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1

Public say food regulatory policies to improve health in Western Australia are important: population survey results  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Methods Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18–64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using survey module of STATA 12. Results The majority of adults believe it is important that government regulates food policy options under consideration: nutrition information on food labels (97% versus 2% who think it is not important); health rating on food labels (95% versus 3%); food advertising (83% versus 11%); and the supply of environmentally friendly food (86% versus 9%). Conclusions Community perception is that government control or regulation of food labelling, food advertising and the supply of environmentally friendly food is important. Implications Curbing excess weight gain and related disease burden is a public health priority. Australian governments are considering food regulatory interventions to assist the public to improve their dietary intake. These findings should provide reassurance to government officials considering these regulatory measures. PMID:24090332

Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W

2013-01-01

2

Contested Communities in a Debate over Dual-Language Education: The Import of "Public" Values on Public Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how public debate can shape school district policy. Using qualitative methods and an interdisciplinary framework that weaves an interpretive approach to policy implementation with the language policy and planning literature, the analysis demonstrates that immigrant voices were mostly absent in a debate over a new dual-language…

Dorner, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

3

Breast-feeding and child-spacing: importance of information collection for public health policy.  

PubMed Central

The presence of lactational amenorrhoea cannot be fully relied upon to protect the individual mother against becoming pregnant. Nevertheless, the use of breast-feeding as a birth-spacing mechanism has important implications for global health policy. This article identifies the information that should be collected and examined as a basis for developing guidelines on how to reduce the dual protection afforded by postpartum lactational amenorrhoea and other family planning methods, and discusses when such methods should be introduced. PMID:2289298

Saadeh, R.; Benbouzid, D.

1990-01-01

4

Public Policy Agenda, 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

2007-01-01

5

Public Policy Agenda, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews current and developing policy issues in the context of the guiding principles of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities and articulates the Association's public positions and priorities based on that review. It is expected that 2003 will be one of the most challenging in a generation for state colleges and…

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

6

Human exposure monitoring and evaluation in the Arctic: the importance of understanding exposures to the development of public health policy.  

PubMed Central

Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this important public health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders. PMID:14757538

Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P

2004-01-01

7

Language and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an early product of the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Committee on Public Doublespeak, this publication seeks both to provide teachers of English and speech already concerned about the social effects of language with current studies on the subject and to persuade other colleagues of the importance of preparing students to cope…

Rank, Hugh, Ed.

8

Public Opinion, Public Policy, and HIV Infection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A four-stage framework for considering the development of public policy in regard to the issue of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is offered. The phases are denial, irrationality, acceptance, and the development of a rational response. Federal antidiscrimination policies which include persons with HIV infections as disabled are…

West, Jane

1989-01-01

9

Behavior analysis and public policy  

PubMed Central

The Task Force on Public Policy was created to examine ways for behavior analysts to be more functional citizen scientists in the policymaking arena. This report informs readers about the contexts and processes of policymaking; and it outlines issues regarding the roles of behavior analysts in crating policy-relevant conceptual analyses, generating research data, and communicating policy-relevant information. We also discuss a possible role for the professional association in enhancing analysis, research, and advocacy on policies relevant to the public interest. PMID:22477991

Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernstein, Gail S.; Czyzewski, Mare J.; Greene, Brandon F.; Hannah, Gerald T.; Iwata, Brian A.; Jason, Leonard A.; Mathews, R. Mark; Morris, Edward K.; Otis-Wilborn, Amy; Seekins, Tom; Winett, Richard A.

1988-01-01

10

Provisioning of public health can be designed to anticipate public policy responses  

E-print Network

Provisioning of public health can be designed to anticipate public policy responses Jing Li, Darla V. Lindberg, Rachel A. Smith, Timothy C. Reluga September 9, 2013 Abstract Public health policies be important ingredients in policy design. Yet our foresight of individual responses to public health

Reluga, Tim

11

Public Policy Agenda, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document highlights the policy and advocacy positions that the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) will assume in upcoming legislative and regulatory processes. Member institutions will find these policies predictive of advocacy efforts on their behalf; policymakers will find positions predicated on the needs of…

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

12

Public Policy Agenda, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document articulates the guiding principles of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) for the creation, adoption, and implementation of higher education policy. The policy positions of the AASCU are founded on a commitment to supporting and advancing the best interests of students. Among the ideals on which the…

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

13

Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

Schooler, Dean, Jr.

14

Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory.  

PubMed

Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the 'policy diffusion' process, enabling governments to learn from another's enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada. PMID:25379125

Politis, Christopher E; Halligan, Michelle H; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F

2014-01-01

15

Trustees and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington-based national organizations are seen as effective in dealing with the government, especially on technical questions. But when major policy issues are to be decided, it is suggested that a college president or board member is more effective. Knowing the committee structure is seen as necessary for influencing legislation. (Author/MLW)

Saunders, Charles B.; Bellows, Everett H.

1980-01-01

16

Essays on Public Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many public school choice programs use centralized mechanisms to match students with schools in absence of market-clearing prices. Among them, the Boston mechanism is one of the most widely used. It is well-known that truth-telling may not be optimal under the Boston mechanism, which raises the concern that the mechanism may create a disadvantage…

He, Yinghua

2011-01-01

17

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC POLICY  

E-print Network

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC POLICY To: Trever Crowe, Associate Dean College of Graduate Studies: September 20, 2010 On May 10, 2010, representatives from the Johnson-Shovama Graduate School met: That the passin,ggradefor all courses (`PUBP, GSPP, and electives outside of/he School) taken by students

Saskatchewan, University of

18

Public Policy Institute of California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the early 1990s, a group of concerned Californians (including William R. Hewlett) decided that there should be a policy research institution dedicated to providing both wise counsel and expertise on the issues and events that were of great concern to the residents of the state. With a sizable gift of $70 million, the Public Policy Institute of California was formally created in 1994, and since that time they have continued their research with great vigor, along with disseminating their findings to the broader public. Visitors to the Institute's homepage can look over their reports listed by topic area, such as demography, education, or political participation. Scholars and policy analysts will appreciate the "Data Depot" area which includes information on the natural resource budget over the past three decades and information on the federal transit grants provided to different parts of the state.

19

Undergraduate Public Policy Programs: Public Policy Studies as Liberal Education. Forum for Liberal Education, March 1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin on undergraduate public policy programs includes an article on public policy studies as liberal education by Joel L. Fleishman, and descriptions of the following college programs: public policy analysis at the University of North Carolina, public service studies program at Oberlin College, urban and metropolitan studies major at…

Mohrman, Kathryn, Ed.; And Others

20

Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

Bybee, Rodger W.

1983-01-01

21

1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 ...FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter...Federal Register shall publish a serial publication called the Federal Register to...

2010-01-01

22

Public Health Policy Spring Quarter 2013  

E-print Network

PH 449 Public Health Policy Spring Quarter 2013 Wednesdays 6-9pm Lurie Searle Seminar Room Margie development and analysis have an impact on the public's health. The course is designed to provide students with skills for collecting, analyzing and communicating information on public health policy issues using

Contractor, Anis

23

16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign...COMMISSION GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.3 Policy on imported products, importers, and...

2010-01-01

24

Marriage, Poverty, and Public Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to recent census statistics, the poverty level for families headed by single moms is 33%, while the poverty level for two parent families with children is only 6%. For this reason, many people feel the solution to poverty reduction is merely to marry off single moms. However, according to the report "Marriage, Poverty, and Public Policy," the solution to lessening this percentage gap is not one-dimensional. Written by Stephanie Coontz, Professor of History and Family Studies at Evergreen State College, and Nancy Folbre, Professor of Economics at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, the report finds that "lack of marriage is sometimes a symptom rather than a root cause of poverty, and that encouraging people to marry without giving them long term support systems may actually do more harm than good." Prepared for the fifth annual conference of the Council on Contemporary Families (which will be held at Fordham University in New York from April 26-28), the report offers several governmental solutions ranging from the elimination of disincentives or penalties for marriage, to investigating ways to help couples form and sustain relationships. The authors make clear that such policies, however, should not be confused with antipoverty programs, and should not be a cause to divert money from welfare programs.

Coontz, Stephanie.

25

EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND  

E-print Network

EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE COASTAL: EmergyAnalysis and Public Policy Options By Mark T. Brown Pamela Green, Agustin Gonzalez, and Javier Road Gainesville, Florida Tel (904) 392-2424 Fax (904) 392-3624 #12;EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES

Slatton, Clint

26

PUBLIC INTEREST DISCLOSURE (PID) POLICY AND PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

i PUBLIC INTEREST DISCLOSURE (PID) POLICY AND PROCEDURES #12;PUBLIC INTEREST DISCLOSURE POLICY a disclosure under the PID Act 7 5.2. How to make a disclosure under the PID Act 7 6. PROCEDURES FOR AUTHORISED OFFICERS 9 7.1. Authorised Officer must provide information about the PID Act 9 7.2. Receiving

Greenslade, Diana

27

Healthy Communities and public policy: four success stories.  

PubMed Central

As Healthy Communities initiatives mature, many of them are discovering that their work in building community consensus for improved health care and other quality-of-life issues can be transformed into public policy. This article shows how Healthy Communities initiatives have had important effects on policy making at both the county and state level in several cities and states. PMID:10968756

Adams, C F

2000-01-01

28

40 CFR 707.20 - Chemical substances import policy.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical substances import policy. 707.20...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS General Import Requirements and Restrictions § 707.20 Chemical substances import policy. (a)...

2014-07-01

29

40 CFR 707.20 - Chemical substances import policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical substances import policy. 707.20...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS General Import Requirements and Restrictions § 707.20 Chemical substances import policy. (a)...

2011-07-01

30

40 CFR 707.20 - Chemical substances import policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical substances import policy. 707.20...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS General Import Requirements and Restrictions § 707.20 Chemical substances import policy. (a)...

2013-07-01

31

40 CFR 707.20 - Chemical substances import policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical substances import policy. 707.20...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS General Import Requirements and Restrictions § 707.20 Chemical substances import policy. (a)...

2012-07-01

32

40 CFR 707.20 - Chemical substances import policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances import policy. 707.20...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS General Import Requirements and Restrictions § 707.20 Chemical substances import policy. (a)...

2010-07-01

33

Understanding Evidence-Based Public Health Policy  

PubMed Central

Public health policy has a profound impact on health status. Missing from the literature is a clear articulation of the definition of evidence-based policy and approaches to move the field forward. Policy-relevant evidence includes both quantitative (e.g., epidemiological) and qualitative information (e.g., narrative accounts). We describe 3 key domains of evidence-based policy: (1) process, to understand approaches to enhance the likelihood of policy adoption; (2) content, to identify specific policy elements that are likely to be effective; and (3) outcomes, to document the potential impact of policy. Actions to further evidence-based policy include preparing and communicating data more effectively, using existing analytic tools more effectively, conducting policy surveillance, and tracking outcomes with different types of evidence. PMID:19608941

Chriqui, Jamie F.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

2009-01-01

34

Mass media and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

If more informed voters receive favorable policies, then mass media should influence policy because it provides most of the information people use in voting. This paper uses a simple model to analyze the effect of mass media provision of news on a number of policy issues: redistribution, the size of the government sector, rents and corruption, the effectiveness of lobby

David Strömberg

2001-01-01

35

Is College Opportunity Slipping Away? Parents and the Public Voice Concerns about Higher Education Access and Affordability. Policy Alert  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Policy Alert" is a publication series that summarizes important policy findings affecting the future of higher education. This issue is based on an earlier study, "Squeeze Play: How Parents and the Public Look at Higher Education Today," from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education and Public Agenda. This "Policy Alert"…

National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2008

2008-01-01

36

Public Policy Issues Surrounding Online University Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the maturation of the internet more and more colleges and universities are offering online courses. As these courses enter the mainstream, public policy issues are beginning to emerge. Many of these involve the tension between the \\

Georgia L. Holmes

37

Distance Education and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the current status of postsecondary distance education (DE) in the United States and Canada, focusing on ways in which DE can be used to further local or national policy goals. Presents four examples of DE policies and programs, each representing a different focus (laissez-faire, consortium, coordinating board, and comprehensive). (MDM)

Zeller, Nancy

1995-01-01

38

Policies Governing Admission to Jordanian Public Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper intends to discuss the policy of admission to Jordanian public universities. This admission rules are variable and open to almost 100% of the graduates from secondary schools. This might refer to the historical events and economic conditions that the country has gone through since its establishment. Furthermore, the admission policy is…

Massadeh, Nassar

2012-01-01

39

Public Policy Seminar from a Black Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the first Public Policy Seminar, sponsored by the Black Child Development Institute in the summer of 1972. The seminar was designed to provide the opportunity for information-sharing, awareness of federal policy making, and a channel for minorities involved in child development at the community level to exert pressure and…

National Black Child Development Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

40

Genetics and Public Policy Center  

MedlinePLUS

... Finds Government-sponsored analysis led by Johns Hopkins bioethics scholar published in Pediatrics. 11/24/10 Study ... Policy Center Johns Hopkins University Berman Institute of Bioethics 1779 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 605 Washington, DC ...

41

Congress Revisits NIH Public Access Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article from The Physiologist about how NIH instituted a voluntary Public Access Policy in early 2005, requesting that all NIH-funded researchers submit their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts to PubMed Central (PMC) no more than 12 months after publication in a journal.

2008-12-01

42

Public Criticism of Health Science Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major criticisms of health science policy are that (1) health science research is not presently designed to help the public which pays for it; (2) the public should have greater control over health science research; and (3) federal funding of training for health science research is an inappropriate use of tax funds. (Author/DB)

Hutt, Peter Barton

1978-01-01

43

Public Policy and Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection explore issues related to public policy and higher education. They are intended to provide foundational readings in public policy and to explore contemporary public policy issues facing higher education. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of the Policy Process" (Randall B. Ripley); (2) "Promoting Policy Theory:…

Goodchild, Lester F., Ed.; Lovell, Cheryl D., Ed.; Hines, Edward R., Ed.; Gill, Judith I., Ed.

44

Public Opinion and Public Policy: The Case of Rape Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beliefs about the effectiveness of rape prevention strategies influence public cooperation in their implementation. To acquaint public policy makers with these beliefs and to help them assess their impact, a three-city telephone survey of adults was conducted using a random sampling of ages, races, male and female, married and unmarried, from all…

Riger, Stephanie; Gordon, Margaret

45

The Importance of Hormesis to Public Health  

PubMed Central

Background Hormesis is a specific type of nonmonotonic dose response whose occurrence has been documented across a broad range of biological models, diverse types of exposure, and a variety of outcomes. The effects that occur at various points along this curve can be interpreted as beneficial or detrimental, depending on the biological or ecologic context in which they occur. Objective Because hormesis appears to be a relatively common phenomenon that has not yet been incorporated into regulatory practice, the objective of this commentary is to explore some of its more obvious public health and risk assessment implications, with particular reference to issues raised recently within this journal by other authors. Discussion Hormesis appears to be more common than dose–response curves that are currently used in the risk assessment process [e.g., linear no-threshold (LNT)]. Although a number of mechanisms have been identified that explain many hormetic dose–response relationships, better understanding of this phenomenon will likely lead to different strategies not only for the prevention and treatment of disease but also for the promotion of improved public health as it relates to both specific and more holistic health outcomes. Conclusions We believe that ignoring hormesis is poor policy because it ignores knowledge that could be used to improve public health. PMID:17107845

Cook, Ralph; Calabrese, Edward J.

2006-01-01

46

AGU Public Affairs: How to Get Involved in Science Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU Public Affairs offers many ways for its members to get involved in science policy at different levels of participation, whether you would love to spend a year working as a resident science expert in a congressional office in Washington, D.C., or would rather simply receive email alerts about Earth and space science policy news. How you can get involved: Sign up for AGU Science Policy Alerts to receive the most relevant Earth and space science policy information delivered to your email inbox. Participate in one of AGU's Congressional Visits Days to speak with your legislators about important science issues. Attend the next AGU Science Policy Conference in spring 2013. Participate in events happening on Capitol Hill, and watch video of past events. Learn about AGU Embassy Lectures, where countries come together to discuss important Earth and space science topics. Learn how you can comment on AGU Position Statements. Apply to be an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, where you can work in a congressional office for one year and serve as a resident science expert, or to be an AGU Public Affairs Intern, where you can work in the field of science policy for three months. The AGU Public Affairs Team will highlight ways members can be involved as well as provide information on how the team is working to shape policy and inform society about the excitement of AGU science.

Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

2012-12-01

47

History, Education, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of essays is a survey of recent developments in the history and historiography of American education. It highlights disagreements among practitioners of the art, significant research, book reviews, and contributions of history to the broader study of American education. Specific topics covered include: public education and the education…

Warren, Donald R., Ed.

48

Evaluability Assessment to Improve Public Health Policies, Programs, and Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluability assessment, also commonly known as exploratory evaluation, has assisted the field of public health to improve programs and to develop a pragmatic, practice-based research agenda. Evaluability assessment was originally developed as a low-cost pre-evaluation activity to prepare better for conventional evaluations of programs, practices, and some policies. For public health programs, however, it serves several other important purposes: (a)

Laura C. Leviton; Laura Kettel Khan; Debra Rog; Nicola Dawkins; David Cotton

2010-01-01

49

Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies--1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers aims to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The first section, "An Evolving Public Policy Education" examines the history of public education; address current issues such as leadership models, ethics in policy formation and policy education; and forecasts…

Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

50

Health Impact Assessment: a tool for Healthy Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Healthy Public Policy is one of the key health promotion actions. Advancement of Healthy Public Policy requires that the health consequences of policy should be correctly foreseen and that the policy process should be influenced so that those health consequences are considered. Health Impact Assessment is an approach that could assist in meeting both requirements. Policies often produce health

JOHN KEMM

2001-01-01

51

[Obesity in adolescents and public policies on nutrition].  

PubMed

In recent years, obesity has become a major public health problem and its prevalence is increasing at an alarming pace. Moreover, this problem has affected children and adolescents in marked fashion. Considering this situation, public policies on nutrition were created as strategies to attempt to combat/control the high Brazilian obesity indices. The scope of this study was to conduct a historical analysis of the advances in Brazilian public policies related to nutrition/food and the practice of physical exercise to control obesity among adolescents. In this respect, a review was conducted of the literature in the PubMed and SciELO electronic databases that addresses Brazilian public policies on nutrition in the control of obesity. Official documents of the Ministry of Health, scientific articles, journals and the recommendations of the World Health Organization were also used in the research. The results revealed that public policies on nutrition practiced in Brazil have been implemented in an incipient manner when directed at adolescents with respect to the obesity factor. Therefore, a broader vision seeking policies that attempt to control obesity in adolescents is of paramount importance. PMID:24897476

Freitas, Lorenna Karen Paiva E; Cunha Júnior, Arnaldo Tenório da; Knackfuss, Maria Irany; Medeiros, Humberto Jefferson de

2014-06-01

52

Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy  

PubMed Central

To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

Tesler, Laura E.

2008-01-01

53

Framing public policy towards a public health paradigm for gambling.  

PubMed

This paper examines the public policy value of looking at gambling from a public health perspective. The manner in which social issues are framed will either expand or curtail public policy debates. The existing and traditional frames for gambling (e.g. gambling as a matter of individual freedom, gambling as a form of recreation) fail to consider research on the social and economic impacts of gambling. Because a public health frame offers a broad viewpoint of society, it encompasses a number of social and economic impacts not considered in traditional frames. However, the existing gambling frames enjoy varying degrees of cultural, economic, and political support and, as a result, creating a higher profile for a public health framework will encounter a number of barriers. Research can play a decisive role in overcoming these barriers, as it has in a number of related fields (e.g., tobacco use, addiction and product liability, the epidemiology of AIDS). The paper concludes that research that identifies and quantifies the public health factors of gambling will substantially contribute to a public shift toward a public health frame. PMID:12766471

Korn, David; Gibbins, Roger; Azmier, Jason

2003-01-01

54

Training and Public Policy: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by an advisory board of industry and education representatives to raise issues for the consideration of policy makers, community college administrators, labor leaders, and managers in Michigan, this report discusses the increasing significance of training to industry; the challenge to public education and, in particular, to community…

Jacobs, James

55

Transforming Public Policy: Toward Smart Selfhealing  

E-print Network

Transforming Public Policy: Toward Smart Selfhealing Critical National Infrastructures S. Massoud system communication energy commodity transportation traffic light end office substation power plant Grid 3. "Smart" Self-Healing Grid 4. Electricity Market Grid 5. Ownership/Investor Grid 6. Regulatory

Amin, S. Massoud

56

NEW INSTITUTIONALISM AND FRENCH PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

NEW INSTITUTIONALISM AND FRENCH PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS: MAINTAINING THE EXCEPTION CULTURELLE? JEAN-BAPTISTE HARGUINDEGUY ABSTRACT The concept of new institutionalism has been very fashionable since the mid-1980s that many of the results of new institutionalist studies merely re-discover political aspects already

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Involving Citizens in Making Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizen participation in public policy making is a serious jeopardy because of the frustration cause by an enormous avalanche of information, by the impersonalization of our institutions, and by the technological revolution. A small social action committee dedicated to the collective interchange of ideas and information and working in an…

Weeks, Silas B.

1970-01-01

58

Public Telecommunications Policies and Education's Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of satellite telecommunications for educational and other public service purposes has been restricted by educators' lack of awareness of the potential that exists. While industry actively promotes its own interests, educators rarely even realize that international policies being made today will affect critically the options available for…

Norwood, Frank W.

59

Public Policy Institute of California: Map Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Public Policy Institute of California provides timely research papers and policy briefs on various issues affecting the Golden State, including those related to public education financing, economic development, immigration, and transportation. As of late, they have also been beefing up their online map room area, which is a great resource for those with an interest in policy matters, geography, and urban studies. The interactive maps here are divided into four categories, including housing, population, water, and environment. With each map, visitors can click through to learn about different details and features, and many of the maps have additional layers of data as well. Perhaps the most interesting maps here include "Inland Empire Demographics: 2005 and 2015" and "Home Affordability in California's Counties".

60

Suicide, Guns, and Public Policy  

PubMed Central

Suicide is a serious public health concern that is responsible for almost 1 million deaths each year worldwide. It is commonly an impulsive act by a vulnerable individual. The impulsivity of suicide provides opportunities to reduce the risk of suicide by restricting access to lethal means. In the United States, firearms, particularly handguns, are the most common means of suicide. Despite strong empirical evidence that restriction of access to firearms reduces suicides, access to firearms in the United States is generally subject to few restrictions. Implementation and evaluation of measures such as waiting periods and permit requirements that restrict access to handguns should be a top priority for reducing deaths from impulsive suicide in the United States. PMID:23153127

Miller, Sara A.

2013-01-01

61

Public Policy in Gifted Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Raising some of the most challenging questions in the field, this call-to-arms focuses on the important services gifted programs provide, the potential crisis gifted educators face, and what must be done to keep the gifted child movement alive and well. Key features include: (1) James J. Gallagher's unflinching account of the issues that continue…

Gallagher, James J., Ed; Reis, Sally M., Ed.

2004-01-01

62

SEAN T. MCCOY Department of Engineering and Public Policy  

E-print Network

). INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE 2002 Engineering Student Products Manufacturing & Process Engineering, Shell CanadaPage 1 SEAN T. MCCOY Department of Engineering and Public Policy Carnegie Mellon University (2008), Ph.D., Engineering & Public Policy University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (2003), B

63

WISE: Journal of Engineering and Public Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Journal of Engineering and Public Policy is an electronic compendium of research papers prepared by engineering students participating in the annual Washington Internships for Students of Engineering (WISE)." Papers are currently available for the first six years of the program, and those for 2003 will be available later in the fall. A continuing theme studied by many of the WISE students is homeland security, ranging from critical infrastructure protection to computer and Internet security. Other topics include communications, transportation, engineering policy, and more.

1997-01-01

64

Georgetown Law: Center on Poverty, Inequality and Public Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Law Center of Georgetown and the Georgetown Public Policy Institute have teamed up to assist policymakers, lawmakers, researchers, and others to effectively address poverty and inequality as a function of public policy. Their website allows anyone to read publications by the Center's esteemed thinkers. In the "Current Projects" link on the menu of the left side of any page, visitors can read the center's Youth Policy, Low-Income Tax Policy, and Cross-Cutting Policy Poverty Initiatives.

65

The Importance of Communicating Workplace Privacy Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employers today are faced with the task of managing workplace privacy, dealing with potential litigation, preserving the confidentiality\\u000a of company information while protecting the rights of the employee. Since September 11, 2001, employers have faced new challenges\\u000a including the implementation of new laws and the development of more sophisticated technology. As a result, workplace policies\\u000a dealing with privacy must be

Thomas W. Dillon; Arthur J. Hamilton; Daphyne S. Thomas; Mark L. Usry

2008-01-01

66

Science, public policy, and stewardship.  

PubMed

Synthetic vitreous fibers play an important role in today's economy. Glass fibers, as an example, have found uses in more than 30,000 products that include insulations, reinforcements, fire resistant fabrics, and protective armor. Vitreous fibers also play a direct role in energy conservation. For example, in 1992, a study by Arthur D. Little found that the annual production of fiber glass batts and blowing wool used in U.S. buildings--only a fraction of the current production and use of glass wool--saved the equivalent of 33.4 million barrels of oil in 1992, avoiding the need for nearly 6800 megawatts of power. This is equivalent to 34 new 200-megawatt power plants. An ongoing commitment by the manufacturers to assure the safety of their products paralleled the growth of the vitreous fiber industry. Soon after commercialization of glass wool manufacturing in the mid-1930s, worker concerns about silica gave rise to the first study on the health of fiber glass workers (Siebert, 1942). Since that time, there have been hundreds of studies, published papers, and international reviews that have evaluated potential health effects and exposures associated with synthetic vitreous fibers. PMID:7724850

Bender, J R

1994-12-01

67

Willingness to pay for public health policies to treat illnesses.  

PubMed

As the US pursues health care reform, it is important to understand the patterns in demand for, and opposition to, public provision of medical treatments. Using data from a nationally representative survey, we develop and estimate a utility-theoretic choice model to quantify demand for publicly provided medical treatment policies. We find diminishing marginal utility for increased recoveries and avoided premature deaths. We also show how the utility associated with different types of treatment policies varies with the socio-demographic group that would benefit (e.g. men, women, children, and seniors) and the program's duration and scope. Our model further permits utility, and hence willingness to pay, to vary with each respondent's own gender, age, race, income, community ethnic fractionalization and immigrant composition, as well as the respondent's expected private benefits from the policy and attitude toward government interventions and overall health care funding allocations. Self-interest is a prevailing finding. PMID:25531749

Bosworth, Ryan; Cameron, Trudy Ann; DeShazo, J R

2015-01-01

68

Statistics for Public Policy and Sociology Quizzes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to tests and quizzes for the Statistics and Data Analysis for Public Policy and Sociology course at Duke University, 1992 through 1995. This is an older site, but the sets of tests and quizzes are still valuable. Each one could be translated into an exam for either a statistics or sociology course. There are thirty-eight total exams/quizzes. This is valuable tool for crafting questions for lower level sociology/statistics courses.

69

Public Policy Involvement by Health Commissioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this national study was to determine advocacy activities and level of involvement of health commissioners regarding\\u000a public policy. Benefits, barriers, and perceived outcomes of advocacy efforts were also explored. A previously validated (Holtrop\\u000a et al., Am J Health Behav 24(2):132–142, 2000) four-page survey was mailed to 700 health commissioners, who were randomly\\u000a selected from the National Association

Amy Thompson; Debra Boardley; Dianne Kerr; Tiffany Greene; Melissa Jenkins

2009-01-01

70

The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1998, the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education is an independent, nonprofit, and nonpartisan organization dedicated to "ensuring educational opportunity, affordability, and quality in American higher education." The Center's work focuses around several important questions, such as "Who should be served by higher education?" and "How can state and federal policies stimulate and encourage increased quality?" Perhaps the most important information the site provides are the reports issued and researched by the Center. Recent papers of note include "College Affordability in Jeopardy" (released February 2003), "Coping with Recession," and "Competition and Collaboration in California Higher Education." Another helpful feature provided on the site is National Crosstalk, a quarterly publication published by the Center, which features news stories, opinion pieces from persons in higher education, and interviews. The site is rounded out by a collection of links relevant to American higher education and the opportunity for visitors to sign up to receive email updates from the Center.

1998-01-01

71

The Policy Implications of Internet Connectivity in Public Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The provision of public Internet access and related networked services by public libraries is affected by a number of information policy issues. This article analyzes the policy dimensions of Internet connectivity in public libraries in light of the data and findings from a national survey of public libraries conducted by the authors of this…

Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Langa, Lesley A.

2006-01-01

72

Alcohol, cardiovascular diseases and public health policy.  

PubMed

Public health policy should aim to reduce the harm done by alcohol use, whilst recognizing its real and perceived benefits. The reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) with the consequent reduction of mortality for some people in older age is one such benefit. The increased risk of sudden coronary death from acute alcohol intoxication is one such harm. A number of policies have been demonstrated to be effective in the reduction of the harm done by alcohol use, at least in industrialized countries. These are: enforcement of a minimum drinking age; drink-drive deterrence; enforced prevention of intoxication in public drinking places; controls on access to alcohol, including restrictions on numbers of licensed premises and hours and days of sale; and taxation policy to regulate the affordability of alcohol. Many of these strategies seem unlikely to have a direct effect on drinking relevant for reduced risk of CHD, but are likely to have a direct beneficial effect on drinking relevant for sudden coronary death. The level of alcohol consumption associated with the lowest mortality rate for a population will vary depending on patterns of ill health and causes of death. In countries with high rates of CHD the per capita level may be in the order of about three litres of absolute alcohol per year among drinking adults. In countries with low rates of CHD, the level is likely to be substantially lower. Many countries in which alcohol is readily available are consuming at a level substantially above three litres per capita of drinking adults per year and in these countries public health policy should continue to advise action to reduce per capita consumption. PMID:9949797

Anderson, P

1998-01-01

73

Important Notice Investigator Financial Disclosure Policy  

NSF Publications Database

... this Important Notice): . Subparagraph b of GPM 510 will be revised to require disclosure to the ... exclusion set out in subparagraph b.5 of GPM 510 will be split into two separate exclusions -- one ...

74

Decolonization of psychiatric public policy in Jamaica.  

PubMed

Involuntary commitment and custodialization were the principal tenets of British colonial public policy provisions for the management of the violent, disturbed mentally ill in Jamaica and the West Indies. Over the fifty years following Jamaica's political independence from Britain, a community engagement mental health programme has developed through a decolonization process that has negated involuntary certification, incarceration and custodialization, has promoted family therapy and short stay treatment in conventional primary and secondary care health facilities, and has promoted reliance on traditional and cultural therapies that have been extremely successful in the treatment of mental illness and the reduction of stigma in Jamaica. Collaborations involving The University of the West Indies, the Jamaican Ministry of Health and the Pan American Health Organization have been seminal in the development of the decolonizing of public policy initiatives, negating the effects of involuntary certification that had been imposed on the population by slavery and colonization. This collaboration also catalysed the psychiatric training of medical, nursing and mental health practitioners and the execution of community mental health policy in Jamaica. PMID:23240482

Hickling, F W; Gibson, R C

2012-07-01

75

Influencing Public Policy to Improve the Lives of Older Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous public policy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related public policy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging…

Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Kietzman, Kathryn G.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Hensel, Brian K.; Miles, Toni P.; Segev, Dorry L.; Zerzan, Judy

2010-01-01

76

[Public policies for the elderly in Brazil: an integrative review].  

PubMed

This paper is an integrative review analyzing the scientific production and legal documents regarding public policies for the elderly in Brazil. Research was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and Scopus databases, examining publications since 2003. Data were collected from June to September of 2011 using the following key words: "elderly" (idosos), "public policies" (políticas públicas), "elderly person" (pessoa idosa), "aging" (envelhecimento) and "civic participation" (participação cidadã). The search resulted in the selection of 15 articles and six legal documents targeted at the elderly in Brazil that were submitted to content analysis by categorization. The results revealed that aging in Brazil has occurred in the midst of adaptations entrenched in cultural biases, social, economic and educational discrepancies and the implementation of public welfare policies. There were few studies that indicated the importance of strengthening social movements that elicit discussion related to the elderly in Brazil. The conclusion reached is that the study will provide material for reflection about the construction of a new reality about aging in Brazil. PMID:24263871

Andrade, Luana Machado; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Pinheiro, Gleide Magali Lemos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Lira, Lais Santana Santos Pereira

2013-12-01

77

Abortion and the search for public policy.  

PubMed

The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The public policy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the public policy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set forth by Justice Harry Blackmun in Roe vs. Wade. This approach gives a woman freedom to decide to have an abortion during the first 2 trimesters of her pregnancy only. This approach has essentially dictated public policy in the US since 1973. The last position considered is that which maintains that a woman's right to equality demands that she have sole control over whether or not to have an abortion. PMID:8118140

McIntyre, R L

1993-01-01

78

Navigating public health chemicals policy in Australia: a policy maker's and practitioner's guide.  

PubMed

Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday life. Environmental health practitioners rely on a complex web of regulators and policy bodies to ensure the protection of public health, yet few understand the full extent of this web. A lack of understanding can hamper public health response and impede policy development. In this paper we map the public health chemicals policy landscape in Australia and conclude that an understanding of this system is essential for effective environmental health responses and policy development. PMID:23490093

Capon, Adam; Smith, Wayne; Gillespie, James A

2013-03-01

79

Policy Manual Ph.D. in Public Administration  

E-print Network

Policy Manual Ph.D. in Public Administration School of Public Coordinator of Academic Programs................................. 4 5. Financial Assistance.......................................................................................... 5 5.1 Selection and Monitoring of Graduate Teaching Assistants GTAs).. 5 6. Transfer Credits

Fernandez, Eduardo

80

Recommendations of the task force on public policy  

E-print Network

The Task Force on Public Policy was established by the Association for Behavior Analysis to examine ways to encourage members to contribute to policymaking relevant to the public interest. Members discussed issues pertinent ...

Task Force on Public Policy Association for Behavior Analysis; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernstein, Gail; Czyzewski, Mare J.; Greene, Brandon F.; Hannah, Gerald T.; Iwata, Brian A.; Jason, Leonard A.; Mathews, R. Mark; Morris, Edward K.; Otis-Wilborn, Amy; Seekins, Tom; Winett., Richard A.

1988-03-01

81

On failures in education and public policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education of the public and the resulting policies in many matters are grossly inadequate. Included as a small list of four samples of failings in vital matters are: 1. Societal Cohesiveness: A profound change in the school system will yield great benefit for the nation (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/publicservice.html.). 2. Lack of understanding regarding the coming avian flu pandemic (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/ElyFluMES.pdf). 3. Severe Hg intoxication from dentistry due to profound multifaceted ignorance (Ely JTA, Mercury induced Alzheimer's disease: accelerating incidence? Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001; 67(6),800-6). 4. The end of the world by global warming due to Christian religion forcing family planning money to be withheld from UN leading to population excess (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/CO2runaway.html).

Ely, John T. A.

2007-04-01

82

New England Public Policy Center Working Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The regional Federal Reserve Banks located across the United States produce a range of reports on economic indicators, housing statistics, local industry, and other related topics. The New England Public Policy Center (NEPPC) at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston has been archiving its working papers series since 2005, and visitors to this site can look over all of the published titles. Currently, there are over 25 papers by NEPPC staff members available here. Some of the more recent titles include "Are American Homeowners Locked Into Their Houses? The Impact of Housing Market Conditions on State-to-State Migration" and "Childhood Lead and Academic Performance in Massachusetts." The site also includes a full range of social media links, which makes it easy to share these valuable works with others.

2012-03-30

83

Promotion of Healthy Eating Through Public Policy  

PubMed Central

Background To induce consumers to purchase healthier foods and beverages, some policymakers have suggested special taxes or labels on unhealthy products. The potential of such policies is unknown. Purpose In a controlled field experiment, researchers tested whether consumers were more likely to purchase healthy products under such policies. Methods From October to December 2011, researchers opened a store at a large hospital that sold a variety of healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages. Purchases (N=3680) were analyzed under five conditions: a baseline with no special labeling or taxation, a 30% tax, highlighting the phrase “less healthy” on the price tag, and combinations of taxation and labeling. Purchases were analyzed in January–July 2012, at the single-item and transaction levels. Results There was no significant difference between the various taxation conditions. Consumers were 11 percentage points more likely to purchase a healthier item under a 30% tax (95% CI=7%, 16%, <0.001) and 6 percentage points more likely under labeling (95% CI=0%, 12%, p=0.04). By product type, consumers switched away from the purchase of less-healthy food under taxation (9 percentage points decrease, p<0.001) and into healthier beverages (6 percentage point increase, p=0.001); there were no effects for labeling. Conditions were associated with the purchase of 11–14 fewer calories (9%–11% in relative terms) and 2 fewer grams of sugar. Results remained significant controlling for all items purchased in a single transaction. Conclusions Taxation may induce consumers to purchase healthier foods and beverages. However, it is unclear whether the 15%–20% tax rates proposed in public policy discussions would be more effective than labeling products as less healthy. PMID:23790988

Elbel, Brian; Taksler, Glen B.; Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney B.; Dixon, L. Beth

2013-01-01

84

Healthy food procurement policy: an important intervention to aid the reduction in chronic noncommunicable diseases.  

PubMed

In 2010, unhealthy diets were estimated to be the leading risk for death and disability in Canada and globally. Although important, policies aimed at improving individual's skills in selecting and eating healthy foods has had a limited effect. Policies that create healthy eating environments are strongly recommended but have not yet been effectively and/or broadly implemented in Canada. Widespread adoption of healthy food procurement policies are strongly recommended in this policy statement from the Hypertension Advisory Committee with support from 15 major national health organizations. The policy statement calls on governments to take a leadership role, but also outlines key roles for the commercial and noncommercial sectors including health and scientific organizations and the Canadian public. The policy statement is based on a systematic review of healthy food procurement interventions that found them to be almost uniformly effective at improving sales and purchases of healthy foods. Successful food procurement policies are nearly always accompanied by supporting education programs and some by pricing policies. Ensuring access and availability to affordable healthy foods and beverages in public and private sector settings could play a substantive role in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases and health risks such as obesity, hypertension, and ultimately improve cardiovascular health. PMID:25442442

Campbell, Norm; Duhaney, Tara; Arango, Manuel; Ashley, Lisa A; Bacon, Simon L; Gelfer, Mark; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Mang, Eric; Morris, Dorothy; Nagpal, Seema; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Willis, Kevin J

2014-11-01

85

HUBERT H. HUMPHREY SOCIAL POLICY & POLICY ANALYSIS SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AREA CHAIR: JOE SOSS  

E-print Network

Health Issues PA 5501 Theories and Policies of Development PA 5522 International Development PolicyPage 1/2 HUBERT H. HUMPHREY SOCIAL POLICY & POLICY ANALYSIS SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AREA CHAIR to understand the economic, social and political structures that underscore gender inequity and explore

Levinson, David M.

86

Physical inactivity as a policy problem: applying a concept from policy analysis to a public health issue  

PubMed Central

Despite the recent rapid development of policies to counteract physical inactivity (PI), only a small number of systematic analyses on the evolution of these policies exists. In this article we analyze how PI, as a public health issue, “translates” into a policy-making issue. First, we discuss why PI has become an increasingly important public health issue during the last two decades. We then follow Guy Peters and conceptualize PI as a “policy problem” that has the potential to be linked to policy instruments and policy impact. Analysis indicates that PI is a policy problem that i) is chronic in nature; ii) involves a high degree of political complexity; iii) can be disaggregated into smaller scales; iv) is addressed through interventions that can be difficult to “sell” to the public when their benefits are not highly divisible; v) cannot be solved by government spending alone; vi) must be addressed through a broad scope of activities; and vii) involves interdependencies among both multiple sectors and levels of government. We conclude that the new perspective on PI proposed in this article might be useful and important for i) describing and mapping policies to counteract PI in different contexts; ii) evaluating whether or not existing policy instruments are appropriate to the policy problem of PI, and iii) explaining the factors and processes that underlie policy development and implementation. More research is warranted in all these areas. In particular, we propose to focus on comparative analyses of how the problem of PI is defined and tackled in different contexts, and on the identification of truly effective policy instruments that are designed to “solve” the PI policy problem. PMID:23496998

2013-01-01

87

Distance Education as an Instrument of Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unlike many other countries of the world, the United States and Canada have yet to use distance education as a deliberate instrument of a comprehensive public policy agenda. Despite this shared failure to use distance education to advance public policy, the individual states of the United States and Canada's provinces differ widely in their…

Zeller, Nancy

88

Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

2009-01-01

89

Public Policy and Teacher Education in Brazil after 1990  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research investigates public policy concerning teacher education in Brazil. It is a critical rereading of historical documents focusing on laws, legal documents, projects, institutional and public policies and teaching careers developed by the Brazilian state, as well as social and scientific organisations. Emphasis is given to current…

Guimaraes, Selva

2012-01-01

90

Environment and economy: Property rights and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

For much of its history, environmental economics has sought to modify public policy in order to achieve efficient use and management of environmental resources. The results of this attempt, however, have been dismaying for the most part, and environment public policy continues to differ from the course of action prescribed by economic analysis. Some economists have begun to acknowledge that

D. W. Bromley

1991-01-01

91

Public Policy Analysis: The Case of Child Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that public policy analysis has a time-honored tradition in civics education. Provides a four-part teachers' rationale for including the study of child-labor legislation in social studies courses. Includes a five-part classroom format for teaching public policy analysis. (CFR)

Schechter, Stephen L.; Coon, Charles

1995-01-01

92

Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…

Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

2014-01-01

93

Change in Dietary Energy Density after Implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children's energy density by

Jason A. Mendoza; Kathy Watson; Karen Weber Cullen

2010-01-01

94

Latent tuberculous infection: ethical considerations in formulating public health policy.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the introduction of public health policies relating to latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). However, there has been little previous systematic engagement with LTBI from an ethical perspective. This article offers a general overview of ethical issues in relation to LTBI, with particular focus on those aspects relevant to the development and implementation of public health policy. Key characteristics of LTBI are discussed from an ethical perspective, with examples of challenging situations for policy makers. PMID:25574909

Denholm, J T; Matteelli, A; Reis, A

2015-02-01

95

Animal diseases of public health importance.  

PubMed Central

The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing problems, strengthening infrastructure, promoting standardization as a means of facilitating trade, and safeguarding the interests of consumers. This paper considers the importance of emerging foodborne diseases from the perspectives of the consumer, international trade in food, producers and processors, and developing countries and addresses prevention and control measures. PMID:9366603

Orriss, G. D.

1997-01-01

96

Conservation and Policy Importance of Genetics in the Interpretation  

E-print Network

Conservation and Policy Importance of Genetics in the Interpretation of Favourable Conservation of conservation genetics in in- terpretation of this concept. Recent documents from the EU Commission indicate that knowledge of conservation genetics has so far been lacking among those who have tried to employ the concept

97

The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

Zeanah, Charles H.

2009-01-01

98

Effect Size, Practical Importance, and Social Policy for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shares three ideas concerning how to evaluate the practical importance of developmental findings to make them more useful to policymakers: (1) statistical significance tests need to be accompanied by effect size estimates; (2) meta-analyses are helping in using all existing data when examining issues involved in policy debates; and (3) researchers…

McCartney, Kathleen; Rosenthal, Robert

2000-01-01

99

Center for Urban Policy Research Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy  

E-print Network

Public Finance Data Base Data Base Derived from NJ State Government and US Census Sources for Policy............................................................................3 -The Future--Property Tax Reform for New Jersey and the Local Public Finance Data Base

Goodman, Robert M.

100

Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.  

PubMed

Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

2014-01-01

101

Tobacco industry tactics for resisting public policy on health.  

PubMed Central

The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Formerly secret internal tobacco industry documents provide evidence of a 50-year conspiracy to "resist smoking restrictions, restore smoker confidence and preserve product liability defence". The documents reveal industry-wide collusion on legal, political and socially important issues to the tobacco industry and clearly demonstrate that the industry is not disposed to act ethically or responsibly. Societal action is therefore required to ensure that the public health takes precedence over corporate profits. Recommendations for reducing the political influence of the tobacco industry include the following. Every tobacco company in every market should publicly disclose what it knew about the addictiveness and harm caused by tobacco, when it obtained this information, and what it did about it. The industry should be required to guarantee internationally recognized basic consumer rights to its customers. Trade associations and other industry groupings established to deceive the public should be disbanded. These recommendations should be incorporated into WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:10994263

Saloojee, Y.; Dagli, E.

2000-01-01

102

How energy policies affect public health.  

PubMed Central

The connection between energy policy and increased levels of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease has become clearer in the past few years. People living in cities with high levels of pollution have a higher risk of mortality than those living in less polluted cities. The pollutants most directly linked to increased morbidity and mortality include ozone, particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen. Energy-related emissions generate the vast majority of these polluting chemicals. Technologies to prevent pollution in the transportation, manufacturing, building, and utility sectors can significantly reduce these emissions while reducing the energy bills of consumers and businesses. In short, clean energy technologies represent a very cost-effective investment in public health. Some 72% of the Federal government's investment in the research, development, and demonstration of pollution prevention technologies is made by the Department of Energy, with the largest share provided by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This article will examine the connections between air pollution and health problems and will discuss what the Department of Energy is doing to prevent air pollution now and in the future. Images p390-a p391-a p392-a p393-a p394-a p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8837627

Romm, J J; Ervin, C A

1996-01-01

103

How energy policies affect public health.  

PubMed

The connection between energy policy and increased levels of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease has become clearer in the past few years. People living in cities with high levels of pollution have a higher risk of mortality than those living in less polluted cities. The pollutants most directly linked to increased morbidity and mortality include ozone, particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen. Energy-related emissions generate the vast majority of these polluting chemicals. Technologies to prevent pollution in the transportation, manufacturing, building, and utility sectors can significantly reduce these emissions while reducing the energy bills of consumers and businesses. In short, clean energy technologies represent a very cost-effective investment in public health. Some 72% of the Federal government's investment in the research, development, and demonstration of pollution prevention technologies is made by the Department of Energy, with the largest share provided by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This article will examine the connections between air pollution and health problems and will discuss what the Department of Energy is doing to prevent air pollution now and in the future. PMID:8837627

Romm, J J; Ervin, C A

1996-01-01

104

The Texas Public Education Challenge. Policy Brief No. 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. This brief also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2006

2006-01-01

105

Built environment and mobility of older adults: important policy and practice efforts.  

PubMed

As people age, they prefer to "age in place." The concept of aging in place refers to the ability to live in one's own home, wherever that might be, for as long as one can feel confident and comfortable. Where people live and whether these environments can support them are critical questions for public health and public policy, especially since the baby boomers began to turn 65 on January 1, 2011. Equally important for public policy, those aged 85 and older are the fastest growing population group in the United States. The Health and Aging Policy Fellows Program, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthy Aging Program, has supported a project to determine how design features of the built environment can support the mobility of older adults. Mobility refers to physical activity, usually walking, but also encompasses the ability to stay connected to nearby community resources and services. The project's purpose is to investigate features that support mobility in built environments. This policy brief introduces the realist synthesis method used in the project and selected national initiatives and activities to place this work in a broader context. Given the importance of mobility concerns to older adults, it must be determined without delay which design features support mobility and how local areas can better prepare to support the health of their aging populations. PMID:22568533

Yen, Irene H; Anderson, Lynda A

2012-05-01

106

FEDERAL POLICY AND THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS, A SERIES OF NINE ESSAYS FOCUSING ON QUESTIONS AND ISSUES AROUND WHICH POLICY EVOLVES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION AND THE PERSISTENT AND EMERGING PROBLEMS AND PRESSURES IMPINGING ON SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS LED THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS TO AUTHORIZE PREPARATION OF THE NINE ESSAYS IN THIS VOLUME. EACH ESSAY IS CONCERNED WITH THE GENERAL TOPIC "FEDERAL POLICY AND THE PUBLIC

LINDMAN, ERICK L.; AND OTHERS

107

Publication on Health Policy Worldwide from 1898 to 2013: Identifying Position of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: As the field of health policy continues to evolve and grow, it is important to examine the trend of scientific output generated in this domain. Scientific outputs can also be used to evaluate academic progress of the field in each country or over a given period of time. Objective: Aim of this study is to depict trend of publication on topics of health policy world-wide and to highlight contribution of Iran in this field. Methods: The web of science database was used to identify all relevant published papers worldwide The search was conducted on documents published from January 1898 to December 2013. The criteria for retrieval were set to be “health policy” in topics. Then the retrieved papers were filtered in terms of distinct years, countries, source titles, and languages. Results: Findings revealed an increasing trend of publication on health policy over past decades. English was the first most dominant language of publication. USA had the highest number of publication with 5347 papers; however Switzerland ranked first after considering publication number in terms of countries’ population. BMJ was the source title with highest number of publication on topics of health policy. Number of publication by Iranian authors was 87 from January 1898 to December 2013. Conclusion: It seems discipline of health policy has started its evolution worldwide long time ago while Iran is in its initial phases

Kalankesh, Laleh R; Kalankesh, Leila R

2014-01-01

108

school of public policy and administration Dr. Audrey Helfman Receives  

E-print Network

1 school of public policy and administration Plus: Dr. Audrey Helfman Receives Teaching Award Dr Desegregation to Deregulation 4 Dr. Audrey Helfman Honored with Teaching Award 5 Leland Ware Presents Annual UD

Firestone, Jeremy

109

Policy Education: Making a Difference in the Public Arena.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extension home economists have a role in public policy education regarding the individual and family concerns of their constituencies. Examples of their involvement include the issues of housing for the elderly, prenatal care, child care needs, and waste disposal. (SK)

Anderson, Carol L.; Miles, C. Sue

1990-01-01

110

Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1994. [National Public Policy Education Conference (44th, Boise, Idaho, September 18-21, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Public Policy Education Conference is held annually to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The 1994 conference addressed the following topics: (1) ethical perspectives in public policy education; (2) transition of food and agricultural policy; (3) building human…

Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

111

Essays on Causal Inference for Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective policymaking requires understanding the causal effects of competing proposals. Relevant causal quantities include proposals' expected effect on different groups of recipients, the impact of policies over time, the potential trade-offs between competing objectives, and, ultimately, the optimal policy. This dissertation studies causal…

Zajonc, Tristan

2012-01-01

112

Public Policy for the Private Sector: World Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Public Policy for the Private Sector_ is a quarterly journal published by the World Bank's Finance, Private Sector, and Infrastructure Network (FPSI). Recently, new documents concerning Finance, Water, and Post-Privatization Performance have been added to this ongoing collection of policy and case study notes.

113

Rational choice theory, public policy and the liberal state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liberalism requires a high order of responsible behaviour from its citizens in order to be sustainable. Yet when the modern liberal state makes policy, it is the stereotyped ‘economic man’, driven by self-interest and influenced only by carrots and sticks, who occupies center stage. This regulatory approach to public policy can be shown theoretically to give rise to a paradox

Jenny Stewart

1993-01-01

114

Public policy and aboriginal peoples in Canada: taking a life-course perspective.  

PubMed

The health and social conditions of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples in Canada remain important policy concerns. The life course has been proposed by some as a framework for analysis that could assist in the development of policies that would improve the economic and social inclusion of Aboriginal peoples. In this paper we support the goal of applying a life-course perspective to policies related to Aboriginal peoples but suggest that the framework needs to consider the unique relationship between Aboriginal peoples and public policies. We provide some illustrations using data from the 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. PMID:21751484

Cooke, Martin; McWhirter, Jennifer

2011-01-01

115

John Rennie Short Department of Public Policy  

E-print Network

Library, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. 2008 Suburban Gothic: The Crises in US Suburbs. The Edward. 2012 Globalization, Modernity and The City. Routledge 2011 OECD Urban Policy Reviews: Poland 2011. OECD

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

116

Solid waste management: a public policy study  

E-print Network

for the waste problem. First, it studies imperfections in the evaluation of landfill costs. It explores in some detail the magnitude of scarcity rents for landfill space. Second, it provides some insight into aspects of resource policy bearing upon the waste... for the social costs of waste disposal. Adequate consideration of these various effects together with the benefits possible through effective demand management should be made when designing waste policy. Objectives This study is aimed at laying the groundwork...

Jayawant, Mandar Prabhatkumar

1993-01-01

117

The Public Policy Pedagogy of Corporate and Alternative News Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues for seeing in-depth news coverage of political, social, and economic issues as "public policy pedagogy." To develop my argument, I draw on Nancy Fraser's democratic theory, which attends to social differences and does not assume that unity is a starting point or an end goal of public dialogue. Alongside the formation of…

Kelly, Deirdre M.

2011-01-01

118

A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

Brown, David K.

1999-01-01

119

Nonindigenous Species: Ecological Explanation, Environmental Ethics, and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public is getting a mixed message from ecologists, other scholars, and journalists on the topic of nonindigenous species. Misunderstandings and tension exist regarding the science, values, environmental ethics, and public policy relevant to invasive species, which are the subset of nonindigenous species that cause economic or environmental damage. Although there is a natural background rate at which species invasions

David M. Lodge; Kristin Shrader-Frechette

2003-01-01

120

The Governors Propose: State Policy and Public Education, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early months of 1998 state governors delivered state of the state addresses that touched on concerns transcending state lines: taxes, infrastructure development and maintenance, crime, health, and public education. Some of these common concerns, with an emphasis on proposed K-12 public education policies, are discussed. The paper provides a…

Hertert, Linda

121

Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight essays address a range of topics including government serials and economic analysis, crime statistics and the F.B.I., nuclear holocaust and public policy, the history of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, Congressman William Steiger and the Congressional Record, and the public papers of Richard Nixon. (EM)

Morehead, Joe

1986-01-01

122

Chronic disease prevention policy in British Columbia and Ontario in light of public health renewal: a comparative policy analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Public health strategies that focus on legislative and policy change involving chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthy diet and physical inactivity have the potential to prevent chronic diseases and improve quality of life as a whole. However, many public health policies introduced as part of public health reform have not yet been analyzed, such as in British Columbia and Ontario. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a descriptive, comparative analysis of public health policies related to the Healthy Living Core Program in British Columbia and Chronic Disease Prevention Standard in Ontario that are intended to prevent a range of chronic diseases by promoting healthy eating and physical activity, among other things. Methods Policy documents were found through Internet search engines and Ministry websites, at the guidance of policy experts. These included government documents as well as documents from non-governmental organizations that were implementing policies and programs at a provincial level. Documents (n?=?31) were then analysed using thematic content analysis to classify, describe and compare policies in a systematic fashion, using the software NVivo. Results Three main categories emerged from the analysis of documents: 1) goals for chronic disease prevention in British Columbia and Ontario, 2) components of chronic disease prevention policies, and 3) expected outputs of chronic disease prevention interventions. Although there were many similarities between the two provinces, they differed somewhat in terms of their approach to issues such as evidence, equity, and policy components. Some expected outputs were adoption of healthy behaviours, use of information, healthy environments and increased public awareness. Conclusions The two provincial policies present different approaches to support the implementation of related programs. Differences may be related to contextual factors such as program delivery structures and different philosophical approaches underlying the two frameworks. These differences and possible explanations for them are important to understand because they serve to contextualize the differences in health outcomes across the two provinces that might eventually be observed. This analysis informs future public health policy directions as the two provinces can learn from each other. PMID:24099140

2013-01-01

123

Policy approach to federalism: cases of public lands and water policy  

SciTech Connect

This study considers the relationship of federalism to public lands and water policy, challenging the prevailing wisdom that federalism is irrelevant and questioning the eagerness with which structural solutions are embraced. It argues that a more thorough understanding of how federalism works in public lands and water policy is a necessary first step toward understanding federal-state relations. Seeking identifiable patterns of politics, this study reviews the voluminous federalism literature and applies the theories of dual and cooperative federalism to the history of public lands and water policy, and to five contemporary controversies. A policy perspective on federalism was developed that adds levels of government to discussions of arenas and policy types. It finds that federal-level decision makers are more willing to make policy when policies can potentially reflect federal-level advantages such as broad geographic jurisdiction, general rule-making capability, constitutional powers or opportunities to offer divisible benefits. State-level decision makers will resist federal policies when they disagree with policy goals or methods, lack necessary resources, or perceive unfair burdens. Thus, the state role includes states acting as claimants in distributive politics, as conduits in self-regulatory politics, as platforms for disadvantaged interests in regulatory politics, or as supplicants in redistributive politics. Further, shifts from one policy type to another serve to signal major structural shifts.

Bradley, D.M.

1986-01-01

124

Kitzmiller v. Dover: A Public Policy Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Intelligent Design Movement has attempted to infuse Intelligent Design into the curriculum of public schools ever since the Edwards decision, which ruled that "creation science" was a violation of the the "Establishment Clause. Kitzmiller v. Dover" was the first legal case to challenge the teaching of Intelligent Design in public schools. In…

Hayashi, Adam

2010-01-01

125

Model Policy on Student Publications Code.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, the Iowa Legislature created a new code section that defines and regulates student exercise of free expression in "official school publications." Also, the Iowa State Department of Education was directed to develop a model publication code that includes reasonable provisions for regulating the time, place, and manner of student…

Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

126

The Texas Public Education Challenge. Texas Trilogy on Public Education and Taxes. Policy Brief No. 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. It also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

McCown, F. Scott

2006-01-01

127

MASTER OF PUBLIC POLICY SANFORD SCHOOL  

E-print Network

and col- laborative climate of Duke as one of the world's leading universities. Sanford alums are changing Great Quality of Life Dynamic Local Music and Arts Scene "America's Foodiest Small Town" --Bon Appétit for Child and Family Policy have offices there. Students may take advantage of out- standing on

Reif, John H.

128

Public School Policy and Minority Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how formal and informal school policies exacerbate the alienation of minority students and intensify social stratification. Discusses the effects of school sanctions, tracking and leveling, economics, sorting and selection, and dependency on minority students. Recommends six state-mandated changes. (DMM)

Calabrese, Raymond

1989-01-01

129

Sex Crimes, Children, and Pornography: Public Views and Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…

Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake

2008-01-01

130

Centre for Population, Poverty, and Public Policy Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives Development (INSTEAD) in Luxembourg, the Centre for Population, Poverty, and Public Policy Studies (CEPS) studies and develops microdatabases in order to develop "instruments for analysing, programming and simulating socio-economic policies." CEPS/INSTEAD is home to such studies as the Luxembourg Income Study and the Luxembourg Employment Study (these two studies were reviewed in the February 12, 1998 and the July 15, 1999 Scout Report for Business and Economics, respectively) as well as several other databases and studies. The Panel Comparability Project (PACO), for example, is a "centralised approach to create an international comparative database integrating micro-data from various national household panels over a large number of years." The database contains information on countries including France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Luxembourg, the UK, and the US, and data may be compared by households and individuals, by year or by longitudinal information. Each study is accompanied by a collection of related working papers. The site also contains a small but important links page, as well as information on CEPS/INSTEAD.

131

The Role of Public Policies in Fostering Innovation and Growth: Theory and Empirical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This survey outlines the literature on economic growth and development with respect to the following questions: (a) To what\\u000a extent do public policies influence economic growth? (b) Which policy mix might optimize a country’s rate of growth and development?\\u000a While the importance of identifying the key determinants of economic growth is obvious, a unified theory that matches empirical\\u000a facts is

Marc Schiffbauer

132

Masters in Public Policy UTD ID: Sem  

E-print Network

CRIM 6309 Communities and Crime CRIM 6310 Delinquency and Juvenile Justice CRIM 6311 Crime and Justice and Public Responsibility POEC 5313 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Not required for Legal Studies

O'Toole, Alice J.

133

Internet Filters: A Public Policy Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recently released report from the National Coalition Against Censorship (NCAC) reports on their research about products and software used to filter Internet content. Over the spring and summer, NCAC's Free Expression Policy Project reviewed all of the studies and tests it could find covering the nineteen most common Internet filtering tools. This report, summarizing the review, gives a general introduction and results for each of the nineteen products as well as a bibliography and appendices covering blocked sites by subject and blocking categories. In the main, NCAC finds that the technology used in blocking is too indiscriminate because of its dependance, to at least some degree, on mechanized means of filtering. NCAC suggests that "Ultimately, less censorial approaches such as media literacy, sexuality education, and Internet acceptable-use training may be better policy choices than Internet filters."

Cho, Christina.; Heins, Marjorie.

2001-01-01

134

Public health importance of cystic echinococcosis in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by larval Echinococcus granulosus is a zoonosis of major public health importance throughout Latin America. The Andean and South Cone regions have been recognized as endemic areas of cystic echinococcosis. This paper reviews prevalence in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil and Peru.

Primo Arambulo

1997-01-01

135

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston: Public Policy Discussion Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All of the Federal Reserve Banks produce discussion papers, working papers, policy briefs and other similar publications. This particular site takes visitors to the public policy discussion papers produced by the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. The series began in 2004, and visitors can view an archive of previously published works in the series. Recent titles in the series have included "Social Dynamics of Obesity", "Managing the Risk in Pension Plans and Recent Pension Reforms", and "The Theory of Life-Cycle Saving and Investing". If visitors are interested in other related topics, they should also look at the "Related Links" section, which features direct links to their policy brief archives and other Boston Federal Reserve publications.

136

Frederick Mayer & Alex Pfaff Fall 2008 PPS 501: Political Economy of Public Policy  

E-print Network

J. Gruber, 2005. Public Finance and Public Policy. Chapters 5 & 6 on externalities J. Hindriks and G Failure III: Public Goods & The Commons (Pfaff) Readings: J. Gruber, 2005. Public Finance and Public

Pfaff, Alex

137

Measuring use of research evidence in public health policy: a policy content analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There are few Australian studies showing how research evidence is used to inform the development of public health policy. International research has shown that compensation for injury rehabilitation can have negative impacts on health outcomes. This study examined transport injury compensation policy in the Australian state of Victoria to: determine type and purpose of reference to information sources; and to identify the extent of reference to academic research evidence in transport related injury rehabilitation compensation policy. Methods Quantitative content analysis of injury rehabilitation compensation policies (N?=?128) from the Victorian state government transport accident compensation authority. Results The most commonly referenced types of information were Internal Policy (median?=?6 references per policy), Clinical/Medical (2.5), and Internal Legislation (1). Academic Research Evidence was the least often referenced source of information. The main purpose of reference to information was to support injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation claims decision-making. Conclusions Transport injury compensation policy development is complex; with multiple sources of information cited including legislation, internal policy, external policy and clinical/medical evidence. There is limited use of academic research evidence in Victorian state government injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation policies. Decisions regarding compensation for injury treatment and rehabilitation services could benefit from greater use of academic research evidence. This study is one of the first to examine the use of research evidence in existing Australian public health policy decision-making using rigorous quantitative methods. It provides a practical example of how use of research evidence in public health policy can be objectively measured. PMID:24886092

2014-01-01

138

A model for training public health workers in health policy: the Nebraska Health Policy Academy.  

PubMed

There is growing recognition that health goals are more likely to be achieved and sustained if programs are complemented by appropriate changes in the policies, systems, and environments that shape their communities. However, the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to create and implement policy are among the major needs identified by practitioners at both the state and local levels. This article describes the structure and content of the Nebraska Health Policy Academy (the Academy), a 9-month program developed to meet the demand for this training. The Academy is a competency-based training program that aims to increase the capacity of Nebraska's state and local public health staff and their community partners to use public health policy and law as a public health tool. Our initiative allows for participation across a large, sparsely populated state; is grounded in adult learning theory; introduces the key principles and practices of policy, systems, and environmental change; and is offered free of charge to the state's public health workforce. Challenges and lessons learned when offering workforce development on public health policy efforts are discussed. PMID:24831286

Brandert, Kathleen; McCarthy, Claudine; Grimm, Brandon; Svoboda, Colleen; Palm, David; Stimpson, Jim P

2014-01-01

139

A Model for Training Public Health Workers in Health Policy: the Nebraska Health Policy Academy  

PubMed Central

There is growing recognition that health goals are more likely to be achieved and sustained if programs are complemented by appropriate changes in the policies, systems, and environments that shape their communities. However, the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to create and implement policy are among the major needs identified by practitioners at both the state and local levels. This article describes the structure and content of the Nebraska Health Policy Academy (the Academy), a 9-month program developed to meet the demand for this training. The Academy is a competency-based training program that aims to increase the capacity of Nebraska’s state and local public health staff and their community partners to use public health policy and law as a public health tool. Our initiative allows for participation across a large, sparsely populated state; is grounded in adult learning theory; introduces the key principles and practices of policy, systems, and environmental change; and is offered free of charge to the state’s public health workforce. Challenges and lessons learned when offering workforce development on public health policy efforts are discussed. PMID:24831286

Brandert, Kathleen; McCarthy, Claudine; Grimm, Brandon; Svoboda, Colleen; Palm, David

2014-01-01

140

The Effects of Public Sector Hiring and Compensation Policies  

E-print Network

of growth in the government labor force, these policies have encouraged queuing for government jobs- ates. Government pay scales are especially advantageous to female secondary school graduates, who labor market outcomes through its hiring and compensation policies takes on special importance in Egypt

Levinson, David M.

141

Who Owns the Children? An Ecological Perspective on Public Policy Affecting Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticizes Joseph Goldstein, Anna Freud, and Albert Solnit for their emphasis on family autonomy versus social interdependence in dealing with family problems. Stresses the importance of preventive services and holds that the best interests of children lie in public policy that empowers the community as a family support system. (Author/MJL)

Garbarino, James; And Others

1982-01-01

142

A Guide to Grassroots Activism: Moving Nursing Education's Public Policy Agenda. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to help people in the nursing profession, especially deans at schools of nursing, to effectively influence public policy at the federal level. Introductory material identifies key Senate and House committees and stresses the importance of establishing and maintaining a relationship with one's representatives in the Congress.…

American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.

143

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 11, Number 19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) U.S. Senators Harkin and Enzi Release Draft Language to Revise NCLB: Senate Committee to Consider Draft Containing Important

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2011-01-01

144

Public choice theory and antitrust policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the pioneering contributions of Robert Tollison to the theory and practice of antitrust law enforcement. Inspired\\u000a by his period of service during Ronald Reagan’s first administration as Director of the Federal Trade Commission’s Bureau\\u000a of Economics, Tollison was the first scholar to apply public choice reasoning to the question why antitrust frequently fails\\u000a to achieve its stated goal

William F. Shughart; Fred S. McChesney

2010-01-01

145

Public policy for solar heating and cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent analyses indicated that solar heating and cooling systems for residential buildings are nearly economically competitive with conventional fossil fuel or electric systems, the former having higher initial cost but a lower operating cost than the latter. The paper examines obstacles to the widespread acceptance and use of solar space conditioning systems and explores some general policies which could help to overcome them. The discussion covers such institutional barriers limiting the adoption of solar technologies as existing building codes, financing constraints, and organizational structure of the building industry. The potential impact of financial incentives is analyzed. It is noted that a tax incentive of 25% could speed the use of solar energy by 7 to 8 years and produce an 8% reduction in fossil fuel use by 1990. A preliminary incentive package which could be helpful in promoting solar energy both at federal and state levels is proposed, and the necessary incentive level is analysed.

Hirshberg, A. S.

1976-01-01

146

Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary to immediately adjust employment and wages for existing workers. Using Quarterly Workforce Indicator data, we are able to measure the impact on hires, new hire earnings, separations and extended leaves among young women. Earnings for young female new hires fell in California relative to other workers, but changed little relative to country-wide comparison groups. We find strong evidence that separations (of at least three months) among young women and the number and shares of young female new hires increased. Many young women that separate (leave the payroll) eventually return to the same firm. Increased separation and hiring rates among young women in the labor market ("churning") may reflect both increased time spent with children and greater job mobility (i.e., reduced job lock) as the result of mandated paid family leave across the labor market. The third essay, Evidence of an Energy Management Gap in U.S. Manufacturing: Spillovers from Firm Management Practices to Energy Efficiency, merge a well-cited survey of firm management practices into confidential plant level U.S. Census manufacturing data to examine whether generic, i.e. non-energy specific, firm management practices, "spillover" to enhance energy efficiency in the United States. For U.S. manufacturing plants we find this relationship to be more nuanced than prior research on UK plants. Most management techniques are shown to have beneficial spillovers to energy efficiency, but an emphasis on generic targets, conditional on other management practices, results in spillovers that increase energy intensity. Our specification controls for industry specific effects at a detailed 6-digit NAICS level and finds the relationship between management and energy use to be strongest for firms in energy intensive industries. We interpret the empirical result that generic management practices do not necessarily spillover to improved energy performance as evidence of an "energy management gap."

Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

147

Energy Efficiency Policy in Arizona Public Participation and Expert Consultation in the Policy Implementation Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many different levels of government, organizations, and programs actively shape the future of energy in Arizona, a state that lacks a comprehensive energy plan. Disparate actions by multiple actors may slow the energy policy process rather than expedite it. The absence of a state energy policy or plan raises questions about how multiple actors and ideas engage with state energy policy development and whether the absence of a comprehensive state plan can be understood. Improving how policy development is conceptualized and giving more focused attention to the mechanisms by which interested parties become involved in shaping Arizona energy policy. To explore these questions, I examine the future energy efficiency. Initially, public engagement mechanisms were examined for their role in policy creation from a theoretical perspective. Next a prominent public engagement forum that was dedicated to the topic of the Arizona's energy future was examined, mapping its process and conclusions onto a policy process model. The first part of this thesis involves an experimental expert consultation panel which was convened to amplify and refine the results of a public forum. The second part utilizes an online follow up survey to complete unfinished ideas from the focus group. The experiment flowed from a hypothesis that formal expert discussion on energy efficiency policies, guided by the recommendations put forth by the public engagement forum on energy in Arizona, would result in an increase in relevance while providing a forum for interdisciplinary collaboration that is atypical in today's energy discussions. This experiment was designed and evaluated utilizing a public engagement framework that incorporated theoretical and empirical elements. Specifically, I adapted elements of three methods of public and expert engagement used in policy development to create a consultation process that was contextualized to energy efficiency stakeholders in Arizona and their unique constraints. The goal of the consultation process was to refine preferences about policy options by expert stakeholders into actionable goals that could achieve advancement on policy implementation. As a corollary goal, the research set out to define implementation barriers, refine policy ideas, and operationalize Arizona-centric goals for the future of energy efficiency.

Bryck, Drew

148

Regional Disparities and Public Policy in Tunisian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how Tunisia's national educational program is implemented unevenly in different regions with resulting disadvantages for rural populations, especially rural girls and women. Specifies ways the politics and public policy appear to influence regional differences in educational outcomes. Examines educational, economic, and political…

Jones, Marie T.

1986-01-01

149

Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

2012-01-01

150

Social Structure, Public Policy, and Ethics Carnegie Mellon University  

E-print Network

Social Structure, Public Policy, and Ethics 80-136 Carnegie Mellon University Spring 2013 Course? Once we have determined the appropriate goal, how is it to be achieved, i.e., what social structure in this course, in an attempt to make sense of the interactions between ethical duties, social structure

Spirtes, Peter

151

The Effectiveness of Alcohol Policies in 4-Year Public Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public

Walter, Gayle T.

2010-01-01

152

Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef  

E-print Network

REVIEW Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef and soy supply 70% decline in deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon suggests that it is possible to manage, as did a decline in the demand for new deforestation. The supply chain interventions that fed

Napp, Nils

153

Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy  

E-print Network

Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy Discussion Paper Series #D-64 the education or perspective to appreciate the work. Yet, 40 years of polling is clear about one thing the value of what Alex S. Jones, the Director of the Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics

Heller, Eric

154

Classical Stasis Theory and the Analysis of Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In classical Greece, there was a close tie between rhetoric and the practice and theory of public policy. Gradually, however, rhetoric became increasingly concerned with style and literary criticism, while philosophers began to debate political issues apart from the practical affairs of the polis. Because rhetoric provides a model that can still…

Hatch, Gary Layne

155

ENTERPRISE BRITAIN Growth, Innovation and Public Policy in the  

E-print Network

ENTERPRISE BRITAIN Growth, Innovation and Public Policy in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprise research institute with the study of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises as one of its core programmes comprehensive survey of Britain's small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) since the Bolton inquiry.' The Guardian

de Gispert, Adrià

156

Public Policy, Crime and Criminal Justice Spring 2009  

E-print Network

in which a film has been announced as being shown. Course Schedule Jan. 14 Crime and Punishment in AmericanCRJ 460 Public Policy, Crime and Criminal Justice Spring 2009 Instructor: Dr. Richard Mc.mccorkle@unlv.edu Course Description Despite increases in the past year, most categories of crime have actually decreased

Ahmad, Sajjad

157

Statistics, Science and Public Policy: Shifts in Culture  

E-print Network

Statistics, Science and Public Policy: Shifts in Culture R.W. Oldford and M.E. Thompson Working. The theme of this conference was "The Two Cultures?" in recognition of the fortieth anniversary of C.P. Snow's famous Rede Lecture where the growing gulf between the traditional culture of the arts and the humanities

Oldford, R.W.

158

Public Policy for Economic Development: The Two-Edged Sword.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a national survey of state directors of community college education, which examined state legislation affecting community colleges. Examines trends toward the formation of a public policy framework for economic development. Summarizes findings with respect to legislative actions affecting groups, programs, structures, incentives, and…

Martorana, S. V.; Garland, Peter H.

1984-01-01

159

Agricultural public policy: green or sustainable? L. Mouysseta,b  

E-print Network

pollution (Carpenter et al. 2012, Volk et al. 2009, Tong & Chen 2002) and the loss of biodiversity (Foley et show that, when the biodiversity objectives are either very limited or very demanding, grassland regions. Keywords: Agriculture, Biodiversity, Public policy instrument, Poverty, Bird, Land-use, Cost

Boyer, Edmond

160

Health Care Innovation: The Case for a Favorable Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of U.S. public policy reflects what is valued most in the United States--entrepreneurship, the productive interaction of market forces, individual achievement, and inventiveness. It appears to some that the United States has become preoccupied with short-term concerns and has not been acting with its accustomed determination to maximize…

Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ.

161

The Harris School of Public Policy: Working Papers Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of public policy schools across the world have a working papers series, and quite a few of them offer these documents online at no charge. The Harris School of Public Policy at the University of Chicago has offered their working papers on this site for several years now, and visitors with a penchant for national and international policy issues will probably want to make several return visits to this site. Visitors can conduct a full document keyword search or also browse the series by author, date, or subject. Some recent papers of note include "Consumption and Income Poverty for those 65 and Over" and "Food Stamps, Unemployment Insurance, and the Safety Net".

162

The need to include animal protection in public health policies.  

PubMed

Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

Akhtar, Aysha

2013-11-01

163

Important Notice: Implementation of the New NSF Cost Sharing Policy  

NSF Publications Database

... Policy Cost sharing can be a valuable mechanism for affirming the longstanding partnership between ... program announcement, solicitation or other mechanism which generates proposals. For unsolicited ...

164

The JohnsonShoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, with campuses at the University of Saskatchewan and the University of Regina, is an interdisciplinary centre for public policy  

E-print Network

of Saskatchewan and the University of Regina, is an interdisciplinary centre for public policy research, teaching policy issues and debate. In Saskatchewan, the main dailies are The Regina LeaderPost, http; The JohnsonShoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, with campuses at the University of Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan, University of

165

Public Policy, Science, and Environmental Risk. Brookings Dialogues on Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workshop explored the complex issues involved in scientific measurement of environmental risk. Specific purposes were to articulate policy issues that concern the use of scientific data in environmental risk assessment and to contribute to the dialogue from which better policy might emerge. Viewpoints of workshop participants from the…

Panem, Sandra, Ed.

166

Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.  

PubMed

Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children's energy density by using a pre- and post-policy evaluation. Analysis of variance/covariance and nonparametric tests compared energy density after the Texas policy change to intakes at baseline. Two years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in Southeast Texas at three public middle schools: baseline (2001-2002) and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded the amount and source of foods consumed. The Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was designed to promote a healthy school environment by restricting portion sizes of high-fat and high-sugar snacks and sweetened beverages, fat content of foods, and serving of high-fat vegetables like french fries. Energy density (kcal/g): energy density-1 was the energy of foods only (no beverages) divided by the gram weight and has been previously associated with obesity and insulin resistance; energy density-2 included all food and beverages to give a complete assessment of all sources of calories. Following implementation of the Texas policy, students' energy density-1 significantly decreased from 2.80+/-1.08 kcal/g to 2.17+/-0.78 kcal/g (P<0.0001). Similarly, energy density-2 significantly decreased from 1.38+/-0.76 kcal/g to 1.29+/-0.53 kcal/g (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was associated with desirable reductions in energy density, which suggests improved nutrient intake as a result of student school lunch consumption. PMID:20184994

Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Cullen, Karen Weber

2010-03-01

167

Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran, E-mail: Ciaran.Ofaircheallaigh@griffith.edu.a [Department of Politics and Public Policy, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

2010-01-15

168

Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia. PMID:25210820

Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

2014-01-01

169

Does public policy support or undermine climate change adaptation? Exploring policy interplay across different scales of governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy makers have now recognised the need to integrate thinking about climate change into all areas of public policy making. However, the discussion of ‘climate policy integration’ has tended to focus on mitigation decisions mostly taken at international and national levels. Clearly, there is also a more locally focused adaptation dimension to climate policy integration, which has not been adequately

Kate Urwin; Andrew Jordan

2008-01-01

170

Same strategy different industry: corporate influence on public policy.  

PubMed

In March 2013 a state judge invalidated New York City's proposal to ban sales of sugar-sweetened beverages larger than 16 ounces; the case is under appeal. This setback was attributable in part to opposition from the beverage industry and racial/ethnic minority organizations they support. We provide lessons from similar tobacco industry efforts to block policies that reduced smoking prevalence. We offer recommendations that draw on the tobacco control movement's success in thwarting industry influence and promoting public health policies that hold promise to improve population health. PMID:24524535

Shelley, Donna; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Elbel, Brian

2014-04-01

171

AGU Celebrates Leaders for Contributions to Policy and Public Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recognition of outstanding leadership and vision in shaping policy and heightening public awareness of the value of Earth and space science, AGU has chosen Sen. Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.), chairwoman of the Senate Appropriations Committee; Naomi Oreskes, a science historian and author of the book Merchants of Doubt; and Eugenie Scott, former executive director for the National Center for Science Education (NCSE), as recipients of the 2014 AGU Presidential Citations for Science and Society. The awards will be presented on Tuesday, 17 June, during the 2014 AGU Science Policy Conference at a reception on Capitol Hill.

Buhrman, Joan

2014-05-01

172

The role of public policies in promoting the safety, convenience & popularity of bicycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

http:\\/\\/www.policy.rutgers.edu\\/faculty\\/pucher.htm publications in PDF format at http:\\/\\/www.policy.rutgers.edu\\/papers —————————————————————————————————————————————————— Abstract In the special issue on bicycling of WTPP (Volume 7, Number 3), Heath Maddox questions the potential of public policies to encourage bicycling. This response to the Maddox critique argues that he seriously misinterpreted the concept of public policy, considering only a small subset of the many policies that can facilitate

John Pucher

173

Public Finance Policy Strategies to Increase Access to Preconception Care  

PubMed Central

Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15–44) lack adequate health coverage (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers and opportunities for financing preconception care, based on a review and analysis of state and federal policies. We describe states’ experiences with and opportunities to improve health coverage, through public programs such as Medicaid, Medicaid waivers, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The potential role of Title V and of community health centers in providing primary and preventive care to women also is discussed. In these and other public health and health coverage programs, opportunities exist to finance preconception care for low-income women. Three major policy directions are discussed. To increase access to preconception care among women of childbearing age, the federal and state governments have opportunities to: (1) improve health care coverage, (2) increase the supply of publicly subsidized health clinics, and (3) direct delivery of preconception screening and interventions in the context of public health programs. PMID:16802188

2006-01-01

174

History, Dynamics, and Public Health Importance of Malaria Parasite Resistance  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable efforts, malaria is still one of the most devastating infectious diseases in the tropics. The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance currently compounds this grim picture. In this paper, we review the history of antimalarial drug resistance and the methods for monitoring it and assess the current magnitude and burden of parasite resistance to two commonly used drugs: chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Furthermore, we review the factors involved in the emergence and spread of drug resistance and highlight its public health importance. Finally, we discuss ways of dealing with such a problem by using combination therapy and suggest some of the research themes needing urgent answers. PMID:14726463

Talisuna, Ambrose O.; Bloland, Peter; D’Alessandro, Umberto

2004-01-01

175

Policy Improvement for POMDPs Using Normalized Importance Sampling  

E-print Network

We present a new method for estimating the expected return of a POMDP from experience. The estimator does not assume any knowle ge of the POMDP and allows the experience to be gathered with an arbitrary set of policies. ...

Shelton, Christian R.

2001-03-20

176

Ethical Principles Associated with the Publication of Research in ASHA's Scholarly Journals: Importance and Adequacy of Coverage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this 2-part study was to determine the importance of specific topics relating to publication ethics and adequacy of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) policies regarding these topics. Method: A 56-item Web-based survey was sent to (a) ASHA journal editors, associate editors, and members of the…

Ingham, Janis C.; Minifie, Fred D.; Horner, Jennifer; Robey, Randall R.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

2011-01-01

177

THE THOMAS JEFFERSON PROGRAM IN PUBLIC POLICY THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY  

E-print Network

THE THOMAS JEFFERSON PROGRAM IN PUBLIC POLICY THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY How Effective Officer Survey Thomas Jefferson Program in Public Policy | The College of William & Mary Page i Table Jefferson Program in Public Policy | The College of William & Mary Page ii Executive Summary Virginia has

Lewis, Robert Michael

178

Public policy and environmental noise: modeling exposure or understanding effects.  

PubMed Central

This paper argues that if the federal government is to successfully protect the public from the adverse effects of environmental noise, its policies will need to be informed by a scientific understanding of the psychological and social factors that determine when noise results in annoyance and when noise may affect health as an environmental stressor. The overreliance of federal agencies on mathematical modeling of average group responses to physical noise levels is discussed as oversimplifying and limiting the understanding of noise effects in crucial ways. The development of a more sophisticated information base is related to policy needs, such as the need to make accurate predictions about the annoyance of particular communities, the need to understand relationships between public participation in noise abatement efforts and annoyance, and the need to identify populations that may be susceptible to stress-related health effects. PMID:9431308

Staples, S L

1997-01-01

179

Broadband for Public Libraries: Importance, Issues, and Research Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. public libraries provide free public internet services to the communities that they serve, but require robust, high-speed broadband internet connections to continue meeting public demands. The 2008-2009 "Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study" ("PLFTAS") illustrates challenges that public libraries encounter in achieving broadband…

Mandel, Lauren H.; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo; Jaeger, Paul T.

2010-01-01

180

Oil shale in western Colorado: public policy and regional development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of a theoretical model of the state to the federal oil-shale program supported the primary-research hypothesis that the state acts semi-autonomously in relation to the private sector. Public policy may be seen in the instance of oil-shale development as neither wholly dependent upon nor wholly autonomous from the private sector and the economy. As the process of capital accumulation

Jurie

1985-01-01

181

Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.  

PubMed

Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts. PMID:24528517

Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Raji?, A

2014-12-01

182

Data publication - policies and procedures from the PREPARDE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data are widely acknowledged as a first class scientific output. Increases in researchers' abilities to create data need to be matched by corresponding infrastructures for them to manage and share their data. At the same time, the quality and persistence of the datasets need to be ensured, providing the dataset creators with the recognition they deserve for their efforts. Formal publication of data takes advantage of the processes and procedures already in place to publish academic articles about scientific results, enabling data to be reviewed and more broadly disseminated. Data are vastly more varied in format than papers, and so the policies required to manage and publish data must take into account the complexities associated with different data types, scientific fields, licensing rules etc. The Peer REview for Publication & Accreditation of Research Data in the Earth sciences (PREPARDE) project is JISC- and NERC-funded, and aims to investigate the policies and procedures required for the formal publication of research data. The project is investigating the whole workflow of data publication, from ingestion into a data repository, through to formal publication in a data journal. To limit the scope of the project, the focus is primarily on the policies required for the Royal Meteorological Society and Wiley's Geoscience Data Journal, though members of the project team include representatives from the life sciences (F1000Research), and will generalise the policies to other disciplines. PREPARDE addresses key issues arising in the data publication paradigm, such as: what criteria are needed for a repository to be considered objectively trustworthy; how does one peer-review a dataset; and how can datasets and journal publications be effectively cross-linked for the benefit of the wider research community and the completeness of the scientific record? To answer these questions, the project is hosting workshops addressing these issues, with interactions from key stakeholders, including data and repository managers, researchers, funders and publishers. The results of these workshops will be presented and further comment and interaction sought from interested parties.

Callaghan, Sarah; Murphy, Fiona; Tedds, Jonathan; Kunze, John; Lawrence, Rebecca; Mayernik, , Matthew S.; Whyte, Angus; Roberts, Timothy

2013-04-01

183

The Mass Media, Public Opinion, and Public Policy Analysis: Linkage Explorations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to explore the effects of public opinion on governmental policy making, with a special focus on the role of the mass media in this process. Specific areas covered include political campaigning, the President and the press, blacks and the media, and cable television. Topics of discussion in the ten chapters are: linkage…

Strouse, James C.

184

Strategizing for Public Policy: The Information Literacy State Proclamation Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project designed to raise the awareness of policymakers about the importance of information literacy to achieve societal goals. Issues benefit from the governmental support, prioritization, mandates, and funding that can result when there is policy behind them. Studies indicate that many people lack the ability to draw on…

Weiner, Sharon A.; Jackman, Lana W.; Prause, Emily

2013-01-01

185

Genetic control of insects of public health importance  

PubMed Central

During recent years many advances have been made in the development of insect control by genetic manipulation. These methods include the sterile-male technique, now well known, which depends on ionizing radiation or chemosterilization. The recent field experiment carried out by WHO in Rangoon, Burma, on Culex fatigans has demonstrated that naturally occurring cytogenetic mechanisms such as cytoplasmic incompatibility can be used successfully without the use of radiations or chemosterilants. The paper not only describes the experiment on Culex fatigans but also discusses basic concepts and theoretical considerations involved in genetic control of insects of public health importance. The possibility of using genetic mechanisms for the control of other vector species is also discussed. There are a number of problems which require study before genetic control can be used on an operational scale. These problems and suggestions for future research in this field are also outlined. PMID:5302334

Knipling, E. F.; Laven, H.; Craig, G. B.; Pal, R.; Kitzmiller, J. B.; Smith, C. N.; Brown, A. W. A.

1968-01-01

186

Arming the Thomas Paines: Publications policy and desktop publishing  

SciTech Connect

Historically, publications have been carefully controlled either by the state or by organizations desiring to cultivate a particular image of themselves. Desktop publishing returns us to the era of Thomas Paine when an author could be his own publisher. The confluence of several technologies has permitted this: increasingly powerful general-purpose microcomputers, WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) display methods, Post Script (a graphics language), and laser printers. Current commercially available software and hardware allow a single individual to merge text and graphics, lay out pages up to tabolid size, perform in situ editing, copyfitting, cropping of graphics, and more. Formerly these skills were distributed among numerous publications professionals who were brought together under a centralized publications group within a corporation. Now, akin to the demise of the monopolistic data processing shops of yesteryear, these groups are facing increasing competition from individuals, nonpublications specialists, who are using microcomputers to avoid going through the centralized publications group. The implications are discussed. This paper deals with the coming pitfalls facing these publications amateurs. Once these pitfalls are understood by corporate management, they can establish standards, make positive efforts to transmit their aesthetic values, and can assert corporate publications policies.

Pitsker, B.; Jensen, C.W.

1986-10-01

187

Stigmatization and denormalization as public health policies: some Kantian thoughts.  

PubMed

The stigmatization of some groups of people, whether for some characteristic they possess or some behavior they engage in, will initially strike most of us as wrong. For many years, academic work in public health, which focused mainly on the stigmatization of HIV-positive individuals, reinforced this natural reaction to stigmatization, by pointing out the negative health effects of stigmatization. But more recently, the apparent success of anti-smoking campaigns which employ stigmatization of smokers has raised questions about whether stigmatization may sometimes be justified, because of its positive effects on public health. Discussion of the issue so far has focused on consequences, and on some Kantian considerations regarding the status of the stigmatized. In this article, I argue that further Kantian considerations regarding the treatment of the general public (the potential stigmatizers) also count against any public health policy involving stigmatization. Attempts to encourage stigmatization are likely to fail to appeal to the rational decision-making abilities of the general public, and the creation of stigmatized groups (even if they are stigmatized for their voluntary behavior) is an obstacle to the self-improvement of members of the general public. PMID:23586853

Dean, Richard

2014-10-01

188

44 CFR 5.20 - Publication of rules and general policies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of rules and general policies. 5...PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Publication of or Availability of General Agency...and Similar Material § 5.20 Publication of rules and general...

2010-10-01

189

Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences  

E-print Network

for the Policy Research Shop is provided by the Ford Foundation. Contact: Nelson A. Rockefeller Center, 6082Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy by undergraduate students at Dartmouth College under the direction of professors in the Rockefeller Center. Support

Lotko, William

190

Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences  

E-print Network

in the Rockefeller Center. Support for the Policy Research Shop is provided by the Ford Foundation. Contact: Nelson ARockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy. Rockefeller Center, 6082 Rockefeller Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 http://rockefeller

Lotko, William

191

Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences  

E-print Network

Research Shop is provided by the Ford Foundation. Contact: Nelson A. Rockefeller Center, 6082 RockefellerRockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy at Dartmouth College under the direction of professors in the Rockefeller Center. Support for the Policy

Lotko, William

192

Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences  

E-print Network

is provided by the Ford Foundation. Contact: Nelson A. Rockefeller Center, 6082 Rockefeller Hall, DartmouthRockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy under the direction of professors in the Rockefeller Center. Support for the Policy Research Shop

Lotko, William

193

Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences  

E-print Network

for the Policy Research Shop is provided by the Ford Foundation. Contact: Nelson A. Rockefeller Center, 6082Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy students at Dartmouth College under the direction of professors in the Rockefeller Center. Support

Lotko, William

194

Extension Publication Policies and Direction 1. All official publications from Extension Entomology should be made available electronically  

E-print Network

Extension Publication Policies and Direction 1. All official publications from Extension Entomology Entomology Publication committee. 3. Everyone in our project group should be contributing to a common good. The Extension Entomology Publication committee will recommend the modification or deletion of duplicate efforts

Behmer, Spencer T.

195

It's Academic: Public Policy Activities Among Faculty Members in a Department of Medicine  

PubMed Central

Problem To investigate whether and how faculty members in a Department of Medicine are engaged in public policy activities. Approach Between February and April 2011 the authors conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of all active Department of Medicine (DOM) faculty members at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Survey questions covered demographics, academic role, academic rank, and participation in three specific public policy activities during the past five years: (1) policy related research, (2) expert advice to government officials, and (3) public policy advocacy in collaboration with organizations outside government. Outcomes Two hundred twenty of 553 faculty (40%) responded to the survey. One hundred twenty-four faculty members (56% of respondents and 22% of total active faculty) reported that they were engaged in at least one of the three types of policy related activities: 51 (23%) conducted policy related research, 67 (30%) provided expert advice to government officials, and 93 (42%) collaborated with organizations to advocate for public policy. Higher faculty rank was significantly associated with faculty members reporting that they were involved in one or more of the three policy activities (P = .04). Next Steps Academic departments should identify public policy expertise among their faculty and leverage this expertise by facilitating opportunities to develop a shared faculty awareness of their public policy activities, by supporting the establishment of mentoring relationships for less experienced faculty in the area of public policy, and by incorporating standards of excellence for work in public policy into the promotions process. PMID:23969373

Jacobs, Douglas B.; Greene, Meredith; Bindman, Andrew B.

2014-01-01

196

Famine relief and imperial policy in early modern Morocco: the political functions of public health.  

PubMed Central

There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7027811

Meyers, A R

1981-01-01

197

Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import

Volkan ?. Ediger; Istemi Berk

2011-01-01

198

The policy of public health genomics in Italy.  

PubMed

Italy has a monitoring system for genetic testing, consisting in a periodic census of clinical and laboratory activities performed in the country. The experience is limited, however, concerning the translation of genomic testing for complex diseases into clinical practice. For the first time the Italian Ministry of Health has introduced a policy strategic plan on genomics and predictive medicine within the 2010-2012 National Prevention Plan. This achievement was supported by the Italian Network for Public Health Genomics (GENISAP) and will likely contribute to the integration of public health genomics into health care in the country. Our experience might be of interest not only in Italy, but in other high-income countries, struggling to keep a healthy economy and healthy citizens. PMID:23466031

Simone, Benedetto; Mazzucco, Walter; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Agodi, Antonella; Coviello, Domenico; Dagna Bricarelli, Francesca; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Di Maria, Emilio; Federici, Antonio; Genuardi, Maurizio; Varesco, Liliana; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

2013-05-01

199

The Importance of Policies in E-Learning Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most professionals interested in the use of technology in education understand the importance of an e-learning course site, whether the course is taught totally online or in a hybrid environment where the instructor has some face-to-face contact with students. However, many instructors have not thoroughly considered the importance of posting…

Waterhouse, Shirley; Rogers, Rodney O.

2004-01-01

200

Important interactional strategies for everyday public health nursing practice.  

PubMed

This Clinical Concepts article concerns the relational tools required by public health nurses to establish relationships with single mothers living on public assistance, mothers who are vulnerable and often stigmatized. The implications of stigmatization for relationship building are highlighted based on previous research investigating how public health nurses working in Canadian jurisdictions establish professional caring relationships with this cohort of mothers. Public health nurses employed interactional strategies including engaging in a positive manner and offering verbal commendations which served as effective relational tools to break through mothers' walls of defensiveness and to resume the dynamic process of relationship building. Building Relationship is a key practice standard for public health nurses and is instrumental to their work at both individual and community levels to improve social determinants of health. The author concludes with recommendations to facilitate building relationships during everyday public health nursing practice. PMID:24320117

Porr, Caroline J

2015-01-01

201

Promoting Public Transportation: Comparison of Passengers and Policies in Germany and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often suggested that the United States adopt policies similar to those of European countries to increase public transportation ridership and sustainability of the transport system. On the basis of two national travel surveys, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of public transportation riders in Germany and the United States are compared, and the differences in public transportation policies in the

Ralph Buehler

2009-01-01

202

The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1994, the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania conducts research on a variety of topics, including political communication, journalism, and the role of the media in the lives of developing children. With offices in Philadelphia and Washington, D.C., the Center is well poised to also disseminate its research findings to various governmental organizations and other policy groups. The siteâÂÂs homepage provides direct link to some of their more recent work, which includes excerpts from a talk by National Intelligence Director John D. Negroponte and Geneva OverholserâÂÂs compelling report, âÂÂOn Behalf of Journalism: A Manifesto for ChangeâÂÂ. While visitors can just scroll down through the homepage to review these documents, they may also wish to click on the tabs near the top of the page to move directly to a thematic area of interest. The site is rounded out by a number of links to other Annenberg-sponsored sites, such as âÂÂJustice LearningâÂÂ, which is a joint project sponsored by National Public Radio and the New York Times Learning Network.

203

A Mixed Methods Approach for Identifying Influence on Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fields from political science to critical education policy studies have long explored power relations in policy processes, showing who influences policy agendas, policy creation, and policy implementation. Yet showing particular actors' influence on specific points in a policy text remains a methodological challenge. This article presents a…

Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

2014-01-01

204

17 CFR 200.13b - Director of the Office of Public Affairs, Policy Evaluation, and Research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Organization...Public Affairs, Policy Evaluation, and Research. The...Public Affairs, Policy Evaluation, and Research is the chief public information officer for the...

2010-04-01

205

Cognitive enhancement kept within contexts: neuroethics and informed public policy  

PubMed Central

Neurothics has far greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements arriving from novel brain-centered biotechnologies and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize the best cognitive and neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could possibly count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely “cognitive” enhancement. Where cognitive processing and the mental life is concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what has actually been cognitively improved. And what can concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by the classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. Additionally, where the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements, we mustn’t presume that public approval towards enhancers will somehow automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of any nuanced appreciation for the control which performance contexts and public contexts exert over what “cognitive” enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can all too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as surely good for us and for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of oft-heard observations about serious hurdles for reliable enhancement from neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications to those hurdles for a sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and a wise policy review over cognitive enhancement. We offer some crucial recommendations for undertaking such investigations, so that cognitive enhancers that truly deserve public approval can be better identified. PMID:25538573

Shook, John R.; Galvagni, Lucia; Giordano, James

2014-01-01

206

Cognitive enhancement kept within contexts: neuroethics and informed public policy.  

PubMed

Neurothics has far greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements arriving from novel brain-centered biotechnologies and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize the best cognitive and neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could possibly count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely "cognitive" enhancement. Where cognitive processing and the mental life is concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what has actually been cognitively improved. And what can concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by the classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. Additionally, where the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements, we mustn't presume that public approval towards enhancers will somehow automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of any nuanced appreciation for the control which performance contexts and public contexts exert over what "cognitive" enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can all too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as surely good for us and for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of oft-heard observations about serious hurdles for reliable enhancement from neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications to those hurdles for a sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and a wise policy review over cognitive enhancement. We offer some crucial recommendations for undertaking such investigations, so that cognitive enhancers that truly deserve public approval can be better identified. PMID:25538573

Shook, John R; Galvagni, Lucia; Giordano, James

2014-01-01

207

The Importance of Public-Private Partnerships in Agricultural Insurance in China: based on Analysis for Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a healthy and sustainable policy-driven agricultural insurance scheme, a discussion of the importance of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) is timely in light of the challenges that governments are facing against the backdrop of increasing scale and frequency of major agro-related natural disasters across the globe. Most recently in 2008, it is reported a total of 137 natural catastrophes led

Li Xing; Kaiyu Lu

2010-01-01

208

Shaping the future of nursing: developing an appraisal framework for public engagement with nursing policy reports.  

PubMed

It is accepted that research should be systematically examined to judge its trustworthiness and value in a particular context. No such appraisal is required of reports published by organizations that have possibly even greater influence on policy that affects the public. This paper explores a philosophical framework for appraising reports. It gives the reasons why informed engagement is important, drawing on Popper's concept of the open society, and it suggests a method for appraisal. Gadamer's concept of the two horizons and Jauss's reception theory offer a methodological framework to enable the individual citizen, whether professional or lay, to engage in debate about policy that affects him or her. By way of a worked example, the framework is applied to two international reports on nursing. Conclusions suggest that nursing policy should be subjected to robust interrogatory appraisal by both profession and public for a democratic debate and creative discourse. Although this analysis is related to international nursing policy, it has a wider relevance and application beyond nursing. PMID:24954477

Bradshaw, Ann

2014-06-23

209

75 FR 4442 - Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Small Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT....

2010-01-27

210

Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.  

PubMed Central

Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

Berer, M.

2000-01-01

211

Earthquake Early Warning and Public Policy: Opportunities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of an earthquake early warning capability and pilot project were objectives of TriNet, a 5-year (1997-2001) FEMA-funded project to develop a state-of-the-art digital seismic network in southern California. In parallel with research to assemble a protocol for rapid analysis of earthquake data and transmission of a signal by TriNet scientists and engineers, the public policy, communication and educational issues inherent in implementation of an earthquake early warning system were addressed by TriNet's outreach component. These studies included: 1) a survey that identified potential users of an earthquake early warning system and how an earthquake early warning might be used in responding to an event, 2) a review of warning systems and communication issues associated with other natural hazards and how lessons learned might be applied to an alerting system for earthquakes, 3) an analysis of organization, management and public policy issues that must be addressed if a broad-based warning system is to be developed and 4) a plan to provide earthquake early warnings to a small number of organizations in southern California as an experimental prototype. These studies provided needed insights into the social and cultural environment in which this new technology will be introduced, an environment with opportunities to enhance our response capabilities but also an environment with significant barriers to overcome to achieve a system that can be sustained and supported. In this presentation we will address the main public policy issues that were subjects of analysis in these studies. They include a discussion of the possible division of functions among organizations likely to be the principle partners in the management of an earthquake early warning system. Drawing on lessons learned from warning systems for other hazards, we will review the potential impacts of false alarms and missed events on warning system credibility, the acceptability of fully automated warning systems and equity issues associated with possible differential access to warnings. Finally, we will review the status of legal authorities and liabilities faced by organizations that assume various warning system roles and possible approaches to setting up a pilot project to introduce early warning. Our presentation will suggest that introducing an early warning system requires multi-disciplinary and multi-agency cooperation and thoughtful discussion among organizations likely to be providers and participants in an early warning system. Recalling our experience with earthquake prediction, we will look at early warning as a promising but unproven technology and recommend moving forward with caution and patience.

Goltz, J. D.; Bourque, L.; Tierney, K.; Riopelle, D.; Shoaf, K.; Seligson, H.; Flores, P.

2003-12-01

212

Ranking Fiscal Policy Rules: the Golden Rule of Public Finance vs. the Stability and Growth Pact  

E-print Network

1 Ranking Fiscal Policy Rules: the Golden Rule of Public Finance vs. the Stability and Growth Pact of the application of a "golden rule of public finance" to the European Union (EU). Blanchard and Giavazzi (2003

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Effect of Public Policies and Individual Behavior on the Co-evolution of Social Networks and Infectious Disease Dynamics  

E-print Network

and Infectious Disease Dynamics Christopher L. Barrett, Keith Bisset, Jiangzhuo Chen, Stephen Eubank, Bryan Lewis networks in an important application context ­ spread of infectious diseases. For example consider a lethal disease propagation. Conversely, people's behavior in response to public policies and their perception

Marathe, Achla

214

Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy  

PubMed Central

Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

2015-01-01

215

Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy.  

PubMed

Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

2015-01-01

216

Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements  

PubMed Central

Abstract Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures – e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions – to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

McGrady, Benn

2014-01-01

217

Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.  

PubMed

Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

2014-02-01

218

Public health importance of cystic echinococcosis in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystic echinococcosis has been recorded in 21 out of China's 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (approximately 87% of territory). It constitutes one of the major public health problems, especially in several northwestern provinces and autonomous regions. This paper reviews the general situation, diagnosis, treatment, education and control programmes and international cooperation. Special attention is given to the Xinjiang, an

Hao Wen; Wen-Guang Yang

1997-01-01

219

Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop A Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences  

E-print Network

Shop is provided by the Ford Foundation Contact: Nelson A. Rockefeller Center, 6082 Rockefeller HallRockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop A Center for Public Policy of professors in the Rockefeller Center. We are also thankful for the services received from the Student Center

Lotko, William

220

[Comparative study on objective-setting public health policy--historical background and path dependence].  

PubMed

The historical background and the path dependence of objective-setting public health policy are described in this review. The New Public Health movement appeared in the 1980s and was inspired by the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion. This movement is based on the idea that public health is mostly promoted by creating a supportive environment for health as well as by individual efforts toward a healthy life style. The first objective-setting public health policy called Healthy People was proposed in USA, 1979, under the influence of The Lalonde Report published in Canada, 1974. Goals and targets were set in order to reduce the mortality of American people. This project led to Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010. In the 1990s, objective-setting public health policies prevailed in Western countries, such as United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and also in Japan. The objective-setting public health policy is the application of the management by objectives in the health policy domain. This policy is especially accepted in Anglo-Saxon countries where public sector reform was conducted on the basis of the New Public Management theory in the 1980s, which is when the WHO Regional Office for Europe started the Healthy Cities project that emphasized a network of project cities. The Health 21 in 1999 is another model of object-setting public health policy. A comparative study of four different objective-setting public health policies (USA, United Kingdom, WHO Regional Office for Europe, and Japan) was conducted regarding the goals and domains of the targets, methods of targeting, and evaluation of the project. The goals were almost identical in the four public health policies, while the domains of the targets were different. These differences were explained by the past experience of public health policy development in each country. PMID:12061096

Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yosihiro

2002-05-01

221

As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability  

E-print Network

As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability information will be needed to assist policy analysis.As visual analytics emerges as a major tool of policy analysis,sustainability information,particularly sustainability indicators

Hall, Sharon J.

222

VENTURE CAPITAL, THE REGIONS AND PUBLIC POLICY: THE UNITED KINGDOM SINCE THE POST-2000 TECHNOLOGY CRASH  

E-print Network

1 VENTURE CAPITAL, THE REGIONS AND PUBLIC POLICY: THE UNITED KINGDOM SINCE THE POST-2000 TECHNOLOGY@strath.ac.uk W: www.entrepreneur.strath.ac.uk VENTURE CAPITAL, THE REGIONS AND PUBLIC POLICY: THE UNITED KINGDOM. Early stage venture capital investments declined sharply following the post-2000 technology crash

Mottram, Nigel

223

State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies: For Public Colleges and Universities, 2010-11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, "State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies for Public Colleges and Universities: 2010-11", examines the philosophies, policies, and procedures that influence decision-making regarding public college and university tuition, student fees, and student financial aid programs. This report also provides information related to…

Bell, Allison C.; Carnahan, Julie; L'Orange, Hans P.

2011-01-01

224

Faculty Search: Department of Engineering and Public Policy Junior or Senior Hire in  

E-print Network

Faculty Search: Department of Engineering and Public Policy Junior or Senior Hire in the Management, Economics, or Organization of Technology The Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) and Carnegie of Carnegie Mellon University and in the Engineering and Technology Innovation Management (E&TIM) master

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

225

AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDIES 101-6 Freshman Seminar: Race, Poverty, & Public Policy in America  

E-print Network

AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDIES 101-6 Freshman Seminar: Race, Poverty, & Public Policy in America Fall in American society about the plight of the poor. Policy and public opinion reflect the various sides, students will develop an in-depth understanding of the scope of poverty in America and consider competing

226

Evaluation of Alabama Public School Wellness Policies and State School Mandate Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study evaluated wellness policies created by Alabama public school districts and progress made in the implementation of Alabama State Department of Education (ALSDE) school food and nutrition mandates. Methods: Wellness policies from Alabama public school districts were compared to minimum requirements under the Child Nutrition…

Gaines, Alisha B.; Lonis-Shumate, Steven R.; Gropper, Sareen S.

2011-01-01

227

An analysis of the impact of alternative import management policies for shrimp  

E-print Network

terms are allowed. Domestic producers are finding it difficult to compete with imports under hese conditions. In fact, the harvesting industry views the import problem as the principal threat to their recovery and well being. Although imports may...AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE IMPORT MANAGEMENT POLICIES FOR SHRIMP A Thesis by 3ANE CHADWICK HOPKINS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Hopkins, Jane Chadwick

2012-06-07

228

Public policy measures to support new technology-based firms in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a review of public policy measures implemented in EU countries to support New Technology-Based Firms (NTBFs) during the 1980s and early 1990s. It identifies five policy areas and provides a synthesis of the policy developments during this period and an assessment of their effectiveness. The policy areas examined are: Science Parks; the Supply of PhDs in Science

D. J. Storey; B. S. Tether

1998-01-01

229

Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of institutional commitment to energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy resources, colleges and universities must focus public and professional attention on the imperative for action and the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and countering global warming.

Stone, G. T.

2006-12-01

230

Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.  

PubMed

In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

2013-11-01

231

Government policy and citizen passion: A study of issue publics in contemporary America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the findings of a program of research exploring the cognitive and behavioral consequences of passionate concern about government policy issues. American citizens vary a great deal in terms of the personal importance they attach to their attitudes on particular policy issues. Citizens whose policy attitudes are especially important to them are likely to think frequently about those

Jon A. Krosnick

1990-01-01

232

[Bacterial biofilms: their importance in animal health and public health].  

PubMed

Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymer matrix that is attached to a surface. Biofilms protect and allow bacteria to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Bacteria within biofilms can withstand host immune responses, and are much less susceptible to antibiotics and disinfectants when compared to their planktonic counterparts. The ability to form biofilms is now considered an attribute of many microorganisms. Diseases associated with biofilms require novel methods for their prevention, diagnosis and treatment; this is largely due to the properties of biofilms. Furthermore, the presence of biofilms on surfaces found at farms, slaughterhouses or food processing plants will have an impact on the efficacy of disinfection protocols. Surprisingly, biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens of veterinary or zoonotic importance has received relatively little attention. The objective of this brief Review article is to bring awareness about the importance of biofilms to animal health stakeholders.(Translated by the authors). PMID:24688172

Tremblay, Yannick D N; Hathroubi, Skander; Jacques, Mario

2014-04-01

233

Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance.  

PubMed

Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time and regained its popularity after Sept 2001 incidence in United States. The present review article describes the history, biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology and potential of B. anthracis as biological weapon. PMID:25610847

Goel, Ajay Kumar

2015-01-16

234

Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance  

PubMed Central

Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time and regained its popularity after Sept 2001 incidence in United States. The present review article describes the history, biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology and potential of B. anthracis as biological weapon. PMID:25610847

Goel, Ajay Kumar

2015-01-01

235

Do health policy advisors know what the public wants? An empirical comparison of how health policy advisors assess public preferences regarding smoke-free air, and what the public actually prefers  

PubMed Central

Background Health policy-making, a complex, multi-factorial process, requires balancing conflicting values. A salient issue is public support for policies; however, one reason for limited impact of public opinion may be misperceptions of policy makers regarding public opinion. For example, empirical research is scarce on perceptions of policy makers regarding public opinion on smoke-free public spaces. Methods Public desire for smoke-free air was compared with health policy advisor (HPA) perception of these desires. Two representative studies were conducted: one with the public (N = 505), and the other with a representative sample of members of Israel’s health-targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020 (N = 34), in December 2010. Corresponding questions regarding desire for smoke-free areas were asked. Possible smoke-free areas included: 100% smoke-free bars and pubs; entrances to health facilities; railway platforms; cars with children; college campuses; outdoor areas (e.g., pools and beaches); and common areas of multi-dweller apartment buildings. A 1–7 Likert scale was used for each measure, and responses were averaged into a single primary outcome, DESIRE. Our primary endpoint was the comparison between public preferences and HPA assessment of those preferences. In a secondary analysis, we compared personal preferences of the public with personal preferences of the HPAs for smoke-free air. Results HPAs underestimated public desire for smoke-free air (Public: Mean: 5.06, 95% CI:[4.94, 5.17]; HPA: Mean: 4.06, 95% CI:[3.61, 4.52]: p < .0001). Differences at the p = .05 level were found between HPA assessment and public preference for the following areas: 100% smoke-free bars and pubs; entrances to healthcare facilities; train platforms; cars carrying children; and common areas of multi-dweller apartment buildings. In our secondary comparison, HPAs more strongly preferred smoke-free areas than did the public (p < .0001). Conclusions Health policy advisors underestimate public desire for smoke-free air. Better grasp of public opinion by policy makers may lead to stronger legislation. Monitoring policy-maker assessment of public opinion may shed light on incongruities between policy making and public opinion. Further, awareness of policy-maker misperceptions may encourage policy-makers to demand more accurate information before making policy. PMID:23692687

2013-01-01

236

Federal Policy on Criminal Offenders Who Have Substance Use Disorders: How Can We Maximize Public Health and Public Safety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Obama Administration is striving to promote both public health and public safety by improving the public policy response to criminal offenders who have substance use disorders. This includes supporting drug courts, evidence-based probation and parole programs, addiction treatment and re-entry programs. Scientists and clinicians in the addiction field have a critical role to play in this much-needed effort to

Keith Humphreys

2012-01-01

237

Do free-of-charge public health services impede cost recovery policies in Khartoum state, Sudan?  

E-print Network

Do free-of-charge public health services impede cost recovery policies in Khartoum state, Sudan? K in 2001 to analyse the characteristics of those who receive free public health services and to ascertain public health services. This does not support claims that beneficiaries of these services are the well

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Procurement Policy The Ontario broader public sector (BPS) Procurement Directive was issued by Management Board of  

E-print Network

Procurement Policy The Ontario broader public sector (BPS) Procurement Directive was issued the Ontario Broader Public Sector (BPS) Supply Chain Code of Ethics, as follows: Ontario Broader Public Sector of Ethics and the laws of Canada and Ontario. Individuals should continuously work to improve supply chain

Boonstra, Rudy

239

Official Master's of Public Health Health Policy & Management Program of Study Form  

E-print Network

Official Master's of Public Health ­ Health Policy & Management Program of Study Form Student enrollment is restricted to graduate students. REQUIRED PUBLIC HEALTH CORE COURSES ­ 18 credits Dept Course # Course Title Cr Hrs Sem/Yr Taken Grade PUBH 5520G INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC HEALTH 2

Hutcheon, James M.

240

PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY VS. COLONIAL LAISSEZ-FAIRE: STDs AND PROSTITUTION IN REPUBLICAN SHANGHAI  

E-print Network

1 PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY VS. COLONIAL LAISSEZ-FAIRE: STDs AND PROSTITUTION IN REPUBLICAN SHANGHAI present the general situation of prostitution and public health in China to avoid giving an unduly biased by then become a major public health problem at a time when the health #12;3 system in China was hardly emerging

Boyer, Edmond

241

The public opinion–foreign policy paradox in Germany: integrating domestic and international levels of analysis conditionally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does public opinion influence foreign policy? International relations theory is divided on whether foreign policy outputs follow public opinion in advanced democratic countries. Using the case of cold war and post-cold war Germany, I offer an integrated realist theory of the effect of public opinion on foreign policy. I test the theory and the generalizability of the hypothesis of a

William Davis

2012-01-01

242

Does emotional intelligence have important roles in the public organizations? A case of public organization in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scholars claimed that emotional intelligence is an important factor for people's success and good performance at the workplace. However, that argument should be further investigated whether that phenomenon also happens in the public organizations since public organizations got less attention from emotional intelligence researches. This study is aimed to investigate the relationship among emotional intelligence, conflict management styles, and

Hsi-An Shih; Ely Susanto

243

Manganese--a public health concern: its relevance for occupational health and safety policy and regulation in South Africa.  

PubMed

Concerns about the effects of low-level manganese exposures on human health arise at a time when South Africa finds itself in competition with newcomers to the market economy, China and the CIS. This case study illustrates how decisions about occupational health and safety and the environment are influenced by incompleteness of scientific knowledge, competing interests, differences over what is fair or just, and the compartmentalization of public policy. In addition, an assessment is made of the ability of the occupational health and safety system in South Africa in its current form to address the challenges posed by manganese-related issues. The importance of tracking developments abroad, strengthening participatory processes, developing national policy, linking economic policy and OHS policy, and establishing appropriate trade agreements is stressed. PMID:10828146

Hermanus, M A

2000-01-01

244

Social Impact Management Plans: Innovation in corporate and public policy  

SciTech Connect

Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has traditionally been practiced as a predictive study for the regulatory approval of major projects, however, in recent years the drivers and domain of focus for SIA have shifted. This paper details the emergence of Social Impact Management Plans (SIMPs) and undertakes an analysis of innovations in corporate and public policy that have put in place ongoing processes – assessment, management and monitoring – to better identify the nature and scope of the social impacts that might occur during implementation and to proactively respond to change across the lifecycle of developments. Four leading practice examples are analyzed. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards require the preparation of Environmental and Social Management Plans for all projects financed by the IFC identified as having significant environmental and social risks. Anglo American, a major resources company, has introduced a Socio-Economic Assessment Toolbox, which requires mine sites to undertake regular assessments and link these assessments with their internal management systems, monitoring activities and a Social Management Plan. In South Africa, Social and Labour Plans are submitted with an application for a mining or production right. In Queensland, Australia, Social Impact Management Plans were developed as part of an Environmental Impact Statement, which included assessment of social impacts. Collectively these initiatives, and others, are a practical realization of theoretical conceptions of SIA that include management and monitoring as core components of SIA. The paper concludes with an analysis of the implications for the practice of impact assessment including a summary of key criteria for the design and implementation of effective SIMPs. -- Highlights: • Social impact management plans are effective strategies to manage social issues. • They are developed in partnership with regulatory agencies, investors and community. • SIMPs link assessment to ongoing management and address social and community issues. • SIMPs clarify responsibilities in the management of impacts, opportunities and risks. • SIMPs demonstrate a shift to include management as a core component of SIA practice.

Franks, Daniel M., E-mail: d.franks@uq.edu.au [Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining, The University of Queensland, Sustainable Minerals Institute, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, The University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, The University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-11-15

245

Obesity, health at every size, and public health policy.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with chronic diseases that may negatively affect individuals' health and the sustainability of the health care system. Despite increasing emphasis on obesity as a major health care issue, little progress has been made in its treatment or prevention. Individual approaches to obesity treatment, largely composed of weight-loss dieting, have not proven effective. Little direct evidence supports the notion of reforms to the "obesogenic environment." Both these individualistic and environmental approaches to obesity have important limitations and ethical implications. The low levels of success associated with these approaches may necessitate a new non-weight-centric public health strategy. Evidence is accumulating that a weight-neutral, nutrition- and physical activity-based, Health at Every Size (HAES) approach may be a promising chronic disease-prevention strategy. PMID:24328657

Bombak, Andrea

2014-02-01

246

Dynamic Modeling of the SSDI Application Timing Decision: The Importance of Policy Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the importance of policy variables in the context of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) application timing decision. Previously, we explicitly modeled the optimal timing of SSDI application using dynamic structural models. We estimated these models using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). This paper uses option value model estimates to simulate application timing under alternative

Richard V. Burkhauser; J. S. Butler; Gulcin Gumus

2003-01-01

247

76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics AGENCY: Centers for...and practice environment in public health genomics. HHS/CDC is currently...assess the most important steps for public health genomics in the next five...

2011-06-30

248

Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.  

PubMed

The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:24381084

Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

2014-12-01

249

The business of broadband and the public interest : media policy for the network society  

E-print Network

Media policy in the United States has, since its inception, been governed by the principle that infrastructure providers should serve "the public interest." The Federal Communications Commission has traditionally been ...

Schultze, Stephen James

2008-01-01

250

Gerald R. Ford School Of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series  

E-print Network

Gerald R. Ford School Of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working, by Paul Jargowsky (2003) and Tom Kingsley and Kathryn Pettit (2003), have deservedly received a great deal

Shyy, Wei

251

THE ROCKEFELLER CENTER FOR PUBLIC POLICY & THE SOCIAL SCICNCES AT DARTMOUTH  

E-print Network

THE ROCKEFELLER CENTER FOR PUBLIC POLICY & THE SOCIAL SCICNCES AT DARTMOUTH Leadership Social Marketing for Leaders Facilitative Leadership: Blending Individual Styles to Achieve Common Goals leaders reflecting on your time at Dartmouth and learning valuable leadership skills for your post

Lotko, William

252

77 FR 75443 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement [Docket ID BSEE-2012-0017] Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments AGENCY: Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement...

2012-12-20

253

Deceptive nature of Dial-a-Porn commercials and public policy alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates consumers' perceptions of claims made in Dial-a-Porn commercials. The empirical findings support the view that some of the claims are deceptive. Based on research findings, preliminary public policy guidelines are suggested.

Shaheen Borna; Joseph Chapman; Dennis Menezes

1993-01-01

254

48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 7 - USAID's Academic Publication Policy  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...publication; and (b) Authorization for release, which USAID may withhold if reconciliation between the national interest and the author's interest is impossible. 4. Policy Statements (a) USAID, as a general rule, will not require an academic...

2012-10-01

255

48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 7 - USAID's Academic Publication Policy  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false USAID's Academic Publication Policy I Appendix I to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Ch. 7, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 7—USAID's Academic...

2011-10-01

256

48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 7 - USAID's Academic Publication Policy  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...significance in the conduct of the USAID program or the implementation of governmental programs in the host country; (5) The desires of the host country. 5. Implementation The successful implementation of this policy on publication rests...

2010-10-01

257

Technology: Enabling Healthcare Microsoft and Health IT Public Policy and Healthcare Likeotherbreakthroughsinmedicineoverthelastfewhundredyears,breakthroughsintechnology  

E-print Network

Technology: Enabling Healthcare Microsoft and Health IT Public Policy and Healthcare Likeotherbreakthroughsinmedicineoverthelastfewhundredyears,breakthroughsintechnology have the potential to revolutionize healthcare. Advances in genomics of healthcare costs. Specifically, these technology advances will: · Offer healthcare professionals the data

Narasayya, Vivek

258

75 FR 26321 - Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Small Airplanes...23 contains the design standards for small airplanes in the normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter categories, with a...

2010-05-11

259

Canadian Provinces and Public Policies for University Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing attention to sub-national regions in science and technology (S&T) policy. This paper examines the recent evolution of provincial S&T policies in the Canadian provinces, focusing on how they link university research to regional technological development. Drawing on multiple sources of data and evidence, this study identifies and…

Sa, Creso M.

2010-01-01

260

Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

2005-01-01

261

Does Private Money Buy Public Policy? Campaign Contributions and Regulatory Outcomes in Telecommunications  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent can market participants affect the outcomes of regulatory policy? In this paper, we study the effects of one potential source of influence—campaign contributions—from competing interests in the local telecommunications industry, on regulatory policy decisions of state public utility commissions. Our work is unique in that we test the effects of campaign contributions on measurable policy outcomes. This

Rui J. P. de Figueiredo; Geoff Edwards

2007-01-01

262

Inequities in the freedom to lead a flourishing and healthy life: issues for healthy public policy.  

PubMed

There are many reasons for the health inequities that we see around the world today. Public policy and the way society organises its affairs affects the economic, social and physical factors that influence the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age - the social determinants of health. Tackling health inequities is a political issue that requires leadership, political courage, progressive public policy, social struggle and action, and a sound evidence base. PMID:25279377

Friel, Sharon

2014-09-01

263

Inequities in the freedom to lead a flourishing and healthy life: issues for healthy public policy  

PubMed Central

There are many reasons for the health inequities that we see around the world today. Public policy and the way society organises its affairs affects the economic, social and physical factors that influence the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age - the social determinants of health. Tackling health inequities is a political issue that requires leadership, political courage, progressive public policy, social struggle and action, and a sound evidence base. PMID:25279377

Friel, Sharon

2014-01-01

264

Teacher Quality Roadmap: Improving Policies and Practices in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In partnership with the Urban League of Greater Miami, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) released "Teacher Quality Roadmap: Improving Policies and Practices in Miami," an in-depth study of the work rules Miami-Dade teachers. This look at the state of teacher policies in Miami-Dade County Public Schools explores the district's contract…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2012

2012-01-01

265

Understanding Differences in the Choice of College Attended: The Role of State Public Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses multilevel modeling to examine, after taking student-level predictors of enrollment into account, the effects of state public policies on the type of institution high school graduates attend. Four types of state policies (direct appropriations, tuition, financial aid, and K-12 academic preparation) influence the type of college…

Perna, Laura W.; Titus, Marvin A.

2004-01-01

266

Use of the Means/Ends Test to Evaluate Public School Dress-Code Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to explain how a means/ends test can be adapted for the school environment. Public school officials can use a means/ends test to document an analysis of whether dress-code policies will be effective in diminishing risks to the health, safety, or morality of the school population. Elements of policy evaluation--ends,…

Workman, Jane E.; Studak, Cathryn M.

2008-01-01

267

Public Education and Multicultural Policy in Canada: The Special Case of Quebec  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is a provincial responsibility in Canada, but there is a sharing of expenditure and strong support of public education, health and other welfare programs between the provinces and the federal government. Although the federal policy of multiculturalism has been aimed at making Canada a "just" society, the implementation of this policy in…

Ghosh, Ratna

2004-01-01

268

2010 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference The FCC Plan for a Public Safety Broadband Wireless Network  

E-print Network

2010 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference 1 The FCC Plan for a Public Safety Broadband Communications Commission (FCC) released the National Broadband Plan (NBP) for the United States, which made;2010 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference 2 In March 2010, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC

Peha, Jon M.

269

Nuclear energy: the accuracy of policy makers' perceptions of public beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policy makers' attitudes were found to be significantly more favorable than those of the total public sample. The policy makers were able to shift their own (personal) responses in the directions indicated by their role-play assignments to reproduce accurately the overall attitudes of the PRO and CON groups on this controversial topic, although there was a tendency to overestimate

Kerry Thomas; Elisabeth Swaton; Martin Fishbein; Harry J. Otway

1980-01-01

270

Legislating Unequal Treatment: An Exploration of Public Policy on Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social policy surrounding same-sex marriage has resulted in subsequent changes to public policy. Over the past 15 years, increased discussion surrounding the issue has emerged, inciting the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and the proposed Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA). It is particularly salient for social workers to keep abreast of legislation that is impacting vulnerable and disenfranchised populations. Since the

Jill M. Chonody; Kenneth Scott Smith; Melanie A. Litle

2012-01-01

271

Who Will Mind the Babies? A Public Policy Paper. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This restatement of policy, which updates a 1984 edition, offers a framework for thinking about issues in child care for infants and toddlers. The statement discusses: (1) the particular needs of infants and toddlers; (2) public policies supporting parents who remain at home to care for infants and toddlers; (3) professional recognition and…

Delcoco, Joan; And Others

272

Wake Up the Nation: Public Libraries, Policy Making, and Political Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public libraries are heavily affected by political and policy-making processes that shape the funding, activities, and roles of libraries in society, with the explosion of information policy decisions in the past two decades significantly increasing the responsibilities of libraries while also increasing limitations on their activities. Research…

Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; Gorham, Ursula

2013-01-01

273

Linking Transnational Logics: A Feminist Rhetorical Analysis of Public Policy Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author investigates the circulation and appropriation of representations of women in public policy. The author effectively mobilizes the metaphor of the network to examine the discursive intersections and transnational links between U.S. welfare programs and the World Bank gender mainstreaming policies. Her analysis reveals…

Dingo, Rebecca

2008-01-01

274

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 8, Number 16  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "From No Child Left Behind to Every Child a Graduate": New Alliance Report Outlines Policy Framework for Improving America's…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2008-01-01

275

Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series  

E-print Network

marriages" has emerged as a central feature of domestic social policy in the United States, with proposalsGerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working is available online at the National Poverty Center Working Paper Series index at: http

Shyy, Wei

276

An approach to developing the market for space shuttle payloads: Business/public policy issues and international marketing considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The business and public policies were assessed that were determined to be important for NASA to consider in the design of a program for stimulating use of the space transportation system (STS) among potential users in the U.S. private sector and in foreign countries, in preparation for operations of the space shuttle in the early 1980's. Salient factors related to international cooperation in space are identified for special consideration in the development of user potential of the STS.

Krebs, W. A. W.

1974-01-01

277

The Public Television Library Policies and Procedures Manual 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Public Television Library (PTL), an integral part of the services provided by the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), provides a national centralized storage and retrieval system for Public Television (PTV) programing distinct from the real time program offerings of the PBS interconnected network, and offers an opportunity for varied sources to…

Public Television Library, Washington, DC.

278

Prior notice of imported food under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the submission to FDA of prior notice of food, including animal feed, that is imported or offered for import into the United States. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which required prior notification of imported food to begin on December 12, 2003. The final rule requires that the prior notice be submitted to FDA electronically via either the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP or Customs) Automated Broker Interface (ABI) of the Automated Commercial System (ACS) or the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI). The information must be submitted and confirmed electronically as facially complete by FDA for review no less than 8 hours (for food arriving by water), 4 hours (for food arriving by air or land/rail), and 2 hours (for food arriving by land/road) before the food arrives at the port of arrival. Food imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice is subject to refusal and, if refused, must be held. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a draft compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Sec. 110.310 Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002." PMID:19112701

2008-11-01

279

38th TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY RESEARCH CONFERENCE, Oct. 2010 Policies for Public Safety Use of Commercial Wireless Networks*  

E-print Network

, Carnegie Mellon University, hallahan@cmu.edu, www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~rhallaha/ Jon M. Peha, Professor of Commercial Wireless Networks* Ryan Hallahan and Jon M. Peha Carnegie Mellon University Abstract Wireless of Electrical Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, peha@cmu.edu, www.ece.cmu.edu/~peha All

Peha, Jon M.

280

Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…

Bratge, Katrina

2009-01-01

281

Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This paper provides a

David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher; Kristen C. Nelson

2004-01-01

282

The importance of public health agency independence: Marcellus shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

Public health often deals with inconvenient truths. These are best communicated and acted on when public health agencies are independent of the organizations or individuals for whom the truths are inconvenient. The importance of public health independence is exemplified by the lack of involvement of the Pennsylvania Department of Health in responding to health concerns about shale gas drilling. Pennsylvania Department of Health involvement has been forestalled by the state governor, who has intensely supported shale gas development. PMID:24328620

Goldstein, Bernard D

2014-02-01

283

Undergraduate PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS CERTIFICATE PROGRAM University of Nebraska -Lincoln  

E-print Network

Law CRIM 335 Criminology CRIM 337 Juvenile Delinquency CRIM 338 Minorities and Criminal Justice CRIM of Juvenile Delinquency Cultural/Ethnic Policy CRIM 338 Minorities and Criminal Justice GERO 469 Working

Logan, David

284

Congestion pricing : policy dimensions, public rejection and impacts  

E-print Network

This thesis makes three related contributions to the broad literature on congestion pricing. First, it examines three policy dimensions that underlie pricing: the economic arguments that motivate it, the technological ...

Chingcuanco, Franco (Franco Felipe)

2014-01-01

285

Issues of public policy in the USA raised by amniocentesis.  

PubMed

Amniocentesis, a procedure which can detect during pregnancy whether or not the fetus will develop into a mongol or one affected by other serious chromosomal defects, if given to all pregnant women aged 40 and over, would save both human suffering and economic loss to the community. The procedure is not at present widely used for various reasons, not all of them medical, and, if the test result is positive abortion is the remedy. The author describes an important clinical trial being conducted in the USA at the present time but suggests that an educational programme should be undertaken to inform the public of the existence of this procedure and its applications even before the results of the American large-scale trial can be known and evaluated. Amniocentesis and its use, Professor Etzioni concludes, is not the only genetic tool which should be reviewed in a manner which would give an overall picture. He compares those who are concerned with these matters to the citizens of Britain when they saw the first steam engine. They did not perceive the social changes--the industrial revolution--that would follow. In our time a 'genetic revolution' may not be long delayed. PMID:822165

Etzioni, A

1976-03-01

286

The importance of context for effective public engagement: learning from the governance of waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes a new look at the importance of context – institutional and political – in effective public engagement processes. It does so through a rare comparative opportunity to examine the effectiveness of processes of public engagement in two UK waste authorities, where the same waste company was involved as both the primary contractor for the delivery of the

Richard Bull; Judith Petts; James Evans

2010-01-01

287

Educating Students on the Need to Protect Authentic Science in Public Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have an important responsibility to be sure their students are aware of the ways in which their research results can be politicized and misused. Political interference in science has penetrated deeply into the culture and practices of federal agencies. The persistent and energetic engagement of scientists is critical to ensuring the government meets its obligation to serve the public interest. To foster thoughtful discussions about the proper role of science in federal policy making, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has created a Scientific Integrity Curriculum Guide to help graduate, undergraduate and advanced high school instructors teach this complex subject. The guide is a fully developed lesson plan that teachers in both scientific and non-scientific disciplines can tailor to suit their needs. It provides lecture slides, worksheets, homework assignments, essay suggestions, and links to other resources. Educating the next generation of scientists is essential because significant and long-lasting reforms require the support of a well- informed scientific community.

Grifo, F.; McCarthy, M.; Langlais, C.

2008-12-01

288

Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef and soy supply chains.  

PubMed

The recent 70% decline in deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon suggests that it is possible to manage the advance of a vast agricultural frontier. Enforcement of laws, interventions in soy and beef supply chains, restrictions on access to credit, and expansion of protected areas appear to have contributed to this decline, as did a decline in the demand for new deforestation. The supply chain interventions that fed into this deceleration are precariously dependent on corporate risk management, and public policies have relied excessively on punitive measures. Systems for delivering positive incentives for farmers to forgo deforestation have been designed but not fully implemented. Territorial approaches to deforestation have been effective and could consolidate progress in slowing deforestation while providing a framework for addressing other important dimensions of sustainable development. PMID:24904156

Nepstad, Daniel; McGrath, David; Stickler, Claudia; Alencar, Ane; Azevedo, Andrea; Swette, Briana; Bezerra, Tathiana; DiGiano, Maria; Shimada, João; Seroa da Motta, Ronaldo; Armijo, Eric; Castello, Leandro; Brando, Paulo; Hansen, Matt C; McGrath-Horn, Max; Carvalho, Oswaldo; Hess, Laura

2014-06-01

289

How to Reduce Property Taxes. Texas Trilogy on Public Education and Taxes. Policy Brief No. 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing education and taxation. The first brief explained Texas' need to increase its investment in public education. The second brief explained how a Texas-style personal income tax is the best way both to adequately support public education and to reduce reliance on the property tax. That brief…

Lavine, Dick

2006-01-01

290

Adoption of an Outdoor Residential Hall Smoking Policy in a California Public University: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Because secondhand smoke is a public health concern, many colleges have adopted bans to ensure healthier environments. This study demonstrates how outdoor smoking policy change can be accomplished at a large public university. Participants: The participants were 1,537 students housed in residential communities at the University of…

Garg, Trit; Fradkin, Nicholas; Moskowitz, Joel M.

2011-01-01

291

From "Public Health" to "Safeguarding Children": British Health Visiting in Policy, Practice and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the location of British health visiting in contemporary policy discourses concerned with public health and safeguarding children. It argues that professional identity and orientation can be understood through health visiting's long history of public health work with children and families, which has included an engagement…

Peckover, Sue

2013-01-01

292

Publicizing UH Equal Opportunity Policies Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action Office  

E-print Network

Publicizing UH Equal Opportunity Policies Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action Office Administrative Services Building 1, Room 102 · 2442 Campus Road · Honolulu, Hawai`i 96822 An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Institution Publicizing the University's equal opportunity and disability

293

Public-Interest and Level-of-Evidence Considerations in Cold Fusion Public Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold fusion (CF) protagonists and antagonists would no doubt agree that scientific processes have been challenged in the CF case. The public interest in CF turns on two questions: What are the potential benefits? What is the probability that CF is ``real''? Potential benefits have been agreed on since CF announcement in 1989. The probability of CF reality may be assessed based on level of evidence (LoE): preponderance of evidence (PoE); clear and convincing evidence (CCE); and beyond a reasonable doubt (BRD). PoE, from civil law, indicates a probability of 50% or higher. BRD, from criminal law, has a probability approaching 90%. CCE, in between, thus has a 70-75% probability. CF experimental evidence, based on: 1) initial affirmations, 2) the large number of corroborations since marginalization, and 3) particularly demonstrative experiments, reasonably indicates at least a PoE level of evidence for excess heat. A case can also be made for a CCE (but probably not for a BRD) LoE. In either the PoE or CCE scenario a clear need is demonstrated for change in policy toward CR, given its potential benefits to humanity.

Grinshaw, Thomas

2008-03-01

294

Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of renewable energy in Germany from 1973 to 2003. It investigates the relative importance of energy policy and green power marketing in shaping the renewable energy market. More than a decade of consistent policy support for renewables under the feed-in law (StrEG) and its successor (EEG) has been an important driver for increasing renewable electricity

Rolf Wüstenhagen; Michael Bilharz

2006-01-01

295

FROM RESEARCH TO PUBLIC POLICY: PROGRESS IN SCIENTIFIC AND PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING OF ACID PRECIPITATION AND ITS BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Wisdom in the development of public policy requires objective assessments of fact. Scientific understanding of acid precipitation and its biological consequences has increased substantially in recent years but needs to be expanded still further. At present much more is known abou...

296

NUDGING FOR HEALTH: ON PUBLIC POLICY AND DESIGNING CHOICE ARCHITECTURE  

PubMed Central

There have been recent policy moves aimed at encouraging individuals to lead healthier lives. The Cabinet Office has set up a ‘nudge unit’ with health as one of its priorities and behavioural approaches have started to be integrated into health-related domestic policy in a number of areas. Behavioural research has shown that that the way the environment is constructed can shape a person's choices within it. Thus, it is hoped that, by using insights from such research, people can be nudged towards making decisions which are better for their health. This article outlines how nudges can be conceived of as part of an expanding arsenal of health-affecting regulatory tools being used by the Government and addresses some concerns which have been expressed regarding behavioural research-driven regulation and policy. In particular, it makes the case that, regardless of new regulatory and policy strategies, we cannot escape the myriad of influences which surround us. As such, we can view our health-affecting decisions as already being in some sense shaped and constructed. Further, it argues we may in fact have reason to prefer sets of health-affecting options which have been intentionally designed by the state, rather than those that stem from other sources or result from random processes. Even so, in closing, this article draws attention to the largely unanswered questions about how behavioural research translates into policy and regulatory initiatives. PMID:24081425

Quigley, Muireann

2013-01-01

297

Sanctions for Sex Offenders: Fear and Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated public attitudes regarding sex offender sanctions through telephone surveys (n = 703). The greatest support was for residency and work restrictions. There was less support for publication of names in a newspaper, curfews, life in prison, and castration. Support for nonsevere sanctions correlated with socioeconomic status,…

Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Kernsmith, Roger M.

2009-01-01

298

Business Schools' Policies Regarding Publications in Electronic Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perhaps the most obvious example of innovation in faculty performance is the adoption of new technologies for research. Both administrators and faculty have expressed concern about the role that electronic publications play in their research evaluation processes, particularly in business schools, where scholarly publication is often emphasized…

Hynes, Geraldine E.; Stretcher, Robert H.

2005-01-01

299

Public Policy, Moral Panics and the Lure of Anticipatory Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aspect of modern mental health law reform is the increasing use of legislation directed at “anticipatory containment”. The focus is upon ensuring public safety by the use of increasingly restrictive forms of containment on the basis of an assessment of future risk. Yet often empirical support for such legislation is lacking, despite the fact that it confers on public

Warren Brookbanks

2002-01-01

300

Landslides in Flanders (Belgium): Where science meets public policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although scientific research on landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (710 km²; Belgium), has been conducted over the last decades, the Flemish Government only took account of slope failure as a soil degradation process after the occurrence of several damaging landslides in the beginning of the 21st century. Here we aim to present the successful collaboration between the Physical and Regional Geography Research Group (FRG; Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences K.U.Leuven) and the Environment, Nature and Energy Department (LNE; Flemish Government) in landslide management. We will demonstrate how geomorphologists produced practical tools for landslide management which can be directly applied by LNE as well as other local and regional authorities and planners. Since 2004 three projects on landslide inventory mapping and susceptibility assessment in the Flemish Ardennes have been funded by LNE, and a fourth one on landslide susceptibility assessment in remaining hilly regions in Flanders west of Brussels recently started. Together with a steering committee composed of stakeholders, persons from LNE supervise the research carried out by geomorphologists experienced in landslide studies. For the establishment of the landslide inventory map of the Flemish Ardennes we combined the analysis of LIDAR-derived hillshade and contour line maps with detailed field controls. Additional information was collected through interviews with local authorities and inhabitants and from analysis of newspaper articles and technical reports. Then, a statistical model, logistic regression, was applied to produce a high quality classified landslide susceptibility map. The unique part of this collaboration is that all end products are online available at user-friendly websites designed by LNE. The scientific report containing (1) general information on landslides, (2) a description of the study area, (3) an explanation of the materials and methods used, (4) a presentation of the resulting landslide inventory map and landslide susceptibility map and (5) practical information on the application of both maps for landslide risk reduction through prevention and remediation is available at (http://www.lne.be/themas/bodem/grondverschuiving/grondverschuiving). Equally important, however, are the digital landslide inventory map and landslide susceptibility map which can be consulted at ‘The geographical database of Flanders' (http://dov.vlaanderen.be). This database enables persons to easily combine the landslide inventory and landslide susceptibility maps with topographical and lithological maps allowing them to check the susceptibility to landslides throughout the Flemish Ardennes. For each landslide on the landslide inventory map, there is a corresponding file containing specific information on this landslide. After a simple mouse click on a mapped landslide, the file belonging to this landslide pops up. Finally, guidelines for assessing the impact of planned interventions (e.g. construction of buildings, roads, …) on landsliding can be consulted at (http://www.mervlaanderen.be/uploads/b332.pdf). Thus, we present here an example of how ‘Science meets policy'. The created susceptibility map is an important tool for improving land use planning, and in particular for zoning the susceptibility classes with very high, high and moderate landslide susceptibility where prevention measures are needed and human interference should be limited. The on-line availability of all project documentation opens perspectives for managing landslide-affected areas through both top-down and bottom-up initiatives.

van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Vandekerckhove, L.

2009-04-01

301

Pharmaceuticals, political money, and public policy: a theoretical and empirical agenda.  

PubMed

Why, when confronted with policy alternatives that could improve patient care, public health, and the economy, does Congress neglect those goals and tailor legislation to suit the interests of pharmaceutical corporations? In brief, for generations, the pharmaceutical industry has convinced legislators to define policy problems in ways that protect its profit margin. It reinforces this framework by selectively providing information and by targeting campaign contributions to influential legislators and allies. In this way, the industry displaces the public's voice in developing pharmaceutical policy. Unless citizens mobilize to confront the political power of pharmaceutical firms, objectionable industry practices and public policy will not change. Yet we need to refine this analysis. I propose a research agenda to uncover pharmaceutical influence. It develops the theory of dependence corruption to explain how the pharmaceutical industry is able to deflect the broader interests of the general public. It includes empirical studies of lobbying and campaign finance to uncover the means drug firms use to: (1) shape the policy framework adopted and information used to analyze policy; (2) subsidize the work of political allies; and (3) influence congressional voting. PMID:24088146

Jorgensen, Paul D

2013-01-01

302

Transitions to Adulthood for Homeless Adolescents: Education and Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education plays a critical role in how adolescents mature into adults. A vulnerable, and often forgotten, sub-population of the poor is homeless youth, for whom lack of a stable or adequate residence creates a unique set of educational barriers. The Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA) spent 18 months documenting the experiences of…

Tierney, William G.; Gupton, Jarrett T.; Hallett, Ronald E.

2008-01-01

303

Benefits and Burdens of Rural Development. Some Public Policy Viewpoints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A book of collected papers (by 23 educators, government officials, and industrial leaders who attended a recent national symposium at Iowa State University) presents information on general economic and social characteristics of rural communities, effects of technological growth on rural communities, economic and social policies for improvement of…

Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development.

304

Public Alcohol Policy: Current Directions and New Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol policy has been shown to have an impact on the incidence and prevalence of alcohol “addiction,” or alcohol use disorders (AUDs), as currently defined by the International Classification of Diseases, volume 10, or by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. We will mainly use the term “addiction” to depict a state involving loss of control

J Rehm; TK Greenfield

2008-01-01

305

Public Policy and Planning for Nurse Education and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on nursing educational and practice issues that government officials may have to address in the near future. The report provides statistical information on nurses, compares statistics for white and black nurses, and recommends policies for the future. Data was gathered for the report during a three-year study of 5,175…

Feldbaum, Eleanor G.; Levitt, Morris J.

306

The Women's Employment GERALD R. FORD SCHOOL OF PUBLIC POLICY  

E-print Network

2003 (n=753) (n=693) (n=632) (n=577) (n=536) Race African American 5 PROGRAM ON POVERTY AND SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY 1015 E. HURON STREET ANN ARBOR, MI 48104-1689 (734) 615-4326 (ph) (734) 615-8047 (fax) www.fordschool.umich.edu/research/poverty/ December 2004 #12;Women

Shyy, Wei

307

International Development Policy Public Affairs 974, Spring 2014  

E-print Network

). The End of Poverty. Penguin Press. - Sen, Amartya (1999). Development as Freedom. Alfred Knopf. Course of class. · Book Review (25%): Write a short review (4-5 pages) of a popular press develop- ment policy University Press. - Easterly, William (2002). The Elusive Quest for Growth. MIT Press. - Sachs, Jeffrey (2005

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

308

Fundamentals of U.S. Foreign Policy. Public Information Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to explore the interests and objectives of U.S. foreign policy, this book addresses: (1) national security and arms control; (2) economic programs and trends; (3) human rights efforts; (4) science and technological developments; (5) relationships with various world regions; and (6) the need for an adequate foreign affairs budget. Chapter…

Department of State, Washington, DC. Bureau of Public Affairs.

309

Alliance between tobacco and alcohol industries to shape public policy  

PubMed Central

Aims The tobacco and alcohol industries share common policy goals when facing regulation, opposing policies such as tax increases and advertising restrictions. The collaboration between these two industries in the tobacco policy arena is unknown. This study explored if tobacco and alcohol companies built alliances to influence tobacco legislation, and if so, how those alliances worked. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Findings In the early 1980s, tobacco companies started efforts to build coalitions with alcohol and other industries to oppose cigarette excise taxes, clean indoor air policies, and tobacco advertising and promotion constraints. Alcohol companies were often identified as a key partner and source of financial support for the coalitions. These coalitions had variable success interfering with tobacco control policymaking. Conclusions The combined resources of tobacco and alcohol companies may have affected tobacco control legislation. These alliances helped to create the perception that there is a broader base of opposition to tobacco control. Advocates should be aware of the covert alliances between tobacco, alcohol, and other industries and expose them to correct this misperception. PMID:23587076

Jiang, Nan

2013-01-01

310

PUBLIC POLICIES AND DEFORESTATION IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of land tenure is a major issue in the development debate in Latin America. Recently, one new dimension has been added to the discussion with the increasing concern with environmental issues: the link between rural migration and deforestation. This paper analyses this problem, focusing on the Brazilian Amazon experience. The first part briefly reviews past and present policies

Carlos Eduardo; Frickmann Young

311

The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

Hardy, Ian

2009-01-01

312

24 CFR 964.320 - HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of public housing residents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of public...Centers (FIC) Program § 964.320 HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of...

2011-04-01

313

24 CFR 964.320 - HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of public housing residents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of public...Centers (FIC) Program § 964.320 HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of...

2010-04-01

314

Public health policy and the building up of a Brazilian medical identity.  

PubMed

Since George Herbert Mead studied "the social self" and the interactionists went further in distinguishing "images of self", a lecture on the building up of a Brazilian medical identity should try to focus on the patterns of self-images, presented images, and aspired-to images among the Brazilian medical elites during the First Republic (1889-1930). In no other period of Brazilian history were those "images" of professional identity so close--in contrast, later periods of Brazilian history witnessed an almost permanent "collision" or the clashing of such images among public health specialists. Oswaldo Cruz, Carlos Chagas, Artur Neiva and Belisário Pena are perhaps the best examples of successful careers as "sanitarians" (to recall John Duffy's historical work on luminaries before and after the "New Public Health" in the United States), and as important political actors during Brazil's First Republic. In light of the prominent political, policy-oriented, and scientific roles public health professionals played in Brazil, it is interesting to suggest that in large part such prominence resulted from the symbolic impact of the ideologies of sanitary reform on the political agenda of that period of Brazilian history. Where many studies look for personal rivalries and disputes around Chagas and Neiva as public figures, we may also see the importance of finding identity-building processes among public health specialists as an integrated group (e.g., trying to appear as "significant others" for the new generations of medical graduates in the country), regardless of existing rivalries. Cruz and Chagas, especially, were names with great impact in the Brazilian press (pro and con), a circumstance made possible largely by their easy and direct access to the Brazilian presidents Rodrigues Alves and Epitácio Pessoa, and, most clearly, by public health being one of Brazil's political priorities to find a place among the "civilized nations" of the world. A task that further concerns us is the drawing of a few tentative and very crude comparisons between identity-building among the medical and sanitary professionals in Brazil and France. PMID:16866045

de Castro-Santos, L A

2005-12-01

315

Probabilistic uncertainty analysis of epidemiological modeling to guide public health intervention policy  

PubMed Central

Mathematical modeling of disease transmission has provided quantitative predictions for health policy, facilitating the evaluation of epidemiological outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of interventions. However, typical sensitivity analyses of deterministic dynamic infectious disease models focus on model architecture and the relative importance of parameters but neglect parameter uncertainty when reporting model predictions. Consequently, model results that identify point estimates of intervention levels necessary to terminate transmission yield limited insight into the probability of success. We apply probabilistic uncertainty analysis to a dynamic model of influenza transmission and assess global uncertainty in outcome. We illustrate that when parameter uncertainty is not incorporated into outcome estimates, levels of vaccination and treatment predicted to prevent an influenza epidemic will only have an approximately 50% chance of terminating transmission and that sensitivity analysis alone is not sufficient to obtain this information. We demonstrate that accounting for parameter uncertainty yields probabilities of epidemiological outcomes based on the degree to which data support the range of model predictions. Unlike typical sensitivity analyses of dynamic models that only address variation in parameters, the probabilistic uncertainty analysis described here enables modelers to convey the robustness of their predictions to policy makers, extending the power of epidemiological modeling to improve public health. PMID:24593920

Gilbert, Jennifer A.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Galvani, Alison P.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

2015-01-01

316

Social and Community Support Systems in Hispanic Neighborhoods in New York City: A Public Policy Analysis. Mental Health Policy Monograph Series Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study is on the relationship between community support programs and the provision of mental health services to urban Hispanic populations, and the impact of existing public policies and future policy options on the chronically mentally ill in Puerto Rican neighborhoods in New York City. This policy analysis uses five steps. (1)…

Daykin, David Samuel

317

Public health, science, and policy debate: being right is not enough.  

PubMed

Public health is usually enacted through public policies, necessitating that the public engage in debates that, ideally, are grounded in solid scientific findings. Mistrust in science, however, has compromised the possibility of deriving sound policy from such debates, partially owing to justified concerns regarding undue interference and even outright manipulation by commercial interests. This situation has generated problematic impasses, one of which is the emergence of an anti-vaccination movement that is already affecting public health, with a resurgence in the United States of preventable diseases thought to have been eradicated. Drawing on British sociologist Harry Collins' work on expertise, we propose a theoretical framework in which the paralyzing, undue public distrust of science can be analyzed and, it is hoped, overcome. PMID:25521880

Camargo, Kenneth; Grant, Roy

2015-02-01

318

Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science  

PubMed Central

Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character. PMID:24452252

Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

2013-01-01

319

[Crisis and the independence of public health policies. SESPAS report 2014].  

PubMed

Independence in the formulation of public health policies can be affected by various agents with objectives contrary to population health, such as large corporations. This lack of independence may be exacerbated by the economic crisis due to lower funding for health regulatory bodies or other measures designed to protect health. Large corporations have influenced the formulation of certain policies with an impact on health, such as those related to the tobacco industry, the chemical industry, nutrition, alcohol, pharmaceuticals, and health technology. The main areas in which these companies can influence policies are science, education, politics, and society in general. In this scenario, public health associations should take an active role in ensuring the independence of political decisions via actions such as the following: supporting strategies that guarantee the independence of public health policies and apply criteria of impartiality and transparency; rejecting those public-private partnerships launched to prevent health problems partly caused by these corporations; establishing partnerships to achieve independent training of health professionals and an institution with scientific authority in order to improve public health communication and counteract the lack of sound public health information; promoting a critical analysis of the definition of health problems and their solutions, and establishing related agendas (scientific, political and media) and alliances, so that continuing training for health professionals is independent. PMID:24746762

Hernández Aguado, Ildefonso; Lumbreras Lacarra, Blanca

2014-06-01

320

Data Science for Public Policy: Of the people, for the people, by the people 2.0 ?  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we explore the role of data science in the public policy lifecycle. We posit policy documents (bills, acts, regulations and directives) as forms of social objects and present a methodology to understand interactions between prior context in professional and personal social networks to a given public policy document release. We employ natural language processing tools along with recent advances in semantic reasoning to formulate document-level proximity metrics which we use to predict the relevance (and impact) of the policy artifacts. These metrics serve as a measure of excitation between people and the public policy initiatives.

Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

2014-01-01

321

Public Finance Policy Strategies to Increase Access to Preconception Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that\\u000a would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15–44) lack adequate health coverage\\u000a (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack\\u000a of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers

Kay A. Johnson

2006-01-01

322

Global Environmental Problems: Implications for U.S. Policy. Teacher's Resource Book [and Student Guidebook]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom: Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. 9th Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher resource text and student text are part of a continuing series on current and historical international issues, placing special emphasis on the importance of educating students in their participatory role as citizens. It examines the relationship between public policy in the United States and the ecological health of the planet.…

Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

323

Reconstructing the public in old and new governance: a Korean case of nuclear energy policy.  

PubMed

Korean nuclear energy regulatory policies started to change from earlier exclusively technocratic policies into open dialogues after several anti-nuclear protests in the 1990s. However, technocratic policies still coexist with the new regulatory orientation towards openness, participation and institutional accountability. This paper analyzes Korean nuclear regulatory policies since approximately 2005 as a blend of old and new governance. The aim of the paper is not to decide whether new nuclear governance is deliberative or not by completely reviewing Korean nuclear policies after the 2000s. Instead, it provides an empirical account of how seemingly more participatory processes in decision-making entail new problems while they work with and reproduce social assumptions of different groups of the public. PMID:24681803

Kim, Hyomin

2014-04-01

324

What is the public appetite for healthy eating policies? Evidence from a cross-European survey.  

PubMed

World Health Organization estimates that obesity accounts for 2-8% of health care costs in different parts of Europe, and highlights a key role for national policymaking in curbing the epidemic. A variety of healthy-eating policy instruments are available, ranging from more paternalistic policies to those less intrusive. Our aim is to measure and explain the level of public support for different types of healthy eating policy in Europe, based on data from a probabilistic sample of 3003 respondents in five European countries. We find that the main drivers of policy support are attitudinal factors, especially attribution of obesity to excessive availability of unhealthy foods, while socio-demographic characteristics and political preferences have little explanatory power. A high level of support for healthy eating policy does not translate into acceptance of higher taxes to fund them, however. PMID:25170630

Mazzocchi, Mario; Cagnone, Silvia; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nied?wiedzka, Barbara; Saba, Anna; Shankar, Bhavani; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W Bruce

2014-08-29

325

Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 21 papers: "Land Grant University and Extension in the 21st Century" (Jon Wefald); "A Reality Check" (Bud Webb); "Land Grant Colleges and Universities of the Future" (Michael J. Phillips); "Vulnerability of the Land Grant Colleges of Agriculture: A Public Affairs Perspective" (Allen Rosenfeld); "The Future of Land Grant…

Ernstes, David P., Ed.; Hicks, Dawne M., Ed.

326

Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (1).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four essays on U.S. government documents address the didactic nature of many government publications; the reliability of government information and statistics on energy, crime, consumer prices, and unemployment; user needs and access to government information; and sources and services for science and technology libraries. (EM)

Morehead, Joe

1986-01-01

327

Essays on Government Documents and Public Policies (5).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six essays describe the Pentagon's magazine publishing empire, how the Reagan Administration's "War on Waste" eliminated both substantive and frivolous publications, the employment outlook for librarians in the Occupational Outlook Handbook, the 1979 Yearbook on Agriculture, the often unintelligible language of government documents, and the…

Morehead, Joe

1986-01-01

328

Arming the Thomas Paines: Publications policy and desktop publishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, publications have been carefully controlled either by the state or by organizations desiring to cultivate a particular image of themselves. Desktop publishing returns us to the era of Thomas Paine when an author could be his own publisher. The confluence of several technologies has permitted this: increasingly powerful general-purpose microcomputers, WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) display

B. Pitsker; C. W. Jensen

1986-01-01

329

What the Fundamentalists Want. Ethics and Public Policy Reprint 61.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The people of the United States have always been determinedly religious. What is new is the public recognition of this fact and the debate over the problems that attend it. In high schools and colleges across the country, students are reading textbooks that state as fact that the United States is, or is rapidly becoming, a secular society, an…

Neuhaus, Richard John

330

Public choice economics and space policy: realising space tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government space agencies have the statutory responsibility to suport the commercialisation of space activities. NASA's 1998 report “General Public Space Travel and Tourism” concluded that passenger space travel can start using already existing technology, and is likely to grow into the largest commercial activity in space: it is therefore greatly in taxpayers' economic interest that passenger space travel and accommodation

Patrick Collins

2001-01-01

331

Expert Groups in the Building of European Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it comes to building European public action, expertise is ubiquitous and polymorphic. This article intends to study the ways expertise is being used in the European Commission and the logics underlying its use. The massive use of expertise also has consequences for the practices and identities of actors with whom European institutions…

Robert, Cecile

2012-01-01

332

Commercial influence and global nongovernmental public action in health and pharmaceutical policies.  

PubMed

Nongovernmental public action has been effective in influencing global agenda-setting in health and pharmaceutical policies, yet its record in influencing solutions to the problems identified has been notably more limited. While trade policies have been particularly resistant to change, more substantial changes are observable in global health policies and global health governance. However, some of the directions of change may not be conducive to the democratic accountability of global health governance, to the wise use of public resources, to health systems development, or to longer-term access to health care within developing countries. The authors argue that observed changes in global health policies can be understood as accommodating to corporate concerns and priorities. Furthermore, the changing global context and the commercialization of global public action itself pose sharp challenges to the exercise of influence by global nongovernmental public actors. Nongovernmental organizations not only face a major challenge in terms of the imbalance in power and resources between themselves and corporate interest groups when seeking to influence policymaking; they also face the problem of corporate influence on public action itself. PMID:21842577

Koivusalo, Meri; Mackintosh, Maureen

2011-01-01

333

Linking Public Health, Housing, and Indoor Environmental Policy: Successes and Challenges at Local and Federal Agencies in the United States  

PubMed Central

We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of “shared commons” and the “polluter pays” is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities. PMID:17589610

Jacobs, David E.; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John

2007-01-01

334

Celebrity Climate Contrarians: Understanding a keystone species in contemporary climate science-policy-public interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1980s, a keystone species called 'climate contrarians' has emerged and thrived. Through resistance to dominant interpretations of scientific evidence, and often outlier views on optimal responses to climate threats, contrarians have raised many meta-level questions: for instance, questions involve to what extent have their varied interventions been effective in terms of sparking a new and wise Copernican revolution; or do their amplified voices instead service entrenched carbon-based industry interests while they blend debates over 'climate change' with other culture wars? While the value of their influence has generated numerous debates, there is no doubt that climate contrarians have had significant influence on climate science, policy and public communities in ways that are larger than would be expected from their relative abundance in society. As such, a number of these actors have achieved 'celebrity status' in science-policy circles, and, at times, larger public spaces. This presentation focuses on how - particularly through amplified mass media attention to their movements - various outlier interventions have demonstrated themselves to be (often deliberately) detrimental to efforts that seek to enlarge rather than constrict the spectrum of possibility for mobilizing appropriate responses to ongoing climate challenges. Also, this work analyses the growth pathways of these charismatic megafauna through interview data and participant observations completed by the author at the 2011 Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change. This provides detail on how outlier perspectives characterized as climate contrarians do work in these spaces under the guise of public intellectualism to achieve intended goals and objectives. The research undertaken and related in the presentation here seeks to better understand motivations that prop up these contrarian stances, such as possible ideological or evidentiary disagreement to the orthodox views of science (a.k.a. scientific consensus), drive to fulfill the perceived desires of special interests (e.g. carbon-based industry), and/or exhilaration from self-perceived academic martyrdom and more general desires for notoriety. This species of climate celebrity has 'brought climate change home' as Rachel Slocum as put it, but in particular and paradoxical ways. Thus, this exploration is motivated by the interest to better understand how these interventions - sharing ideological kinship with the 'Wise Use movement' of the 1980s and 1990s - have contributed to (mis) perceptions and (mis) understandings that shape the spectrum of possibility for responses to contemporary climate challenges. Considerations of 'who speaks for climate' may be as important as formal climate governance architectures themselves to the long-term success or failure of efforts to take carbon out of the atmosphere or keep it out. The many 'actors' in the theatre of cultural politics - from climate scientists to business industry interests and ENGO (pro)activists to climate contrarians - are ultimately all members of a collective public citizenry. In short, a more informed public and better understood links between science, policy and media are in our collective self-interest.

Boykoff, M. T.

2012-12-01

335

Program for advanced study in public science policy and administration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results and conclusions of the six-year effort concerned with the development and implementation of a university educational program intended to prepare scientists and engineers for upper-level management and administrative positions (as distinct from senior technical positions) were presented. This interdisciplinary program is at the graduate level, leading to a Master of Arts degree, and is given within a Division of Public Administration.

Rosenthal, A. H.

1976-01-01

336

Contesting Education Policy in the Public Sphere: Media Debates over Policies for the Queensland School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores public discourses in education; employs critical-discourse analysis to investigate newspaper debates over the inclusion of Health and Physical Education in Queensland secondary school curriculum; discusses the authoritative voice of sports stars who supported inclusion; recommends that educators develop an authoritative voice in public

Thomas, Sue

2002-01-01

337

Service and Assistance Animal Policy Columbia University (Columbia) recognizes the importance of Service and Assistance Animals to individuals with  

E-print Network

1 Service and Assistance Animal Policy Columbia University (Columbia) recognizes the importance of Service and Assistance Animals to individuals with disabilities and has established the following policy regarding Service Animals (and Service Animals in training) and Assistance Animals, to assist people

Salzman, Daniel

338

Setting policy priorities to address eating disorders and weight stigma: views from the field of eating disorders and the US general public  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and health consequences of eating disorders and weight stigmatization have prompted increasing discussion of potential policy actions to address these public health issues. The present study aimed to assess support for policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigmatization among the general public and relevant health professionals. Methods An Internet survey was fielded to a national sample of 944 US adults and 1,420 members of professional organizations specializing in eating disorders to examine their support for 23 potential policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigma. Participants also rated policy actions according to their potential for positive impact and feasible implementation. Results Support for the majority of health and social policies was high in both samples. For example, strategies to 1) improve school-based health curriculum to include content aimed at preventing eating disorders, 2) require training for educators and health providers on the prevention and early identification of eating disorders, and 3) implement school-based anti-bullying policies that that protect students from being bullied about their weight, were supported by over two-thirds of participants. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both health and social policy actions will be important in broader policy initiatives to address eating disorders and weight stigma. PMID:24884645

2014-01-01

339

Policy windows, public opinion, and policy ideas: the evolution of No Child Left Behind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the policy process that led to the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act in the United States and the Bush Administration's role in this process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research design is historical and archival. A description of the NCLB Act is given and the major provisions and

Vasil Jaiani; Andrew B. Whitford

2011-01-01

340

Public Policy 290-14 and ARE 298 International Economic Development Policy  

E-print Network

. Poverty assessment (Case study: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper for Nicaragua). Four sessions. 3 and adjustment policies (Case study: debt and currency crises in Latin America and South East Asia). Roles Development Report 2000/2001, UNDP's Human Development Report 2001, IFAD's Rural Poverty Report 2001

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

341

Universal Preschool: Policy Change, Stability, and the Pew Charitable Trusts. SUNY Series in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spectacular recent success of state-funded preschool education is revealed and explained in this absorbing study. A quiet revolution has been underway in American education policy since 1995, with forty-one states and the District of Columbia creating some form of state-funded preschool learning. Brenda K. Bushouse tells why it became…

Bushouse, Brenda K.

2009-01-01

342

The Pattern and Importance of Public Knowledge in the Nuclear Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of 175 survey questions which measure American public awareness and knowledge of nuclear issues from 1945 through 1987 reveals important and previously undiscovered patterns. Awareness of nuclear weapons is universal amd more dominant than awareness of arms control. People are two times more knowledgeable of nuclear weapons issues than they are of arms control issues. Even though only

Thomas W. Graham

1988-01-01

343

Giving Back: Outstanding Alumni Stress the Importance of Community and Public Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features several community college alumni who share how community colleges contributed to their success later in their lives and how they are inspired to give back. These outstanding alumni stress the importance of community and public service. They include: (1) Dr. Richard Carmona, U.S. Surgeon General from 2002 to 2006; (2) Colonel…

Ullman, Ellen

2010-01-01

344

Legalized or Not? Poor Public Communication Causes Confusion over the New Cannabis Policy in Belgium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last three years, the newly announced drug policy, specifically cannabis, has been the subject of debate between the Government and the opposition parties within the Belgian Federal Government. Public communication by the Federal Government and the competent ministers was incomplete, untimely, inconsistent, tendentious and polemical.…

Gelders, Dave; Van Mierlo, Jan

2004-01-01

345

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 15  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) House Appropriations Subcommittee Sharpens Budget Knife: Subcommittee's Bill Would Cut Education Programs by $1.1 Billion; (2)…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012

2012-01-01

346

Food for thought: menu labeling as obesity prevention public health policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the evidence for menu labeling as obesity prevention public health policy. While sympathetic to providing nutritional information, whether food is consumed at restaurants or purchased for home consumption, the authors raise a word of caution against the assumption that menu labeling will significantly lead to healthier food choices, lower obesity rates, and decreased obesity disparities. The authors

Claudia Chaufan; Patrick Fox; Gee Hee Hong

2011-01-01

347

The Production of the "Battered Immigrant" in Public Policy and Domestic Violence Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of U.S. public policy, "battered immigrant" signifies a person who is eligible to adjust his or her status under immigration law if he or she can demonstrate they have suffered domestic violence in the United States perpetrated by a U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident. Among community organizers, the term "battered immigrant"…

Bhuyan, Rupaleem

2008-01-01

348

Identifying the Needs of Drug-Affected Children: Public Policy Issues. OSAP Prevention Monograph-11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph explores the research findings and experiential knowledge base on toddlers and preschool-age children who were prenatally exposed to alcohol and other drugs. It is designed to influence public policy relating to the needs and early intervention plans for this population, from the medical, child welfare, psychosocial, developmental,…

Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

349

The third molar controversy: Framing the controversy as a public health policy issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article summarizes the current research available concerning the removal of impacted third molars, and provides a background from which practitioners, public health policy advocates, and third-party payers can more objectively assess the the issues of appropriateness of care and overutilization of third molar surgery.Materials and Methods: A literature review was undertaken, with emphasis on noninterventional outcome studies and

William G Flick

1999-01-01

350

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 11, Number 22  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Deficit Committee's Failure Triggers Automatic Spending Cuts: Education Programs Could Face $3.5 Billion in Cuts; (2) Flex…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2011-01-01

351

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 8, Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) The Value of Enhanced Reading Opportunities in High Schools: Report Finds Supplemental Reading Programs Can Improve High School…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2008-01-01

352

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 10, Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Congress to Begin ESEA Reauthorization: In Joint Statement, House Democrats and Republicans Outline Plans for a Bipartisan…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

353

Public Perceptions of Drought and Support for Diverse Water Policy Alternatives  

E-print Network

Public Perceptions of Drought and Support for Diverse Water Policy Alternatives C. Mercer and K to drought will determine the impacts on their lifestyles and livelihoods. The decision to prepare and respond is dependent on the recognition of the existence of the drought and its potential and realized

Hall, Sharon J.

354

Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived

Cristina Mora; Davide Menozzi; Lusine H. Aramyan; Natalia I. Valeeva; R. Pakky; K. L. Zimmermann

2012-01-01

355

Small Towns and Small Computers: Can a Match Be Made? A Public Policy Seminar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public policy seminar discussed how to match small towns and small computers. James K. Coyne, Special Assistant to the President and Director of the White House Office of Private Sector Initiatives, offered opening remarks and described a database system developed by his office to link organizations and communities with small computers to…

National Association of Towns and Townships, Washington, DC.

356

Include Public Policy@Southampton in your Research Grant Item Detail Fee  

E-print Network

with image sourcing Your event on the Public Policy@Southampton website Option 2 Project Plan 5 hours admin end user groups Event Management 3 hours consultancy on best practice for managing your event Assisting with research for end user groups Production of Project Plan timescales and resources Event

Anderson, Jim

357

Roadmap: Political Science Public Policy Bachelor of Arts [AS-BA-POL-PPOL  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Political Science ­ Public Policy ­ Bachelor of Arts [AS-BA-POL-PPOL] College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 3 | Last Updated: 30-Sept-13 Semester Six: [15 Credit Hours] Concentration Electives 3 See note1 on page 2 Political Science Elective

Sheridan, Scott

358

Roadmap: Political Science Public Policy Bachelor of Arts [AS-BA-POL-PPOL  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Political Science ­ Public Policy ­ Bachelor of Arts [AS-BA-POL-PPOL] College of Arts and Sciences Department of Political Science Catalog Year: 2012­2013 Page 1 of 3 | Last Updated: 8-May-12/LNHD Electives 3 See note1 on page 2 Political Science Elective (upper division) 3 See note 2 on page 2

Sheridan, Scott

359

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 9, Number 23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Two Omnibus Bills and a Partridge in a Pear Tree?: Final Vote on Education Appropriations Bill Could Come Before Christmas; (2)…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

360

RAILROAD STRATEGY FOR CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT: Considering Public Policy and Pipeline Competition  

E-print Network

RAILROAD STRATEGY FOR CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT: Considering Public Policy and Pipeline Competition S transported by pipelines in North America, railroads have seen significant growth in this commodity, from just in the Bakken-formation region, providing a window to consider these issues What should the railroad industry

Entekhabi, Dara

361

Texas College Students' Opinions of No-Smoking Policies, Secondhand Smoke, and Smoking in Public Places  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined college student opinions of no-smoking policies, secondhand smoke, and smoking in public places. A convenience sample of 1,188 (66.4% female; 26.9% White, 64.1% Black, and 9.0% Hispanic) students attending 5 Texas colleges volunteered to complete a 60-item anonymous survey on tobacco attitudes and behaviors. Results of our…

Loukas, Alexandra; Garcia, Marcie R.; Gottlieb, Nell H.

2006-01-01

362

The role of public policy in emerging green power markets: an analysis of marketer preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green power marketing has been heralded by some as a means to create a private market for renewable energy that is driven by customer demand for green products. This article challenges the premise — sometimes proffered in debates over green markets — that profitable, sizable, credible markets for green products will evolve naturally without supportive public policies. Relying primarily on

Ryan H. Wiser; Ryan

2000-01-01

363

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 6, Number 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) House Leaders Unable to Come to Agreement on a Budget Plan: Interparty Fights Postpone Consideration of the Budget Resolution;…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2006-01-01

364

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 4, Number 9  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Graduation for All, A Right and a Responsibility: National Campaign to Focus on Increasing High School Graduation Rates; (2)…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2004-01-01

365

Public policy and anthropometric outcomes in the Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Household survey data from the Côte d'Ivoire are used to examine the impact of public policies on child height, child weight for height and adult body mass index. Economic adjustment programs in the 1980s were accompanied by reduced availability and quality of health care services and increases in relative food prices. The health of Ivorians was probably adversely affected by

Duncan Thomas; Victor Lavy; John Strauss

1996-01-01

366

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 8, Number 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "Cities in Crisis": New Report and National Campaign Focus on the High School Dropout Crisis in the United States; (2)…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2008-01-01

367

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Moving from Technology Optional to Technology Essential: Alliance President Testifies Before Michigan Senate Education…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2012-01-01

368

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 11, Number 17  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Alliance President Bob Wise Named to "Nonprofit Times'" Top 50 Most Influential Executives; (2) Sound and Fury or Signifying…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2011-01-01

369

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 9, Number 14  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) House Begins Work on FY 2010 Appropriations: Subcommittee Shoots Down Obama Proposal to Shift Title I Funds to School…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

370

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Let's Get Digital: First-Ever National Digital Learning Day Attracts Participation from Thirty-Nine States, 19,000 Teachers,…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2012-01-01

371

SAFETY AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION The Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy  

E-print Network

SAFETY AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION For The Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy For your personal well-being and the safety of everyone who works at the Ford School, specific procedures should-0453 Weill Hall 2nd Floor Tom Cook 3131 WH tomlcook 615-4922 Weill Hall 3rd Floor Zana Kwaiser 3310 WH

Shyy, Wei

372

Cops and CamerasPublic School Security as a Policy Response to Columbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the shootings at Columbine High School, many public schools increased their visible security measures, such as use of security cameras and guards. This study assesses this policy response. Particular attention is given to the fear that prompted changes in school security, the types of visible security measures adopted by schools after Columbine, and the positive and negative consequences of

Lynn A. Addington

2009-01-01

373

International Symposium on Career Development and Public Policy: Synthesis of Country Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Third International Symposium on Career Development and Public Policy was entitled "Shaping the future: Connecting career development and work development." Papers were provided by 16 nations and organisations, and this article synthesises these papers. The country teams were asked to select and address two or three of six themes: (1) human…

Watts, A. G.; Sweet, Richard; Haines, Christine; McMahon, Mary

2006-01-01

374

Connections and Perceptions: Policy Recommendations to Guide Social Media Interactions for Public Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Media networking is the next frontier in educational policy. A plethora of issues has arisen in regard to social media practices on the part of educators in public school systems. There is a lack of regulation for use of social media across the nation, resulting in court challenges brought by individual teachers, teachers' unions,…

Smith, Stephanie L.

2012-01-01

375

The Modern First Lady and Public Policy: From Edith Wilson through Hillary Rodham Clinton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role in and influence on public policy of twentieth century First Ladies including Edith Roosevelt, Helen Taft, Ellen Wilson, Edith Wilson, Florence Harding, Lou Henry Hoover, Eleanor Roosevelt, Jacqueline Kennedy, Lady Bird Johnson, Rosalynn Carter, Nancy Reagan, Barbara Bush, and Hillary Rodham Clinton. (CMK)

Black, Allida M.

2001-01-01

376

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Waiving Away High School Graduation Rate Accountability?: State NCLB Waiver Proposals Threaten to Weaken Accountability for…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2012-01-01

377

Annual Research Review: Resilience and Child Well-Being--Public Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There has been an 8-fold increase in use of the term resilience within scientific and scholar literature over the last twenty years. The arena of public policy has also seen increasing use made of the concept, both with respect to child well-being and development and wider issues. Method: A focal sample of literature comprising 108…

Ager, Alastair

2013-01-01

378

Contesting Public Monolingualism and Diglossia: Rethinking Political Theory and Language Policy for a Multilingual World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many language policy and political theory discussions, there is an overt skepticism, and at times outright hostility, towards the ongoing maintenance of private and, especially, public multilingualism, particularly when these include/incorporate the languages of linguistic minorities. For linguistic minority individuals, ongoing multilingualism…

May, Stephen

2014-01-01

379

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 10, Number 21  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Divided We Stall?: Prospects for Education Reform Unclear After Republicans Take Control in the House of Representatives, Gain…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

380

PUBLIC LAW 10958--AUG. 8, 2005 ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005  

E-print Network

renew- able energy resources on public lands. Subtitle B--Geothermal Energy Sec. 221. Short title. Sec. Assessment of geothermal energy potential. Sec. 227. CPUBLIC LAW 109­58--AUG. 8, 2005 ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 VerDate 14-DEC-2004 09:45 Sep 08, 2005

Laughlin, Robert B.

381

Energy Policy 36 (2008) 2333 Change in public attitudes towards a Cornish wind farm  

E-print Network

Energy Policy 36 (2008) 23­33 Viewpoint Change in public attitudes towards a Cornish wind farm to particular wind farm developments from the local population which can result in planning permission being to a wind farm change after an extended period following commissioning. Residents of St. Newlyn East

382

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 11, Number 21  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Nation's Report Card Reveals Modest Increases in Math and Reading: Report Shows One-Quarter of Eighth Graders Reading Below…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2011-01-01

383

The Mt. Graham environmental conflict: Property rights and the public policy process under stress  

SciTech Connect

The absolutist nature of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 encourages uneven enforcement, lengthy litigation and rent seeking in the public policy process. An analysis of the Mt. Graham International Observatory siting conflict reflects all three types of behavior by interested parties.

Rhode, T.C.; Wilson, P.N.

1992-12-01

384

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 9  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) You Take the High Road and I'll Take the Low Road: As Appropriations Process Begins, Different Spending Approaches Likely to…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2012-01-01

385

Persistent poverty among Africans Americans in the United States: the impact of public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the persistent poverty that exists among African Americans in the United States. It explains why African Americans in the United States are much more likely to live and\\/or remain in poverty than any other population group. This study is based on the premise that the governmental system has affected African Americans through the use of public policies.

Daphne M Cooper

2011-01-01

386

Gerald R. Ford School Of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series  

E-print Network

numbers of perceived barriers to achieving goals were associated with African American or Latino statusGerald R. Ford School Of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working MI This paper is available online at the National Poverty Center Working Paper Series index at: http

Shyy, Wei

387

Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series  

E-print Network

-educated minority women ­ particularly African-Americans ­ increased quite dramatically. This increase is generallyGerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Institute Elaine Sorensen, Urban Institute This paper is available online at the National Poverty Center

Shyy, Wei

388

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 8, Number 18  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Congress Punts Education Funding Decision to 2009: Education and Other Domestic Priorities Frozen While Defense and Homeland…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2008-01-01

389

Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies on genetically modified finfish and shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified finfish and shellfish pose economic benefits to aquaculture, but also pose ecological and genetic risks to ecosystems receiving such organisms. Realization of benefits with minimization of risks posed by a new technology can be addressed through the processes of risk assessment and risk management. Public policies adopted by individual countries will reflect differences in the outcome of risk

Eric M. Hallerman; Anne R. Kapuscinski

1995-01-01

390

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "Culture Shift": Preparing Students for Today's Demands Requires Shift to Learner-Centered Instruction Powered by Digital…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012

2012-01-01

391

National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

392

An Introduction to the Third International Symposium on Career Development and Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the highlights of the Third International Symposium on Career Development and Public Policy, which was held at the Manly Pacific Hotel in Sydney, Australia from April 21-24, 2006. This symposium built on those held in Ottawa and Vancouver in 1999 and 2001 respectively and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and…

McCowan, Colin

2006-01-01

393

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 11, Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Congress Delays Education Funding Decisions: Short-Term Measure Funds Government Into March, Ensures Greater Role for…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

2011-01-01

394

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 4, Number 19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Four More Years: Bush to Focus on High Schools During Second Term; (2) Education Funding Still in Limbo: Congress to Consider…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2004-01-01

395

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 4, Number 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Preparing, Recruiting, and Retaining Education Professionals: Senator Reed Proposes New $500 Million Bill to Improve Teacher…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2004-01-01

396

Parental Entrepreneurship in Public Education: A Social Force or a Policy Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parental involvement in public education is an expression of joint responsibility between parents and the state in which parents are expected to "comply" with current educational policy. Moreover, parents are often perceived as "reactive," whereas the educational administration is seen as proactive, mainly by reducing barriers…

Gofen, Anat; Blomqvist, Paula

2014-01-01

397

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 10, Number 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) ESEA [Elementary and Secondary Education Act] Reauthorization Shifts to Middle and High Schools: Senate HELP [Health,…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

398

Public School Finance and Urban School Policy: General versus Partial Equilibrium Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alternative approaches to educational finance on public school quality have attracted substantial attention from researchers and policymakers. Much of this analysis, however, focuses narrowly on the effects of financial resources on school quality in the absence of behavioral adjustments to policy changes. In contrast, this paper examines the relationship between school financing methods and school quality in

Thomas J. Nechyba

2003-01-01

399

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 4, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Architects for Change: National Association of Secondary School Principals Releases New Report on Reinventing High Schools; (2)…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2004-01-01

400

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 7, Number 15  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) House of Representatives Passes Education Funding Bill: Legislation Draws Veto Threat From President Bush for "Excessive"…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2007-01-01

401

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 8, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Bush Budget Proposes Spending Freeze for U.S. Department of Education: Title I, Striving Readers, Statewide Data Systems Among…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2008-01-01

402

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 7, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) House Passes FY 2007 Funding Measure: Education Programs Slated to Receive Additional Funding; (2) President Bush Releases FY…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2007-01-01

403

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 5, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Bush Spending Plan Cuts Education by 0.9 Percent Overall: $1.5 Billion Plan for High Schools Paid for Through Cuts Totaling…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2005-01-01

404

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 6, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) President Bush Releases Fiscal Year 2007 Budget: Education Funding Cut by $2.1 Billion; $100 Million Request for Striving…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2006-01-01

405

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 4, Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Governor Bush Signs Middle Grades Reform Act, Sends 250 Reading Coaches into Florida Middle Schools; (2) The Condition of…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2004-01-01

406

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 5, Number 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Secretary Spellings Defends Bush Budget on Capitol Hill: Congress Expresses Concern over Education Cuts, Proposal to Extend…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2005-01-01

407

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 5, Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) President Bush Promotes High School Agenda: Of $1.5 Billion Plan for High Schools, $200 Million Would Go to Striving Readers…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2005-01-01

408

Postsecondary Remediation Policy: Analysis and Recommendations for Ohio's System of Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting national trends, a quarter of college freshmen in Ohio's public colleges and universities enroll in remedial coursework. Possible causes of underpreparedness are discussed. Policy recommendations focus on aligning high school and college requirements, developing a comprehensive K-16 continuum of assessment and intervention, K-12 school…

Herzberg, Marcus; Nagata, Noriko; Long, Joyce; Bollman, Art

2003-01-01

409

Introduction of low-osmolar contrast agents in radiology: medical, economic, legal, and public policy issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study of the public policy implications of introducing a new technology in radiology, namely, low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM), raises the issues of whether and how to place appropriate limits on new technologies. Although these contrast media represent small episodic costs, they may add up to an aggregate expenditure of nearly $1 billion per year if used for all

P. D. Jacobson; C. J. Rosenquist

1988-01-01

410

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 17  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) To Be Continued: Congress Enacts Temporary Funding Mechanism to Keep Government Operating Until March 2013; Bill Provides…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2012-01-01

411

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 9, Number 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Obama Outlines Education Agenda: President Calls for "World-Class Standards" and an End to the High School Dropout "Epidemic";…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

412

IRB and EDRC Release New Policy Governing Public Databases Date: February 22, 2013  

E-print Network

involving secondary analysis of publicly available databases. "This policy reduces the burden on MCW available including: American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), and several Kirsten Beyer. The EDRC is MCW's centralized source for secondary health and demographic data

413

Pediatric obesity in Texas: does the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy affect child nutrition?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A significant increase in the incidence of pediatric obesity has been reported in Texas. This study evaluated how effectively the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy promoted the understanding of proper nutrition by fourth-grade school children and their parents in three school districts in Bell Co...

414

Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

415

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 10, Number 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance": New OECD Report Finds that 25 Point Increase in PISA Scores Could Lead to $40.6…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

416

Four Commandments for Writing Policies for Public-Access Wireless Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes what components should be included in a comprehensive policy for public wireless usage in a library. He lists four basic steps, which include: (1) Introduce the service; (2) List the technical requirements; (3) Spell out disclaimers on access, assistance, and liability; and (4) Alert users to security concerns.

Sauers, Michael

2006-01-01

417

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 9, Number 18  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1)"Quality Education Too Long Delayed Is Education Denied": In Campaign-Like Speech, Secretary Duncan Turns Up the Heat on ESEA…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

418

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 9, Number 19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Stimulus Shell Game?: U.S. Department of Education's Inspector General Warns that Some States are Using Education Stimulus…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

419

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 5, Number 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) New Report Offers Recommendations for Defining and Improving Graduation Rates: Calls for New Federal Funding Stream for High…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2005-01-01

420

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 10, Number 14  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Economic Boost: New Alliance Report Examines Economic Impact of Reducing the High School Dropout Rate Among Students of Color;…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

421

National Innovation and the Academic Research Enterprise: Public Policy in Global Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume analyzes the impact of public policy on the knowledge economies and higher education systems of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as the overall European Union. Given that…

Dill, David D., Ed.; van Vught, Frans A., Ed.

2010-01-01

422

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Obama Releases Fiscal Year 2013 Federal Budget: Budget Proposes 3.8 Percent Increase in Discretionary Funding for U.S.…

Amos, Jason, Ed.

2012-01-01

423

Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 9, Number 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Congress Passes FY 2009 Omnibus Bill: Bill Will Provide $4.45 Billion Increase for U.S. Department of Education; (2)…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

424

Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series  

E-print Network

. The widespread use in the United States of state waivers from the former Aid to Families with Depen- dentGerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working and NBER This paper is available online at the National Poverty Center Working Paper Series index at: http

Shyy, Wei

425

Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series  

E-print Network

eligibility for cash assistance in the United States by establishing term limits on the receipt of welfareGerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Research This paper is available online at the National Poverty Center Working Paper Series index at: http

Shyy, Wei

426

[Health equity in the world's most unequal region: a challenge for public policy in Latin America].  

PubMed

Re-democratization has transformed the social agenda and the role of the state in Latin America with a growing commitment to health equity and social justice, yet these aspirations are strained by the region´s profound socioeconomic inequalities. Efforts to provide universal coverage to the right to health have led to the development of a variety of public policies, whose scope depends on how the concepts of health and equity are understood. In general, policy action has centered on health system reforms and only recently on integrated intersectorial action to address wider social determinants of health, particularly structural determinants. Furthermore, if the goal is health equity the predominant minimum standards approach cannot be the final answer, but only a step on the road to equality. Finally, realizing universal coverage of the right to health through public policy requires the strengthening of governmental institutional capacities with an intersectorial and participatory lens. PMID:24448946

Frenz, Patricia; Titelman, Daniel

2013-01-01

427

Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985: public law 99-58. Ninety-Ninth Congress, July 2, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Public Law 99-58 extends Titles I and II of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act to June 30, 1989 by adding section 171 to Part C-Expiration of Title I. Other amendments pertain to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, specifically to require a test drawdown, and terminate certain emergency authorities. Title II amendments mandate a review of coal imports that will cover quantity, quality, and source as well as identifying domestic coal production and consumption by state to determine if there are any significant trends.

Not Available

1985-01-01

428

Public Policy on Smoking and Health: Toward a Smoke-Free Generation by the Year 2000. Volume 73, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy statement on smoking and health was written by a working group of experts commissioned by the American Heart Association's Subcommittee on Smoking to study relevant issues and recommend appropriate policies for achieving a smoke-free society by the year 2000. To aid in developing and implementing public policies designed to facilitate…

Warner, Kenneth E.; And Others

429

The geologist and public policy issues, opportunities and obligations  

SciTech Connect

Historically, geologists have been perceived by the public as solely involved in resource exploration and production or geologic hazards mitigation. This generally included mining, oil drilling, landslide or earthquake (after the fact) comments, and rock or mineral collecting. These operations have come to be associated with land exploitation involving extraction of non-renewable resources, and often, in consequence, pollution. These generic activities may not currently be considered environmentally sound or politically correct. Because of the high visibility of environmental issues in recent years, geologists now have an opportunity to offer necessary input contributing to solutions for many of these problems. Indeed, geologists must be thought of as part of the solution, and thus alter public perception that geologists are facilitators of environmental damage. After all, who may better protect and conserve the earth and its environments than people trained in the Earth Sciences Governmental and industry or consulting geologists are now involved in a wide range of interpretative geologic decisions regarding a cross-section of activities aimed at development and conservation of lands and natural resources. These can be grouped in generalized categories including: waste disposal issues, water resources issues, land-use planning and zoning issues, and resource conservation or regulation requirements.

Schmidt, W. (Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL (United States))

1993-03-01

430

Department Research Ethics Resources at Stanford University Type CS CS181 Computers, ethics, and public policy, Margaret Johnson Class  

E-print Network

Department Research Ethics Resources at Stanford University Type CS CS181 Computers, ethics, and public policy, Margaret Johnson Class Law LAW288: Governance and Ethics: Anti-corruption law, compliance, and enforcement Class MS&E MS&E197: Ethics and Public Policy (Also PubPol103B, STS110) Class OSPBER45 OSPBER45

431

75 FR 55341 - Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2010-0055] Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire...Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and...

2010-09-10

432

Faculty Search: Department of Engineering and Public Policy Junior or Senior Hire in the Management of Innovation  

E-print Network

Faculty Search: Department of Engineering and Public Policy Junior or Senior Hire in the Management of Innovation The Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) and Carnegie Mellon University are seeking-innovationfacultysearch@cmu.edu. The search committee will begin screening applications on October 1, 2013 and the position will remain open

433

75 FR 65366 - Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2010-0063] Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public...the final Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public...protect eligible facilities threatened by landslides or slope failures; as well as the...

2010-10-22

434

BRINGING THE ECONOMY BACK IN (AGAIN): CONCEPTIONS OF THE CAPITALIST STATE AND THEIR RELEVANCE FOR PUBLIC POLICY  

E-print Network

AND THEIR RELEVANCE FOR PUBLIC POLICY Patrick J. Akard University of Kansas Mid-American Review of Sociology, 1986, Vol. XI, No. 2:75-1'00 The economic role of the state has been the central issue in recent debates on public policy. This is particularly manifest...

Akard, Patrick J.

1986-01-01

435

[Public policy, structures of the State and the advocacy of the right to health protection].  

PubMed

Not always public policies for the advocacy of citizen rights meet their goal, among other things, because between their formulation and their implementation there is a lack of appropriate structures to generate, articulate and execute these policies. This has been the case of Mexico regarding the advocacy of the rights of non smokers. Very few has been achieved in this matter in the past. This article lists some of the potential causes of the lack of implementation of public policies. At the same time, explores the highly dynamic nature of the health care system at the present and towards the future. The magnitude of the challenges faced by the health care system requires concerted actions of many actors, not only from the very health care system but also from outside. Thus, public policies have to be considered not just at the governmental level but at the state level. Therefore, the main argument of this paper is that given the need to respond to complex challenges to protect the health of the population and their rights in a very complex context, there is a need to formulate and implement state policies that require the intervention of the appropriate state structures to make sure that the design and execution leads to the expected achievements. One such structure at the state level, among others, is the General Health Council, an organization established in 1841, that was incorporated within the Mexican Constitution in 1917, depending directly from the President of Mexico as Head of State. This Council has been reinforced to improve its assigned role to better participate, along other state structures, in the formulation and implementation of public policies such as those for the advocacy of citizen rights. PMID:18604355

Ruelas-Barajas, Enrique; Gay-Molina, Juan Gabriel

2008-01-01

436

Public Education and Multicultural Policy in Canada: The Special Case of Quebec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education is a provincial responsibility in Canada, but there is a sharing of expenditure and strong support of public education, health and other welfare programs between the provinces and the federal government. Although the federal policy of multiculturalism has been aimed at making Canada a `just' society, the implementation of this policy in education in English-speaking Canada has been far from satisfactory, and there is great variation among the provinces in educational programs. In Quebec, the federal policy of multiculturalism is ideologically opposed to the vision of French-Québécois nationalism. While the federal policy of intercultural education has made some attempts to integrate immigrant populations, the focus remains on linguistic programs. In facing the dramatic changes driven by internationalization and a globalized economy, Canadians must respond - so the conclusion of the present study - to the urgent need to redefine the meaning of multiculturalism with radical educational programs.

Ghosh, Ratna

2004-11-01

437

Earthquake prediction: The interaction of public policy and science  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake prediction research has searched for both informational phenomena, those that provide information about earthquake hazards useful to the public, and causal phenomena, causally related to the physical processes governing failure on a fault, to improve our understanding of those processes. Neither informational nor causal phenomena are a subset of the other. I propose a classification of potential earthquake predictors of informational, causal, and predictive phenomena, where predictors are causal phenomena that provide more accurate assessments of the earthquake hazard than can be gotten from assuming a random distribution. Achieving higher, more accurate probabilities than a random distribution requires much more information about the precursor than just that it is causally related to the earthquake.

Jones, L.M.

1996-01-01

438

The Nature-Nurture Debate and Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contentious nature-nurture debate in developmental psychology is poised to reach a rapprochement with contemporary concepts of gene-environment interaction, transaction, and fit. Discoveries over the past decade have revealed how neither genes nor the environment offers a sufficient window into human development. Rather, the most important

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

439

NCLR Agenda for Hispanic Families: A Public Policy Briefing Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This briefing book offers guidance to Congress, the Administration, and state legislatures about which issues are important to the nation's largest ethnic groups, focusing on: "Civil Rights" (hate crimes, racial profiling, sentencing reform, and voting rights); "Economic Mobility" (e.g., banking and financial services, pensions, savings, Social…

National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

440

JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY RICE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

of relief. Record-high crude oil prices are the primary reason for record-high gasoline prices, and a confluence of factors is responsible for the recent run-up in crude oil prices. One important factor behind the strength of oil prices is the expectation of inadequate future oil supply. This has led to a debate

Laughlin, Robert B.

441

Promoting Public Policy that Supports Healthy Infants and Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The earliest years of life are critical to providing a foundation for good health. Providing adequate health care early can prevent many of the physical, social-emotional, and cognitive impairments that children could face in the future. The recent landmark health reform package signed into law includes important elements that positively affect…

Rappaport, Debbie M.

2010-01-01

442

The role of public policy in emerging green power markets: An analysis of marketer preferences  

SciTech Connect

Green power marketing has been heralded by some as a means to create a private market for renewable energy that is driven by customer demand for green products. This report challenges the premise--sometimes proffered in debates over green markets--that profitable, sizable, credible markets for green products will evolve naturally without supportive public policies. Relying primarily on surveys and interviews of US green power marketers, the article examines the role of specific regulatory and legislative policies in enabling the green market, and searches for those policies that are believed by marketers to be the most conducive or detrimental to the expansion of the green market. The authors find that marketers: (1) believe that profitable green power markets will only develop if a solid foundation of supportive policies exists; (2) believe that establishing overall price competition and encouraging customer switching are the top priorities; (3) are somewhat leery of government-sponsored or mandated public information programs; and (4) oppose three specific renewable energy policies that are frequently advocated by renewable energy enthusiasts, but that may have negative impacts on the green marketers' profitability. The stated preferences of green marketers shed light on ways to foster renewables by means of the green market. Because the interests of marketers do not coincide perfectly with those of society, however, the study also recognizes other normative perspectives and highlights policy tensions at the heart of current debates related to green markets. By examining these conflicts, they identify three key policy questions that should direct future research: (1) to what extent should price competition and customer switching be encouraged at the expense of cost shifting; (2) what requirements should be imposed to ensure credibility in green products and marketing; and (3) how should the green power market and broader renewable energy policies interact?

Wiser, R.

1999-08-01

443

Public Policy Actions Needed to Promote Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and strategies to increase activity levels are as important\\u000a to population health as smoking cessation, cholesterol control, or preventing obesity. The World Health Organization has identified\\u000a that governments and non-government agencies have a central role in the creation of environments that facilitate physical\\u000a activity changes by individuals, families, and communities.

Bill Bellew; Adrian Bauman; Brian Martin; Fiona Bull; Victor Matsudo

2011-01-01

444

Integrating pollution prevention technology into public policy: the case of professional wet cleaning.  

PubMed

This paper discusses opportunities to promote pollution prevention technologies through public policy, describing the case of dry cleaning. The crisis in dry cleaning is associated with the industry's reliance on perchloroethylene (PCE), the chemical cleaning solvent used by the vast majority of cleaners. The limits to the current pollution control or end-of-pipe system of laws and regulations and the search for nontoxic alternatives are analyzed in light of the environmental and occupational hazards associated with PCE use. Criteria to evaluate those alternatives are then described, including their application to professional wet cleaning, a commercially available pollution prevention alternative to PCE. The article concludes with an evaluation of several public policy instruments that could be used to promote the diffusion of professional wet cleaning as a potential solution to this regulatory crisis. These include environmental and occupational regulations designed to reduce or eliminate risk from exposure to toxic substances as well as incentive-based programs. Both barriers and opportunities for the use of each instrument are identified. This review reveals that, while the pollution control approach to public policy has deepened the regulatory crisis in the garment care industry, policy instruments are currently available to create an effective transition toward a pollution prevention outcome. PMID:11993858

Sinsheimer, Peter; Gottlieb, Robert; Farrar, Corice

2002-04-15

445

Long-Term Socioeconomic Impact of Child Abuse and Neglect: Implications for Public Policy. Policy Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child abuse and neglect greatly influence victims' long-term wellbeing. Until recently, however, little was known about how such experiences affect victims' later socioeconomic status. Current research has examined the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on adult employment, income, and reliance on public assistance, as well as the reasons…

Zielinski, David S.

2005-01-01

446

Importance of government policies and other influences in transforming global diets.  

PubMed

The Second International Conference on Nutrition, organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, will take place in November 2014. In 1992, the First International Conference on Nutrition declared, "Hunger and malnutrition are unacceptable." Twenty-two years later, it is timely to revisit the state of global nutrition and examine the forces that have brought change to diets worldwide. Calorie availability has increased throughout the world, even in the least-developed countries, where per capita availability has grown by 10%. As a consequence, the proportion of undernourished people has fallen, yet obesity has emerged as a major public health concern, primarily in developed countries but also among the growing middle classes in middle- and low-income countries. Globally, the nutrition transition has been affected by increased intakes of livestock products, processed foods, and fast foods. These changes are most readily explained by economic growth, urbanization, and globalization. International trade and liberalization of investment have been the key policy drivers of dietary change. PMID:25110040

Traill, W Bruce; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani; Hallam, David

2014-09-01

447

A Few Important W&L Policies, Frequently Asked Questions, and Helpful Resources for Legal Issues  

E-print Network

and Drug-Free Schools Statement go.wlu.edu/OGC/DrugFree Campus Security Report, Crime Reporting, and Crime.wlu.edu/OGC/AcceptableUse Confidentiality Policy go.wlu.edu/OGC/Confidentiality FERPA-Student Education Records Policy go.wlu.edu/OGC/CopyrightPermission Audio/Video Recording of Classes Policy go.wlu.edu/OGC/RecordingOfClasses Intellectual Property Policy

Marsh, David

448

Market structure and advertising in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry: some implications for public policy.  

PubMed

Distortions in market processes for pharmaceuticals raise the important policy problem of devising measures to improve industry performance. This paper first reviews the basic issues involved in formulating economic policy regarding the pharmaceutical industry. Methods for reducing structural market power and undesirable promotional expenditures are examined, and the impacts of four oft-suggested policy "reforms"--removal of trade names, removal of patents, relaxation of requirements for certification of new drug products, and increased enforcement of antitrust laws--are then analyzed. Finally, problems requiring additional research are identified. PMID:628237

Hornbrook, M C

1978-02-01

449

Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.  

PubMed

In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people. PMID:24151148

Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

2013-12-01

450

Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.  

PubMed

We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ?18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity. PMID:24901796

Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

2014-01-01

451

A look behind the scenes: bioterrorism, smallpox, and public health policy.  

PubMed

The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and continued conflict in Middle Eastern countries has provoked a strong interest in issues of national security. On December 13, 2002 the Bush Administration announced its smallpox vaccination policy, the first nationwide "proactive" measure to address the threat of bioterrorism. The Program has received mixed reactions as a result of partisan issues, tensions in public health policy and federal and state jurisdiction, conflicting scientific views, and different risk assessments. The slow pace of the program, the difficulties surrounding its implementation, and the debates regarding its validity serves as a "case study" to demonstrate current short-comings in federal and state anti-terrorist and public health policies. The focus will be on the states' public health laws and emergency preparedness plans through an analysis of the proposed Model State Emergency Preparedness Act. Updating current public health laws combined with increased funding of scientific research and the foresight to act "proactively" will reach far beyond improving national security. These efforts serve the dual purpose of deterring future terrorist attacks while greatly improving responses to a number of other health emergencies and disasters. PMID:15460560

Beane, Jennifer

2004-01-01

452

Music and dance make me feel alive: from Mandela's prison songs and dances to public policy.  

PubMed

How is it possible for song and dance to exist in political incarceration and manifest itself later as public policy responding to apartheid atrocities? Examining the body of songs, oral history accounts, and eye-witness reports provided by fellow-prisoners of Mandela on Robben Island prison, I uncover a psychological environment mediated through music and dance--within the confines of a political prison. This source of prison music-making by political prisoners in detention, provide us with the artistic expressions of revolutionary songs, parody songs, praise songs, laments, etc. These music genres reflect ontologies embedded in Mandela's juristic imagination. My framework for explaining these ontologies is a theoretical framework I call an aesthetic of function: internal ontologies that speak to the African cultural ground against which external ontologies are expressed in the jurisprudential redress to apartheid atrocities. Examining his external (jurisprudential) ontologies through song and dance, one realizes that the best way for him to have solved the unprecedented public redress of apartheid atrocities is evident in the songs he sang in Robben Island prison. Retribution could have been a logical solution for him. Instead, he turned to truth-telling and reconciliation as public policy. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's unprecedented breaking of social and jurisprudential boundaries, the claim of agency for both victims and perpetrators, and public policy of South Africa's first democratically elected black president, lie deeply embedded in cultural practices he testified to in his autobiography, "The Long Walk to Freedom". These cultural practices in prison were singing and dancing. This paper complements the music-as-torture trope: here music in detention carries ontological agency. Musical evidence of stylistic features, text, and contextual analyses, and related literary criticism devices, expose Mandela's embedded internal and external ontological cultural practices. Here, song and dance have agency to influence public policy despite the constraints of political detention. PMID:24480893

Buis, Johann S

2013-01-01

453

Changing Policy Framing as a Deliberate Strategy for Public Health Advocacy: A Qualitative Policy Case Study of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Context Scotland is the first country in the world to pass legislation introducing a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in an attempt to reduce consumption and associated harms by increasing the price of the cheapest alcohol. We investigated the competing ways in which policy stakeholders presented the debate. We then established whether a change in framing helped explain the policy's emergence. Methods We conducted a detailed policy case study through analysis of evidence submitted to the Scottish parliament, and in-depth, one-to-one interviews (n = 36) with politicians, civil servants, advocates, researchers, and industry representatives. Findings Public- and voluntary-sector stakeholders tended to support MUP, while industry representatives were more divided. Two markedly different ways of presenting alcohol as a policy problem were evident. Critics of MUP (all of whom were related to industry) emphasized social disorder issues, particularly among young people, and hence argued for targeted approaches. In contrast, advocates for MUP (with the exception of those in industry) focused on alcohol as a health issue arising from overconsumption at a population level, thus suggesting that population-based interventions were necessary. Industry stakeholders favoring MUP adopted a hybrid framing, maintaining several aspects of the critical framing. Our interview data showed that public health advocates worked hard to redefine the policy issue by deliberately presenting a consistent alternative framing. Conclusions Framing alcohol policy as a broad, multisectoral, public health issue that requires a whole-population approach has been crucial to enabling policymakers to seriously consider MUP, and public health advocates intentionally presented alcohol policy in this way. This reframing helped prioritize public health considerations in the policy debate and represents a deliberate strategy for consideration by those advocating for policy change around the world and in other public health areas. PMID:24890247

Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

2014-01-01

454

National Lung Screening Trial Limitations and Public Health Policy.  

PubMed

The completion of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of lung cancer screening (LCS), in 2010 provided powerful RCT evidence of the efficacy and safety of computed tomography-based screening; nevertheless, the study had important limitations. Failure to understand these limitations has had substantial adverse effects. Misinterpretation or misrepresentation of the results has led to underestimation of benefits and overestimation of adverse effects. When factored into predictive models, inaccurate estimates have yielded falsely low projections of potential lives saved with national implementation of LCS, exaggerated projected costs, and underestimated cost-effectiveness. When extrapolated estimates were presented to guideline groups and payer panels by screening critics, results included delay in implementation of screening, recommendations to screen only a limited high-risk subgroup, and advice to restrict LCS to otherwise undefined "centers of excellence" able to enter data into a national registry. Finally, despite the formal endorsement of LCS by a large number of prestigious guideline groups, inaccurate extrapolation of NLST data has served to convince payer panels to recommend against insurance coverage for LCS. This article reviews limitations of the NLST study design and compares its results with screening data from many other RCTs and clinical programs, with the intention of providing more accurate and comprehensive information on the benefits, risks, costs, and cost-effectiveness of LCS. PMID:25381210

Grannis, Frederic W

2014-11-15

455

How Can We Make the Pain Go Away? Public Policies to Manage Pain at the End of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The continued undertreatment of pain at the end of life is a substantive public health problem that has not been resolved through increased public awareness, the issuance of clinical guidance for providers, or expanded organizational commitments. In this forum, we illuminate the role of public policies in promoting pain management. We review…

Imhof, Sara; Kaskie, Brian

2008-01-01

456

Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths  

PubMed Central

Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors. PMID:18855489

Dodge, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

457

EURRECA-A framework for considering evidence in public health nutrition policy development.  

PubMed

A key step toward developing appropriate evidence-based public health nutrition policies is determining exactly how that evidence should be collected and assessed. Despite this the extent to which different evidence bases influence policy selection is rarely explored. This article presents an epistemological framework which offers a range of considerations affecting this process generally and with particular implications for both micronutrient requirements and the role of behavior in the policy-making process. Qualitative case study data covering 6 European countries/regions (Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands, Nordic countries, Poland, and Spain), and three micronutrients (folate, iodine, and vitamin D), have been presented to illustrate the relevance of the Framework. PMID:23952092

Timotijevic, Lada; Brown, Kerry A; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; de Wit, Liesbeth; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Ruprich, Ji?í; Reh??ková, Irena; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Sicinska, Ewa; Brito García, Noé; Guzzon, Antonella; Jensen, Birger B; Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Raats, Monique M

2013-01-01

458

[Institutionalization and development of nursing in Brazil in view of public health policies].  

PubMed

The paper deals with a historical recovery of the genesis of Nursing and its development in Brazil in order to elucidate its influence in current nursing education and practice. It emphasizes the role played by the Rockefeller Foundation in the organization of public health nursing, the creation of the first school of nursing and the consolidation of nursing education and practice in hospitals. Certain public health policies were also examined, given their influence in the development of the profession. Nursing maintained a scientific and politically neutral position during the implementation of these health policies, possibly because of the non-critical makeup brought about by the adoption of the flexnerian model of teaching, in its link to Medicine. PMID:12221945

Galleguillos, T G; Oliveira, M A

2001-01-01

459

Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco control strategies have mainly targeted reducing demand. Supply-side focused measures, though less familiar, deserve consideration, particularly to achieve 'endgame' tobacco control aims (e.g. achieving close to zero smoking prevalence). We explored attitudes towards supply-side focused 'endgame' tobacco control approaches and how they can be best communicated with senior policymakers, journalists, and public health practitioners. Methods We identified five supply-side focused approaches which could potentially lead to the tobacco endgame: two structural models and three discrete actions. The structural models were: (i) a Nicotine Authority to coordinate tobacco control activities and regulate the nicotine/tobacco market for public health aims; and (ii) a Tobacco Supply Agency acting as a monopoly purchaser of tobacco products and controlling the tobacco supply for public health aims. The actions were: (a) allocating progressively reducing tobacco product import quotas (the 'sinking lid') until importation and commercial sale of tobacco products ceased; (b) making tobacco companies responsible for reducing smoking prevalence with stringent financial penalties if targets were missed; and (c) new laws to facilitate litigation against tobacco companies. These approaches were presented as means to achieve a tobacco free New Zealand by 2020 to 19 senior policymakers, journalists, and public health physicians in two focus groups and eight interviews, and their reactions sought. Results The tobacco-free vision was widely supported. Participants engaged fully with the proposed tobacco control approaches, which were viewed as interesting or even intriguing. Most supported increasing the focus on supply-side measures. Views differed greatly about the desirability, feasibility and likely effectiveness of each approach. Participants identified a range of potential barriers to implementation and challenges to successfully advocating and communicating these approaches. The current framing of tobacco as a risky but legal commodity was noted as an important potential barrier to implementing endgame approaches. Conclusions Endgame tobacco control approaches were considered to be viable policy options. Further policy analysis, research and public discussion are needed to develop endgame approaches. A significant change in the public framing of tobacco may be a prerequisite for implementing endgame solutions. PMID:21774829

2011-01-01

460

An Ontology for G2G Collaboration in Public Policy Making, Implementation and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the development and use of ontologies for electronically supporting and structuring the highest-level\\u000a function of government: the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies for the big and complex problems that\\u000a modern societies face. This critical government function usually necessitates extensive interaction and collaboration among\\u000a many heterogeneous government organizations (G2G collaboration) with different backgrounds, mentalities, values, interests

Euripidis N. Loukis

2007-01-01

461

PUBLIC?PRIVATE SUPPORT OF THE ARTS AND GERMAN CULTURAL POLICY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a historical context for thinking about Germany’s recent embrace of sponsorship and private donations as a means of supporting education and the arts. The paper notes that the chief architect of a new national cultural policy, Michael Naumann, has justified a turn to public?private collaborative arts funding with the argument that a market?driven model of private responsibility

Peter M. McIsaac

2007-01-01

462

From rehabilitation to retribution: Examining public policy paradigms and personnel education patterns in corrections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature is saturated with discussions of how public policy paradigm shifts over the past several decades have affected\\u000a everything from escalating prison populations to accelerating tax burdens. However, observers have not examined whether the\\u000a transition from the medical model to the justice model has influenced the educational qualifications of custodial staff. Theoretically,\\u000a one might assume that a treatment focus

Jeanne B. Stinchcomb

2002-01-01

463

Effectiveness of the public health policy for breast cancer screening in Finland: population based cohort study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of screening for breast cancer as a public health policy. DESIGN: Follow up in 1987-92 of Finnish women invited to join the screening programme in 1987-9 and of the control women (balanced by age and matched by municipality of residence), who were not invited to the service screening. SETTING: Finland. SUBJECTS: Of the Finnish women born in 1927-39, 89893 women invited for screening and 68862 controls were followed; 1584 breast cancers were diagnosed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate ratio of deaths from breast cancer among the women invited for screening to deaths among those not invited. RESULTS: There were 385 deaths from breast cancer, of which 127 were among the 1584 incident cases in 1987-92. The rate ratio of death was 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.53 to 1.09). The effect was larger and significant (0.56; 0.33 to 0.95) among women aged under 56 years at entry. 20 cancers were prevented (one death prevented per 10000 screens). CONCLUSIONS: A breast screening programme can achieve a similar effect on mortality as achieved by the trials for breast cancer screening. However, it may be difficult to justify a screening programme as a public health policy on the basis of the mortality reduction only. Whether to run a screening programme as a public health policy also depends on its effects on the quality of life of the target population and what the resources would be used for if screening was not done. Given all the different dimensions in the effect, mammography based breast screening is probably justifiable as a public health policy. PMID:9093096

Hakama, M.; Pukkala, E.; Heikkilä, M.; Kallio, M.

1997-01-01

464

Engaging African Americans in Therapy: Integrating a Public Policy and Family Therapy Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of marriage and family therapy faces a growing imperative to reach historically underserved populations. African\\u000a Americans are a prime example of a minority group in the United States that continues to be underserved by the current mental\\u000a health system. We integrate Andersen’s (1995, Journal of Health and Social behavior, 36, 1–10) public policy model of health service use

Maureen P. Davey; Marlene F. Watson

2008-01-01

465

The Second Decade of the Faculty Publication Project: Journal Article Publications and the Importance of Faculty Scholarship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the findings of the Faculty Publication Project for 2000-2004 and examines the association between faculty scholarship expectations and publication productivity at the leading graduate programs. Findings suggest higher rates of faculty publication in recent years and increases in multi-authored publications and articles…

Green, Robert G.; Baskind, Frank R.

2007-01-01

466

“The law was actually drafted by us but the Government is to be congratulated on its wise actions”: British American Tobacco and public policy in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background and objective British American Tobacco (BAT) has historically enjoyed a monopoly position in Kenya. Analysis of recent tobacco control debates and a case study of BAT's response to the emergence of competition in Kenya are used to explore the company's ability to shape public policy and its treatment of tobacco farmers. Design Analysis of internal industry documents from BAT's Guildford depository, other relevant data and interviews with key informants. Results BAT enjoys extensive high?level political connections in Kenya, including close relationships with successive Kenyan presidents. Such links seems to have been used to influence public policy. Health legislation has been diluted and delayed, and when a competitor emerged in the market, BAT used its contacts to have the government pass legislation drafted by BAT that compelled farmers to sell tobacco to BAT rather than to its competitor. BAT was already paying farmers less than any other African leaf?growing company, and the legislation entrenched poor pay and a quasi?feudal relationship. BAT's public relation's response to the threat of competition and the ministers' public statements extolling the economic importance of tobacco growing suggest that BAT has manipulated tobacco farming as a political issue. Conclusions The extent of BAT's influence over public policy is consistent with the observations that, despite ratifying the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, progress in implementing tobacco control measures in Kenya has been limited. The benefits of tobacco farming seem to be deliberately exaggerated, and an analysis of its true cost benefits is urgently needed. Tobacco farmers must be protected against BAT's predatory practices and fully informed about its activities to help them have an informed role in policy debates. As image, particularly around the importance of tobacco farming, seems key to BAT's ability to influence policy, the truth about its treatment of farmers must be publicised. PMID:17297056

Patel, Preeti; Collin, Jeff; Gilmore, Anna B

2007-01-01

467

Human genome research and the public interest: Progress notes from an American Science Policy Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This essay reviews the efforts of the US Human Genome Project to anticipate and address the ethical, legal, and social implications of new advances in human genetics. Since 1990, approximately $10 million has been awarded by the National Institutes of Health and the DOE, in support of 65 research, education, and public discussion projects. These projects address four major areas of need: (1) the need for both client-centered assessments of new genetic services and for improved knowledge of the psychosocial and ethnocultural factors that shape clients' clinical genetic experiences; (2) the need for clear professional policies regarding human-subject research, clinical practical standards, and public health goals in human genetics; (3) the need for social policy protection against unfair access to and use of personal genetic information; (4) the need for improved public and professional understanding and discussion of these issues. The Human Genome Project's goal is to have defined, by 1995, policy options and programs capable of addressing these needs. 47 refs.

Juengst, E.T. (National Center for Human Genome Research, Bethesda, MD (United States))

1994-01-01

468

New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act to encourage the development of multidisciplinary educational programs on the national security implications of climate change. 2. Federal agencies should establish funding programs to encourage producers to provide scientific information tailored to consumer needs. 3. The Department of State should appoint climate advisors to serve within the regional bureaus and on the policy and planning staff. 4. Federal agencies, the Department of Education, and the National Science Foundation should develop programs to stimulate new interdisciplinary research partnerships and training of a new generation of interdisciplinary climate change risk thinkers, assessors and managers. 5. Federal agencies should encourage Senior Executive Service decision makers to participate in science policy certi¬fication workshops and include science and technology policy as a core curricu¬lum component of the SES Federal Candidate Development Program. These recommendations are described in detail in a report published by the Center for a New American Security: Rogers, W. and J. Gulledge (2010) Lost in Translation: Closing the Gap Between Climate Science and National Security Policy (available online: http://cnas.org/node/4391)

Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

2010-12-01

469

Factors encouraging and inhibiting organ donation in Israel: the public view and the contribution of legislation and public policy.  

PubMed

Although transplantation surgeries are relatively successful and save the lives of many, only few are willing to donate organs. In order to better understand the reasons for donation or refusing donation and their implications on and influence by public policy, we conducted a survey examining public views on this issue in Israel. Between January and June 2010, an anonymous questionnaire based on published literature was distributed among random and selected parts of Israeli society and included organ recipients, organ donors, soldiers, university and high school students, and the general population. The analysis of 799 questionnaires revealed that, although 74.7 percent have not signed a donor card, 60.8 percent of participants consider doing so. Additionally, 54.3 percent of respondents objected to giving or receiving compensation for donation, and, if at all, priority in transplantation care is the most desired form of such compensation. The health status of the donor and knowing that donation saves lives or that there exists a shortage of organs for transplantation are the two factors most affecting motivation to donate. Lack of information, relatives' views on donation, and type of organ involved in donation are factors most inhibiting donation. Willingness to donate is significantly affected by the proximity of the recipient to the donor. With regard to most organs, their contribution to one's sense of "self" and its symbolic role strongly affects motivation to donate, except for donation to relatives. Compensation for organ donation has little effect on motivation to donate during life and after death. Our findings suggest new ways to construct a more effective public policy on this issue. PMID:23188407

Sperling, Daniel; Gurman, Gabriel M

2012-12-01

470

Americans Speak out: Are Educators and Policy Makers Listening?--The 40th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents, educators, political leaders--all Americans need the information contained in this article. But why this poll? First, it's not just a quick snapshot of public perception. Rather, it is a serious research tool, conducted annually, that allows Phi Delta Kappa (PDK) members and other educators and policy makers to track public opinion from…

Bushaw, William J.; Gallup, Alec M.

2008-01-01

471

Bioenergy and the importance of land use policy in a carbon-constrained world  

SciTech Connect

Policies aimed at limiting anthropogenic climate change would result in significant transformations of the energy and land-use systems. However, increasing the demand for bioenergy could have a tremendous impact on land use, and can result in land clearing and deforestation. Wise et al. (2009a,b) analyzed an idealized policy to limit the indirect land use change emissions from bioenergy. The policy, while effective, would be difficult, if not impossible, to implement in the real world. In this paper, we consider several different land use policies that deviate from this first-best, using the Joint Global Change Research Institute’s Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Specifically, these new frameworks are (1) a policy that focuses on just the above-ground or vegetative terrestrial carbon rather than the total carbon, (2) policies that focus exclusively on incentivizing and protecting forestland, and (3) policies that apply an economic penalty on the use of biomass as a proxy to limit indirect land use change emissions. For each policy, we examine its impact on land use, land-use change emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, agricultural supply, and food prices.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.

2010-06-01

472

Highlighting the importance of social dimension with Social Impact Assessment for more transparent Water Policy and Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are often faced with the situation that phase of creating a policy tends to be a field where all ideas, visions seem clear, realistic and simple but when it comes to the next stage which means transferring policy into reality we are suddenly confronted with complex network that because of its human dimension consequently shows us that while planning we must have forgotten to consider this important segment. Implementation reveals were things went wrong in stage of planning, were tend to be "black holes" and with evaluation we point out positive and negative connotation of implementation and policy itself. Theory can often build the ground that cannot support the sequence of events or cannot create an appropriate system that could potentially function in society. Any kind of policy should be done in a conjunction with society, people. Therefore it is important that we fill first gap which is human capital. A social dimension is very important and needs attention. We need to assure that social component will be considered and discussed in water policy management if we want it to be transparent and accountable. Usage of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) is very essential when considering new projects, policies etc. Its role to assess impact on people, society highlights the meaning of this method itself as an important source of information. We have to be aware of importance of human and social capital and that its understanding, satisfaction is key to success. Having all the analysis done, having good theory, project or policy it still not the end. Because putting policy into happening is not enough. Next gap that needs to be filled is related to organisation. This takes under a need of keeping a good coordination between all the actors which means all the people, institutions, stakeholders involved. Well defined roles are crucial and also a good cooperation between all the segments involved. Regarding to this, system should consider transparent local self - government which would assure direct power of people. With redistributed power this people would get possibility of participation in making decisions. We also need a good monitoring system which will "guide" us through all the happening and give us possibility to observe where things might go wrong. Monitoring is sort of an early and up to date warning system which gives us constant view on happening. It gives us possibility to react before things could go wrong. SIA and good organisation are two very important elements which can make Water Policy and Management better and more credible.

Pitalar, Maruša. Å.; Mitja Brilly, , ., Dr. _., Prof.

2010-05-01

473

Sickle cell screening policies as portent: how will the human genome project affect public sector genetic services?  

PubMed Central

The Human Genome Project holds much promise for providing dramatic improvements in our understanding of and means to diagnose and treat many diseases. As this enormously important endeavor proceeds, research on ethical, legal, and social implications of this new science is being conducted to forecast problems and recommend policy option solutions to avoid what might otherwise become adverse consequences. Sickle cell screening is an example of a technology that was introduced in a manner that raised poignant issues. On the basis of sickle cell issues, we examined policy issues likely to occur as new genetic technologies are incorporated into medical practice. Discussion and development of a national consensus on the appropriate content and just delivery of public sector genetic services is vital; otherwise, the impact of Human Genome Project-derived technology may result in misadventures that amplify problems currently evident in newborn screening programs. New DNA-based diagnostic technologies and therapies will soon enter the stream of commerce. The recommendations offered here, while based on examination of sickle cell disease policies, are intended to address both current inequities as well as potential future issues related to stigmatization and distributive justice. PMID:8907815

Phoenix, D. D.; Lybrook, S. M.; Trottier, R. W.; Hodgin, F. C.; Crandall, L. A.

1995-01-01

474

The Public and Conservation: Why Environmental Education about Hydrology is Important  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of hydrology has changed in recent years from the basic study of water, like where water comes from and where it goes, to how we are going to get more of it. Over the past 50 years or so, the world has been running out of water, and conservation has become an important part of the study of hydrology. With conservation comes the introduction of people in the study of water and the environment: how do scientists and environmentalists encourage people to conserve water and adapt other environmentally conscious behavior? The effectiveness of environmental education will be increasingly important and will be the future of hydrology and geosciences across the globe. As these issues are connected to the public, presenting them in the most effective ways is the most important piece of the education puzzle. However, keeping people involved and wanting to make a change will be difficult. One reason why the public is not particularly interested in making a change is because overwhelmingly, people do not see instant results. For example, people do not understand WHY the Earth is running out of water. I have learned, through my undergraduate classes, that the overwhelming majority of the undergraduate students I have spoken to think that since it rains so often, the water supply is plentiful, but scientists know that this simply isn't true. Because of over-consumption of water, we as a human race are using water faster than the Earth can geologically replace it from the Water Cycle: because the public cannot see the Water Cycle in a literal way, people have problems understanding why we are running out of water. Because of knowledge from my classes and my growing personal interest in geo- and environmental science, I have become dedicated to conservation of water. The future of hydrology and geoscience has been morphed with increasing public awareness of climate change, and environmental education about these subjects is more important than ever. (Video portion is in the URL section)

Dufoe, A.

2013-12-01

475

Developing a decision aid to guide public sector health policy decisions: A study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Decision aids have been developed in a number of health disciplines to support evidence-informed decision making, including patient decision aids and clinical practice guidelines. However, policy contexts differ from clinical contexts in terms of complexity and uncertainty, requiring different approaches for identifying, interpreting, and applying many different types of evidence to support decisions. With few studies in the literature offering decision guidance specifically to health policymakers, the present study aims to facilitate the structured and systematic incorporation of research evidence and, where there is currently very little guidance, values and other non-research-based evidence, into the policy making process. The resulting decision aid is intended to help public sector health policy decision makers who are tasked with making evidence-informed decisions on behalf of populations. The intent is not to develop a decision aid that will yield uniform recommendations across jurisdictions, but rather to facilitate more transparent policy decisions that reflect a balanced consideration of all relevant factors. Methods/design The study comprises three phases: a modified meta-narrative review, the use of focus groups, and the application of a Delphi method. The modified meta-narrative review will inform the initial development of the decision aid by identifying as many policy decision factors as possible and other features of methodological guidance deemed to be desirable in the literatures of all relevant disciplines. The first of two focus groups will then seek to marry these findings with focus group members' own experience and expertise in public sector population-based health policy making and screening decisions. The second focus group will examine issues surrounding the application of the decision aid and act as a sounding board for initial feedback and refinement of the draft decision aid. Finally, the Delphi method will be used to further inform and refine the decision aid with a larger audience of potential end-users. Discussion The product of this research will be a working version of a decision aid to support policy makers in population-based health policy decisions. The decision aid will address the need for more structured and systematic ways of incorporating various evidentiary sources where applicable. PMID:21569255

2011-01-01

476

The Background of Proposed Legislation to Study Public Lending Right in the United States: Issues in Policy, Law and Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses policy, law, and administrative issues that must be resolved by a national commission to study public lending right, which was proposed in a 1985 bill. Examples from the United Kingdom and other countries are used. (EM)

Hyatt, Dennis

1986-01-01

477

A longitudinal study of the impact of changing public policy on community mental health client residential patterns and staff attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies of perceived residential needs and community residential patterns of adults with severe and persistent mental\\u000a illness over a period of 12 years are used to assess the effect of changing public policy in this area. During a period in\\u000a which public policy shifted from advocacy of congregate living in treatment settings to independent living in generic community\\u000a housing,

John A. Pandiani; Elizabeth R. Edgar; John E. Pierce

1994-01-01

478

Communication between science, policy and citizens in public participation in urban forestry—Experiences from the Neighbourwoods project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for sound scientific information and public participation is particularly great in urban forestry. Urban society's manifold perceptions, preferences and demands for urban forest goods and services need to be considered, indicating the necessity for socially inclusive planning processes. Successful policies can only be formulated by establishing close links with, for example, urban planning and municipal policies. Inherently, this

Gerben Janse; Cecil C. Konijnendijk

2007-01-01

479

Setting a Public Agenda for Higher Education in the States: Lessons Learned from the National Collaborative for Higher Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In March 2003, the Education Commission of the States, the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, and the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education established a collaborative project to help states improve higher education performance by assisting with examination of state higher education policies and with…

Davies, Gordon K.

2006-01-01

480

Local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa and access to essential medicines: 'urban bias’ in access to imported medicines in Tanzania and its policy implications  

PubMed Central

Background International policy towards access to essential medicines in Africa has focused until recently on international procurement of large volumes of medicines, mainly from Indian manufacturers, and their import and distribution. This emphasis is now being challenged by renewed policy interest in the potential benefits of local pharmaceutical production and supply. However, there is a shortage of evidence on the role of locally produced medicines in African markets, and on potential benefits of local production for access to medicines. This article contributes to filling that gap. Methods This article uses WHO/HAI data from Tanzania for 2006 and 2009 on prices and sources of a set of tracer essential medicines. It employs innovative graphical methods of analysis alongside conventional statistical testing. Results Medicines produced in Tanzania were equally likely to be found in rural and in urban areas. Imported medicines, especially those imported from countries other than Kenya (mainly from India) displayed 'urban bias’: that is, they were significantly more likely to be available in urban than in rural areas. This finding holds across the range of sample medicines studied, and cannot be explained by price differences alone. While different private distribution networks for essential medicines may provide part of the explanation, this cannot explain why the urban bias in availability of imported medicines is also found in the public sector. Conclusions The findings suggest that enhanced local production may improve rural access to medicines. The potential benefits of local production and scope for their improvement are an important field for further research, and indicate a key policy area in which economic development and health care objectives may reinforce each other. PMID:24612518

2014-01-01

481

Multiple effects and uncertainties of emission control policies in China: Implications for public health, soil acidification, and global temperature.  

PubMed

Policies to control emissions of criteria pollutants in China may have conflicting impacts on public health, soil acidification, and climate. Two scenarios for 2020, a base case without anticipated control measures and a more realistic case including such controls, are evaluated to quantify the effects of the policies on emissions and resulting environmental outcomes. Large benefits to public health can be expected from the controls, attributed mainly to reduced emissions of primary PM and gaseous PM precursors, and thus lower ambient concentrations of PM2.5. Approximately 4% of all-cause mortality in the country can be avoided (95% confidence interval: 1-7%), particularly in eastern and north-central China, regions with large population densities and high levels of PM2.5. Surface ozone levels, however, are estimated to increase in parts of those regions, despite NOX reductions. This implies VOC-limited conditions. Even with significant reduction of SO2 and NOX emissions, the controls will not significantly mitigate risks of soil acidification, judged by the exceedance levels of critical load (CL). This is due to the decrease in primary PM emissions, with the consequent reduction in deposition of alkaline base cations. Compared to 2005, even larger CL exceedances are found for both scenarios in 2020, implying that PM control may negate any recovery from soil acidification due to SO2 reductions. Noting large uncertainties, current polices to control emissions of criteria pollutants in China will not reduce climate warming, since controlling SO2 emissions also reduces reflective secondary aerosols. Black carbon emission is an important source of uncertainty concerning the effects of Chinese control policies on global temperature change. Given these conflicts, greater consideration should be paid to reconciling varied environmental objectives, and emission control strategies should target not only criteria pollutants but also species such as VOCs and CO2. PMID:21944199

Zhao, Yu; McElroy, Michael B; Xing, Jia; Duan, Lei; Nielsen, Chris P; Lei, Yu; Hao, Jiming

2011-11-15

482

Few U.S. Public Health Schools Offer Courses on Palliative and End-of-Life Care Policy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Palliative care has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a critical policy element for the relief of suffering, yet palliative care policy receives minimal attention in mainstream U.S. public health journals, conferences, or textbooks. In the ’90s, documentation of the lack of attention to end-of-life and palliative care in medical and nursing curricula led to concerted efforts to improve medical and nursing education in palliative care. No such educational effort has yet been directed toward public health professionals. Objective: This study's objective was to quantify current course offerings covering palliative and end-of-life care from a public health and health policy perspective at accredited schools of public health. Design: Using a list of keywords about palliative and end-of-life care, the research team searched publicly accessible websites of all CEPH accredited and affiliated U.S. schools of public health to identify courses that included relevant content about palliative care. Results: For academic years 2011/12 and 2012/13, 3 (6%) of the 49 accredited U.S. schools of public health offered a full course covering public health issues in palliative care. Six schools (12%) included some palliative care content in related courses such as gerontology policy. Conclusions: Schools of public health are not preparing future policy experts with a basic knowledge of the components and systems of palliative care and hospice. Development and dissemination of appropriate curricular material to address the public health and policy aspects of palliative care is needed to address this gap. PMID:24256202

Deneszczuk, Caroline; Leystra, Tara; McKinnon, Rebecca; Seng, Victoria

2013-01-01

483

Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

Bilham, Nic

2014-05-01

484

More Is Not Always Better: Intuitions About Effective Public Policy Can Lead to Unintended Consequences  

PubMed Central

Public policy decisions often appear based on an assumption that providing more options, more information, and greater decision-making autonomy to consumers will produce better outcomes. We examine reasons why this “more-is-better” approach exists based on the psychological literature. Although better outcomes can result from informed consumer choice, we argue that more options, information, and autonomy can also lead to unintended negative consequences. We use mostly health-related policies and guidelines from the United States and elsewhere as exemplars. We consider various psychological mechanisms that cause these unintended consequences including cognitive overload, affect, and anticipated regret, information salience and availability, and trust in governments as authoritative information providers. We also point toward potential solutions based on psychological research that may reduce the negative unintended consequences of a “more-is-better” approach. PMID:24000291

Peters, Ellen; Klein, William; Kaufman, Annette; Meilleur, Louise; Dixon, Anna

2013-01-01

485

John Mather public policy internship: Perspectives on science policy as an intern at Scientists and Engineers for America (SEA) and Congressman Bill Foster's office  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2010, I participated in the John Mather public policy internship through AIP and SPS. I spent six weeks as an intern at Scientists and Engineers for America (SEA), a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that encourages technically-trained citizens to become more engaged in US politics and the policy-making process, and six weeks as an intern for Congressman Bill Foster (D-Il 14) in the House of Representatives. These internships offered two distinct perspectives on how American science policy is crafted and showed me many ways in which scientists can be engaged in the political process.

Tuna, Alexander

2011-04-01

486

Etiology and attitudes: beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and their implications for public policy.  

PubMed

Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality. PMID:24325311

Overby, L Marvin

2014-01-01

487

Mapping and sequencing the human genome: Science, ethics, and public policy. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Development of Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy followed the standard process of curriculum development at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), the process is described. The production of this module was a collaborative effort between BSCS and the American Medical Association (AMA). Appendix A contains a copy of the module. Copies of reports sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) during the development process are contained in Appendix B; all reports should be on file at DOE. Appendix B also contains copies of status reports submitted to the BSCS Board of Directors.

McInerney, J.D.

1993-03-31

488

An analysis of public health policy and legal issues relevant to mobile food vending.  

PubMed

Mobile food vending is a component of the food environment that has received little attention in the public health literature beyond concerns about food sanitation and hygiene issues. However, several features of mobile food vending make it an intriguing venue for food access. We present key components of mobile vending regulation and provide examples from 12 US cities to illustrate the variation that can exist surrounding these regulations. Using these regulatory features as a framework, we highlight existing examples of "healthy vending policies" to describe how mobile food vending can be used to increase access to nutritious food for vulnerable populations. PMID:20864711

Tester, June M; Stevens, Stephanie A; Yen, Irene H; Laraia, Barbara L

2010-11-01

489

Healthcare Policy Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis: COMPARE  

E-print Network

Healthcare Policy Analysis Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis: COMPARE Challenge Decision and Information Sciences Division Modeling, Simulation, and Visualization Group Healthcare and possible healthcare reform are important issues for the American public, the healthcare industry, policy analysts

490

Political and Institutional Influences on the Use of Evidence in Public Health Policy. A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. Methods We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. Findings 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. Conclusions This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies of evidence use, and an engagement with theories and approaches beyond the current remit of public health or knowledge utilisation studies. PMID:24204823

Liverani, Marco; Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin O.

2013-01-01

491

Emergy and Its Importance  

EPA Science Inventory

Emergy is an important quantity needed for public policy analysis that is based on a complex methodology. The intent of this Environmental Research Brief is to define emergy and its importance in a manner that is accessible to everyone with at least a high school education. Emer...

492

The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy  

PubMed Central

Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

2009-01-01

493

Peter Bourne's Drug Policy and the Perils of a Public Health Ethic, 1976-1978.  

PubMed

As President Jimmy Carter's advisor for health issues, Peter Bourne promoted a rational and comprehensive drug strategy that combined new supply-side efforts to prevent drug use with previously established demand-side addiction treatment programs. Using a public health ethic that allowed the impact of substances on overall population health to guide drug control, Bourne advocated for marijuana decriminalization as well as increased regulations for barbiturates. A hostile political climate, a series of rumors, and pressure from both drug legalizers and prohibitionists caused Bourne to resign in disgrace in 1978. We argue that Bourne's critics used his own public health framework to challenge him, describe the health critiques that contributed to Bourne's resignation, and present the story of his departure as a cautionary tale for today's drug policy reformers. PMID:25521893

Clark, Claire D; Dufton, Emily

2015-02-01

494

Policy arguments in a public church: Catholic social ethics and bioethics.  

PubMed

This paper is an analysis of the relationship of social ethics and bioethics in Roman Catholic theology. The argument of the paper is that the character of both Catholic moral theology and ecclesiology shape the broadly defined interest of the church in bioethics. The paper examines the common elements of social ethics and bioethics in Catholic teaching, describes how ecclesiology shapes Catholic public policy and uses the examples of abortion and health care to illustrate the relationship of Catholic social thought and bioethics. In developing the relationship of these two dimensions of Catholic moral argument the article highlights how the appeal to natural law categories differs in social ethics and bioethics and how the two topics are received differently in the theological community. It also seeks to illustrate how the premises of Catholic social ethics remain central to public positions taken on bioethics. PMID:1402435

Hehir, J B

1992-06-01

495

Application of stochastic-choice modeling to policy analysis of public goods: a case study of air-quality improvements  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates the applicability of the stochastic choice method in performing policy analysis of changes in public goods using survey data. The air-quality problem studied involves air-pollution control for the Tampa Bay area of Florida and relatively simple choices between changes in a public good and disposable income. It illustrates the use of surveys as a public forum in which preferences are revealed. 26 references, 2 tables.

Loehman, E.; De, V.H.

1982-08-01

496

The importance of comprehensiveness in renewable electricity and energy-efficiency policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on extensive research interviews and supplemented with a review of the academic literature, this article assesses the best way to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. It begins by briefly laying out why government intervention is needed, and then details the four most favored policy mechanisms identified by participants: eliminating subsidies for conventional and mature electricity technologies, pricing electricity

Benjamin K. Sovacool; Ann Florini

2009-01-01

497

Responding to Poverty and Its Complex Challenges: The Importance of Policy Fluency for Educational Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a case example of a school leader whose understanding of both in- and out-of-school policies and issues supported 2 students who experienced severe trauma. We describe some of the principal's key beliefs and practices that led to the development of a justice-oriented school, and then contextualize her work in a "social…

Miller, Peter; Pavlakis, Alexandra; Lac, Van; Hoffman, Deborah

2014-01-01

498

Stigma and mental disorder: conceptions of illness, public attitudes, personal disclosure, and social policy.  

PubMed

The end of the last millennium witnessed an unprecedented degree of public awareness regarding mental disorder as well as motivation for policy change. Like Sartorius, we contend that the continued stigmatization of mental illness may well be the central issue facing the field, as nearly all attendant issues (e.g., standards of care, funding for basic and applied research efforts) emanate from professional, societal, and personal attitudes towards persons with aberrant behavior. We discuss empirical and narrative evidence for stigmatization as well as historical trends regarding conceptualizations of mental illness, including the field's increasing focus on genetic and neurobiological causes and determinants of mental disorder. We next define stigma explicitly, noting both the multiple levels (community, societal, familial, individual) through which stigma operates to dehumanize and delegitimize individuals with mental disorders and the impact of stigma across development. Key developmental psychopathology principles are salient in this regard. We express concern over the recent oversimplification of mental illness as "brain disorder," supporting instead transactional models which account for the dynamic interplay of genes, neurobiology, environment, and self across development and which are consistent with both compassion and societal responsibility. Finally, we consider educational and policy-related initiatives regarding the destigmatization of mental disorder. We conclude that attitudes and policy regarding mental disorder reflect, in microcosmic form, two crucial issues for the next century and millennium: (a) tolerance for diversity (vs. pressure for conformity) and (b) intentional direction of our species' evolution, given fast-breaking genetic advances. PMID:11202034

Hinshaw, S P; Cicchetti, D

2000-01-01

499

Lessons from Oil Pollution Research: Consensus, Controversy, and Education of Policy Makers and the Public.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.

Farrington, J. W.

2007-12-01

500

The Case for Public Access to Federally Funded Research Data. Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the importance of public review of federally funded scientific research by looking at several case studies. It shows that independent, nongovernmental review of federal scientific research has had a major positive effect on knowledge in many areas. The study focuses on: the Environmental Protection Agency and airborne asbestos;…

Gough, Michael; Milloy, Steven