Science.gov

Sample records for important public policy

  1. Physical activity: health outcomes and importance for public health policy.

    PubMed

    Haskell, William L; Blair, Steven N; Hill, James O

    2009-10-01

    This manuscript presents a brief summary of the substantial data supporting an inverse relationship between the amount of habitual physical activity performed and a variety of negative health outcomes throughout the lifespan. It points out that despite these data a large segment of the US population remain insufficiently active resulting in a high population attributable risk for chronic disease due to inactivity. The accumulated data support the need for more comprehensive health promoting physical activity policies and programs, especially for the economically and socially disadvantaged and medically underserved. PMID:19463850

  2. Perceptions Regarding Importance and Skill at Policy Development Among Public Health Staff

    PubMed Central

    Castrucci, Brian C.; Leider, Jonathon P.; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Policy development is recognized as a core function of public health and a core competency in formal public health education. However, relatively little is known nationally about worker perceptions and competencies related to policy development in the governmental public health workforce. Objective: To characterize perceived importance and presence or absence of competency gaps related to policy development. Design: As part of the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), a nationally representative stratified sample of permanently employed state health agency (SHA) central office staff was created. Descriptive and inferential analyses examined correlates of perceived importance and competency gaps related to policy development. Setting and Participants: Permanently employed central office employees of SHAs. Main Outcome Measure: Analyses focus on 2 self-reported measures of perceived importance and ability related to policy development skills, as well as awareness and perceptions regarding Health in All Policies (HiAP). Results: Seventy-two percent of SHA central office staff (95% confidence interval, 71-73) indicated “influencing policy development” was somewhat or very important to their day-to-day work. Among that group, 35% (95% confidence interval, 34-36) reported that they were unable to perform this or they considered themselves to be a beginner at this skill. Approximately three-fourths of staff indicated “understanding the relationship between a new policy and many types of public health problems” was somewhat or very important, and 30% of those who did said they were unable to perform this skill or were a beginner at it. Nationally, one-half of staff have not heard of HiAP. Among those who have, 86% indicated it was somewhat or very important to public health, and 41% reported they would like to see more emphasis on HiAP. Conclusions: Workforce development, both formal education and on-the-job training, may benefit from placing a greater emphasis on the development of policy skills. HiAP is an important approach to policy development. PMID:26422484

  3. Public say food regulatory policies to improve health in Western Australia are important: population survey results

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Methods Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18–64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using survey module of STATA 12. Results The majority of adults believe it is important that government regulates food policy options under consideration: nutrition information on food labels (97% versus 2% who think it is not important); health rating on food labels (95% versus 3%); food advertising (83% versus 11%); and the supply of environmentally friendly food (86% versus 9%). Conclusions Community perception is that government control or regulation of food labelling, food advertising and the supply of environmentally friendly food is important. Implications Curbing excess weight gain and related disease burden is a public health priority. Australian governments are considering food regulatory interventions to assist the public to improve their dietary intake. These findings should provide reassurance to government officials considering these regulatory measures. PMID:24090332

  4. From "Import" to "Import-Export" Oriented Internationalization: The Impact of National Policy on Scholarly Publication in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Haiying; Beckett, Gulbahar H.; Huang, Dawang

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of national research policy in China over the past three decades and its recent shift in emphasis from "import" to "import-export" oriented internationalization. Based on a policy review and interviews with three groups of academics--six journal editors in the humanities and social sciences,…

  5. From "Import" to "Import-Export" Oriented Internationalization: The Impact of National Policy on Scholarly Publication in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Haiying; Beckett, Gulbahar H.; Huang, Dawang

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of national research policy in China over the past three decades and its recent shift in emphasis from "import" to "import-export" oriented internationalization. Based on a policy review and interviews with three groups of academics--six journal editors in the humanities and social sciences,

  6. Contested Communities in a Debate over Dual-Language Education: The Import of "Public" Values on Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how public debate can shape school district policy. Using qualitative methods and an interdisciplinary framework that weaves an interpretive approach to policy implementation with the language policy and planning literature, the analysis demonstrates that immigrant voices were mostly absent in a debate over a new dual-language…

  7. Shaping public policy.

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, G M

    1987-01-01

    Public policy is an area of increasing study. Of concern in this presentation is the consensus-building feature of policymaking in the United States. The role of government in following the procedures established to achieve consensus and the importance of citizen participation in this open process cannot be under-estimated. The five central features of American consensus building are separation of powers, multiple levels of government, citizen participation, policymaker accountability, and individual freedoms. These features frame the efforts of those who shape the public policies that determine the ways laws are made and enforced and public funds are spent. PMID:3120226

  8. Obesity and public policy.

    PubMed

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Bragg, Marie A; Pearl, Rebecca L; Schvey, Natasha A; Roberto, Christina A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2012-01-01

    There is a pressing need to reduce both the prevalence and impact of obesity. This review begins with a discussion of the roles of treatment and prevention. Two overriding issues, weight bias and the addictive nature of food, are covered because of their importance not only to the individuals affected but also to public policy. We then cover promising policy areas in which changes can be implemented to support healthy behaviors: school policy, food marketing, food labeling and packaging, and taxes on unhealthy foods. The roles of the food industry and federal, state, and local governments are also discussed. PMID:22224839

  9. Effect on Public Policy from Macro to Nano Aspects of the Deadliest Illness of Mankind: Important Role of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Arjun

    2013-04-01

    The effect on public policy of macro to nano aspects of the deadliest Illness known to mankind is given. The focus is on the important role of physics which has been ignored so far to solve its problems. It is now acknowledged that the deadliest illness is actually a group of illnesses which are lumped together as mental illnesses. They are the most widespread and damaging illnesses in the world. Their impact on the entire society globally is huge because they afflict majority of the people irrespective of race, religion, sex, age, education and economic status. In USA alone, the number afflicted according to the official count is about 80 million (out of a total population of 315 million), and it is projected to increase to about 25 to 30% of the population within two decades. A model is given in this paper to address some of the key issues from macro to nano aspects of the deadliest illness. The information given in this paper is scientific though easy to understand. It will help the elected policy makers, public, physicists, neuroscientists, doctors, and care giving personnel world wide. The model explains the missing links in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Additional evidence from other recent studies shall also be given.

  10. Public Policy and Manpower Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John W.; Skolnik, Michael L.

    This monograph was written in response to the perceived need for an examination of the role of manpower programs as components of public policy. Both manpower programs and related policies are examined in the context of the overall activities and purposes of government in Ontario and in the Canadian federal system. The importance of societal…

  11. [Public policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future. PMID:11423032

  12. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  13. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  14. Science and Public Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, Thomas

    2012-11-28

    The United States faces many issues that involve science. Issues ranging from climate change to nano-technology, from human genomics to modified food crops. What is the role that science plays in determining what the public policy for these issues should be? How as scientists should we respond to requests for advice?

  15. Public Policy Agenda, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    This report reviews current and developing policy issues in the context of the guiding principles of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities and articulates the Association's public positions and priorities based on that review. It is expected that 2003 will be one of the most challenging in a generation for state colleges and…

  16. Astronomy and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy is an unusual science in that almost all of what we study can only be passively observed. We enjoy tremendous public support for our research and education, both domestically and abroad. Our discoveries in cosmology and exoplanets have captured world-wide attention, as have stunning images from the Great Observatories of NASA, and ground based telescopes. Despite the passive nature of our science, it touches humanity profoundly. There are groups of amateur astronomers in every conceivable country who meet to look at the sky. Almost one billion people from 150 countries participated in The International Year of Astronomy 2009. No other science reaches humanity as ours does. In a recent poll, it was found that the among all the things the US does abroad, US science is seen by the world as our most positive face. We as astronomers can use this good will to affect positive changes in the world through public policy. I would like to explore how astronomy has impacted public policy, especially foreign policy, and what more we can do in the future. I also hope to encourage astronomers that a career path into public policy is an excellent use of a Ph.D. in astronomy.

  17. Public Policy Agenda, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) public policy agenda, rooted in an uncompromising commitment to opportunity for the nation's students, is expressed through the following core principles: (1) Higher education is a common good that provides significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole; (2) America's

  18. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  19. Human exposure monitoring and evaluation in the Arctic: the importance of understanding exposures to the development of public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P

    2004-01-01

    Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this important public health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders. PMID:14757538

  20. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 2003 and 2004. Public Policy Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This paper is the seventh in a biennial series summarizing state and federal public policy issues affecting higher education. The purpose is to provide board members and other higher education officials with brief descriptions of the most important public policy issues. In one way or another, most of the public policy issues cited in this paper…

  1. Financing Higher Standards in Public Education: The Importance of Accounting for Educational Costs. Policy Brief, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    This policy brief explains why performance focus and educational cost indexes must go hand in hand, discusses alternative methods for estimating educational cost indexes, and shows how these costs indexes can be incorporated into a performance-based state aid program. A shift to educational performance standards, whether these standards are…

  2. Foundations and Public Policy Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    The question of whether foundations should engage in activities having a bearing on public policy development is discussed. Tax exempt private foundations have had a long, controversial history of participation in public policy formation. They contribute to policy development by means of various techniques that include support of established…

  3. Science and public policy.

    PubMed

    Carey, W D

    1989-05-01

    Politicians generally do not look to scientists to help them get votes. But issues of science policy become extremely important when politicians and scientists, together, grasp the degree to which science and technology are transforming the business of the president and Congress. The author discusses the uneasy relationship of two institutions--political governance and the progress of science--that, while possibly irreconcilable, have an ongoing alliance of convenience. The author indicates issues confronting the Bush presidency in which scientific and technical factors are crucial, raises questions about the future relationship of science and government, defines the political framework for this relationship, and documents the encouraging and significant science-policy commitments made by president-elect Bush. PMID:2712998

  4. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Kenneth, Ed.; Schwandt, Thomas A., Ed.; Straf, Miron L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy" encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation…

  5. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Kenneth, Ed.; Schwandt, Thomas A., Ed.; Straf, Miron L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy" encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation

  6. Preparing for public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plapp, Brendan

    2002-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the tight job market for Ph.D. recipients in physics led to a reexamination of graduate programs by some departments. The speaker participated in this reanalysis at his graduate institution and arranged presentations of alternative careers to the physics graduate student body. What became clear was that diverse options were open; job seekers just needed flexible expectations. However, there are a number of additions or modifications to graduate programs which could further help to prepare Ph.D. recipients as they move into non-traditional roles, such as additional and more formal experience in communicating science to a wide range of audiences. In particular, it would be advantageous to learn how to explain the role that basic scientific research projects play in the larger public policy arena. Examples from the speaker's experience of working as a staff member in the U.S. Congress will be presented to illustrate the skills needed in that environment.

  7. Public opinion: Stunted policy support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druckman, James N.

    2013-07-01

    Energy policy is widely debated, with regards to climate change, alternative energy use and responsibility for policy. Research now highlights the role of citizens in public debates about energy and how it can be swayed.

  8. Career Development and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    Article discusses the rationale for policy interest in career development services and how this is being strengthened by the current transformations in work and career climates. Explores the potential roles of public policy in relation to career development services. Discusses the range of policy issues related to making career development…

  9. Public Policy Agenda, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    This document highlights the policy and advocacy positions that the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) will assume in upcoming legislative and regulatory processes. Member institutions will find these policies predictive of advocacy efforts on their behalf; policymakers will find positions predicated on the needs of…

  10. Health education and public policy.

    PubMed

    Service, A

    1986-01-01

    The UK's Minister for Health has again raised the debate about the role of health educators, and in particular that of the Health Education Council, in what is termed public policy work. 1 possible definition of public policy work as regards health education is that aspect that seeks to establish certain health promoting principles as part of the conscious factors always to be considered by individuals, by opinion leaders, by manufacturers, by employers and trade unions, by service providers, by local authorities, and by central government in their plans and decisions. The Health Education Council (HEC) has no power to make or impose public policy; the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) has that task. The world of health education providers includes the Health Education Officers working for the Health Authorities and with the Education Authorities, an increasing number of important academic workers in the field, the HEC, the Scottish Health Education Group (SHEG), the DHSS, and some of the members of various professions who provide health education to the public as part of their daily work. Most of the HEC's work consists of providing these people with health educational tools. If the HEC begins to do more in the public policy field, it will not be at the cost of providing health educational tools. At the HEC a staff of 4 liaison workers is responsible for keeping field workers informed about future and imminent HEC work programs. They also assess needs and ideas by holding periodic meetings with Health Education Officers and others in various parts of the country. HEC's efforts have contributed substantially to increasing attention to preventive health measures on the part of the DHSS, parliamentary committees, the Royal Colleges, other professional bodies, and the media. In regard to the future, several paths deserve exploration as part of the HEC's education of decision-makers and opinion-formers. These include: local authorities, relevant professions of the National Health Service, the press and media, business and trade unions, voluntary organizations, and parliament. PMID:3783557

  11. Behavior analysis and public policy

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernstein, Gail S.; Czyzewski, Mare J.; Greene, Brandon F.; Hannah, Gerald T.; Iwata, Brian A.; Jason, Leonard A.; Mathews, R. Mark; Morris, Edward K.; Otis-Wilborn, Amy; Seekins, Tom; Winett, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    The Task Force on Public Policy was created to examine ways for behavior analysts to be more functional citizen scientists in the policymaking arena. This report informs readers about the contexts and processes of policymaking; and it outlines issues regarding the roles of behavior analysts in crating policy-relevant conceptual analyses, generating research data, and communicating policy-relevant information. We also discuss a possible role for the professional association in enhancing analysis, research, and advocacy on policies relevant to the public interest. PMID:22477991

  12. Public Policy for Children: A Psychological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Seymour; Feshbach, Norma D.

    The formulation of public policy affecting children requires the participation of a wide spectrum of psychological experts. This should include both investigator and practitioner, since each has something important to contribute to the discussion. The psychologist may contribute to policy analysis and debate in the role of expert or as advocate.…

  13. The Nearly Invisible Voice of Organismal Biology in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a view on public policy and the importance of biology. Discusses issues such as securing research funds, teaching of evolution and other curriculum issues, lobbying, and the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) Public Policy Office. (YDS)

  14. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  15. Addiction, ethics and public policy.

    PubMed

    West, R

    1997-09-01

    Addiction affects the lives of all of human kind, either directly or indirectly. The cost to individuals and societies is immense and tackling the problem is as much one for policy makers as clinicians, counsellors and scientists. Ethical issues permeate much of the work of all these groups. The issue of what is right and wrong, morally defensible or morally unacceptable arises at both an individual and societal level. This special issue contains 21 commissioned articles from leading figures in addiction research. To set the scene for these in-depth analyses, this article reports the results of an expert panel survey on addiction, ethics and public policy. A total of 199 people from 24 countries identified as first authors of research papers abstracted in Addiction Abstracts in 1994 and 1995 completed a postal questionnaire asking their views on a range of issues. They were asked to state their position on the issue and to identify what they considered to be the most important factors in the decision. Among the findings of interest were: a majority believed that possession of cannabis should be legal but that possession of 'hard drugs' should be illegal. An overwhelming majority believed that tobacco advertising should be banned, that smoking should be prohibited in public buildings and offices and that the legal age for tobacco sales should be 18 or more. A majority believed that researchers should not accept backing from tobacco companies; opinion on accepting backing from the alcohol industry was more evenly divided. An overwhelming majority believed that drug addicts should be able to attend treatment centres on demand and that some form of methadone maintenance should be available to addicts who want it. The survey should prove a useful resource when debating the issues in policy and research arenas. PMID:9374001

  16. Public Policy Agenda 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    This document articulates the directives of the American Association of Colleges and Universities (AASCU) in achieving its major goal of providing citizens with equal opportunity for access to a college education. Based on the policy directives of the AASCU Board of Directors and the recommendations of the Council of State Representatives, the…

  17. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  18. Technological possibility and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Steven; Brophy, Scott

    1986-08-01

    Space colonies are easily imagined in a variety of social forms that can be used to highlight questions of social philosophy. Because of their exceptional dependence on technology they are particularly suitable for investigating philosophical questions pertaining to the development and use of technology and reliance on it. Space colonies also serve as models in terms of which to explore broader questions of social justice and the ethical dimensions of public policy issues. For example, we ask ``Is it morally justified for a government to embark on a policy of rapidly colinizing space given the resources this would require?'' We conclude that the actual benefits are likely to be much less than anticipated. Regardless of the possible benefits, a public policy for devoting present resources to house many people in space is a policy of not devoting such massive resources to other more pressing problems confronting this generation of humanity. The idea should not be adopted as policy.

  19. Public opinion on alcohol policies.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, L L; Smith, C; Roberts, J L

    1990-01-01

    In recent years leading authorities and organizations have been recommending policies to combat alcohol abuse. These policies range from restrictions on availability to curbs on drinking and driving. However, the policies have not been presented in any priority order, nor is it clear how acceptable they will be to the general public. This report sets out public opinion on 21 key policies and looks at recent changes in public support in this area. It shows that there are a wide range of policies on alcohol which are well supported by the general public. It seems that the vast majority of both drinkers and non-drinkers would like to see more detailed labelling on alcoholic drinks, further action in the area of drinking and driving, the promotion of alternatives to alcohol in pubs, a levy on alcohol advertising, bans on the sale of alcohol at a variety of sports meetings, more alcohol education in schools and stricter enforcement of the laws on under-age drinking. In addition, the survey reveals greater public support for restrictions on the promotion of alcohol and the introduction of random breath testing, than had been found one year previously. It is suggested that these findings could be used for setting an agenda on the implementation of policies to reduce alcohol abuse. PMID:2310845

  20. Public-Private Manpower Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Arnold R., Ed.; And Others

    This book deals with the question of identifying the optimal mix between public and private programs and provides some guides concerning the appropriate role of government in the manpower area. There is a need for public manpower programs which give some long range direction to manpower policies and which give continuing emphasis to the…

  1. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-02-01

    At every turn now, one encounters sharply debated issues and important public policies that rest on chemical information. This is true in practically any arena where public interest intersects with the material world: health care practice and public health; energy; quality of air, water, and food; manufacturing standards and product liability; criminal justice; national and international security, including the defense against terrorism. The scale can be truly global, as in the case of the current debate over climate change, which extends into international efforts to regulate gaseous emissions. Sometimes the relevant chemical measurements and applicable theory are sound and their scope is appropriate to the policy; often they are inadequate and a policy or debate overreaches the analytical capability needed to support it. In the decades ahead, the issues with us today will become even more pressing and will drive a still greater reliance on analytical chemistry. This presentation will have four parts covering (a) illustrations of the impact of analytical chemistry on public debate and public policy, including instances where analytical capabilities actually gave rise to new issues and policies, (b) the manner in which chemical information is handled and understood in public debates, (c) areas of analytical chemistry that will be critical to sound public policy in the future, and (d) implications for the education of leaders and general citizens of modern societies.

  2. Essays on Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yinghua

    2011-01-01

    Many public school choice programs use centralized mechanisms to match students with schools in absence of market-clearing prices. Among them, the Boston mechanism is one of the most widely used. It is well-known that truth-telling may not be optimal under the Boston mechanism, which raises the concern that the mechanism may create a disadvantage…

  3. Essays on Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yinghua

    2011-01-01

    Many public school choice programs use centralized mechanisms to match students with schools in absence of market-clearing prices. Among them, the Boston mechanism is one of the most widely used. It is well-known that truth-telling may not be optimal under the Boston mechanism, which raises the concern that the mechanism may create a disadvantage

  4. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Christopher E.; Halligan, Michelle H.; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the ‘policy diffusion’ process, enabling governments to learn from another’s enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada. PMID:25379125

  5. POLICY OUTCOMES IN PUBLIC EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYE, THOMAS R.

    THE AUTHOR'S POSITION WAS THAT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT VARIABLES (LEVEL OF URBANIZATION, INDUSTRIALIZATION, INCOME, AND EDUCATION) ARE MOST CLOSELY CORRELATED TO EDUCATIONAL POLICY OUTCOMES (EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURES, STATE EFFORTS IN EDUCATION ORGANIZING AND FINANCING PUBLIC SCHOOLS, STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND NUMBER OF DROPOUTS AND SELECTIVE SERVICE…

  6. Career Development and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    Career development specialists need to find ways to adapt their knowledge and skills to become agents of social action. Public policy is one area where career development specialists can involve themselves to help bring about social change. This paper attempts to raise the consciousness of Society of Vocational Psychology (SVP) members and to…

  7. Public policy and pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, H G

    1982-09-01

    Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures. PMID:10309721

  8. Trade policy and public goods.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 as the first multilateral trade organization with enforcement authority over national governments. A country's domestic standards cannot be more restrictive than international standards for trade. WTO seeks to "harmonize" individual domestic policies into uniform global standards and encompasses trade-related aspects of health, public safety, and environmental protection. These issues are transnational and pose enormous challenges to traditional governance structures. Most governments are not equipped to manage problems that transcend their borders. Moreover, international governance in social issues--with the possible exception of public health--is still in its infancy. Many groups are concerned that local public interests will be subjugated to global corporate interests. The article looks at the social ramifications of world trade policy and concludes that world trade must be balanced with sustainable environments and human health. PMID:17208712

  9. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  10. Preemptive public policy for genomics.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Rick J

    2008-02-01

    To many, genomics is merely exploitable technology for the leviathan of biotechnology. This is both shallow and short sighted. Genomics is applied knowledge based on profound and evolving science about how living things develop, how healthy or sick we are, and what our future will be like. In health care, genomics technologies are disruptive yet potentially cost-effective because they enable primary prevention, the antidote to runaway costs and declining productivity. The challenges to integration are great, however, and many bioethical and social-policy implications are alarming. Because it is poorly understood today, we must debate genomics vigorously if we are to act wisely. Public policy must lead. PMID:18252856

  11. Public Participation in the Process of Local Public Health Policy, Using Policy Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yukyung; Kim, Chang-yup; You, Myoung Soon; Lee, Kun Sei; Park, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the current public participation in-local health policy and its implications through the analysis of policy networks in health center programs. Methods: We examined the decision-making process in sub-health center installations and the implementation process in metabolic syndrome management program cases in two districts (gus) of Seoul. Participants of the policy network were selected by the snowballing method and completed self-administered questionnaires. Actors, the interactions among actors, and the characteristics of the network were analyzed by Netminer. Results: The results showed that the public is not yet actively participating in the local public health policy processes of decision-making and implementation. In the decision-making process, most of the network actors were in the public sector, while the private sector was a minor actor and participated in only a limited number of issues after the major decisions were made. In the implementation process, the program was led by the health center, while other actors participated passively. Conclusions: Public participation in Korean public health policy is not yet well activated. Preliminary discussions with various stakeholders, including civil society, are needed before making important local public health policy decisions. In addition, efforts to include local institutions and residents in the implementation process with the public officials are necessary to improve the situation. PMID:25475197

  12. Public humanization policies: integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Márcia Adriana Dias Meirelles; Lustosa, Abdon Moreira; Dutra, Fernando; Barros, Eveline de Oliveira; Batista, Jaqueline Brito Vidal; Duarte, Marcella Costa Souto

    2015-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the scientific literature on Public Humanization Policies, available in online periodicals, from 2009 to 2012, in the health field. This is an integrative literature review conducted in the Virtual Health Library databases: Latin-America and Caribbean Health Sciences (Lilacs) and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Portal Capes. Data were collected in July 2013. To this end, the following Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) were used: "Humanization of Care," "Public Policies," "National Humanization Policy". The sample consisted of 27 articles about the investigated theme. From the publications selected for the research, three categories emerged according to their respective approaches: National Human-ization Policy: history and processes involved in its implementation; National Humanization Policy: health professionals contribution; Humanization and in the care process. The study showed that the National Humanization Policy is an important benchmark in the development of health practices. For this reason, there is a pressing multiplication of related reflections on ways to promote human-ization in health services. PMID:26465863

  13. Arizona State University Library Publication Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Univ. Library.

    This Arizona State University (Tempe) Library publication policy provides librarians with a single source to consult when writing standard library handouts, i.e., publications made available for public use. The policy also applies to materials printed with funds from outside the Instructional Services printing budget. This policy paper covers the…

  14. Suicide Prevention: A Public Health/Public Policy Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiden, Richard H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a public health/public policy model to prevent suicide. Various methods are analyzed using the concepts of availability and lethality to illustrate means by which they might be modified through the public health/public policy approach of community action and legislative change. (Author)

  15. Shaping public policy: a challenge in faith.

    PubMed

    Hug, J E

    1984-05-01

    Religious health care's involvement in public policy is an essential part of Christian life. The most important way in which Catholic hospitals and health care systems can contribute to public policy is through faith-reflection upon their identity and calling. To guide the shaping of public policy, several theological models have been set forth. The theology of democratic capitalism is based on individual human creativity. As a system of political economy organized to prevent the centralization of government power, it thrives on free competition. Well- intentioned social programs that seek to equalize results, according to democratic capitalists , inevitably lead to greater government control and should be avoided. Inequality, in fact, according to this theory, can create incentive for individuals and industry to be more productive. The stewardship approach to theological reflection calls for a distribution of goods and services based on need. The right to health care, for example, is founded in God's gift of creation to all inhabitants. The resources of creation are allotted to individuals as property in a sense of cooperation and sharing. Thus, according to this notion, government programs that help society steward its resources wisely should be promoted. The U.S. bishops ' 1981 pastoral letter on health and health care presents a third model, which reflects on the dignity of human beings as images of God to guide public policy. Models, however, must not replace personal theological reflection. Catholic health care providers share a responsibility to evaluate social issues from their perspective as members of the healing ministry and to participate in public policy development. PMID:10266503

  16. Energy, politics, and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Historical examples illustrating the political aspects of energy policymaking focus on conventional energy sources with a potential for near-term policy conflicts: nuclear energy, petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Synthetic fuels receive considerable attention because they represent the nation's most-expensive and -ambitious energy gamble of the 1980s. There is less mention of solar technologies because they have been far less important in current energy-policy debates when compared to other energy sources. The author discusses energy conservation as a policy because he believes such a strategy can make a significant contribution to meeting future US energy needs. The book seeks a balance in describing the interaction among policy issues, government institutions, policymakers, and energy technologies in the political process. Three issues receive special attention: acceptable trade-offs between energy production and environmental protection; proper distribution of the socio-economic costs and benefits derived from energy use; and appropriate roles of government and the private sector in future enegy management. 268 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

  17. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and

  18. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  19. Public health policy and infertility.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, G; Farris, M

    2003-12-01

    In assisted reproductive technology, three main areas are relevant from a health policy perspective: first, the technical excellence of the services rendered; second, a licensing and monitoring system to control all practitioners and the premises in which they work; and third, legislation to avoid abuse, prevent possible damage to the mother and the child and outlaw techniques unacceptable in a given cultural setting, including mechanisms to ensure the adherence by all to ethical and deontological principles. No one refuses the need to ensure that services offering assisted reproductive technologies adhere to technical excellence and everyone agrees that technical guidelines should exist and should be thoroughly enforced. When it comes to legislating about assisted reproductive techniques and, more specifically, to ruling in favour of limiting the use of existing technology to certain groups and not to others, or to ban altogether individual methods, views are sometimes totally divergent. In countries where legislation is fairly liberal, usually both physicians and the public view legislation with favour; conversely, where a number of restrictions exist, many complain that legislation impairs their ability to offer proper services. The solution seems to be a simple, well-defined, legislative act setting clear principles and providing for the creation of an Authority capable of resolving the myriad of individual problems that invariably arise from applying assisted reproductive techniques. Homo sum et nihil humanum a me alienum puto I am a human being and therefore cannot consider alien to me anything that helps another human being. PMID:14748956

  20. Food and beverage policies and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-01

    Government food and beverage policies can play an important role in promoting public health. Few people would question this assumption. Difficult questions can arise, however, when policymakers, public health officials, citizens, and businesses deliberate about food and beverage policies, because competing values may be at stake, such as public health, individual autonomy, personal responsibility, economic prosperity, and fairness. An ethically justified policy strikes a reasonable among competing values by meeting the following criteria: (1) the policy serves important social goal(s); (2) the policy is likely to be effective at achieving those goal(s); (3) less burdensome options are not likely to be effective at achieving the goals; (4) the policy is fair. PMID:24132618

  1. The Relationship of Inquiry to Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailor, Wayne; Stowe, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the nature of inquiry and how it has evolved in American culture. Issues of "evidence" are examined, both for inquiry and for its application in public policy. It considers the role of policy in inquiry and the implications of altering the traditional relationship of policy to inquiry. (Contains references.) (CR)

  2. Environmental Policy Research and Government Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Provides historical background on public sentiment and government action related to U.S. and United Nations publications used in environmental policy research. Discussion covers Earth Days 1970 and 1990, the Council on Environmental Quality, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, and the United Nations Environment Program. Chronological…

  3. Interdisciplinarity and the Teaching of Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2005-01-01

    De Leon and Steelman (2001) addressed three deficiencies in public policy programs. This paper focuses on the first of these, arguing that public policy students can and should be exposed to a comprehensive classification of types of ethical analysis. It then briefly addresses the two other deficiencies, again with recourse to recent…

  4. Understanding Evidence-Based Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Public health policy has a profound impact on health status. Missing from the literature is a clear articulation of the definition of evidence-based policy and approaches to move the field forward. Policy-relevant evidence includes both quantitative (e.g., epidemiological) and qualitative information (e.g., narrative accounts). We describe 3 key domains of evidence-based policy: (1) process, to understand approaches to enhance the likelihood of policy adoption; (2) content, to identify specific policy elements that are likely to be effective; and (3) outcomes, to document the potential impact of policy. Actions to further evidence-based policy include preparing and communicating data more effectively, using existing analytic tools more effectively, conducting policy surveillance, and tracking outcomes with different types of evidence. PMID:19608941

  5. Public policy involvement by health commissioners.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amy; Boardley, Debra; Kerr, Dianne; Greene, Tiffany; Jenkins, Melissa

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this national study was to determine advocacy activities and level of involvement of health commissioners regarding public policy. Benefits, barriers, and perceived outcomes of advocacy efforts were also explored. A previously validated (Holtrop et al., Am J Health Behav 24(2):132-142, 2000) four-page survey was mailed to 700 health commissioners, who were randomly selected from the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) database. A three-wave mailing was performed which yielded a 50% response rate. Of these respondents, the majority (70%) were female and (88%) Caucasian. Overall, 31% of health commissioners reported being involved in influencing public policy in the last 4 years. The most common reported activities engaged in by health commissioners included voting (84%), and providing policy information to consumers or other professionals (77%). Perceived barriers to influencing policy were time, (64%), and other priorities (46%). Perceived benefits to influencing policy included improving the health of the public (94%) and making a difference in others' lives (87%). Only 15% perceived their knowledge regarding the process of changing public policy was excellent. Although health commissioners are often spokespersons for health agencies and communities, their public policy involvement is marginal. Professional preparation programs and continuing education opportunities should focus on advocacy, public policy development, and removing barriers to action. PMID:19343489

  6. Consequential Validity of Accountability Policy: Public Understanding of Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Curtis; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Lindle, Jane Clark

    2015-01-01

    Educational accountability policy rests heavily on the assessments used to influence teaching, learning, and school improvement. A long-debated aspect of assessment use, consequential validity, plays an important role in public interpretation of assessment use whether for individual students or for state policy. The purpose of this survey study…

  7. Consequential Validity of Accountability Policy: Public Understanding of Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Curtis; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Lindle, Jane Clark

    2015-01-01

    Educational accountability policy rests heavily on the assessments used to influence teaching, learning, and school improvement. A long-debated aspect of assessment use, consequential validity, plays an important role in public interpretation of assessment use whether for individual students or for state policy. The purpose of this survey study

  8. Public Policy and Community Colleges... Challenges Yet Unmet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This issue of State Education Leader titled "Public Policy and Community Colleges" focuses on issues of importance to community colleges. The highlighted articles in this issue discuss current legislation and reform that has impacted community colleges. In "Challenges Yet Unmet," Katherine Boswell discusses how state policy leaders look to…

  9. Connecting Career Development and Public Policy with Counselling Process Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.

    The development of effective public policy regarding career counseling requires a close connection with counseling process issues. This paper focuses on three aspects of the counseling process which have major implications for policy: (1) problem definition; (2) the dignity of the person; and (3) the importance of imagination, creativity, and…

  10. Public policy action and CCC implementation: benefits and hurdles

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Kelley; Gurian, Gary L.; Petherick, J. T.; Stockmyer, Chris; David, Annette M.; Miller, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    Policy change continues to be an increasingly effective means of advancing the agenda of comprehensive cancer control. Efforts have moved progressively from describing how public policy can enhance the comprehensive cancer control agenda to implementation of public policy best practices at both the state and federal levels. The current political and economic contexts bring additional challenges and opportunities to the efforts surrounding comprehensive cancer control and policy. The purpose of this paper is to highlight recent policy successes, to illustrate the importance of policy as a means of advancing the comprehensive cancer control agenda, and to discuss continued policy action as we move forward in a time of healthcare reform and continuing economic uncertainty. PMID:21086034

  11. Standardized Tests, Group Differences, and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    1977-01-01

    The educational value of standardized tests and their fairness to racial and ethnic groups continue to be intensely debated issues that affect public policies. This article summarizes many of the prominent points of view and suggests a series of six policy alternatives as possible solutions to the controversies. (Editor/LBH)

  12. Public Policies and Strategies of Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiret, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis "Public Policies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the digital campuses.…

  13. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  14. Public Policy: New Opportunities for Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Nancy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Provides extensive information on nurse policy internships and learning opportunities and a realistic sense of what it is like to work and learn in the public policy domain. A table provides the following information on 15 fellowship programs: type, purpose, eligibility, financial data, duration, and contact for applications. (JOW)

  15. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly

  16. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  17. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and

  18. Public Service Employment as Macroeconomic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Martin N.; Solow, Robert M.

    1979-01-01

    Authors assert that public service employment (PSE) is one form of macroeconomic policy and compare PSE to tax reduction, federal subsidies, and other forms. They propose a design for an ongoing federal employment program and conclude that a PSE program aimed at the structurally unemployed creates more jobs per GNP dollar than other policies. (SK)

  19. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  20. Making Sense of the "Public" in Public Education. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    The purpose of this policy report is to bring coherence to discussions about school reform and to encourage policymakers to use a consistent metric when judging whether reform proposals are serving the needs of children and the nation. The current confusion and policy debates over what is a public school--brought about by recent educational…

  1. [Evaluation of public policies. SESPAS Report 2010].

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Jaime; Garca-Alts, Anna

    2010-12-01

    Public policy evaluation is not always a mandatory task for administrations. A priori, the instruments for government intervention are chosen and calculated to maximize the social welfare function that should be implicit in the policies undertaken, or in the government's electoral program. However, it is surprising how the government sometimes acts without questioning whether institutional functioning and the corresponding public policies can effectively and efficiently achieve this objective. The absence of evaluation drains the scarce available resources towards ineffective and inefficient programs, which could be otherwise used in other initiatives with a greater impact on the population's welfare. PMID:20843585

  2. Ethical and public policy challenges for pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Elliot S; Alliey-Rodriguez, Ney; Grennan, Kay

    2014-12-01

    It is timely to consider the ethical and social questions raised by progress in pharmacogenomics, based on the current importance of pharmacogenomics for avoidance of predictable side effects of drugs, and for correct choice of medications in certain cancers. It has been proposed that the entire population be genotyped for drug-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms, as a measure that would prevent many untoward and dangerous drug reactions. Pharmacologic treatment targeting based on genomics of disease can be expected to increase greatly in the coming years. Policy and ethical issues exist on consent for large-scale genomic pharmacogenomic data collection, public vs corporate ownership of genomic research results, testing efficacy and safety of drugs used for rare genomic indications, and accessibility of treatments based on costly research that is applicable to relatively few patients. In major psychiatric disorders and intellectual deficiency, rare and de novo deletion or duplication of chromosomal segments (copy number variation), in the aggregate, are common causes of increased risk. This implies that the policy problems of pharmacogenomics will be particularly important for the psychiatric disorders. PMID:25733960

  3. Ethical and public policy challenges for pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Elliot S.; Alliey-Rodriguez, Ney; Grennan, Kay

    2014-01-01

    It is timely to consider the ethical and social questions raised by progress in pharmacogenomics, based on the current importance of pharmacogenomics for avoidance of predictable side effects of drugs, and for correct choice of medications in certain cancers. It has been proposed that the entire population be genotyped for drug-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms, as a measure that would prevent many untoward and dangerous drug reactions. Pharmacologic treatment targeting based on genomics of disease can be expected to increase greatly in the coming years. Policy and ethical issues exist on consent for large-scale genomic pharmacogenomic data collection, public vs corporate ownership of genomic research results, testing efficacy and safety of drugs used for rare genomic indications, and accessibility of treatments based on costly research that is applicable to relatively few patients. In major psychiatric disorders and intellectual deficiency, rare and de novo deletion or duplication of chromosomal segments (copy number variation), in the aggregate, are common causes of increased risk. This implies that the policy problems of pharmacogenomics will be particularly important for the psychiatric disorders. PMID:25733960

  4. Frequency of policy recommendations in epidemiologic publications.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, L W; Lee, N L; Samet, J M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and character of policy statements in epidemiologic reports. METHODS: The first author followed a standardized protocol and reviewed a random sample of articles selected from the American Journal of Epidemiology, Annals of Epidemiology, and Epidemiology. The second author reviewed all articles with policy statements and a 10% sample without such statements. RESULTS: Overall, 23.8% of the articles contained policy statements. Annals of Epidemiology and the American Journal of Epidemiology had similar frequencies of articles with policy statements (30% and 26.7%, respectively), while Epidemiology evidenced the lowest frequency (8.3%). The majority of policy statements (55%) pertained to public health practice; 27.5% involved clinical practice, and the remainder (17.5%) focused on corporate policies, regulatory actions, or undefined arenas. The frequency of policy statements differed according to first author's affiliation, type of publication, area of research, research design, and study population. CONCLUSIONS: Although a minority of publications included policy statements, the inclusion of a statement seemed to be influenced by specific study characteristics. PMID:10432907

  5. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  6. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  7. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  8. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  9. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  10. National Policy on Public Libraries in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambhekar, Neeta

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the government policies in India, especially the five-year plans regarding finance, since its independence in 1947 and their impact on the establishment of the public library system. Highlights include model library systems, library development, national libraries, information services, and adult education and public libraries.

  11. Public Policy Concerning the Use of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewiski, Raymond L.

    The article identifies major events that have impacted on public policy toward testing during the last 20 years. Events were classified, and an interpretation of the interrelationship of events was made. Events were classified as stemming from writings of individual authors, publications of professional organizations, and actions taken by the…

  12. Public Discourse and Public Policy: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Lisa

    Letters to the editor, one of the major ways citizens can respond to, and possibly even influence, public policy decisions, are good examples of public discourse. Those who take the time to write guest editorials or letters to the editor hope to go beyond self-expression to communication. They hope to influence the beliefs and attitudes, and even…

  13. Public Housing and Public Schools: How Do Students Living in NYC Public Housing Fare in School? Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Education and Social Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    While research and policy debates center on residents moving out of public housing, many families still live in public housing around the country; it is important to consider how to improve their well-being. Approximately 1.2 million units of public housing provide housing for about 3 million tenants throughout the country. In New York City, there…

  14. The Importance of Hormesis to Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ralph; Calabrese, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Hormesis is a specific type of nonmonotonic dose response whose occurrence has been documented across a broad range of biological models, diverse types of exposure, and a variety of outcomes. The effects that occur at various points along this curve can be interpreted as beneficial or detrimental, depending on the biological or ecologic context in which they occur. Objective Because hormesis appears to be a relatively common phenomenon that has not yet been incorporated into regulatory practice, the objective of this commentary is to explore some of its more obvious public health and risk assessment implications, with particular reference to issues raised recently within this journal by other authors. Discussion Hormesis appears to be more common than dose–response curves that are currently used in the risk assessment process [e.g., linear no-threshold (LNT)]. Although a number of mechanisms have been identified that explain many hormetic dose–response relationships, better understanding of this phenomenon will likely lead to different strategies not only for the prevention and treatment of disease but also for the promotion of improved public health as it relates to both specific and more holistic health outcomes. Conclusions We believe that ignoring hormesis is poor policy because it ignores knowledge that could be used to improve public health. PMID:17107845

  15. Public health workforce: challenges and policy issues.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, Robert; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2003-07-17

    This paper reviews the challenges facing the public health workforce in developing countries and the main policy issues that must be addressed in order to strengthen the public health workforce. The public health workforce is diverse and includes all those whose prime responsibility is the provision of core public health activities, irrespective of their organizational base. Although the public health workforce is central to the performance of health systems, very little is known about its composition, training or performance. The key policy question is: Should governments invest more in building and supporting the public health workforce and infrastructure to ensure the more effective functioning of health systems? Other questions concern: the nature of the public health workforce, including its size, composition, skills, training needs, current functions and performance; the appropriate roles of the workforce; and how the workforce can be strengthened to support new approaches to priority health problems.The available evidence to shed light on these policy issues is limited. The World Health Organization is supporting the development of evidence to inform discussion on the best approaches to strengthening public health capacity in developing countries. WHO's priorities are to build an evidence base on the size and structure of the public health workforce, beginning with ongoing data collection activities, and to map the current public health training programmes in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe. Other steps will include developing a consensus on the desired functions and activities of the public health workforce and developing a framework and methods for assisting countries to assess and enhance the performance of public health training institutions and of the public health workforce. PMID:12904251

  16. Public health workforce: challenges and policy issues

    PubMed Central

    Beaglehole, Robert; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the challenges facing the public health workforce in developing countries and the main policy issues that must be addressed in order to strengthen the public health workforce. The public health workforce is diverse and includes all those whose prime responsibility is the provision of core public health activities, irrespective of their organizational base. Although the public health workforce is central to the performance of health systems, very little is known about its composition, training or performance. The key policy question is: Should governments invest more in building and supporting the public health workforce and infrastructure to ensure the more effective functioning of health systems? Other questions concern: the nature of the public health workforce, including its size, composition, skills, training needs, current functions and performance; the appropriate roles of the workforce; and how the workforce can be strengthened to support new approaches to priority health problems. The available evidence to shed light on these policy issues is limited. The World Health Organization is supporting the development of evidence to inform discussion on the best approaches to strengthening public health capacity in developing countries. WHO's priorities are to build an evidence base on the size and structure of the public health workforce, beginning with ongoing data collection activities, and to map the current public health training programmes in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe. Other steps will include developing a consensus on the desired functions and activities of the public health workforce and developing a framework and methods for assisting countries to assess and enhance the performance of public health training institutions and of the public health workforce. PMID:12904251

  17. Panelists urge scientists to become involved in public policy issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Most sessions at the recent AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco focused on the presentation of scientific information. However, two special sessions organized by AGU's Committee on Public Affairs (COPA) delved into the role of geoscientists in the public policy arena. Panelists explored the sometimes touchy area of scientists as activists, and generally came out in favor of the need for scientists to not only conduct good science but try to see that their work and the overall importance of geoscience actually is incorporated into public policy decisions.

  18. Public Policy and Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchild, Lester F., Ed.; Lovell, Cheryl D., Ed.; Hines, Edward R., Ed.; Gill, Judith I., Ed.

    The essays in this collection explore issues related to public policy and higher education. They are intended to provide foundational readings in public policy and to explore contemporary public policy issues facing higher education. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of the Policy Process" (Randall B. Ripley); (2) "Promoting Policy Theory:…

  19. Is College Opportunity Slipping Away? Parents and the Public Voice Concerns about Higher Education Access and Affordability. Policy Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Policy Alert" is a publication series that summarizes important policy findings affecting the future of higher education. This issue is based on an earlier study, "Squeeze Play: How Parents and the Public Look at Higher Education Today," from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education and Public Agenda. This "Policy Alert"…

  20. Public Policy in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J., Ed; Reis, Sally M., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Raising some of the most challenging questions in the field, this call-to-arms focuses on the important services gifted programs provide, the potential crisis gifted educators face, and what must be done to keep the gifted child movement alive and well. Key features include: (1) James J. Gallagher's unflinching account of the issues that continue…

  1. Nuclear Policy and Public Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Lettie McSpadden; Wenner, Manfred W.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the voting patterns in six states on the 1976 initiatives for a moratorium on nuclear power plants. Demographic characteristics were found to be unimportant variables, while percentage of people enrolled in colleges and universities, percentage of land in farms, and relative cost of electricity were found to be important. Stresses

  2. Nuclear Policy and Public Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Lettie McSpadden; Wenner, Manfred W.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the voting patterns in six states on the 1976 initiatives for a moratorium on nuclear power plants. Demographic characteristics were found to be unimportant variables, while percentage of people enrolled in colleges and universities, percentage of land in farms, and relative cost of electricity were found to be important. Stresses…

  3. AGU Public Affairs: How to Get Involved in Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    AGU Public Affairs offers many ways for its members to get involved in science policy at different levels of participation, whether you would love to spend a year working as a resident science expert in a congressional office in Washington, D.C., or would rather simply receive email alerts about Earth and space science policy news. How you can get involved: Sign up for AGU Science Policy Alerts to receive the most relevant Earth and space science policy information delivered to your email inbox. Participate in one of AGU's Congressional Visits Days to speak with your legislators about important science issues. Attend the next AGU Science Policy Conference in spring 2013. Participate in events happening on Capitol Hill, and watch video of past events. Learn about AGU Embassy Lectures, where countries come together to discuss important Earth and space science topics. Learn how you can comment on AGU Position Statements. Apply to be an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, where you can work in a congressional office for one year and serve as a resident science expert, or to be an AGU Public Affairs Intern, where you can work in the field of science policy for three months. The AGU Public Affairs Team will highlight ways members can be involved as well as provide information on how the team is working to shape policy and inform society about the excitement of AGU science.

  4. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  5. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  6. Public Telecommunications Policies and Education's Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Frank W.

    The use of satellite telecommunications for educational and other public service purposes has been restricted by educators' lack of awareness of the potential that exists. While industry actively promotes its own interests, educators rarely even realize that international policies being made today will affect critically the options available for…

  7. Futurism: Gaining a Toehold in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Constance

    1975-01-01

    What has come to be known as applied futurism or futuristics, as a mode of thought, has been emerging from the academic environment into the realm of public policy. Insights noted at the Second General Assembly of the World Future Society are presented. (EB)

  8. Academic Values, Institutional Management and Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of market-related policies and revenues on higher education are not uniform but globalisation has opened most institutions to new pressures. The public funding models developed 50 years ago underestimated the full cost of mass higher education as an entitlement while the sheer scale of resources needed to sustain a comprehensive…

  9. Public Policy Program, 2013-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Public Policy Program underscores the American Association of University Women's (AAUW's) mission of advancing equity for women and girls through advocacy, education, philanthropy, and research and speaks to women's needs, aspirations, and concerns across the life span. The work of AAUW builds upon more than 130 years of responsible public…

  10. Training and Public Policy: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James

    Developed by an advisory board of industry and education representatives to raise issues for the consideration of policy makers, community college administrators, labor leaders, and managers in Michigan, this report discusses the increasing significance of training to industry; the challenge to public education and, in particular, to community

  11. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of analytical science in the formulation of public policy is described. This includes the ability to resolve atomic composition in two and three dimensions on the micrometer scale altering the means for defining intellectual property, medical diagnostics built on analytical measurements repeatedly raising international alarm over…

  12. Institute for International Public Policy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Institute for International Public Policy program provides a single grant to assist a consortia of institutions of higher education in establishing an institute designed to increase the representation of minorities in international service, including private international voluntary organizations and the Foreign Service of the United States. A…

  13. Public Policy Issues on the Horizon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) has identified public policy issues of interest to its membership in 1997, including those in budget and appropriations, college costs and pricing, distance learning and technology, environmental health and safety, federal audit and accounting standards, Higher Education…

  14. Involving Citizens in Making Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Silas B.

    1970-01-01

    Citizen participation in public policy making is a serious jeopardy because of the frustration cause by an enormous avalanche of information, by the impersonalization of our institutions, and by the technological revolution. A small social action committee dedicated to the collective interchange of ideas and information and working in an…

  15. Public Policy Influences on Public College and University Foundations. Occasional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Anne H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews public policy concerns that affect college and university foundations. Such foundations, originally designed to provide a margin of excellence for their host institutions, have today evolved into aggressive fund raisers that support day-to-day operations. The document reviews some of the historical context (cuts in state…

  16. Public Policy and Union Security in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Nels E.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys the legal status of union security in the public sector and indicates that the basic policy options are to limit union security to the voluntary dues check-off, to authorize the parties to negotiate union or agency shop agreements, or to establish a mandatory fee for the exclusive representative. (Author/IRT)

  17. Behavioral economics and empirical public policy.

    PubMed

    Hursh, Steven R; Roma, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    The application of economics principles to the analysis of behavior has yielded novel insights on value and choice across contexts ranging from laboratory animal research to clinical populations to national trends of global impact. Recent innovations in demand curve methods provide a credible means of quantitatively comparing qualitatively different reinforcers as well as quantifying the choice relations between concurrently available reinforcers. The potential of the behavioral economic approach to inform public policy is illustrated with examples from basic research, pre-clinical behavioral pharmacology, and clinical drug abuse research as well as emerging applications to public transportation and social behavior. Behavioral Economics can serve as a broadly applicable conceptual, methodological, and analytical framework for the development and evaluation of empirical public policy. PMID:23344991

  18. Mobilisation of public support for policy actions to prevent obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Terry T-K; Cawley, John H; Ashe, Marice; Costa, Sergio A; Frerichs, Leah M; Zwicker, Lindsey; Rivera, Juan A; Levy, David; Hammond, Ross A; Lambert, Estelle V; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2015-06-13

    Public mobilisation is needed to enact obesity-prevention policies and to mitigate reaction against their implementation. However, approaches in public health focus mainly on dialogue between public health professionals and political leaders. Strategies to increase popular demand for obesity-prevention policies include refinement and streamlining of public information, identification of effective obesity frames for each population, strengthening of media advocacy, building of citizen protest and engagement, and development of a receptive political environment with change agents embedded across organisations and sectors. Long-term support and investment in collaboration between diverse stakeholders to create shared value is also important. Each actor in an expanded coalition for obesity prevention can make specific contributions to engaging, mobilising, and coalescing the public. The shift from a top-down to a combined and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach would need an overhaul of current strategies and reprioritisation of resources. PMID:25703113

  19. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies--1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of papers aims to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The first section, "An Evolving Public Policy Education" examines the history of public education; address current issues such as leadership models, ethics in policy formation and policy education; and forecasts…

  20. Trust and Public Participation in Risk Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Judith A. ); Branch, Kristi M. ); Focht, Will; Ragnar E. Lofstedt and George Cvetkovich

    1999-12-01

    Recent social science literature has paid increasing attention to the concept of trust, albeit with differing definitions and constituents and also with differing emphases on societal origins, functions, and implications. Recently, discussion has shifted to the role of trust in hazard management and, more broadly, to the fundamental role of trust in modern society. In this paper, we provide answers to the following questions, in an attempt to refocus the discussion and identify a more productive research approach to the relationship of trust and public participation in risk policy issues: -What is trust? What are the differing conceptions and dimensions of trust that have been identified in the literature? -What are the social functions of trust? -What is the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? Why is trust particularly important for agencies such as the Department of Energy (DOE) that are responsible for development and implementation of policies involving technological risk? -How should we define the research problem in examining the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? What are the key research questions to be addressed? Federal agencies have introduced public participation as a means of addressing public distrust and enhancing their ability to make decisions that can be implemented. In some cases, such as the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board, public participation was explicitly identified as an organizational response that was needed to re-establish public trust and confidence in the Department of Energy (DOE). However, our review of the literature on both trust and public participation and our experience in developing criteria for evaluating public participation initiatives have resulted in our questioning the wisdom of establishing trust as a goal of public participation and caused us to examine the relationship between trust and public participation.

  1. Public policy frameworks for improving population health.

    PubMed

    Tarlov, A R

    1999-01-01

    Four conceptual frameworks provide bases for constructing comprehensive public policy strategies for improving population health within wealthy (OECD) nations. (1) Determinants of population health. There are five broad categories: genes and biology, medical care, health behaviors, the ecology of all living things, and social/societal characteristics. (2) Complex systems: Linear effects models and multiple independent effects models fail to yield results that explain satisfactorily the dynamics of population health production. A different method (complex systems modeling) is needed to select the most effective interventions to improve population health. (3) An intervention framework for population health improvement. A two-by-five grid seems useful. Most intervention strategies are either ameliorative or fundamentally corrective. The other dimension of the grid captures five general categories of interventions: child development, community development, adult self-actualization, socioeconomic well-being, and modulated hierarchical structuring. (4) Public policy development process: the process has two phases. The initial phase, in which public consensus builds and an authorizing environment evolves, progresses from values and culture to identification of the problem, knowledge development from research and experience, the unfolding of public awareness, and the setting of a national agenda. The later phase, taking policy action, begins with political engagement and progresses to interest group activation, public policy deliberation and adoption, and ultimately regulation and revision. These frameworks will be applied to help understand the 39 recommendations of the Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health, the Sir Donald Acheson Report from the United Kingdom, which is the most ambitious attempt to date to develop a comprehensive plan to improve population health. PMID:10681904

  2. Roundtable on public policy affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Crane, Robert M; Raymond, Brian

    2011-03-01

    On April 15, 2010, patient safety experts were assembled to discuss the adequacy of the public policy response to the Institute of Medicine report "To Err is Human" 10 years after its publication. The experts concluded that additional government actions should be considered. Actions that deserve consideration include the development of an educational campaign to improve public and provider understanding of the issue as a means to support change similar to successful public health campaigns, support the evolution of payment reform away from fee for service, create a clearer aim or goal for patient safety activities, support the development and use of better safety measures to judge status and improvement, and support for additional learning of what works particularly on implementation issues. Participants included: Moderator Robert Crane, senior advisor, Kaiser Permanente Participants Doug Bonacum, vice president, Safety Management, Kaiser Permanente Janet Corrigan, PhD, president and CEO, National Quality Forum Helen Darling, MA, president and CEO, National Business Group on Health Susan Edgman-Levitan, PA, executive director, John D. Stoeckle Center for Primary Care Innovation, Massachusetts General Hospital David M. Lawrence, MD, MPH, chairman and CEO (Retired), Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals, Inc Lucian Leape, MD, adjunct professor of Health Policy, Harvard School of Public Health Diane C. Pinakiewicz, president, National Patient Safety Foundation Robert M. Wachter, MD, professor and associate chairman, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. PMID:22026014

  3. An exploration of the theoretical concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs at the Swedish public health arena.

    PubMed

    Guldbrandsson, Karin; Fossum, Bjöörn

    2009-12-01

    In John Kingdon's Policy Streams Approach policy formation is described as the result of the flow of three 'streams', the problem stream, the policy stream and the politics stream. When these streams couple, a policy window opens which facilitate policy change. Actors who promote specific solutions are labelled policy entrepreneurs. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of the Policy Streams Approach by verifying whether the theoretical concepts 'policy windows' and 'policy entrepreneurs' could be discernable in nine specified cases. Content analyses of interviews and documents related to child health promoting measures in three Swedish municipalities were performed and nine case studies were written. The policy processes preceding the municipal measures and described in the case studies were scrutinized in order to find statements related to the concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs. All conditions required to open a policy window were reported to be present in eight of the nine case studies, as was the most important resource of a policy entrepreneur, sheer persistence. This study shows that empirical examples of policy windows and policy entrepreneurs could be identified in child health promoting measures in Swedish municipalities. If policy makers could learn to predict the opening of policy windows, the planning of public health measures might be more straightforward. This also applies to policy makers' ability to detect actors possessing policy entrepreneur resources. PMID:19819897

  4. Parents, Public Policy, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper jointly examines the importance of parental influences, prices, and tobacco control policies on the smoking behavior of youths. Data are drawn from the Audits & Surveys (A&S) 1996 survey of high school students across the United States from "The Study of Smoking and Tobacco Use Among Young People" to examine the impact of parental

  5. Parents, Public Policy, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper jointly examines the importance of parental influences, prices, and tobacco control policies on the smoking behavior of youths. Data are drawn from the Audits & Surveys (A&S) 1996 survey of high school students across the United States from "The Study of Smoking and Tobacco Use Among Young People" to examine the impact of parental…

  6. Willingness to pay for public health policies to treat illnesses.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, Ryan; Cameron, Trudy Ann; DeShazo, J R

    2015-01-01

    As the US pursues health care reform, it is important to understand the patterns in demand for, and opposition to, public provision of medical treatments. Using data from a nationally representative survey, we develop and estimate a utility-theoretic choice model to quantify demand for publicly provided medical treatment policies. We find diminishing marginal utility for increased recoveries and avoided premature deaths. We also show how the utility associated with different types of treatment policies varies with the socio-demographic group that would benefit (e.g. men, women, children, and seniors) and the program's duration and scope. Our model further permits utility, and hence willingness to pay, to vary with each respondent's own gender, age, race, income, community ethnic fractionalization and immigrant composition, as well as the respondent's expected private benefits from the policy and attitude toward government interventions and overall health care funding allocations. Self-interest is a prevailing finding. PMID:25531749

  7. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies--1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

    This publication reports the major discussions at a conference that was held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. It begins with abstracts of the 22 presentations. Four papers deal with public policy education in the 1990s: "To Inform Their Discretion: Policy Education and Democratic…

  8. Decolonization of psychiatric public policy in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Hickling, F W; Gibson, R C

    2012-07-01

    Involuntary commitment and custodialization were the principal tenets of British colonial public policy provisions for the management of the violent, disturbed mentally ill in Jamaica and the West Indies. Over the fifty years following Jamaica's political independence from Britain, a community engagement mental health programme has developed through a decolonization process that has negated involuntary certification, incarceration and custodialization, has promoted family therapy and short stay treatment in conventional primary and secondary care health facilities, and has promoted reliance on traditional and cultural therapies that have been extremely successful in the treatment of mental illness and the reduction of stigma in Jamaica. Collaborations involving The University of the West Indies, the Jamaican Ministry of Health and the Pan American Health Organization have been seminal in the development of the decolonizing of public policy initiatives, negating the effects of involuntary certification that had been imposed on the population by slavery and colonization. This collaboration also catalysed the psychiatric training of medical, nursing and mental health practitioners and the execution of community mental health policy in Jamaica. PMID:23240482

  9. The importance of iodine in public health.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, John H

    2015-08-01

    Iodine (I) deficiency has been known for more than a century and is known to cause cretinism at the extreme end of the spectrum but also, importantly, impaired development and neurocognition in areas of mild deficiency. The WHO has indicated that median urinary iodine of 100-199 μg/l in a population is regarded as indicative of an adequate iodine intake. The understanding of the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders led to the formation of The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders which has promulgated the use of household iodized salt and the use of such salt in food processing and manufacture. Iodine deficiency is particularly important in pregnancy as the fetus relies on maternal thyroxine (T4) exclusively during the first 14 weeks and also throughout gestation. As this hormone is critical to brain and nervous system maturation, low maternal T4 results in low child intelligence quotient. The recommendation for I intake in pregnancy is 250 μg/day to prevent fetal and child brain function impairment. During the past 25 years, the number of countries with I deficiency has reduced to 32; these still include many European developed countries. Sustainability of adequate iodine status must be achieved by continuous monitoring and where this has not been performed I deficiency has often recurred. More randomized controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy are required in mild iodine-deficient areas to inform public health strategy and subsequent government action on suitable provision of iodine to the population at risk. PMID:25663362

  10. The Policy Implications of Internet Connectivity in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Langa, Lesley A.

    2006-01-01

    The provision of public Internet access and related networked services by public libraries is affected by a number of information policy issues. This article analyzes the policy dimensions of Internet connectivity in public libraries in light of the data and findings from a national survey of public libraries conducted by the authors of this

  11. The Policy Implications of Internet Connectivity in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Langa, Lesley A.

    2006-01-01

    The provision of public Internet access and related networked services by public libraries is affected by a number of information policy issues. This article analyzes the policy dimensions of Internet connectivity in public libraries in light of the data and findings from a national survey of public libraries conducted by the authors of this…

  12. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  13. Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Chelsea A.

    2010-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322

  14. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  15. Public policy in a multicultural Australia.

    PubMed

    Zubrzycki, J

    1987-03-01

    The debate on the consequences of large-scale immigration in the making of public policy began in 1968. Muliculturalism is for all Australians and any social policy designed for the benefit of one group in the population must have profound consequences on all people. 40% of the Australian population was born overseas or have at least 1 parent born overseas. Almost 1/4 of the population has ethnic roots in other than the Anglo-Celtic majority. The ideal of moral progress, greater equality, and improvement is the motive force in society. The presence of social heterogeneity--religious or ethnic--is linked with the issue of stability in a democratic system. There are 2 models of multiculturalism and corresponding public policy approaches. 1 model emphasizes the role of the political processes in Australian ethnic relations and sees ethnic structures (political, social, economic) as legitimate but separate interest groups, each having the exclusive responsibility for the realization of ethnic goals. The leading feature of this model is the structural fragmentation of Australian society into parallel segments of varying degrees of exclusiveness each with its own "ethnic" label. The 2nd model stresses the priority of the wholeness and welfare of the entire society. It assumes that a society based on satisfaction of individual needs through voluntary exchange is fertile ground for cultural enrichment. The goal is cohesion and unity in living together in Australia, seen as of central concern and consistent with the ideals of intercultural understanding and improved communication. The model assumes that the culture must be seen as a living, dynamic, changing, and interacting set of life patterns. The author prefers the 2nd model which stresses that the future vision of a multicultural Australia must be a shared one because only then can cultural diversity and national cohesion coexist within the 1 economic and political unit. PMID:12268819

  16. Public Discourse versus Public Policy: Latinas/os, Affirmative Action, and the Court of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, María C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the power of popular discourse in shaping public policy debates concerning educational access and opportunity for historically marginalized and minoritized students, especially for Latinas/os. I argue that proponents of race-conscious policies would do well to challenge the elimination of affirmative…

  17. Influencing Public Policy to Improve the Lives of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Kietzman, Kathryn G.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Hensel, Brian K.; Miles, Toni P.; Segev, Dorry L.; Zerzan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous public policy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related public policy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging…

  18. Policy Issues & Strategies Affecting Public Libraries in the National Networked Environment: Moving beyond Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    This report discusses selected issues regarding public library Internet connectivity, costs, and use. It discusses the implications of the "1997 Public Libraries and the Internet" study and presents policy recommendations related to the study's findings. This report suggests the importance of federal policy and library management in considering…

  19. Correctional health care: implications for public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Diane L.; Leath, Brenda A.

    2002-01-01

    "Correctional Health Care: Implications for Public Health Policy" is the first in a series of articles that examines the special health care needs of persons who are incarcerated in America's correctional facilities. The intent of the series is to gain a better understanding about the unmet health needs of incarcerated persons, the importance of addressing the health service delivery system in correctional facilities, and the implications that may arise from neglecting to address these health issues on health outcomes for individual detainees and society at-large when detainees transition back into the community. This article provides a descriptive overview of the corrections population, their sociodemographics, health care needs, and health concerns that are in need of improvement. This article also offers recommendations for public policy consideration to improve the overall health of inmates and society at large. PMID:12069208

  20. On failures in education and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2007-04-01

    Education of the public and the resulting policies in many matters are grossly inadequate. Included as a small list of four samples of failings in vital matters are: 1. Societal Cohesiveness: A profound change in the school system will yield great benefit for the nation (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/publicservice.html.). 2. Lack of understanding regarding the coming avian flu pandemic (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/ElyFluMES.pdf). 3. Severe Hg intoxication from dentistry due to profound multifaceted ignorance (Ely JTA, Mercury induced Alzheimer's disease: accelerating incidence? Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001; 67(6),800-6). 4. The end of the world by global warming due to Christian religion forcing family planning money to be withheld from UN leading to population excess (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/CO2runaway.html).

  1. Advocating Healthy Public Policy: Implications for Baccalaureate Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutter, Linda; Williamson, Deanna L.

    2000-01-01

    Public health nurses must advocate healthy public policy. The education of these nurses should include learning experiences such as analysis of population health issues, environmental scanning, letters to editors or legislators, and practicum activities that develop awareness of public policy. (SK)

  2. Promotion of Healthy Eating Through Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian; Taksler, Glen B.; Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney B.; Dixon, L. Beth

    2013-01-01

    Background To induce consumers to purchase healthier foods and beverages, some policymakers have suggested special taxes or labels on unhealthy products. The potential of such policies is unknown. Purpose In a controlled field experiment, researchers tested whether consumers were more likely to purchase healthy products under such policies. Methods From October to December 2011, researchers opened a store at a large hospital that sold a variety of healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages. Purchases (N=3680) were analyzed under five conditions: a baseline with no special labeling or taxation, a 30% tax, highlighting the phrase less healthy on the price tag, and combinations of taxation and labeling. Purchases were analyzed in JanuaryJuly 2012, at the single-item and transaction levels. Results There was no significant difference between the various taxation conditions. Consumers were 11 percentage points more likely to purchase a healthier item under a 30% tax (95% CI=7%, 16%, <0.001) and 6 percentage points more likely under labeling (95% CI=0%, 12%, p=0.04). By product type, consumers switched away from the purchase of less-healthy food under taxation (9 percentage points decrease, p<0.001) and into healthier beverages (6 percentage point increase, p=0.001); there were no effects for labeling. Conditions were associated with the purchase of 1114 fewer calories (9%11% in relative terms) and 2 fewer grams of sugar. Results remained significant controlling for all items purchased in a single transaction. Conclusions Taxation may induce consumers to purchase healthier foods and beverages. However, it is unclear whether the 15%20% tax rates proposed in public policy discussions would be more effective than labeling products as less healthy. PMID:23790988

  3. The Importance of Science Policy and its Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    I worked for physicist and Congressman Bill Foster (D-IL) as the Mather Public Policy Intern through the American Institute of Physics and the Society of Physics Students during the summer of 2014. This internship is meant to connect undergraduate physics students with the policy process in Washington DC. As a Mather Public Policy Intern, I worked for Congressman Foster researching policy initiatives such as science funding, STEM education, and environmental regulations. This talk will discuss my experience and many of the things that I learned as an undergraduate physicist working on Capitol Hill. For example, through my experience with the internship, I attended lectures and hearings that illuminated for me how members of Congress conceive of scientific research. I also met with many physicists on Capitol Hill working to improve government interest in physics research -- AAAS Fellows, Members of Congress, and Government Relations Specialists -- and I will talk about how I saw physicists impacting governmental policies relating to scientific research and development. This internship is part of the Society of Physics Students internship program and was funded by the John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts. This work was part of the Society of Physics Students internship Program.

  4. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. Methods A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Results Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. Conclusion This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be addressed and later documents providing evidence of beginning policy development and implementation. While many similarities exist between the provinces, the context distinctive to each province has influenced and shaped how they have focused their public health human resources policies. PMID:24564931

  5. Aligning Food Systems Policies to Advance Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mark; Tagtow, Angie; Roberts, Susan L.; MacDougall, Erin

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of public health professionals in food and agricultural policy provides tremendous opportunities for advancing the public's health. It is particularly challenging, however, for professionals to understand and consider the numerous policy drivers that impact the food system, which range from agricultural commodity policies to local food safety ordinances. Confronted with this complexity in the food system, policy advocates often focus on narrow objectives with disregard for the larger system. This commentary contends that, in order to be most effective, public health professionals need to consider the full range of interdependent policies that affect the system. Food policy councils have proven to be an effective tool, particularly at the local and state level, for developing comprehensive food systems policies that can improve public health. PMID:23144671

  6. The State of Asian Pacific America: Policy Issues to the Year 2020. A Public Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    Nineteen chapters consider major public policy implications for demographic projections of the Asian Pacific American population to the year 2020. A preface by D. T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama introduces the studies. Policy recommendations from the Asian American Public Policy Institute follow, recommending multiculturalism and intracultural…

  7. Animal diseases of public health importance.

    PubMed Central

    Orriss, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing problems, strengthening infrastructure, promoting standardization as a means of facilitating trade, and safeguarding the interests of consumers. This paper considers the importance of emerging foodborne diseases from the perspectives of the consumer, international trade in food, producers and processors, and developing countries and addresses prevention and control measures. PMID:9366603

  8. From 'trust us' to participatory governance: Deliberative publics and science policy.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen a shift from the view that publics need to be educated so that they trust science and its governance to the recognition that publics possess important local knowledge and the capacity to understand technical information sufficiently to participate in policy decisions. There are now a variety of approaches to increasing the role of publics and advocacy groups in the policy and governance of science and biotechnology. This article considers recent experiences that demonstrate that it is possible to bring together those with policy making responsibility and diverse publics to co-produce policy and standards of practice that are technically informed, incorporate wide social perspectives and explicitly involve publics in key decisions. Further, the process of deliberation involving publics is capable of being incorporated into governance structures to enhance the capacity to respond to emerging issues with levels of public engagement that are proportionate to the issues. PMID:24434712

  9. Multiple gestations: some public policy issues.

    PubMed

    Jennings, P K; Callahan, J C

    2001-01-01

    Multiple gestations, or multifetal pregnancies, raise a number of significant policy questions concerning the well being of women and the well being of the children fetuses might become. Important questions for feminists pertain not only to multifetal pregnancy itself, but also to the medical interventions associated with these pregnancies. In this paper, we address the questions of how many embryos should be transferred in assisted reproduction, how many fetuses should remain in a multiple gestation, who should make these decisions, and the need to protect women from overexposure to exogenous hormones. Although we focus on assisted reproduction in the United States, we believe that our suggestions are applicable to other countries where the technology is comparable. PMID:11561995

  10. [The civil society against aids: collective demands and public policies].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriana Jimenez; Nichiata, Lúcia Yasuko Izumi

    2011-07-01

    This article features a discussion about the bibliographical output on the organization of civil society in the campaign against Aids in Brazil. The objective was to analyze the different forms of articulation of the social players in accordance with the manifestation of collective needs and the achievement of public policies. The literature in the area of health and social sciences was reviewed from the outbreak of the Aids epidemic in Brazil through to the present moment. The results show that the pressure applied by mobilized groups at the beginning of the epidemic produced a response of the public authorities for whom the benchmark was right to access and comprehensive care of people infected with HIV/Aids. Currently, there are heterogeneous groups of organized civil society working on enhancing existing public policies and consolidating achievements in the area. The importance of this study lies in the need to strengthen collective action to demand answers from the public authorities in order to tackle the new needs of the campaign to fight Aids. PMID:21808912

  11. Reproductive Toxicology: From Science to Public Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male reproductive toxicology research substantially influences policies that protect men's health. US policy directs regulatory agencies to ensure environmental protection for vulnerable groups, including boys and men where factors like age- and sex-specific sensitivities are app...

  12. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,

  13. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  14. How energy policies affect public health.

    PubMed Central

    Romm, J J; Ervin, C A

    1996-01-01

    The connection between energy policy and increased levels of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease has become clearer in the past few years. People living in cities with high levels of pollution have a higher risk of mortality than those living in less polluted cities. The pollutants most directly linked to increased morbidity and mortality include ozone, particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen. Energy-related emissions generate the vast majority of these polluting chemicals. Technologies to prevent pollution in the transportation, manufacturing, building, and utility sectors can significantly reduce these emissions while reducing the energy bills of consumers and businesses. In short, clean energy technologies represent a very cost-effective investment in public health. Some 72% of the Federal government's investment in the research, development, and demonstration of pollution prevention technologies is made by the Department of Energy, with the largest share provided by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This article will examine the connections between air pollution and health problems and will discuss what the Department of Energy is doing to prevent air pollution now and in the future. Images p390-a p391-a p392-a p393-a p394-a p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8837627

  15. Single-Sex Education. A Public Policy Issue. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Abbe; And Others

    This article reports a study of the public policy implications of publicly supported primary and secondary single-sex education in the United States. Twenty-two public intellectuals concerned with educational issues were interviewed. Subjects were either academic researchers, government officials and legislators, directors of public interest…

  16. What Are Nebraska's Public Policies on Funding Postsecondary Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, Lincoln.

    This document explores Nebraska's current public policies and practices that impact the funding of postsecondary education. These policies and practices have developed over time in response to the needs of the state. Many of the policies are statute and have not been formally adopted, but are reflective of legislative practice, past patterns…

  17. Scholars, Dollars, and Public Policy: New Frontiers in Corporate Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W.; And Others

    Financial contributions by American corporations that are designed to influence domestic or foreign policies are discussed. After identifying ways that business corporations can influence either general policy or particular decisions, a brief history of corporate philanthrophy in the United States and financial support for public policy purposes…

  18. Balance, Diversity and Ethics in Public Policy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul B.

    Public policy for agriculture and natural resources must change as farming and the use of resources change, but policy also changes to reflect new understandings. The new understandings that will shape future agricultural policy may not come from food producers or agricultural scientists, and may not assume that expanding production is the primary…

  19. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dorothee; Harting, Janneke; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Jantine; de Vries, Nanne; Stronks, Karien

    2016-06-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a continuum of less-to-more policy integration, going from intersectoral action (IA) to healthy public policy (HPP) to health in all policies (HiAP). Our case study included 34 municipal projects of the Dutch Gezonde Slagkracht Programme (2009-15), which supports the development and implementation of IPHP on overweight, alcohol and drug abuse, and smoking. Our content analysis of project application forms and interviews with all project leaders used a framework approach involving the policy strategies and the following policy variables: initiator, actors, policy goals, determinants and policy instruments. Most projects showed a combination of policy strategies. However, manifestations of IPHP in overweight projects predominantly involved IA. More policy integration was apparent in alcohol/drugs projects (HPP) and in all-theme projects (HiAP). More policy integration was related to broad goal definitions, which allowed for the involvement of actors representing several policy sectors. This enabled the implementation of a mix of policy instruments. Determinants of health were not explicitly used as a starting point of the policy process. If a policy problem justifies policy integration beyond IA, it might be helpful to start from the determinants of health (epidemiological reality), systematically transform them into policy (policy reality) and set broad policy goals, since this gives actors from other sectors the opportunity to participate. PMID:25500994

  20. Healthy food procurement policy: an important intervention to aid the reduction in chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm; Duhaney, Tara; Arango, Manuel; Ashley, Lisa A; Bacon, Simon L; Gelfer, Mark; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Mang, Eric; Morris, Dorothy; Nagpal, Seema; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Willis, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, unhealthy diets were estimated to be the leading risk for death and disability in Canada and globally. Although important, policies aimed at improving individual's skills in selecting and eating healthy foods has had a limited effect. Policies that create healthy eating environments are strongly recommended but have not yet been effectively and/or broadly implemented in Canada. Widespread adoption of healthy food procurement policies are strongly recommended in this policy statement from the Hypertension Advisory Committee with support from 15 major national health organizations. The policy statement calls on governments to take a leadership role, but also outlines key roles for the commercial and noncommercial sectors including health and scientific organizations and the Canadian public. The policy statement is based on a systematic review of healthy food procurement interventions that found them to be almost uniformly effective at improving sales and purchases of healthy foods. Successful food procurement policies are nearly always accompanied by supporting education programs and some by pricing policies. Ensuring access and availability to affordable healthy foods and beverages in public and private sector settings could play a substantive role in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases and health risks such as obesity, hypertension, and ultimately improve cardiovascular health. PMID:25442442

  1. Public Policy and Teacher Education in Brazil after 1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Selva

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates public policy concerning teacher education in Brazil. It is a critical rereading of historical documents focusing on laws, legal documents, projects, institutional and public policies and teaching careers developed by the Brazilian state, as well as social and scientific organisations. Emphasis is given to current…

  2. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  3. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  4. Manual of Library Policies. PNLA Special Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Anne, Ed.; Johnston, Gail, Ed.

    Both general and miscellaneous policy statements from 47 public libraries of the Pacific Northwest Library Association have been compiled in this manual. Among topics covered by "general" policies are board of trustees, buildings, confidentiality of circulation records, displays, gifts, materials selection, personnel, public relations, and…

  5. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers

  6. Public Policy and Teacher Education in Brazil after 1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Selva

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates public policy concerning teacher education in Brazil. It is a critical rereading of historical documents focusing on laws, legal documents, projects, institutional and public policies and teaching careers developed by the Brazilian state, as well as social and scientific organisations. Emphasis is given to current

  7. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are

  8. State Policy Making for the Public Schools of Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Gary V.; Steele, Donald

    This case study describes and interprets the process through which State-level policy decisions are made for the public schools of Texas. The report begins with brief treatments of the socioeconomic environment and political culture within which education takes place. State governmental arrangements for public school policy are described, and four…

  9. Inviting Policy Development: From Public Relations to Public Creations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Sheila J.; Novak, John M.

    Inviting policy development is an attempt to cordially summon those who are involved and affected by rules, codes, and procedures to understand and participate in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies. This paper first presents criteria for an invitational framework for policy development and then goes on to discuss the…

  10. Shaping public policy from the perspective of a data builder

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Allen; Bialek, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    During the past six decades, data analysis and research studies have been instrumental in shaping public and private health care policy. Policymakers obtain the knowledge they need for making policy decisions through exposure to and examination of data generated through research studies, experimentation, demonstrations, and analyses. In this article, U.S. hospital care policy has been divided into phases. As the development of health care policy has progressed in each phase, decisionmakers have consistently increased their reliance on data. PMID:10311336

  11. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 1994. AGB Public Policy Series No. 94-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This publication addresses 10 "front-burner" public policy issues in higher education for 1994 which were identified and discussed by higher education policy experts in two meetings during the fall of 1993. A single page at the beginning of the document presents all 10 issues in a format designed for easy photocopying or overhead projector

  12. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 2005 and 2006. Public Policy Paper Series No. 05-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the eighth in the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) biennial series summarizing federal and state public-policy issues affecting higher education. This document's list of top public-policy issues comprises a daunting inventory for boards and chief executives to consider. Security demands of the…

  13. The future of public health: the importance of workforce.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vivian; Watson, Rebecca; Oldenburg, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Health workforce has become a major concern and a significant health policy issue around the world in recent years. With recent international and national initiatives and models being developed and implemented in Australia and other countries, it is timely to understand the need and the rationale for a better trained and educated public health workforce for the future. Much more attention should also be given to evaluation and research in this field.Through this thematic series on Workforce and Public Health, we have drawn on the diverse nature of public health, workforce implications, education and training and national and international case examples of ongoing improvements and issues in this sector. PMID:19358709

  14. Understanding Policy: Why Health Education Policy Is Important and Why It Does Not Appear to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian; Rich, Emma; DePian, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on research investigating the impact of health imperatives around obesity, diet and exercise on the actions of teachers and pupils in schools, this paper offers a reflexive account of the relationships between the "noise" of obesity discourse in the public domain, policies forged to tackle health issues and the realities of teaching in…

  15. Essays on Causal Inference for Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    Effective policymaking requires understanding the causal effects of competing proposals. Relevant causal quantities include proposals' expected effect on different groups of recipients, the impact of policies over time, the potential trade-offs between competing objectives, and, ultimately, the optimal policy. This dissertation studies causal…

  16. Essays on Causal Inference for Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    Effective policymaking requires understanding the causal effects of competing proposals. Relevant causal quantities include proposals' expected effect on different groups of recipients, the impact of policies over time, the potential trade-offs between competing objectives, and, ultimately, the optimal policy. This dissertation studies causal

  17. Tobacco industry tactics for resisting public policy on health.

    PubMed Central

    Saloojee, Y.; Dagli, E.

    2000-01-01

    The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Formerly secret internal tobacco industry documents provide evidence of a 50-year conspiracy to "resist smoking restrictions, restore smoker confidence and preserve product liability defence". The documents reveal industry-wide collusion on legal, political and socially important issues to the tobacco industry and clearly demonstrate that the industry is not disposed to act ethically or responsibly. Societal action is therefore required to ensure that the public health takes precedence over corporate profits. Recommendations for reducing the political influence of the tobacco industry include the following. Every tobacco company in every market should publicly disclose what it knew about the addictiveness and harm caused by tobacco, when it obtained this information, and what it did about it. The industry should be required to guarantee internationally recognized basic consumer rights to its customers. Trade associations and other industry groupings established to deceive the public should be disbanded. These recommendations should be incorporated into WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:10994263

  18. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C J E; Edmunds, W J; Lessler, J

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014). Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges. PMID:25843392

  19. [Disability, public policies and bioethics: the perception of public administrators and legal counselors].

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Liliane Cristina Gonçalves; de Araújo, Tereza Cristina Cavalcanti Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    A descriptive study of the perception of public administrators and counselors regarding disability was conducted on the basis of bioethical reflections on human rights. The survey involved 50 participants, divided into two groups: 29 counselors on the rights of disabled people and 21 specialists in public policies and government administration. The data obtained was submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. In general, the results showed that for counselors disability is a social issue and should be shared by society, whereas for public administrators it is predominantly a personal tragedy limited to the individual and family sphere. It is considered that this differentiated view arises from different perspectives regarding the allocation of public resources. It is also necessary to stress the importance of living with a disability, or living with people with disabilities, to base the assessment of quality and satisfaction with life experienced by people with disabilities and contribute to the elaboration of public policies. Similar studies with more comprehensive and diversified samples are recommended, as well as the adoption of participative and qualitative methodologies. PMID:22996894

  20. Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…

  1. Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are

  2. Public health understandings of policy and power: lessons from INSITE.

    PubMed

    Fafard, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health problem, one that is most acutely felt in major cities around the globe. Harm reduction and safe injection sites are an attempt to address this problem and are at the cutting edge of public health policy and practice. One of the most studied safe injection sites is INSITE located in Vancouver, British Columbia. Using INSITE as a case study, this paper argues that knowledge translation offers a limited framework for understanding the development of public health policy. This paper also argues that the experience of INSITE suggests that science and social justice, the meta-ideas that lie at the core of the public health enterprise, are an inadequate basis for a theory of public health policy making. However, on a more positive note, INSITE also shows the value of concepts drawn from the ways in which political science analyzes the policy process. PMID:22549176

  3. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. This brief also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  4. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  5. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  6. Environment and economy: Property rights and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    For much of its history, environmental economics has sought to modify public policy in order to achieve efficient use and management of environmental resources. The results of this attempt, however, have been dismaying for the most part, and environment public policy continues to differ from the course of action prescribed by economic analysis. Some economists have begun to acknowledge that the reasons for this gap between economic theory and public policy may lie in environmental economics itself rather than in poor policy choices. That is the message sent in this book by Daniel Bromley, who joins S.V. Ciriacy-Wantrup, Allan Schmid, and others in a strong internal critique of the discipline and, in particular, of the property rights school' of Coase, Demsetz, and other advocates of the market. Property rights are the common thread of this critique, which blames much of the failure of environmental economics to influence environmental policy on several fundamental misconceptions regarding property.

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse. PMID:25239857

  8. U.S. pharmacy policy: a public health perspective on safety and cost.

    PubMed

    Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt; Lal, Lincy S; Glasser, Jay H

    2009-01-01

    A public health perspective based on social justice and a population health point of view emphasizes pharmacy policy innovations regarding safety and costs. Such policies that effectively reduce costs include controlling profits, establishing profit targets, extending prescription providers, revising prescription classification schemes, emphasizing generic medications, and establishing formularies. Public education and universal programs may reduce costs, but co-pays and "cost-sharing" do not. Switching medications to over-the-counter (OTC) status, pill splitting, and importing medication from abroad are poor substitutes for authentic public health pharmacy policy. Where policy changes yield savings, public health insists that these savings should be used to increase access and improve population health. In the future, pharmacy policies may emphasize public health accountability more than individual liberty because of potential cost savings to society. Fear of litigation, as an informal mechanism of focusing manufacturer's attention on safety, is inefficient; public health pharmacy policy regarding safety looks toward a more active regulatory role on the part of government. A case study of direct-to-consumer advertising illustrates the complexity of public health pharmacy policy. PMID:19821192

  9. Reducing tobacco consumption: public policy alternatives for Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, B G

    1988-01-01

    The costs of smoking are extensive, not only in fiscal terms but also in terms of human suffering. A review of several major public policies reveals that concerted efforts by all levels of government and by the public can have an effect on the rate of consumption of tobacco. Specifically, increases in price through taxation, anti-smoking messages, restrictions on smoking behaviour and increased public pressure are effective in reducing smoking. Serious joint efforts in the area of public policy should be pursued to control the effects of this hazardous practice in Canada. PMID:3342358

  10. Coping with Recession: Public Policy, Economic Downturns and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Patrick M.

    This paper discusses recession and the major policy considerations that states and institutions must face in the current economic downturn. It explores the public policy implications of three major variables: (1) each of the 50 states has a unique higher education system; (2) each state also has a unique revenue and budgetary process; and (3) each…

  11. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  12. Proposed Policy: Drug Testing of Hawaii's Public School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bebi

    2007-01-01

    Because of a proposed policy, public school teachers in Hawaii are facing the possibility of being randomly tested for illegal drugs. Random drug testing has many implications and its impact is questionable. In this article, the author scrutinizes the controversial drug-testing policy for both troubling and promising aspects and how educators may…

  13. Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools: Unintended Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corn, Jacqueline Karnell

    This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how and why action was taken and who caused it to be taken; it also offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining…

  14. Meta-Analysis and Public Policy: Opportunity for Nursing Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Vicki S.; Armer, Jane M.

    1996-01-01

    Meta-analysis, one strategy nurses can use to influence public policy in health care, can amplify effects too small to observe in single or small studies, bring cost data to the fore, and highlight ramifications of local interest to policy- makers. (SK)

  15. Kitzmiller v. Dover: A Public Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The Intelligent Design Movement has attempted to infuse Intelligent Design into the curriculum of public schools ever since the Edwards decision, which ruled that "creation science" was a violation of the the "Establishment Clause. Kitzmiller v. Dover" was the first legal case to challenge the teaching of Intelligent Design in public schools. In…

  16. Kitzmiller v. Dover: A Public Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The Intelligent Design Movement has attempted to infuse Intelligent Design into the curriculum of public schools ever since the Edwards decision, which ruled that "creation science" was a violation of the the "Establishment Clause. Kitzmiller v. Dover" was the first legal case to challenge the teaching of Intelligent Design in public schools. In

  17. Teacher Public Relations Practices and Their Perceived Importance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Reports findings of a study designed to determine teacher public relations practices and their perceived importance. Concludes that teachers are doing much to promote school community relations but that they need to make additional efforts. (FL)

  18. Tasks of Technical and Public Policy Experts in Educational R&D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Edmund C.

    In order to develop and implement new governmental policies in educational research and development (R&D) which meet the needs of R&D specialists and the concerns of the public, it is important to understand the complexity of the research-development-knowledge utilization cycle and to develop a strategy which serves the public interest but…

  19. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Jason, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Debating Education: Obama and Romney Promote Education Records, Importance of Education to the Economy and Public Safety During…

  20. Defining Cable Television: Structuration and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Patrick R.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests Anthony Giddens' theory of "structuration" offers a framework for the study of social activity that will help analyze the process of reification. Demonstrates the usefulness of structuration to policy analysis and explores the evolution and consequences of definitions of cable television prior to the "blue sky" era. (MS)

  1. Abortion, Personal Freedom, and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamek, Raymond J.

    1974-01-01

    This position paper considers the recent success of the abortion "reform" movement in the United States. A review of the arguments and data pro-abortionists have utilized to establish present policy suggests that this rather extreme solution to personal and social problems has been adopted without adequate evidence. (Author)

  2. Improving Accountability in Public Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Brian; Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This is one in a series of policy briefs on key education issues prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Obama administration. The accountability systems put in place by No Child Left Behind have not produced enough improvement to meet the goal of all students meeting proficiency standards by 2014. While the current accountability system has…

  3. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  4. Drug Policy of the Framingham Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    The policy of the Framingham School System with respect to drug use and abuse is to establish a climate within its schools that is conducive to the understanding and respect for the proper use of drugs and an attitude toward nonabuse of drugs. To achieve this climate, some basic measures described in this report were taken. One measure was to set…

  5. Policies/Practices in Public School Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William E.; Payne, Tyrone

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 339 teachers (grades K-12) found lack of motivation and poor parental support to be the biggest discipline problems. Nearly 90 percent worked with a stated/written discipline policy. Approximately 75 percent believed that corporal punishment should continue. Verbal reprimands were the most common behavior change method used. (VW)

  6. Sex Crimes, Children, and Pornography: Public Views and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake

    2008-01-01

    "Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…

  7. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1994. [National Public Policy Education Conference (44th, Boise, Idaho, September 18-21, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

    The National Public Policy Education Conference is held annually to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The 1994 conference addressed the following topics: (1) ethical perspectives in public policy education; (2) transition of food and agricultural policy; (3) building human…

  8. A Graduate Seminar on Science, Public Policy, and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. F.

    2006-12-01

    I offered a seminar course titled, `Science, Public Policy and Outreach' for graduate students of the College of Agricultural and Natural Resources (CASNR) at Texas Tech University. The underlying theme of the course was that today's graduate students in the natural resource management disciplines should be familiar with public policy and public outreach processes in order to be successful professionals of tomorrow. In US system of government, scientific knowledge about an environmental problem does not have much practical impact without a corresponding legislation aimed at solving that problem. Elected officials feel pressure to legislate laws only if their constituents have a strong opinion in favor of solving that problem. Constituents tend to have strong opinion on things that are frequently mentioned in the media. Hence, public policy, outreach through media, and scientific explorations are intertwined in the US system. I invited state and national level policy makers, lobbyists, and radio and television personnel to present their perspectives on this issue and to discuss the roles and potentials for scientists in public policy and outreach processes. Students were divided into groups at the start of the semester. Each group focused on a current resource management topic, researched the policy and outreach issues related to their topic, wrote a well organized essay, and finally made a group presentation of the case study at the end of the semester. I shall present the experience of the class and outcomes of that course in this presentation, with future directions and suggestions for others who are interested to offer similar courses.

  9. Fidelity in Public Education Policy: Reclaiming the Deweyan Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth-Schai, Ruthanne

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the legacy of John Dewey, reconsidered and reconstructed within the challenging context of neo-liberal globalization. A free-market approach to the delivery of public education and other social services has come to dominate public policy, with increasingly well-documented and potentially devastating consequences. As prospects…

  10. Accreditation, Public Policy and Presidential Leadership. Letter from the President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Judith S.

    2005-01-01

    Accreditation's public policy roles focus on four significant relationships: (1) the relationship between accreditation and government, (2) the relationship between accreditation and the private sector, especially corporations (employers) and foundations, (3) the relationship between accreditation and students (and the general public) and (4)

  11. A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

  12. The Public Policy Pedagogy of Corporate and Alternative News Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Deirdre M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues for seeing in-depth news coverage of political, social, and economic issues as "public policy pedagogy." To develop my argument, I draw on Nancy Fraser's democratic theory, which attends to social differences and does not assume that unity is a starting point or an end goal of public dialogue. Alongside the formation of…

  13. Succeeding in Science Communication amid Contentious Public Policy Debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists are often hesitant to engage in public dialogues about their work, especially when their research has bearing on contentious public policy issues. The Union of Concerned Scientists has conducted dozens of workshops to assist its members in communicating science fairly, accurately and effectively to audiences with mixed opinions about relevant public policy. While public polling indicates that people admire scientists and support scientific research, public understanding lags behind scientific understanding on a variety of issues, from climate change to evolution to vaccination. In many cases, people reject or discount scientific evidence when they perceive their ideology, beliefs or policy preferences as being in conflict with that evidence. These biases make it difficult for scientists to convey their research to many audiences. Based on reviews of social science literature and interactions with its members, the Union of Concerned Scientists has explored methods for surmounting public ideological biases while staying true to the science. In particular, scientists have found success with communicating based on shared values, asking audience members questions about their reactions to science, avoiding unintentional invocation of ideological biases and partnering with non-scientist speakers who can address contentious public policy questions. These methods can allow scientists to more effectively collaborate with stakeholders interested in their research and can build public support for science.

  14. Trends Impacting Public Policy Support for Caregiving Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S.; Biegel, David E.; Ethridge, Brandy L.

    2010-01-01

    Public policy aimed at supporting the caregiving capacity of families has risen to prominence on the public agenda in the United States. Initiatives at the state and federal levels have created some initial services. Three trends that are pushing the issue of family caregiving to the surface are discussed, including large-scale social,…

  15. The Role of Public Policy in Worker Training in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croce, Giuseppe; Montanino, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The training received by workers depends predominantly on the organisational choices and funds allocated by businesses. It is therefore justifiable to ask whether public policy should either endorse the spontaneous distribution of training or take measures to correct it. This paper analyses the motivations and limitations of public intervention,

  16. The Public Policy Pedagogy of Corporate and Alternative News Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Deirdre M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues for seeing in-depth news coverage of political, social, and economic issues as "public policy pedagogy." To develop my argument, I draw on Nancy Fraser's democratic theory, which attends to social differences and does not assume that unity is a starting point or an end goal of public dialogue. Alongside the formation of

  17. Grass Roots TV Looks at Science and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakoff, Sanford A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a television project that aims to produce a number of 30-minute programs, under the series title of "Syntheses," to improve public understanding of the interaction between science and public policy. Two programs: The President's Scientist and Alaska Oil are also discussed. (HM)

  18. Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Eight essays address a range of topics including government serials and economic analysis, crime statistics and the F.B.I., nuclear holocaust and public policy, the history of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, Congressman William Steiger and the Congressional Record, and the public papers of Richard Nixon. (EM)

  19. Research Ethics Review: Identifying Public Policy and Program Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Strosberg, Martin A.; Gefenas, Eugenijus; Famenka, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical frame-work for use by fellows of the Fogarty International Center–sponsored Advanced Certificate Program in Research Ethics for Central and Eastern Europe to identify gaps in the public policies establishing research ethics review systems that impede them from doing their job of protecting human research subjects. The framework, illustrated by examples from post-Communist countries, employs a logic model based on the public policy and public management literature. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum program. PMID:24782068

  20. On the importance of public choice in migration models.

    PubMed

    Goodspeed, T J

    1998-06-01

    "Recent general equilibrium Tiebout models that use single-crossing indifference curves to establish a migration equilibrium incorporate both voting and migration decisions. These models have concentrated on the important question of the existence of an equilibrium, but the incorporation of both voting and migration has important efficiency consequences as well. This paper demonstrates the important effect of the interaction of voting and migration on efficiency conditions by showing that head taxes (which are generally considered to provide efficient migration incentives with constant marginal congestion costs) do not provide incentives for efficient migration decisions unless the public choice mechanism results in optimal public service provision within jurisdictions." PMID:12295163

  1. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  2. Silent Money: Political Persuasion and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role that Political Action Committees (PACs) have played in school choice initiatives in public school systems nationwide. Suggests that the popular sentiment is in favor of school choice but that the PACs, through their overwhelming resources, are preventing its implementation in school districts nationwide. (MAB)

  3. Public Education Policy Issues in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitz, Randy, Ed.; Chambers, Keith, Ed.

    This document contains articles that address six major issues affecting Montana public education. The issues were selected by an advisory group comprised of representatives from professional education organizations, state agencies, the legislature, and business. Each of the articles, written by members of the advisory group, contains an executive…

  4. Committee reports: Public policy and the geophysical sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Peter

    At the 2000 AGU Spring Meeting in Washington, D.C. the Committee on Public Affairs (COPA) will highlight why Earth and space science are important to policy makers and how scientists can become better attuned to the political process.During their October 21-22 meeting at AGU headquarters, COPA planned a session that will explore how science is used in the 2000 presidential campaigns by featuring campaign representatives, congressional staff, and other politically savvy commentators. Earth and space scientists will learn how they can contribute their knowledge to shaping the platforms of the Presidential candidates. To help AGU members communicate with Congress, COPA will convene a workshop at the Spring Meeting that will provide participants with the background and hands-on skills to competently inform Senators and Representatives about the geophysical sciences. Space will be limited, so look for an announcement in Eos and on the AGU Science and Legislative Alert (ASLA) network at http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html.

  5. Chronic disease prevention policy in British Columbia and Ontario in light of public health renewal: a comparative policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public health strategies that focus on legislative and policy change involving chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthy diet and physical inactivity have the potential to prevent chronic diseases and improve quality of life as a whole. However, many public health policies introduced as part of public health reform have not yet been analyzed, such as in British Columbia and Ontario. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a descriptive, comparative analysis of public health policies related to the Healthy Living Core Program in British Columbia and Chronic Disease Prevention Standard in Ontario that are intended to prevent a range of chronic diseases by promoting healthy eating and physical activity, among other things. Methods Policy documents were found through Internet search engines and Ministry websites, at the guidance of policy experts. These included government documents as well as documents from non-governmental organizations that were implementing policies and programs at a provincial level. Documents (n = 31) were then analysed using thematic content analysis to classify, describe and compare policies in a systematic fashion, using the software NVivo. Results Three main categories emerged from the analysis of documents: 1) goals for chronic disease prevention in British Columbia and Ontario, 2) components of chronic disease prevention policies, and 3) expected outputs of chronic disease prevention interventions. Although there were many similarities between the two provinces, they differed somewhat in terms of their approach to issues such as evidence, equity, and policy components. Some expected outputs were adoption of healthy behaviours, use of information, healthy environments and increased public awareness. Conclusions The two provincial policies present different approaches to support the implementation of related programs. Differences may be related to contextual factors such as program delivery structures and different philosophical approaches underlying the two frameworks. These differences and possible explanations for them are important to understand because they serve to contextualize the differences in health outcomes across the two provinces that might eventually be observed. This analysis informs future public health policy directions as the two provinces can learn from each other. PMID:24099140

  6. Institutional policy learning and public consultation: the Canadian xenotransplantation experience.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mavis; Einsiedel, Edna

    2011-09-01

    Attempts to evaluate public consultations, participatory technology assessment, and deliberative democracy have typically considered impacts on either policy or participants. The determination of impacts on policy institutions has been limited due to the challenges of tracing effects through the policy process, or penetrating bureaucratic walls. This paper presents findings from a retrospective study exploring the institutional lessons learned from a 2001 Canadian national public consultation on xenotransplantation. The consultation was conducted through an arm's-length process and involved the use of citizen juries in six regional sites. We conducted in-depth interviews of regulatory and policy actors who were engaged in early policy discussions and the consultation process. We reviewed evaluations of this process, both internal and external, which gave us richer insights into what institutional actors saw as the impacts of this consultative experience on their policy environment. Participants in our research identified a broader shift toward openness in policy culture which they linked specifically to the innovative consultation process employed for xenotransplantation. We argue that beyond input into policy decisions, a consultation may have an impact in terms of its contribution to overall shifts in institutional culture (related to institutional learning), such as an "opening" of technological decision processes to a broader range of actors, knowledge, and values. PMID:21820782

  7. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Texas Trilogy on Public Education and Taxes. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCown, F. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. It also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  8. Anthrax Vaccine and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Martin Meyer; Weiss, Peter D.; Weiss, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified Bacillus anthracis, the causative organism of anthrax, as a category A potential bioterrorism agent. There are critical shortcomings in the US anthrax vaccine program. Rather than depending on the private sector, the government must assume direct production of anthrax vaccine. The development of a capacity capable of preemptive immunization of the public against anthrax should be considered. PMID:17901434

  9. Public policy for solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Recent analyses indicated that solar heating and cooling systems for residential buildings are nearly economically competitive with conventional fossil fuel or electric systems, the former having higher initial cost but a lower operating cost than the latter. The paper examines obstacles to the widespread acceptance and use of solar space conditioning systems and explores some general policies which could help to overcome them. The discussion covers such institutional barriers limiting the adoption of solar technologies as existing building codes, financing constraints, and organizational structure of the building industry. The potential impact of financial incentives is analyzed. It is noted that a tax incentive of 25% could speed the use of solar energy by 7 to 8 years and produce an 8% reduction in fossil fuel use by 1990. A preliminary incentive package which could be helpful in promoting solar energy both at federal and state levels is proposed, and the necessary incentive level is analysed.

  10. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary to immediately adjust employment and wages for existing workers. Using Quarterly Workforce Indicator data, we are able to measure the impact on hires, new hire earnings, separations and extended leaves among young women. Earnings for young female new hires fell in California relative to other workers, but changed little relative to country-wide comparison groups. We find strong evidence that separations (of at least three months) among young women and the number and shares of young female new hires increased. Many young women that separate (leave the payroll) eventually return to the same firm. Increased separation and hiring rates among young women in the labor market ("churning") may reflect both increased time spent with children and greater job mobility (i.e., reduced job lock) as the result of mandated paid family leave across the labor market. The third essay, Evidence of an Energy Management Gap in U.S. Manufacturing: Spillovers from Firm Management Practices to Energy Efficiency, merge a well-cited survey of firm management practices into confidential plant level U.S. Census manufacturing data to examine whether generic, i.e. non-energy specific, firm management practices, "spillover" to enhance energy efficiency in the United States. For U.S. manufacturing plants we find this relationship to be more nuanced than prior research on UK plants. Most management techniques are shown to have beneficial spillovers to energy efficiency, but an emphasis on generic targets, conditional on other management practices, results in spillovers that increase energy intensity. Our specification controls for industry specific effects at a detailed 6-digit NAICS level and finds the relationship between management and energy use to be strongest for firms in energy intensive industries. We interpret the empirical result that generic management practices do not necessarily spillover to improved energy performance as evidence of an "energy management gap."

  11. Public health: disconnections between policy, practice and research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health includes policy, practice and research but to sufficiently connect academic research, practice and public health policy appears to be difficult. Collaboration between policy, practice and research is imperative to obtaining more solid evidence in public health. However, the three domains do not easily work together because they emanate from three more or less independent 'niches'. Work cycles of each niche have the same successive steps: problem recognition, approach formulation, implementation, and evaluation, but are differently worked out. So far, the research has focused on agenda-setting which belongs to the first step, as expressed by Kingdon, and on the use of academic knowledge in policy makers' decision-making processes which belongs to the fourth step, as elaborated by Weiss. In addition, there are more steps in the policy-making process where exchange is needed. Method A qualitative descriptive research was conducted by literature search. We analyzed the four steps of the policy, practice and research work cycles. Next, we interpreted the main conflicting aspects as disconnections for each step. Results There are some conspicuous differences that strengthen the niche character of each domain and hamper integration and collaboration. Disconnections ranged from formulating priorities in problem statements to power roles, appraisal of evidence, work attitudes, work pace, transparency of goals, evaluation and continuation strategies and public accountability. Creating awareness of these disconnections may result in more compatibility between researchers, policy makers and practitioners. Conclusion We provide an analysis that can be used by public health services-related researchers, practitioners and policy makers to be aware of the risk for disconnections. A synthesis of the social, practical and scientific relevance of public health problems should be the starting point for a dialogue that seeks to establish a joint approach. To overcome the above mentioned disconnections, face-to-face encounters consistently emerge as the most efficient way to transfer knowledge, achieve higher quality and acknowledge mutual dependence. We recommend practice and policy based research networks to establish strong links between researchers, policy makers and practitioners to improve public health. PMID:21194428

  12. Demographic trends, population policy and public opinion.

    PubMed

    Palomba, R; Bonifazi, C; Menniti, A

    1989-01-01

    Findings are analyzed of the Instituto di Richerche solla poplazione survey carried out in Italy in 1987 which focused on: 1) those variables which may be indirectly affecting Italian's fertility intentions, and 2) the degree of acceptability of a global social policy i.e., one that is not only restricted to economic incentives to be offered to families. Data was obtained from a national sample of 1500 people between 18-49 years. Italians have a good awareness of demographic issues; 61% knew of the decline in marriages; 72% were aware of the increasing aging population; 50% viewed the fall in birth rate negatively; and 41% thought that population and fertility trends would remain at the present low level or would decrease even further (49%). The birth rate decline was contributed to economic reasons at both reasons at both a global and an individual level. The majority of people did not show any signs of prejudice toward immigrants; however, they did favor limiting the number of foreigners in general with the exception of political refugees. The majority were also in favor of helping 3rd World countries. Although Italians value their children and the parent-child relationship very highly, a reduction in the value of children with increasing educational level of the respondents was observed. 83% thought that couples should be allowed to have as many children as they wanted; 81% agreed that measures regarding contraceptive knowledge and availability should be improved; and 49% were in favor of measures to increase births. Regarding possible new policy measures, 50% were in full agreement on the development and increased efficiency of social services to enable women to go out to work. (author's modified) PMID:12283195

  13. Public support for policies to reduce risk after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael R; Weiner, Marc D; Noland, Robert; Herb, Jeanne; Kaplan, Marjorie; Broccoli, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    A phone survey was conducted in New Jersey in 2013 four months after the second of two major devastating tropical storms (Sandy in 2012 and Irene in 2011). The objective was to estimate public support for restricting land uses in flood zones, requiring housing to be built to resist storm waters, and otherwise increasing mitigation and resilience. Respondents who supported these mitigation and resilience policies disproportionately were concerned about global climate change, trusted climate scientists and the federal government, and were willing to contribute to a redevelopment program through taxes, bonds, and fees. They also tended to have collectivist and egalitarian worldviews. Half of the respondents supported at least four of the seven risk-reducing policies. How their support translates into public policy remains to be seen. Lack of willingness to personally fund these policies is an obstacle. PMID:24708068

  14. Policy feedbacks and the impact of policy designs on public opinion.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Andrea Louise

    2011-12-01

    A recently developed analytic approach--policy feedback effects--provides health policy analysts with a crucial new tool for understanding the politics of health policy. Three cases--senior citizens' opposition to the Obama health care reform, tax breaks for employer-provided health insurance, and the Medicare Part D prescription drug program--demonstrate how policy designs affect subsequent policy outcomes. To differing degrees, the three cases show how public policies can create constituencies with particular understandings of their benefits who attempt to thwart reform; can highlight or reduce the visibility of the government role in health care, shaping attitudes about the worth of government action; and can provide half solutions that fail to maximize beneficiary welfare but that deflate momentum for policy improvements. The cases illustrate a general pattern revealed by wide-ranging research on policy feedback effects: the designs of public policies influence preferences and alter patterns of political mobilization, effects that feed back into the political system, shaping the political environment and the possibilities for future policy making. PMID:22232420

  15. Advancing Public Health Obesity Policy Through State Attorneys General

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity. PMID:21233428

  16. Advancing public health obesity policy through state attorneys general.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-03-01

    Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity. PMID:21233428

  17. The place of public inquiries in shaping New Zealand's national mental health policy 1858–1996

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, Warwick

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the role of public inquiries as an instrument of public policy-making in New Zealand, using mental health as a case study. The main part of the paper analyses the processes and outcomes of five general inquiries into the state of New Zealand's mental health services that were held between 1858 and 1996. Results The membership, form, style and processes used by public inquiries have all changed over time in line with constitutional and social trends. So has the extent of public participation. The records of five inquiries provide periodic snapshots of a system bedevilled by long-standing problems such as unacceptable standards, under-resourcing, and poor co-ordination. Demands for an investigation no less than the reports and recommendations of public inquiries have been the catalyst of some important policy changes, if not immediately, then by creating a climate of opinion that supported later change. Inquiries played a significant role in establishing lunatic asylums, in shaping the structure of mental health legislation, establishing and maintaining a national mental health bureaucracy within the machinery of government, and in paving the way for deinstitutionalisation. Ministers and their departmental advisers have mediated this contribution. Conclusion Public inquiries have helped shape New Zealand's mental health policy, both directly and indirectly, at different stages of evolution. In both its advisory and investigative forms, the public inquiry remains an important tool of public administration. The inquiry/cause and policy/effect relationship is not necessarily immediate but may facilitate changes in public opinion with corresponding policy outcomes long after any direct causal link could be determined. When considered from that long-term perspective, the five inquiries can be linked to several significant and long-term contributions to mental health policy in New Zealand. PMID:16216131

  18. Alcohol, tobacco and public policy: the contribution of economics.

    PubMed

    Hartley, K

    1989-10-01

    This article shows the contribution of economics to debates about prevention policy. The arguments used by various pressure groups favouring or opposing more effective prevention policies need to be subject to critical scrutiny and empirical testing. The market failure case for state intervention in alcohol and tobacco markets is assessed and an alternative public choice approach is outlined. The supply side of the market in the form of the alcohol and tobacco industries is analysed using a structure-performance framework. Consideration is given to how firms might respond to prevention policies through, say, lobbying or shifting higher taxes to suppliers or by diversifying into new markets. PMID:2819270

  19. A model for training public health workers in health policy: the Nebraska Health Policy Academy.

    PubMed

    Brandert, Kathleen; McCarthy, Claudine; Grimm, Brandon; Svoboda, Colleen; Palm, David; Stimpson, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that health goals are more likely to be achieved and sustained if programs are complemented by appropriate changes in the policies, systems, and environments that shape their communities. However, the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to create and implement policy are among the major needs identified by practitioners at both the state and local levels. This article describes the structure and content of the Nebraska Health Policy Academy (the Academy), a 9-month program developed to meet the demand for this training. The Academy is a competency-based training program that aims to increase the capacity of Nebraska's state and local public health staff and their community partners to use public health policy and law as a public health tool. Our initiative allows for participation across a large, sparsely populated state; is grounded in adult learning theory; introduces the key principles and practices of policy, systems, and environmental change; and is offered free of charge to the state's public health workforce. Challenges and lessons learned when offering workforce development on public health policy efforts are discussed. PMID:24831286

  20. Career Development and Public Policy in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Jean

    Three conditions characterize employment in France today: (1) high unemployment; (2) the importance of degrees in employment; and (3) significant differences between the sexes. The differences between national government initiatives and regional issues also are of concern. The main strategic issues facing career development focus on reducing…

  1. [The contributions of local authorities to regional public health policy].

    PubMed

    de Maria, Florence; Grémy, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Local authorities in France are key players in shaping public health policy by their action on the determinants of health and through their actions aimed at specific population groups. Since the public health act of 9 August 2004 establishing the first regional public health plans, their level of involvement and role continues to grow as coordinators, funders and project managers within the greater Paris metropolitan region. Their active participation in regional policy to improve population health and reduce inequalities in health has led to a better organization of the public health programs implemented (in terms of visibility, dialogue, coordination, transparency, and better awareness of context and integration of local issues). Their participation is also a source of innovation resulting in the proposal and use of new approaches (such as the development of health surveillance and observation for advising the local decision-making process). Within the current context of the "Hospitals, patients, health and territories" bill, which entrusts the governance of regional health policy to a specific agency, the role given to local authorities in this new organizational structure must be clearly defined to take into account all of their existing and potential contributions to public health policy. PMID:20218412

  2. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  3. Nursing in the public sphere: breaching the boundary between research and policy.

    PubMed

    West, E; Scott, C

    2000-10-01

    Nurses and nursing are associated traditionally with activities in a private sphere. This paper argues that, if clinical care is to be improved, nurses need to take a more active public role in making and implementing health policy at both local and national levels. In the current climate, empirical evidence is one of the most important tools for influencing health policy. This paper discusses contemporary models of the policy-making process before outlining a number of strategies that could be used to increase the policy impact of nursing research. Finally, while the current climate in the United Kingdom health-care arena presents opportunities for researchers to have an impact on policy, the growth of health policy research as a distinct field of scholarship also poses a number of challenges and dangers. PMID:11095219

  4. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25854958

  5. Neurobiology of addiction: treatment and public policy ramifications.

    PubMed

    Dackis, Charles; O'Brien, Charles

    2005-11-01

    In the United States, efforts to treat addiction are hampered by prejudice and a public view that treats it as a disorder of self-control, not a disease. We highlight select advances in addiction research that, if disseminated to the public, could reverse these misconceptions and facilitate changes in policy to improve treatment access and care delivery for this highly prevalent disease. PMID:16251982

  6. Public Policy, Science, and Environmental Risk. Brookings Dialogues on Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panem, Sandra, Ed.

    This workshop explored the complex issues involved in scientific measurement of environmental risk. Specific purposes were to articulate policy issues that concern the use of scientific data in environmental risk assessment and to contribute to the dialogue from which better policy might emerge. Viewpoints of workshop participants from the…

  7. Public Policy, Science, and Environmental Risk. Brookings Dialogues on Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panem, Sandra, Ed.

    This workshop explored the complex issues involved in scientific measurement of environmental risk. Specific purposes were to articulate policy issues that concern the use of scientific data in environmental risk assessment and to contribute to the dialogue from which better policy might emerge. Viewpoints of workshop participants from the

  8. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy. PMID:23318750

  9. Effective Communication in Legal and Public Policy Hearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Jim; Sonsteng, John; Thorstad, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Scientists play a special role in legal debates and public policy decisions. The challenge for scientists who serve as expert witnesses is to communicate effectively in various legal forums, including litigation and legislative hearings. Expert witnesses must not advocate for one side or the other but must be able to convey the meaning as well as the quality and accuracy of their work.

  10. Cape Wind: A Public Policy Debate for the Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, technological innovation and the application of basic scientific research have transformed society. Increasingly, critical conversations and legislation regarding national and international public policy have sophisticated scientific underpinnings. It is crucial that we prepare scientists and engineers with an…

  11. The Church and Society. Shaping Public Policy in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Campus Ministry, Los Angeles. Committee on Higher Education and Public Policy.

    The California Campus Ministry Staffs have joined other members of the Committee on Higher Education and Public Policy (COHEPP) in formulating testimony to be presented in January of 1973 to the California State Legislature by the Joint Legislative Committee on the Master Plan for Higher Education. This document presents testimony on four crucial…

  12. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  13. The Resolution of Technically Intensive Public Policy Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Harvey

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two views of the relationship between technical issues and policy decisions. Also discusses the "burden-of-proof" issue, distributional issues, and issues related to public participation and decision making. Indicates a need for greater introspection into nontechnical values and preferences affecting the selection of evidence and its…

  14. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and

  15. A Policy Analysis of Public School Retirement Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tara; Teeter, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this policy analysis was to examine the Missouri Public School Retirement System (PSRS). The team investigated the under-funding of PSRS, relating to sustainability and the feasibility of the system's use of one lever, contribution rate, to stabilize the retirement system, and to meet actuary needs and governmental requirements. The…

  16. Health Care Innovation: The Case for a Favorable Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ.

    Much of U.S. public policy reflects what is valued most in the United States--entrepreneurship, the productive interaction of market forces, individual achievement, and inventiveness. It appears to some that the United States has become preoccupied with short-term concerns and has not been acting with its accustomed determination to maximize

  17. The Evolving Relationship between Researchers and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to the role of research in shaping public policy and debate, one might reasonably argue that this is the best of times. No Child Left Behind (NCLB), with its frequent mention of evidence-based decision making, has underscored the role that objective knowledge should play in a democratic society. The Institute of Education Sciences,…

  18. Commission on Policy Development in Public Education Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Black School Educators, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This annual report of the National Alliance of Black School Educators (NABSE) Commission on Policy Development in Public Education presents six position papers by NABSE and guest authors. The papers, and their authors, are (1) "The Quest for Excellence/Pupil Self-Esteem" (Carole Hardeman); (2) "Engineering Education for Minority Students" (Howard…

  19. Information Policy: Public Laws from the 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on House Administration.

    This compilation of abstracts provides brief descriptions of the 74 new public laws relating to computers and information policy that were enacted during the 95th Congress. Each of these bills is concerned with information, although the diverse subject matter--e.g., energy and clean water, food and health, foreign investments, ethics in…

  20. Rates of Return as Informer of Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Larry L.

    1990-01-01

    Policymakers often use Rate of Return information in formulating public resource allocation decisions. The World Bank uses this strategy to advise developing nations in setting student subsidy levels, tuition, and allocation by educational level. However, Rate of Return may be an inappropriate policy device for these objectives. (Author/MSE)

  1. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Merry, Carroll E., Ed.

    This document contains abstracts and the complete texts of 19 papers that were presented at a conference held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The following papers are included: "Microwave Society and Crock-Pot Government" (Bill Graves); "Citizen Participation, Social Capital and…

  2. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  3. Top Public Policy Issues for Higher Education: 2015-2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This is the 13th paper in the Association of Governing Boards (AGB's) series summarizing federal and state public policy issues affecting higher education. Governing boards, institutional and university-system leaders, and senior staffs will find it useful for board discussions and retreats and in formulating institutional responses to these…

  4. Cape Wind: A Public Policy Debate for the Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, technological innovation and the application of basic scientific research have transformed society. Increasingly, critical conversations and legislation regarding national and international public policy have sophisticated scientific underpinnings. It is crucial that we prepare scientists and engineers with an

  5. [Latin-American public policy regarding social determinants of health].

    PubMed

    García-Ramírez, Jorge A; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at identifying Latin-American countries' public policy which has been related to the social determinants of health. A topic review was thus made of papers kept in the 22 Latin-American countries' databases and official documents issued by their multilateral organisations and ministries of health. The World Health Organization's concept of the social determinants of health has been summarised and a history given of the pertinent work developed worldwide in regions such as Europe and Latin-America. Public policy regarding the field of study in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, México and Venezuela has been described. It was concluded that Latin-America provides a panorama of inequality regarding the application of policy concerning the social determinants of health and that there was segmented intervention, mainly regarding intermediate determinants of health, without taking an integrated approach from different entrance points into account, according to the stated conceptual framework. PMID:25124248

  6. Healthy public policy in poor countries: tackling macro-economic policies.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, K S

    2007-06-01

    Large segments of the population in poor countries continue to suffer from a high level of unmet health needs, requiring macro-level, broad-based interventions. Healthy public policy, a key health promotion strategy, aims to put health on the agenda of policy makers across sectors and levels of government. Macro-economic policy in developing countries has thus far not adequately captured the attention of health promotion researchers. This paper argues that healthy public policy should not only be an objective in rich countries, but also in poor countries. This paper takes up this issue by reviewing the main macro-economic aid programs offered by international financial institutions as a response to economic crises and unmanageable debt burdens. Although health promotion researchers were largely absent during a key debate on structural adjustment programs and health during the 1980s and 1990s, the international macro-economic policy tool currently in play offers a new opportunity to participate in assessing these policies, ensuring new forms of macro-economic policy interventions do not simply reproduce patterns of (neoliberal) economics-dominated development policy. PMID:17355995

  7. The need to include animal protection in public health policies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-11-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  8. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  9. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies. PMID:23748884

  10. The "Gainful Employment Rule" and Student Loan Defaults: How the Policy Frame Overlooks Important Normative Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines normative aspects of the gainful employment rule and how the policy frame and image miss important implications for student aid policy. Because the economic and social burdens associated with the policy are typically borne by certain socioeconomic and ethnic groups, the policy frame and image do not identify possible negative…

  11. Developing policy solutions for a more active nation: Integrating economic and public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Sara N; Sturm, Roland

    2009-10-01

    Both economic and public health/medical perspectives play an important role in the policy process but often approach policy questions in an incompatible way. Harnessing any synergy requires an understanding of the other perspective. We begin by comparing and contrasting the economic and public health perspectives, including introducing relevant economic concepts. We next identify economic considerations for the development of environmental incentives that promote physical activity. We then assess features of the political environment which could impact the success of policy alternatives aimed at increasing physical activity. We conclude with several policy levers that may promote active living. Throughout the manuscript, we use the term economics to refer to classical economics and utility maximization rather than behavioral economics. In addition, we focus mostly on normative economics (which offers prescriptions for what should be done) rather than positive economics (which offers predictions of economic outcomes conditional on various hypothetical scenarios). PMID:19616575

  12. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 4, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Jason, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) It's Education, Stupid: Greenspan Stresses the Importance of Education to Improving Job Prospects, Incomes, and Living…

  13. Establishing Coalitions To Impact Public Policy: A Necessity for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pultorak, Ed; Singer, Rochelle; Brulle, Andrew

    This paper discusses how the formation of coalitions and partnerships in Illinois has helped to impact public policy, sharing recommendations for forming coalitions that will help ensure educational excellence and equity in the 21st century through a shared decision-making process. After discussing the importance of forming coalitions, the paper…

  14. Marriage, Poverty, and Public Policy. A Discussion Paper from the Council on Contemporary Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coontz, Stephanie; Folbre, Nancy

    Marriage offers important social and economic benefits. Well-designed public policies could play a constructive role in helping couples develop the skills needed to develop healthy, sustainable relationships with each other and their children. It does not follow, however, that marriage promotion should be a significant component of anti-poverty…

  15. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 11, Number 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Jason, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) U.S. Senators Harkin and Enzi Release Draft Language to Revise NCLB: Senate Committee to Consider Draft Containing Important

  16. A Guide to Grassroots Activism: Moving Nursing Education's Public Policy Agenda. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to help people in the nursing profession, especially deans at schools of nursing, to effectively influence public policy at the federal level. Introductory material identifies key Senate and House committees and stresses the importance of establishing and maintaining a relationship with one's representatives in the Congress.

  17. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 1996. AGB Public Policy Paper Series No. 96-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of yearly efforts to identify the top public-policy issues facing higher education. Each of the 10 issues is discussed in terms of likely developments in 1996 and the near future, the issue's various aspects, and sources of further information on the issue. Issues identified and discussed are: (1) cost

  18. A Call for Public Policy Review: Ensuring the Fairness and Accuracy of Mandated Tests. Test Equity Considerations: Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-West, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public policy making relies on accurate information, but standardized and other mandated tests may not accurately evaluate the abilities and knowledge of individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Many individuals find tests difficult, but individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing may find them especially so. Reports from the 2008 Test Equity…

  19. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 1997 and 1998. AGB Public Policy Paper Series, No. 97-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of yearly efforts to identify the top 10 public-policy issues facing higher education. Each of the issues is discussed in terms of likely developments in 1997-98, the issue's various aspects, and sources of further information. Issues identified are: (1) the Higher Education Act Reauthorization (issues relating…

  20. Chimeras, moral status, and public policy: implications of the abortion debate for public policy on human/nonhuman chimera research.

    PubMed

    Streiffer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in public policy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras. PMID:20579247

  1. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    PubMed Central

    Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia. PMID:25210820

  2. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy: Illustrative Examples and Promising Directions.

    PubMed

    Matjasko, Jennifer L; Cawley, John H; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M; Yokum, David V

    2016-05-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  3. AGU Celebrates Leaders for Contributions to Policy and Public Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Joan

    2014-05-01

    In recognition of outstanding leadership and vision in shaping policy and heightening public awareness of the value of Earth and space science, AGU has chosen Sen. Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.), chairwoman of the Senate Appropriations Committee; Naomi Oreskes, a science historian and author of the book Merchants of Doubt; and Eugenie Scott, former executive director for the National Center for Science Education (NCSE), as recipients of the 2014 AGU Presidential Citations for Science and Society. The awards will be presented on Tuesday, 17 June, during the 2014 AGU Science Policy Conference at a reception on Capitol Hill.

  4. Research, forensics, public health, injury prevention and policy development.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * Management implications of information technology in research, public health and policy development * Modern developments in death investigation, injury prevention and disaster management * The dangers of applying global analysis to individual health care situations and vice versa * Mechanisms that can be used to identify diffuse disaster in global and individual medical practice * The impact of informatics in areas of medical services which rely upon observational studies rather than validated clinical trials to develop knowledge bases * A paradigm shift in health care policy towards client driven services and the implications for medical informatics. PMID:20407171

  5. Same strategy different industry: corporate influence on public policy.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Donna; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Elbel, Brian

    2014-04-01

    In March 2013 a state judge invalidated New York City's proposal to ban sales of sugar-sweetened beverages larger than 16 ounces; the case is under appeal. This setback was attributable in part to opposition from the beverage industry and racial/ethnic minority organizations they support. We provide lessons from similar tobacco industry efforts to block policies that reduced smoking prevalence. We offer recommendations that draw on the tobacco control movement's success in thwarting industry influence and promoting public health policies that hold promise to improve population health. PMID:24524535

  6. Same Strategy Different Industry: Corporate Influence on Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Elbel, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013 a state judge invalidated New York City’s proposal to ban sales of sugar-sweetened beverages larger than 16 ounces; the case is under appeal. This setback was attributable in part to opposition from the beverage industry and racial/ethnic minority organizations they support. We provide lessons from similar tobacco industry efforts to block policies that reduced smoking prevalence. We offer recommendations that draw on the tobacco control movement’s success in thwarting industry influence and promoting public health policies that hold promise to improve population health. PMID:24524535

  7. Australian public health policy in 2003 – 2004

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla

    2005-01-01

    In Australia, compared with other developed countries the many and varied programs which comprise public health have continued to be funded poorly and unsystematically, particularly given the amount of publicly voiced political support. In 2003, the major public health policy developments in communicable disease control were in the fields of SARS, and vaccine funding, whilst the TGA was focused on the Pan Pharmaceutical crisis. Programs directed to health maintenance and healthy ageing were approved. The tertiary education sector was involved in the development of programs for training the public health workforce and new professional qualifications and competencies. The Abelson Report received support from overseas experts, providing a potential platform for calls to improve national funding for future Australian preventive programs; however, inconsistencies continued across all jurisdictions in their approaches to tackling national health priorities. Despite 2004 being an election year, public health policy was not visible, with the bulk of the public health funding available in the 2004/05 federal budget allocated to managing such emerging risks as avian flu. We conclude by suggesting several implications for the future. PMID:15811192

  8. Importance of scientific resources among local public health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Robert P.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Duggan, Kathleen; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the perceived importance of scientific resources for decision-making, among local health department (LHD) practitioners in the U.S. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from LHD practitioners (n=849). Respondents ranked important decision-making resources, methods for learning about public health research, and academic journal use. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression was used to measure associations of individual and LHD characteristics with importance of scientific resources. Results Systematic reviews of scientific literature (24.7%) was most frequently ranked as important among scientific resources, followed by scientific reports (15.9%), general literature review articles (6.5%), and one or a few scientific studies (4.8%). Graduate-level education (aORs ranging from 1.7 to 3.5), larger LHD size (aORs ranging from 2.0 to 3.5), and leadership support (aOR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.3) were associated with a higher ranking of importance of scientific resources. Conclusions Graduate training, larger LHD size, and leadership that supports a culture of evidence-based decision-making may increase the likelihood of practitioners viewing scientific resources as important. Targeting communication channels that practitioners view as important can also guide research dissemination strategies. PMID:25689176

  9. Upstream healthy public policy: lessons from the battle of tobacco.

    PubMed

    McKinlay, J B; Marceau, L D

    2000-01-01

    Many consider public health and politics to be entirely separate worlds. Public health activities are generally well-motivated by public interest, perceived as value-free, scientific, and devoid of partisan preference. Politics, in contrast, can be viewed as a distasteful activity involving self-interested pressure groups, misuse of state power, and influence of money on national decisions. Public health and politics are inappropriate bedfellows if politics is reduced to party politics. Politics, of course, involves more than just party activities; it concerns the structure, distribution, and effects of power in society. Which groups pattern the social order? What are their sources of influence? How do they retain privileged status? What social effects result from the policies these groups shape? Viewed in this broader sense, politics is essential for effective public health and thus is the inescapable context of public health interventions. To disregard sociopolitical determinants of health is to relegate public health to prevention and promotion of individual risk behaviors. If public health is to be more successful in the 21st century, it must comprehend the magnitude of the forces against it and the strategies used to engineer its defeat. Public health interventions in the new millennium must be appropriate to their sociocultural context. PMID:10707299

  10. Public finance policy strategies to increase access to preconception care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kay A

    2006-09-01

    Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15-44) lack adequate health coverage (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers and opportunities for financing preconception care, based on a review and analysis of state and federal policies. We describe states' experiences with and opportunities to improve health coverage, through public programs such as Medicaid, Medicaid waivers, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The potential role of Title V and of community health centers in providing primary and preventive care to women also is discussed. In these and other public health and health coverage programs, opportunities exist to finance preconception care for low-income women. Three major policy directions are discussed. To increase access to preconception care among women of childbearing age, the federal and state governments have opportunities to: (1) improve health care coverage, (2) increase the supply of publicly subsidized health clinics, and (3) direct delivery of preconception screening and interventions in the context of public health programs. PMID:16802188

  11. Public Finance Policy Strategies to Increase Access to Preconception Care

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15–44) lack adequate health coverage (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers and opportunities for financing preconception care, based on a review and analysis of state and federal policies. We describe states’ experiences with and opportunities to improve health coverage, through public programs such as Medicaid, Medicaid waivers, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The potential role of Title V and of community health centers in providing primary and preventive care to women also is discussed. In these and other public health and health coverage programs, opportunities exist to finance preconception care for low-income women. Three major policy directions are discussed. To increase access to preconception care among women of childbearing age, the federal and state governments have opportunities to: (1) improve health care coverage, (2) increase the supply of publicly subsidized health clinics, and (3) direct delivery of preconception screening and interventions in the context of public health programs. PMID:16802188

  12. The State of Connecticut Public Education: A 2009-2010 Report Card for Connecticut Public Schools and Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscheit, Tori

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents Connecticut Coalition for Achievement Now's (ConnCAN's) fourth annual "State of Connecticut Public Education" report. In addition to ConnCAN's traditional look at the state of Connecticut public schools, this year's report takes a look at Connecticut's policy environment: namely, where it stands in the "Race to the Top." This…

  13. Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making

    SciTech Connect

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2010-01-15

    In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

  14. Climate, Companies, and Public Policy: How Transparent Is the Private Sector in Reporting Climate Policy Influence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carlson, C.

    2014-12-01

    To enact effective policies to address climate change, decision makers need both scientific and political support. One major barrier to U.S. climate policy enactment has been the opposition of private sector actors to proposed policies and to climate science itself. Increasingly, the public and investors are holding companies accountable for their actions around climate change—including political activies, affiliations with trade groups, and involvement with climate science. However, this accountability is inhibited by the prominent role that trade associations have played in climate policy debates in recent years. The opaque nature of such groups is problematic, as it inhibits the public from understanding who is obstructing progress on addressing climate change, and in some cases, impedes the public's climate literacy. Voluntary climate reporting can yield some information on companies' climate engagement and demonstrates the need for greater transparency in corporate political activities around climate change. We analyze CDP climate reporting data from 1,824 companies to assess the degree to which corporate actors disclosed their political influence on climate policies through their trade associations. Results demonstrate the limitations of voluntary reporting and the extent to which companies utilize their trade associations to influence climate change policy debates without being held accountable for these positions. Notably, many companies failed to acknowledge their board seat on trade groups with significant climate policy engagement. Of those that did acknowledge their board membership, some claimed not to agree with their trade associations' positions on climate change. These results raise questions about who trade groups are representing when they challenge the science or obstruct policies to address climate change. Recommendations for overcoming this barrier to informed decision making to address climate change will be discussed.

  15. The Epidemiology of Imported Malaria and Transfusion Policy in 5 Nonendemic Countries.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Delage, Gilles; Seed, Clive R; Pillonel, Josiane; Fabra, Cécile C; Davison, Katy; Kitchen, Alan; Steele, Whitney R; Leiby, David A

    2015-07-01

    Addressing risk of imported malaria is complicated by 5 human species of Plasmodium, semi-immunity in donors with long-term exposure, increasing travel and immigration, changing risk in endemic areas, and limitations of screening assays. To gain insight into policy formulation, we have compiled epidemiologic data from 5 countries with different policies involving either deferral (the United States and Canada) or selective testing (France, England, and Australia). The greatest risk is from semi-immune former residents of endemic areas, but the greatest impact on sufficiency (donor loss) is from low-risk short-term travel. France and the UK have the highest rates of travel to Africa where most malaria cases originate. The UK has substantial travel to the Indian subcontinent where Plasmodium vivax cases are more common, and Australia, to Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea. In the United States and Canada, malaria risk travel is more often to lower risk areas such as Mexico and the Caribbean. Each country has imported cases, predominantly Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, although data are incomplete. Transfusion-transmitted malaria has been rare over the last 10 years, generally involving P. falciparum, but there were 2 US cases of Plasmodium malariae. Uncertainty due to limitations of epidemiologic data and reliance on donors' answers underpins much of the complexity of policy formulation. Variability in policies between countries reflects not only epidemiologic differences but also operational considerations, donor demographics, regulatory approaches, and public pressure to react to rare transfusion-transmitted malaria cases. Testing reduces the operational impact of addressing the very small risk from travelers and offers improvement over deferral by testing all former residents of endemic areas. Notwithstanding current international regulatory requirements, policies have "evolved" through a series of additions and revisions as concerns and issues arose, with resultant variability in donor selection criteria. PMID:25933591

  16. 'Doing' public health and 'making' public health practitioners: putting policy into practice in 'Starting Well'.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Mhairi

    2008-09-01

    Public health policy has arguably taken a new direction in the UK since 1997. This is typified by a review of the public health workforce. A key profession within this workforce is that of health visiting. Starting Well, a Scottish National Health Demonstration Project is one attempt to develop the public health role of health visitors. The project aimed to improve child health by providing intensive home visiting to families in Glasgow. This paper reports on a process study focused on whether Starting Well, an intervention exemplifying contemporary public health policy, could be operationalised through health visiting practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 44 staff responsible for developing and implementing the programme. Whilst greater contact with families allowed health visitors to develop their understanding of the life circumstances of their case-load families, the evaluation raised issues about the feasibility of systematically changing practice and demonstrated the difficulties of implementing an approach that relied as much on individual values and organisational context as formal guidelines and standardised tools. Furthermore, the ability of the systems and structures within which practitioners were operating to facilitate a broad public health approach was limited. The policy context for public health demands that increasing numbers of health workers are familiar with its principles and modus operandi. It remains, however, a contested area of work and its implementation requires change at a number of levels. This has implications for current policy assumptions about improving population health. PMID:18573576

  17. The Israeli public health response to wild poliovirus importation.

    PubMed

    Kaliner, Ehud; Kopel, Eran; Anis, Emilia; Mendelson, Ella; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Shulman, Lester M; Singer, Shepherd R; Manor, Yossi; Somekh, Eli; Rishpon, Shmuel; Leventhal, Alex; Rubin, Lisa; Tasher, Diana; Honovich, Mira; Moerman, Larisa; Shohat, Tamy; Bassal, Ravit; Sofer, Danit; Gdalevich, Michael; Lev, Boaz; Gamzu, Ronni; Grotto, Itamar

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, a silent wild poliovirus type 1 importation and sustained transmission event occurred in southern Israel. With the aim of preventing clinical poliomyelitis and ensuring virus re-elimination, the public health response to the importation event included intensification of clinical and environmental surveillance activities, enhancement of vaccine coverage, and supplemental immunisation with a bivalent oral polio vaccine against wild poliovirus types 1 and 3. A national campaign launched in August, 2013, resulted in vaccination of 943,587 children younger than 10 years (79% of the eligible target population). Expanded environmental surveillance (roughly 80% population coverage) documented a gradual disappearance of wild poliovirus type 1 in the country from September, 2013, to April, 2014. No paralytic poliomyelitis case was detected. A prompt extensive and coordinated national public health response, implemented on the basis of evidence-based decision making, successfully contained this serious importation and sustained transmission event of wild poliovirus to Israel. On April 28, 2015, WHO officially declared Israel as a polio-free country. PMID:26213249

  18. Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach.

    PubMed

    Nestle, M; Jacobson, M F

    2000-01-01

    Traditional ways of preventing and treating overweight and obesity have almost invariably focused on changing the behavior of individuals, an approach that has proven woefully inadequate, as indicated by the rising rates of both conditions. Considering the many aspects of American culture that promote obesity, from the proliferation of fast-food outlets to almost universal reliance on automobiles, reversing current trends will require a multifaceted public health policy approach as well as considerable funding. National leadership is needed to ensure the participation of health officials and researchers, educators and legislators, transportation experts and urban planners, and businesses and nonprofit groups in formulating a public health campaign with a better chance of success. The authors outline a broad range of policy recommendations and suggest that an obesity prevention campaign might be funded, in part, with revenues from small taxes on selected products that provide "empty" calories-such as soft drinks-or that reduce physical activity-such as automobiles. PMID:10968581

  19. Policy and environmental change: new directions for public health.

    PubMed

    Hann, Neil E; Kean, Thomas J; Matulionis, Rose Marie; Russell, Carol M; Sterling, Terrie D

    2004-10-01

    Solving major, persistent public health problems requires new policies and more aggressive, sweeping interventions that affect large populations. We need well-conceived health policies and effective interventions for environmental change, but are we likely to get them? To find out, the Directors of Health Promotion and Education and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated a study of state and local public health agencies in the United States from 1996 through 1999. Data were collected by peer- and non-peer-reviewed literature searches, key informant interviews, reviews of Internet sites, and a nationwide survey. Study conclusions found confusion about the legitimacy of advocacy, lack of priority and funding for interventions that take more time versus quick fixes, variable leadership, reluctance to take risks, and a political climate that often discourages government agencies to take on these interventions. There are successes, yet more can be done. PMID:15358910

  20. Public policy and environmental noise: modeling exposure or understanding effects.

    PubMed Central

    Staples, S L

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that if the federal government is to successfully protect the public from the adverse effects of environmental noise, its policies will need to be informed by a scientific understanding of the psychological and social factors that determine when noise results in annoyance and when noise may affect health as an environmental stressor. The overreliance of federal agencies on mathematical modeling of average group responses to physical noise levels is discussed as oversimplifying and limiting the understanding of noise effects in crucial ways. The development of a more sophisticated information base is related to policy needs, such as the need to make accurate predictions about the annoyance of particular communities, the need to understand relationships between public participation in noise abatement efforts and annoyance, and the need to identify populations that may be susceptible to stress-related health effects. PMID:9431308

  1. History, Dynamics, and Public Health Importance of Malaria Parasite Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Talisuna, Ambrose O.; Bloland, Peter; D’Alessandro, Umberto

    2004-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts, malaria is still one of the most devastating infectious diseases in the tropics. The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance currently compounds this grim picture. In this paper, we review the history of antimalarial drug resistance and the methods for monitoring it and assess the current magnitude and burden of parasite resistance to two commonly used drugs: chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Furthermore, we review the factors involved in the emergence and spread of drug resistance and highlight its public health importance. Finally, we discuss ways of dealing with such a problem by using combination therapy and suggest some of the research themes needing urgent answers. PMID:14726463

  2. Public policy versus individual rights and responsibility: an economist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-09-01

    Interventions to reduce childhood obesity entail ethical considerations. Although a rationale exists for government to intervene in a way that limits individual rights while protecting the public's health, a clear economic rationale also exists. The markets for goods and services that contribute to obesity are characterized by multiple failures that create an economic rationale for government to intervene (eg, consumers' lack of accurate information regarding obesogenic foods and beverages). If effective public policies for reducing obesity and its consequences are to be developed and implemented, individual rights and government interests must be balanced. PMID:21843403

  3. Traveling Policies: Mobility, Transformation and Continuities in Higher Education Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britez, Rodrigo G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an assessment of the impact and implications of the international mobilities operating in the national public policy environment. In fact, patterns of transformations that take place in national higher education systems are generating diverse and complex outcomes in different countries, in ways that may preclude a simple

  4. Traveling Policies: Mobility, Transformation and Continuities in Higher Education Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britez, Rodrigo G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an assessment of the impact and implications of the international mobilities operating in the national public policy environment. In fact, patterns of transformations that take place in national higher education systems are generating diverse and complex outcomes in different countries, in ways that may preclude a simple…

  5. Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2010-03-01

    Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children's energy density by using a pre- and post-policy evaluation. Analysis of variance/covariance and nonparametric tests compared energy density after the Texas policy change to intakes at baseline. Two years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in Southeast Texas at three public middle schools: baseline (2001-2002) and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded the amount and source of foods consumed. The Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was designed to promote a healthy school environment by restricting portion sizes of high-fat and high-sugar snacks and sweetened beverages, fat content of foods, and serving of high-fat vegetables like french fries. Energy density (kcal/g): energy density-1 was the energy of foods only (no beverages) divided by the gram weight and has been previously associated with obesity and insulin resistance; energy density-2 included all food and beverages to give a complete assessment of all sources of calories. Following implementation of the Texas policy, students' energy density-1 significantly decreased from 2.80+/-1.08 kcal/g to 2.17+/-0.78 kcal/g (P<0.0001). Similarly, energy density-2 significantly decreased from 1.38+/-0.76 kcal/g to 1.29+/-0.53 kcal/g (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was associated with desirable reductions in energy density, which suggests improved nutrient intake as a result of student school lunch consumption. PMID:20184994

  6. Explaining Local Authority Choices on Public Hospital Provision in the 1930s: A Public Policy Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  7. Explaining local authority choices on public hospital provision in the 1930s: a public policy hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of 'commissioner' and 'provider' roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  8. How to Make Big Improvements in the Small PR Shop. Samples of Policy Statements, Guidelines, and Forms Collected from Educational Institutions with Small Public Relations Staffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. Keith, Comp.

    Sample policy statements, guidelines, and forms collected from 16 educational institutions with small public relations staffs are presented as a guide to campus relations personnel. The importance of written policies for small public relations staffs is emphasized, and it is proposed that there be a written job description for the public relations…

  9. Data publication - policies and procedures from the PREPARDE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, Sarah; Murphy, Fiona; Tedds, Jonathan; Kunze, John; Lawrence, Rebecca; Mayernik, , Matthew S.; Whyte, Angus; Roberts, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Data are widely acknowledged as a first class scientific output. Increases in researchers' abilities to create data need to be matched by corresponding infrastructures for them to manage and share their data. At the same time, the quality and persistence of the datasets need to be ensured, providing the dataset creators with the recognition they deserve for their efforts. Formal publication of data takes advantage of the processes and procedures already in place to publish academic articles about scientific results, enabling data to be reviewed and more broadly disseminated. Data are vastly more varied in format than papers, and so the policies required to manage and publish data must take into account the complexities associated with different data types, scientific fields, licensing rules etc. The Peer REview for Publication & Accreditation of Research Data in the Earth sciences (PREPARDE) project is JISC- and NERC-funded, and aims to investigate the policies and procedures required for the formal publication of research data. The project is investigating the whole workflow of data publication, from ingestion into a data repository, through to formal publication in a data journal. To limit the scope of the project, the focus is primarily on the policies required for the Royal Meteorological Society and Wiley's Geoscience Data Journal, though members of the project team include representatives from the life sciences (F1000Research), and will generalise the policies to other disciplines. PREPARDE addresses key issues arising in the data publication paradigm, such as: what criteria are needed for a repository to be considered objectively trustworthy; how does one peer-review a dataset; and how can datasets and journal publications be effectively cross-linked for the benefit of the wider research community and the completeness of the scientific record? To answer these questions, the project is hosting workshops addressing these issues, with interactions from key stakeholders, including data and repository managers, researchers, funders and publishers. The results of these workshops will be presented and further comment and interaction sought from interested parties.

  10. The Impact of Tobacco-Free School Policies on Youth Smoking Rates in Florida Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school

  11. The Impact of Tobacco-Free School Policies on Youth Smoking Rates in Florida Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school…

  12. Public and Catholic Schooling: The Effects of Gender Context Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Cornelius

    1985-01-01

    Compares effects of three school types: single-sex Catholic, mixed-sex Catholic, and mixed-sex public. Results indicate that Catholic single-sex school are nearly twice as effective as Catholic mixed-sex schools, suggesting that there are important differences between these types of schools and that comparisons between public and Catholic schools…

  13. Broadband for Public Libraries: Importance, Issues, and Research Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Lauren H.; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. public libraries provide free public internet services to the communities that they serve, but require robust, high-speed broadband internet connections to continue meeting public demands. The 2008-2009 "Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study" ("PLFTAS") illustrates challenges that public libraries encounter in achieving broadband…

  14. Broadband for Public Libraries: Importance, Issues, and Research Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Lauren H.; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. public libraries provide free public internet services to the communities that they serve, but require robust, high-speed broadband internet connections to continue meeting public demands. The 2008-2009 "Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study" ("PLFTAS") illustrates challenges that public libraries encounter in achieving broadband

  15. Strategizing for Public Policy: The Information Literacy State Proclamation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Jackman, Lana W.; Prause, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project designed to raise the awareness of policymakers about the importance of information literacy to achieve societal goals. Issues benefit from the governmental support, prioritization, mandates, and funding that can result when there is policy behind them. Studies indicate that many people lack the ability to draw on…

  16. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  17. Beyond policy analysis: the raw politics behind opposition to healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2015-06-01

    Despite evidence that public policy that equitably distributes the prerequisites/social determinants of health (PrH/SDH) is a worthy goal, progress in achieving such healthy public policy (HPP) has been uneven. This has especially been the case in nations where the business sector dominates the making of public policy. In response, various models of the policy process have been developed to create what Kickbusch calls a health political science to correct this situation. In this article I examine an aspect of health political science that is frequently neglected: the raw politics of power and influence. Using Canada as an example, I argue that aspects of HPP related to the distribution of key PrH/SDH are embedded within issues of power, influence, and competing interests such that key sectors of society oppose and are successful in blocking such HPP. By identifying these opponents and understanding why and how they block HPP, these barriers can be surmounted. These efforts to identify opponents of HPP that provide an equitable distribution of the PrH/SDH will be especially necessary where a nation's political economy is dominated by the business and corporate sector. PMID:24870808

  18. 75 FR 17198 - Trade Policy Staff Committee: Public Comments Regarding Granting Suriname Eligibility for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Trade Policy Staff Committee: Public Comments Regarding Granting Suriname... public comment. SUMMARY: The Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) is seeking comments from the public on... alternatives to on-line submissions please contact Gloria Blue, Executive Secretary, Trade Policy...

  19. 77 FR 31677 - Request for Public Comment on Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Arctic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request for Public Comment on Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Arctic Research Plan: FY2013-2017 May 22, 2012. ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 (ARPA), Public Law 98-373, established the Interagency Arctic Research...

  20. The Mass Media, Public Opinion, and Public Policy Analysis: Linkage Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strouse, James C.

    The purpose of this book is to explore the effects of public opinion on governmental policy making, with a special focus on the role of the mass media in this process. Specific areas covered include political campaigning, the President and the press, blacks and the media, and cable television. Topics of discussion in the ten chapters are: linkage…

  1. Do Foreclosures Affect Boston Public School Student Academic Performance? Public Policy Brief No. 13-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…

  2. The importance of traceability for public health and consumer protection.

    PubMed

    McKean, J D

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1980s, concerns about the safety and quality of food have increased at both governmental and consumer levels. The importance of traceability of animals and animal products has grown as food production and marketing have been removed from direct consumer control. Product traceability, which requires a transparent chain of custody to maintain credibility and to complete information transfer functions, has two components, namely: a unique identification system, and a credible and verifiable mechanism for identity preservation. Traceability systems can be subdivided into the following four categories: country of origin; retail; processor; and farm-to-retail identity. Although the availability of computers and electronic data devices can enhance the speed and accuracy of data acquisition and manipulation, a common set of developmental criteria exists, irrespective of data-handling processes. As data management technologies become more powerful and less costly, product traceability requirements will multiply. Public and private sectors should seize these opportunities to improve public health and quality parameters, or risk a narrowing of their markets. PMID:11548512

  3. Genetic control of insects of public health importance

    PubMed Central

    Knipling, E. F.; Laven, H.; Craig, G. B.; Pal, R.; Kitzmiller, J. B.; Smith, C. N.; Brown, A. W. A.

    1968-01-01

    During recent years many advances have been made in the development of insect control by genetic manipulation. These methods include the sterile-male technique, now well known, which depends on ionizing radiation or chemosterilization. The recent field experiment carried out by WHO in Rangoon, Burma, on Culex fatigans has demonstrated that naturally occurring cytogenetic mechanisms such as cytoplasmic incompatibility can be used successfully without the use of radiations or chemosterilants. The paper not only describes the experiment on Culex fatigans but also discusses basic concepts and theoretical considerations involved in genetic control of insects of public health importance. The possibility of using genetic mechanisms for the control of other vector species is also discussed. There are a number of problems which require study before genetic control can be used on an operational scale. These problems and suggestions for future research in this field are also outlined. PMID:5302334

  4. Using collective intelligence to fine-tune public health policy.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Andy; Carroll, Denis; Foggie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Future Internet Assembly, the roadmap for the Web heading towards semantic interoperability and building on the UK's adoption of the Internet and social media are accelerating the development of Web 3.0. A number of health portals are opening, some with facilities for the capture of Patient Based Records. Collective Intelligence will be generated that, applied to health, has potential to support Public Health policy. By using the Internet, millions of people in the course of their daily activities contribute to uncertified data stores, some explicitly collaborating to create collective knowledge bases, some contributing implicitly through the patterns of their choices and actions. An application of soft computing, called Collective Health Intelligence, that reasons uncertified and certified data could enhance the social pool of existing health knowledge available to the public health agencies. Collective Health Intelligence could be used to complement national programmes by employing innovative sampling techniques, cost-effectively generating anonymous data trends that would quantify policy, indicate epidemiological effects and supply metrics to test policy efficacy. PMID:20543334

  5. Hendra in the news: public policy meets public morality in times of zoonotic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Kerridge, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Public discourses have influence on policymaking for emerging health issues. Media representations of unfolding events, scientific uncertainty, and real and perceived risks shape public acceptance of health policy and therefore policy outcomes. To characterize and track views in popular circulation on the causes, consequences and appropriate policy responses to the emergence of Hendra virus as a zoonotic risk, this study examines coverage of this issue in Australian mass media for the period 2007-2011. Results demonstrate the predominant explanation for the emergence of Hendra became the encroachment of flying fox populations on human settlement. Depictions of scientific uncertainty as to whom and what was at risk from Hendra virus promoted the view that flying foxes were a direct risk to human health. Descriptions of the best strategy to address Hendra have become polarized between recognized health authorities advocating individualized behaviour changes to limit risk exposure; versus populist calls for flying fox control and eradication. Less than a quarter of news reports describe the ecological determinants of emerging infectious disease or upstream policy solutions. Because flying foxes rather than horses were increasingly represented as the proximal source of human infection, existing policies of flying fox protection became equated with government inaction; the plight of those affected by flying foxes representative of a moral failure. These findings illustrate the potential for health communications for emerging infectious disease risks to become entangled in other political agendas, with implications for the public's likelihood of supporting public policy and risk management strategies that require behavioural change or seek to address the ecological drivers of incidence. PMID:23294874

  6. Structuring Public Engagement for Effective Input in Policy Development on Human Tissue Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, Kieran; Hawkins, Alice

    2010-01-01

    We begin with the premise that human tissue biobanking is associated with ethical ambiguities and regulatory uncertainty, and that public engagement is at least one important element in addressing such challenges. One is then confronted with how to achieve public engagement that is both meaningful and effective. In particular, how can public engagement on the topic of biobanking be implemented such that: It is perceived broadly as legitimate.The results of the engagement are relevant and useful to the institutional and regulatory context. In this paper we build on previous work that has addressed the former point, and focus primarily on the latter point. We argue that one way to increase the likelihood of results of public engagement being taken up in policy is through framing the issues that are deliberated by members of the public based in part on the practical policy questions for which input is sought. In this approach, we move discussion on the social and ethical implications of biobanking from abstract principles, to their consideration in the context of local biobanking practices. This is illustrated using a practical example involving a public engagement conducted to inform institutional policy for biobanking in British Columbia, Canada. PMID:20395688

  7. Science-policy challenges for biodiversity, public health and urbanization: examples from Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keune, H.; Kretsch, C.; De Blust, G.; Gilbert, M.; Flandroy, L.; Van den Berge, K.; Versteirt, V.; Hartig, T.; De Keersmaecker, L.; Eggermont, H.; Brosens, D.; Dessein, J.; Vanwambeke, S.; Prieur-Richard, A. H.; Wittmer, H.; Van Herzele, A.; Linard, C.; Martens, P.; Mathijs, E.; Simoens, I.; Van Damme, P.; Volckaert, F.; Heyman, P.; Bauler, T.

    2013-06-01

    Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human-nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem-human/public health-urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed.

  8. The Importance of Policies in E-Learning Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Shirley; Rogers, Rodney O.

    2004-01-01

    Most professionals interested in the use of technology in education understand the importance of an e-learning course site, whether the course is taught totally online or in a hybrid environment where the instructor has some face-to-face contact with students. However, many instructors have not thoroughly considered the importance of posting…

  9. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  10. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  11. Future humanitarian crises: challenges for practice, policy, and public health.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2010-01-01

    After more than three decades of preoccupation with wars and internal political conflicts, the humanitarian community has the opportunity to reevaluate what humanitarian crises will dominate both policy and practice in the future. In reality, these crises are already active and some are over the tipping point of recovery. These crises share the common thread of being major public health emergencies which, with a preponderance of excess or indirect mortality and morbidity dominating the consequences, requires new approaches, including unprecedented improvements and alterations in education, training, research, strategic planning, and policy and treaty agendas. Unfortunately, political solutions offered up to date are nation-state centric and miss opportunities to provide what must be global solutions. Public health, redefined as the infrastructure and systems necessary to allow communities, urban settings, and nation-states to provide physical and social protections to their populations has become an essential element of all disciplines from medicine, engineering, law, social sciences, and economics. Public health, which must be recognized as a strategic and security issue should take precedence over politics at every level, not be driven by political motives, and be globally monitored. PMID:20586007

  12. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts. PMID:24528517

  13. Ethical Principles Associated with the Publication of Research in ASHA's Scholarly Journals: Importance and Adequacy of Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Janis C.; Minifie, Fred D.; Horner, Jennifer; Robey, Randall R.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2-part study was to determine the importance of specific topics relating to publication ethics and adequacy of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) policies regarding these topics. Method: A 56-item Web-based survey was sent to (a) ASHA journal editors, associate editors, and members of the

  14. Ethical Principles Associated with the Publication of Research in ASHA's Scholarly Journals: Importance and Adequacy of Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Janis C.; Minifie, Fred D.; Horner, Jennifer; Robey, Randall R.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2-part study was to determine the importance of specific topics relating to publication ethics and adequacy of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) policies regarding these topics. Method: A 56-item Web-based survey was sent to (a) ASHA journal editors, associate editors, and members of the…

  15. Fluid Mechanics and Public Policy Including Natural Disasters and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Julian

    2011-11-01

    Where public policy relies on science for dealing with important issues affecting society, scientists involved have to explain what is known, what is uncertain, what might be known with more research and how to integrate science into decisions. Lessons have been learnt about all these stages in recent science-policy issues. Fluid mechanics and related sciences are contributing significantly to many problems. Some are specific such as the internal structure of extreme flow events in the atmosphere and ocean, or the microphysics of particle coagulation in narrow passages; others are system problems such as the environmental risks of growing mega cities, or combinations of processes affecting global and regional climate change.

  16. Biomedical informatics: precious scientific resource and public policy dilemma.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Donald A. B.

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical informatics includes the application of computers, information networks and systems, and a growing body of scientific understanding to a range of problems. As skill in this field increases and as progress in virtually all modern biomedical science becomes more data intensive, informatics becomes a precious resource. Applications areas include access to knowledge, discovery in genomics, medical records, mathematical modeling, and bioengineering. At the same time, progress in informatics is deeply dependent on resolution of four major public policy issues: digital intellectual property rights, genetic testing protection, medical data privacy, and the role of biomedical data in the context of information warfare and homeland security. PMID:12813915

  17. Criminalization of HIV transmission: poor public health policy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Edwin

    2009-12-01

    Criminalization of HIV transmission and exposure is an ineffective tool for combating AIDS and a costly distraction from programs that we know work--programs such as effective prevention, protection against discrimination, reducing stigma, empowering women and providing access to testing and treatment. In this article, which is based on a public lecture he gave at "From Evidence and Principle to Policy and Action," the 1st Annual Symposium on HIV, Law and Human Rights, held on 12-13 June 2009 in Toronto, Canada, Justice Edwin Cameron analyzes the surge in criminal prosecutions, discusses the role that stigma plays in these prosecutions and makes the case against criminalization. PMID:20225503

  18. Workplace diversity and public policy: challenges and opportunities for psychology.

    PubMed

    Fassinger, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An overview of employment participation patterns for these groups is presented, workplace barriers arising from marginalized status are highlighted, and the article concludes with a discussion of work-related legislative and public policy fronts that can be informed and influenced by the contributions of psychologists. PMID:18473610

  19. The policy of public health genomics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Simone, Benedetto; Mazzucco, Walter; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Agodi, Antonella; Coviello, Domenico; Dagna Bricarelli, Francesca; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Di Maria, Emilio; Federici, Antonio; Genuardi, Maurizio; Varesco, Liliana; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2013-05-01

    Italy has a monitoring system for genetic testing, consisting in a periodic census of clinical and laboratory activities performed in the country. The experience is limited, however, concerning the translation of genomic testing for complex diseases into clinical practice. For the first time the Italian Ministry of Health has introduced a policy strategic plan on genomics and predictive medicine within the 2010-2012 National Prevention Plan. This achievement was supported by the Italian Network for Public Health Genomics (GENISAP) and will likely contribute to the integration of public health genomics into health care in the country. Our experience might be of interest not only in Italy, but in other high-income countries, struggling to keep a healthy economy and healthy citizens. PMID:23466031

  20. Cognitive aspects of health surveys for public information and policy.

    PubMed

    Fienberg, S E; Loftus, E F; Tanur, J M

    1985-01-01

    Health survey data are an important and efficient source of information for policy makers and administrators. But caution is warranted: surveys do not show cause-and-effect relations, and they are no substitute for randomized controlled experimentation in predicting behavior. The variety of surveys--governmental and private--is increasing, and both methodology employed and interpretation of results can be improved in suggested ways. PMID:3906433

  1. Effect of Transportation Policies on Modal Shift from Private Car to Public Transport in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdden, Abdullah; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Ismail, Amiruddin

    The car is the second (40%) most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. The rapid increase in the use of personal transportation has its roots in the weak Malaysian public transport system. As a result, traffic congestion, accidents, air pollution and need for parking space among other evils, have escalated. In this study, policies aimed at discouraging the use of private transportation were studied. In addition, this study sought to identify factors that prevent personal transport users from utilizing public transport so that rational policies could be formulated to encourage greater utilization of public transport. A survey was carried out on users of private and public (both bus and urban train transport) (n = 1200). A binary logit model was developed for the three alternative modes, Car, Bus and Train. This study found that age, gender, car ownership, travel time, travel cost, household size and income are significant factors in influencing the individual`s choice of transportation. The most important variables found likely to encourage the use of public transport were reduced travel time, reduce the distance from home to public transportation stations and subsidized fares. In conclusion, for the commuter to switch to public transport, proper incentives need to be provided for a successful implementation.

  2. Public policies and communication affecting forest cover in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami Savaget, E.; Batistella, M.; Aguiar, A. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The research program Amazalert was based on information delivered by the IPCC through its 2007 report, which indicates forest degradation processes in the Amazonian region as a consequence of anthropogenic actions. Such processes affecting the structural and functional characteristics of ecosystems would harm environmental services that guarantee, for example, the regulation of climate and the provision of fresh water. A survey was organized, through a multidisciplinary perspective, on the main policies and programs that can affect forest cover in the Amazon. These rules and norms seek to regulate societal actions by defining a developmental model for the region. Although deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, some locations maintain high levels of deforestation. In 2013, for example, the municipalities of Monte Alegre, Óbidos, Alenquer, Oriximiná, Curuá and Almeirin, in the northern region of the state of Para, showed the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon. Managers and stakeholders within these areas are being interviewed to provide insights on how policies are interpreted and applied locally. There is an understanding delay between discourses normalized by federal governmental institutions and claims of local societies. The possible lack of clarity in official discourses added to the absence of a local communicative dynamics cause the phenomenon of incomplete information. Conflicts often occur in local institutional arenas resulting in violence and complex social and historical dissonances, enhanced by other public policies idealized in different temporal and spatial conditions.

  3. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in the United States are in areas where NOA is known to exist and therefore this issue takes on national significance. This ongoing national dilemma has raised public and business concerns. There has been continuing political and scientific debate and widespread miscommunication over perceived versus actual health risks, the validity of various analytical sampling and testing methods, the questionable necessity and escalating costs of remediation procedures, and the combined negative impact on numerous commercial and public interests. Thus, conflicting research and regulatory positions on the distinctions between and hazards of true asbestos and ordinary rock fragments is all that is presently available to the public until the differing scientific communities and government agencies arrive at a consensus on these issues. The risk assessment methodology and the analytical technology needed to support inferences drawn from existing research are available, but have not been organized and implemented in the manner needed to resolve the NOA controversy. There should exist nationally adopted and peer-reviewed NOA standards (developed jointly by the scientific community, health risk professionals, and government regulators) that establish: (1) a scientific basis for risk evaluation and assessment of NOA and rock fragments; (2) accepted analytical protocols for determining if NOA actually exists in a given area and for separating NOA from related non-asbestos rock fragments and single crystal minerals; and (3) effective public policies for managing NOA, minimizing potential hazards, and protecting public health. This article will review some of the key issues involved with the current NOA debate, propose improved analytical methodologies, describe potential solutions for dealing with NOA, and outline the benefits to be gained by creating a practical national NOA public policy. PMID:18180100

  4. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    PubMed

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. PMID:26041731

  5. Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach.

    PubMed Central

    Nestle, M; Jacobson, M F

    2000-01-01

    Traditional ways of preventing and treating overweight and obesity have almost invariably focused on changing the behavior of individuals, an approach that has proven woefully inadequate, as indicated by the rising rates of both conditions. Considering the many aspects of American culture that promote obesity, from the proliferation of fast-food outlets to almost universal reliance on automobiles, reversing current trends will require a multifaceted public health policy approach as well as considerable funding. National leadership is needed to ensure the participation of health officials and researchers, educators and legislators, transportation experts and urban planners, and businesses and nonprofit groups in formulating a public health campaign with a better chance of success. The authors outline a broad range of policy recommendations and suggest that an obesity prevention campaign might be funded, in part, with revenues from small taxes on selected products that provide "empty" calories-such as soft drinks-or that reduce physical activity-such as automobiles. Images p13-a p15-a p17-a p18-a p22-a PMID:10968581

  6. Undergraduates study climate change science, philosophy, and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Mark A.; Frodeman, Robert L.

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program provides undergraduate students with the opportunity to participate in ongoing scientific research. Existing either as stand-alone summer programs or as supplementary components to existing NSF research grants, the REU program focuses on introducing aspiring young scientists to the delights and complexities of science. Global Climate Change and Society (GCCS) is an intensive, 8-week REU program that began a 3-year run in the summer of 2001.Developed by a philosopher at the Colorado School of Mines, and a planetary scientist at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colrado, GCCS is a unique experiment in research and pedagogy that introduces students to science by using a distinctive approach. Choosing as its topic the questions surrounding global climate change, the program explores the interwoven scientific, philosophical, and public policy issues that make the climate change debate such a volatile topic in contemporary society. Last summer, the program selected 12 undergraduates through a nationally advertised competition. Student interns came from diverse academic and cultural backgrounds and included physics, philosophy and public policy majors from elite liberal arts schools, major research institutions, and mainstream state universities. The program was held at the University of Colorado and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), in Boulder, Colorado (Figure 1).

  7. A Mixed Methods Approach for Identifying Influence on Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2014-01-01

    Fields from political science to critical education policy studies have long explored power relations in policy processes, showing who influences policy agendas, policy creation, and policy implementation. Yet showing particular actors' influence on specific points in a policy text remains a methodological challenge. This article presents a…

  8. A Mixed Methods Approach for Identifying Influence on Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2014-01-01

    Fields from political science to critical education policy studies have long explored power relations in policy processes, showing who influences policy agendas, policy creation, and policy implementation. Yet showing particular actors' influence on specific points in a policy text remains a methodological challenge. This article presents a

  9. Important interactional strategies for everyday public health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Porr, Caroline J

    2015-01-01

    This Clinical Concepts article concerns the relational tools required by public health nurses to establish relationships with single mothers living on public assistance, mothers who are vulnerable and often stigmatized. The implications of stigmatization for relationship building are highlighted based on previous research investigating how public health nurses working in Canadian jurisdictions establish professional caring relationships with this cohort of mothers. Public health nurses employed interactional strategies including engaging in a positive manner and offering verbal commendations which served as effective relational tools to break through mothers' walls of defensiveness and to resume the dynamic process of relationship building. Building Relationship is a key practice standard for public health nurses and is instrumental to their work at both individual and community levels to improve social determinants of health. The author concludes with recommendations to facilitate building relationships during everyday public health nursing practice. PMID:24320117

  10. Which public and why deliberate?--A scoping review of public deliberation in public health and health policy research.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Deliberative methods are of increasing interest to public health researchers and policymakers. We systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature to identify public health and health policy research involving deliberative methods and report how deliberative methods have been used. We applied a taxonomy developed with reference to health policy and science and technology studies literatures to distinguish how deliberative methods engage different publics: citizens (ordinary people who are unfamiliar with the issues), consumers (those with relevant personal experience e.g. of illness) and advocates (those with technical expertise or partisan interests). We searched four databases for empirical studies in English published 1996-2013. This identified 78 articles reporting on 62 distinct events from the UK, USA, Canada, Australasia, Europe, Israel, Asia and Africa. Ten different types of deliberative techniques were used to represent and capture the interests and preferences of different types of public. Citizens were typically directed to consider community interests and were treated as a resource to increase democratic legitimacy. Citizens were preferred in methodological studies (those focused on understanding the techniques). Consumers were directed to focus on personal preferences; thus convened not as a source of policy decisions, but of knowledge about what those affected by the issue would accept. Advocates-who are most commonly used as expert witnesses in juries-were sometimes engaged to deliberate with consumers or citizens. This almost always occurred in projects directly linked to policy processes. This suggests health policymakers may value deliberative methods as a way of understanding disagreement between perspectives. Overall however, the 'type' of public sought was often not explicit, and their role not specified. This review provides new insight into the heterogeneity and rising popularity of deliberative methods, and indicates a need for greater clarity regarding both the constitution of publics and the relative usefulness of different deliberative techniques. PMID:25770463

  11. Mad cows, terrorism and junk food: should public policy reflect perceived or objective risks?

    PubMed

    Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2008-03-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that people's risk-perceptions are often systematically biased. This paper develops a simple framework to analyse public policy when this is the case. Expected utility (well-being) is shown to depend on both objective and perceived risks (beliefs). The latter are important because of the fear associated with the risk and as a basis for corrective taxation and second-best adjustments. Optimality rules for public provision of risk-reducing investments, "internality-correcting" taxation (e.g. fat taxes) and provision of costly information to reduce people's risk-perception bias are presented. PMID:18177959

  12. History of Public Policies for Research, Development and Deployment for Solar Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Osamu

    Developing new renewable energy sources, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is a key to establishing climate-friendly economy. Japan has been one of the centers of research, development, and diffusion (RD&D) of PV since the 1970's. While it is true that Japan was outnumbered by Germany in installed capacity and by US and Chinese companies in production in recent years, Japan still retains an important position in the world PV market. This paper examines the history of public policies for RD&D of PV in Japan, focusing on two kinds of policies, namely, public support for R&D under the Sunshine Program and various market creation policies in the early 1990's. Based on literature survey and interviews with key persons involved, the paper reveals that those support policies played an indispensable role to accelerate RD&D of PV technology. The Sunshine Program provided stable R&D budgets and space for technology learning throughout the 1980's to 1990's, and contributed to the progress of solar cell efficiency and cost reduction. The various market creation policies in the early 1990's also created regulatory and economic conditions that were necessary to commercialize residential PV systems, and became the direct driver to launch the initial PV market.

  13. Debates—Perspectives on socio-hydrology: Modeling flood risk as a public policy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gober, Patricia; Wheater, Howard S.

    2015-06-01

    Socio-hydrology views human activities as endogenous to water system dynamics; it is the interaction between human and biophysical processes that threatens the viability of current water systems through positive feedbacks and unintended consequences. Di Baldassarre et al. implement socio-hydrology as a flood risk problem using the concept of social memory as a vehicle to link human perceptions to flood damage. Their mathematical model has heuristic value in comparing potential flood damages in green versus technological societies. It can also support communities in exploring the potential consequences of policy decisions and evaluating critical policy tradeoffs, for example, between flood protection and economic development. The concept of social memory does not, however, adequately capture the social processes whereby public perceptions are translated into policy action, including the pivotal role played by the media in intensifying or attenuating perceived flood risk, the success of policy entrepreneurs in keeping flood hazard on the public agenda during short windows of opportunity for policy action, and different societal approaches to managing flood risk that derive from cultural values and economic interests. We endorse the value of seeking to capture these dynamics in a simplified conceptual framework, but favor a broader conceptualization of socio-hydrology that includes a knowledge exchange component, including the way modeling insights and scientific results are communicated to floodplain managers. The social processes used to disseminate the products of socio-hydrological research are as important as the research results themselves in determining whether modeling is used for real-world decision making.

  14. Public health policies as guides for local public policies: the experience of Sobral-Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Bareta, Ivana Cristina de Holanda Cunha; Gomes, Cid Ferreira; Canuto, Ondina Maria Chagas

    2005-01-01

    The accelerated urbanisation process that Brazil has gone through in the last 50 years has given rise to daunting challenges for public managers, especially in terms of local public policy management for the building of "healthy cities". In Sobral, a municipality of 173,000 inhabitants in Ceará in the North-eastern region of Brazil, a number of municipal policies were initiated beginning in 1997, many in partnership with the federal and state governments. They were inspired by the vision of a healthy and equitable city and were marked by strategic planning and the implementation of intersectoral projects. This article lays out some of the actions and their results, including an increase in the public supply of drinking water from 65% to 97% of households; an increase in sewage networks from 7% to 65%; an increase in public refuse collection from 42% to 90%; the expansion of green areas; the construction of nine kilometres of bicycle paths; the universalisation of integral health care through the Family Health Strategy through a network with specialised out-patient and hospital services; and a 148% increase in the number of children enrolled in primary school. These initiatives also resulted in the improvement of quality of life indicators, including a reduction in infant mortality from 61.4 to 19.0 per thousand live births, a drop in the mortality rate from traffic accidents from 33.40 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2001 to 15.25 in 2003; and a jump in literacy rates among children in the first cycle of primary school from 40 to 90.7%. In the present article, the authors describe some of the successful strategies and projects initiated between 1997 and 2003, and discuss how this experience could be reproduced in other communities across Brazil and around the world. PMID:16161846

  15. It's Academic: Public Policy Activities Among Faculty Members in a Department of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Douglas B.; Greene, Meredith; Bindman, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    Problem To investigate whether and how faculty members in a Department of Medicine are engaged in public policy activities. Approach Between February and April 2011 the authors conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of all active Department of Medicine (DOM) faculty members at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Survey questions covered demographics, academic role, academic rank, and participation in three specific public policy activities during the past five years: (1) policy related research, (2) expert advice to government officials, and (3) public policy advocacy in collaboration with organizations outside government. Outcomes Two hundred twenty of 553 faculty (40%) responded to the survey. One hundred twenty-four faculty members (56% of respondents and 22% of total active faculty) reported that they were engaged in at least one of the three types of policy related activities: 51 (23%) conducted policy related research, 67 (30%) provided expert advice to government officials, and 93 (42%) collaborated with organizations to advocate for public policy. Higher faculty rank was significantly associated with faculty members reporting that they were involved in one or more of the three policy activities (P = .04). Next Steps Academic departments should identify public policy expertise among their faculty and leverage this expertise by facilitating opportunities to develop a shared faculty awareness of their public policy activities, by supporting the establishment of mentoring relationships for less experienced faculty in the area of public policy, and by incorporating standards of excellence for work in public policy into the promotions process. PMID:23969373

  16. Cognitive enhancement kept within contexts: neuroethics and informed public policy

    PubMed Central

    Shook, John R.; Galvagni, Lucia; Giordano, James

    2014-01-01

    Neurothics has far greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements arriving from novel brain-centered biotechnologies and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize the best cognitive and neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could possibly count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely “cognitive” enhancement. Where cognitive processing and the mental life is concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what has actually been cognitively improved. And what can concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by the classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. Additionally, where the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements, we mustn’t presume that public approval towards enhancers will somehow automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of any nuanced appreciation for the control which performance contexts and public contexts exert over what “cognitive” enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can all too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as surely good for us and for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of oft-heard observations about serious hurdles for reliable enhancement from neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications to those hurdles for a sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and a wise policy review over cognitive enhancement. We offer some crucial recommendations for undertaking such investigations, so that cognitive enhancers that truly deserve public approval can be better identified. PMID:25538573

  17. The Importance of Language Games in School Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusarelli, Lance; Sanders, Marla

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the language games played by superintendents as they work with school boards and community activists to craft school policy. We begin by examining the role of language in problem definition and the agenda-setting process. We then examine how political culture and the media affect problem definition. We argue that school…

  18. The schoolroom asbestos abatement program: a public policy debacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    1995-10-01

    It is estimated that nearly 100 billion has been spent on removal of asbestos-bearing materials from schoolrooms, public and commercial buildings, and homes. This removal continues to this day despite the publication of an advisory document in 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency that states most removal is unnecessary and is even counterproductive both in terms health protection and costs. Concern over low exposure to substances that are designated as carcinogens is based on the false concept that even the smallest exposure to such substances can increase cancer risk. The expression “one molecule of a chemical or one asbestos fiber can possibly produce a tumor” is repeated over and over until it is accepted as a truth. Over 1400 air samples taken in 219 North American school buildings show the average fiber level to be 0.00022 fibers per milliliter of air. Using the most pessimistic models and attendance in the school for 6 h a day, five days a week, for 14 years, the calculated risk is one excess cancer death per million lifetimes. In contrast, the risk of dying from a lightning strike is 35 deaths per million lifetimes. Ambient air asbestos concentrations measured in the chrysotile asbestos mining towns of Quebec are 220 to 2200 times greater than that measured in the average schoolroom, yet the women living their entire lives in these towns show no increased cancer risk. The asbestos abatement program in the United States is a public policy debacle.

  19. Public policy and the sale of human organs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    2002-03-01

    Gill and Sade, in the preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, argue that living individuals should be free from legal constraints against selling their organs. The present commentary responds to several of their claims. It explains why an analogy between kidneys and blood fails; why, as a matter of public policy, we prohibit the sale of human solid organs, yet allow the sale of blood; and why their attack on Kant's putative argument against the sale of human body parts is misplaced. Finally, it rejects the claim that the state is entitled to interfere with the actions of individuals only if such actions would harm others. We draw certain lines grounded in what Rawls has termed "public reason" beyond which we do not give effect to the autonomous self-regarding decisions of individuals. Public resistance to the sale of human body parts, no matter how voluntary or well informed, is grounded in the conviction that such a practice would diminish human dignity and our sense of solidarity. A system of organ donation, in contrast, conveys our respect for persons and honors our common humanity. PMID:12211266

  20. Youth Crime, Public Policy, and Practice in the Juvenile Justice System: Recent Trends and Needed Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    1998-01-01

    Cyclic fluctuations in juvenile justice policy and their relationship to policy, practice, and youth crime are examined. This analysis suggests that overall crime rates are independent of prevailing juvenile justice policies. These findings support targeted prevention efforts including policy reforms, public education efforts, and social practice…

  1. Famine relief and imperial policy in early modern Morocco: the political functions of public health.

    PubMed

    Meyers, A R

    1981-11-01

    There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. PMID:7027811

  2. Famine relief and imperial policy in early modern Morocco: the political functions of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, A R

    1981-01-01

    There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7027811

  3. Earthquake Early Warning and Public Policy: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltz, J. D.; Bourque, L.; Tierney, K.; Riopelle, D.; Shoaf, K.; Seligson, H.; Flores, P.

    2003-12-01

    Development of an earthquake early warning capability and pilot project were objectives of TriNet, a 5-year (1997-2001) FEMA-funded project to develop a state-of-the-art digital seismic network in southern California. In parallel with research to assemble a protocol for rapid analysis of earthquake data and transmission of a signal by TriNet scientists and engineers, the public policy, communication and educational issues inherent in implementation of an earthquake early warning system were addressed by TriNet's outreach component. These studies included: 1) a survey that identified potential users of an earthquake early warning system and how an earthquake early warning might be used in responding to an event, 2) a review of warning systems and communication issues associated with other natural hazards and how lessons learned might be applied to an alerting system for earthquakes, 3) an analysis of organization, management and public policy issues that must be addressed if a broad-based warning system is to be developed and 4) a plan to provide earthquake early warnings to a small number of organizations in southern California as an experimental prototype. These studies provided needed insights into the social and cultural environment in which this new technology will be introduced, an environment with opportunities to enhance our response capabilities but also an environment with significant barriers to overcome to achieve a system that can be sustained and supported. In this presentation we will address the main public policy issues that were subjects of analysis in these studies. They include a discussion of the possible division of functions among organizations likely to be the principle partners in the management of an earthquake early warning system. Drawing on lessons learned from warning systems for other hazards, we will review the potential impacts of false alarms and missed events on warning system credibility, the acceptability of fully automated warning systems and equity issues associated with possible differential access to warnings. Finally, we will review the status of legal authorities and liabilities faced by organizations that assume various warning system roles and possible approaches to setting up a pilot project to introduce early warning. Our presentation will suggest that introducing an early warning system requires multi-disciplinary and multi-agency cooperation and thoughtful discussion among organizations likely to be providers and participants in an early warning system. Recalling our experience with earthquake prediction, we will look at early warning as a promising but unproven technology and recommend moving forward with caution and patience.

  4. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  5. Regulating payment for home care companionship services: legal authority and public policy.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2008-01-01

    On June 11, 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a ruling in the case of Long Island Care at Home Ltd. v. Coke that upheld a federal regulation exempting employees of third-party agencies who provide home-based "companionship services" to disabled persons from the protections of the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This article discusses the legal issues argued in the case and the legal rationales for the court's decision. The article then identifies the important public policy questions involving the maintenance of a sufficient, competent home care workforce that were left unanswered by the legal ruling and outlines some of the pragmatic implications of potential responses to these public policy questions. PMID:18847096

  6. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes for energy conservation and efficiency, fossil fuels, nuclear energy, hydropower, and renewable energy. All participants saw a 7-person diverse energy expert panel. Some participants attended deliberation sessions; some received a 35-page briefing document that included pros and cons of the different energy options.

  7. Science, Technology, and the Issues of the Eighties: Policy Outlook. Westview Special Studies in Science, Technology, and Public Policy/Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Albert H., Ed.; Thornton, Ray, Ed.

    Recognizing that science and technology (S/T) have become increasingly relevant to important public policy issues, Congress has mandated the periodic preparation of a "Five Year Outlook for Science and Technology" to help U.S. policymakers anticipate and deal with these issues more effectively. This book, the result of a study conducted by the…

  8. [Public health policies as regards the elderly in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cardona Arango, Doris; Segura Cardona, Angela María

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the laws passed, and adopted in accordance with international regulations, in Colombia and which currently benefit or affect the quality of life of the elderly. Public policies in Colombia are inclined towards the well-being of the elderly, but this documental analysis concludes that the elderly Colombian is unprotected and defenseless against the obstacles and difficult situations due to the biological, political, social, economic and environmental conditions. This makes them vulnerable as it is a scheme that only benefits in cases of poverty and by being a member of the General Social Security in Health system, with transfer of obligations to the family, society and likewise the elderly. PMID:21388713

  9. The nuclear controversy: Unequal competition in public policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, I.

    1980-05-01

    The public policy making process as regards nuclear power is analized and the epistemological basis for such an analysis is examined. It is asserted that disputes over the development of nuclear power are not primarily about the objective facts of the matter but rather derive from differences in basic assumptions about, and evaluatory perceptions of, society, technology and the nature of progress. The balance of power in such disputes is therefore not mainly determined by the 'correctness' of the facts upon which a position rests but rather by the extent to which underlying assumptions and values accord with prevailing ideological themes. A meaningful debate can be guaranteed only through the establishment of institutional structures which provide a framework of truely democratic participation and equality of power and influence.

  10. Challenging Ideology: Could a Better Understanding of Academic Enquiry Lead to Better Public Policy Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Does the present level of public unhappiness with the conduct of governance offer an opportunity to revisit the quality of public policy making and the pernicious role of ideology? In this article I argue that there are some strong parallels between academic enquiry and public policy making, and that a better understanding of the former could lead…

  11. 10 CFR 1004.3 - Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records... Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records. (a) The DOE Headquarters will maintain, in the public reading facilities, the materials which are required by 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) to be...

  12. 10 CFR 1004.3 - Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records... Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records. (a) The DOE Headquarters will maintain, in the public reading facilities, the materials which are required by 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) to be...

  13. 10 CFR 1004.3 - Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records... Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records. (a) The DOE Headquarters will maintain, in the public reading facilities, the materials which are required by 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) to be...

  14. 10 CFR 1004.3 - Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records... Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records. (a) The DOE Headquarters will maintain, in the public reading facilities, the materials which are required by 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) to be...

  15. Postsecondary Education Opportunity. The Mortenson Report on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a collection of 12 issues of a monthly publication on public policy and postsecondary education opportunity. Each issue contains one or two main articles providing an analysis of research on trends in postsecondary education. The major articles in these issues are: (1) "The Challenge of Educational Opportunity in Public Policy:…

  16. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  17. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  18. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Martinasek, Mary P; Gibson-Young, Linda M; Davis, Janiece N; McDermott, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs) from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations. PMID:26346473

  19. [The dialogues between anthropology and health: contributions to public policies].

    PubMed

    Langdon, Esther Jean

    2014-04-01

    In order to examine the development of anthropological paradigms and their dialogue with medicine, I divide the discussion into two general, but non-exclusive, approaches: one that focuses on health and disease as social and cultural experience and construction, and another that examines health from an interactional and political perspective. For the first approach, I focus on North American and French theories that find resonance in the anthropological dialogue in Brazil. For the second political approach, the discussion originates in the dialogue among anthropologists in Latin America who have been developing models to contribute to an interdisciplinary approach necessary for health policies and intervention in health. The concepts of practices in self-care and intermedicality, among others, are explored due to their contribution in anthropology to public policies in health. These anthropologists have argued that health practices should be understood through the notions of autonomy, collectivity, agency and praxis, as opposed to the notions of the biomedical perspective characterized as being universalist, biological, individualist and a-historical. PMID:24820585

  20. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they do not have the luxury of thinking about the quality of food. Only two policy makers in the semi-structured interviews perceived there to be a possible health problems due to heavy metal contaminated food in Zambia. However, this was from personal experience and not a corporate view. Policy makers did not think that food safety was an issue in Zambia, with several interviewees stating that food security was more of a priority, reflecting the urban agriculture cultivators' views that quantity is the more important issue than quality of food. Risks due to environmental contamination are not high in the public and policy makers' priorities, even when asked directly about the issue. Both urban agriculturalists and policy stakeholders believe that academics have a key role to play in communicating the possible and actual risks to the affected populations and institutional stakeholders.

  1. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... criminal prosecution persons who have in good faith received such guarantees (15 U.S.C. 1197(a); 16 CFR 302..., and compliance philosophy of this Commission. Any existing procedures which have been inherited from... philosophy of this Commission. (g) The Commission recognizes that the importer may not be the only person...

  2. Pandemic H1N1 in Canada and the use of evidence in developing public health policies--a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosella, Laura C; Wilson, Kumanan; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Chu, Anna; Upshur, Ross; Willison, Donald; Deeks, Shelley L; Schwartz, Brian; Tustin, Jordan; Sider, Doug; Goel, Vivek

    2013-04-01

    When responding to a novel infectious disease outbreak, policies are set under time constraints and uncertainty which can limit the ability to control the outbreak and result in unintended consequences including lack of public confidence. The H1N1 pandemic highlighted challenges in public health decision-making during a public health emergency. Understanding this process to identify barriers and modifiable influences is important to improve the response to future emergencies. The purpose of this study is to examine the H1N1 pandemic decision-making process in Canada with an emphasis on the use of evidence for public health decisions. Using semi-structured key informant interviews conducted after the pandemic (July-November 2010) and a document analysis, we examined four highly debated pandemic policies: use of adjuvanted vaccine by pregnant women, vaccine priority groups and sequencing, school closures and personal protective equipment. Data were analysed for thematic content guided by Lomas' policy decision-making framework as well as indicative coding using iterative methods. We interviewed 40 public health officials and scientific advisors across Canada and reviewed 76 pandemic policy documents. Our analysis revealed that pandemic pre-planning resulted in strong beliefs, which defined the decision-making process. Existing ideological perspectives of evidence strongly influenced how information was used such that the same evidentiary sources were interpreted differently according to the ideological perspective. Participants recognized that current models for public health decision-making failed to make explicit the roles of scientific evidence in relation to contextual factors. Conflict avoidance theory explained policy decisions that went against the prevailing evidence. Clarification of roles and responsibilities within the public health system would reduce duplication and maintain credibility. A more transparent and iterative approach to incorporating evidence into public health decision-making that reflects the realities of the external pressures present during a public health emergency is needed. PMID:23465198

  3. Environmental factors influencing public health and medicine: policy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rueben; Walker, Bailus; Nathan, Vincent R.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health threats are increasing throughout the United States, particularly in low-income populations and in communities of color. Environmental science researchers are investigating plausible associations between the environment and human health. As a result, the role and responsibility of the primary care physicians and other health care providers are changing. This paper highlights selected lines of evidence suggesting that clinicians should now consider interactions between humans and their environment as central to providing effective primary care. Subject areas include: exposure to environmental agents, reproductive toxicity, pulmonary disease, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, mechanisms of environmental disease, and cultural competence. Concerns about these and other environmentally related issues influence the manner in which primary care is practiced now, and will be practiced in the future. Biomedical technology and community awareness demand that physicians pay more attention to advances in environmental medicine. Ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school is environmental medicine. To effectively respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health, clinicians, researchers, educators, public policy officials, and the general public must join together to reduce the risk of environmental health threats and improve quality of life. PMID:11995631

  4. Elective ventilation for organ donation: law, policy and public ethics

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: ‘basic elective ventilation’; ‘epistemically complex elective ventilation’; ‘practically complex elective ventilation’; and ‘epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation’. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation. PMID:23222143

  5. Shaping the future of nursing: developing an appraisal framework for public engagement with nursing policy reports.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Ann

    2015-03-01

    It is accepted that research should be systematically examined to judge its trustworthiness and value in a particular context. No such appraisal is required of reports published by organizations that have possibly even greater influence on policy that affects the public. This paper explores a philosophical framework for appraising reports. It gives the reasons why informed engagement is important, drawing on Popper's concept of the open society, and it suggests a method for appraisal. Gadamer's concept of the two horizons and Jauss's reception theory offer a methodological framework to enable the individual citizen, whether professional or lay, to engage in debate about policy that affects him or her. By way of a worked example, the framework is applied to two international reports on nursing. Conclusions suggest that nursing policy should be subjected to robust interrogatory appraisal by both profession and public for a democratic debate and creative discourse. Although this analysis is related to international nursing policy, it has a wider relevance and application beyond nursing. PMID:24954477

  6. Smoker-Free Workplace Policies: Developing a Model of Public Health Consequences of Workplace Policies Barring Employment to Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Brian; Siegel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A marked shift in tobacco-related workplace health promotion intervention involves the adoption of policies barring employment to smokers. We discuss the potential public health consequences of these policies on those affected – smokers, their families, the surrounding community, and society at large. We find a lack of published evidence evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of these policies. By developing a model of policy effects, we outline possible unintended consequences. With such large gaps in the evidence base and the potential for deleterious consequences, we argue for increased discussion about the use of smoker-free employment policies as a public health intervention and for increased engagement of employers by the public health community in worksite health promotion. PMID:19168490

  7. Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Berer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

  8. End-of-Life Care Issues: A Personal, Economic, Public Policy, and Public Health Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Morhaim, Dan K.

    2013-01-01

    Advance directive documents are free, legal, and readily available, yet too few Americans have completed one. Initiating discussions about death is challenging, but progress in medical technology, which leads to increasingly complex medical care choices, makes this imperative. Advance directives help manage decision-making during medical crises and end-of-life care. They allow personalized care according to individual values and a likely reduction in end-of-life health care costs. We argue that advance directives should be part of the public health policy agenda and health reform. PMID:23597338

  9. 76 FR 56227 - Publication of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letter 11-01, Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... the requirements of the President's Memorandum and section 321 (75 FR 16188-97). The proposed policy... human capital offices within the agency to effectively implement its provisions. The proposed policy letter was published in the Federal Register on March 31, 2010 (75 FR 16188-97) for public comment....

  10. How Can We Bring Public Health in All Policies? Strategies for Healthy Societies

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Fabrizio; Scaioli, Giacomo; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Siliquini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    New scenarios are emerging in the European and worldwide context: the ageing of society, the climate changes, the increasing of health inequalities and the financial crisis. In this context, the scientific community and the decision-makers agree on the role of health in all policies (HiAP) strategy in improving the population’s health. The HiAP takes into account factors not strictly related to health but with important health consequences. To bring public health in all policies a change is needed, but there are some obstacles to overcome: for instance, the lack of evidence regarding the governance tools and frameworks for HiAP, the difficulty of convincing stakeholders and producing a cultural change in the political positioning of decision-makers. Consequently, it is necessary: i) to implement stronger and responsible decision-support approaches, such as health impact assessment and health technology assessment; ii) to encourage and coordinate all relevant sectors in playing their part in reducing health gaps within the European Union; iii) to strengthen cooperation and make better use of existing networks and existing public health and related institutions. The final aim will be to monitor the impact of the health determinants in order to promote the effective implementation of HiAP approach. Significance for public health This paper makes public health professionals aware of the pivotal role that they could play in reducing health inequalities and in helping to overcome the crisis of the European health systems. It discusses how, thanks to a systematic approach based on new instruments like health impact assessment and health technology assessment, and thanks also to a stronger cooperation among stakeholders and policy makers, it is possible to monitor the health determinants and consequently to bring health in all policies. PMID:25918692

  11. How can we bring public health in all policies? Strategies for healthy societies.

    PubMed

    Bert, Fabrizio; Scaioli, Giacomo; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Siliquini, Roberta

    2015-02-20

    New scenarios are emerging in the European and worldwide context: the ageing of society, the climate changes, the increasing of health inequalities and the financial crisis. In this context, the scientific community and the decision-makers agree on the role of health in all policies (HiAP) strategy in improving the population's health. The HiAP takes into account factors not strictly related to health but with important health consequences. To bring public health in all policies a change is needed, but there are some obstacles to overcome: for instance, the lack of evidence regarding the governance tools and frameworks for HiAP, the difficulty of convincing stakeholders and producing a cultural change in the political positioning of decision-makers. Consequently, it is necessary: i) to implement stronger and responsible decision-support approaches, such as health impact assessment and health technology assessment; ii) to encourage and coordinate all relevant sectors in playing their part in reducing health gaps within the European Union; iii) to strengthen cooperation and make better use of existing networks and existing public health and related institutions. The final aim will be to monitor the impact of the health determinants in order to promote the effective implementation of HiAP approach. Significance for public healthThis paper makes public health professionals aware of the pivotal role that they could play in reducing health inequalities and in helping to overcome the crisis of the European health systems. It discusses how, thanks to a systematic approach based on new instruments like health impact assessment and health technology assessment, and thanks also to a stronger cooperation among stakeholders and policy makers, it is possible to monitor the health determinants and consequently to bring health in all policies. PMID:25918692

  12. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

  13. The Growing (But Still Limited) Importance of Evidence in Education Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Amanda; Levin, Ben; Campbell, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The last decade of education change has been characterized by the rise of evidence-based policy and practice agendas. Internationally, we are witnessing efforts to increase and incorporate research use in public services. This article examines efforts in education to address the research-practice gap through an emerging field we term knowledge…

  14. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary

  15. Is violence a disease? Situating violence prevention in public health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Williams, D J; Donnelly, P D

    2014-11-01

    The paper provides a review of some of the thoughts, ideas, and opinions that pervade the public health literature concerning how to classify or conceptualise violence. It is argued that violence transcends classic distinctions between communicable and non-communicable diseases, distinguishes itself from the discipline of injury control, and is influenced by wider, social determinants. Through a discussion of these varied perspectives it is concluded that a fourth revolution in public health is needed - a 'change in scope' revolution - that recognizes the influence of social justice, economics, and globalization in the aetiology of premature death and ill health, into which violence fits. However, rather than be shackled by debates of definition or classification, it is important that public health acknowledges the role it can play in preventing violence through policy and practice, and takes unified action. PMID:25443389

  16. Importance of Research and Publication by Community College Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carolyn E.

    2000-01-01

    This guest editorial discusses the underrepresentation of community colleges in the literature on academic libraries/librarianship. Highlights include the roots of the problem, why this research is important, overcoming barriers, and sources of support. (Contains 6 references.) (MES)

  17. Living kidney donation: the importance of public education.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Rasiah, Rajah; Noh, Abdillah; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Ng, Kok-Peng

    2014-04-01

    A sample of Malaysians in the Klang Valley indicating their decision on becoming unrelated living kidney donors was surveyed regarding huge amounts of financial incentives to be rewarded to them. From the 1310 respondents, 72.1% said "no" on becoming a living donor. The reason "I don't think humans can live with only one kidney" scored the highest (35.6%), and from the 27.9% of the respondents who are willing to donate their organ with the right financial incentive, most of the respondents picked the reasons "I want to do something noble in life" (50%), and monetary reason scored the lowest (6.2%), indicating that financial incentive is not a major reason guiding individuals' decision on becoming living donors. We suggest that the government should put priority at targeting public education to raise the understanding on the risk, safety and the quality of life of donation and transplantation, and improving the public trust on the donation and the surgical methods to carry out transplantation. PMID:24617562

  18. Public financing of IVF: a review of policy rationales.

    PubMed

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Sorenson, Corinna

    2010-06-01

    There is great diversity in in vitro fertilization (IVF) funding and reimbursement policies and practice throughout Europe and the rest of the world. While many existing reimbursement and regulatory frameworks address safety and legal concerns, economic factors also assume a central role. However, there are several problems with the evidence that is available on the economics of IVF. This suggests there is a need for more robust cost-effectiveness studies. It also indicates the need for alternative rationales to justify the reimbursement of IVF, which might more fully account for the social, political, ethical, and philosophical considerations embedded in notions of infertility and technology-driven reproductive treatments. The merits and limitations of five alternative rationales are discussed. The review suggests that while no existing single rationale provides a complete framework with which to support funding decisions, taken together they provide guideposts which signal important issues for consideration and highlight where further research, action, and debate are needed. PMID:19343499

  19. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Benn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures – e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions – to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

  20. [Comparative study on objective-setting public health policy--historical background and path dependence].

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yosihiro

    2002-05-01

    The historical background and the path dependence of objective-setting public health policy are described in this review. The New Public Health movement appeared in the 1980s and was inspired by the Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion. This movement is based on the idea that public health is mostly promoted by creating a supportive environment for health as well as by individual efforts toward a healthy life style. The first objective-setting public health policy called Healthy People was proposed in USA, 1979, under the influence of The Lalonde Report published in Canada, 1974. Goals and targets were set in order to reduce the mortality of American people. This project led to Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010. In the 1990s, objective-setting public health policies prevailed in Western countries, such as United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and also in Japan. The objective-setting public health policy is the application of the management by objectives in the health policy domain. This policy is especially accepted in Anglo-Saxon countries where public sector reform was conducted on the basis of the New Public Management theory in the 1980s, which is when the WHO Regional Office for Europe started the Healthy Cities project that emphasized a network of project cities. The Health 21 in 1999 is another model of object-setting public health policy. A comparative study of four different objective-setting public health policies (USA, United Kingdom, WHO Regional Office for Europe, and Japan) was conducted regarding the goals and domains of the targets, methods of targeting, and evaluation of the project. The goals were almost identical in the four public health policies, while the domains of the targets were different. These differences were explained by the past experience of public health policy development in each country. PMID:12061096

  1. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of institutional commitment to energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy resources, colleges and universities must focus public and professional attention on the imperative for action and the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and countering global warming.

  2. Cigarette smoking in China: public health, science, and policy.

    PubMed

    Au, William W; Su, Daisy; Yuan, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, cigarette smoking is a habit that causes serious health, economic, and social problems. Therefore, many countries have taken an active role to control and to ban smoking. The chronic smoking problem in China is particularly acute because China has the largest population of smokers in the world, over 300 million currently. If 30% of these smokers were to die of smoke-related diseases in the next 20 years, the impact from the more than 90 million premature deaths could be damaging to China. In addition, numerous non-smokers also experience health problems from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. China's efforts to reduce or to ban smoking in certain public places have not been well-coordinated or enforced compared with those in other countries. Therefore, success has been minimal. Consequently, leaders in China should not be complacent about combating the serious national health problem. A multiprong approach in combination with the MPOWER policy from the World Health Organization that targets different levels of acquisition of the smoking habit must be used. Examples may include the government's reduced reliance on profits from the sale of cigarettes, the elimination of advertisements that encourage smoking among young individuals, the presentation of more graphic illustration of harmful effects from smoking on every pack of cigarettes, higher taxes/prices on cigarettes, and the implementation of enforceable bans on smoking in public places. As shown in other countries, such coordinated effort can be highly effective in the reduction of smoking and can have healthy consequences. PMID:22755266

  3. Beyond the usual suspects: using political science to enhance public health policy making.

    PubMed

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    That public health policy and practice should be evidence based is a seemingly uncontroversial claim. Yet governments and citizens routinely reject the best available evidence and prefer policies that reflect other considerations and concerns. The most common explanations of this paradox emphasise scientific disagreement, the power of 'politics', or the belief that scientists and policymakers live in two separate communities that do not communicate. However, another explanation may lie in the limits of the very notion of evidence-based policy making. In fact, the social science discipline of political science offers a rich body of theory and empirical evidence to explain the apparent gap between evidence and policy. This essay introduces this literature with a particular emphasis on a recent book by Katherine Smith, Beyond evidence-based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. As the title suggests, Smith argues that what matters for public health policy is less scientific evidence and much more a more complex set of ideas. Based on detailed case studies of UK tobacco and health inequality policy, Smith offers a richly textured alternative account of what matters for policy making. This excellent book is part of a small but growing body of political science research on public health policy that draws on contemporary theories of policy change and governance more generally. This essay provides a window on this research, describes some examples, but emphasises that public health scholars and practitioners too often retain a narrow if not naive view of the policy-making process. PMID:25716529

  4. Public-Academic Partnerships: A Rapid Small-Grant Program for Policy-Relevant Research: Motivating Public-Academic Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carolyn I.; Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Simpson, Helen B.; Herman, Daniel B.; Stroup, T. Scott; Skrobala, Anne M.; Sederer, Lloyd I.; Appel, Anita; Essock, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    To help grow a cadre of researchers with the knowledge and skills to pursue topics of great utility to public mental health systems, the director of the Division of Mental Health Services and Policy Research at Columbia University used funding from the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) to create a rapid small-grant program called the OMH Policy Scholars Program. This column uses two case examples to describe how this public-academic partnership exposes early-career researchers to the needs and complexities of large public mental health systems while providing them with senior research and policy mentors to help ensure the success of the scholars' projects and oversee their introduction to and work within the public mental health system. This type of collaboration is one model of encouraging early-career psychiatric researchers to pursue policy-relevant research. PMID:23370621

  5. Hopes and realities of public health accountability policies.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert; Price, Alex; Deber, Raisa B; Manson, Heather; Scott, Fran

    2014-09-01

    Holding local boards of health accountable presents challenges related to governance and funding arrangements. These challenges result in (a) multiple accountability pressures, (b) population health outcomes whose change is measureable only over long time periods and (c) board of health activity that is often not the key immediate direct contributor to achieving desired outcomes. We examined how well these challenges are addressed in Ontario, Canada at early stages of implementation of a new accountability policy. Findings reveal that senior and middle management are open to being held accountable to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC), but are more oriented to local boards of health and local/regional councils. These managers perceive the MOHLTC system as compliance oriented, and find internal accountability systems most helpful for performance improvement. Like health-care system accountability metrics, performance indicators are largely focused on structures and processes owing to the challenges of attributing population health outcomes to public health unit (PHU) activities. MOHLTC is in the process of responding to these challenges. PMID:25305391

  6. [The clinical autopsy in the perspective of public health policy].

    PubMed

    Dürr, M

    2007-10-24

    The autopsy--as the lesson of death--should be an integrated constituent of our affairs of health services. Beside its task for teaching and training as well as the post-autopsy follow-up with families, the autopsy plays a vital role for the quality assessment and the health statistics as the basis for the health care policy. By the introduction of the DRG system (diagnosis related groups), as a lump sum based charging system of inpatients regardless of diagnostic procedures and therapy and the equalization of costs for similar services calculations, should also include the costs of autopsy. The quality assurance is garanteed and independently attained by the autopsy service. Moreover, this is the only way to overcome the danger of abolishing essential diagnostic and therapeutic procedures because of economic pressure. However, the impact of the autopsy service is widely neglected. Therefore, widespread information about this matter in the medical profession, in the general public and in politics is mandatory. PMID:18019180

  7. Altruism, blood donation and public policy: a reply to Keown.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, H V

    1999-12-01

    This is a continuation of and a development of a debate between John Keown and me. The issue discussed is whether, in Britain, an unpaid system of blood donation promotes and is justified by its promotion of altruism. Doubt is cast on the notions that public policies can, and, if they can, that they should, be aimed at the promotion and expression of altruism rather than of self-interest, especially that of a mercenary sort. Reflections upon President Kennedy's proposition, introduced into the debate by Keown, that we should ask not what our country can do for us but what we can do for our country is pivotal to this casting of doubt. A case is made for suggesting that advocacy along the lines which Keown presents of an exclusive reliance on a voluntary, unpaid system of blood donation encourages inappropriate attitudes towards the provision of health care. Perhaps, it is suggested, and the suggestion represents, on my part, a change of mind as a consequence of the debate, a dual system of blood provision might be preferable. PMID:10635510

  8. Regarding zygotes as persons: implications for public policy.

    PubMed

    Wall, L Lewis; Brown, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the notion put forward by certain groups (largely as a consequence of their opposition to elective abortion) that the immediate post-fertilization cellular entity - the zygote - is a person and should be given full moral status. Because the zygote has none of the inherent characteristics necessary to be regarded as a person in the traditional philosophical sense (e.g., John Locke or Immanuel Kant), some advocates of this position attempt to advance their case with arguments based on the genetic potential of the human zygote to develop into a person. We argue that this position represents a flawed use of human genetics and ignores the extraordinarily inefficient and wasteful nature of human reproduction. We then explore the public policy consequences that would follow from granting the zygote full moral status. We conclude that the logical consequences of granting the zygote full moral status would require a revolutionary restructuring of many basic social institutions, especially the health care system. The social, political, and economic changes that would be required if the zygote is enshrined as a person in law constitute a convincing reductio ad absurdum that demonstrates the danger in taking this position seriously. PMID:17146143

  9. ['Judicialization' of public health policy for distribution of medicines].

    PubMed

    Chieffi, Ana Luiza; Barata, Rita Barradas

    2009-08-01

    The supply of medicines in response to court orders or injunctions has become a common practice in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This 'judicialization' of the health system clashes with basic principles of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), such as equal opportunity to access health services. The aim of this paper is to analyze the legal action used to obtain medicines through the São Paulo State Health Department, from two main angles: judicialization of public policies and breach of the equity principle. This is a descriptive study of legal action taken to obtain medicines through the São State Health Department, as listed in the Electronic Court Docket System for the year 2006. Most cases were filed through private attorneys; 47% of the patients had obtained their prescriptions through private care; and 73% of the cases involved patients from the three wealthiest areas in the city of São Paulo. The data demonstrate that such legal action violates key principles of the SUS such as equity, thereby privileging individuals with higher purchasing power and more access to information. PMID:19649425

  10. Hopes and Realities of Public Health Accountability Policies

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Robert; Price, Alex; Deber, Raisa B.; Manson, Heather; Scott, Fran

    2014-01-01

    Holding local boards of health accountable presents challenges related to governance and funding arrangements. These challenges result in (a) multiple accountability pressures, (b) population health outcomes whose change is measureable only over long time periods and (c) board of health activity that is often not the key immediate direct contributor to achieving desired outcomes. We examined how well these challenges are addressed in Ontario, Canada at early stages of implementation of a new accountability policy. Findings reveal that senior and middle management are open to being held accountable to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC), but are more oriented to local boards of health and local/regional councils. These managers perceive the MOHLTC system as compliance oriented, and find internal accountability systems most helpful for performance improvement. Like health-care system accountability metrics, performance indicators are largely focused on structures and processes owing to the challenges of attributing population health outcomes to public health unit (PHU) activities. MOHLTC is in the process of responding to these challenges. PMID:25305391

  11. Hemodialysis services: are public policies turned to guaranteeing the access?

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Ana Rita; Gonçalves, Crhistinne Cavalheiro Maymone; Cheade, Maria de Fátima Meinberg; Souza, Cristina; Tsuha, Daniel Henrique; Ferreira, Kássio Costa; Rasi, Lucas; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição

    2015-07-01

    The increasing incidence of chronic renal failure in Brazil and the consequential expansion of hemodialysis as a choice for treatment in final stage have to be taken into account to guarantee access to those in need. The ecological study conducted in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2012, using data from the Brazilian Health Informatics Department (DATASUS) and from the analysis of medical records in 12 clinics, identified and mapped patients on hemodialysis, the distance they travelled and the estimated number of patients. The prevalence of hemodialysis patients in Mato Grosso do Sul State, about 55 per 100,000 inhabitants, is similar to the national average. The analyses indicated concentration of patients in counties with clinics and also geographical gaps that generate displacement of over 100km for more than 16% of patients. The results point to the necessity of strengthening public policies that consider, for decision-making, the decentralization of service, the expansion of home care and the follow-up education for professionals. PMID:26248105

  12. Government Accountability Reports and Public Education Policy: Studying Political Actors' Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Timothy Ross

    2013-01-01

    This study asks how government accountability reports are used to influence public education policy. Government accountability reports, called "audits" in Utah, prove to be useful tools for examining education policy. Using a collective case study design examining Utah's Class Size Reduction (CSR) policy, government accountability…

  13. An Evaluation of Public School District Tobacco Policies in St. Louis County, Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbero, Colleen; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Bach, Laura E.; Cyr, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    Background: One way to address tobacco use by youth is for primary and secondary schools to adopt and implement comprehensive tobacco policies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comprehensiveness of tobacco policies in St. Louis County, Missouri public school districts. Methods: We evaluated the strength of tobacco policies from all 23

  14. Limitations and Analysis of FERPA Policies within Florida Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sheryl D.

    2012-01-01

    The study was a policy analysis of student records policies within Florida public K-12 school districts. The researcher gathered all student records policies for the sixty-seven school districts. In addition, traditional legal research was used involving applicable federal acts, state statutes, case law, as well as legal and educational…

  15. An Evaluation of Public School District Tobacco Policies in St. Louis County, Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbero, Colleen; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Bach, Laura E.; Cyr, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    Background: One way to address tobacco use by youth is for primary and secondary schools to adopt and implement comprehensive tobacco policies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comprehensiveness of tobacco policies in St. Louis County, Missouri public school districts. Methods: We evaluated the strength of tobacco policies from all 23…

  16. How Can We Make the Pain Go Away? Public Policies to Manage Pain at the End of Life

    PubMed Central

    Imhof, Sara; Kaskie, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The continued undertreatment of pain at the end of life is a substantive public health problem that has not been resolved through increased public awareness, the issuance of clinical guidance for providers, or expanded organizational commitments. In this forum, we illuminate the role of public policies in promoting pain management. We review federal and state policies and consider empirical evaluations that compared the quality of state policies and the factors that contributed to their formation. We resolve that any organized interest in improving end-of-life care should begin by focusing on the development and expansion of those state policies that support the provision of evidence-based medicine for reducing the amount of pain an individual experiences at the end of life. Although empirical research is needed to determine which particular aspects of state pain policy are most critical and how these policies can be implemented most effectively, any organized effort that advances state medical board activity or another state policy would appear to be making an important step toward making the pain at the end of life go away. PMID:18728292

  17. Employee Participation, Work Redesign, and New Technology: Implications for Public Policy in the 1990s. Background Paper No. 35A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochan, Thomas; And Others

    The 1980s have been a period during which important private experiments with innovations have occurred in employee participation, work redesign, and the introduction of new technologies and new systems of production. It is now time to move beyond the experimental stage. The following four interrelated policy initiatives should guide public efforts…

  18. Use of ADR in Extension Public Policy Education Programs and Roles Extension Can Play in Dispute Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Leon E.; Garber, Simon K.

    The extension educator in public policy education and alternative dispute resolution (ADR) has many roles from which to choose. These include information provider, technical advisor, convener, facilitator and program developer. The increased importance of issues programming and the increased priority given to measurement of results are creating…

  19. Fostering primary and secondary prevention in public policy for pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, P B; Kutzner, S K

    1989-01-01

    The diverse factors associated with sexuality among adolescents and the specific issues related to contraception in this developmentally diverse group result in complexity in policy formation. The future of an adolescent may be determined solely on the basis of access to supportive physical and emotional services funded by public and private sector monies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present contemporary and social policies regarding pregnant adolescent health care. Suggestions as to how these policies can be translated into public adolescent health models are provided. The strategies will be related to primary and secondary public policy interventions. PMID:10304496

  20. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform. PMID:22069793

  1. Participation of Children with Dyslexia in Compulsory Education: Current Public Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konur, Ozcan

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and placement of children with dyslexia at appropriate schools has been regulated in the UK by a series of laws since 1944. Recent public policy developments such as the introduction of new duties and rights, and the development of law regarding educational negligence have sharpened the public policy debate on the effectiveness of

  2. [Symposium on Public Policy and Educating Handicapped Persons (Racine, Wisconsin, September 10-12, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Studies Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at a symposium on public policy and educating handicapped persons. Included are: (1) "Public Policy and the Special Education Task for the 1980s: Report of the Wingspread Conference" (M. C. Reynolds et al.); (2) "The Emerging System for Educating Handicapped Children" (L. E. Lynn, Jr.); (3) "Effectiveness of…

  3. 32 CFR 643.34 - Policy-Public utilities on installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Public utilities on installations. 643.34... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.34 Policy—Public utilities on installations. (a) Contracting officers... utilities upon installations, as part of the contract for furnishing to the Government electricity,...

  4. Evaluation of Alabama Public School Wellness Policies and State School Mandate Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Alisha B.; Lonis-Shumate, Steven R.; Gropper, Sareen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated wellness policies created by Alabama public school districts and progress made in the implementation of Alabama State Department of Education (ALSDE) school food and nutrition mandates. Methods: Wellness policies from Alabama public school districts were compared to minimum requirements under the Child Nutrition

  5. State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies: For Public Colleges and Universities, 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Allison C.; Carnahan, Julie; L'Orange, Hans P.

    2011-01-01

    This report, "State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies for Public Colleges and Universities: 2010-11", examines the philosophies, policies, and procedures that influence decision-making regarding public college and university tuition, student fees, and student financial aid programs. This report also provides information related to…

  6. State Policy and Postsecondary Education: The Relationship of the Independent and Public Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The relationship between the public and independent sector of higher education in Florida is examined in this conference publication. The problems and issues involved in formulating state policy with respect to postsecondary education in Florida are examined. An overview of policy positions of other states is presented as well as an assessment of…

  7. Computers and Public Policy. Proceedings of the Symposium Man and the Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oden, Teresa, Ed.; Thompson, Christine, Ed.

    Experts from the fields of law, business, government, and research were invited to a symposium sponsored by Dartmouth College to examine public policies which are challenged by the advent of computer technology. Eleven papers were delivered addressing such critical social issues related to computing and public policies as the man-computer…

  8. Evaluation of Alabama Public School Wellness Policies and State School Mandate Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Alisha B.; Lonis-Shumate, Steven R.; Gropper, Sareen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated wellness policies created by Alabama public school districts and progress made in the implementation of Alabama State Department of Education (ALSDE) school food and nutrition mandates. Methods: Wellness policies from Alabama public school districts were compared to minimum requirements under the Child Nutrition…

  9. Community Choices Public Policy Education Program: Exploring the Human Resources/Economic Development Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Bolton, Kenneth, Jr.

    The Community Choices program is designed to engage communities in a systematic assessment of the linkages between their human resource attributes and their economic development opportunities. This document contains seven modules. Modules 1-3 lay the foundation for doing public policy education work by (1) defining public policy education and

  10. Videotex: A Dozen Public Policy Concerns and a Design to Understand Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tydeman, John; And Others

    Noting that the introduction of Videotex into the United States might precipitate significant public policy choices, this paper argues for a systematic assessment of the new technology and presents a methodological framework for dealing with its social impact. It then discusses 12 preliminary public policy concerns: (1) economic barriers to entry,…

  11. 75 FR 1656 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ..., 2009, (74 FR 57525) (ML093030375), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published for public comment... COMMISSION Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Issuance of draft safety culture policy...

  12. Conceptualizing an Agenda for Social Responsibility and Public Policy at Montgomery College. A Briefing Paper. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Michelle T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this briefing paper is to conceptualize a social responsibility and public policy agenda for Montgomery College. The briefing paper provides (a) a well researched perspective to embed a College culture to actualize social responsibility and public policy as institutional practices; (b) examines some of the opportunities and…

  13. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.

  14. [Bacterial biofilms: their importance in animal health and public health].

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Yannick D N; Hathroubi, Skander; Jacques, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymer matrix that is attached to a surface. Biofilms protect and allow bacteria to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Bacteria within biofilms can withstand host immune responses, and are much less susceptible to antibiotics and disinfectants when compared to their planktonic counterparts. The ability to form biofilms is now considered an attribute of many microorganisms. Diseases associated with biofilms require novel methods for their prevention, diagnosis and treatment; this is largely due to the properties of biofilms. Furthermore, the presence of biofilms on surfaces found at farms, slaughterhouses or food processing plants will have an impact on the efficacy of disinfection protocols. Surprisingly, biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens of veterinary or zoonotic importance has received relatively little attention. The objective of this brief Review article is to bring awareness about the importance of biofilms to animal health stakeholders.(Translated by the authors). PMID:24688172

  15. Public health strategies for confronting AIDS. Legislative and regulatory policy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    1989-03-17

    Legislation and regulation can make an important contribution to efforts to confront AIDS by promoting professional standards through reasoned guidelines; by mandating appropriate health care services and public education, particularly in sex education in schools, condom advertising, and outreach programs for drug-dependent people; by funding research; and by safeguarding confidentiality and protecting against discrimination. AIDS-related legislative and regulatory policy across the United States is reported and categorized, and an assessment is made of the likely impact of laws covering treatment and education, protection of the blood supply, screening, reporting, isolation, criminalization of HIV transmission, confidentiality, and discrimination. PMID:2645452

  16. Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time and regained its popularity after Sept 2001 incidence in United States. The present review article describes the history, biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology and potential of B. anthracis as biological weapon. PMID:25610847

  17. Transversal analysis of public policies on user fees exemptions in six West African countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. Methods This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors’ attitudes usually encountered in these policies. Results The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors’ attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a reorganization of practices, service rationing due to lack of reimbursement, and some overcharging or shifting of resources. Conclusions This transversal analysis confirms the need to assign a great deal of importance to the implementation of user fees exemption policies once these decisions have been taken. It also highlights some practices that suggest avenues of future research. PMID:23167598

  18. Regulating private health insurance to serve the public interest: policy issues for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2006-01-01

    Private health insurance plays a large and increasing role around the world. This paper reviews international experiences and shows that private health insurance is significant in countries with widely different income levels and health system structures. It contrasts trends in private health insurance expansion across regions and highlights countries with particularly important experiences of private coverage. It then discusses the regulatory approaches and policies that can structure private health insurance markets in ways that mobilize resources for health care, promote financial risk protection, protect consumers and reduce inequities. The paper argues that policy makers need to confront the role that private health insurance will play in their health systems and regulate the sector appropriately so that it serves public goals of universal coverage and equity. PMID:17175735

  19. Getting Research to the Policy Table: A Qualitative Study With Public Health Researchers on Engaging With Policy Makers

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Siddiqi, Sameer; Quinn, Emilee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little attention has been given to how researchers can best provide evidence to policy makers so that it informs policy making. The objectives of this study were to increase understanding about the current state of public health nutrition and obesity researcher practices, beliefs, barriers, and facilitators to communicating and engaging with policy makers, and to identify best practices and suggest improvements. Methods Eighteen semistructured interviews were conducted from 2011 to 2013 with public health nutrition and obesity researchers who were highly involved in communicating research to policy makers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to identify common themes. Results Study participants described wide variation in practices for communicating and engaging with policy makers and had mixed beliefs about whether and when researchers should engage. Besides a lack of formal policy communication training, barriers noted were promotion and tenure processes and a professional culture that does not value communicating and engaging with policy makers. Study participants cited facilitators to engaging with policy makers as ranging from the individual level (eg, desire to make a difference, relationships with collaborators) to the institutional level (eg, training/mentorship support, institutional recognition). Other facilitators identified were research- and funding-driven. Promising strategies suggested to improve policy engagement were more formal training, better use of intermediaries, and learning how to cultivate relationships with policy makers. Conclusion Study findings provide insights into the challenges that will need to be overcome and the strategies that might be tried to improve communication and engagement between public health researchers and policy makers. PMID:25927604

  20. Publicity as policy: the changing role of press and public relations at the BMA, 1940s-80s.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between policy and publicity or public relations (PR) have been questioned since the emergence of professional public relations in the early-twentieth century. In the field of health and medicine organised PR activity began to flourish in the decades following World War Two. Its presence became evident in government departments, in professional associations, voluntary bodies and campaigning groups. Increasingly, policy decisions had to be publicly performed through rituals like the press conference. This chapter documents the development of press and PR activity at the British Medical Association (BMA) from the 1950s to the 1980s. The BMA provides a well-documented case, which can be used to suggest broader shifts in the association between policy and publicity. PMID:16212734

  1. A Personal Perspective on the Public Policy Implications of the Charney Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomerance, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Charney report was more than a scientific report. It was part of a process that led to making the greenhouse effect into a public policy issue. It is not well understood how a series of reports (the most important of which was the Charney report) led ultimately to the establishment of the IPCC a decade later. One geophysicist who played a key role was Dr. Gordon MacDonald who chaired the JASON study on radiative forcing in 1978-9. (The Long Term Impact of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide on Climate (SRI International, Technical Report JSR-78-07, April 1979)) Dr. MacDonald briefed numerous policy makers as a result of the JASON report which in turn helped to stimulate significant reports by the NAS (The Charney Report,1979), the Council on Environmental Quality and the Environmental Protection Agency. These reports in turn ultimately led to a series of Congressional hearings during the 1980’s that turned climate change into a public policy issue. It was the key conclusions on the Charney report which ultimately provided the Congress and the world a basis on which to begin to develop a response to the climate issue. I had the privilege of working with Dr. MacDonald through this process and will provide a personal perspective.

  2. Smoke-Free Public Policies and Voluntary Policies in Personal Settings in Tbilisi, Georgia: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Smith, Samantha A; Bascombe, Ta Misha; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Topuridze, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Georgia has limited tobacco control policies, particularly in the area of smoke-free public policies, which may influence the adoption of smoke-free home rules. We qualitatively examined knowledge about and reactions to public and personal smoke-free policies among Tbilisi residents. In Spring 2014, we conducted six focus groups among 47 total participants-two among male smokers, one among male nonsmokers, two among female smokers, and one among female nonsmokers. Our sample was 48.9% male and 70.2% past 30-day smokers. Most believed that SHS was dangerous, with particular concern regarding the impact of SHS on children and pregnant women. Many had misconceptions about how to protect others from SHS and the effectiveness of some approaches. Many indicated that they had some type of home rules, but few reported a complete ban on smoking in the home. Even when some restrictions were in place, they rarely were effective or enforced. Common concerns about the partial smoke-free public policy in Georgia included its economic impact, perceived discrimination among smokers, and the policy being against the Georgian culture. These concerns were heightened when participants were asked about the possible implementation of a complete smoke-free policy. Educational programs are needed to promote smoke-free policies in Georgia. PMID:26821035

  3. Smoke-Free Public Policies and Voluntary Policies in Personal Settings in Tbilisi, Georgia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Smith, Samantha A.; Bascombe, Ta Misha; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Topuridze, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Georgia has limited tobacco control policies, particularly in the area of smoke-free public policies, which may influence the adoption of smoke-free home rules. We qualitatively examined knowledge about and reactions to public and personal smoke-free policies among Tbilisi residents. In Spring 2014, we conducted six focus groups among 47 total participants—two among male smokers, one among male nonsmokers, two among female smokers, and one among female nonsmokers. Our sample was 48.9% male and 70.2% past 30-day smokers. Most believed that SHS was dangerous, with particular concern regarding the impact of SHS on children and pregnant women. Many had misconceptions about how to protect others from SHS and the effectiveness of some approaches. Many indicated that they had some type of home rules, but few reported a complete ban on smoking in the home. Even when some restrictions were in place, they rarely were effective or enforced. Common concerns about the partial smoke-free public policy in Georgia included its economic impact, perceived discrimination among smokers, and the policy being against the Georgian culture. These concerns were heightened when participants were asked about the possible implementation of a complete smoke-free policy. Educational programs are needed to promote smoke-free policies in Georgia. PMID:26821035

  4. Social Impact Management Plans: Innovation in corporate and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, Daniel M.; Vanclay, Frank

    2013-11-15

    Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has traditionally been practiced as a predictive study for the regulatory approval of major projects, however, in recent years the drivers and domain of focus for SIA have shifted. This paper details the emergence of Social Impact Management Plans (SIMPs) and undertakes an analysis of innovations in corporate and public policy that have put in place ongoing processes – assessment, management and monitoring – to better identify the nature and scope of the social impacts that might occur during implementation and to proactively respond to change across the lifecycle of developments. Four leading practice examples are analyzed. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards require the preparation of Environmental and Social Management Plans for all projects financed by the IFC identified as having significant environmental and social risks. Anglo American, a major resources company, has introduced a Socio-Economic Assessment Toolbox, which requires mine sites to undertake regular assessments and link these assessments with their internal management systems, monitoring activities and a Social Management Plan. In South Africa, Social and Labour Plans are submitted with an application for a mining or production right. In Queensland, Australia, Social Impact Management Plans were developed as part of an Environmental Impact Statement, which included assessment of social impacts. Collectively these initiatives, and others, are a practical realization of theoretical conceptions of SIA that include management and monitoring as core components of SIA. The paper concludes with an analysis of the implications for the practice of impact assessment including a summary of key criteria for the design and implementation of effective SIMPs. -- Highlights: • Social impact management plans are effective strategies to manage social issues. • They are developed in partnership with regulatory agencies, investors and community. • SIMPs link assessment to ongoing management and address social and community issues. • SIMPs clarify responsibilities in the management of impacts, opportunities and risks. • SIMPs demonstrate a shift to include management as a core component of SIA practice.

  5. Conceptualizing the use of public involvement in health policy decision-making.

    PubMed

    Li, Kathy K; Abelson, Julia; Giacomini, Mita; Contandriopoulos, Damien

    2015-08-01

    The concept of public involvement use is not well-defined in the literature. Previous research studies have provided brief accounts of how public involvement may influence health policy, but have not detailed the internal dynamics and process through which it is actually used in the policy process. The study objective is to examine and clarify the concept and process of public involvement use in health policy decision-making. Using qualitative concept analysis methods, we reviewed the literature on the use of public involvement and conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants who have theoretical and/or practical insights on public involvement and its use in policy decision-making. Our findings are organized around interrelated questions that animate how the concept of use is understood, interpreted, and operationalized. In asking, "How is 'use' perceived in relation to health policy decision-making?" meanings are constructed for the concept by identifying differences and drawing connections between "use" and related terms. In asking "How would one know if public involvement was used in health policy decision-making?" our findings weigh in on the act of listening as a precursor to use, the ways in which use is mediated, and responses to the input obtained from public involvement processes as signals of use. These findings are a first step toward improving conceptual clarity about what public involvement use means, how it is understood and interpreted by relevant actors in the public involvement and public policy fields, and how it might be operationalized. We expect our findings to be particularly useful for public involvement practitioners who are often confronted with questions from public involvement participants regarding how their input will be used in health policy decision-making. PMID:26043073

  6. Virology Experts in the Boundary Zone Between Science, Policy and the Public: A Biographical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to open up the biographical black box of three experts working in the boundary zone between science, policy and public debate. A biographical-narrative approach is used to analyse the roles played by the virologists Albert Osterhaus, Roel Coutinho and Jaap Goudsmit in policy and public debate. These figures were among the few leading virologists visibly active in the Netherlands during the revival of infectious diseases in the 1980s. Osterhaus and Coutinho in particular are still the key figures today, as demonstrated during the outbreak of novel influenza A (H1N1). This article studies the various political and communicative challenges and dilemmas encountered by these three virologists, and discusses the way in which, strategically or not, they handled those challenges and dilemmas during the various stages of the field’s recent history. Important in this respect is their pursuit of a public role that is both effective and credible. We will conclude with a reflection on the H1N1 pandemic, and the historical and biographical ties between emerging governance arrangements and the experts involved in the development of such arrangements. PMID:20676213

  7. Sustainable America: New public policy for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, B.A.; Shapiro, J.; O`Connor, J.T.; Inerfeld, R.; Weltman, E.

    1995-12-31

    This report provides a comprehensive review of initiatives for promoting sustainable development. It examines various ways in which job retention and creation can be promoted through initiatives that reduce or eliminate environmental burdens and increase or enhance environmental benefits. It lays out a framework for thinking about the ways in which public- and private-sector decisions may contribute to or detract from sustainable development goals. Chapter One provides a view of the contemporary context within which have emerged domestic demands for sustainable development. Chapter Two and Three examine the degrees to which environmental technologies provide important opportunities for economic growth, job retention, and economically distressed communities. The review of dozens of sustainability initiatives around the country in Chapter Four reveals the degree to which diverse sectors of the economy are involved in pursuing more sustainable modes of economic development. Often these initiatives involve partnerships between the private, public, and nonprofit sectors. Initiatives are underway throughout the country that involve manufacturing products, promoting economic development, improving land use and strengthening communities, developing human resources, changing consumption, and redirecting investments.

  8. [Fiscal policy and tobacco control: a unique opportunity to benefit public health and the public treasury].

    PubMed

    Armendares, Pedro Enrique; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Various studies and analyses show that an increase in tobacco prices through taxation is one of the most efficient tools in the application of integral policies in the fight against tobacco. Increases in taxes contribute to cessation, to reductions in consumption and in the number of deaths among addicts and to decrease the number of people who start to smoke. However, many governments hesitate to apply high taxes to tobacco for fear of possible negative economic results including loss of jobs and a decrease in fiscal revenue as a consequence of smuggling. Both literature and empirical experience indicate that these negative consequences do not occur or have been overestimated, often due to arguments promoted by the tobacco industry itself. Increases in tobacco taxes result in greater fiscal income, even in the presence of smuggling, which can be confronted without eroding tobacco control policies. Numerous countries, including Mexico, still have a wide margin for increasing tobacco taxes, and thereby to take advantage of an exceptional opportunity that benefits both the population's health and the public treasury. To do so, governments must stand up to the powerful tobacco industry, which is aware of the efficiency of taxes to combat tobacco use and therefore resorts to intense ad campaigns, political lobbying and negotiation of voluntary agreements for "self-regulation" in order to avoid stricter legislative or fiscal measures. PMID:17684679

  9. Privatizing Educational Choice: Consequences for Parents, Schools, and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Levin, Henry M.

    2005-01-01

    Controversies over the merits of public and private education have never been more prominent than today. This book evaluates public and private schooling, especially in regard to choices families must make for their children. While choice among public schools is widely advocated today by families and states, public support for private…

  10. Obesity, health at every size, and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Bombak, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic diseases that may negatively affect individuals' health and the sustainability of the health care system. Despite increasing emphasis on obesity as a major health care issue, little progress has been made in its treatment or prevention. Individual approaches to obesity treatment, largely composed of weight-loss dieting, have not proven effective. Little direct evidence supports the notion of reforms to the "obesogenic environment." Both these individualistic and environmental approaches to obesity have important limitations and ethical implications. The low levels of success associated with these approaches may necessitate a new non-weight-centric public health strategy. Evidence is accumulating that a weight-neutral, nutrition- and physical activity-based, Health at Every Size (HAES) approach may be a promising chronic disease-prevention strategy. PMID:24328657

  11. Obesity, Health at Every Size, and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic diseases that may negatively affect individuals’ health and the sustainability of the health care system. Despite increasing emphasis on obesity as a major health care issue, little progress has been made in its treatment or prevention. Individual approaches to obesity treatment, largely composed of weight-loss dieting, have not proven effective. Little direct evidence supports the notion of reforms to the “obesogenic environment.” Both these individualistic and environmental approaches to obesity have important limitations and ethical implications. The low levels of success associated with these approaches may necessitate a new non–weight-centric public health strategy. Evidence is accumulating that a weight-neutral, nutrition- and physical activity–based, Health at Every Size (HAES) approach may be a promising chronic disease-prevention strategy. PMID:24328657

  12. [Occupational health policies through the prism of sociology and public action].

    PubMed

    Henry, Emmanuel; Jouzel, Jean-Noël

    2008-01-01

    The article attempts to show how sociological approaches to public policy can be useful to understand the political specificity of the field of occupational health in France, although they remain rare on that question. They help us to understand how this field is structured through established compromises between interested parties including administrations, employers and employees' representatives, and how these compromises contribute to the relative public invisibility of occupational diseases. They also make it possible to see how these compromises are weakened by a series of contemporary evolutions: diversification of the employees' political and decision-making representation, increasing importance of the victims and of litigation arising from conflicts over these issues. Finally, they help us to describe the way this field resists these changes. PMID:18773842

  13. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.

    PubMed

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

  14. Obesity Metaphors: How Beliefs about the Causes of Obesity Affect Support for Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Colleen L; Brescoll, Victoria L; Brownell, Kelly D; Schlesinger, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Context: Relatively little is known about the factors shaping public attitudes toward obesity as a policy concern. This study examines whether individuals' beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for policies aimed at stemming obesity rates. This article identifies a unique role of metaphor-based beliefs, as distinct from conventional political attitudes, in explaining support for obesity policies. Methods: This article used the Yale Rudd Center Public Opinion on Obesity Survey, a nationally representative web sample surveyed from the Knowledge Networks panel in 2006/07 (N = 1,009). The study examines how respondents' demographic and health characteristics, political attitudes, and agreement with seven obesity metaphors affect support for sixteen policies to reduce obesity rates. Findings: Including obesity metaphors in regression models helps explain public support for policies to curb obesity beyond levels attributable solely to demographic, health, and political characteristics. The metaphors that people use to understand rising obesity rates are strong predictors of support for public policy, and their influence varies across different types of policy interventions. Conclusions: Over the last five years, the United States has begun to grapple with the implications of dramatically escalating rates of obesity. Individuals use metaphors to better understand increasing rates of obesity, and obesity metaphors are independent and powerful predictors of support for public policies to curb obesity. Metaphorical reasoning also offers a potential framework for using strategic issue framing to shift support for obesity policies. PMID:19298414

  15. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy. PMID:21624915

  16. Spotlight on the Family: Public Policy and Private Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Jewish Committee, New York, NY.

    As a result of 18 months of deliberation on family policy issues pertaining to young children, the American Jewish Committee's Task Force on Family Policy put together this booklet. After an introductory foreword by E. Robert Goodkind, a paper by Steven Bayme, called "Current Debates and Challenges," outlines the range of issues underlying family

  17. Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

  18. A Research Strategy for Analyzing the Impacts of Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas J.; Scioli, Frank P., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Presents a research strategy for measuring policy impacts based on the principles of experimental design methodology. The strategy is illustrated through the application of a multivariate factorial design to the area of air pollution control. The overall approach is discussed in terms of its general utility for policy impact analysis. (Author)

  19. Policies for America's Public Schools: Teachers, Equity, and Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Ron, Ed.; MacRae, Duncan, Ed.

    This book focuses on the education commission and its policy recommendations and provides an evaluation of policies on teachers and teaching, equity, and uses of educational testing to assess the effects of reform. The volume examines both equity and excellence in American education. After an introductory chapter providing an overview of the…

  20. A Study of Health Policies in Public School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasch, Henry A.

    This study was undertaken to identify, classify, and interpret extant written school health policies. Furthermore, it was planned to ascertain whether schools were using standardized forms or systematic procedures to formulate school health policies. Administrators in school districts representing every geographical area of the U.S. were asked to…

  1. A Public Policy Perspective on English Medium Instruction in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; Alsagoff, Lubna

    2010-01-01

    Language education for ethnic majority and minority students alike has recently received much policy attention in the People's Republic of China. An outcome of this policy attention is the Chinese-English bilingual education initiative which turns on the use of English as a medium of instruction for Han majority students at the primary and…

  2. Research Issues in Information and Public Policy. Occasional Paper 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Thomas J.

    This paper addresses the very timely issue of national information policy, particularly in view of the pending second White House Conference on Libraries and Information Services in July 1991. Information policy is examined from economic, political, and social points of view and the national government is urged to address the challenging task of…

  3. Drug Policy and the Public Good: a summary of the book.

    PubMed

    2010-07-01

    Drug Policy and the Public Good was written by an international group of scientists from the fields of addiction, public health, criminology and policy studies to improve the linkages between drug research and drug policy. The book provides a conceptual basis for evidence-informed drug policy and describes epidemiological data on the global dimensions of drug misuse. The core of the book is a critical review of the cumulative scientific evidence in five general areas of drug policy: primary prevention programmes in schools and other settings; health and social services for drug users; attempts to control the supply of drugs, including the international treaty system; law enforcement and ventures into decriminalization; and control of the psychotropic substance market through prescription drug regimes. The final chapters discuss the current state of drug policies in different parts of the world and describe the need for future approaches to drug policy that are coordinated and informed by evidence. PMID:20642498

  4. Do health policy advisors know what the public wants? An empirical comparison of how health policy advisors assess public preferences regarding smoke-free air, and what the public actually prefers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health policy-making, a complex, multi-factorial process, requires balancing conflicting values. A salient issue is public support for policies; however, one reason for limited impact of public opinion may be misperceptions of policy makers regarding public opinion. For example, empirical research is scarce on perceptions of policy makers regarding public opinion on smoke-free public spaces. Methods Public desire for smoke-free air was compared with health policy advisor (HPA) perception of these desires. Two representative studies were conducted: one with the public (N = 505), and the other with a representative sample of members of Israel’s health-targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020 (N = 34), in December 2010. Corresponding questions regarding desire for smoke-free areas were asked. Possible smoke-free areas included: 100% smoke-free bars and pubs; entrances to health facilities; railway platforms; cars with children; college campuses; outdoor areas (e.g., pools and beaches); and common areas of multi-dweller apartment buildings. A 1–7 Likert scale was used for each measure, and responses were averaged into a single primary outcome, DESIRE. Our primary endpoint was the comparison between public preferences and HPA assessment of those preferences. In a secondary analysis, we compared personal preferences of the public with personal preferences of the HPAs for smoke-free air. Results HPAs underestimated public desire for smoke-free air (Public: Mean: 5.06, 95% CI:[4.94, 5.17]; HPA: Mean: 4.06, 95% CI:[3.61, 4.52]: p < .0001). Differences at the p = .05 level were found between HPA assessment and public preference for the following areas: 100% smoke-free bars and pubs; entrances to healthcare facilities; train platforms; cars carrying children; and common areas of multi-dweller apartment buildings. In our secondary comparison, HPAs more strongly preferred smoke-free areas than did the public (p < .0001). Conclusions Health policy advisors underestimate public desire for smoke-free air. Better grasp of public opinion by policy makers may lead to stronger legislation. Monitoring policy-maker assessment of public opinion may shed light on incongruities between policy making and public opinion. Further, awareness of policy-maker misperceptions may encourage policy-makers to demand more accurate information before making policy. PMID:23692687

  5. The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools. PMID:22733712

  6. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes. PMID:26486215

  7. Anti-Harassment Policies in Public Schools: How Vulnerable Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes recent federal court decision striking down school anti-harassment policy on First Amendment grounds. Discusses freedom of expression rights in public setting as compared to public-school context. Argues decision incorrectly relies on law developed outside public-school context, unjustifiably finds violation of First Amendment, and may…

  8. 44 CFR 5.20 - Publication of rules and general policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Publication of or Availability of General Agency Information, Rules, Orders, Policies, and Similar Material § 5.20 Publication of... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of rules...

  9. Public Science and Participatory Policy Development: Reclaiming Policy as a Democratic Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle; Ayala, Jennifer; Zaal, Mayida

    2012-01-01

    People witness today in the US what might be considered a "generous hijacking" of educational policy. Policy debates on charters, vouchers, for profit schools, testing and evaluation companies, and "education reform" reveal a triple privatization of educational policy. Varied enactments of educational privatization dot the globe, linked in a…

  10. Workforce Designs: A Policy Blueprint for State Early Childhood Professional Development Systems. NAEYC Public Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMoine, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This blueprint focuses on the policies that connect professional development activities and that support and make possible an effective implementation of a state system of professional development. It highlights policy principles and essential policy areas that build or sustain an integrated system--a system that ensures quality in all settings in…

  11. Application of Catastrophe Risk Modelling to Evacuation Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2009-04-01

    The decision by civic authorities to evacuate an area threatened by a natural hazard is especially fraught when the population in harm's way is extremely large, and where there is considerable uncertainty in the spatial footprint, scale, and strike time of a hazard event. Traditionally viewed as a hazard forecasting issue, civil authorities turn to scientists for advice on a potentially imminent dangerous event. However, the level of scientific confidence varies enormously from one peril and crisis situation to another. With superior observational data, meteorological and hydrological hazards are generally better forecast than geological hazards. But even with Atlantic hurricanes, the track and intensity of a hurricane can change significantly within a few hours. This complicated and delayed the decision to call an evacuation of New Orleans when threatened by Hurricane Katrina, and would present a severe dilemma if a major hurricane were appearing to head for New York. Evacuation needs to be perceived as a risk issue, requiring the expertise of catastrophe risk modellers as well as geoscientists. Faced with evidence of a great earthquake in the Indian Ocean in December 2004, seismologists were reluctant to give a tsunami warning without more direct sea observations. Yet, from a risk perspective, the risk to coastal populations would have warranted attempts at tsunami warning, even though there was significant uncertainty in the hazard forecast, and chance of a false alarm. A systematic coherent risk-based framework for evacuation decision-making exists, which weighs the advantages of an evacuation call against the disadvantages. Implicitly and qualitatively, such a cost-benefit analysis is undertaken by civic authorities whenever an evacuation is considered. With the progress in catastrophe risk modelling, such an analysis can be made explicit and quantitative, providing a transparent audit trail for the decision process. A stochastic event set, the core of a catastrophe risk model, is required to explore the casualty implications of different possible hazard scenarios, to assess the proportion of an evacuated population who would owe their lives to an evacuation, and to estimate the economic loss associated with an unnecessary evacuation. This paper will review the developing methodology for applying catastrophe risk modelling to support public policy in evacuation decision-making, and provide illustrations from across the range of natural hazards. Evacuation during volcanic crises is a prime example, recognizing the improving forecasting skill of volcanologists, now able to account probabilistically for precursory seismological, geodetic, and geochemical monitoring data. This methodology will be shown to help civic authorities make sounder risk-informed decisions on the timing and population segmentation of evacuation from both volcanoes and calderas, such as Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, which are in densely populated urban regions.

  12. Science Under Attack! Public Policy, Science Education and the Emperor's New Clothes

    SciTech Connect

    Krass, Lawrence

    2005-12-05

    The popular debate about the teaching of intelligent design in public schools is but one quandary for scientists and policy makers. Given recent developments which have worked to breed a general distrust of science, it is evident that researchers and politicians alike should be wary of using popular opinion as a guide for policy and pedagogy when it comes to science in public education. Dr. Krauss will qualify this complex issue and will address how educators, policy makers and scientists can work effectively to prevent public misconceptions of science.

  13. Science Under Attack! Public Policy, Science Education, and the Emperor's New Clothes

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2005-12-05

    The popular debate about the teaching of intelligent design in public schools is but one quandary for scientists and policy makers. Given recent developments which have worked to breed a general distrust of science, it is evident that researchers and politicians alike should be wary of using popular opinion as a guide for policy and pedagogy when it comes to science in public education. Dr. Krauss will qualify this complex issue and will address how educators, policy makers and scientists can work effectively to prevent public misconceptions of science.

  14. Equity in public health standards: a qualitative document analysis of policies from two Canadian provinces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Promoting health equity is a key goal of many public health systems. However, little is known about how equity is conceptualized in such systems, particularly as standards of public health practice are established. As part of a larger study examining the renewal of public health in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and British Columbia (BC), we undertook an analysis of relevant public health documents related to equity. The aim of this paper is to discuss how equity is considered within documents that outline standards for public health. Methods A research team consisting of policymakers and academics identified key documents related to the public health renewal process in each province. The documents were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to identify key themes related to the conceptualization and integration of health equity as part of public health renewal in Ontario and BC. Documents were coded inductively with higher levels of abstraction achieved through multiple readings. Sets of questions were developed to guide the analysis throughout the process. Results In both sets of provincial documents health inequities were defined in a similar fashion, as the consequence of unfair or unjust structural conditions. Reducing health inequities was an explicit goal of the public health renewal process. In Ontario, addressing priority populations was used as a proxy term for health equity and the focus was on existing programs. In BC, the incorporation of an equity lens enhanced the identification of health inequities, with a particular emphasis on the social determinants of health. In both, priority was given to reducing barriers to public health services and to forming partnerships with other sectors to reduce health inequities. Limits to the accountability of public health to reduce health inequities were identified in both provinces. Conclusion This study contributes to understanding how health equity is conceptualized and incorporated into standards for local public health. As reflected in their policies, both provinces have embraced the importance of reducing health inequities. Both concepualized this process as rooted in structural injustices and the social determinants of health. Differences in the conceptualization of health equity likely reflect contextual influences on the public health renewal processes in each jurisdiction. PMID:22632097

  15. State Policy Snapshot: School District Facilities and Public Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simnick, Russ

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to the health of the public charter school movement is access to adequate facilities in which the schools operate. Public charter school facilities are rarely funded on par with school district facilities. Over the years, more states have come to realize that they have an obligation to ensure that all public school…

  16. The Public Television Library Policies and Procedures Manual 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Television Library, Washington, DC.

    The Public Television Library (PTL), an integral part of the services provided by the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), provides a national centralized storage and retrieval system for Public Television (PTV) programing distinct from the real time program offerings of the PBS interconnected network, and offers an opportunity for varied sources to…

  17. Care of the ventilator-dependent patient: public policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, M E

    1986-04-01

    Because traditional cost-based reimbursement for acute hospital care has been replaced by the DRG system and other limited-payment approaches, hospital managers are seeking more cost-effective provision of care. This has shortened patient-stay periods in hospitals and increased demand for such alternatives as nursing home and private home care for chronically ill persons, including those dependent on ventilators. At the same time that hospitals seek to discharge patients earlier, patients themselves would prefer to remain in hospitals for long-term care because adequate financial coverage is not available to most of them for alternative-site care. In this setting of conflict between the financial policies of hospitals and those of Medicare and private insurance carriers, it is important to keep quality of care, not financial considerations, as the first consideration when a facility is chosen for long-term care. But the long-term patient, including the patient requiring ventilator support, is caught in the web of competing financial incentives and the fact that there is no consensus on how such care should be organized, delivered, or paid for. The only significant source of funding for long-term nursing home care is Medicaid, which requires the patient to give up his personal assets, including his home; this makes it nearly certain that he will always remain institutionalized. Private insurance carriers have not yet come to terms with the idea that long-term ventilator care can be made less expensive at sites other than hospitals--and thus many patients have no satisfactory answer to the problem of where to receive such care or how it can be financed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10315693

  18. Integrating natural and social sciences to inspire public confidence in radioactive waste policy case study - Committee on radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, Sam

    2007-07-01

    Integrating Natural and Social Sciences to Inspire Public Confidence in Radioactive Waste Policy Case Study: Committee on Radioactive Waste Management Implementing effective long-term radioactive waste management policy is challenging, and both UK and international experience is littered with policy and programme failures. Policy must not only be underpinned by sound science and technical rationale, it must also inspire the confidence of the public and other stakeholders. However, in today's modern society, communities will not simply accept the word of scientists for setting policy based purely on technical grounds. This is particularly so in areas where there are significant social and ethical issues, such as radioactive waste disposal. To develop and implement effective policy, governments, waste owners and implementing bodies must develop processes which effectively integrate both complex technical and scientific issues, with equally challenging social and ethical concerns. These integrating processes must marry often intricate technical issues with broad public and stakeholder engagement programmes, in programmes which can expect the highest levels of public scrutiny, and must invariably be delivered within challenging time and budget constraints. This paper considers a model for how such integrating processes can be delivered. The paper reviews, as a case study, how such challenges were overcome by the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), which, in July 2006, made recommendations to the UK government for the establishment of a long-term radioactive waste policy. Its recommendations were underpinned by sound science, but also engendered public confidence through undertaking the largest and most significant deliberative public and stakeholder engagement programme on a complex policy issue in the UK. Effective decision-making was enabled through the integration of both proven and bespoke methodologies, including Multi-criteria Decision Analysis and Holistic assessments, coupled with an overarching deliberative approach. How this was managed and delivered to programme demonstrates how important effective integration of different issues, interests and world views can be achieved, and the paper looks forward to how the continued integration of both natural and social sciences is essential if public confidence is to be maintained through implementation stages. This paper will be particularly relevant to governments, waste owners and implementing bodies who are responsible for developing and implementing policy. (author)

  19. Post-war smoking policy in the UK and the redefinition of public health.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Virginia

    2003-01-01

    Current analyses of UK smoking policy within two frameworks--the 'heroes and villains' view of journalist accounts and a political science emphasis on rival 'producer' and 'issue' networks in policy making. It is often assumed that the US experience provides a universal historical model. This paper sees smoking policy in the UK as a case study in the relationship between 'scientific fact creation' and policy, which has also been emblematic of wider changes in public health ideology. The issue of smoking and lung cancer symbolized the post-war shift from infectious to chronic disease and the rise of a new 'lifestyle'-oriented public health. In the 1980s passive smoking brought a revival of environmentalism; in the 1990s the rediscovered concept of addiction symbolized developments in public health in which curative and preventive initiatives were entwined. Despite the rise of a militant 'healthism' within both anti-smoking and public health since the 1970s, British policy retained a dual focus, an emphasis on risk reduction as well as risk elimination in which policy networks were entwined rather than distinct. Some public health scientists worked in policy milieux, notably the expert committee, which crossed this apparent divide and which linked with industry. Connections between government and industry changed as public health 'treatment' brought the pharmaceutical industry into the picture. PMID:12688300

  20. Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    Farber, Harold J; Nelson, Kevin E; Groner, Judith A; Walley, Susan C

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use and tobacco smoke exposure are among the most important health threats to children, adolescents, and adults. There is no safe level of tobacco smoke exposure. The developing brains of children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the development of tobacco and nicotine dependence. Tobacco is unique among consumer products in that it causes disease and death when used exactly as intended. Tobacco continues to be heavily promoted to children and young adults. Flavored and alternative tobacco products, including little cigars, chewing tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems are gaining popularity among youth. This statement describes important evidence-based public policy actions that, when implemented, will reduce tobacco product use and tobacco smoke exposure among youth and, by doing so, improve the health of children and young adults. PMID:26504133

  1. Against the Very Idea of the Politicization of Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    I criticize the concern over the politicization of public health policy as a justification for preferring a narrow to a broad model of public health. My critique proceeds along 2 lines. First, the fact that administrative structures and actors are primary sources of public health policy demonstrates its inescapably political and politicized nature. Second, historical evidence shows that public health in Great Britain and the United States has from its very inception been political and politicized. I conclude by noting legitimate ethical concerns regarding the political nature of public health policy and argue that open deliberation in a democratic social order is best served by acknowledging the constraints of the inescapably politicized process of public health policymaking. PMID:22095345

  2. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:24381084

  3. Paradigms and public policies on drought in northeast Brazil: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Campos, José Nilson B

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the evolution of drought-related public policies in Northeast Brazil (NEB). Using a historical approach, we show that the evolution of public policy has not been characterized by abrupt shifts, but has instead been shaped through debates between renowned intellectuals. The resulting public policies formed a hydrological infrastructure that delivers clean water needed for robust economic activity. However, outcomes of the 2012-2013 drought show that populations that depend on rain fed agriculture are as vulnerable to drought as they were at the start of the 20th century. Although government, social, and emergency programs have aided drought victims, drought analysts agree that rain fed agriculture has remained vulnerable since drought policies were first formulated. Drought policies formulate integrated water resources management (IWRM) strategies that are geared toward supplying safe drinking water, and debates surrounding the IWRM paradigm have been affected by outcomes of major international events such as the World Water Forum. PMID:25604214

  4. Paradigms and Public Policies on Drought in Northeast Brazil: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, José Nilson B.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the evolution of drought-related public policies in Northeast Brazil (NEB). Using a historical approach, we show that the evolution of public policy has not been characterized by abrupt shifts, but has instead been shaped through debates between renowned intellectuals. The resulting public policies formed a hydrological infrastructure that delivers clean water needed for robust economic activity. However, outcomes of the 2012-2013 drought show that populations that depend on rain fed agriculture are as vulnerable to drought as they were at the start of the 20th century. Although government, social, and emergency programs have aided drought victims, drought analysts agree that rain fed agriculture has remained vulnerable since drought policies were first formulated. Drought policies formulate integrated water resources management (IWRM) strategies that are geared toward supplying safe drinking water, and debates surrounding the IWRM paradigm have been affected by outcomes of major international events such as the World Water Forum.

  5. Issues of public policy in the USA raised by amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Etzioni, A

    1976-03-01

    Amniocentesis, a procedure which can detect during pregnancy whether or not the fetus will develop into a mongol or one affected by other serious chromosomal defects, if given to all pregnant women aged 40 and over, would save both human suffering and economic loss to the community. The procedure is not at present widely used for various reasons, not all of them medical, and, if the test result is positive abortion is the remedy. The author describes an important clinical trial being conducted in the USA at the present time but suggests that an educational programme should be undertaken to inform the public of the existence of this procedure and its applications even before the results of the American large-scale trial can be known and evaluated. Amniocentesis and its use, Professor Etzioni concludes, is not the only genetic tool which should be reviewed in a manner which would give an overall picture. He compares those who are concerned with these matters to the citizens of Britain when they saw the first steam engine. They did not perceive the social changes--the industrial revolution--that would follow. In our time a 'genetic revolution' may not be long delayed. PMID:822165

  6. Dollars, lobbying, and secrecy: how campaign contributions and lobbying affect public policy.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Whitney North; Seymour, Gabriel North

    2013-01-01

    Public policy is too often determined not by the merits of the case but, rather, by individuals, corporations, and even countries who buy influence and alter public policy for the benefit of only a few. As a wrap-up for this conference on "Corporate Interference with Science and Health: Fracking, Food and Wireless," it is our intent to provide a personal story of how money can buy favors and determine policies that are often counter to the public interest and can even lead to failure to protect the health of the public. Given our background in law specific to the US, the basis of our evidence comes from legal rulings as well as legislative actions that have had an impact on policies in the US. While the specifics of governments vary, related activities surrounding money, lobbying, who knows who, and how decisions are made in secret to benefit a few are events that occur everywhere. PMID:24413211

  7. NUDGING FOR HEALTH: ON PUBLIC POLICY AND DESIGNING CHOICE ARCHITECTURE

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    There have been recent policy moves aimed at encouraging individuals to lead healthier lives. The Cabinet Office has set up a ‘nudge unit’ with health as one of its priorities and behavioural approaches have started to be integrated into health-related domestic policy in a number of areas. Behavioural research has shown that that the way the environment is constructed can shape a person's choices within it. Thus, it is hoped that, by using insights from such research, people can be nudged towards making decisions which are better for their health. This article outlines how nudges can be conceived of as part of an expanding arsenal of health-affecting regulatory tools being used by the Government and addresses some concerns which have been expressed regarding behavioural research-driven regulation and policy. In particular, it makes the case that, regardless of new regulatory and policy strategies, we cannot escape the myriad of influences which surround us. As such, we can view our health-affecting decisions as already being in some sense shaped and constructed. Further, it argues we may in fact have reason to prefer sets of health-affecting options which have been intentionally designed by the state, rather than those that stem from other sources or result from random processes. Even so, in closing, this article draws attention to the largely unanswered questions about how behavioural research translates into policy and regulatory initiatives. PMID:24081425

  8. Integrating Psychotherapy Research with Public Health and Public Policy Goals for Incarcerated Women and other Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I review my research applying interpersonal treatments and interpersonal principles from psychotherapy for major depression and substance use to broader public health goals for incarcerated women and other vulnerable populations. A public health focus has led me to expand the boundaries of psychotherapy research to include partners such as prisons, parole officers, and bachelor's level providers; behaviors like risky sex; service delivery challenges; and ultimately to research with an eye toward informing policy and advocacy. A public health perspective provides context and rationale for conducting sound psychotherapy research; the combination of public health and psychotherapy-specific perspectives can lead to novel research. PMID:24188727

  9. Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratge, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence

  10. Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratge, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…

  11. Use of the Means/Ends Test to Evaluate Public School Dress-Code Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.; Studak, Cathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain how a means/ends test can be adapted for the school environment. Public school officials can use a means/ends test to document an analysis of whether dress-code policies will be effective in diminishing risks to the health, safety, or morality of the school population. Elements of policy evaluation--ends,…

  12. Black Americans and Public Policy: Perspectives of the National Urban League.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Urban League, Inc., New York, NY.

    This collection of six commentaries represents the National Urban League's perspective on public policies needed to promote the interests of black Americans. Each commentary focuses on the present condition of blacks, details the impact of recent policy intiatives, and delineate's the League's proposals for improvement. "Black Americans and Public…

  13. Examining Charter School Policy and Public School District Resource Allocation in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linick, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This project focuses on the competitive pressure, or the threat of competitive pressure, generated by charter school policy. This paper uses longitudinal district-level data and multiple quasi-experimental designs to examine the relationship between two Ohio charter school policies and changes in public school district instructional resource…

  14. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 8, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Jason, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "From No Child Left Behind to Every Child a Graduate": New Alliance Report Outlines Policy Framework for Improving America's…

  15. Teacher Quality Roadmap: Improving Policies and Practices in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In partnership with the Urban League of Greater Miami, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) released "Teacher Quality Roadmap: Improving Policies and Practices in Miami," an in-depth study of the work rules Miami-Dade teachers. This look at the state of teacher policies in Miami-Dade County Public Schools explores the district's contract…

  16. The Public Controversy Over the Panama Canal Treaties: An Analysis of American Foreign Policy Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties. Examines three foreign policy dramas that emerged: Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics. Argues that these dramas provide insight into how foreign policy rhetoric reflects Americans' conceptions of themselves and their global responsibility. (JD)

  17. Career Development and Public Policy: The Role of Values, Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.

    Career development specialists have not usually participated in public policy about work and workers. This paper examines how, as a community of technical experts, they can encourage policymakers to use values, theory, and research findings to assess the impact of current practices and to generate new policies. Career development specialists can…

  18. Analysis of Public Policies for Sexuality Education in Germany and The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronowitz, Teri; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of the philosophical, historical, sociological, political, and economic perspectives reflected in the public policies about lifespan sexuality education of Germany and The Netherlands. A new conceptual framework for analysis and evaluation of sexuality education policies that integrates the…

  19. The texas public school nutrition policy positively impacts middle school student dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    School food environments are rapidly undergoing change due to state and local policy initiatives. This study assessed the impact of the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy that introduced nutrition standards to promote a healthier school food environment in Texas schools. Two years of lunch fo...

  20. Texas Public School Nutrition Policy Changes Sources of Middle School Student Food Choices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the impact of school food policy changes on student intake. This study assessed changes in student intake by food source after the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was implemented. Anonymous lunch food records, with food source identified, were collected from students ...