review the evidence about the effect of globalisation on the Australian labour market,and,consider the implications for Australian publicpolicy. In particular, it discusses whether
Publicpolicy for private higher education reveals many characteristics associated with decentralized, pluralist systems. Private higher education emergence often comes through initiative outside government, with government unprepared to act. Government and government policy have not usually been the central driving forces for the sector's appearance. However, government supervision is growing, commonly through delayed regulation, and indirect forms of government funding
This Article provides a comprehensive, critical overview of proposals to use happiness surveys for steering publicpolicy. Happiness or “subjective well-being” surveys ask individuals to rate their present happiness, life-satisfaction, affective state, etc. A massive literature now engages in such surveys or correlates survey responses with individual attributes. And, increasingly, scholars argue for the policy relevance of happiness data: in
The article examines the role of interest groups in the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control policies in South Africa. While various studies have noted that interest groups shape and influence publicpolicies especially in advanced industrialized polities, this study looks at the impact of tobacco control groups in regulating tobacco use in a developing, middle-income country, South Africa. Using interviews
Argues that dynamic systems theories may illuminate processes whereby publicpolicy influences child development and highlight gaps in current relevant research. Discusses five principles of dynamic systems theories using examples from research addressing effects of current antipoverty and welfare policies on children. Concludes by suggesting…
This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how and why action was taken and who caused it to be taken; it also offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining…
Many publicpolicies for hazardous waste raise the costs of legal disposal. Concerned about substitution of illegal disposal, economists have instead recommended policies that reward desirable waste management alternatives. This article studies the empirical determinants of dumping as reported to the U.S. Emergency Response Notification Systems (ERNS). It analyzes the frequency of used oil dumping using count-data models. The results
|This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how and why action was taken and who caused it to be taken; it also offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining…
|This article takes the stated political preferences of party elites in recent debates as a starting point for identifying the relationship between party identification and policy preferences among the public as a whole. The key question is: Do individuals from different parties have different preferences when it comes to higher education policy?…
Young people should participate in publicpolicy at the municipal level. But because mass media, social science, and professional practice tend to emphasize the deficiencies and disengagement of young people, there is need for more knowledge of their resources and roles as active participants in the policy process. This paper examines the San Francisco Youth Commission as an example of
|Argues that dynamic systems theories may illuminate processes whereby publicpolicy influences child development and highlight gaps in current relevant research. Discusses five principles of dynamic systems theories using examples from research addressing effects of current antipoverty and welfare policies on children. Concludes by suggesting…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advise the reader of non-governmental efforts to help form national\\/international science policies, using as a highlight the endeavor of the Citizen Science Foundation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is journalistic: science policy is explained, what is had led to in innovative research, what specialized yet non-official groups are doing to supplement official
This article focuses on public debates and publicpolicy on the Islamic headscarf in the Netherlands and Germany. In the Netherlands the Islamic headscarf meets with an accommodating policy reaction, while in Germany some eight federal states have introduced legislation to ban the headscarf. This difference is explained, so I argue, by national differences in citizenship traditions. While the Netherlands
This article focuses on public debates and publicpolicy on the Islamic headscarf in the Netherlands and Germany. The framing and regulating of the headscarf does differ between the two countries. In the Netherlands the Islamic headscarf meets with an accommodating policy reaction, while in Germany some ten federal states are preparing legislation to ban the headscarf. This difference is
Public health genomics (PHG) relies on developing knowledge from a variety of natural and social science research disciplines to shape publicpolicies, health policy, education and training, and direct outreach to organisations and the population at large. All of these components rely on the involvement of stakeholders who, because of the diverse groups involved, will have a wide range of
|The pluralist narrative of language policies suggests that language policies are influenced by public perceptions of immigrants (Darder 2004; Gonzalez 2000; Pavlenko 2002; Valdes 1997). This paper investigates the relationship between newspaper discourse about language policies and newspaper discourse about immigration. It asks how much key,…
In bioethics as in other areas of health policy, historical institutional factors can shape policy independently of interests or public opinion. This article finds policy divergence among countries with similar national moral views of stem cell research, and explains that divergence as the product of path-dependency. PMID:20122126
Educational policy alone will not create successful educational improvement. This summary presents key findings from 5 years of research on policy and finance, conducted by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE). Key findings include: (1) U.S. schools have demonstrated important, positive changes in practice, attitude, and student…
Consortium for Policy Research in Education, Philadelphia, PA.
|The National PublicPolicy Education Conference is held annually to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The 1994 conference addressed the following topics: (1) ethical perspectives in publicpolicy education; (2) transition of food and agricultural policy; (3) building human…
|The Intelligent Design Movement has attempted to infuse Intelligent Design into the curriculum of public schools ever since the Edwards decision, which ruled that "creation science" was a violation of the the "Establishment Clause. Kitzmiller v. Dover" was the first legal case to challenge the teaching of Intelligent Design in public schools. In…
Despite federal health programs of the thirties, the Great Society programs and the establishment of health planning agencies in the sixties, health resources continue to accumulate in wealthier areas. According to a rational decision-making model public resources would be expected therefore to be directed toward those poorer areas with perceived needs. This paper explores the distribution of public and private
Health promotion is one of the essential functions of public health authorities. The first pillar of health promotion is the elaboration of healthy publicpolicy. Using the theoretical foundations of the healthy publicpolicy concept, it can be demonstrated that public health authorities are able to develop, at their own scale, healthy publicpolicies. Three strategic approaches are proposed in order to support public health authorities in strengthening their healthy publicpolicy actions. First, better understand the tools or policy instruments (economic, regulation, information and persuasion) at their disposal. Second, take stock of the many types of legitimacy (theoretical, legislative, administrative and scientific) available to public health authorities as they develop healthy publicpolicy. Third, consider the potential scientific roles that can be adopted while using the various policy instruments. These approaches can represent a pragmatic and structuring support for public health authorities wanting to strengthen their healthy publicpolicy actions. PMID:23618028
Certainly no one can claim that the interaction of technology and publicpolicy is a new issue, either in the United States or abroad. Ever since the scientific communities marshalled their expertise during the Second World War (radar and the atomic bomb being only the most pivotal examples), officials in the public arena have been quick to seek out scientific
|This paper argues for seeing in-depth news coverage of political, social, and economic issues as "publicpolicy pedagogy." To develop my argument, I draw on Nancy Fraser's democratic theory, which attends to social differences and does not assume that unity is a starting point or an end goal of public dialogue. Alongside the formation of…
|Publicpolicy aimed at supporting the caregiving capacity of families has risen to prominence on the public agenda in the United States. Initiatives at the state and federal levels have created some initial services. Three trends that are pushing the issue of family caregiving to the surface are discussed, including large-scale social,…
Singer, George H. S.; Biegel, David E.; Ethridge, Brandy L.
As the economic and social capital of higher education continue to rise, so too does interest in how the public views colleges and universities and the policies affecting them. A number of organizations have recently put a finger on the public pulse, asking about access, prices, priorities, and a host of other issues. One series of polls in…
|Eight essays address a range of topics including government serials and economic analysis, crime statistics and the F.B.I., nuclear holocaust and publicpolicy, the history of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, Congressman William Steiger and the Congressional Record, and the public papers of Richard Nixon. (EM)|
A brief overview of current issues in publicpolicy related to alcohol problems is presented. Issues having special relevance to children of alcoholics are discussed, including: prevention (identification of subjects at risk, public recommendations about drinking and pregnancy, child abuse and neglect); treatment (reaching treatment professionals, parental consent, confidentiality, third-party coverage, early intervention), and research.
|The training received by workers depends predominantly on the organisational choices and funds allocated by businesses. It is therefore justifiable to ask whether publicpolicy should either endorse the spontaneous distribution of training or take measures to correct it. This paper analyses the motivations and limitations of public intervention,…
This paper argues for seeing in-depth news coverage of political, social, and economic issues as "publicpolicy pedagogy." To develop my argument, I draw on Nancy Fraser's democratic theory, which attends to social differences and does not assume that unity is a starting point or an end goal of public dialogue. Alongside the formation of…
Accreditation's publicpolicy roles focus on four significant relationships: (1) the relationship between accreditation and government, (2) the relationship between accreditation and the private sector, especially corporations (employers) and foundations, (3) the relationship between accreditation and students (and the general public) and (4)…
Publicpolicy aimed at supporting the caregiving capacity of families has risen to prominence on the public agenda in the United States. Initiatives at the state and federal levels have created some initial services. Three trends that are pushing the issue of family caregiving to the surface are discussed, including large-scale social,…
Singer, George H. S.; Biegel, David E.; Ethridge, Brandy L.
Though much research about the public's views of scientists, genetic research and its moral, ethical, and social implications exists, little has been done to investigate how scientists view their own role(s) in public discussions and policy formation related to genetic research and technologies. We interviewed 20 academic geneticists in the United States about their perceptions of the roles they and
Debra J. H. Mathews; Andrea Kalfoglou; Kathy Hudson
I offered a seminar course titled, `Science, PublicPolicy and Outreach' for graduate students of the College of Agricultural and Natural Resources (CASNR) at Texas Tech University. The underlying theme of the course was that today's graduate students in the natural resource management disciplines should be familiar with publicpolicy and public outreach processes in order to be successful professionals of tomorrow. In US system of government, scientific knowledge about an environmental problem does not have much practical impact without a corresponding legislation aimed at solving that problem. Elected officials feel pressure to legislate laws only if their constituents have a strong opinion in favor of solving that problem. Constituents tend to have strong opinion on things that are frequently mentioned in the media. Hence, publicpolicy, outreach through media, and scientific explorations are intertwined in the US system. I invited state and national level policy makers, lobbyists, and radio and television personnel to present their perspectives on this issue and to discuss the roles and potentials for scientists in publicpolicy and outreach processes. Students were divided into groups at the start of the semester. Each group focused on a current resource management topic, researched the policy and outreach issues related to their topic, wrote a well organized essay, and finally made a group presentation of the case study at the end of the semester. I shall present the experience of the class and outcomes of that course in this presentation, with future directions and suggestions for others who are interested to offer similar courses.
This paper examines the proposition that there are considerable tensions between key strategies in health policy—namely, evidence-based approaches to population health improvement, reduction of health inequalities, and public and patient engagement—using (1) a critical analysis of the intersection of evidence-based public health, patient and public engagement, and health inequalities policies from a social constructionist perspective and (2) mathematical modelling of
The International Centre for Career Development and PublicPolicy is sponsored by a range of international organizations, including the World Bank and the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance. The primary directive of the Centre's website is "to facilitate policy learning through the international exchange of knowledge and information concerning publicpolicy and career development issues." On their site, visitors can look over sections titled "Policy & Research", "Symposia", "Forums", and "Resources". A good way to get started is to check out the "Policy & Research" area. Here visitors can find information about topics that include the Centre's work on expanding access to educational guidance, improving career information, and assessing educational effectiveness in partner countries. After that, visitors can look through the "Categories" listing on the left side of the homepage to look for materials on everything from "Algeria" to "Training and Qualifications".
The paper presents the distinguishing attributes of the Swedish family support system. This system fulfils two major functions and is organized according to at least four different principles. The Swedish family policy is very comprehensive in its nature, trying to include as many families as possible. The programs are, as far as possible, general and not selective, and offered by
With the recognition that entrepreneurial activity is a key factor in economic growth, many local governments have begun to enact policies targeted at promoting entrepreneurship. One frequently cited strategy for promoting entrepreneurial activity is to attract large amounts of venture capital, in the hopes of inducing more entrepreneurial activity. In this paper we test the direction of causality between venture
|Calls for speech, language, and composition professionals to take up the unfinished business of the Committee on the Students' Right to Their Own Language, bring to fruition the Ann Arbor ruling, and move to counteract reactionary sociolinguistic forces. Proposes a three-pronged national language policy. (FL)|
Describes how formal and informal school policies exacerbate the alienation of minority students and intensify social stratification. Discusses the effects of school sanctions, tracking and leveling, economics, sorting and selection, and dependency on minority students. Recommends six state-mandated changes. (DMM)
|Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)|
In the aftermath of the Cold War and the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 the United States of America is engaged in a major effort to inform and influence understanding of its foreign policy around the world. In this Strategy Research Project we wi...
Without an accurate assessment of the prospect of bioterrorist attack, it is especially challenging to evaluate the protocols for testing smallpox vaccines in the pediatric population. Usual regulatory mechanisms cannot shepherd research protocols with benefits that can only be characterized as “uncertain” in the face of more than minimal risk. When a protocol is placed in a government forum for analysis, the public has a unique opportunity to debate the balancing of research risks and benefits on behalf of children who are unable to assent to research themselves, as well as to express views about vaccination policy broadly. This model for review of pediatric research that may be without benefit will be especially important as challenging studies of various vaccines against a range of infectious properties, such as anthrax and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), emerge.
It is sometimes claimed that individuals' contributions topublic goods are not motivated by economic costs and benefitsalone, but that people also have a moral or norm-basedmotivation. A number of studies indicate that such moral ornorm-based motivation might be crowded out, or crowded in, bypublic policy. This paper discusses some models that can yieldinsight into the interplay between economic and moral
|"Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…
Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake
The political deadlock around national renewable energy mandates in the US does not reflect the public's position. Research shows that people there would support a renewable energy standard even with a cost attached.
This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement.
This paper provides a two dimensional model for the analysis of a contract carriage policy for the interstate natural gas pipeline industry. The two dimensions are: (1) customer flexibility and (2) transmission company operational control of the pipeline. This model suggests that public policymakers should encourage a transporation system that addresses the public's interests, and then adjust the regulatory environment to reflect this public interest perspective. 32 references, 2 figures.
This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.
Information is claimed to be a necessary element in order to facilitate vote trading. In this dissertation I test for the effect of information on vote trading, coalition size and legislative behavior. Using a difference in differences approach to measure the impact of information on coalition size I find support for Professor Riker's claim that coalition size falls as information improves. I also discover that legislators abstain strategically when the secret vote is no longer available. I use a Fixed Effects model to test for the effects of information on spending and logrolling. My results indicate that spending does indeed increase after the improvement in information. Finally, using an industry level model, I simulate the impact of various policy tools on the price of renewable energy. My results indicate that no single policy tool can offer wind energy the aid it needs in order to compete in our deregulated energy markets.
We examine here some of the interactions of research and policy over the past several decades. The “rehabilitation period”\\u000a was effectively terminated by nulleffect evaluations of various rehabilitation techniques. The “just deserts-utilitarian period”\\u000a was fed by research estimates of the deterrent and incapacitative effects of criminal justice activities. The more recent\\u000a “overt politicization period” saw the earlier attempt to bring
|Points out the role of developing science and technology in politics, society, culture, and international affairs. Presents the example of climate change and The Hague negotiations to illustrate the relationship between science and publicpolicy. (YDS)|
... FDA Public Health Advisory: Important Information for the Safe Use of Fentanyl Transdermal System (Patch). 12/21/2007. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders
Background This paper discusses the role of public inquiries as an instrument of publicpolicy-making in New Zealand, using mental health as a case study. The main part of the paper analyses the processes and outcomes of five general inquiries into the state of New Zealand's mental health services that were held between 1858 and 1996. Results The membership, form, style and processes used by public inquiries have all changed over time in line with constitutional and social trends. So has the extent of public participation. The records of five inquiries provide periodic snapshots of a system bedevilled by long-standing problems such as unacceptable standards, under-resourcing, and poor co-ordination. Demands for an investigation no less than the reports and recommendations of public inquiries have been the catalyst of some importantpolicy changes, if not immediately, then by creating a climate of opinion that supported later change. Inquiries played a significant role in establishing lunatic asylums, in shaping the structure of mental health legislation, establishing and maintaining a national mental health bureaucracy within the machinery of government, and in paving the way for deinstitutionalisation. Ministers and their departmental advisers have mediated this contribution. Conclusion Public inquiries have helped shape New Zealand's mental health policy, both directly and indirectly, at different stages of evolution. In both its advisory and investigative forms, the public inquiry remains an important tool of public administration. The inquiry/cause and policy/effect relationship is not necessarily immediate but may facilitate changes in public opinion with corresponding policy outcomes long after any direct causal link could be determined. When considered from that long-term perspective, the five inquiries can be linked to several significant and long-term contributions to mental health policy in New Zealand.
Background Public health includes policy, practice and research but to sufficiently connect academic research, practice and public health policy appears to be difficult. Collaboration between policy, practice and research is imperative to obtaining more solid evidence in public health. However, the three domains do not easily work together because they emanate from three more or less independent 'niches'. Work cycles of each niche have the same successive steps: problem recognition, approach formulation, implementation, and evaluation, but are differently worked out. So far, the research has focused on agenda-setting which belongs to the first step, as expressed by Kingdon, and on the use of academic knowledge in policy makers' decision-making processes which belongs to the fourth step, as elaborated by Weiss. In addition, there are more steps in the policy-making process where exchange is needed. Method A qualitative descriptive research was conducted by literature search. We analyzed the four steps of the policy, practice and research work cycles. Next, we interpreted the main conflicting aspects as disconnections for each step. Results There are some conspicuous differences that strengthen the niche character of each domain and hamper integration and collaboration. Disconnections ranged from formulating priorities in problem statements to power roles, appraisal of evidence, work attitudes, work pace, transparency of goals, evaluation and continuation strategies and public accountability. Creating awareness of these disconnections may result in more compatibility between researchers, policy makers and practitioners. Conclusion We provide an analysis that can be used by public health services-related researchers, practitioners and policy makers to be aware of the risk for disconnections. A synthesis of the social, practical and scientific relevance of public health problems should be the starting point for a dialogue that seeks to establish a joint approach. To overcome the above mentioned disconnections, face-to-face encounters consistently emerge as the most efficient way to transfer knowledge, achieve higher quality and acknowledge mutual dependence. We recommend practice and policy based research networks to establish strong links between researchers, policy makers and practitioners to improve public health.
Television occupies a large part of children’s time from an early age. Among its many functions, education, social learning (prosocial as well as antisocial), and selling products are well documented by research evidence. Commercial programming for children in the United States consists primarily of cartoons and entertainment shows; educational and informative programs are supplied by public broadcasting and, to some
The Supreme Court has relied on psychological assumptions in adolescent abortion cases, but it has failed to consider relevant empirical research. The Interdivisional Committee on Adolescent Abortion provides a model for organized psychology's integration, dissemination, and application of psychological knowledge to promote the public's interest.…
Ethnic diversity, the albatross of many nations, has caused conflicts and wars all over the world. It has hindered the sustainable development of the culture of peace and equity in Nigeria. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the various public measures instituted to cope with the problem of ethnic diversity, and their effects. To achieve this objective, the
The focus on the Brooking Institution's Initiative on Business and PublicPolicy is to provide "analytical research and constructive recommendations on publicpolicy issues affecting the business sector in the United States and around the world." The Initiative is primarily concerned with working in the areas of financial reform and competitiveness. Scholars, policy analysts, and others can click through the site to look at their latest policy briefs, op-ed pieces, and conference proceedings. In terms of thematic offerings, visitors shouldn't miss the "Fixing Finance" series of papers, which include documents such as, "The Origins of the Financial Crisis" and "Regulating Insurance After the Crisis". Also, visitors should look through the "Top Topics" area and sign up to receive their periodic Economic Studies Bulletin via email.
Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and publicpolicy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity.
All of the Federal Reserve Banks produce discussion papers, working papers, policy briefs and other similar publications. This particular site takes visitors to the publicpolicy discussion papers produced by the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. The series began in 2004, and visitors can view an archive of previously published works in the series. Recent titles in the series have included "Social Dynamics of Obesity", "Managing the Risk in Pension Plans and Recent Pension Reforms", and "The Theory of Life-Cycle Saving and Investing". If visitors are interested in other related topics, they should also look at the "Related Links" section, which features direct links to their policy brief archives and other Boston Federal Reserve publications.
A recently developed analytic approach--policy feedback effects--provides health policy analysts with a crucial new tool for understanding the politics of health policy. Three cases--senior citizens' opposition to the Obama health care reform, tax breaks for employer-provided health insurance, and the Medicare Part D prescription drug program--demonstrate how policy designs affect subsequent policy outcomes. To differing degrees, the three cases show how publicpolicies can create constituencies with particular understandings of their benefits who attempt to thwart reform; can highlight or reduce the visibility of the government role in health care, shaping attitudes about the worth of government action; and can provide half solutions that fail to maximize beneficiary welfare but that deflate momentum for policy improvements. The cases illustrate a general pattern revealed by wide-ranging research on policy feedback effects: the designs of publicpolicies influence preferences and alter patterns of political mobilization, effects that feed back into the political system, shaping the political environment and the possibilities for future policy making. PMID:22232420
Clinicians, social scientists, researchers, and policy makers appreciate the need to understand the neurobiology of nicotine addiction and how this information can lead to new treatments and provide support for publicpolicy debates on parity and preventing adolescent tobacco use. In a “bench-to-bedside” manner, this review covers both clinical and basic science perspectives. Both the reward and sensitization-homeostasis theories of
Paul D. Gardner; Andrew R. Tapper; Jean A. King; Joseph R. DiFranza; Douglas M. Ziedonis
Conventional wisdom and scholarly research indicate that to win a policy debate political actors should frame the issue strategically—that\\u000a is, selectively highlight considerations that mobilize public opinion behind their policy position. Engaging the opponent\\u000a in a dialogue (i.e., focusing on the same considerations) is portrayed as a suboptimal strategy because political actors forfeit the ability to structure the debate.\\u000a Using
We survey the pioneering contributions of Robert Tollison to the theory and practice of antitrust law enforcement. Inspired\\u000a by his period of service during Ronald Reagan’s first administration as Director of the Federal Trade Commission’s Bureau\\u000a of Economics, Tollison was the first scholar to apply public choice reasoning to the question why antitrust frequently fails\\u000a to achieve its stated goal
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS,iv 1. INTRODUCTION: DEFINING THE ISSUE,1 2. BACKGROUND: RACIAL PROFILING GOES PUBLIC,8 3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: EFFICIENCY AND FAIRNESS,19 4. THE COURTS: PASSING THE BUCK,42 5. LEGISLATION: MANDATES AND MESSAGES,61 6. EPILOGUE: RACIAL PROFILING AFTER SEPTEMBER 11,83 BIBLIOGRAPHY,92 iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A number of generous and supportive individuals made this project possible. While the flaws and errors you may find in this
The establishment of the EMEA has been a revolutionary step in the European pharmaceutical system. The 15 Member States of the European Union now share a common system for the evaluation of new medicinal products entering the European market. The decisions taken apply to the whole EU, with important implications for both industry and patients who may benefit from new therapies. The main immediate consequences of this system are: i) the time and effort saved by Member States in the evaluation of new drug applications; ii) more consistent and quicker availability of medicines in EU countries; iii) the establishment of a homogeneous regulatory policy throughout the EU. Public health has been presented as the fundamental concern of the EMEA, the mission statement of which is 'to promote the protection of human health ... and of consumers of medicinal products'. However, we note that there are some inconsistencies with this objective and the current system, such as those regarding drug trial requirements and the institutional location and financing of the EMEA. In this paper, some aspects of the new system are reviewed and consideration given as to how they relate to public health needs. Proposals are made for debate alternatives and improvements to the present system that would better respond to patients' health needs. PMID:14533728
Li Bassi, Luca; Bertele, Vittorio; Garattini, Silvio
Human behavior, social networks, and civil infrastructure are closely intertwined. Understanding their co-evolution is critical for designing publicpolicies. Human behaviors and day-to-day activities of individuals create dense social interactions that provide a perfect fabric for fast disease propagation. Conversely, people's behavior in response to publicpolicies and their perception of the crisis can dramatically alter normally stable social interactions.
Keith R. Bisset; Xizhou Feng; Madhav V. Marathe; Shrirang M. Yardi
While extinctions of individual species are part of a normal cycle, the current rate of extinctions should be a concern to us all. The maintenance of biological diversity is important for utilitarian reasons, quality of life considerations, and because biodiversity is important to sustainable regional economies. Single-species approaches are too limited to protect biodiversity at the landscape, habitat, and watershed
The pluralist narrative of language policies suggests that language policies are influenced by public perceptions of immigrants\\u000a (Darder 2004; González 2000; Pavlenko 2002; Valdés 1997). This paper investigates the relationship between newspaper discourse about language policies and newspaper discourse about\\u000a immigration. It asks how much key, lexical overlap exists between the discourses. This study compared Arizona newspaper corpora\\u000a representing discourse
\\u000a This survey outlines the literature on economic growth and development with respect to the following questions: (a) To what\\u000a extent do publicpolicies influence economic growth? (b) Which policy mix might optimize a country’s rate of growth and development?\\u000a While the importance of identifying the key determinants of economic growth is obvious, a unified theory that matches empirical\\u000a facts is
Reviews policy issues surrounding decisions by governments to make available or to withhold information from government files that can be linked to identifiable individuals. Outlines the debate over access to public records, identifies policies that impact on disclosure decisions, and discusses options and approaches to address access and privacy…
\\u000a This chapter is designed to review the basics of public health, to highlight its relevance to health-care professionals, and\\u000a to outline opportunities for the use of health policy in improving and protecting the health of older adults with arthritis.\\u000a Many public health interventions intersect with the medical system at the level of the individual patient and complement clinical\\u000a care efforts.
Kristina A. Theis; Debra R. Lubar; Teresa J. Brady
OBJECTIVE.The purpose of this study was to describe school food environments and policies in US public schools and how they vary according to school characteristics. METHODS.We analyzed cross-sectional data from the third School Nutrition and Di- etary Assessment study by using a nationally representative sample of 395 US public schools in 129 school districts in 38 states. These 2005 data
Daniel M. Finkelstein; Elaine L. Hill; Robert C. Whitaker
To learn more about international public relations it is important to explore the assumptions underlying each nation's practice. Through such analysis, we learn that many of the assumptions that guide Western theories and practices are not applicable in other regions of the world. This article examines one assumption—that the practice of public relations targets a variety of key organizational publics.
This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy. PMID:23318750
Unrealistic optimism is a well documented phenomenon. This paper argues that it is important in many economic contexts. Focusing on start-up finance for businesses, optimism may be responsible for or consistent with features such as credit rationing or redlining that are normally taken as symptoms of under-provision of finance requiring intervention to expand lending. Optimism leads to the opposite conclusion,
Why do the countries of the world display considerable disparity in long term growth rates? This paper examines the hypothesis that the answer lies in differences in national publicpolicies which affect the incentives that individuals have to accumulate capital in both its physical and human forms. Our analysis shows that these incentive effects can induce large difference in long
Citizen science, defined as participation of the general public in scientific research, could significantly help scientists to address biodiversity issues, through (i) monitoring the state of biodiversity, (ii) framing indicators which synthesise and communicate information on the state of biodiversity, (iii) building scenarios to evaluate the plausible consequences of different policies. A key asset of citizen science is that participating
D. Couvet; F. Jiguet; R. Julliard; H. Levrel; A. Teyssedre
Political consumerism has become over the past years an ever growing phenomenon, by which citizens express through their consumption their political, environmental and ethical opinions. This paper discusses political consumerism from an economic science perspective, focusing on the link between political consumerism and publicpolicies. It wonders to what extent political consumerism may represent an effective and fair instrument against
In classical Greece, there was a close tie between rhetoric and the practice and theory of publicpolicy. Gradually, however, rhetoric became increasingly concerned with style and literary criticism, while philosophers began to debate political issues apart from the practical affairs of the polis. Because rhetoric provides a model that can still…
Title: Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society ... in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, firstname.lastname@example.org if you notice any errors which ...
Federal regulation of air bags has followed an uncertain course in recent years; air bags have been perceived as a panacea but are now considered potential killers. The authors examine the interplay of media coverage, lay perceptions of risk, and publicpolicy in the context of air bag regulation. They review communications research on media presentations of health and safety
Shows how Tunisia's national educational program is implemented unevenly in different regions with resulting disadvantages for rural populations, especially rural girls and women. Specifies ways the politics and publicpolicy appear to influence regional differences in educational outcomes. Examines educational, economic, and political…
Abstract One factor that has contributed to confusion in discussions of the use of adolescent neuroscience in the development,of publicpolicies affecting young people is a blurring of three very different issues that need to be separated: (1) what science does and doesnot say about brain development
A recent MIT conference on durable products recycling highlights different challenges facing suppliers, manufacturers, and recyclers. These challenges include uncertainty about the environmental benefits of recycling, unstable markets for recycled materials, variable quality, and lack of support from citizens and government. Conference discussions suggest directions for public and private policy in the US. Government should focus upon strengthening market opportunities
The Institute of Gerontology has as one of its responsibilities the conduct of research which will impact upon policies for the aged. This monograph is based on a survey of elderly residents in three types of public housing arrangements in the Albany-Troy...
|Details the publicpolicy framework that establishes the legal foundation for requiring access to Web-based information resources for people with disabilities. Highlights include fair use doctrine in regards to disability access to digital information; American with Disabilities Act; and Sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.…
Wireless advertising messaging is a newly developing form of advertising in the United States that includes short text messages sent to cellular telephones, personal data assistants, and other wireless devices. This article examines the legal and publicpolicy issues raised by this novel form of advertising.
|A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public…
Although public funding for the arts had been an element of budget and appropriations business at both the federal and state levels for over a quarter century, the idea that policy justifies and directs these resource allocations has been slow to emerge. This article provides a historiographical discussion of how the issue was framed and of the resistance to the
Present and potential petroleum development in Alaska is directly related to public-policy issues. The Prudhoe Bay oil discovery signaled the need for determination of a transportation route to market. Pipeline location became a function of political boundaries, with an all-American route preferred. Actual pipeline construction was dependent on settlement of land claims with Alaska's indigenous peoples and the development of
The focus of this paper is on criminology and publicpolicy as peacemaking. It offers a challenge to criminologists to reexamine their personal and professional agenda. Criminologists are encouraged to support and engage in a “compassionate criminology” that recognizes the interrelatedness of everything: that everyone is connected to each other and to their environment. Compassion, wisdom, and love are essential
|Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…
The current financial and economic crisis is of unprecedented proportions and intensity. Given the piecemeal approach of the EU institutions to economic policy, their reaction to the mounting crisis has been slow and hesitant.The much feared financial meltdown in the E.U. has been avoided. However this came at the cost of increasing pressure on public finances in most member states,
International discussions of public health policy strategies in developing countries have been characterized by strong and conflicting positions. Differences regarding the means of health sector improvement can often be traced to differences about the ends, that is, the goals of the health sector. Three types of health sector goals are reviewed: health status improvement, equity and poverty alleviation, and individual
Faced with the need to address issues like urban sprawl, traffic congestion, accessibility and climate change, a broad range of policy options must be considered in order to reach a sustainable future. One of these opportunities brings residences, shops, jobs and leisure closer together by locating them in close proximity to a network of rapid, reliable and high capacity public
This article investigates aspects of the new relationships that are emerging between contemporary trends in political communication and publicpolicy. In particular, it identifies and analyzes how these relationships are extending beyond the traditional domain of political communication as information and persuasion. This is traced through a consideration of the notion of political communication as “recursive governance”—a form of governance
The purpose of this chapter is to highlight how European Union (EU) policies can be assessed and reformed to improve the nutrition and public health of Europe's citizens. Whereas food safety has been given a high profile with the recent establishment of the European Food Safety Authority in Parma, Italy, there is substantial room for improvement when it comes to
A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public…
|Since the industrial revolution, technological innovation and the application of basic scientific research have transformed society. Increasingly, critical conversations and legislation regarding national and international publicpolicy have sophisticated scientific underpinnings. It is crucial that we prepare scientists and engineers with an…
Childhood violence is a major public health and social policy concern in the United States. Scientists and policymakers alike have increasingly turned their attention to the causes of childhood violence and the extent to which its course can be modified through well-planned preventive interventions. However, it is not apparent that policymakers draw upon basic research findings in formulating their priorities
Typical systems modeling and analysis approaches frequently involve the use of static diagramming techniques. Such techniques are useful for many applications including the modeling and analysis of business processes and data flows. These same methods are sometimes used to model complex dynamic systems such as those pertaining to economics and the effects of publicpolicy changes. The paper will discuss
The Dutch sentinal practice network: relevance for public health policy, considers the now 20-year history of the Continuous Morbidity Registration Sentinel Stations the Netherlands. The book consists of two parts. In the first part general aspects are discussed: the origin of the project at the end of the sixties and the objectives, organization and procedure. For a number of characteristics
|When it comes to the role of research in shaping publicpolicy and debate, one might reasonably argue that this is the best of times. No Child Left Behind (NCLB), with its frequent mention of evidence-based decision making, has underscored the role that objective knowledge should play in a democratic society. The Institute of Education Sciences,…
Following violence exposure, an interplay of personal, familial, and social factors may serve to either promote or undermine child psychosocial adjustment. This article provides a review of youth victimization, with implications for prevention, intervention, and publicpolicy discussed. (Contains 1 table.)
Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
Recognizing that lasting change is possible when organizations form a partnership, publicpolicy increasingly drives active sharing of resources and mutual commitment to accountability and heightened productivity. Legislation that emphasizes aligning and improving the educational system; supporting the transition from high school to college and…
|The purpose of this policy analysis was to examine the Missouri Public School Retirement System (PSRS). The team investigated the under-funding of PSRS, relating to sustainability and the feasibility of the system's use of one lever, contribution rate, to stabilize the retirement system, and to meet actuary needs and governmental requirements.…
|This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010
The paper analyzes the link between the public pension system and the immigration policy. In a pay-as-you-go system, the incentives for immigration vary significantly between individuals at different lifetime periods. In the framework of an overlapping generations model, we show that the median voter's choice in general leads to inefficient levels of immigration. The median voter neglects the effects of
This study examines the attitudes of American foreign policy officials toward (1) the public's sophistication on matters of foreign policy, and (2) the degree of input the public should have into policy and the appropriate level of policy responsiveness. It finds officials to be marginally more positive about the public's sophistication than has previously been thought, but finds a major
The objective of this study was to evaluate the type of alcohol policy in place in 4-year public universities against the odds of heavy drinking. Data was collected during the months of April-June 2010 using the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. The participants included a random sample of undergraduate students from 4 public universities in the Midwest. Two of the universities had policies in place allowing the sale and use of alcohol on campus, and 2 universities had policies in place prohibiting the sale and use of alcohol. There were a total of 186 participants which included 63 males and 123 females. There was statistical significance in gender, age, and participation in sports against the odds of heavy drinking (P < .05). The type of policy in place was not significantly associated with the odds of heavy drinking. Even though there was an association between gender, age, and participation in sports with the odds of heavy drinking among college students in this sample, the type of alcohol policy (wet or dry) had no association. The results demonstrate the need for the implementation of alcohol prevention strategies, in addition to policy, to reduce the number of college students who drink heavily. It may be beneficial to target those alcohol intervention programs to the high risk groups such as males, over the age of 21, and those students who participate in sports. PMID:21928102
Examples from Canada and the United States are used to explore social values such as individualism vs. collectivism; definition and solution of social problems; social construction of the "crisis" of aging; and public debate and moral discourse as a process for developing publicpolicy. (SK)
To address the rise in tobacco use among college students, several national health organizations, including the American College Health Association, recommend that colleges enact smoking bans in and around all campus buildings, including student housing, and prohibit the sale, advertisement, and promotion of tobacco products on campus. Key informants at 50 US public universities, one from each state, were interviewed during the 2001/2002 academic year to assess the prevalence of these recommended policies. More than half (54%) of the colleges banned smoking in all campus buildings and student residences, 68% had no tobacco sales on campus, and 32% of the schools' newspapers did not accept tobacco advertising. Regional differences in adoption of these campus tobacco-control policies were present. Although this national sample of public universities had implemented some of the recommended policies, they must take further actions to comply fully with campus tobacco-control guidelines. PMID:12822709
A number of publicpolicy schools across the world have a working papers series, and quite a few of them offer these documents online at no charge. The Harris School of PublicPolicy at the University of Chicago has offered their working papers on this site for several years now, and visitors with a penchant for national and international policy issues will probably want to make several return visits to this site. Visitors can conduct a full document keyword search or also browse the series by author, date, or subject. Some recent papers of note include "Consumption and Income Poverty for those 65 and Over" and "Food Stamps, Unemployment Insurance, and the Safety Net".
This article examines how pandemic influenza has been framed as a security issue, threatening the functioning of both state and society, and the policy responses to this framing. Pandemic influenza has long been recognised as a threat to human health. Despite this, for much of the twentieth century it was not recognised as a security threat. In the decade surrounding the new millennium, however, the disease was successfully securitised with profound implications for publicpolicy. This article addresses the construction of pandemic influenza as a threat. Drawing on the work of the Copenhagen School, it examines how it was successfully securitised at the turn of the millennium and with what consequences for publicpolicy. PMID:23039054
While extinctions of individual species are part of a normal cycle, the current rate of extinctions should be a concern to us all. The maintenance of biological diversity is important for utilitarian reasons, quality of life considerations, and because biodiversity is important to sustainable regional economies. Single-species approaches are too limited to protect biodiversity at the landscape, habitat, and watershed levels. New approaches are necessary to deal with the complexity of biological diversity. The administration is using provisions in the Endangered Species Act to bring about broader multispecies habitat protection. The ecosystem approach provides a framework for ensuring that ecological considerations are taken into account, along with economic and social factors, and that all interested parties are able to participate in the decision-making process.
Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712
The emphasis that will be placed on each of a number of energy policy alternatives will be determined by the tradeoffs among many factors. Important among these factors are public preferences for different levels of power availability and risk to health a...
Globally, abortion mortality constitutes at least 13% of maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing abortion mortality and morbidity in countries where they remain high is a matter of good public health policy, based on good medical practice, and an important part of initiatives
Enormous variation exists internationally in the regulation of nutrition and health messages on the food label. For the consumer, the health claim on the label becomes a value-added point of product differentiation. Therefore, for the food industry, access to a health claim is a key marketing variable. It is important to understand the role of the publicpolicy process in
Although publicpolicy in general, and health policy in particular, can be powerful and effective tools in shaping a "healthy" environment for citizens, the influences and agendas that underpin them are often lacking in transparency. In the case of the alcohol-dependent, the critical importance of identifying strategies appropriate to their specific needs is often sidelined. This, it is argued, results in part from the influence of the alcohol industry on governments and on social conditions and in part from the ethical underpinnings of public health policy, which depends on maximising social benefits even at the expense of "hard to reach" groups. In addition, much of alcohol policy rests on the kind of' "healthy living" message that appeals to the otherwise healthy While not infantilising people who are dependent on alcohol, consideration must be given to the extent to which their ability to choose health is compromised by the nature of dependence itself. PMID:20169798
As part of its effort to promote public understanding of the foreign policy of the US, the non-partisan Chicago Council on Foreign Relations (CCFR) has sponsored seven quadrennial surveys of public opinion since 1974. The key question in the recently released 1999 survey, as in previous surveys, was the extent to which "the American public and leaders support an active role for the United States overseas." For the most part, the CCFR found strong support for an active American role in world affairs. At the site, users can read the full text (in .pdf format) or a summary of the report, which examines issues such as foreign policy priorities, globalization, security, the role of the US in the world, perspectives on particular regions and countries, and the current adminstration's performance. The report also contains a brief but helpful account of the political and economic context of the survey, which was carried out in the fall of 1998.
Is the government responsive to public opinion of space policy? In 1995, Stimson et al. demonstrated that changes in domestic publicpolicy were in response to changes in public opinion. Ten years later, Jacobs and Page demonstrated that foreign policy was not responsive to public opinion, and instead responds to the opinion of business leaders. This research builds off these seminal
|This paper is the fourth in a series of yearly efforts to identify the top 10 public-policy issues facing higher education. Each of the issues is discussed in terms of likely developments in 1997-98, the issue's various aspects, and sources of further information. Issues identified are: (1) the Higher Education Act Reauthorization (issues…
Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 1997
Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the publicpolicy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in publicpolicy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras. PMID:20579247
|This paper presents Connecticut Coalition for Achievement Now's (ConnCAN's) fourth annual "State of Connecticut Public Education" report. In addition to ConnCAN's traditional look at the state of Connecticut public schools, this year's report takes a look at Connecticut's policy environment: namely, where it stands in the "Race to the Top." This…
In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.
O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran, E-mail: Ciaran.Ofaircheallaigh@griffith.edu.a [Department of Politics and Public Policy, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Queensland 4111 (Australia)
This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts. PMID:24048622
Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are currently the main cause of premature death and disability in the world. Most of these NCDs are due to unhealthy lifestyle choices i.e. tobacco, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise and alcohol consumption. Studies have shown that health policy interventions aiming at improving diet and physical activity and reducing tobacco consumption are inexpensive, effective and cost saving. In this paper we address the political health policy interventions that have been shown to improve public health. We discuss some of the theories of behavioral economics which explain the processes involved in our every-day choices regarding lifestyle and diet. PMID:23486685
Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15-44) lack adequate health coverage (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers and opportunities for financing preconception care, based on a review and analysis of state and federal policies. We describe states' experiences with and opportunities to improve health coverage, through public programs such as Medicaid, Medicaid waivers, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The potential role of Title V and of community health centers in providing primary and preventive care to women also is discussed. In these and other public health and health coverage programs, opportunities exist to finance preconception care for low-income women. Three major policy directions are discussed. To increase access to preconception care among women of childbearing age, the federal and state governments have opportunities to: (1) improve health care coverage, (2) increase the supply of publicly subsidized health clinics, and (3) direct delivery of preconception screening and interventions in the context of public health programs. PMID:16802188
Policy makers have now recognised the need to integrate thinking about climate change into all areas of publicpolicy making. However, the discussion of ‘climate policy integration’ has tended to focus on mitigation decisions mostly taken at international and national levels. Clearly, there is also a more locally focused adaptation dimension to climate policy integration, which has not been adequately
A highly publicized recent study by Lott and Mustard concludes that laws easing restrictions on licenses for carrying concealed firearms in public substantially reduce violent crime. Several serious flaws in the study render the authors' conclusions insupportable. These flaws include misclassification of gun-carrying laws, endogeneity of predictor variables, omission of confounding variables, and failure to control for the cyclical nature of crime trends. Most of these problems should bias results toward overestimating the crime-reducing effects of laws making it easier to carry concealed firearms in public. Lott and Mustard's statistical models produce findings inconsistent with criminological theories and well-established facts about crime, and subsequent reanalysis of their data challenges their conclusions. Public health professionals should understand the methodological issues raised in this commentary, particularly when flawed research could influence the introduction of policies with potentially deleterious consequences.
Webster, D W; Vernick, J S; Ludwig, J; Lester, K J
The consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density (ED) is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children’s ED. The study’s objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children’s ED by using a pre- and post-policy evaluation. Analysis of variance/covariance and nonparametric tests compared ED after the Texas policy change to intakes at baseline. Two years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in Southeast Texas at three public middle schools: baseline (2001–2002) and one year after implementation of the Texas Policy (2005–2006). Students recorded the amount and source of foods consumed. The Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was designed to promote a healthy school environment by restricting 1) portion sizes of high fat and sugar snacks and sweetened beverages, 2) the fat content of foods, and 3) the serving of high fat vegetables like French fries. Energy Density (kcal/g): ED1 was the energy of foods only (no beverages) divided by the gram weight and has been previously associated with obesity and insulin resistance; ED2 included all food and beverages to give a complete assessment of all sources of calories. Following implementation of the Texas Policy, students’ ED1 significantly decreased from 2.80 +/? 1.08 kcal/g to 2.17 +/? 0.78 kcal/g (P<0.0001). Similarly, ED2 significantly decreased from 1.38 +/? 0.76 kcal/g to 1.29 +/? 0.53 kcal/g (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was associated with desirable reductions in ED, which suggests improved nutrient intake as a result of student school lunch consumption.
Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Cullen, Karen Weber
Interventions to reduce childhood obesity entail ethical considerations. Although a rationale exists for government to intervene in a way that limits individual rights while protecting the public's health, a clear economic rationale also exists. The markets for goods and services that contribute to obesity are characterized by multiple failures that create an economic rationale for government to intervene (eg, consumers' lack of accurate information regarding obesogenic foods and beverages). If effective publicpolicies for reducing obesity and its consequences are to be developed and implemented, individual rights and government interests must be balanced. PMID:21843403
Traditional ways of preventing and treating overweight and obesity have almost invariably focused on changing the behavior of individuals, an approach that has proven woefully inadequate, as indicated by the rising rates of both conditions. Considering the many aspects of American culture that promote obesity, from the proliferation of fast-food outlets to almost universal reliance on automobiles, reversing current trends will require a multifaceted public health policy approach as well as considerable funding. National leadership is needed to ensure the participation of health officials and researchers, educators and legislators, transportation experts and urban planners, and businesses and nonprofit groups in formulating a public health campaign with a better chance of success. The authors outline a broad range of policy recommendations and suggest that an obesity prevention campaign might be funded, in part, with revenues from small taxes on selected products that provide "empty" calories-such as soft drinks-or that reduce physical activity-such as automobiles. PMID:10968581
This article presents an assessment of the impact and implications of the international mobilities operating in the national publicpolicy environment. In fact, patterns of transformations that take place in national higher education systems are generating diverse and complex outcomes in different countries, in ways that may preclude a simple…
|This article presents an assessment of the impact and implications of the international mobilities operating in the national publicpolicy environment. In fact, patterns of transformations that take place in national higher education systems are generating diverse and complex outcomes in different countries, in ways that may preclude a simple…
This article examines publicpolicy and social welfare issues related to a recent trend in black business ownership: the decline\\u000a of black-owned businesses in ‘traditional’ personal services serving a predominantly black clientele, and the corresponding\\u000a increase of black-owned businesses in ‘emerging’ capital- and knowledge-intensive fields. It is argued that, while the growth\\u000a of black business ownership in emerging fields is
The purpose of this article is to respond to and expand on the ideas presented by Father McGowan in The Ethics of Gambling Research: An Agenda for Mature Analysis. We provide specific recommendations for future research and publicpolicy in the field of gambling studies. We suggest that key conceptual definitions—such as, problem, compulsive, and pathological gambling—should be clarified, established,
Over the past decade, publicpolicies on prostitution and other types of sex work have been increasingly contested, both in\\u000a academia and in popular debates. One perspective, the oppression paradigm, is increasingly reflected in media reporting on\\u000a the sex industry and is steadily being articulated by government officials in the USA, Europe, and elsewhere. The proliferation\\u000a of myths based on
Social-psychological research has led to effective health interventions based on social influence processes. For example, school-based substance abuse prevention programs using the social influences model consistently produce better results than programs emphasizing only health information. Other areas of application have been prevention of AIDS, marketing social action programs, community-wide health promotion, anti-prejudice intervention, aggression control, crime and injury prevention, and resource conservation. Yet another area for application is the emerging field of health promotion, which seeks to cross traditional boundaries to build healthy publicpolicies in all sectors of society. A comprehensive social influences approach is needed because education alone is not likely to change fundamental ideas about where the responsibility for health rests. Current assignment of responsibility to the health sector and victim-blaming will be difficult to defeat. Positive changes at the required levels will depend on better understanding of how to instill health promotion values in policy arenas beyond the health care sector and better understanding of the dynamics of policy-making behaviors and related social influence processes. Social psychologists can and should assist the health promotion field to meet these challenges by conducting descriptive and intervention research on the psychology of social influence processes in publicpolicy-making arenas. PMID:10641814
Social inequality in access to oral health care is a feature of countries with predominantly privately funded markets for dental services. Private markets for health care have inherent inefficiencies whereby sick and poor people have restricted access compared to their healthy and more affluent compatriots. In the future, access to dental care may worsen as trends in demography, disease and development come to bear on national oral healthcare systems. However, increasing public subsidies for the poor may not increase their access unless availability issues are resolved. Further, increasing public funding runs counter to policies that feature less government involvement in the economy, tax policy on private insurance premiums, tax reductions and, in some instances, free-trade agreements. We discuss these issues and provide international examples to illustrate the consequences of the differing publicpolicies in oral health care. Subsidization of the poor by inclusion of dental care in social health insurance models appears to offer the most potential for equitable access. We further suggest that nations need to develop national systems capable of the surveillance of disease and human resources, and of the monitoring of appropriateness and efficiency of their oral healthcare delivery systems. PMID:18715364
Democracy requires that citizens' opinions play some role in shaping policy outcomes, including in foreign policy. Yet, while the literature on public opinion and foreign policy has made great progress over the past several decades, scholars have reached no consensus concerning what the public thinks, or thinks about, with respect to foreign policy, how it comes to hold those opinions,
Introduction:Adequate nutrition is one of the pillars of public health. Before developing and implementing effective intervention programmes to improve nutrition at the population level, it is important to know the nutritional situation of the target group.Assessment of energy and nutrient intake:The estimation of nutrient intake from food consumption requires reliable data on food composition. These data are also the fundamentals
Data are widely acknowledged as a first class scientific output. Increases in researchers' abilities to create data need to be matched by corresponding infrastructures for them to manage and share their data. At the same time, the quality and persistence of the datasets need to be ensured, providing the dataset creators with the recognition they deserve for their efforts. Formal publication of data takes advantage of the processes and procedures already in place to publish academic articles about scientific results, enabling data to be reviewed and more broadly disseminated. Data are vastly more varied in format than papers, and so the policies required to manage and publish data must take into account the complexities associated with different data types, scientific fields, licensing rules etc. The Peer REview for Publication & Accreditation of Research Data in the Earth sciences (PREPARDE) project is JISC- and NERC-funded, and aims to investigate the policies and procedures required for the formal publication of research data. The project is investigating the whole workflow of data publication, from ingestion into a data repository, through to formal publication in a data journal. To limit the scope of the project, the focus is primarily on the policies required for the Royal Meteorological Society and Wiley's Geoscience Data Journal, though members of the project team include representatives from the life sciences (F1000Research), and will generalise the policies to other disciplines. PREPARDE addresses key issues arising in the data publication paradigm, such as: what criteria are needed for a repository to be considered objectively trustworthy; how does one peer-review a dataset; and how can datasets and journal publications be effectively cross-linked for the benefit of the wider research community and the completeness of the scientific record? To answer these questions, the project is hosting workshops addressing these issues, with interactions from key stakeholders, including data and repository managers, researchers, funders and publishers. The results of these workshops will be presented and further comment and interaction sought from interested parties.
Summary In light of the increasing consumer demand for safe, high-quality food and recent public health concerns about food-borne illness, governments and agricultural industries are under pressure to provide comprehensive food safety policies and programmes consistent with international best practice. Countries that export food commodities derived from livestock must meet both the requirements of the importing country and domestic standards.
P. J. Dagg; R. J. Butler; J. G. Murray; R. R. Biddle
The incidence and serogroup distribution of meningococcal disease vary by country and over time. In the United States, the annual incidence has been 0.5-1.1/100,000 or about 1400-2800 cases annually with the highest incidence being in infants less than six months of age . Given the availability of conjugate vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y and the possible future availability of a group B vaccine, there is now the potential to effectively control meningococcal disease globally. The question then arises as to how public health policy can best serve this goal. MCV-D (Menactra) is not immunogenic in the first six months of life. For this reason, it has been proposed that immunization with this vaccine begin at nine months of age with a second dose at 12 months. This proposal would rely upon indirect or "herd protection" to protect young infants with the highest disease incidence. A second vaccine, MCV-CRM (Menveo), is immunogenic in the first months of life and is under consideration by the FDA for use in infants two months of age and older. MCV-CRM could provide direct protection of this high risk group, but three primary doses plus a toddler booster are required for this approach. In developing public health recommendations to protect infants, policy makers must weigh the additional cost of immunizing with four doses versus the possibility that relying on herd protection using a lower cost immunization schedule beginning at nine months of age may leave young infants unprotected. Optimal control of meningococcal disease will require both the public will and publicpolicy to best serve this goal. The decision as to what ages to target and which schedules to use should not only take into account the cost of the program, but also the severity of the disease and the high level public concern regarding meningococcal disease. PMID:22607897
This article explores the dynamic interaction between goals and means in publicpolicy. In particular, it identifies the inability of most public programs to develop workable adjustments between goals and means as a major source offailure in publicpolicy. The tension between goals and means is seen as an integral, potentially constructive aspect of the policy process which, however, needs
Publicpolicy is one of the younger, interdisciplinary subfields in the social sciences, but one of the most promising in terms of its social relevance. While publicpolicy has made major strides in terms of analytical and methodological development, it has largely ignored the development of intersectional theory-a broad theoretical paradigm that has much to offer publicpolicy scholars. In
In this article I argue that the US public housing policy, as codified by the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998 (QHWRA), is helping to reconfigure the racial and class structure of many inner cities. By promoting the demolition of public housing projects and replacement with mixed-income housing developments, public housing policy is producing a gentrified inner-city landscape
Australia, along with 36 other countries in the Western Pacific Region, was declared free of poliomyelitis by the World Health Organization in October 2000. Yet, the persistence of wild poliovirus in the 4 remaining polio-endemic countries—Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan—poses a risk for its importation into all countries declared polio free. We describe the public health response and outcomes resulting from the importation of a wild poliovirus infection in Melbourne, Australia, in July 2007. This response, based on an assessment of the risk for transmission, included offering vaccination with inactivated polio vaccine to the contacts and placing the index patient in isolation and the household contacts in quarantine until consecutive fecal specimens were negative for poliovirus by culture. The experience gained from the polio importation event in Australia may assist other polio-free countries to prepare for, and respond to, a similar event. No secondary clinical cases resulted from this importation.
Lester, Rosemary; Moran, Rodney; Brown, Lynne; Meagher, Julian; Roberts, Jason A.; Thorley, Bruce R.
We begin with the premise that human tissue biobanking is associated with ethical ambiguities and regulatory uncertainty, and that public engagement is at least one important element in addressing such challenges. One is then confronted with how to achieve public engagement that is both meaningful and effective. In particular, how can public engagement on the topic of biobanking be implemented so that (a) it is perceived broadly as legitimate and (b) the results of the engagement are relevant and useful to the institutional and regulatory context? In this paper we build on previous work that has addressed the former point and focus primarily on the latter. We argue that one way to increase the likelihood of results of public engagement being taken up in policy is through framing the issues that are deliberated by members of the public based in part on the practical policy questions for which input is sought. In this approach, we move discussion on the social and ethical implications of biobanking from abstract principles, to their consideration in the context of local biobanking practices. This is illustrated using a practical example involving a public engagement conducted to inform institutional policy for biobanking in British Columbia, Canada. PMID:20395688
We begin with the premise that human tissue biobanking is associated with ethical ambiguities and regulatory uncertainty, and that public engagement is at least one important element in addressing such challenges. One is then confronted with how to achieve public engagement that is both meaningful and effective. In particular, how can public engagement on the topic of biobanking be implemented such that: It is perceived broadly as legitimate.The results of the engagement are relevant and useful to the institutional and regulatory context. In this paper we build on previous work that has addressed the former point, and focus primarily on the latter point. We argue that one way to increase the likelihood of results of public engagement being taken up in policy is through framing the issues that are deliberated by members of the public based in part on the practical policy questions for which input is sought. In this approach, we move discussion on the social and ethical implications of biobanking from abstract principles, to their consideration in the context of local biobanking practices. This is illustrated using a practical example involving a public engagement conducted to inform institutional policy for biobanking in British Columbia, Canada.
Business improvement districts (BIDs)—special districts usually governed by business and property owners—have been portrayed by some observers as private governments serving narrow commercial interests and by others as policy tools—instruments employed by states and general-purpose local governments to mobilize resources and advance public purposes. We use data from case law, case studies of local practices, and a statewide survey of
Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been documented and hypothesized as the cause of a wide variety of adverse health effects. Most attention has focused on potential health effects of occupational and environmental exposures to many types of anthropogenic PM, such as mineral dusts or combustion byproducts of fossil fuels. However, geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources but modified by human activities) are also increasingly of concern as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Geotoxicology can be defined as the study of the toxicological characteristics and potential health effects of geogenic and geoanthropogenic earth materials. Acute exposures to high PM concentrations are associated with exacerbated asthma, other pulmonary inflammatory responses, cardiovascular problems, and other issues. Some diseases can result from inhalation of dust-borne pathogens. PM can contain bioaccessible (readily dissolved in the body’s fluids) contaminants that, if absorbed in sufficient doses, can trigger toxicity. Acutely bioreactive PM, such as alkaline wildfire ash or acidic volcanic fog, can trigger acute irritation or damage of the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Biodurable PM such as asbestos fibers and crystalline silica are poorly cleared by lung macrophages, do not readily dissolve in the fluids lining the lungs, and can therefore persist in the lungs for decades. In sufficient dose, pneumoconioses can result from exposure to biodurable minerals, and chronic fluid-mineral reactions in the body (such as redox cycling and formation of free radicals) are thought to help promote cancers such as lung cancer and (in the case of asbestos) mesothelioma. Many key research questions remain, such as the exact mechanisms by which many types of PM cause disease, or the levels of exposure above which various types of PM begin to pose a substantial public health risk. PM is at the core of diverse policy issues related to air quality, public health, and environmental security, at scales from local to global. Interdisciplinary earth and health science investigations are crucial to the development of effective policy. For example, earth science input will be key for understanding and managing potential risks associated with living on or near asbestos-containing rocks. Particularly in dry climates, a better understanding of the roles of geogenic PM versus anthropogenic PM as triggers of disease is needed in the development of appropriate air quality regulations at local to regional scales; this issue will only increase in importance in the future as human inhabitation increases in some arid regions, and as arid regions expand or shift due to climate change or human-induced stresses. Over the last decade, it has been recognized that dusts can transport contaminants and pathogens between continents. Hence, human practices and policies that influence dust generation in one continent or country may ultimately have an impact on public health, policy, and environmental security in distant downwind countries.
This essay explores the policy implications of the findings in this special section for potential remedies and opportunities for further research in the critical area of obesity. Children are an important focus here both because of the dramatic increase in childhood obesity in recent decades and because they lack the cognitive development and social experience to process marketing communications with
This article considers the growing economic role and continued economic importance attached to the UK's small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), a sector of the economy which is overlooked by commentators and economists.The rationale underlying the UK's ‘SME policy’ is outlined and placed in a European context. In particular, the authors carefully set out the arguments and evidence apparently supporting
Public discourses have influence on policymaking for emerging health issues. Media representations of unfolding events, scientific uncertainty, and real and perceived risks shape public acceptance of health policy and therefore policy outcomes. To characterize and track views in popular circulation on the causes, consequences and appropriate policy responses to the emergence of Hendra virus as a zoonotic risk, this study examines coverage of this issue in Australian mass media for the period 2007-2011. Results demonstrate the predominant explanation for the emergence of Hendra became the encroachment of flying fox populations on human settlement. Depictions of scientific uncertainty as to whom and what was at risk from Hendra virus promoted the view that flying foxes were a direct risk to human health. Descriptions of the best strategy to address Hendra have become polarized between recognized health authorities advocating individualized behaviour changes to limit risk exposure; versus populist calls for flying fox control and eradication. Less than a quarter of news reports describe the ecological determinants of emerging infectious disease or upstream policy solutions. Because flying foxes rather than horses were increasingly represented as the proximal source of human infection, existing policies of flying fox protection became equated with government inaction; the plight of those affected by flying foxes representative of a moral failure. These findings illustrate the potential for health communications for emerging infectious disease risks to become entangled in other political agendas, with implications for the public's likelihood of supporting publicpolicy and risk management strategies that require behavioural change or seek to address the ecological drivers of incidence. PMID:23294874
The European Union Future Internet Assembly, the roadmap for the Web heading towards semantic interoperability and building on the UK's adoption of the Internet and social media are accelerating the development of Web 3.0. A number of health portals are opening, some with facilities for the capture of Patient Based Records. Collective Intelligence will be generated that, applied to health, has potential to support Public Health policy. By using the Internet, millions of people in the course of their daily activities contribute to uncertified data stores, some explicitly collaborating to create collective knowledge bases, some contributing implicitly through the patterns of their choices and actions. An application of soft computing, called Collective Health Intelligence, that reasons uncertified and certified data could enhance the social pool of existing health knowledge available to the public health agencies. Collective Health Intelligence could be used to complement national programmes by employing innovative sampling techniques, cost-effectively generating anonymous data trends that would quantify policy, indicate epidemiological effects and supply metrics to test policy efficacy. PMID:20543334
Climate change has been a focal point in recent environmental public debate and policymaking. Latest polls show virtually unanimous consensus among the global public on the significance of the problem. This paper examines Asian public opinion on key issues of climate change policy in a comparative by comparing the level of public awareness and support for climate change policies in
Where publicpolicy relies on science for dealing with important issues affecting society, scientists involved have to explain what is known, what is uncertain, what might be known with more research and how to integrate science into decisions. Lessons have been learnt about all these stages in recent science-policy issues. Fluid mechanics and related sciences are contributing significantly to many problems. Some are specific such as the internal structure of extreme flow events in the atmosphere and ocean, or the microphysics of particle coagulation in narrow passages; others are system problems such as the environmental risks of growing mega cities, or combinations of processes affecting global and regional climate change.
Earth scientists rarely influence publicpolicy or urban planning. In defiance of geologic reality, cities are established on or expanded into floodplains, wetlands, earthquake faults, and active volcanoes. One exception to our lack of influence is that shortly after a major natural disaster, there is a brief window of heightened public awareness that may lead to sensible regulation or relocation of infrastructure. After the 1933 Long Beach earthquake, for example, California building codes were improved to reduce earthquake hazard. After Mississippi River flooding in 1993, several U.S. cities designated parts of their low-lying floodplain as green space. How have we done with New Orleans and southern Louisiana, devastated by hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005? Unfortunately, not very well. In the aftermath of those storms, an opportunity existed to educate engineers, policy makers, and the public about long-term hazards associated with land subsidence and sea level rise. This message was not conveyed, and expensive rebuilding has proceeded under the false assumption of relative coastal stability and slow sea level rise.
Despite considerable efforts, malaria is still one of the most devastating infectious diseases in the tropics. The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance currently compounds this grim picture. In this paper, we review the history of antimalarial drug resistance and the methods for monitoring it and assess the current magnitude and burden of parasite resistance to two commonly used drugs: chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Furthermore, we review the factors involved in the emergence and spread of drug resistance and highlight its public health importance. Finally, we discuss ways of dealing with such a problem by using combination therapy and suggest some of the research themes needing urgent answers.
This article addresses the relationship between religion and politics in liberal democracies from a publicpolicy angle. The analysis shows that contrary to the general secularization thesis, there is a visible religious impact on publicpolicy, but it varies according to what measure of secularization is used. Confessional heritage (Catholicism versus Protestantism) and cultural values (levels of religiosity) are better
Can forestry compete with manufacturing and agriculture for scarce capital or is investment in forestry attractive only when non-economic considerations - for example the social desirability of forestry investments, are taken into account. Addressing this question, the contributors to this book assess the market for forestry products in the short - and long-term future; examine the competition between agriculture, cities, and forestry for use of land; identify strategies that private, industrial, and public investors might adopt; and look at the effects of government policies on private investors.
The chapter is structured as follows. After starting with a review of the literature on growth ambitions of entrepreneurs\\u000a and high-growth firms in Sect. 5.2, we will discuss publicpolicy aimed at high-growth firms in general in the third section. Next, high-growth firms in the\\u000a USA\\u000a \\u000a and the Netherlands\\u000a \\u000a are evaluated. In the empirical part of the chapter we will
Erik Stam; Kashifa Suddle; Jolanda Hessels; André van Stel
|Corrects for potential bias and inconsistency in the estimated coefficient on market competition (among schools) by constructing a system of equations with endogenous expressions of student achievement and market competition. Policy makers seeking to improve student achievement should encourage market competition among schools. (Contains 13…
The demand for natural gas has stabilized since 1978. Government policies encourage the conservation of natural gas and restrict its use as an electric power generating fuel. The market clearing price of gas (price at which gas is at approximate Btu parity with residual fuel oil) could result in different wellhead prices for different geographic regions. Methods for determining when
|Purpose: The purpose of this 2-part study was to determine the importance of specific topics relating to publication ethics and adequacy of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) policies regarding these topics. Method: A 56-item Web-based survey was sent to (a) ASHA journal editors, associate editors, and members of the…
Ingham, Janis C.; Minifie, Fred D.; Horner, Jennifer; Robey, Randall R.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.
Purpose: The purpose of this 2-part study was to determine the importance of specific topics relating to publication ethics and adequacy of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) policies regarding these topics. Method: A 56-item Web-based survey was sent to (a) ASHA journal editors, associate editors, and members of the…
Ingham, Janis C.; Minifie, Fred D.; Horner, Jennifer; Robey, Randall R.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.
Background There is growing recognition that mental health is an importantpublic health issue in South Africa. Yet mental health services\\u000a remain chronically under-resourced. The aim of this study was to document levels of current public sector mental health service\\u000a provision in South Africa and compare services across provinces, in relation to current national policy and legislation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A survey was conducted
Crick Lund; Sharon Kleintjes; Ritsuko Kakuma; Alan J. Flisher
This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: 'basic elective ventilation'; 'epistemically complex elective ventilation'; 'practically complex elective ventilation'; and 'epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation'. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation. PMID:23222143
The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in the United States are in areas where NOA is known to exist and therefore this issue takes on national significance. This ongoing national dilemma has raised public and business concerns. There has been continuing political and scientific debate and widespread miscommunication over perceived versus actual health risks, the validity of various analytical sampling and testing methods, the questionable necessity and escalating costs of remediation procedures, and the combined negative impact on numerous commercial and public interests. Thus, conflicting research and regulatory positions on the distinctions between and hazards of true asbestos and ordinary rock fragments is all that is presently available to the public until the differing scientific communities and government agencies arrive at a consensus on these issues. The risk assessment methodology and the analytical technology needed to support inferences drawn from existing research are available, but have not been organized and implemented in the manner needed to resolve the NOA controversy. There should exist nationally adopted and peer-reviewed NOA standards (developed jointly by the scientific community, health risk professionals, and government regulators) that establish: (1) a scientific basis for risk evaluation and assessment of NOA and rock fragments; (2) accepted analytical protocols for determining if NOA actually exists in a given area and for separating NOA from related non-asbestos rock fragments and single crystal minerals; and (3) effective publicpolicies for managing NOA, minimizing potential hazards, and protecting public health. This article will review some of the key issues involved with the current NOA debate, propose improved analytical methodologies, describe potential solutions for dealing with NOA, and outline the benefits to be gained by creating a practical national NOA publicpolicy. PMID:18180100
Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R
The way test scores are used by both the public and private sectors, and the way in which this use is promoted and regulated indicates how some publicpolicies are formed and who characteristically bears the cost of policies as well as who benefits. What has been happening in the relationship between test use and policy formation is not unique,…
What role does the provision of information by special interest groups play in changing public perceptions about environmental issues, and on the formation of publicpolicy? To date, much of the environmental policy literature has focussed on lobbying efforts by special interest groups in which direct policy contingent contributions are made to the government. However, spending by special interest groups,
Many tobacco control advocates, believing that legislators and regula- tors have failed to enact and implement sufficiently stringent tobacco control laws, have supported litigation as a means of achieving public health policy goals. In this article, we examine the relationship between litigation and public health policy for- mulation in the context of the debate over tobacco control policy. The fundamental
A model for estimating the effect of publicpolicies on the demand for higher education is presented, with attention focused on the influences of publicpolicy and the economic environment, and the interaction of these factors with student ability and parental income. Policy instruments are tuition, admissions requirements, location of different…
Traditional ways of preventing and treating overweight and obesity have almost invariably focused on changing the behavior of individuals, an approach that has proven woefully inadequate, as indicated by the rising rates of both conditions. Considering the many aspects of American culture that promote obesity, from the proliferation of fast-food outlets to almost universal reliance on automobiles, reversing current trends will require a multifaceted public health policy approach as well as considerable funding. National leadership is needed to ensure the participation of health officials and researchers, educators and legislators, transportation experts and urban planners, and businesses and nonprofit groups in formulating a public health campaign with a better chance of success. The authors outline a broad range of policy recommendations and suggest that an obesity prevention campaign might be funded, in part, with revenues from small taxes on selected products that provide "empty" calories-such as soft drinks-or that reduce physical activity-such as automobiles. Images p13-a p15-a p17-a p18-a p22-a
The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program provides undergraduate students with the opportunity to participate in ongoing scientific research. Existing either as stand-alone summer programs or as supplementary components to existing NSF research grants, the REU program focuses on introducing aspiring young scientists to the delights and complexities of science. Global Climate Change and Society (GCCS) is an intensive, 8-week REU program that began a 3-year run in the summer of 2001.Developed by a philosopher at the Colorado School of Mines, and a planetary scientist at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colrado, GCCS is a unique experiment in research and pedagogy that introduces students to science by using a distinctive approach. Choosing as its topic the questions surrounding global climate change, the program explores the interwoven scientific, philosophical, and publicpolicy issues that make the climate change debate such a volatile topic in contemporary society. Last summer, the program selected 12 undergraduates through a nationally advertised competition. Student interns came from diverse academic and cultural backgrounds and included physics, philosophy and publicpolicy majors from elite liberal arts schools, major research institutions, and mainstream state universities. The program was held at the University of Colorado and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), in Boulder, Colorado (Figure 1).
Developing new renewable energy sources, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is a key to establishing climate-friendly economy. Japan has been one of the centers of research, development, and diffusion (RD&D) of PV since the 1970's. While it is true that Japan was outnumbered by Germany in installed capacity and by US and Chinese companies in production in recent years, Japan still retains an important position in the world PV market. This paper examines the history of publicpolicies for RD&D of PV in Japan, focusing on two kinds of policies, namely, public support for R&D under the Sunshine Program and various market creation policies in the early 1990's. Based on literature survey and interviews with key persons involved, the paper reveals that those support policies played an indispensable role to accelerate RD&D of PV technology. The Sunshine Program provided stable R&D budgets and space for technology learning throughout the 1980's to 1990's, and contributed to the progress of solar cell efficiency and cost reduction. The various market creation policies in the early 1990's also created regulatory and economic conditions that were necessary to commercialize residential PV systems, and became the direct driver to launch the initial PV market.
The separation of occupational and environmental disease from the mainstream of medical practice has deep roots in the culture of the profession. Medical practice centered on individual patient care as nineteenth-century science yielded the therapeutic triumphs of the twentieth century. Social issues seemed remote to medical practitioners as the rewards of scientifically based therapies upstaged the unglamorous aspects of preventive medicine. Public health was left to politicians and bureaucrats. Victorian ambivalence toward the less successful members of society reinforced the isolation of medicine from publicpolicy. As a consequence, physicians are largely ignored in contemporary debates about environmental hazards, to the detriment of both society and the profession.
Wedeen, R.P.; Sheehan, H.E. (VA Medical Center, East Orange, NJ (United States))
There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their publicpolicies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4
The implementation of particular publicpolicies may infringe upon important civil rights of citizens. This article explores the relationship between the racially disproportionate effects of the death penalty and a subsequent attempt in the U.S. Senate to provide racial justice protection. While the most important explanatory factors of a senator's behavior are their political philosophy and the state homicide rate
Michelle N. Gagnier; MARSHALL H. MEDOFF; MICHELE N. CAGNIER
Publicpolicy transcends the domain of domestic policies and encompasses or even determines the type of relations that countries build with each other. It is well known that policies are nothing but decisions of governments as formal authorization on the given issue at hand. In other words, policy is a sum total of decisions made by the authority and hence
The industrial public enterprise sector plays an important role in the economies of developing countries. It spans a whole variety of industries from petrochemicals to textiles. It has produced over 50 per cent of industrial output in countries such as Egypt, Somalia or the United Republic of Tanzania and over 25 per cent in India and Turkey. Its share in
Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet publicpolicy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting publicpolicy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy importantpublicpolicy considerations.
On June 11, 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a ruling in the case of Long Island Care at Home Ltd. v. Coke that upheld a federal regulation exempting employees of third-party agencies who provide home-based "companionship services" to disabled persons from the protections of the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This article discusses the legal issues argued in the case and the legal rationales for the court's decision. The article then identifies the importantpublicpolicy questions involving the maintenance of a sufficient, competent home care workforce that were left unanswered by the legal ruling and outlines some of the pragmatic implications of potential responses to these publicpolicy questions. PMID:18847096
This document is a collection of 12 issues of a monthly publication on publicpolicy and postsecondary education opportunity. Each issue contains one or two main articles providing an analysis of research on trends in postsecondary education. The major articles in these issues are: (1) "The Challenge of Educational Opportunity in PublicPolicy:…
It is often suggested that the United States adopt policies similar to those of European countries to increase public transportation ridership and sustainability of the transport system. On the basis of two national travel surveys, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of public transportation riders in Germany and the United States are compared, and the differences in public transportation policies in the
Does the present level of public unhappiness with the conduct of governance offer an opportunity to revisit the quality of publicpolicy making and the pernicious role of ideology? In this article I argue that there are some strong parallels between academic enquiry and publicpolicy making, and that a better understanding of the former could lead…
Research on health policies is considered essential to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of publicpolicies. Analyses of public health policies have various objectives, including helping to solve the problems for which the policy was originated. That objective faces two large obstacles: (1) the ambiguity and heterogeneity of the models applied for the analysis of publicpolicies, conditions that hinder the selection of analytical methods and the assessment of the scope of the objective; and (2) the traditional methodological approaches that limit the capacity of analyses to help solve the problems detected. This paper reviews the epistemology of the predominant models of public health policy analysis in order to assess their scope and limitations. It concludes that the development of new conceptual approaches could improve the quality of research on publicpolicies and their ability to favorably impact decisions. PMID:22910729
In human and society science, narrative is regarded as an important issue to understand dynamic actions of human being and society. Therefore, narrative is also expected to be important for publicpolicies that try to improve dynamic actions of human being and society. In th is study, we review academic genealogies with respect to narratives including western philosophy, hermeneutics, historical science, historical philosophy, literary criticism, clinical psychology and sociology, narrative psychology and folklore. Then we discuss how narrative can be pragmatically applied for publicpolicies.
Objectives This study uses critical realist methodology to identify the essential and contingent elements of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) and Healthy PublicPolicy (HPP) as operationalised by practitioners. Design Data collection—qualitative interviews and a workshop were conducted with HIA and HPP practitioners working in differing contexts. Data analysis Critical realist analytical questions identified the essential elements of HIA and HPP, the relationship between them, and the influences of publicpolicy and other contingencies on the practice of both. Participants Nine interviews were conducted with purposively sampled participants working in Europe, USA and Australasia. 17 self-selected participants who worked in Europe, South East Asia and Australasia attended the workshop. Results The results clarify that HIA and HPP are different but mutually supporting. HIA has four characteristics: assessing a policy proposal to predict population health and equity impacts, a structured process for stakeholder dialogue, making recommendations and flexibly adapting to the policy process. HPP has four characteristics: concern with a broad definition of health, designing policy to improve people's health and reduce health inequities, intersectoral collaboration and influencing the policy cycle from inception to completion. HIA brings to HPP prediction about a policy's broad health impacts, and a structured space for intersectoral engagement, but is one approach within a broader suite of HPP activities. Five features of publicpolicy and seven contingent influences on HIA and HPP practice are identified. Conclusions This study clarifies the core attributes of HIA and HPP as separate yet overlapping while subject to wider influences. This provides the necessary common language to describe the application of both and avoid conflated expectations of either. The findings present the conceptual importance of publicpolicy and the institutional role of public health as distinct and important influences on the practice of HIA and HPP.
Harris, Patrick John; Kemp, Lynn Amanda; Sainsbury, Peter
Development of an earthquake early warning capability and pilot project were objectives of TriNet, a 5-year (1997-2001) FEMA-funded project to develop a state-of-the-art digital seismic network in southern California. In parallel with research to assemble a protocol for rapid analysis of earthquake data and transmission of a signal by TriNet scientists and engineers, the publicpolicy, communication and educational issues inherent in implementation of an earthquake early warning system were addressed by TriNet's outreach component. These studies included: 1) a survey that identified potential users of an earthquake early warning system and how an earthquake early warning might be used in responding to an event, 2) a review of warning systems and communication issues associated with other natural hazards and how lessons learned might be applied to an alerting system for earthquakes, 3) an analysis of organization, management and publicpolicy issues that must be addressed if a broad-based warning system is to be developed and 4) a plan to provide earthquake early warnings to a small number of organizations in southern California as an experimental prototype. These studies provided needed insights into the social and cultural environment in which this new technology will be introduced, an environment with opportunities to enhance our response capabilities but also an environment with significant barriers to overcome to achieve a system that can be sustained and supported. In this presentation we will address the main publicpolicy issues that were subjects of analysis in these studies. They include a discussion of the possible division of functions among organizations likely to be the principle partners in the management of an earthquake early warning system. Drawing on lessons learned from warning systems for other hazards, we will review the potential impacts of false alarms and missed events on warning system credibility, the acceptability of fully automated warning systems and equity issues associated with possible differential access to warnings. Finally, we will review the status of legal authorities and liabilities faced by organizations that assume various warning system roles and possible approaches to setting up a pilot project to introduce early warning. Our presentation will suggest that introducing an early warning system requires multi-disciplinary and multi-agency cooperation and thoughtful discussion among organizations likely to be providers and participants in an early warning system. Recalling our experience with earthquake prediction, we will look at early warning as a promising but unproven technology and recommend moving forward with caution and patience.
Goltz, J. D.; Bourque, L.; Tierney, K.; Riopelle, D.; Shoaf, K.; Seligson, H.; Flores, P.
Toxocariasis, caused by infection with larvae of Toxocara canis, and to a lesser extent by Toxocara cati and other ascaridoid species, manifests in humans in a range of clinical syndromes. These include visceral and ocular larva migrans, neurotoxocariasis and covert or common toxocariasis. Toxocara canis is one of the most widespread public health and economically important zoonotic parasitic infections humans share with dogs, cats and wild canids, particularly foxes. This neglected disease has been shown through seroprevalence studies to be especially prevalent among children from socio-economically disadvantaged populations both in the tropics and sub-tropics and in industrialised nations. Human infection occurs by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs or larvae from a range of wild and domestic paratenic hosts. Most infections remain asymptomatic. Clinically overt infections may go undiagnosed, as diagnostic tests are expensive and can require serological, molecular and/or imaging tests, which may not be affordable or available. Treatment in humans varies according to symptoms and location of the larvae. Anthelmintics, including albendazole, thiabendazole and mebendazole may be given together with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids. The development of molecular tools should lead to new and improved strategies for the treatment, diagnosis and control of toxocariasis and the role of other ascaridoid species in the epidemiology of Toxocara spp. Molecular technologies may also help to reveal the public health importance of T. canis, providing new evidence to support the implementation of national control initiatives which have yet to be developed for Toxocara spp. A number of countries have implemented reproductive control programs in owned and stray dogs to reduce the number of young dogs in the population. These programs would positively impact upon T. canis transmission since the parasite is most fecund and prevalent in puppies. Other control measures for T. canis include the regular and frequent anthelmintic treatment of dogs and cats, starting at an early age, education and enforcement of laws for the disposal of canine faeces, dog legislation and personal hygiene. The existence of wild definitive and paratenic hosts complicates the control of T. canis. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change will all serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. This review examines the transmission, diagnosis and clinical syndromes of toxocariasis, its public health importance, epidemiology, control and current research needs. PMID:23954435
Public involvement in environmental policy analysis and planning may be in some cases for the purpose of incorporating public\\u000a values and preferences in decision making. Narrative policy analysis is put forward as a method, which is particularly useful\\u000a to the practice of public involvement for maintaining a juxtaposition of views throughout the policy development and planning\\u000a process. It is argued
This review of literature concerning the attitudinal and behavioral aspects of public acceptance of energy leans toward issues of socio-economic and environmental impacts. The articles reviewed are divided into two groups. The first classification involves the distinction between attitude surveys and case studies. The second classification concerns whether the issues at hand are generic or site-specific in nature. For the attitude studies, the classification divides those surveys concerned with general issues of energy policy from those focusing upon the impacts of a particular technology upon a specific locale. For the case studies, this distinction separates the studies involving national intervenors from the reports on local resistance to siting decisions. The majority of the case studies and articles reviewed focus on nuclear and coal energy facility-siting decisions, because these are what much of the current debate concerns. A few studies are related to water resources development where many of the same siting issues arise. 32 references.
The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise regarding whether agriculture sectoral policy is coherent with public health sectoral policy across the region. PMID:21859775
Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard
The implementation of standardized policy guidelines for care of diseases of public health importance has emerged as a subject of concern in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) globally. We conducted an empirical research study using the interpretive policy analysis approach to diagnose reasons for gaps in the implementation of national guidelines for HIV testing in Indian hospitals. Forty-six in-depth interviews
SUMMARY Despite the Canadian record of concern with the social determinants of health (SDOH), actual public health activities consistent with such an approach are sporadic at best. Canadian research and advocacy activities in the service of strengthening the SDOH are so divorced from everyday publicpolicy activity, media discourse and public awareness as to metaphorically suggest that SDOH researchers and
Environmental health threats are increasing throughout the United States, particularly in low-income populations and in communities of color. Environmental science researchers are investigating plausible associations between the environment and human health. As a result, the role and responsibility of the primary care physicians and other health care providers are changing. This paper highlights selected lines of evidence suggesting that clinicians should now consider interactions between humans and their environment as central to providing effective primary care. Subject areas include: exposure to environmental agents, reproductive toxicity, pulmonary disease, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, mechanisms of environmental disease, and cultural competence. Concerns about these and other environmentally related issues influence the manner in which primary care is practiced now, and will be practiced in the future. Biomedical technology and community awareness demand that physicians pay more attention to advances in environmental medicine. Ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school is environmental medicine. To effectively respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health, clinicians, researchers, educators, publicpolicy officials, and the general public must join together to reduce the risk of environmental health threats and improve quality of life.
Warren, Rueben; Walker, Bailus; Nathan, Vincent R.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the policy tools to complement public involvement and public-private collaboration in the deployment of next generation electronic communications infrastructures. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The special issue, of which this paper is a part, examines a number of policy tools that support public involvement and enhance public-private partnering in next
An ideal energy policy would limit consumption in a manner acceptable to voters. Acceptance of a particular mechanism to restrict consumption, however, needs to be preceded by acceptance of the necessity to conserve. Acceptance of this necessity, and a willingness to vote in accordance with it, require, in turn, a well-formed body of thought in the electorate. The connections between the existence of an energy constraint, a vote for supporters of particular policies, and the acceptance of personal consequences would need to be an integral part of such a body of thought. Unfortunately, analysis in this study of a survey of utility customers reveals that energy attitudes are not related to the important dimensions of attitude and experience among respondents, nor do energy attitudes form any significant dimension of their own. The two principal dimensions concern reservations about political institutions and personal financial pressures. The negative orientation of these important dimensions suggests a challenge to policymakers interested in formulating publicly acceptable energy policies. Negative patterns of attitude and experience do not encourage further acceptance of sacrifices in general. The dissociation of responses concerning energy from principal dimensions of attitude and experience implies that there is not a well-formed body of thought among respondents about energy.These results indicate that coherent, broad policies would be difficult to develop and implement because they cannot be easily communicated to the public. Furthermore, it is likely that particular energy policies will be incorporated into one of the two major dimensions of attitudes and experience, both negative, and opposed accordingly. Policymakers face a challenging situation that could be alleviated only if voters develop a coherent, integrated body of thought on energy issues. 18 references, 4 tables, 5 notes.
Public opinion polls have historically indicated that the US public favours domestic over global priorities. It is not known what influence health knowledge has in shaping public opinion about domestic and global health policy. This study examines how knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS is related to the rated importance of domestic and global health issues. Participants were recruited to participate in an
Janet Okamoto; Sandra de Castro Buffington; Heather M. Cloum; Brett M. Mendenhall; Michael Toboni; Thomas W. Valente
Since the discovery of x rays, the public has shown increasing concern about exposure to radiation. In the mid-1980s, with the dissemination of information about the ubiquitous nature of radon, this concern about radiation exposure has taken on a new perspective. As the general public realizes that exposure to radiation is an unavoidable part of life, questions arise as to
The protection and enhancement of the environment is the main aim of most environmental planning, and the use of geographic information as well as public participation can improve the quality of both the processes and the decisions. The current paper describes the role of web-based geographic information in environmental planning and gives an overview over the various approaches to public
The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into publicpolicy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of publicpolicy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to publicpolicy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of publicpolicy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to publicpolicy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion. PMID:21296911
Policy integration is very much about how political decisions are reached and implemented. Although policy integration addresses a broad understanding of governance, the issue is often addressed in a relatively narrow sense. Scholars and practitioners are addressing policy inte- gration most often by discussing particular policy instruments or mechanisms, rather than new, more appropriate patterns of governance or administrative narratives
This paper examines the public health enterprise and its policy challenges in the twenty-first century. Among the many challenges public health faces, we include here collaboration across a broad range of stakeholders, the public health infrastructure, agree- ment on public health's essential services, preparedness, accountability and measure- ment, workforce, and a research agenda. Two Institute of Medicine reports on the
Fuelled by rapid urbanization and changes in dietary and lifestyle choices, chronic diseases have emerged as a critical public health issue in China. The Healthy China 2020 programme recently announced by the Chinese government has set an overarching goal of promoting public health and making health care accessible and affordable for all Chinese citizens by year 2020. One of important components of the programme is to reduce chronic diseases by promoting healthy eating and active lifestyles. Chronic diseases not only affect health and quality of life, but also have economical and social consequences. With a limited infrastructure for chronic disease care, China is ill-equipped to deal with the escalating chronic disease epidemic, which threatens to reverse the gains of economic development in recent decades. Population-based intervention studies conducted in China and elsewhere have demonstrated the efficacy and effectiveness of several preventive strategies to reduce risk of chronic diseases in high-risk individuals and the general population. However, translating these findings into practice requires changes in health systems and publicpolicies. To achieve the goals set by the Healthy China 2020 programme, prevention of chronic diseases should be elevated to a national publicpolicy priority. PMID:21366840
Notes that the Committee on Medical Aspects on Food Policy (COMA) is currently reviewing the nutritional status of the population in relation to micronutrients statutorily added to flour and yellow fats (iron, calcium, thiamin, niacin, vitamins A and D) and folic acid. Also that, given the reduction of average energy intakes in the UK and changing food habits it is
Renewable energy technologies are capital intensive. Successful publicpolicies for promoting renewable energy must address the significant resources needed to finance them. Publicpolicies to support financing for renewable energy technologies must pay special attention to interactions with federal, state, and local taxes. These interactions are important because they can dramatically increase or decrease the effectiveness of a policy, and they determine the total cost of a policy to society as a whole. This report describes a comparative analysis of the cost of publicpolicies to support financing for two end-use solar technologies: residential solar domestic hot water heating (SDHW) and residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the cost of the technologies under five different ownership and financing scenarios. Four scenarios involve leasing the technologies to homeowners in return for a payment that is determined by the financing requirements of each form of ownership. For each scenario, the authors examine nine publicpolicies that might be used to lower the cost of these technologies: investment tax credits (federal and state), production tax credits (federal and state), production incentives, low-interest loans, grants (taxable and two types of nontaxable), direct customer payments, property and sales tax reductions, and accelerated depreciation.
The continued undertreatment of pain at the end of life is a substantive public health problem that has not been resolved through increased public awareness, the issuance of clinical guidance for providers, or expanded organizational commitments. In this forum, we illuminate the role of publicpolicies in promoting pain management. We review federal and state policies and consider empirical evaluations that compared the quality of state policies and the factors that contributed to their formation. We resolve that any organized interest in improving end-of-life care should begin by focusing on the development and expansion of those state policies that support the provision of evidence-based medicine for reducing the amount of pain an individual experiences at the end of life. Although empirical research is needed to determine which particular aspects of state pain policy are most critical and how these policies can be implemented most effectively, any organized effort that advances state medical board activity or another state policy would appear to be making an important step toward making the pain at the end of life go away.
This study aims to explore second-level agenda-setting at the national level. In particular, it examines the relationships among the citation bias of the New York Times, national level public opinion, and Congressional policies from 1956 to 2004 in order to better understand mass media's role in national policymaking. In addition, it also tests one important intervening variable of the relationships
... FDA is issuing this public health advisory to ... Healthcare professionals who prescribe and patients who ... should use a device designed to accurately ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders
A public health perspective based on social justice and a population health point of view emphasizes pharmacy policy innovations regarding safety and costs. Such policies that effectively reduce costs include controlling profits, establishing profit targets, extending prescription providers, revising prescription classification schemes, emphasizing generic medications, and establishing formularies. Public education and universal programs may reduce costs, but co-pays and “cost-sharing”
Pauline Vaillancourt Rosenau; Lincy S. Lal; Jay H. Glasser
Some of the most engaging problems in business history involve the creation and implementation of publicpolicies. Outcomes are com- monly seen as being at variance with both the operational realities of business and the public interest. Explanations of policy have usually involved laudatory books about reformers, judgmental claims of \\
The document examines the American public stand on foreign policy and explores the extent of citizen support for six basic foreign policy orientations--anti-Communism, internationalism, democracy, isolationism, interventionism, and self-interest. The extent of public support within these orientations among subgroups in the populace is also…
It is now widely understood that technical design decisions about the Internet can have lasting impacts on publicpolicy and individual rights. 1 This raises a critical question: How can policy considerations, and the public interest generally, be best accounted for in the development of the Internet's \\
|Maintains that a required course in publicpolicy analysis can serve as a natural capstone experience for undergraduate curricula in public administration. By teaching analysis, rather than teaching about analysis, undergraduate programs can integrate other elements of the curriculum and prepare students to understand the policy process more…
Few national economic policies have been mired in policy gridlock as deeply and for as long a period of time as grazing fees and other issues with respect to the use of public lands. The purpose of this paer is to provide an economic framework for analyzing grazing fees and other public land disputes that is sufficiently broad to integrate
Introduces articles in special issue on families, poverty, and publicpolicy. Provides context for considering results reported in articles by noting recent publicpolicy, demographic, and socioeconomic trends that will influence poor families in the future. Briefly reviews and compares articles and discusses research agenda related to the…
|Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in PublicPolicy. The 2012 winner is Dan Olweus for his rigorous scientific research on bullying among children and youth and his early and tireless attention to its publicpolicy implications. Dan Olweus's…
Previous literature widely assumes that taxes are optimized in local public finance while expenditures adjust residually. This paper endogenizes the choice of the optimization variable. In particular, it analyzes how federal policy toward local governments' influences the way local governments decide on publicpolicy. Unlike the usual presumption, the paper shows that local governments may choose to optimize over expenditures.
Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in PublicPolicy. The 2012 winner is Dan Olweus for his rigorous scientific research on bullying among children and youth and his early and tireless attention to its publicpolicy implications. Dan Olweus's…
The purpose of this briefing paper is to conceptualize a social responsibility and publicpolicy agenda for Montgomery College. The briefing paper provides (a) a well researched perspective to embed a College culture to actualize social responsibility and publicpolicy as institutional practices; (b) examines some of the opportunities and…
J. P. Rushton and A. R. Jensen (2005) purport to show public-policy implications arising from their analysis of alleged genetic bases for group mean differences in IQ. This article argues that none of these implications in fact follow from any of the data they present. The risk in work such as this is that public-policy implications may come to be
|The Community Choices program is designed to engage communities in a systematic assessment of the linkages between their human resource attributes and their economic development opportunities. This document contains seven modules. Modules 1-3 lay the foundation for doing publicpolicy education work by (1) defining publicpolicy education and…
Summary The rise of evidence-based medicine has given impetus to calls for more research evidence to be incorporated into health policy. The difficulty in effecting this research transfer has often been attributed to the different “worlds” of researchers and policy-makers. There are other contradictions, however, that must be addressed in attempting to bridge public health research and health promotion policy.
Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in publicpolicy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.
The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of institutional commitment to energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy resources, colleges and universities must focus public and professional attention on the imperative for action and the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and countering global warming.
At Macalester College, an interdisciplinary group of faculty from economics, geography, mathematics, political science, sociology, and statistics has been trying to identify the high-level quantitative skills and knowledge that are important in debating publicpolicy and to convey this quantitative literacy to our students, particularly to those who otherwise would have little or no contact with mathematics.This is a chapter in the section on Successful Pedagogies in the Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) April 2004 conference proceedings published under the title Invention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education.
We assess the benefits from transatlantic collaboration in technology policy for publicly-funded R&D space projects such as Galileo, a proposed European radio-navigation space project. An industrial organisation methodology is employed to model negative security spillovers of 'unilateral' space projects such as Galileo, or space-based anti-ballistic missile defence, on the public sector of the other region (the US vs. the European
Background While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. Methods This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors’ attitudes usually encountered in these policies. Results The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors’ attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a reorganization of practices, service rationing due to lack of reimbursement, and some overcharging or shifting of resources. Conclusions This transversal analysis confirms the need to assign a great deal of importance to the implementation of user fees exemption policies once these decisions have been taken. It also highlights some practices that suggest avenues of future research.
This is a continuation of and a development of a debate between John Keown and me. The issue discussed is whether, in Britain, an unpaid system of blood donation promotes and is justified by its promotion of altruism. Doubt is cast on the notions that publicpolicies can, and, if they can, that they should, be aimed at the promotion and expression of altruism rather than of self-interest, especially that of a mercenary sort. Reflections upon President Kennedy's proposition, introduced into the debate by Keown, that we should ask not what our country can do for us but what we can do for our country is pivotal to this casting of doubt. A case is made for suggesting that advocacy along the lines which Keown presents of an exclusive reliance on a voluntary, unpaid system of blood donation encourages inappropriate attitudes towards the provision of health care. Perhaps, it is suggested, and the suggestion represents, on my part, a change of mind as a consequence of the debate, a dual system of blood provision might be preferable.
In the context of current globalization, important modifications of the international relations and of the ideological, technical, and cultural components in the administration of the States are expressed by non-legitimate public action principles which account for social iniquity and the weakening of the role of the State. Regardless of its political origin or ideological orientation, the economic development plans and programs exhibit a prevailing uniformity. The challenge today implies mobilizing in local capacities with the objective of changing the quality of public action through the adoption of new development strategies able to integrate new social dimensions with other mechanisms of action. One of them, the intersectoral action, demands the structural revision of the administrative and cultural frontiers of the public and private social agents as a means of making a new tentative sociopolitical arrangement. The complexity of politics, projects and programs is taken as a methodological landmark based on the following theoretical presuppositions: integrality, social networks, and sociopraxis, constructing a participative process of knowledge to a political analysis in search of a change in the approach of the sociopolitical processes, starting from local social networks. PMID:20694334
Cordeiro, Joselma Cavalcanti; Villasante, Tomás Rodriguez Pietro; de Araújo, José Luiz do Amaral Correa
In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and publicpolicy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the publicpolicies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas. PMID:22699644
Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia
In this paper we examine how cancer risk is written in cancer policy documents from the English speaking OECD nations. We offer an audit of the multiple ways in which cancer risk is conceptualised and presented in health policy and professional contexts with the long term aim of comparing this with lay conceptualisations. Our study sampled cancer policy documents produced
The relatively high and rising fertility rates of Nordic countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s sparked a renewed research interest in the possible pronatalistic effects of generous family policy programs. Several studies have addressed this issue, but few have tried to model policy effects explicitly. The existing evidence so far is mainly from Sweden, where policy indicators have
This paper has two central objectives: (1) to examine critically the assumption underlying a central objective of many ‘Sport for all’ programmes, namely to improve people's health; (2) to illustrate, via the use of two recent British case studies, some of the complexities involved in the administration of sports policy and in coordinating sports policy with health policy. It is
Although there are many valuable evaluations of alcohol control policies, most do not account for the complexities of the policies, such as variability across jurisdictions, conceptual multi-dimensionality, implementation procedures and enforcement mechanisms. We conducted a detailed analysis of state beer keg registration policies in US. Based on reviews of keg registration statutes and regulations and surveys of alcohol beverage control
Alexander C. Wagenaar; Eileen M. Harwood; Cindy Silianoff; Traci L. Toomey
In many emerging economies pension programs of public sector workers are more generous than pension programs of private sector workers. In this paper we investigate public pension reforms that improve efficiency and welfare by reallocating government resources from non-productive public pensions to productive public education and infrastructure investments. We argue that the opportunity costs of running generous public pension schemes
Gerhard Glomm; Juergen Jung; Changmin Lee; Chung Tran
Highly-publicized school shootings have heightened concern over school safety. This study examines the impact of school crimes\\u000a on campus policy. The administrators of 336 Texas middle and high schools were surveyed. Policy changes were related to parental\\u000a complaints about school crime policies and administrator perceptions that students felt less safe. School administrators should\\u000a base safety policies on strategies that have
Clete Snell; Charles Bailey; Anthony Carona; Dalila Mebane
effectiveness which refers to the extent to which the underlying problem is alleviated or reduced. An efficient health service could mean a service which benefits not only the patient as a whole but the entire community by means of using the available resources in a judicious manner. An analysis of the performance of public health sub-sectors has revealed that those
The emphasis that will be placed on each of a number of energy policy alternatives will be determined by the tradeoffs among many factors. Important among these factors are public preferences for different levels of power availability and risk to health and safety. Also important in determining support for energy alternatives is public perception of the consequences of those policies. To assess public perception and evaluation of these factors, a number of respondents were selected to answer questions about these issues. Respondents' judgements of the acceptability of thirty-six hypothetical energy policies were analyzed using two complementary methods, discriminant analysis and judgement analysis. The first method is a statistical procedure that examines how well task variables discriminate among groups of respondents. The second method is a procedure which is used to construct models that describe the judgement processes used by respondents. Results of the discriminant analysis showed that differences among respondents' judgements were strongly related to the TECH dimension but only weakly affected by RISK and PA. On the TECH dimension, antinuclear respondents indicated relative acceptance of conservation and solar and relative rejection of nuclear and coal. Although pronuclear respondents showed slightly greater support of nuclear and coal than conservation and solar. The six clusters differed most strongly on nuclear, followed by conservation and solar, then coal. The PA dimension had more effect on the judgements of pronuclear respondents than on the judgements of antinuclear respondents. The analysis of the data indicated that the judgements of pro- and antinuclear respondents were better fit by separate models. The antinuclear respondents placed a slightly greater weight on the more RISK part of the RISK dimension relative to the PA dimension.
The last decade of education change has been characterized by the rise of evidence-based policy and practice agendas. Internationally, we are witnessing efforts to increase and incorporate research use in public services. This article examines efforts in education to address the research-practice gap through an emerging field we term knowledge…
|Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing publicpolicy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…
Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing publicpolicy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…
This article examines how exercises of public involvement in science policy, which have been transported to the new member states via EU regulations, function in post-socialist democracies. Given Poland's agonistic and non-transparent policy style, the public consultation process in the case of embryonic stem-cell research stands out as an exemplary model of ensuring public awareness and high-quality communication. When taking
Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and a history of sunburns are risk factors for skin cancer. Because children spend time outdoors when they are at school, school sun protection policies are an important health issue, particularly in areas of the country with year-round warm and sunny climates, such as Florida. To better understand the sun protection policies and practices in South Florida schools, a sample (n = 51) of elementary and middle schools in Miami-Dade County public schools were surveyed as part of a CDC-funded cancer control program at the University of Miami. Of the principals and teachers surveyed, most (78%) knew about the county school system's guidelines for avoiding excessive heat exposure, which include two sun protection measures. Two-thirds reported that they shared these guidelines with teachers; 21% shared them with parents. Few schools monitor implementation of the guidelines, although 70% schedule outdoor activities to avoid peak sun hours. No schools required sunscreen, hats, or protective clothing. Physical education teachers and students spend an average of 4.5 and 0.6 hours per day outdoors, respectively. Improved school sun protection policies and monitoring of such policies is needed to reduce sun exposure and skin cancer risk for both students and staff. PMID:16354252
Kirsner, Robert S; Parker, Dorothy F; Brathwaite, Noel; Thomas, Andrea; Tejada, Francisco; Trapido, Edward J
In early 2002, the Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sport piloted the application of an interactive process to policy development in the field of medical biotechnology. In such an approach, relevant societal actors, including the public at large, are actively involved in an open exchange, planning, action and reflection process. This paper reports on the findings of one
Tjard de Cock Buning; Jacqueline E. W. Broerse; Joske F. G. Bunders
|Explores assumptions underlying Malaysia's and the United States' public-relations practice. Finds many assumptions guiding Western theories and practices are not applicable to other countries. Examines the assumption that the practice of public relations targets a variety of key organizational publics. Advances international public-relations…
This article aims to open up the biographical black box of three experts working in the boundary zone between science, policy and public debate. A biographical-narrative approach is used to analyse the roles played by the virologists Albert Osterhaus, Roel Coutinho and Jaap Goudsmit in policy and public debate. These figures were among the few leading virologists visibly active in the Netherlands during the revival of infectious diseases in the 1980s. Osterhaus and Coutinho in particular are still the key figures today, as demonstrated during the outbreak of novel influenza A (H1N1). This article studies the various political and communicative challenges and dilemmas encountered by these three virologists, and discusses the way in which, strategically or not, they handled those challenges and dilemmas during the various stages of the field’s recent history. Important in this respect is their pursuit of a public role that is both effective and credible. We will conclude with a reflection on the H1N1 pandemic, and the historical and biographical ties between emerging governance arrangements and the experts involved in the development of such arrangements.
Infant and early childhood mental health practices can be supported by policies and professional standards of care that foster the healthy development of young children. Policies that support infants and toddlers include those that strengthen their families to provide a family environment that promotes mental wellness. Policy issues for infants, toddlers, and young children have come to the forefront of thinking as children need a "voice" to advocate for their support and care. This article (a) highlights several importantpolicy areas that support the social-emotional development of very young children and (b) gives examples of current policy accomplishments and challenges. The article offers a policy agenda to promote the mental health of infants and young children and suggests ways that psychologists can engage with policymakers to promote policies that foster infant mental health, including contributing to the knowledge base that informs policy decisions, educating the public and policymakers about early childhood development and mental wellness, forming community partnerships to identify and address infant mental health risks, and participating in the development of policy recommendations that improve access to evidence-based practices in infant mental health. PMID:21142338
Context: Relatively little is known about the factors shaping public attitudes toward obesity as a policy concern. This study examines whether individuals' beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for policies aimed at stemming obesity rates. This article identifies a unique role of metaphor-based beliefs, as distinct from conventional political attitudes, in explaining support for obesity policies. Methods: This article used the Yale Rudd Center Public Opinion on Obesity Survey, a nationally representative web sample surveyed from the Knowledge Networks panel in 2006/07 (N = 1,009). The study examines how respondents' demographic and health characteristics, political attitudes, and agreement with seven obesity metaphors affect support for sixteen policies to reduce obesity rates. Findings: Including obesity metaphors in regression models helps explain public support for policies to curb obesity beyond levels attributable solely to demographic, health, and political characteristics. The metaphors that people use to understand rising obesity rates are strong predictors of support for publicpolicy, and their influence varies across different types of policy interventions. Conclusions: Over the last five years, the United States has begun to grapple with the implications of dramatically escalating rates of obesity. Individuals use metaphors to better understand increasing rates of obesity, and obesity metaphors are independent and powerful predictors of support for publicpolicies to curb obesity. Metaphorical reasoning also offers a potential framework for using strategic issue framing to shift support for obesity policies.
Barry, Colleen L; Brescoll, Victoria L; Brownell, Kelly D; Schlesinger, Mark
The article attempts to show how sociological approaches to publicpolicy can be useful to understand the political specificity of the field of occupational health in France, although they remain rare on that question. They help us to understand how this field is structured through established compromises between interested parties including administrations, employers and employees' representatives, and how these compromises contribute to the relative public invisibility of occupational diseases. They also make it possible to see how these compromises are weakened by a series of contemporary evolutions: diversification of the employees' political and decision-making representation, increasing importance of the victims and of litigation arising from conflicts over these issues. Finally, they help us to describe the way this field resists these changes. PMID:18773842
Background Health policy-making, a complex, multi-factorial process, requires balancing conflicting values. A salient issue is public support for policies; however, one reason for limited impact of public opinion may be misperceptions of policy makers regarding public opinion. For example, empirical research is scarce on perceptions of policy makers regarding public opinion on smoke-free public spaces. Methods Public desire for smoke-free air was compared with health policy advisor (HPA) perception of these desires. Two representative studies were conducted: one with the public (N = 505), and the other with a representative sample of members of Israel’s health-targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020 (N = 34), in December 2010. Corresponding questions regarding desire for smoke-free areas were asked. Possible smoke-free areas included: 100% smoke-free bars and pubs; entrances to health facilities; railway platforms; cars with children; college campuses; outdoor areas (e.g., pools and beaches); and common areas of multi-dweller apartment buildings. A 1–7 Likert scale was used for each measure, and responses were averaged into a single primary outcome, DESIRE. Our primary endpoint was the comparison between public preferences and HPA assessment of those preferences. In a secondary analysis, we compared personal preferences of the public with personal preferences of the HPAs for smoke-free air. Results HPAs underestimated public desire for smoke-free air (Public: Mean: 5.06, 95% CI:[4.94, 5.17]; HPA: Mean: 4.06, 95% CI:[3.61, 4.52]: p < .0001). Differences at the p = .05 level were found between HPA assessment and public preference for the following areas: 100% smoke-free bars and pubs; entrances to healthcare facilities; train platforms; cars carrying children; and common areas of multi-dweller apartment buildings. In our secondary comparison, HPAs more strongly preferred smoke-free areas than did the public (p < .0001). Conclusions Health policy advisors underestimate public desire for smoke-free air. Better grasp of public opinion by policy makers may lead to stronger legislation. Monitoring policy-maker assessment of public opinion may shed light on incongruities between policy making and public opinion. Further, awareness of policy-maker misperceptions may encourage policy-makers to demand more accurate information before making policy.
Six participants in extension seminars on women's participation in publicpolicy increased knowledge about local, state, and national decision makers. The program had a positive impact on their involvement in publicpolicy affairs and their feelings of internal control. (SK)
This study examines the initial US rationale given for the Iraq War using agenda-setting and agenda-building approaches and a model for understanding the interaction of public opinion with publicpolicy and mass media agendas. To study these dynamics, the study examines two distinct periods of time, of high and low public support of the war (April–May 2003 and April–May 2004).
New psychoactive substances pose a particular challenge to those formulating drugs policy and related public health responses. This paper outlines some of the main issues arising from their use, with a particular focus on user perspectives. Such substances are often (at least initially) produced and distributed for different reasons than controlled drugs. They emerge in users' repertoires undetected by most monitoring systems and general population drug surveys. While reasons for use by innovators and early adopters are often in the spirit of self-experimentation, such substances may rapidly diffuse to the recreational arena as a result of enthusiastic user propagation where they act as substitutes or complements to controlled drugs. The majority of substances are believed to be sourced, albeit not exclusively, from manufacturers based in China. They are retailed to consumers through the Internet and physical shops (such as 'head' and 'smart' shops), as well as traditional 'street dealers' (although data on the significance of this latter route of supply are limited). The data required for risk assessment of the harms such substances may pose, as well as information required for accurate user-derived harm reduction advice, are often limited. Moreover, some involved in the commercial supply have deliberately misbranded products, including substituting the active substance, in apparent attempts to circumvent regulatory frameworks. This leaves users susceptible to both health and criminal justice harms. Despite various attempts to restrict the supply, they often continue to be available through the illicit market, although it is not yet possible to predict whether they will join other drugs such as MDMA and LSD as mainstays of the recreational pharmacopeia. PMID:21744515
This article examines debates about public culture from the late 1980s to the present and identifies thirteen arguments that have been used to justify an investment in public culture: public interest, national security, merit, moral worth, the good life, economic development, politics, education, democracy, American identity, shared symbols, diversity, and innovation. The article then asserts four positions: (1) public culture
Controversies over the merits of public and private education have never been more prominent than today. This book evaluates public and private schooling, especially in regard to choices families must make for their children. While choice among public schools is widely advocated today by families and states, public support for private…
Analyzes recent federal court decision striking down school anti-harassment policy on First Amendment grounds. Discusses freedom of expression rights in public setting as compared to public-school context. Argues decision incorrectly relies on law developed outside public-school context, unjustifiably finds violation of First Amendment, and may…
We develop a model of public evaluations of U.S. foreign policies that emphasizes the role of core values and informational cues as a means to explain how the public renders judgments on complex issues. We argue that the public will most fundamentally be concerned with presidential success in maintaining U.S. peace and security and will rely heavily on presidential activities
This study investigated the policies, procedures, and practices of public art programs on the campuses of research institutions with very high activity as defined by the Carnegie Classification. From this particular type of institution, 55 of the 96 public art administrators provided their opinions, attitudes, and behaviors as part of the "Public…
...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Publication of rules and general policies. 5...PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Publication of or Availability of General Agency...and Similar Material Â§ 5.20 Publication of rules and general...
Publicpolicy students were surveyed four times from 1998- 2000 (n=126, 104, 95, 92). Results reveal that many begin with uncertain goals and ambivalence about public sector work. Interest declined and the curriculum did little to promote the public sector. Many anticipated fluid careers and chose positions that offer growth more commonly…
This chapter synthesizes the studies described in this volume and situates them within a broader policy context, concluding with implications for practitioners and researchers. (Contains 9 online resources.)
Flores, Stella M.; Horn, Catherine L.; Crisp, Gloria
Introduction Promoting health equity is a key goal of many public health systems. However, little is known about how equity is conceptualized in such systems, particularly as standards of public health practice are established. As part of a larger study examining the renewal of public health in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and British Columbia (BC), we undertook an analysis of relevant public health documents related to equity. The aim of this paper is to discuss how equity is considered within documents that outline standards for public health. Methods A research team consisting of policymakers and academics identified key documents related to the public health renewal process in each province. The documents were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to identify key themes related to the conceptualization and integration of health equity as part of public health renewal in Ontario and BC. Documents were coded inductively with higher levels of abstraction achieved through multiple readings. Sets of questions were developed to guide the analysis throughout the process. Results In both sets of provincial documents health inequities were defined in a similar fashion, as the consequence of unfair or unjust structural conditions. Reducing health inequities was an explicit goal of the public health renewal process. In Ontario, addressing “priority populations” was used as a proxy term for health equity and the focus was on existing programs. In BC, the incorporation of an equity lens enhanced the identification of health inequities, with a particular emphasis on the social determinants of health. In both, priority was given to reducing barriers to public health services and to forming partnerships with other sectors to reduce health inequities. Limits to the accountability of public health to reduce health inequities were identified in both provinces. Conclusion This study contributes to understanding how health equity is conceptualized and incorporated into standards for local public health. As reflected in their policies, both provinces have embraced the importance of reducing health inequities. Both concepualized this process as rooted in structural injustices and the social determinants of health. Differences in the conceptualization of health equity likely reflect contextual influences on the public health renewal processes in each jurisdiction.
Integrating Natural and Social Sciences to Inspire Public Confidence in Radioactive Waste Policy Case Study: Committee on Radioactive Waste Management Implementing effective long-term radioactive waste management policy is challenging, and both UK and international experience is littered with policy and programme failures. Policy must not only be underpinned by sound science and technical rationale, it must also inspire the confidence of the public and other stakeholders. However, in today's modern society, communities will not simply accept the word of scientists for setting policy based purely on technical grounds. This is particularly so in areas where there are significant social and ethical issues, such as radioactive waste disposal. To develop and implement effective policy, governments, waste owners and implementing bodies must develop processes which effectively integrate both complex technical and scientific issues, with equally challenging social and ethical concerns. These integrating processes must marry often intricate technical issues with broad public and stakeholder engagement programmes, in programmes which can expect the highest levels of public scrutiny, and must invariably be delivered within challenging time and budget constraints. This paper considers a model for how such integrating processes can be delivered. The paper reviews, as a case study, how such challenges were overcome by the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), which, in July 2006, made recommendations to the UK government for the establishment of a long-term radioactive waste policy. Its recommendations were underpinned by sound science, but also engendered public confidence through undertaking the largest and most significant deliberative public and stakeholder engagement programme on a complex policy issue in the UK. Effective decision-making was enabled through the integration of both proven and bespoke methodologies, including Multi-criteria Decision Analysis and Holistic assessments, coupled with an overarching deliberative approach. How this was managed and delivered to programme demonstrates how important effective integration of different issues, interests and world views can be achieved, and the paper looks forward to how the continued integration of both natural and social sciences is essential if public confidence is to be maintained through implementation stages. This paper will be particularly relevant to governments, waste owners and implementing bodies who are responsible for developing and implementing policy. (author)
This paper examines the origins of the Brazilian space program and discusses the reasons for the limited level of public awareness regarding aerospace activities. Specific attention is given to scientific and technological policy, the public diffusion of science, and the role of the Brazilian press. The country is found to lack a national policy for disseminating information about the scientific and technical information, although the need for such mechanisms is understood. The press/media are characterized as interested in the developments in other more developed countries, but this problem is exascerbated by the lack of continuity in the national space program itself. Increasing public awareness with respect to space activities can be enhanced by the creation of the Brazilian Space Agency and better defined policies for the diffusion of information.
To date much of the global-scale comparative research on environmental forest policy has focused on ‘macro-level’ policy goals and objectives. Although it is important for identifying broad trends, such research overlooks the specific policy settings that serve to ‘set the bar’ for on-the-ground environmental performance. This article helps to fill that gap by presenting and applying a framework for comparing
Constance L. McDermott; Benjamin Cashore; Peter Kanowski
Does public opinion influence foreign policy? International relations theory is divided on whether foreign policy outputs follow public opinion in advanced democratic countries. Using the case of cold war and post-cold war Germany, I offer an integrated realist theory of the effect of public opinion on foreign policy. I test the theory and the generalizability of the hypothesis of a
|As a result of 18 months of deliberation on family policy issues pertaining to young children, the American Jewish Committee's Task Force on Family Policy put together this booklet. After an introductory foreword by E. Robert Goodkind, a paper by Steven Bayme, called "Current Debates and Challenges," outlines the range of issues underlying family…
As a result of 18 months of deliberation on family policy issues pertaining to young children, the American Jewish Committee's Task Force on Family Policy put together this booklet. After an introductory foreword by E. Robert Goodkind, a paper by Steven Bayme, called "Current Debates and Challenges," outlines the range of issues underlying family…
|Language education for ethnic majority and minority students alike has recently received much policy attention in the People's Republic of China. An outcome of this policy attention is the Chinese-English bilingual education initiative which turns on the use of English as a medium of instruction for Han majority students at the primary and…
|Examined the nature of government policy toward community colleges in the United States and Canada in the 1990s and colleges' responses. Government policies were found to direct community colleges toward economic goals, emphasizing workforce training and state economic competitiveness and compelling colleges to improve efficiencies, increase…
There is little doubt about the impact of rising energy costs on the profitability of American industrial activity. Energy consumers, producers, and government leaders are all compelled to “do something” about this challenge. As a result, energy issues have been a prominent feature of federal policy agendas in recent years. However, the policy-making process draws participants with highly varied perceptions
If better informed voters receive favorable policies, then mass media will affect policy because mass media provide most of the information people use in voting. This paper models the incentives of the media to deliver news to different groups. The increasing-returns-to-scale technology and advertising financing of media firms induce them to provide more news to large groups, such as tax
Policies that encourage recycling may be used to reduce environmental costs from waste disposal because direct restrictions on disposal are difficult to enforce. Four recycling policies have been advanced: (i) taxes on the use of virgin materials, (ii) deposit\\/refund programs, (iii) subsidies to recycled material production, and (iv) recycled content standards. In this article, I analyze the structure of these
Current analyses of UK smoking policy within two frameworks--the 'heroes and villains' view of journalist accounts and a political science emphasis on rival 'producer' and 'issue' networks in policy making. It is often assumed that the US experience provides a universal historical model. This paper sees smoking policy in the UK as a case study in the relationship between 'scientific fact creation' and policy, which has also been emblematic of wider changes in public health ideology. The issue of smoking and lung cancer symbolized the post-war shift from infectious to chronic disease and the rise of a new 'lifestyle'-oriented public health. In the 1980s passive smoking brought a revival of environmentalism; in the 1990s the rediscovered concept of addiction symbolized developments in public health in which curative and preventive initiatives were entwined. Despite the rise of a militant 'healthism' within both anti-smoking and public health since the 1970s, British policy retained a dual focus, an emphasis on risk reduction as well as risk elimination in which policy networks were entwined rather than distinct. Some public health scientists worked in policy milieux, notably the expert committee, which crossed this apparent divide and which linked with industry. Connections between government and industry changed as public health 'treatment' brought the pharmaceutical industry into the picture. PMID:12688300
Background People in modern societies spend more than 90% of their time indoors. Hence, indoor environmental quality (IEQ) has a significant impact on public health. In this article we describe health risks associated with indoor environments, illuminate barriers to overcoming these risks, and provide policy recommendations to achieve healthier indoor environments. Objectives The weight of evidence suggests that indoor environmental contaminants pose significant public health risks, particularly among children and the poor, and the societal costs of illnesses related to indoor environments are considerable. Despite the evidence of harm to human health, poor indoor environments are generally difficult to regulate and not of sufficient concern to the general public. We discuss several reasons for this lack of concern about IEQ, focusing specifically on home environments. Discussion Economics plays a large role both in political inaction and individual-level indifference. Because little effort has been made to quantify the value of the societal and individual costs of poor housing quality, as well as the benefits achievable by simple interventions, policymakers lack motivation to act on IEQ. Similarly, individual homeowners lack the incentive to remediate homes, as other problems may be more pressing than home environmental quality. Conclusions Although the problem of IEQ involves multiple stakeholders and multiple levels of governance, it is possible to establish economic incentives that would set the wheels in motion for action at all levels to achieve healthy home environments. Also important are education and information dissemination on the public health risks associated with indoor environments. These recommendations are intended for all decision makers who have an influence in developing policy to improve indoor environmental quality.
People witness today in the US what might be considered a "generous hijacking" of educational policy. Policy debates on charters, vouchers, for profit schools, testing and evaluation companies, and "education reform" reveal a triple privatization of educational policy. Varied enactments of educational privatization dot the globe, linked in a…
|People witness today in the US what might be considered a "generous hijacking" of educational policy. Policy debates on charters, vouchers, for profit schools, testing and evaluation companies, and "education reform" reveal a triple privatization of educational policy. Varied enactments of educational privatization dot the globe, linked in a…
|Discusses the interactions of career counseling and publicpolicy; the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats related to such interactions; and selected strategic issues facing professional career counselors in the 21st century. (GCP)|
The following ten conclusions provide a brief summary of this paper: (1) Little baseline scientific information on waste disposal effects exists before 1970; (2) no constructive publicpolicy to control waste disposal existed before the 1972 Marine Protec...
The purpose of the study was to identify and examine barriers to technological innovation in industry and to suggest publicpolicy options for overcoming these barriers. Industrialists, financial managers, government officials, labor leaders, and academic...
This research investigates consumers' perceptions of claims made in Dial-a-Porn commercials. The empirical findings support the view that some of the claims are deceptive. Based on research findings, preliminary publicpolicy guidelines are suggested.
Systematic reviews have become an important methodology in the United Kingdom by which research informs health policy, and their use now extends beyond evidence-based medicine to evidence-based public health and, particularly, health inequalities policies. This article reviews the limitations of systematic reviews as stand-alone tools for this purpose and suggests a complementary approach to make better use of the evidence. That is, systematic reviews and other sources of evidence should be incorporated into a wider analytical framework, the public health regime (defined here as the specific legislative, social, political, and economic structures that have an impact on both public health and the appropriateness and effectiveness of public health interventions adopted). At the national level this approach would facilitate analysis at all levels of the policy framework, countering the current focus on individual interventions. It could also differentiate at the international level between those policies and interventions that are effective in different contexts and are therefore potentially generalizable and those that depend on particular conditions for success.
The paper addresses the question of how different types of evidence ought to inform public health policy. By analysing case\\u000a studies on obesity, the paper draws lessons about the different roles that different types of evidence play in setting up\\u000a public health policies. More specifically, it is argued that evidence of difference-making supports considerations about ‘what\\u000a works for whom in
To what extent can market participants affect the outcomes of regulatory policy? In this paper, we study the effects of one potential source of influence—campaign contributions—from competing interests in the local telecommunications industry, on regulatory policy decisions of state public utility commissions. Our work is unique in that we test the effects of campaign contributions on measurable policy outcomes. This
Policy has not adequately addressed the unique circumstances of pediatric subspecialties, many of which are facing workforce shortages. Pediatric subspecialties, which we define to include all medical and surgical subspecialties, are discrete disciplines that differ significantly from each other and from adult medicine subspecialties. Concerns about a current shortage of pediatric subspecialists overall are driven by indicators ranging from recruitment difficulties to long wait times for appointments. The future supply of pediatric subspecialists and patient access to pediatric subspecialty care will be affected by a number of key factors or forces for change. We discuss 5 of these factors: changing physician and patient demographics; debt load and lifestyle considerations; competition among providers of subspecialty care; equitable reimbursement for subspecialty services; and policy to regulate physician supply. We also identify issues and strategies that medical and specialty societies, pediatric subspecialists, researchers, child advocates, policy makers, and others should consider in the development of subspecialty-specific workforce-policy agendas. PMID:16199670
Jewett, Ethan Alexander; Anderson, Michael R; Gilchrist, Gerald S
Reviews the theory of compensating wage differentials associated with disagreeable job characteristics. Discussion of the theory of compensating wage differentials; Job characteristics viwed as disagreeable by the marginal worker; Policy implications. (Abstract copyright EBSCO.)
The Task Force reviewed existing primary care policies and formulated recommendations on how these could be improved. As defined by the Task Force, primary care consists of responsive care for episodic illness, continuing care for chronic illness, health ...