Science.gov

Sample records for important public policy

  1. Technology Access and Quality: The Importance of Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camper, Elzar, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Educators at all levels should participate in the process of making public policy concerning access to and quality of information technology, particularly in the following areas: strategic planning, telecommunications, regulation, resource allocation and training, technology development, and market determination and standards. (MSE)

  2. Perceptions Regarding Importance and Skill at Policy Development Among Public Health Staff

    PubMed Central

    Castrucci, Brian C.; Leider, Jonathon P.; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Policy development is recognized as a core function of public health and a core competency in formal public health education. However, relatively little is known nationally about worker perceptions and competencies related to policy development in the governmental public health workforce. Objective: To characterize perceived importance and presence or absence of competency gaps related to policy development. Design: As part of the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), a nationally representative stratified sample of permanently employed state health agency (SHA) central office staff was created. Descriptive and inferential analyses examined correlates of perceived importance and competency gaps related to policy development. Setting and Participants: Permanently employed central office employees of SHAs. Main Outcome Measure: Analyses focus on 2 self-reported measures of perceived importance and ability related to policy development skills, as well as awareness and perceptions regarding Health in All Policies (HiAP). Results: Seventy-two percent of SHA central office staff (95% confidence interval, 71-73) indicated “influencing policy development” was somewhat or very important to their day-to-day work. Among that group, 35% (95% confidence interval, 34-36) reported that they were unable to perform this or they considered themselves to be a beginner at this skill. Approximately three-fourths of staff indicated “understanding the relationship between a new policy and many types of public health problems” was somewhat or very important, and 30% of those who did said they were unable to perform this skill or were a beginner at it. Nationally, one-half of staff have not heard of HiAP. Among those who have, 86% indicated it was somewhat or very important to public health, and 41% reported they would like to see more emphasis on HiAP. Conclusions: Workforce development, both formal education and on-the-job training, may benefit

  3. Public say food regulatory policies to improve health in Western Australia are important: population survey results

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Methods Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18–64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using survey module of STATA 12. Results The majority of adults believe it is important that government regulates food policy options under consideration: nutrition information on food labels (97% versus 2% who think it is not important); health rating on food labels (95% versus 3%); food advertising (83% versus 11%); and the supply of environmentally friendly food (86% versus 9%). Conclusions Community perception is that government control or regulation of food labelling, food advertising and the supply of environmentally friendly food is important. Implications Curbing excess weight gain and related disease burden is a public health priority. Australian governments are considering food regulatory interventions to assist the public to improve their dietary intake. These findings should provide reassurance to government officials considering these regulatory measures. PMID:24090332

  4. From "Import" to "Import-Export" Oriented Internationalization: The Impact of National Policy on Scholarly Publication in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Haiying; Beckett, Gulbahar H.; Huang, Dawang

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of national research policy in China over the past three decades and its recent shift in emphasis from "import" to "import-export" oriented internationalization. Based on a policy review and interviews with three groups of academics--six journal editors in the humanities and social sciences,…

  5. Breast-feeding and child-spacing: importance of information collection for public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Saadeh, R.; Benbouzid, D.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of lactational amenorrhoea cannot be fully relied upon to protect the individual mother against becoming pregnant. Nevertheless, the use of breast-feeding as a birth-spacing mechanism has important implications for global health policy. This article identifies the information that should be collected and examined as a basis for developing guidelines on how to reduce the dual protection afforded by postpartum lactational amenorrhoea and other family planning methods, and discusses when such methods should be introduced. PMID:2289298

  6. A life cycle model of public policy issues in health care: the importance of strategic issues management.

    PubMed

    Rakich, J S; Feit, M D

    2001-01-01

    Public policy affects health and social services organizations. Senior management has a responsibility to prevent inappropriate demands of stakeholders from predominating and to influence the outcome of public policy to the benefit of their organization through the strategic issues management process. This article presents a public policy issue life cycle model, life-cycle stages and suggested strategies, paths issues can take in the life cycle, and factors that affect issue paths. An understanding of these dynamics can aid senior managers in shaping and changing public policy issues and lessening external environment threats to their organization. PMID:11263098

  7. Effect on Public Policy from Macro to Nano Aspects of the Deadliest Illness of Mankind: Important Role of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Arjun

    2013-04-01

    The effect on public policy of macro to nano aspects of the deadliest Illness known to mankind is given. The focus is on the important role of physics which has been ignored so far to solve its problems. It is now acknowledged that the deadliest illness is actually a group of illnesses which are lumped together as mental illnesses. They are the most widespread and damaging illnesses in the world. Their impact on the entire society globally is huge because they afflict majority of the people irrespective of race, religion, sex, age, education and economic status. In USA alone, the number afflicted according to the official count is about 80 million (out of a total population of 315 million), and it is projected to increase to about 25 to 30% of the population within two decades. A model is given in this paper to address some of the key issues from macro to nano aspects of the deadliest illness. The information given in this paper is scientific though easy to understand. It will help the elected policy makers, public, physicists, neuroscientists, doctors, and care giving personnel world wide. The model explains the missing links in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Additional evidence from other recent studies shall also be given.

  8. [Public policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future. PMID:11423032

  9. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  10. Public Policy and You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  11. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  12. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  13. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  14. Healthy public policies: looking ahead.

    PubMed

    Krech, Rüdiger

    2011-12-01

    Health has moved up on the political agendas of most governments around the globe. The interdependence of economic, environmental and social conditions and health is increasingly understood. In turn, the experiences in health promotion with building healthy public policies become more important. Future "health in all policies" efforts, however, need to consider changing political contexts. There is some scope to review the focus on GDP when measuring economic development, and how health promotion considers both the opportunities and responsibilities of industry as part of healthy public policies. PMID:22080083

  15. Science and Public Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, Thomas

    2012-11-28

    The United States faces many issues that involve science. Issues ranging from climate change to nano-technology, from human genomics to modified food crops. What is the role that science plays in determining what the public policy for these issues should be? How as scientists should we respond to requests for advice?

  16. Astronomy and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy is an unusual science in that almost all of what we study can only be passively observed. We enjoy tremendous public support for our research and education, both domestically and abroad. Our discoveries in cosmology and exoplanets have captured world-wide attention, as have stunning images from the Great Observatories of NASA, and ground based telescopes. Despite the passive nature of our science, it touches humanity profoundly. There are groups of amateur astronomers in every conceivable country who meet to look at the sky. Almost one billion people from 150 countries participated in The International Year of Astronomy 2009. No other science reaches humanity as ours does. In a recent poll, it was found that the among all the things the US does abroad, US science is seen by the world as our most positive face. We as astronomers can use this good will to affect positive changes in the world through public policy. I would like to explore how astronomy has impacted public policy, especially foreign policy, and what more we can do in the future. I also hope to encourage astronomers that a career path into public policy is an excellent use of a Ph.D. in astronomy.

  17. Public Policy Agenda, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) public policy agenda, rooted in an uncompromising commitment to opportunity for the nation's students, is expressed through the following core principles: (1) Higher education is a common good that provides significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole; (2) America's…

  18. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  19. Vitamin A deficiency control measures: importance of vitamin A supplementation as a public health policy in the Indian context.

    PubMed

    Arlappa, Nimmathota

    2013-11-01

    Recently prominent nutrition scientists across the world have opposed continuation of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) programmes and recommended gradual phasing out VAS for pre-school children. A few eminent nutrition scientists in India have echoed this view, arguing that vitamin deficiency (VAD) is no longer a public health problem in India. We review the evidence, highlighting the high rates of VAD among pre-school children in India, (clinical, subclinical, and dietary deficiency) and argue that in India VAD remains an immensely important public health problem and it is crucial to strengthen and continue the existing VAS programme in India, and in other developing countries until such time as their children's dietary consumption of vitamin A is improved adequately and blood vitamin A levels reach optimal levels. PMID:23760134

  20. Human exposure monitoring and evaluation in the Arctic: the importance of understanding exposures to the development of public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P

    2004-01-01

    Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this important public health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders. PMID:14757538

  1. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 2003 and 2004. Public Policy Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This paper is the seventh in a biennial series summarizing state and federal public policy issues affecting higher education. The purpose is to provide board members and other higher education officials with brief descriptions of the most important public policy issues. In one way or another, most of the public policy issues cited in this paper…

  2. Financing Higher Standards in Public Education: The Importance of Accounting for Educational Costs. Policy Brief, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    This policy brief explains why performance focus and educational cost indexes must go hand in hand, discusses alternative methods for estimating educational cost indexes, and shows how these costs indexes can be incorporated into a performance-based state aid program. A shift to educational performance standards, whether these standards are…

  3. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Kenneth, Ed.; Schwandt, Thomas A., Ed.; Straf, Miron L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy" encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation…

  4. Preparing for public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plapp, Brendan

    2002-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the tight job market for Ph.D. recipients in physics led to a reexamination of graduate programs by some departments. The speaker participated in this reanalysis at his graduate institution and arranged presentations of alternative careers to the physics graduate student body. What became clear was that diverse options were open; job seekers just needed flexible expectations. However, there are a number of additions or modifications to graduate programs which could further help to prepare Ph.D. recipients as they move into non-traditional roles, such as additional and more formal experience in communicating science to a wide range of audiences. In particular, it would be advantageous to learn how to explain the role that basic scientific research projects play in the larger public policy arena. Examples from the speaker's experience of working as a staff member in the U.S. Congress will be presented to illustrate the skills needed in that environment.

  5. Family Economic Issues & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimsey, Peggy Poling; Paynter, Mary Ann

    Emerging from two graduate seminars designed to increase the involvement of home economists in public policy, this publication includes course outlines, models, and papers on selected issues concerning family-related government policy. The structure and requirements of the two seminars, held in 1978 at the University of Kentucky, are described. A…

  6. Public Opinion, Public Policy, and HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jane

    1989-01-01

    A four-stage framework for considering the development of public policy in regard to the issue of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is offered. The phases are denial, irrationality, acceptance, and the development of a rational response. Federal antidiscrimination policies which include persons with HIV infections as disabled are…

  7. The Nearly Invisible Voice of Organismal Biology in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a view on public policy and the importance of biology. Discusses issues such as securing research funds, teaching of evolution and other curriculum issues, lobbying, and the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) Public Policy Office. (YDS)

  8. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  9. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  10. The Public and Science Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Kenneth

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of public opinion (views and images held by the general public which political leaders find prudent) on science policy, defined as government decisions affecting where, how, and with what resources science is practiced in the United States. Includes discussions of scientific literacy and scientific attitudes. (Author/SK)

  11. Productivity, People, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, prepared by the United States Chamber of Commerce, is intended to help create a better public understanding of how productivity affects this country and to suggest how people can change public policy in favor of a revitalized America. The booklet is organized in five sections. The first section defines productivity and introduces the…

  12. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-02-01

    At every turn now, one encounters sharply debated issues and important public policies that rest on chemical information. This is true in practically any arena where public interest intersects with the material world: health care practice and public health; energy; quality of air, water, and food; manufacturing standards and product liability; criminal justice; national and international security, including the defense against terrorism. The scale can be truly global, as in the case of the current debate over climate change, which extends into international efforts to regulate gaseous emissions. Sometimes the relevant chemical measurements and applicable theory are sound and their scope is appropriate to the policy; often they are inadequate and a policy or debate overreaches the analytical capability needed to support it. In the decades ahead, the issues with us today will become even more pressing and will drive a still greater reliance on analytical chemistry. This presentation will have four parts covering (a) illustrations of the impact of analytical chemistry on public debate and public policy, including instances where analytical capabilities actually gave rise to new issues and policies, (b) the manner in which chemical information is handled and understood in public debates, (c) areas of analytical chemistry that will be critical to sound public policy in the future, and (d) implications for the education of leaders and general citizens of modern societies.

  13. Essays on Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yinghua

    2011-01-01

    Many public school choice programs use centralized mechanisms to match students with schools in absence of market-clearing prices. Among them, the Boston mechanism is one of the most widely used. It is well-known that truth-telling may not be optimal under the Boston mechanism, which raises the concern that the mechanism may create a disadvantage…

  14. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Christopher E.; Halligan, Michelle H.; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the ‘policy diffusion’ process, enabling governments to learn from another’s enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada. PMID:25379125

  15. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory.

    PubMed

    Politis, Christopher E; Halligan, Michelle H; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the 'policy diffusion' process, enabling governments to learn from another's enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada. PMID:25379125

  16. Career Development and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    Career development specialists need to find ways to adapt their knowledge and skills to become agents of social action. Public policy is one area where career development specialists can involve themselves to help bring about social change. This paper attempts to raise the consciousness of Society of Vocational Psychology (SVP) members and to…

  17. Trade policy and public goods.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 as the first multilateral trade organization with enforcement authority over national governments. A country's domestic standards cannot be more restrictive than international standards for trade. WTO seeks to "harmonize" individual domestic policies into uniform global standards and encompasses trade-related aspects of health, public safety, and environmental protection. These issues are transnational and pose enormous challenges to traditional governance structures. Most governments are not equipped to manage problems that transcend their borders. Moreover, international governance in social issues--with the possible exception of public health--is still in its infancy. Many groups are concerned that local public interests will be subjugated to global corporate interests. The article looks at the social ramifications of world trade policy and concludes that world trade must be balanced with sustainable environments and human health. PMID:17208712

  18. Reframing recreation as a public policy priority.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Recreation has the potential to be an important public policy priority; however, it must be reframed to address critical policy priorities. Few policymakers understand the value and benefits of recreation, requiring practitioners and advocates to closely connect recreation to issues of concern to policymakers. A significant policy opportunity to expand recreational opportunities for children and youth lies in the area of education, including the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. By educating policymakers on the myriad outcomes that can result from quality recreational experiences, including the ways in which recreation can support the education of children and youth, solid,incremental progress can be made in positioning recreation as a public policy priority. PMID:21786415

  19. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  20. Public humanization policies: integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Márcia Adriana Dias Meirelles; Lustosa, Abdon Moreira; Dutra, Fernando; Barros, Eveline de Oliveira; Batista, Jaqueline Brito Vidal; Duarte, Marcella Costa Souto

    2015-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the scientific literature on Public Humanization Policies, available in online periodicals, from 2009 to 2012, in the health field. This is an integrative literature review conducted in the Virtual Health Library databases: Latin-America and Caribbean Health Sciences (Lilacs) and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Portal Capes. Data were collected in July 2013. To this end, the following Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) were used: "Humanization of Care," "Public Policies," "National Humanization Policy". The sample consisted of 27 articles about the investigated theme. From the publications selected for the research, three categories emerged according to their respective approaches: National Human-ization Policy: history and processes involved in its implementation; National Humanization Policy: health professionals contribution; Humanization and in the care process. The study showed that the National Humanization Policy is an important benchmark in the development of health practices. For this reason, there is a pressing multiplication of related reflections on ways to promote human-ization in health services. PMID:26465863

  1. Engaging patients in public policy advocacy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Charlotte W; Moore, Nuala S

    2014-02-01

    Health professionals can and should be game-changing influencers of U.S. health policies. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) is enabling its members to advocate on important issues through such initiatives as the Breathing Better Alliance network and the annual ATS Hill Day. Patients are also organizing to make their voices heard by participating in the member organizations of the ATS Public Advisory Roundtable and by accompanying ATS members and staff on visits to legislators and government regulators. If we join together, we can amplify our messages and promote better health policies. Doing so will require us to embrace a partnership steeped in trust and hope. PMID:24575996

  2. Pesticides and healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Labonte, R N

    1989-01-01

    Despite concern over long-term human and environmental health risks, Canadian and international pesticide use continues to increase. Enormous gaps in pesticide toxicity data persist and, though equivocal, there is mounting evidence that certain pesticide families are carcinogenic. Farmworkers are at greatest risk of pesticide poisoning and long-term health effects, and unions representing farmworkers have initiated a boycott of California grapes to draw attention to the need to reduce pesticide use and improve health and safety conditions. The boycott is a model of "healthy public policy" in action, and can be one element in a public health strategy to reduce significantly pesticide use and promote less toxic alternatives and less chemically dependent forms of agriculture and silviculture. PMID:2790629

  3. Energy, politics, and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Historical examples illustrating the political aspects of energy policymaking focus on conventional energy sources with a potential for near-term policy conflicts: nuclear energy, petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Synthetic fuels receive considerable attention because they represent the nation's most-expensive and -ambitious energy gamble of the 1980s. There is less mention of solar technologies because they have been far less important in current energy-policy debates when compared to other energy sources. The author discusses energy conservation as a policy because he believes such a strategy can make a significant contribution to meeting future US energy needs. The book seeks a balance in describing the interaction among policy issues, government institutions, policymakers, and energy technologies in the political process. Three issues receive special attention: acceptable trade-offs between energy production and environmental protection; proper distribution of the socio-economic costs and benefits derived from energy use; and appropriate roles of government and the private sector in future enegy management. 268 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

  4. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  5. Immigration Patterns, Public Opinion, and Government Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for illustrating how shifting patterns of immigration and public reaction have influenced public policy toward immigration restriction. Details objectives and procedures for activities using National Archives documents. Includes a worksheet and copies of government documents. (CH)

  6. Food and beverage policies and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-01

    Government food and beverage policies can play an important role in promoting public health. Few people would question this assumption. Difficult questions can arise, however, when policymakers, public health officials, citizens, and businesses deliberate about food and beverage policies, because competing values may be at stake, such as public health, individual autonomy, personal responsibility, economic prosperity, and fairness. An ethically justified policy strikes a reasonable among competing values by meeting the following criteria: (1) the policy serves important social goal(s); (2) the policy is likely to be effective at achieving those goal(s); (3) less burdensome options are not likely to be effective at achieving the goals; (4) the policy is fair. PMID:24132618

  7. Standardized Tests, Group Differences, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    The paper considers the controversies of standardized tests and group differences as they relate to the formation of public policy. The overlapping or confounding issues of standardized tests and group differences have long since become matters of public policy. Neither separately nor jointly can the issues be resolved within the confines of…

  8. Environmental Policy Research and Government Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Provides historical background on public sentiment and government action related to U.S. and United Nations publications used in environmental policy research. Discussion covers Earth Days 1970 and 1990, the Council on Environmental Quality, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, and the United Nations Environment Program. Chronological…

  9. Foreword: Public health, public policy, politics and policing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Reducing harm from drug use lies at the intersection of public health, public policy, politics and policing. In an ideal world, evidence of public health gains achievable through new approaches or technologies should inform public policy, should help shape political agendas in support of policy change, which should translate into law and regulations – and then to their application. The goal of this transformative process should be to yield the highest attainable health benefits to vulnerable individuals and communities and to society as a whole. PMID:22769027

  10. Public Policy and Community Colleges... Challenges Yet Unmet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This issue of State Education Leader titled "Public Policy and Community Colleges" focuses on issues of importance to community colleges. The highlighted articles in this issue discuss current legislation and reform that has impacted community colleges. In "Challenges Yet Unmet," Katherine Boswell discusses how state policy leaders look to…

  11. Consequential Validity of Accountability Policy: Public Understanding of Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Curtis; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Lindle, Jane Clark

    2015-01-01

    Educational accountability policy rests heavily on the assessments used to influence teaching, learning, and school improvement. A long-debated aspect of assessment use, consequential validity, plays an important role in public interpretation of assessment use whether for individual students or for state policy. The purpose of this survey study…

  12. Families of nations and public policy.

    PubMed

    Obinger, H; Wagschal, U

    2001-01-01

    Employing cluster analysis, this article reconsiders a concept formulated by Francis G. Castles that stresses the existence of four families of nations, which markedly differ in respect of public policy-making. For two policy fields - social and economic policy - the hypothesised families of nations can be shown to exist, and they are quite robust and stable over time. Cluster analysis also reveals different paths towards modernity. On the one hand, there are more state-oriented versus more market-oriented models of public policy-making; on the other, there is a cleavage in public policy-making between rich countries located at the centre and somewhat poorer countries located at the periphery. PMID:17933077

  13. International challenges and public policy issues.

    PubMed

    Morris, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of current public policy issues relating to biological standardisation and control, drawing on the extensive background material assembled for two recent international reviews, and previously published work. It identifies a number of factors which are destabilising the current system and promoting a climate for change. These include the squeeze on public sector resources, the growth in volume and complexity of biologicals, developing world needs, concerns about harmonisation and new social and ethical issues. It is argued that this situation presents important opportunities for reviewing the existing boundaries between regulatory scientists, industry, and the public, for international agreement on priorities and for harmonisation and mutual recognition. While considerable progress has already been made on these issues at national, regional and global level, there is a need for fuller international participation and the additional impetus that would come from a higher-profile commitment by governments. Such commitment will also be important for the vital questions of sustaining the scientific base and securing the resource for an effective, truly worldwide programme of standardisation and control. An international approach will also be essential in steering biologicals control through the difficult social and ethical questions of the future. WHO, in collaboration with national authorities, has a key role to play in these developments. PMID:10616188

  14. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  15. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  16. Policies Governing Admission to Jordanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massadeh, Nassar

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to discuss the policy of admission to Jordanian public universities. This admission rules are variable and open to almost 100% of the graduates from secondary schools. This might refer to the historical events and economic conditions that the country has gone through since its establishment. Furthermore, the admission policy is…

  17. Public Policies and Strategies of Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiret, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis "Public Policies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the digital campuses.…

  18. Reframing Recreation as a Public Policy Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Issues pertaining to children often struggle to become public policy priorities. A clear demonstration of this phenomenon is the degree to which children are supported in the federal budget in comparison to other priorities. If issues pertaining to children struggle for the policy spotlight, subissues pertaining to them face an even greater…

  19. Public Service Employment as Macroeconomic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Martin N.; Solow, Robert M.

    1979-01-01

    Authors assert that public service employment (PSE) is one form of macroeconomic policy and compare PSE to tax reduction, federal subsidies, and other forms. They propose a design for an ongoing federal employment program and conclude that a PSE program aimed at the structurally unemployed creates more jobs per GNP dollar than other policies. (SK)

  20. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  1. Airline Deregulation and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Steven A.; Winston, Clifford

    1989-08-01

    An assessment of the effects of airline deregulation on travelers and carriers indicates that deregulation has provided travelers and carriers with 14.9 billion of annual benefits (1988 dollars). Airport congestion, airline safety, airline bankruptcy, and mergers are also analyzed and found in most cases to have reduced benefits. But, these costs should not be attributed to deregulation per se, but to failures by the government to pursue appropriate policies in these areas. Pursuit of policies that promote airline competition and efficient use of airport capacity would significantly increase the benefits from deregulation and would provide valuable guidance for other industries undergoing the transition to deregulation.

  2. Making Sense of the "Public" in Public Education. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    The purpose of this policy report is to bring coherence to discussions about school reform and to encourage policymakers to use a consistent metric when judging whether reform proposals are serving the needs of children and the nation. The current confusion and policy debates over what is a public school--brought about by recent educational…

  3. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities. PMID:23113418

  4. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted. PMID:20176304

  5. Ethical and public policy challenges for pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Elliot S.; Alliey-Rodriguez, Ney; Grennan, Kay

    2014-01-01

    It is timely to consider the ethical and social questions raised by progress in pharmacogenomics, based on the current importance of pharmacogenomics for avoidance of predictable side effects of drugs, and for correct choice of medications in certain cancers. It has been proposed that the entire population be genotyped for drug-metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms, as a measure that would prevent many untoward and dangerous drug reactions. Pharmacologic treatment targeting based on genomics of disease can be expected to increase greatly in the coming years. Policy and ethical issues exist on consent for large-scale genomic pharmacogenomic data collection, public vs corporate ownership of genomic research results, testing efficacy and safety of drugs used for rare genomic indications, and accessibility of treatments based on costly research that is applicable to relatively few patients. In major psychiatric disorders and intellectual deficiency, rare and de novo deletion or duplication of chromosomal segments (copy number variation), in the aggregate, are common causes of increased risk. This implies that the policy problems of pharmacogenomics will be particularly important for the psychiatric disorders. PMID:25733960

  6. National Policy on Public Libraries in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambhekar, Neeta

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the government policies in India, especially the five-year plans regarding finance, since its independence in 1947 and their impact on the establishment of the public library system. Highlights include model library systems, library development, national libraries, information services, and adult education and public libraries.…

  7. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  8. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  9. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  10. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  11. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  12. Public Opinion and Public Policy: The Case of Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riger, Stephanie; Gordon, Margaret

    Beliefs about the effectiveness of rape prevention strategies influence public cooperation in their implementation. To acquaint public policy makers with these beliefs and to help them assess their impact, a three-city telephone survey of adults was conducted using a random sampling of ages, races, male and female, married and unmarried, from all…

  13. Public Housing and Public Schools: How Do Students Living in NYC Public Housing Fare in School? Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Education and Social Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    While research and policy debates center on residents moving out of public housing, many families still live in public housing around the country; it is important to consider how to improve their well-being. Approximately 1.2 million units of public housing provide housing for about 3 million tenants throughout the country. In New York City, there…

  14. Adolescent sexuality and public policy.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J A; Jensen, L C; Greaves, P M

    1991-01-01

    In recent decades, various attempts have been made to determine the level of sexual activity among adolescents. This information has been used in the planning and evaluation of sex-related programs. However, there is a flaw in using only the initial estimates of the behavior--that a sexually active person is defined as one who has had sexual intercourse. This narrow definition distorts the perception of adolescent sexual behavior. Sexual activity can more accurately be designated by focusing on the actual frequency with which teenagers have sex. In this research report, adolescents were considered sexually active if they had had sex within the last four weeks. Using this definition, adolescents were found to be substantially less sexually active than has been previously reported. This finding was then used to look at various policy decisions in the areas of sex education, family planning, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. PMID:1927672

  15. American Indians: Social Justice and Public Policy. Ethnicity and Public Policy Series, Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald E., Ed.; Tonnesen, Thomas V., Ed.

    This book discusses legal and social aspects of public policy in American society and their relationship to fulfilling the promise of social justice for American Indians. U.S. public policy is viewed as reflecting the collective sentiments of the electorate. If the American people have the will to bring about change in the socioeconomic conditions…

  16. Public Policy and Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchild, Lester F., Ed.; Lovell, Cheryl D., Ed.; Hines, Edward R., Ed.; Gill, Judith I., Ed.

    The essays in this collection explore issues related to public policy and higher education. They are intended to provide foundational readings in public policy and to explore contemporary public policy issues facing higher education. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of the Policy Process" (Randall B. Ripley); (2) "Promoting Policy Theory:…

  17. Public preferences regarding rabies-prevention policies in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cox, M; Barbier, E B; White, P C; Newton-Cross, G A; Kinsella, L; Kennedy, H J

    1999-08-23

    The current 6-month quarantine system for all cats and dogs entering the UK has kept the UK rabies-free since 1922. However, pressure is mounting for a change to a system of vaccination, microchip identification and serological testing. In response to the increasing controversy surrounding the quarantine system, the UK government recently set up an independent review panel to assess the alternatives. This paper quantifies public preferences for the current policy and three alternative rabies-prevention measures. A survey was used not only to assess the overall preferences for rabies-prevention policies but also to assess the importance of policy attributes and socio-economic characteristics in determining policy preferences. We interviewed a sample of pet-owners in North Yorkshire. The results showed that the existing system was the single most-preferred policy option. However, a large proportion of the sample preferred the vaccination-based policies. A logistic-regression model and ordered probit models were used to find that safety and animal welfare were the most-important factors determining policy preferences. The respondents' awareness of the rabies-policy review, a desire to take a pet abroad, the amount of foreign travel, occupation and previous experience of quarantine were all important factors in policy choice. Socio-economic characteristics such as income, pets owned and the number of children were not significant determinants of policy preference. PMID:10530425

  18. Suicide, Guns, and Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is a serious public health concern that is responsible for almost 1 million deaths each year worldwide. It is commonly an impulsive act by a vulnerable individual. The impulsivity of suicide provides opportunities to reduce the risk of suicide by restricting access to lethal means. In the United States, firearms, particularly handguns, are the most common means of suicide. Despite strong empirical evidence that restriction of access to firearms reduces suicides, access to firearms in the United States is generally subject to few restrictions. Implementation and evaluation of measures such as waiting periods and permit requirements that restrict access to handguns should be a top priority for reducing deaths from impulsive suicide in the United States. PMID:23153127

  19. Nuclear Policy and Public Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Lettie McSpadden; Wenner, Manfred W.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the voting patterns in six states on the 1976 initiatives for a moratorium on nuclear power plants. Demographic characteristics were found to be unimportant variables, while percentage of people enrolled in colleges and universities, percentage of land in farms, and relative cost of electricity were found to be important. Stresses…

  20. Public Policy in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J., Ed; Reis, Sally M., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Raising some of the most challenging questions in the field, this call-to-arms focuses on the important services gifted programs provide, the potential crisis gifted educators face, and what must be done to keep the gifted child movement alive and well. Key features include: (1) James J. Gallagher's unflinching account of the issues that continue…

  1. Is College Opportunity Slipping Away? Parents and the Public Voice Concerns about Higher Education Access and Affordability. Policy Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Policy Alert" is a publication series that summarizes important policy findings affecting the future of higher education. This issue is based on an earlier study, "Squeeze Play: How Parents and the Public Look at Higher Education Today," from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education and Public Agenda. This "Policy Alert"…

  2. AGU Public Affairs: How to Get Involved in Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    AGU Public Affairs offers many ways for its members to get involved in science policy at different levels of participation, whether you would love to spend a year working as a resident science expert in a congressional office in Washington, D.C., or would rather simply receive email alerts about Earth and space science policy news. How you can get involved: Sign up for AGU Science Policy Alerts to receive the most relevant Earth and space science policy information delivered to your email inbox. Participate in one of AGU's Congressional Visits Days to speak with your legislators about important science issues. Attend the next AGU Science Policy Conference in spring 2013. Participate in events happening on Capitol Hill, and watch video of past events. Learn about AGU Embassy Lectures, where countries come together to discuss important Earth and space science topics. Learn how you can comment on AGU Position Statements. Apply to be an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, where you can work in a congressional office for one year and serve as a resident science expert, or to be an AGU Public Affairs Intern, where you can work in the field of science policy for three months. The AGU Public Affairs Team will highlight ways members can be involved as well as provide information on how the team is working to shape policy and inform society about the excitement of AGU science.

  3. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession. PMID:8827261

  4. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  5. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  6. Training and Public Policy: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James

    Developed by an advisory board of industry and education representatives to raise issues for the consideration of policy makers, community college administrators, labor leaders, and managers in Michigan, this report discusses the increasing significance of training to industry; the challenge to public education and, in particular, to community…

  7. Involving Citizens in Making Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Silas B.

    1970-01-01

    Citizen participation in public policy making is a serious jeopardy because of the frustration cause by an enormous avalanche of information, by the impersonalization of our institutions, and by the technological revolution. A small social action committee dedicated to the collective interchange of ideas and information and working in an…

  8. Farmer's Market for Public Policy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    The Legislative Environmental Advisory Group (LEAG) is an experimental program whose purpose is to produce public policy research on environmental issues for Iowa state legislators. LEAG's membership, selection of six manageable research areas, evaluation of projects, scheduling, and dissemination of results are briefly discussed. (MLW)

  9. Copyright, Public Policy, and Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Nicholas L.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the dilemmas created by photocopying, computing, and other neopulishing technologies in the light of existing copyright laws, analyzes the costs and benefits of computer-based information storage and retrieval systems and photocopying technologies, and suggests guidelines for developing future public policy. (JR)

  10. Education--Technology and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    Public policy with respect to industrial arts as a part of general education is almost nonexistent. In fact, one finds little true commitment to the field except by its practitioners, and they frequently report such problems as not having a textbook available for their course or having school counselors assign to their courses students who cannot…

  11. Public Policy Issues Surrounding Online University Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Georgia L.

    2008-01-01

    With the maturation of the internet more and more colleges and universities are offering online courses. As these courses enter the mainstream, public policy issues are beginning to emerge. Many of these involve the tension between the "work for hire" doctrine and academic freedom that occurs when educational institutions offer these…

  12. Public Policy Program, 2013-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Public Policy Program underscores the American Association of University Women's (AAUW's) mission of advancing equity for women and girls through advocacy, education, philanthropy, and research and speaks to women's needs, aspirations, and concerns across the life span. The work of AAUW builds upon more than 130 years of responsible public…

  13. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of analytical science in the formulation of public policy is described. This includes the ability to resolve atomic composition in two and three dimensions on the micrometer scale altering the means for defining intellectual property, medical diagnostics built on analytical measurements repeatedly raising international alarm over…

  14. Public Telecommunications Policies and Education's Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Frank W.

    The use of satellite telecommunications for educational and other public service purposes has been restricted by educators' lack of awareness of the potential that exists. While industry actively promotes its own interests, educators rarely even realize that international policies being made today will affect critically the options available for…

  15. Academic Values, Institutional Management and Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of market-related policies and revenues on higher education are not uniform but globalisation has opened most institutions to new pressures. The public funding models developed 50 years ago underestimated the full cost of mass higher education as an entitlement while the sheer scale of resources needed to sustain a comprehensive…

  16. Institute for International Public Policy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Institute for International Public Policy program provides a single grant to assist a consortia of institutions of higher education in establishing an institute designed to increase the representation of minorities in international service, including private international voluntary organizations and the Foreign Service of the United States. A…

  17. Public Policy Issues on the Horizon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) has identified public policy issues of interest to its membership in 1997, including those in budget and appropriations, college costs and pricing, distance learning and technology, environmental health and safety, federal audit and accounting standards, Higher Education…

  18. Public Policy and Union Security in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Nels E.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys the legal status of union security in the public sector and indicates that the basic policy options are to limit union security to the voluntary dues check-off, to authorize the parties to negotiate union or agency shop agreements, or to establish a mandatory fee for the exclusive representative. (Author/IRT)

  19. Mobilisation of public support for policy actions to prevent obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Terry T-K; Cawley, John H; Ashe, Marice; Costa, Sergio A; Frerichs, Leah M; Zwicker, Lindsey; Rivera, Juan A; Levy, David; Hammond, Ross A; Lambert, Estelle V; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2015-06-13

    Public mobilisation is needed to enact obesity-prevention policies and to mitigate reaction against their implementation. However, approaches in public health focus mainly on dialogue between public health professionals and political leaders. Strategies to increase popular demand for obesity-prevention policies include refinement and streamlining of public information, identification of effective obesity frames for each population, strengthening of media advocacy, building of citizen protest and engagement, and development of a receptive political environment with change agents embedded across organisations and sectors. Long-term support and investment in collaboration between diverse stakeholders to create shared value is also important. Each actor in an expanded coalition for obesity prevention can make specific contributions to engaging, mobilising, and coalescing the public. The shift from a top-down to a combined and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach would need an overhaul of current strategies and reprioritisation of resources. PMID:25703113

  20. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies--1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of papers aims to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The first section, "An Evolving Public Policy Education" examines the history of public education; address current issues such as leadership models, ethics in policy formation and policy education; and forecasts…

  1. The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) and public policy advocacy: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, Paul; Pagoto, Sherry; Otten, Jennifer; Pbert, Lori; Stone, Amy; King, Abby; Goggin, Kathy; Emmons, Karen

    2011-09-01

    In 2010, the Society of Behavioral Medicine heightened its priority to take an even more active role in influencing health-related public policy. Here we discuss the importance of behavioral medicine presence in public policy initiatives, review a brief history of SBM's involvement in public policy, describe steps SBM is now taking to increase its involvement in health-related public policy, and finally, put forth a call to action for SBM members to increase their awareness of and become involved in public policy initiatives. PMID:24073068

  2. Trust and Public Participation in Risk Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Judith A. ); Branch, Kristi M. ); Focht, Will; Ragnar E. Lofstedt and George Cvetkovich

    1999-12-01

    Recent social science literature has paid increasing attention to the concept of trust, albeit with differing definitions and constituents and also with differing emphases on societal origins, functions, and implications. Recently, discussion has shifted to the role of trust in hazard management and, more broadly, to the fundamental role of trust in modern society. In this paper, we provide answers to the following questions, in an attempt to refocus the discussion and identify a more productive research approach to the relationship of trust and public participation in risk policy issues: -What is trust? What are the differing conceptions and dimensions of trust that have been identified in the literature? -What are the social functions of trust? -What is the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? Why is trust particularly important for agencies such as the Department of Energy (DOE) that are responsible for development and implementation of policies involving technological risk? -How should we define the research problem in examining the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? What are the key research questions to be addressed? Federal agencies have introduced public participation as a means of addressing public distrust and enhancing their ability to make decisions that can be implemented. In some cases, such as the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board, public participation was explicitly identified as an organizational response that was needed to re-establish public trust and confidence in the Department of Energy (DOE). However, our review of the literature on both trust and public participation and our experience in developing criteria for evaluating public participation initiatives have resulted in our questioning the wisdom of establishing trust as a goal of public participation and caused us to examine the relationship between trust and public participation.

  3. [PUBLIC MEDICINE AND RESEARCH-- IMPORTANT AND CHALLENGING].

    PubMed

    Pillar, Giora; Shapira, Chen

    2015-06-01

    Fellows who travel to the US are familiar with the American concept of combining clinical medicine and research. Research activity enforces reading, being updated, thinking creatively initiating, opening horizons, and being in contact with researchers all over the world. Thus, performing research is advantageous not only for research itself, the public, the patients and the knowledge, but also for the development of the researcher, the hospital, and the academic institute with which the hospital is affiliated. However, given the huge clinical workload and obligations, along with the shortage of physicians, the time consuming nature of research activity and the difficulties in obtaining research funds, it is certainly not obvious that clinicians can manage to conduct research and publish it. Decision makers, policy determinants and the individual drive to academic progress, encourage research activity by physicians, albeit the external support is commonly theoretical and moral, and is not commonly combined with time or appropriate resource allocation. In the current issue of "Harefuah", physicians from the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center publish their own research and review articles. The hospital is the second largest in the Haifa region, providing services to a population of over a million people. The manuscripts reflect only a small sample of the research and clinical activities of the hospital. PMID:26281075

  4. State public policy issues involved with the Parkfield prediction experiment.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, R.; Goltz, J.

    1988-01-01

    The earthquake-prediction experiment at Parkfield may well be the most important such experiment currently underway worldwide. Its importance, however, extends beyond the scientific data that will be gathered and whether those data that will be gathered and whether those data can provide reliable prediction methods. Important public policy lessons are being learned (and are yet to be learned), and these lessons may be transferable to other parts of California and the nation. Indeed, the Parkfield experiment has captured the interest of numerous Californians, including State officials, emergency managers, the news media, and at least some of the public.

  5. Roundtable on public policy affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Crane, Robert M; Raymond, Brian

    2011-03-01

    On April 15, 2010, patient safety experts were assembled to discuss the adequacy of the public policy response to the Institute of Medicine report "To Err is Human" 10 years after its publication. The experts concluded that additional government actions should be considered. Actions that deserve consideration include the development of an educational campaign to improve public and provider understanding of the issue as a means to support change similar to successful public health campaigns, support the evolution of payment reform away from fee for service, create a clearer aim or goal for patient safety activities, support the development and use of better safety measures to judge status and improvement, and support for additional learning of what works particularly on implementation issues. Participants included: Moderator Robert Crane, senior advisor, Kaiser Permanente Participants Doug Bonacum, vice president, Safety Management, Kaiser Permanente Janet Corrigan, PhD, president and CEO, National Quality Forum Helen Darling, MA, president and CEO, National Business Group on Health Susan Edgman-Levitan, PA, executive director, John D. Stoeckle Center for Primary Care Innovation, Massachusetts General Hospital David M. Lawrence, MD, MPH, chairman and CEO (Retired), Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals, Inc Lucian Leape, MD, adjunct professor of Health Policy, Harvard School of Public Health Diane C. Pinakiewicz, president, National Patient Safety Foundation Robert M. Wachter, MD, professor and associate chairman, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. PMID:22026014

  6. Parents, Public Policy, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper jointly examines the importance of parental influences, prices, and tobacco control policies on the smoking behavior of youths. Data are drawn from the Audits & Surveys (A&S) 1996 survey of high school students across the United States from "The Study of Smoking and Tobacco Use Among Young People" to examine the impact of parental…

  7. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. PMID:26581727

  8. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies--1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

    This publication reports the major discussions at a conference that was held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. It begins with abstracts of the 22 presentations. Four papers deal with public policy education in the 1990s: "To Inform Their Discretion: Policy Education and Democratic…

  9. Women's health research: public policy and sociology.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, J D; Figert, A E

    1995-01-01

    In the space of just a few years, the amount and nature of scientific research on women's health has emerged as a major policy issue being addressed at the highest levels of the federal government and in the mainstream media. This debate has engaged members of Congress, the National Institutes of Health, and other federal agencies, and medical, scientific, health, and women's organizations. Sociologists have made significant contributions to both the process by which the women's health research issue has ascended to public awareness and the content of its agenda. Many of these contributions go unrecognized and other potential contributions by medical sociologists remain unrealized. In order to advance both science and practice in women's health--by ensuring the inclusion of the sociological perspective--we encourage sociologists to participate more directly in the policy debates. PMID:7560844

  10. The importance of iodine in public health.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, John H

    2015-08-01

    Iodine (I) deficiency has been known for more than a century and is known to cause cretinism at the extreme end of the spectrum but also, importantly, impaired development and neurocognition in areas of mild deficiency. The WHO has indicated that median urinary iodine of 100-199 μg/l in a population is regarded as indicative of an adequate iodine intake. The understanding of the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders led to the formation of The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders which has promulgated the use of household iodized salt and the use of such salt in food processing and manufacture. Iodine deficiency is particularly important in pregnancy as the fetus relies on maternal thyroxine (T4) exclusively during the first 14 weeks and also throughout gestation. As this hormone is critical to brain and nervous system maturation, low maternal T4 results in low child intelligence quotient. The recommendation for I intake in pregnancy is 250 μg/day to prevent fetal and child brain function impairment. During the past 25 years, the number of countries with I deficiency has reduced to 32; these still include many European developed countries. Sustainability of adequate iodine status must be achieved by continuous monitoring and where this has not been performed I deficiency has often recurred. More randomized controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy are required in mild iodine-deficient areas to inform public health strategy and subsequent government action on suitable provision of iodine to the population at risk. PMID:25663362

  11. The Policy Implications of Internet Connectivity in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Langa, Lesley A.

    2006-01-01

    The provision of public Internet access and related networked services by public libraries is affected by a number of information policy issues. This article analyzes the policy dimensions of Internet connectivity in public libraries in light of the data and findings from a national survey of public libraries conducted by the authors of this…

  12. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  13. Public policy issues in animal bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Ann E.; Hastings, Mardi C.

    2002-05-01

    Control of anthropogenic noise in many terrestrial and underwater environments is crucial for maintaining communication, health, and normal behavior of animals. Noise can be an issue for any species; usually, however, endangered and threatened species and marine mammals are the ones provided legal protection under the Endangered Species Act and/or the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Recent substantiated noise effects in the ocean have received much publicity and generated a more global approach to noise control. However, there are also cases where publicity was not accompanied by scientific data substantiating effects (e.g., an incident involving a $1 million noise barrier installed to protect passerine birds). The public and environmental managers have had difficulty developing adequate guidelines not only because necessary data are often lacking, but also because the manner in which funding is allocated-noise-producing agencies or private organizations are often pressured to fund studies-gives rise to inevitable conflicts of interest (or the perception thereof). Examples of recent noise-related controversies will be presented to examine the role of scientists, engineers, and professional organizations such as ASA in dealing with conflicts of interest and formulating public policy.

  14. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  15. Public policy in a multicultural Australia.

    PubMed

    Zubrzycki, J

    1987-03-01

    The debate on the consequences of large-scale immigration in the making of public policy began in 1968. Muliculturalism is for all Australians and any social policy designed for the benefit of one group in the population must have profound consequences on all people. 40% of the Australian population was born overseas or have at least 1 parent born overseas. Almost 1/4 of the population has ethnic roots in other than the Anglo-Celtic majority. The ideal of moral progress, greater equality, and improvement is the motive force in society. The presence of social heterogeneity--religious or ethnic--is linked with the issue of stability in a democratic system. There are 2 models of multiculturalism and corresponding public policy approaches. 1 model emphasizes the role of the political processes in Australian ethnic relations and sees ethnic structures (political, social, economic) as legitimate but separate interest groups, each having the exclusive responsibility for the realization of ethnic goals. The leading feature of this model is the structural fragmentation of Australian society into parallel segments of varying degrees of exclusiveness each with its own "ethnic" label. The 2nd model stresses the priority of the wholeness and welfare of the entire society. It assumes that a society based on satisfaction of individual needs through voluntary exchange is fertile ground for cultural enrichment. The goal is cohesion and unity in living together in Australia, seen as of central concern and consistent with the ideals of intercultural understanding and improved communication. The model assumes that the culture must be seen as a living, dynamic, changing, and interacting set of life patterns. The author prefers the 2nd model which stresses that the future vision of a multicultural Australia must be a shared one because only then can cultural diversity and national cohesion coexist within the 1 economic and political unit. PMID:12268819

  16. Public Discourse versus Public Policy: Latinas/os, Affirmative Action, and the Court of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, María C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the power of popular discourse in shaping public policy debates concerning educational access and opportunity for historically marginalized and minoritized students, especially for Latinas/os. I argue that proponents of race-conscious policies would do well to challenge the elimination of affirmative…

  17. Influencing Public Policy to Improve the Lives of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Kietzman, Kathryn G.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Hensel, Brian K.; Miles, Toni P.; Segev, Dorry L.; Zerzan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous public policy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related public policy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging…

  18. [Public policies for the elderly in Brazil: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luana Machado; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Pinheiro, Gleide Magali Lemos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Lira, Lais Santana Santos Pereira

    2013-12-01

    This paper is an integrative review analyzing the scientific production and legal documents regarding public policies for the elderly in Brazil. Research was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and Scopus databases, examining publications since 2003. Data were collected from June to September of 2011 using the following key words: "elderly" (idosos), "public policies" (políticas públicas), "elderly person" (pessoa idosa), "aging" (envelhecimento) and "civic participation" (participação cidadã). The search resulted in the selection of 15 articles and six legal documents targeted at the elderly in Brazil that were submitted to content analysis by categorization. The results revealed that aging in Brazil has occurred in the midst of adaptations entrenched in cultural biases, social, economic and educational discrepancies and the implementation of public welfare policies. There were few studies that indicated the importance of strengthening social movements that elicit discussion related to the elderly in Brazil. The conclusion reached is that the study will provide material for reflection about the construction of a new reality about aging in Brazil. PMID:24263871

  19. Policy Issues & Strategies Affecting Public Libraries in the National Networked Environment: Moving beyond Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    This report discusses selected issues regarding public library Internet connectivity, costs, and use. It discusses the implications of the "1997 Public Libraries and the Internet" study and presents policy recommendations related to the study's findings. This report suggests the importance of federal policy and library management in considering…

  20. Correctional health care: implications for public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Diane L.; Leath, Brenda A.

    2002-01-01

    "Correctional Health Care: Implications for Public Health Policy" is the first in a series of articles that examines the special health care needs of persons who are incarcerated in America's correctional facilities. The intent of the series is to gain a better understanding about the unmet health needs of incarcerated persons, the importance of addressing the health service delivery system in correctional facilities, and the implications that may arise from neglecting to address these health issues on health outcomes for individual detainees and society at-large when detainees transition back into the community. This article provides a descriptive overview of the corrections population, their sociodemographics, health care needs, and health concerns that are in need of improvement. This article also offers recommendations for public policy consideration to improve the overall health of inmates and society at large. PMID:12069208

  1. On failures in education and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2007-04-01

    Education of the public and the resulting policies in many matters are grossly inadequate. Included as a small list of four samples of failings in vital matters are: 1. Societal Cohesiveness: A profound change in the school system will yield great benefit for the nation (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/publicservice.html.). 2. Lack of understanding regarding the coming avian flu pandemic (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/ElyFluMES.pdf). 3. Severe Hg intoxication from dentistry due to profound multifaceted ignorance (Ely JTA, Mercury induced Alzheimer's disease: accelerating incidence? Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001; 67(6),800-6). 4. The end of the world by global warming due to Christian religion forcing family planning money to be withheld from UN leading to population excess (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/CO2runaway.html).

  2. Fetal therapy, ethics and public policies.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J C

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of ethical problems in the first generation of experimental fetal therapy and the prevailing approaches to them. The problems include: review of risks/benefits, case selection, informed consent, twin pregnancies, and refusal of proven fetal therapy. The article further discusses ethical and public policy issues in the lack of U.S. federal support for fetal diagnosis, fetal therapy, and human embryo research. An argument is made for such support, beginning with experimental gene therapy in the fetus. Ethical principles are identified that support an obligation to learn to relieve and treat such human suffering at the earliest time. Contradictions of these principles are also identified in terms of research not now supported. PMID:1503651

  3. [The ALANAM statement on public health policy].

    PubMed

    Goic, Alejando; Armas, Rodolfo

    2010-12-01

    The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a

  4. Advocating Healthy Public Policy: Implications for Baccalaureate Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutter, Linda; Williamson, Deanna L.

    2000-01-01

    Public health nurses must advocate healthy public policy. The education of these nurses should include learning experiences such as analysis of population health issues, environmental scanning, letters to editors or legislators, and practicum activities that develop awareness of public policy. (SK)

  5. Ethics and policy: dealing with public attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, M

    2008-01-01

    The current trend towards ethical scrutiny and oversight is very much a social trend. Many of the results of this trend are perfectly reasonable but some go harmfully too far. In this paper, caution is advocated about public attitudes and social trends. Although there is often a degree of truth in them, there is an inevitable simplification of the issues involved. The more specific danger for the professions is to think that public attitudes and social trends simply deliver 'the ethical'. In this context a more adequate account of ethics is considered--one that is relevant for professions like radiology confronting the demands of ethical scrutiny and oversight. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how to incorporate the important aspects of public attitudes and social trends without being subservient to them. PMID:18593686

  6. The Importance of Science Policy and its Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    I worked for physicist and Congressman Bill Foster (D-IL) as the Mather Public Policy Intern through the American Institute of Physics and the Society of Physics Students during the summer of 2014. This internship is meant to connect undergraduate physics students with the policy process in Washington DC. As a Mather Public Policy Intern, I worked for Congressman Foster researching policy initiatives such as science funding, STEM education, and environmental regulations. This talk will discuss my experience and many of the things that I learned as an undergraduate physicist working on Capitol Hill. For example, through my experience with the internship, I attended lectures and hearings that illuminated for me how members of Congress conceive of scientific research. I also met with many physicists on Capitol Hill working to improve government interest in physics research -- AAAS Fellows, Members of Congress, and Government Relations Specialists -- and I will talk about how I saw physicists impacting governmental policies relating to scientific research and development. This internship is part of the Society of Physics Students internship program and was funded by the John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts. This work was part of the Society of Physics Students internship Program.

  7. A rational approach to formulating public policy on substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Trunkey, Donald D; Bonnono, Carol

    2005-09-01

    Unlike alcohol, which is legal and regulated, current public policy makes drugs such as heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, and marijuana illegal. This article summarizes the history of drug and alcohol use in the United States, compares our public policies on alcohol to those on drugs, and shows the direct link between alcohol or drug use and crime, corruption, violence, and health problems in other countries and in our own. A rational approach to formulating a workable public policy is presented. PMID:16355066

  8. Aligning Food Systems Policies to Advance Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mark; Tagtow, Angie; Roberts, Susan L.; MacDougall, Erin

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of public health professionals in food and agricultural policy provides tremendous opportunities for advancing the public's health. It is particularly challenging, however, for professionals to understand and consider the numerous policy drivers that impact the food system, which range from agricultural commodity policies to local food safety ordinances. Confronted with this complexity in the food system, policy advocates often focus on narrow objectives with disregard for the larger system. This commentary contends that, in order to be most effective, public health professionals need to consider the full range of interdependent policies that affect the system. Food policy councils have proven to be an effective tool, particularly at the local and state level, for developing comprehensive food systems policies that can improve public health. PMID:23144671

  9. The State of Asian Pacific America: Policy Issues to the Year 2020. A Public Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    Nineteen chapters consider major public policy implications for demographic projections of the Asian Pacific American population to the year 2020. A preface by D. T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama introduces the studies. Policy recommendations from the Asian American Public Policy Institute follow, recommending multiculturalism and intracultural…

  10. Successful public policy change in California: firearms and youth resources.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Lawrence; Winett, Liana; Lee, Amy

    2005-07-01

    The California Wellness Foundation's Violence Prevention Initiative (VPI) was a 70 million dollars, 10-year effort to reduce violence among California youth. The Policy and Public Education Program of the initiative advanced two broad policy goals: (1) limiting the availability of handguns to youth, (2) increasing the state's investment in youth resources. Roughly 110 communities passed more than 300 ordinances to limit gun availability or promote gun safety. In addition, California legislators passed 24 statewide gun laws. Funding for youth programs increased to more that 368 million dollars in 2002-03, from about 100 million dollars in 1996-97. Using a framework adapted from the social movements and political communications literature the importance of four key elements was apparent in the VPI: articulating clear policy goals, strategic issue framing, capitalizing on political opportunity, and effectively mobilizing resources. The impact of new gun policies, increased funding for youth programs, and a diverse network of policy professionals and issue advocates interested in social change to decrease violence remain to be fully understood. PMID:16022213

  11. Multiple gestations: some public policy issues.

    PubMed

    Jennings, P K; Callahan, J C

    2001-01-01

    Multiple gestations, or multifetal pregnancies, raise a number of significant policy questions concerning the well being of women and the well being of the children fetuses might become. Important questions for feminists pertain not only to multifetal pregnancy itself, but also to the medical interventions associated with these pregnancies. In this paper, we address the questions of how many embryos should be transferred in assisted reproduction, how many fetuses should remain in a multiple gestation, who should make these decisions, and the need to protect women from overexposure to exogenous hormones. Although we focus on assisted reproduction in the United States, we believe that our suggestions are applicable to other countries where the technology is comparable. PMID:11561995

  12. Reproductive Toxicology: From Science to Public Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male reproductive toxicology research substantially influences policies that protect men's health. US policy directs regulatory agencies to ensure environmental protection for vulnerable groups, including boys and men where factors like age- and sex-specific sensitivities are app...

  13. From 'trust us' to participatory governance: Deliberative publics and science policy.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen a shift from the view that publics need to be educated so that they trust science and its governance to the recognition that publics possess important local knowledge and the capacity to understand technical information sufficiently to participate in policy decisions. There are now a variety of approaches to increasing the role of publics and advocacy groups in the policy and governance of science and biotechnology. This article considers recent experiences that demonstrate that it is possible to bring together those with policy making responsibility and diverse publics to co-produce policy and standards of practice that are technically informed, incorporate wide social perspectives and explicitly involve publics in key decisions. Further, the process of deliberation involving publics is capable of being incorporated into governance structures to enhance the capacity to respond to emerging issues with levels of public engagement that are proportionate to the issues. PMID:24434712

  14. Evidence synthesis, economics and public policy.

    PubMed

    Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Vale, Luke; Marsh, Kevin; Donaldson, Cam; Drummond, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Systematic reviews and syntheses of evidence are increasingly used to inform public policy decisions. Growing budgetary pressures mean that decision makers often need to consider evidence on the costs and efficiency of alternatives as well as their effects. There are a number of methodological challenges in the identification, appraisal, synthesis, interpretation and use of economic evidence. This article draws on a recently published edited volume to review the latest developments, proposals and controversies in these aspects of economic evidence synthesis methodology. It focuses on two broad classes of approach: systematic review to summarize and compare the findings of existing economic analyses and synthesis of new economic results using decision models. The availability and scope of economic evidence is currently limited in many fields, but improving. Increased engagement between economists, the wider evidence synthesis community, and decision makers is needed to improve both the production and use of economic evidence. Further research to improve the evidence base that underpins application of economic evidence synthesis methodology will need to embrace a broader range of methods than economic evaluation and systematic review alone. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26061378

  15. Patient's perspective and public policy regarding anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Furlong, Anne

    2004-01-01

    It is estimated that dose to 7 million Americans have food allergy. The incidence of food allergy, particularly peanut allergy, is believed to be on the rise. Several studies have shown that in spite of a patient's best efforts to avoid ingesting the allergy-causing food, reactions will occur. These reactions occur from incorrect ingredient information in food service or restaurant settings, incorrect product labels, or mistakes in label reading. In the hospital setting, patients are sometimes treated for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergency room but are not given instructions to see a specialist to determine the cause of their reaction, nor are they given a prescription for epinephrine to arm them to treat future allergic emergencies. Two studies of fatal and near fatal allergic reactions concluded that a delay in administration of epinephrine could have been a factor in the fatal outcomes. However, schools often do not have written emergency action plans in place for children with documented food allergy, and patients and caregivers often report not knowing when to use the epinephrine kit or how to use it. Until there is a cure for food allergy and anaphylaxis, avoidance of the allergen is key. There is much work to be done in education and public policy regarding anaphylaxis. PMID:15025404

  16. How energy policies affect public health.

    PubMed Central

    Romm, J J; Ervin, C A

    1996-01-01

    The connection between energy policy and increased levels of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease has become clearer in the past few years. People living in cities with high levels of pollution have a higher risk of mortality than those living in less polluted cities. The pollutants most directly linked to increased morbidity and mortality include ozone, particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen. Energy-related emissions generate the vast majority of these polluting chemicals. Technologies to prevent pollution in the transportation, manufacturing, building, and utility sectors can significantly reduce these emissions while reducing the energy bills of consumers and businesses. In short, clean energy technologies represent a very cost-effective investment in public health. Some 72% of the Federal government's investment in the research, development, and demonstration of pollution prevention technologies is made by the Department of Energy, with the largest share provided by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This article will examine the connections between air pollution and health problems and will discuss what the Department of Energy is doing to prevent air pollution now and in the future. Images p390-a p391-a p392-a p393-a p394-a p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8837627

  17. Single-Sex Education. A Public Policy Issue. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Abbe; And Others

    This article reports a study of the public policy implications of publicly supported primary and secondary single-sex education in the United States. Twenty-two public intellectuals concerned with educational issues were interviewed. Subjects were either academic researchers, government officials and legislators, directors of public interest…

  18. Scholars, Dollars, and Public Policy: New Frontiers in Corporate Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W.; And Others

    Financial contributions by American corporations that are designed to influence domestic or foreign policies are discussed. After identifying ways that business corporations can influence either general policy or particular decisions, a brief history of corporate philanthrophy in the United States and financial support for public policy purposes…

  19. Balance, Diversity and Ethics in Public Policy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul B.

    Public policy for agriculture and natural resources must change as farming and the use of resources change, but policy also changes to reflect new understandings. The new understandings that will shape future agricultural policy may not come from food producers or agricultural scientists, and may not assume that expanding production is the primary…

  20. What Are Nebraska's Public Policies on Funding Postsecondary Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, Lincoln.

    This document explores Nebraska's current public policies and practices that impact the funding of postsecondary education. These policies and practices have developed over time in response to the needs of the state. Many of the policies are statute and have not been formally adopted, but are reflective of legislative practice, past patterns…

  1. Child Care and Public Policy: A Dilemma at All Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Tom

    This report provides an analysis of public policy issues associated with state and federal child care developments, laws, regulations, and bills. It is intended to aid policy makers, government officials, consumers, and practitioners of child care programs. The report examines three major areas of policy: (1) federal legislative action which…

  2. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dorothee; Harting, Janneke; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Jantine; de Vries, Nanne; Stronks, Karien

    2016-06-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a continuum of less-to-more policy integration, going from intersectoral action (IA) to healthy public policy (HPP) to health in all policies (HiAP). Our case study included 34 municipal projects of the Dutch Gezonde Slagkracht Programme (2009-15), which supports the development and implementation of IPHP on overweight, alcohol and drug abuse, and smoking. Our content analysis of project application forms and interviews with all project leaders used a framework approach involving the policy strategies and the following policy variables: initiator, actors, policy goals, determinants and policy instruments. Most projects showed a combination of policy strategies. However, manifestations of IPHP in overweight projects predominantly involved IA. More policy integration was apparent in alcohol/drugs projects (HPP) and in all-theme projects (HiAP). More policy integration was related to broad goal definitions, which allowed for the involvement of actors representing several policy sectors. This enabled the implementation of a mix of policy instruments. Determinants of health were not explicitly used as a starting point of the policy process. If a policy problem justifies policy integration beyond IA, it might be helpful to start from the determinants of health (epidemiological reality), systematically transform them into policy (policy reality) and set broad policy goals, since this gives actors from other sectors the opportunity to participate. PMID:25500994

  3. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States. PMID:26669416

  4. Public Policy and Educating Handicapped Persons. A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Maynard C., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The volume presents proceedings from a 1981 conference on public policy issues in the education of handicapped children. Four major presentations are followed by reactions. Presenters were asked to address issues involving the nature and effectiveness of the current system for serving handicapped students, contributions of public policy to…

  5. Juvenile Justice and Public Policy: Toward a National Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ira M., Ed.

    Some of the most critical and troubling issues in juvenile justice are addressed to serve as a catalyst and resource for developing sound juvenile justice public policy decisions. The following chapters examine juvenile court policies, special issues, and cost-effective interventions, and present findings of a national survey of public attitudes…

  6. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  7. Public Policy and Teacher Education in Brazil after 1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Selva

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates public policy concerning teacher education in Brazil. It is a critical rereading of historical documents focusing on laws, legal documents, projects, institutional and public policies and teaching careers developed by the Brazilian state, as well as social and scientific organisations. Emphasis is given to current…

  8. Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

  9. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  10. Manual of Library Policies. PNLA Special Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Anne, Ed.; Johnston, Gail, Ed.

    Both general and miscellaneous policy statements from 47 public libraries of the Pacific Northwest Library Association have been compiled in this manual. Among topics covered by "general" policies are board of trustees, buildings, confidentiality of circulation records, displays, gifts, materials selection, personnel, public relations, and…

  11. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  12. Healthy food procurement policy: an important intervention to aid the reduction in chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm; Duhaney, Tara; Arango, Manuel; Ashley, Lisa A; Bacon, Simon L; Gelfer, Mark; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Mang, Eric; Morris, Dorothy; Nagpal, Seema; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Willis, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, unhealthy diets were estimated to be the leading risk for death and disability in Canada and globally. Although important, policies aimed at improving individual's skills in selecting and eating healthy foods has had a limited effect. Policies that create healthy eating environments are strongly recommended but have not yet been effectively and/or broadly implemented in Canada. Widespread adoption of healthy food procurement policies are strongly recommended in this policy statement from the Hypertension Advisory Committee with support from 15 major national health organizations. The policy statement calls on governments to take a leadership role, but also outlines key roles for the commercial and noncommercial sectors including health and scientific organizations and the Canadian public. The policy statement is based on a systematic review of healthy food procurement interventions that found them to be almost uniformly effective at improving sales and purchases of healthy foods. Successful food procurement policies are nearly always accompanied by supporting education programs and some by pricing policies. Ensuring access and availability to affordable healthy foods and beverages in public and private sector settings could play a substantive role in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases and health risks such as obesity, hypertension, and ultimately improve cardiovascular health. PMID:25442442

  13. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 2005 and 2006. Public Policy Paper Series No. 05-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the eighth in the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) biennial series summarizing federal and state public-policy issues affecting higher education. This document's list of top public-policy issues comprises a daunting inventory for boards and chief executives to consider. Security demands of the…

  14. Understanding Policy: Why Health Education Policy Is Important and Why It Does Not Appear to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian; Rich, Emma; DePian, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on research investigating the impact of health imperatives around obesity, diet and exercise on the actions of teachers and pupils in schools, this paper offers a reflexive account of the relationships between the "noise" of obesity discourse in the public domain, policies forged to tackle health issues and the realities of teaching in…

  15. Essays on Causal Inference for Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    Effective policymaking requires understanding the causal effects of competing proposals. Relevant causal quantities include proposals' expected effect on different groups of recipients, the impact of policies over time, the potential trade-offs between competing objectives, and, ultimately, the optimal policy. This dissertation studies causal…

  16. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C J E; Edmunds, W J; Lessler, J

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014). Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges. PMID:25843392

  17. Tobacco industry tactics for resisting public policy on health.

    PubMed Central

    Saloojee, Y.; Dagli, E.

    2000-01-01

    The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Formerly secret internal tobacco industry documents provide evidence of a 50-year conspiracy to "resist smoking restrictions, restore smoker confidence and preserve product liability defence". The documents reveal industry-wide collusion on legal, political and socially important issues to the tobacco industry and clearly demonstrate that the industry is not disposed to act ethically or responsibly. Societal action is therefore required to ensure that the public health takes precedence over corporate profits. Recommendations for reducing the political influence of the tobacco industry include the following. Every tobacco company in every market should publicly disclose what it knew about the addictiveness and harm caused by tobacco, when it obtained this information, and what it did about it. The industry should be required to guarantee internationally recognized basic consumer rights to its customers. Trade associations and other industry groupings established to deceive the public should be disbanded. These recommendations should be incorporated into WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:10994263

  18. The future of public health: the importance of workforce

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Vivian; Watson, Rebecca; Oldenburg, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Health workforce has become a major concern and a significant health policy issue around the world in recent years. With recent international and national initiatives and models being developed and implemented in Australia and other countries, it is timely to understand the need and the rationale for a better trained and educated public health workforce for the future. Much more attention should also be given to evaluation and research in this field. Through this thematic series on Workforce and Public Health, we have drawn on the diverse nature of public health, workforce implications, education and training and national and international case examples of ongoing improvements and issues in this sector. PMID:19358709

  19. Public health understandings of policy and power: lessons from INSITE.

    PubMed

    Fafard, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health problem, one that is most acutely felt in major cities around the globe. Harm reduction and safe injection sites are an attempt to address this problem and are at the cutting edge of public health policy and practice. One of the most studied safe injection sites is INSITE located in Vancouver, British Columbia. Using INSITE as a case study, this paper argues that knowledge translation offers a limited framework for understanding the development of public health policy. This paper also argues that the experience of INSITE suggests that science and social justice, the meta-ideas that lie at the core of the public health enterprise, are an inadequate basis for a theory of public health policy making. However, on a more positive note, INSITE also shows the value of concepts drawn from the ways in which political science analyzes the policy process. PMID:22549176

  20. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. This brief also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  1. Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…

  2. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  3. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  4. Environment and economy: Property rights and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    For much of its history, environmental economics has sought to modify public policy in order to achieve efficient use and management of environmental resources. The results of this attempt, however, have been dismaying for the most part, and environment public policy continues to differ from the course of action prescribed by economic analysis. Some economists have begun to acknowledge that the reasons for this gap between economic theory and public policy may lie in environmental economics itself rather than in poor policy choices. That is the message sent in this book by Daniel Bromley, who joins S.V. Ciriacy-Wantrup, Allan Schmid, and others in a strong internal critique of the discipline and, in particular, of the property rights school' of Coase, Demsetz, and other advocates of the market. Property rights are the common thread of this critique, which blames much of the failure of environmental economics to influence environmental policy on several fundamental misconceptions regarding property.

  5. Policy Education: Making a Difference in the Public Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carol L.; Miles, C. Sue

    1990-01-01

    Extension home economists have a role in public policy education regarding the individual and family concerns of their constituencies. Examples of their involvement include the issues of housing for the elderly, prenatal care, child care needs, and waste disposal. (SK)

  6. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse. PMID:25239857

  7. Can Food be Addictive? Public Health and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Grilo, Carlos M.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Data suggest that hyperpalatable foods may be capable of triggering an addictive process. Although the addictive potential of foods continues to be debated, important lessons learned in reducing the health and economic consequences of drug addiction may be especially useful in combating food-related problems. Methods In the current paper, we review the potential application of policy and public health approaches that have been effective in reducing the impact of addictive substances to food-related problems. Results Corporate responsibility, public health approaches, environmental change, and global efforts all warrant strong consideration in reducing obesity and diet-related disease. Conclusions Although there exist important differences between foods and addictive drugs, ignoring analogous neural and behavioral effects of foods and drugs of abuse may result in increased food-related disease and associated social and economic burdens. Public health interventions that have been effective in reducing the impact of addictive drugs may have a role in targeting obesity and related diseases. PMID:21635588

  8. Reducing tobacco consumption: public policy alternatives for Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, B G

    1988-01-01

    The costs of smoking are extensive, not only in fiscal terms but also in terms of human suffering. A review of several major public policies reveals that concerted efforts by all levels of government and by the public can have an effect on the rate of consumption of tobacco. Specifically, increases in price through taxation, anti-smoking messages, restrictions on smoking behaviour and increased public pressure are effective in reducing smoking. Serious joint efforts in the area of public policy should be pursued to control the effects of this hazardous practice in Canada. PMID:3342358

  9. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  10. Using Research Evidence to Inform Public Policy Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Charles; Kleinert, Harold; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Hall, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The application of scientific data in the development and implementation of sound public policy is a well-established practice, but there appears to be less consensus on the nature of the strategies that can and should be used to incorporate research data into policy decisions. This paper describes the promise and the challenges of using research…

  11. Coping with Recession: Public Policy, Economic Downturns and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Patrick M.

    This paper discusses recession and the major policy considerations that states and institutions must face in the current economic downturn. It explores the public policy implications of three major variables: (1) each of the 50 states has a unique higher education system; (2) each state also has a unique revenue and budgetary process; and (3) each…

  12. Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools: Unintended Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corn, Jacqueline Karnell

    This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how and why action was taken and who caused it to be taken; it also offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining…

  13. Connecting active living research and public policy: transdisciplinary research and policy interventions to increase physical activity.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Joseph M; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, James F

    2009-01-01

    National and international organizations recommend creation of environments that support physical activity where people live, work, play, study, and travel. Policy changes can lead to activity-supportive environments and incentives. Research on environmental and policy influences on physical activity is well underway in many countries. An important use of the research is to inform policy debates, but the "translation" of research to policy is an emerging science. The papers in this supplement were presented at the 2008 Active Living Research Conference whose theme was "Connecting Active Living Research to Policy Solutions." The papers include evaluations of policy initiatives and research that suggests promising new policies. Commentaries propose principles for improving the translation of research to policy. Improving the rigor of research, asking policy-relevant questions, presenting country-specific data, and effectively communicating findings to policy makers are likely to contribute to greater impact of research on policy processes. PMID:19190567

  14. Kitzmiller v. Dover: A Public Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The Intelligent Design Movement has attempted to infuse Intelligent Design into the curriculum of public schools ever since the Edwards decision, which ruled that "creation science" was a violation of the the "Establishment Clause. Kitzmiller v. Dover" was the first legal case to challenge the teaching of Intelligent Design in public schools. In…

  15. Defining Cable Television: Structuration and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Patrick R.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests Anthony Giddens' theory of "structuration" offers a framework for the study of social activity that will help analyze the process of reification. Demonstrates the usefulness of structuration to policy analysis and explores the evolution and consequences of definitions of cable television prior to the "blue sky" era. (MS)

  16. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  17. Drug Policy of the Framingham Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    The policy of the Framingham School System with respect to drug use and abuse is to establish a climate within its schools that is conducive to the understanding and respect for the proper use of drugs and an attitude toward nonabuse of drugs. To achieve this climate, some basic measures described in this report were taken. One measure was to set…

  18. Public Higher Education and Undocumented Students: A Public Policy Morass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ane Turner; Janosik, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Public concerns regarding illegal immigration are currently polarizing the United States. Regardless of one's position, the children of illegal (also referred to as undocumented) immigrants are in a particularly vulnerable situation. While undocumented children are allowed free public primary and secondary education, their path to skills…

  19. Tasks of Technical and Public Policy Experts in Educational R&D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Edmund C.

    In order to develop and implement new governmental policies in educational research and development (R&D) which meet the needs of R&D specialists and the concerns of the public, it is important to understand the complexity of the research-development-knowledge utilization cycle and to develop a strategy which serves the public interest but…

  20. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Jason, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Debating Education: Obama and Romney Promote Education Records, Importance of Education to the Economy and Public Safety During…

  1. Sex Crimes, Children, and Pornography: Public Views and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake

    2008-01-01

    "Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…

  2. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  3. The Single Parent and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Alvin L.; Moen, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    Single parent families are misrepresented to the general public and to themselves. Issues change focus if one views single parenthood as a normal and permanent feature of our social landscape. (Author/EB)

  4. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    O’Flynn, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes.

  5. Essays in social choice and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Francis William

    2000-10-01

    Information is claimed to be a necessary element in order to facilitate vote trading. In this dissertation I test for the effect of information on vote trading, coalition size and legislative behavior. Using a difference in differences approach to measure the impact of information on coalition size I find support for Professor Riker's claim that coalition size falls as information improves. I also discover that legislators abstain strategically when the secret vote is no longer available. I use a Fixed Effects model to test for the effects of information on spending and logrolling. My results indicate that spending does indeed increase after the improvement in information. Finally, using an industry level model, I simulate the impact of various policy tools on the price of renewable energy. My results indicate that no single policy tool can offer wind energy the aid it needs in order to compete in our deregulated energy markets.

  6. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1994. [National Public Policy Education Conference (44th, Boise, Idaho, September 18-21, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

    The National Public Policy Education Conference is held annually to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The 1994 conference addressed the following topics: (1) ethical perspectives in public policy education; (2) transition of food and agricultural policy; (3) building human…

  7. Policy perspectives on public health for Mexican migrants in California.

    PubMed

    Morin, Stephen F; Carrillo, Héctor; Steward, Wayne T; Maiorana, Andre; Trautwein, Mark; Gómez, Cynthia A

    2004-11-01

    This analysis focuses on public policies that affect primary HIV prevention and access to HIV care for Mexican migrants residing in California. Policy or structural level interventions, as opposed to behavioral or psychologic interventions, help to shape the environment in which people live. We use a conceptual model for policy analysis in public health to understand better the challenges faced by Mexican migrants. We assess potential policy level interventions that may serve as barriers to or facilitators of primary HIV prevention and care for Mexican migrants. Among potential barriers, we discuss restrictions on public health services based on legal immigration status, limits placed on affirmative action in education, and laws limiting travel and immigration. Under potential facilitators, we discuss community and migrant health centers, language access laws, and the use of community-based groups to provide prevention and treatment outreach. We also report on the limited research evaluating the implications of these public policies and ways to organize for more responsive public policies. PMID:15722867

  8. A Graduate Seminar on Science, Public Policy, and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. F.

    2006-12-01

    I offered a seminar course titled, `Science, Public Policy and Outreach' for graduate students of the College of Agricultural and Natural Resources (CASNR) at Texas Tech University. The underlying theme of the course was that today's graduate students in the natural resource management disciplines should be familiar with public policy and public outreach processes in order to be successful professionals of tomorrow. In US system of government, scientific knowledge about an environmental problem does not have much practical impact without a corresponding legislation aimed at solving that problem. Elected officials feel pressure to legislate laws only if their constituents have a strong opinion in favor of solving that problem. Constituents tend to have strong opinion on things that are frequently mentioned in the media. Hence, public policy, outreach through media, and scientific explorations are intertwined in the US system. I invited state and national level policy makers, lobbyists, and radio and television personnel to present their perspectives on this issue and to discuss the roles and potentials for scientists in public policy and outreach processes. Students were divided into groups at the start of the semester. Each group focused on a current resource management topic, researched the policy and outreach issues related to their topic, wrote a well organized essay, and finally made a group presentation of the case study at the end of the semester. I shall present the experience of the class and outcomes of that course in this presentation, with future directions and suggestions for others who are interested to offer similar courses.

  9. AIDS, policy analysis, and the electorate: the role of schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Lashof, J C

    1988-04-01

    Current debates concerning appropriate policy to combat the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have raised critical questions regarding the role that schools of public health and individual public health professionals should play, if any, in AIDS-related policy analysis and social advocacy. In the summer of 1986, the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley initiated a telegram sent by the Deans of all 23 schools of public health to protest US Department of Justice AIDS policy and, in the subsequent fall, the school expanded its public educational role in an unprecedented manner by initiating and issuing, with California's other three schools of public health, a policy analysis of Proposition 64, the LaRouche AIDS Quarantine Initiative. That analysis exposed the proposition's fallacious claims regarding casual transmission of AIDS and served to educate the electorate on the likely public health impact of this deleterious legislation. Based on these experiences, and in light of ongoing national controversy regarding AIDS, we believe schools of public health have an important role to play in policy analysis, and individual public health professionals have a role to play in social advocacy. PMID:3348472

  10. AIDS, policy analysis, and the electorate: the role of schools of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, N; Lashof, J C

    1988-01-01

    Current debates concerning appropriate policy to combat the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have raised critical questions regarding the role that schools of public health and individual public health professionals should play, if any, in AIDS-related policy analysis and social advocacy. In the summer of 1986, the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley initiated a telegram sent by the Deans of all 23 schools of public health to protest US Department of Justice AIDS policy and, in the subsequent fall, the school expanded its public educational role in an unprecedented manner by initiating and issuing, with California's other three schools of public health, a policy analysis of Proposition 64, the LaRouche AIDS Quarantine Initiative. That analysis exposed the proposition's fallacious claims regarding casual transmission of AIDS and served to educate the electorate on the likely public health impact of this deleterious legislation. Based on these experiences, and in light of ongoing national controversy regarding AIDS, we believe schools of public health have an important role to play in policy analysis, and individual public health professionals have a role to play in social advocacy. PMID:3348472

  11. Public participation in regional health policy: a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Wilfreda E; MacKean, Gail; Vollman, Ardene; Casebeer, Ann; Weber, Myron; Maloff, Bretta; Bader, Judy

    2005-09-01

    How best to involve the public in local health policy development and decision-making is an ongoing challenge for health systems. In the current literature on this topic, there is discussion of the lack of rigorous evaluations upon which to draw generalizable conclusions about what public participation methods work best and for what kinds of outcomes. We believe that for evaluation research on public participation to build generalizable claims, some consistency in theoretical framework is needed. A major objective of the research reported on here was to develop such a theoretical framework for understanding public participation in the context of regionalized health governance. The overall research design followed the grounded theory tradition, and included five case studies of public participation initiatives in an urban regional health authority in Canada, as well as a postal survey of community organizations. This particular article describes the theoretical framework developed, with an emphasis on explaining the following major components of the framework: public participation initiatives as a process; policy making processes with a health region; social context as symbolic and political institutions; policy communities; and health of the population as the ultimate outcome of public participation. We believe that this framework is a good beginning to making more explicit the factors that may be considered when evaluating both the processes and outcomes of public participation in health policy development. PMID:16039343

  12. Trends Impacting Public Policy Support for Caregiving Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S.; Biegel, David E.; Ethridge, Brandy L.

    2010-01-01

    Public policy aimed at supporting the caregiving capacity of families has risen to prominence on the public agenda in the United States. Initiatives at the state and federal levels have created some initial services. Three trends that are pushing the issue of family caregiving to the surface are discussed, including large-scale social,…

  13. The Public Policy Pedagogy of Corporate and Alternative News Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Deirdre M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues for seeing in-depth news coverage of political, social, and economic issues as "public policy pedagogy." To develop my argument, I draw on Nancy Fraser's democratic theory, which attends to social differences and does not assume that unity is a starting point or an end goal of public dialogue. Alongside the formation of…

  14. The Role of Public Policy in Worker Training in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croce, Giuseppe; Montanino, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The training received by workers depends predominantly on the organisational choices and funds allocated by businesses. It is therefore justifiable to ask whether public policy should either endorse the spontaneous distribution of training or take measures to correct it. This paper analyses the motivations and limitations of public intervention,…

  15. Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Eight essays address a range of topics including government serials and economic analysis, crime statistics and the F.B.I., nuclear holocaust and public policy, the history of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, Congressman William Steiger and the Congressional Record, and the public papers of Richard Nixon. (EM)

  16. Fidelity in Public Education Policy: Reclaiming the Deweyan Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth-Schai, Ruthanne

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the legacy of John Dewey, reconsidered and reconstructed within the challenging context of neo-liberal globalization. A free-market approach to the delivery of public education and other social services has come to dominate public policy, with increasingly well-documented and potentially devastating consequences. As prospects…

  17. Introduction: public policy and the urbanization of farmland

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.S.

    1982-12-01

    Public debate over farmland conversion has focused on the magnitude, the social costs, and whether public land-use policies are appropriate and effective. A review of the problems of farmland protection and equity concludes that the issues are best dealt with at a local level, and that excessive urbanization of good farmland is not the primary problem. 21 references. (DCK)

  18. Taking the Public Pulse: Cautions for Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reindl, Travis

    2004-01-01

    As the economic and social capital of higher education continue to rise, so too does interest in how the public views colleges and universities and the policies affecting them. A number of organizations have recently put a finger on the public pulse, asking about access, prices, priorities, and a host of other issues. One series of polls in…

  19. Succeeding in Science Communication amid Contentious Public Policy Debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists are often hesitant to engage in public dialogues about their work, especially when their research has bearing on contentious public policy issues. The Union of Concerned Scientists has conducted dozens of workshops to assist its members in communicating science fairly, accurately and effectively to audiences with mixed opinions about relevant public policy. While public polling indicates that people admire scientists and support scientific research, public understanding lags behind scientific understanding on a variety of issues, from climate change to evolution to vaccination. In many cases, people reject or discount scientific evidence when they perceive their ideology, beliefs or policy preferences as being in conflict with that evidence. These biases make it difficult for scientists to convey their research to many audiences. Based on reviews of social science literature and interactions with its members, the Union of Concerned Scientists has explored methods for surmounting public ideological biases while staying true to the science. In particular, scientists have found success with communicating based on shared values, asking audience members questions about their reactions to science, avoiding unintentional invocation of ideological biases and partnering with non-scientist speakers who can address contentious public policy questions. These methods can allow scientists to more effectively collaborate with stakeholders interested in their research and can build public support for science.

  20. Research Ethics Review: Identifying Public Policy and Program Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Strosberg, Martin A.; Gefenas, Eugenijus; Famenka, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical frame-work for use by fellows of the Fogarty International Center–sponsored Advanced Certificate Program in Research Ethics for Central and Eastern Europe to identify gaps in the public policies establishing research ethics review systems that impede them from doing their job of protecting human research subjects. The framework, illustrated by examples from post-Communist countries, employs a logic model based on the public policy and public management literature. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum program. PMID:24782068

  1. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  2. Anthrax Vaccine and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Martin Meyer; Weiss, Peter D.; Weiss, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified Bacillus anthracis, the causative organism of anthrax, as a category A potential bioterrorism agent. There are critical shortcomings in the US anthrax vaccine program. Rather than depending on the private sector, the government must assume direct production of anthrax vaccine. The development of a capacity capable of preemptive immunization of the public against anthrax should be considered. PMID:17901434

  3. Chronic disease prevention policy in British Columbia and Ontario in light of public health renewal: a comparative policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    different philosophical approaches underlying the two frameworks. These differences and possible explanations for them are important to understand because they serve to contextualize the differences in health outcomes across the two provinces that might eventually be observed. This analysis informs future public health policy directions as the two provinces can learn from each other. PMID:24099140

  4. Public policy for solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Recent analyses indicated that solar heating and cooling systems for residential buildings are nearly economically competitive with conventional fossil fuel or electric systems, the former having higher initial cost but a lower operating cost than the latter. The paper examines obstacles to the widespread acceptance and use of solar space conditioning systems and explores some general policies which could help to overcome them. The discussion covers such institutional barriers limiting the adoption of solar technologies as existing building codes, financing constraints, and organizational structure of the building industry. The potential impact of financial incentives is analyzed. It is noted that a tax incentive of 25% could speed the use of solar energy by 7 to 8 years and produce an 8% reduction in fossil fuel use by 1990. A preliminary incentive package which could be helpful in promoting solar energy both at federal and state levels is proposed, and the necessary incentive level is analysed.

  5. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary

  6. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Texas Trilogy on Public Education and Taxes. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCown, F. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. It also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  7. An Analysis of Public Relations Policy Development in Selected Public School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Phillip T.

    In response to school districts' needs to improve public confidence in the schools, researchers surveyed 74 public relations directors in 147 districts in 25 states to determine the key ingredients for developing a model public relations policy. Respondents ranked 93 paired statements on both what "are" and what "ought to be" their districts'…

  8. Public health: disconnections between policy, practice and research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health includes policy, practice and research but to sufficiently connect academic research, practice and public health policy appears to be difficult. Collaboration between policy, practice and research is imperative to obtaining more solid evidence in public health. However, the three domains do not easily work together because they emanate from three more or less independent 'niches'. Work cycles of each niche have the same successive steps: problem recognition, approach formulation, implementation, and evaluation, but are differently worked out. So far, the research has focused on agenda-setting which belongs to the first step, as expressed by Kingdon, and on the use of academic knowledge in policy makers' decision-making processes which belongs to the fourth step, as elaborated by Weiss. In addition, there are more steps in the policy-making process where exchange is needed. Method A qualitative descriptive research was conducted by literature search. We analyzed the four steps of the policy, practice and research work cycles. Next, we interpreted the main conflicting aspects as disconnections for each step. Results There are some conspicuous differences that strengthen the niche character of each domain and hamper integration and collaboration. Disconnections ranged from formulating priorities in problem statements to power roles, appraisal of evidence, work attitudes, work pace, transparency of goals, evaluation and continuation strategies and public accountability. Creating awareness of these disconnections may result in more compatibility between researchers, policy makers and practitioners. Conclusion We provide an analysis that can be used by public health services-related researchers, practitioners and policy makers to be aware of the risk for disconnections. A synthesis of the social, practical and scientific relevance of public health problems should be the starting point for a dialogue that seeks to establish a joint approach. To

  9. Snakes and ladders: state interventions and the place of liberty in public health policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper I outline and explore some problems in the way that the Nuffield Council of Bioethics' report Public Health: Ethical Issues (2007) presents its 'Intervention Ladder'. They see the metaphor of a ladder both as capturing key normative priorities and as making a real and important contribution to ethical policymaking in public health. In this paper I argue that the intervention ladder is not a useful model for thinking about policy decisions, that it is likely to produce poor decisions and that it is incompatible with the report's stated approach to relevant public health policy values. PMID:27215764

  10. Policy feedbacks and the impact of policy designs on public opinion.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Andrea Louise

    2011-12-01

    A recently developed analytic approach--policy feedback effects--provides health policy analysts with a crucial new tool for understanding the politics of health policy. Three cases--senior citizens' opposition to the Obama health care reform, tax breaks for employer-provided health insurance, and the Medicare Part D prescription drug program--demonstrate how policy designs affect subsequent policy outcomes. To differing degrees, the three cases show how public policies can create constituencies with particular understandings of their benefits who attempt to thwart reform; can highlight or reduce the visibility of the government role in health care, shaping attitudes about the worth of government action; and can provide half solutions that fail to maximize beneficiary welfare but that deflate momentum for policy improvements. The cases illustrate a general pattern revealed by wide-ranging research on policy feedback effects: the designs of public policies influence preferences and alter patterns of political mobilization, effects that feed back into the political system, shaping the political environment and the possibilities for future policy making. PMID:22232420

  11. Advancing Public Health Obesity Policy Through State Attorneys General

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity. PMID:21233428

  12. European regulatory policies on medicines and public health needs.

    PubMed

    Li Bassi, Luca; Bertele, Vittorio; Garattini, Silvio

    2003-09-01

    The establishment of the EMEA has been a revolutionary step in the European pharmaceutical system. The 15 Member States of the European Union now share a common system for the evaluation of new medicinal products entering the European market. The decisions taken apply to the whole EU, with important implications for both industry and patients who may benefit from new therapies. The main immediate consequences of this system are: i) the time and effort saved by Member States in the evaluation of new drug applications; ii) more consistent and quicker availability of medicines in EU countries; iii) the establishment of a homogeneous regulatory policy throughout the EU. Public health has been presented as the fundamental concern of the EMEA, the mission statement of which is 'to promote the protection of human health ... and of consumers of medicinal products'. However, we note that there are some inconsistencies with this objective and the current system, such as those regarding drug trial requirements and the institutional location and financing of the EMEA. In this paper, some aspects of the new system are reviewed and consideration given as to how they relate to public health needs. Proposals are made for debate alternatives and improvements to the present system that would better respond to patients' health needs. PMID:14533728

  13. The place of public inquiries in shaping New Zealand's national mental health policy 1858–1996

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, Warwick

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the role of public inquiries as an instrument of public policy-making in New Zealand, using mental health as a case study. The main part of the paper analyses the processes and outcomes of five general inquiries into the state of New Zealand's mental health services that were held between 1858 and 1996. Results The membership, form, style and processes used by public inquiries have all changed over time in line with constitutional and social trends. So has the extent of public participation. The records of five inquiries provide periodic snapshots of a system bedevilled by long-standing problems such as unacceptable standards, under-resourcing, and poor co-ordination. Demands for an investigation no less than the reports and recommendations of public inquiries have been the catalyst of some important policy changes, if not immediately, then by creating a climate of opinion that supported later change. Inquiries played a significant role in establishing lunatic asylums, in shaping the structure of mental health legislation, establishing and maintaining a national mental health bureaucracy within the machinery of government, and in paving the way for deinstitutionalisation. Ministers and their departmental advisers have mediated this contribution. Conclusion Public inquiries have helped shape New Zealand's mental health policy, both directly and indirectly, at different stages of evolution. In both its advisory and investigative forms, the public inquiry remains an important tool of public administration. The inquiry/cause and policy/effect relationship is not necessarily immediate but may facilitate changes in public opinion with corresponding policy outcomes long after any direct causal link could be determined. When considered from that long-term perspective, the five inquiries can be linked to several significant and long-term contributions to mental health policy in New Zealand. PMID:16216131

  14. A model for training public health workers in health policy: the Nebraska Health Policy Academy.

    PubMed

    Brandert, Kathleen; McCarthy, Claudine; Grimm, Brandon; Svoboda, Colleen; Palm, David; Stimpson, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that health goals are more likely to be achieved and sustained if programs are complemented by appropriate changes in the policies, systems, and environments that shape their communities. However, the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to create and implement policy are among the major needs identified by practitioners at both the state and local levels. This article describes the structure and content of the Nebraska Health Policy Academy (the Academy), a 9-month program developed to meet the demand for this training. The Academy is a competency-based training program that aims to increase the capacity of Nebraska's state and local public health staff and their community partners to use public health policy and law as a public health tool. Our initiative allows for participation across a large, sparsely populated state; is grounded in adult learning theory; introduces the key principles and practices of policy, systems, and environmental change; and is offered free of charge to the state's public health workforce. Challenges and lessons learned when offering workforce development on public health policy efforts are discussed. PMID:24831286

  15. Career Development and Public Policy in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Jean

    Three conditions characterize employment in France today: (1) high unemployment; (2) the importance of degrees in employment; and (3) significant differences between the sexes. The differences between national government initiatives and regional issues also are of concern. The main strategic issues facing career development focus on reducing…

  16. [The contributions of local authorities to regional public health policy].

    PubMed

    de Maria, Florence; Grémy, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Local authorities in France are key players in shaping public health policy by their action on the determinants of health and through their actions aimed at specific population groups. Since the public health act of 9 August 2004 establishing the first regional public health plans, their level of involvement and role continues to grow as coordinators, funders and project managers within the greater Paris metropolitan region. Their active participation in regional policy to improve population health and reduce inequalities in health has led to a better organization of the public health programs implemented (in terms of visibility, dialogue, coordination, transparency, and better awareness of context and integration of local issues). Their participation is also a source of innovation resulting in the proposal and use of new approaches (such as the development of health surveillance and observation for advising the local decision-making process). Within the current context of the "Hospitals, patients, health and territories" bill, which entrusts the governance of regional health policy to a specific agency, the role given to local authorities in this new organizational structure must be clearly defined to take into account all of their existing and potential contributions to public health policy. PMID:20218412

  17. Biological diversity conservation: A public policy perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipkin, James

    1996-11-01

    While extinctions of individual species are part of a normal cycle, the current rate of extinctions should be a concern to us all. The maintenance of biological diversity is important for utilitarian reasons, quality of life considerations, and because biodiversity is important to sustainable regional economies. Single-species approaches are too limited to protect biodiversity at the landscape, habitat, and watershed levels. New approaches are necessary to deal with the complexity of biological diversity. The administration is using provisions in the Endangered Species Act to bring about broader multispecies habitat protection. The ecosystem approach provides a framework for ensuring that ecological considerations are taken into account, along with economic and social factors, and that all interested parties are able to participate in the decision-making process.

  18. Macroeconomics and public policy. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Taliaferro, R.T.

    1982-12-01

    Any industrial economy is limited in what it can produce by its natural endowments, its labor force, the state of its technology, its productive plant capacity and the exchange it makes of some of its output for that of the other national economies of the world. The value of its gross national product relative to its population is one measure of the economic well being of a nation. Within the institutional framework of an economy, the value of any one final good or service is basically determined by its desirability relative to other goods and services among all those who can exert a demand for it in the marketplace. In an industrialized economy in the short run, demand for output and ability to produce output are seldom precisely synchronized and resultingly the growth that accumulating capital makes possible is hampered by persistent unemployment. At the same time, the industrialized economy is unable to provide on its own certain goods and services essential to its existence. Consequently, central government is called upon to intervene, compensating for the deficiencies so that the economy grows while producing over the short run at high employment while allocating some of its output to essential public goods and services.

  19. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  20. Public Policy, Science, and Environmental Risk. Brookings Dialogues on Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panem, Sandra, Ed.

    This workshop explored the complex issues involved in scientific measurement of environmental risk. Specific purposes were to articulate policy issues that concern the use of scientific data in environmental risk assessment and to contribute to the dialogue from which better policy might emerge. Viewpoints of workshop participants from the…

  1. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy. PMID:23318750

  2. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Merry, Carroll E., Ed.

    This document contains abstracts and the complete texts of 19 papers that were presented at a conference held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The following papers are included: "Microwave Society and Crock-Pot Government" (Bill Graves); "Citizen Participation, Social Capital and…

  3. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  4. Information Policy: Public Laws from the 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on House Administration.

    This compilation of abstracts provides brief descriptions of the 74 new public laws relating to computers and information policy that were enacted during the 95th Congress. Each of these bills is concerned with information, although the diverse subject matter--e.g., energy and clean water, food and health, foreign investments, ethics in…

  5. Top Public Policy Issues for Higher Education: 2015-2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This is the 13th paper in the Association of Governing Boards (AGB's) series summarizing federal and state public policy issues affecting higher education. Governing boards, institutional and university-system leaders, and senior staffs will find it useful for board discussions and retreats and in formulating institutional responses to these…

  6. A Policy Analysis of Public School Retirement Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tara; Teeter, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this policy analysis was to examine the Missouri Public School Retirement System (PSRS). The team investigated the under-funding of PSRS, relating to sustainability and the feasibility of the system's use of one lever, contribution rate, to stabilize the retirement system, and to meet actuary needs and governmental requirements. The…

  7. Classical Stasis Theory and the Analysis of Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    In classical Greece, there was a close tie between rhetoric and the practice and theory of public policy. Gradually, however, rhetoric became increasingly concerned with style and literary criticism, while philosophers began to debate political issues apart from the practical affairs of the polis. Because rhetoric provides a model that can still…

  8. Public Access to Government Electronic Information. Policy Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This policy framework provides guidelines for federal agencies on public access to government electronic information. Highlights include reasons for disseminating information; defining user groups; which technology to use; pricing flexibility; security and privacy issues; and the private sector and state and local government roles. (LRW)

  9. Education in Science, Engineering and Public Policy: A Stocktaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Albert H.; Gold, Barry D.

    1986-01-01

    Contains the preliminary report on the study examining the relationship between education and professional practice in science engineering and public policy (SEPP) undertaken by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The study focused on academic programs that prepared students at the postgraduate level for careers in the…

  10. Interest Groups and Public Policy: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews current literature and theories regarding the legitimacy and influence of interest groups on legislation and public policy. Also considers processes in the formation of interest groups, problems within interest groups, services and disservices of interest groups, and strategies used by interest groups to obtain influence. (GC)

  11. Cape Wind: A Public Policy Debate for the Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, technological innovation and the application of basic scientific research have transformed society. Increasingly, critical conversations and legislation regarding national and international public policy have sophisticated scientific underpinnings. It is crucial that we prepare scientists and engineers with an…

  12. Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Four articles deal with government documents on gender and sexuality, including sex and discrimination, pornography, the statistical uselessness of a study of the body measurements of airline stewardesses, working women in federal government periodicals, and federal policies and publications on sexual harassment. (EM)

  13. Health Care Innovation: The Case for a Favorable Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ.

    Much of U.S. public policy reflects what is valued most in the United States--entrepreneurship, the productive interaction of market forces, individual achievement, and inventiveness. It appears to some that the United States has become preoccupied with short-term concerns and has not been acting with its accustomed determination to maximize…

  14. Regional Disparities and Public Policy in Tunisian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marie T.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how Tunisia's national educational program is implemented unevenly in different regions with resulting disadvantages for rural populations, especially rural girls and women. Specifies ways the politics and public policy appear to influence regional differences in educational outcomes. Examines educational, economic, and political…

  15. The Minimum Level of Unemployment and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Frank C.

    This study focuses on the role of the federal government in reducing persistent joblessness that prevails at relatively high levels even during periods of high employment or prosperity ("structural unemployment"). While the problem of cyclincal joblessness dominates public policy discussion at the present time, structural unemployment is being…

  16. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  17. Effective Communication in Legal and Public Policy Hearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Jim; Sonsteng, John; Thorstad, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Scientists play a special role in legal debates and public policy decisions. The challenge for scientists who serve as expert witnesses is to communicate effectively in various legal forums, including litigation and legislative hearings. Expert witnesses must not advocate for one side or the other but must be able to convey the meaning as well as the quality and accuracy of their work.

  18. NSFnet Privatization: Policy Making in a Public Interest Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Discusses policy decisions that led to the privatization and commercialization of NSFnet; explains the roles of IBM, MCI Communications, and ANS (Advanced Network and Service); and suggests the role that the federal government should take to ensure that the NREN (National Research and Education Network) addresses issues of public access and…

  19. The Evolving Relationship between Researchers and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to the role of research in shaping public policy and debate, one might reasonably argue that this is the best of times. No Child Left Behind (NCLB), with its frequent mention of evidence-based decision making, has underscored the role that objective knowledge should play in a democratic society. The Institute of Education Sciences,…

  20. The need to include animal protection in public health policies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-11-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  1. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 1997 and 1998. AGB Public Policy Paper Series, No. 97-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of yearly efforts to identify the top 10 public-policy issues facing higher education. Each of the issues is discussed in terms of likely developments in 1997-98, the issue's various aspects, and sources of further information. Issues identified are: (1) the Higher Education Act Reauthorization (issues relating…

  2. A Call for Public Policy Review: Ensuring the Fairness and Accuracy of Mandated Tests. Test Equity Considerations: Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-West, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public policy making relies on accurate information, but standardized and other mandated tests may not accurately evaluate the abilities and knowledge of individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Many individuals find tests difficult, but individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing may find them especially so. Reports from the 2008 Test Equity…

  3. Chimeras, moral status, and public policy: implications of the abortion debate for public policy on human/nonhuman chimera research.

    PubMed

    Streiffer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in public policy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras. PMID:20579247

  4. Are Charter Schools More Racially Segregated Than Traditional Public Schools? Policy Report 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Yongmei

    2007-01-01

    Are most charter schools more racially segregated than traditional public schools (TPS)? How do local circumstances affect the degree to which charter schools are more racially segregated or diverse than TPSs? As the charter school movement in Michigan and nationwide gains popularity, these questions have become important policy issues. In order…

  5. Marriage, Poverty, and Public Policy. A Discussion Paper from the Council on Contemporary Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coontz, Stephanie; Folbre, Nancy

    Marriage offers important social and economic benefits. Well-designed public policies could play a constructive role in helping couples develop the skills needed to develop healthy, sustainable relationships with each other and their children. It does not follow, however, that marriage promotion should be a significant component of anti-poverty…

  6. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    PubMed Central

    Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia. PMID:25210820

  7. The "Gainful Employment Rule" and Student Loan Defaults: How the Policy Frame Overlooks Important Normative Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines normative aspects of the gainful employment rule and how the policy frame and image miss important implications for student aid policy. Because the economic and social burdens associated with the policy are typically borne by certain socioeconomic and ethnic groups, the policy frame and image do not identify possible negative…

  8. The marketing of dissolvable tobacco: social science and public policy research needs.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Brian G; Kim, Annice E; Tessman, Greta K; MacMonegle, Anna J; Choiniere, Conrad J; Evans, Sarah E; Johnson, Robin D

    2012-01-01

    The latest generation of smokeless tobacco products encompasses a wide range of offerings, including what is commonly referred to as dissolvable tobacco. Designed to deliver nicotine upon dissolving or disintegrating in a user's mouth, dissolvable tobacco products currently appear in various United States markets as strips, orbs, sticks, and lozenges. The emergence of these new products poses distinct opportunities and challenges for social and behavioral science and public health research and raises important public policy questions. PMID:22747313

  9. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy: Illustrative Examples and Promising Directions.

    PubMed

    Matjasko, Jennifer L; Cawley, John H; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M; Yokum, David V

    2016-05-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  10. Public finance policy strategies to increase access to preconception care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kay A

    2006-09-01

    Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15-44) lack adequate health coverage (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers and opportunities for financing preconception care, based on a review and analysis of state and federal policies. We describe states' experiences with and opportunities to improve health coverage, through public programs such as Medicaid, Medicaid waivers, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The potential role of Title V and of community health centers in providing primary and preventive care to women also is discussed. In these and other public health and health coverage programs, opportunities exist to finance preconception care for low-income women. Three major policy directions are discussed. To increase access to preconception care among women of childbearing age, the federal and state governments have opportunities to: (1) improve health care coverage, (2) increase the supply of publicly subsidized health clinics, and (3) direct delivery of preconception screening and interventions in the context of public health programs. PMID:16802188

  11. Public Finance Policy Strategies to Increase Access to Preconception Care

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15–44) lack adequate health coverage (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers and opportunities for financing preconception care, based on a review and analysis of state and federal policies. We describe states’ experiences with and opportunities to improve health coverage, through public programs such as Medicaid, Medicaid waivers, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The potential role of Title V and of community health centers in providing primary and preventive care to women also is discussed. In these and other public health and health coverage programs, opportunities exist to finance preconception care for low-income women. Three major policy directions are discussed. To increase access to preconception care among women of childbearing age, the federal and state governments have opportunities to: (1) improve health care coverage, (2) increase the supply of publicly subsidized health clinics, and (3) direct delivery of preconception screening and interventions in the context of public health programs. PMID:16802188

  12. [Public health policies in Chile: seeking to regain trust].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare represents a key area in the public agenda. In the case of Chile, this central part of citizen demands has emerged with an increasing criticism of the health system, its actors and institutions, while a major democratic and legitimacy crisis in Chilean society unfolds. The starting point of this analysis is the link between the critical and widespread societal dissatisfaction with the legitimacy crisis in the health sector. There is an interdependence and parallelism between these two different aspects of the crisis. The analysis is built around the dimensions of trust and legitimacy as a potential driver of the conflict, taking as an analytical framework the socio-political matrix. Conceptual elements around the ideas of trust and legitimacy in public policies are reviewed. This article focuses on recent situations surrounding the dynamics of the Chilean health system such as the rise of the Instituciones de Salud Previsional (ISAPRE) and the market-driven health system, the failed health care reform of the last decade, conflicts of interest in the formulation of public policies, loss of legitimacy of healthcare authorities, and the role of the health professionals in this process. Finally, a discussion arises seeking to regain public trust as a central issue for the future development and sustainability of health policies. PMID:27602919

  13. Discursive gaps in the implementation of public health policy guidelines in India: the case of HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Kabir; Porter, John

    2010-12-01

    The implementation of standardized policy guidelines for care of diseases of public health importance has emerged as a subject of concern in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) globally. We conducted an empirical research study using the interpretive policy analysis approach to diagnose reasons for gaps in the implementation of national guidelines for HIV testing in Indian hospitals. Forty-six in-depth interviews were conducted with actors involved in policy implementation processes in five states of India, including practitioners, health administrators, policy-planners and donors. We found that actors' divergences from their putative roles in implementation were underpinned by their inhabitation of discrete 'systems of meaning' - frameworks for perceiving policy problems, acting and making decisions. Key gaps in policy implementation included conflicts between different actors' ideals of performance of core tasks and conformance with policy, and problems in communicating policy ideas across systems of meaning. These 'discursive' gaps were compounded by the lack of avenues for intellectual intercourse and by unaccounted interrelationships of power between implementing actors. Our findings demonstrate the importance of thinking beyond short-sighted ideals of aligning frontline practices with global policymakers' intentions. Recognising the deliberative nature of implementation, and strengthening discourse and communications between involved actors may be critical to the success of public health policies in Indian and comparable LMIC settings. Effective policy implementation in the long term also necessitates enhancing practitioners' contributions to the policy process, and equipping country public health functionaries to actualize their policy leadership roles. PMID:20950906

  14. Climate, Companies, and Public Policy: How Transparent Is the Private Sector in Reporting Climate Policy Influence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carlson, C.

    2014-12-01

    To enact effective policies to address climate change, decision makers need both scientific and political support. One major barrier to U.S. climate policy enactment has been the opposition of private sector actors to proposed policies and to climate science itself. Increasingly, the public and investors are holding companies accountable for their actions around climate change—including political activies, affiliations with trade groups, and involvement with climate science. However, this accountability is inhibited by the prominent role that trade associations have played in climate policy debates in recent years. The opaque nature of such groups is problematic, as it inhibits the public from understanding who is obstructing progress on addressing climate change, and in some cases, impedes the public's climate literacy. Voluntary climate reporting can yield some information on companies' climate engagement and demonstrates the need for greater transparency in corporate political activities around climate change. We analyze CDP climate reporting data from 1,824 companies to assess the degree to which corporate actors disclosed their political influence on climate policies through their trade associations. Results demonstrate the limitations of voluntary reporting and the extent to which companies utilize their trade associations to influence climate change policy debates without being held accountable for these positions. Notably, many companies failed to acknowledge their board seat on trade groups with significant climate policy engagement. Of those that did acknowledge their board membership, some claimed not to agree with their trade associations' positions on climate change. These results raise questions about who trade groups are representing when they challenge the science or obstruct policies to address climate change. Recommendations for overcoming this barrier to informed decision making to address climate change will be discussed.

  15. 76 FR 56227 - Publication of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letter 11-01, Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy Publication of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP... the requirements of the President's Memorandum and section 321 (75 FR 16188-97). The proposed policy... letter was published in the Federal Register on March 31, 2010 (75 FR 16188-97) for public comment....

  16. Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making

    SciTech Connect

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2010-01-15

    In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

  17. The Epidemiology of Imported Malaria and Transfusion Policy in 5 Nonendemic Countries.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Delage, Gilles; Seed, Clive R; Pillonel, Josiane; Fabra, Cécile C; Davison, Katy; Kitchen, Alan; Steele, Whitney R; Leiby, David A

    2015-07-01

    Addressing risk of imported malaria is complicated by 5 human species of Plasmodium, semi-immunity in donors with long-term exposure, increasing travel and immigration, changing risk in endemic areas, and limitations of screening assays. To gain insight into policy formulation, we have compiled epidemiologic data from 5 countries with different policies involving either deferral (the United States and Canada) or selective testing (France, England, and Australia). The greatest risk is from semi-immune former residents of endemic areas, but the greatest impact on sufficiency (donor loss) is from low-risk short-term travel. France and the UK have the highest rates of travel to Africa where most malaria cases originate. The UK has substantial travel to the Indian subcontinent where Plasmodium vivax cases are more common, and Australia, to Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea. In the United States and Canada, malaria risk travel is more often to lower risk areas such as Mexico and the Caribbean. Each country has imported cases, predominantly Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, although data are incomplete. Transfusion-transmitted malaria has been rare over the last 10 years, generally involving P. falciparum, but there were 2 US cases of Plasmodium malariae. Uncertainty due to limitations of epidemiologic data and reliance on donors' answers underpins much of the complexity of policy formulation. Variability in policies between countries reflects not only epidemiologic differences but also operational considerations, donor demographics, regulatory approaches, and public pressure to react to rare transfusion-transmitted malaria cases. Testing reduces the operational impact of addressing the very small risk from travelers and offers improvement over deferral by testing all former residents of endemic areas. Notwithstanding current international regulatory requirements, policies have "evolved" through a series of additions and revisions as concerns and issues arose, with

  18. Flawed gun policy research could endanger public safety.

    PubMed

    Webster, D W; Vernick, J S; Ludwig, J; Lester, K J

    1997-06-01

    A highly publicized recent study by Lott and Mustard concludes that laws easing restrictions on licenses for carrying concealed firearms in public substantially reduce violent crime. Several serious flaws in the study render the authors' conclusions insupportable. These flaws include misclassification of gun-carrying laws, endogeneity of predictor variables, omission of confounding variables, and failure to control for the cyclical nature of crime trends. Most of these problems should bias results toward overestimating the crime-reducing effects of laws making it easier to carry concealed firearms in public. Lott and Mustard's statistical models produce findings inconsistent with criminological theories and well-established facts about crime, and subsequent reanalysis of their data challenges their conclusions. Public health professionals should understand the methodological issues raised in this commentary, particularly when flawed research could influence the introduction of policies with potentially deleterious consequences. PMID:9224169

  19. Flawed gun policy research could endanger public safety.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D W; Vernick, J S; Ludwig, J; Lester, K J

    1997-01-01

    A highly publicized recent study by Lott and Mustard concludes that laws easing restrictions on licenses for carrying concealed firearms in public substantially reduce violent crime. Several serious flaws in the study render the authors' conclusions insupportable. These flaws include misclassification of gun-carrying laws, endogeneity of predictor variables, omission of confounding variables, and failure to control for the cyclical nature of crime trends. Most of these problems should bias results toward overestimating the crime-reducing effects of laws making it easier to carry concealed firearms in public. Lott and Mustard's statistical models produce findings inconsistent with criminological theories and well-established facts about crime, and subsequent reanalysis of their data challenges their conclusions. Public health professionals should understand the methodological issues raised in this commentary, particularly when flawed research could influence the introduction of policies with potentially deleterious consequences. PMID:9224169

  20. Public policy and environmental noise: modeling exposure or understanding effects.

    PubMed

    Staples, S L

    1997-12-01

    This paper argues that if the federal government is to successfully protect the public from the adverse effects of environmental noise, its policies will need to be informed by a scientific understanding of the psychological and social factors that determine when noise results in annoyance and when noise may affect health as an environmental stressor. The overreliance of federal agencies on mathematical modeling of average group responses to physical noise levels is discussed as oversimplifying and limiting the understanding of noise effects in crucial ways. The development of a more sophisticated information base is related to policy needs, such as the need to make accurate predictions about the annoyance of particular communities, the need to understand relationships between public participation in noise abatement efforts and annoyance, and the need to identify populations that may be susceptible to stress-related health effects. PMID:9431308

  1. Public policy and environmental noise: modeling exposure or understanding effects.

    PubMed Central

    Staples, S L

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that if the federal government is to successfully protect the public from the adverse effects of environmental noise, its policies will need to be informed by a scientific understanding of the psychological and social factors that determine when noise results in annoyance and when noise may affect health as an environmental stressor. The overreliance of federal agencies on mathematical modeling of average group responses to physical noise levels is discussed as oversimplifying and limiting the understanding of noise effects in crucial ways. The development of a more sophisticated information base is related to policy needs, such as the need to make accurate predictions about the annoyance of particular communities, the need to understand relationships between public participation in noise abatement efforts and annoyance, and the need to identify populations that may be susceptible to stress-related health effects. PMID:9431308

  2. Innovations in the public policy education of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Houck, Noreen M; Bongiorno, Anne Watson

    2006-01-01

    Nurses are the voice of patients. Nurses speak for those who cannot speak for themselves. Today's nurses need to find their voice and discover the power of public policy as a vehicle for patient-centered care. New York is a vast and varied state with multiple, competing healthcare interests. Nurses in New York need to be prepared to navigate the halls of power as patient-centered advocates. Nurses benefit from an education that teaches them to move comfortably in complex healthcare environments. This article describes the integration of an innovative, curricula-wide, public policy initiative with senior nursing students in a baccalaureate nursing program. We discuss the overall goals of the learning-centered program and the specific classroom and field assignments. Students described the results of this innovative teaching strategy as a life-changing event where they find their voice as an agent for their patients. PMID:17665536

  3. Importance of scientific resources among local public health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Robert P.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Duggan, Kathleen; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the perceived importance of scientific resources for decision-making, among local health department (LHD) practitioners in the U.S. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from LHD practitioners (n=849). Respondents ranked important decision-making resources, methods for learning about public health research, and academic journal use. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression was used to measure associations of individual and LHD characteristics with importance of scientific resources. Results Systematic reviews of scientific literature (24.7%) was most frequently ranked as important among scientific resources, followed by scientific reports (15.9%), general literature review articles (6.5%), and one or a few scientific studies (4.8%). Graduate-level education (aORs ranging from 1.7 to 3.5), larger LHD size (aORs ranging from 2.0 to 3.5), and leadership support (aOR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.3) were associated with a higher ranking of importance of scientific resources. Conclusions Graduate training, larger LHD size, and leadership that supports a culture of evidence-based decision-making may increase the likelihood of practitioners viewing scientific resources as important. Targeting communication channels that practitioners view as important can also guide research dissemination strategies. PMID:25689176

  4. Public policy versus individual rights and responsibility: an economist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-09-01

    Interventions to reduce childhood obesity entail ethical considerations. Although a rationale exists for government to intervene in a way that limits individual rights while protecting the public's health, a clear economic rationale also exists. The markets for goods and services that contribute to obesity are characterized by multiple failures that create an economic rationale for government to intervene (eg, consumers' lack of accurate information regarding obesogenic foods and beverages). If effective public policies for reducing obesity and its consequences are to be developed and implemented, individual rights and government interests must be balanced. PMID:21843403

  5. Traveling Policies: Mobility, Transformation and Continuities in Higher Education Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britez, Rodrigo G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an assessment of the impact and implications of the international mobilities operating in the national public policy environment. In fact, patterns of transformations that take place in national higher education systems are generating diverse and complex outcomes in different countries, in ways that may preclude a simple…

  6. Manipulable Variables of Policy Importance: The Case of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, Melvin V.; Howsen, Roy M.

    2000-01-01

    Corrects for potential bias and inconsistency in the estimated coefficient on market competition (among schools) by constructing a system of equations with endogenous expressions of student achievement and market competition. Policy makers seeking to improve student achievement should encourage market competition among schools. (Contains 13…

  7. Explaining Local Authority Choices on Public Hospital Provision in the 1930s: A Public Policy Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  8. Explaining local authority choices on public hospital provision in the 1930s: a public policy hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of 'commissioner' and 'provider' roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  9. Data publication - policies and procedures from the PREPARDE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, Sarah; Murphy, Fiona; Tedds, Jonathan; Kunze, John; Lawrence, Rebecca; Mayernik, , Matthew S.; Whyte, Angus; Roberts, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Data are widely acknowledged as a first class scientific output. Increases in researchers' abilities to create data need to be matched by corresponding infrastructures for them to manage and share their data. At the same time, the quality and persistence of the datasets need to be ensured, providing the dataset creators with the recognition they deserve for their efforts. Formal publication of data takes advantage of the processes and procedures already in place to publish academic articles about scientific results, enabling data to be reviewed and more broadly disseminated. Data are vastly more varied in format than papers, and so the policies required to manage and publish data must take into account the complexities associated with different data types, scientific fields, licensing rules etc. The Peer REview for Publication & Accreditation of Research Data in the Earth sciences (PREPARDE) project is JISC- and NERC-funded, and aims to investigate the policies and procedures required for the formal publication of research data. The project is investigating the whole workflow of data publication, from ingestion into a data repository, through to formal publication in a data journal. To limit the scope of the project, the focus is primarily on the policies required for the Royal Meteorological Society and Wiley's Geoscience Data Journal, though members of the project team include representatives from the life sciences (F1000Research), and will generalise the policies to other disciplines. PREPARDE addresses key issues arising in the data publication paradigm, such as: what criteria are needed for a repository to be considered objectively trustworthy; how does one peer-review a dataset; and how can datasets and journal publications be effectively cross-linked for the benefit of the wider research community and the completeness of the scientific record? To answer these questions, the project is hosting workshops addressing these issues, with interactions from key

  10. Public and Catholic Schooling: The Effects of Gender Context Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Cornelius

    1985-01-01

    Compares effects of three school types: single-sex Catholic, mixed-sex Catholic, and mixed-sex public. Results indicate that Catholic single-sex school are nearly twice as effective as Catholic mixed-sex schools, suggesting that there are important differences between these types of schools and that comparisons between public and Catholic schools…

  11. History, Dynamics, and Public Health Importance of Malaria Parasite Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Talisuna, Ambrose O.; Bloland, Peter; D’Alessandro, Umberto

    2004-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts, malaria is still one of the most devastating infectious diseases in the tropics. The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance currently compounds this grim picture. In this paper, we review the history of antimalarial drug resistance and the methods for monitoring it and assess the current magnitude and burden of parasite resistance to two commonly used drugs: chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Furthermore, we review the factors involved in the emergence and spread of drug resistance and highlight its public health importance. Finally, we discuss ways of dealing with such a problem by using combination therapy and suggest some of the research themes needing urgent answers. PMID:14726463

  12. The Impact of Tobacco-Free School Policies on Youth Smoking Rates in Florida Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school…

  13. How to Make Big Improvements in the Small PR Shop. Samples of Policy Statements, Guidelines, and Forms Collected from Educational Institutions with Small Public Relations Staffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. Keith, Comp.

    Sample policy statements, guidelines, and forms collected from 16 educational institutions with small public relations staffs are presented as a guide to campus relations personnel. The importance of written policies for small public relations staffs is emphasized, and it is proposed that there be a written job description for the public relations…

  14. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  15. Broadband for Public Libraries: Importance, Issues, and Research Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Lauren H.; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. public libraries provide free public internet services to the communities that they serve, but require robust, high-speed broadband internet connections to continue meeting public demands. The 2008-2009 "Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study" ("PLFTAS") illustrates challenges that public libraries encounter in achieving broadband…

  16. Stigmatization and denormalization as public health policies: some Kantian thoughts.

    PubMed

    Dean, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The stigmatization of some groups of people, whether for some characteristic they possess or some behavior they engage in, will initially strike most of us as wrong. For many years, academic work in public health, which focused mainly on the stigmatization of HIV-positive individuals, reinforced this natural reaction to stigmatization, by pointing out the negative health effects of stigmatization. But more recently, the apparent success of anti-smoking campaigns which employ stigmatization of smokers has raised questions about whether stigmatization may sometimes be justified, because of its positive effects on public health. Discussion of the issue so far has focused on consequences, and on some Kantian considerations regarding the status of the stigmatized. In this article, I argue that further Kantian considerations regarding the treatment of the general public (the potential stigmatizers) also count against any public health policy involving stigmatization. Attempts to encourage stigmatization are likely to fail to appeal to the rational decision-making abilities of the general public, and the creation of stigmatized groups (even if they are stigmatized for their voluntary behavior) is an obstacle to the self-improvement of members of the general public. PMID:23586853

  17. Patron Behavior Policies in the Public Library: "Kreimer v. Morristown" Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiszler, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    The case of an indigent library patron recovering a judgment against a public library is used as a backdrop for discussing patron behavior policies in the public library. Highlights include First Amendment rights, the public library as an expressive forum, government rules, policy lessons from the case, and acceptable policies. (AEF)

  18. 75 FR 17198 - Trade Policy Staff Committee: Public Comments Regarding Granting Suriname Eligibility for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Trade Policy Staff Committee: Public Comments Regarding Granting Suriname... public comment. SUMMARY: The Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) is seeking comments from the public on... alternatives to on-line submissions please contact Gloria Blue, Executive Secretary, Trade Policy...

  19. Public Administration, Public Policy Analysis. Units 1-6, Package X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, William N.

    This learning package comprises a portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. The six units included in the package focus on understanding, formulating, and implementing public policies. They additionally help to develop conceptual, methodological, and analytic skills essential to…

  20. Do Foreclosures Affect Boston Public School Student Academic Performance? Public Policy Brief No. 13-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…

  1. Getting ready for the future: integration of genomics into public health research, policy and practice in Europe and globally.

    PubMed

    Brand, Angela; Schroder, Peter; Brand, Helmut; Zimmern, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The integration of genomics into public health research, policy and practice will be one of the most important future challenges that our health care systems will face. The next decade will provide a window of opportunity to establish infrastructures that will enable the scientific advances to be translated into evidence-based policies and interventions that improve population health. Approaches for national, European and international institutionalization of public health genomics are shown that aim to champion these challenges. PMID:16490962

  2. Hendra in the news: public policy meets public morality in times of zoonotic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Kerridge, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Public discourses have influence on policymaking for emerging health issues. Media representations of unfolding events, scientific uncertainty, and real and perceived risks shape public acceptance of health policy and therefore policy outcomes. To characterize and track views in popular circulation on the causes, consequences and appropriate policy responses to the emergence of Hendra virus as a zoonotic risk, this study examines coverage of this issue in Australian mass media for the period 2007-2011. Results demonstrate the predominant explanation for the emergence of Hendra became the encroachment of flying fox populations on human settlement. Depictions of scientific uncertainty as to whom and what was at risk from Hendra virus promoted the view that flying foxes were a direct risk to human health. Descriptions of the best strategy to address Hendra have become polarized between recognized health authorities advocating individualized behaviour changes to limit risk exposure; versus populist calls for flying fox control and eradication. Less than a quarter of news reports describe the ecological determinants of emerging infectious disease or upstream policy solutions. Because flying foxes rather than horses were increasingly represented as the proximal source of human infection, existing policies of flying fox protection became equated with government inaction; the plight of those affected by flying foxes representative of a moral failure. These findings illustrate the potential for health communications for emerging infectious disease risks to become entangled in other political agendas, with implications for the public's likelihood of supporting public policy and risk management strategies that require behavioural change or seek to address the ecological drivers of incidence. PMID:23294874

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF SPATIAL EFFECTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH POLICY AND RESEARCH. (R825241)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF SPATIAL SCALE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH POLICY AND RESEARCH. (R826789)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Science-policy challenges for biodiversity, public health and urbanization: examples from Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keune, H.; Kretsch, C.; De Blust, G.; Gilbert, M.; Flandroy, L.; Van den Berge, K.; Versteirt, V.; Hartig, T.; De Keersmaecker, L.; Eggermont, H.; Brosens, D.; Dessein, J.; Vanwambeke, S.; Prieur-Richard, A. H.; Wittmer, H.; Van Herzele, A.; Linard, C.; Martens, P.; Mathijs, E.; Simoens, I.; Van Damme, P.; Volckaert, F.; Heyman, P.; Bauler, T.

    2013-06-01

    Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human-nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem-human/public health-urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed.

  6. Chapter 15: Public health policy and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Sue J

    2003-01-01

    Recent scientific advances are providing an opportunity to revisit strategies for cervical cancer prevention. How to invest health resources wisely, such that public health benefits are maximized-and opportunity costs are minimized-is a critical question in the setting of enhanced cytologic screening methods, human papillomavirus DNA testing, and vaccine development. Developing sound clinical guidelines and public health policy will require careful consideration of the incremental benefits, harms, and costs associated with new interventions compared with existing interventions, at both an individual and a population level. In addition to an intervention's effectiveness, public health decision making requires the consideration of its feasibility, sustainability, and affordability. No clinical trial or single cohort study will be able to simultaneously consider all of these components. Cost-effectiveness analysis and disease-simulation modeling, capitalizing on data from multiple sources, can serve as a valuable tool to extend the time horizon of clinical trials, to evaluate more strategies than possible in a single clinical trial, and to assess the relative costs and benefits of alternative policies to reduce mortality from cervical cancer. PMID:12807953

  7. Earth Scientists and Public Policy: Have We Failed New Orleans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Timothy H.; Dokka, Roy K.

    2008-03-01

    Earth scientists rarely influence public policy or urban planning. In defiance of geologic reality, cities are established on or expanded into floodplains, wetlands, earthquake faults, and active volcanoes. One exception to our lack of influence is that shortly after a major natural disaster, there is a brief window of heightened public awareness that may lead to sensible regulation or relocation of infrastructure. After the 1933 Long Beach earthquake, for example, California building codes were improved to reduce earthquake hazard. After Mississippi River flooding in 1993, several U.S. cities designated parts of their low-lying floodplain as green space. How have we done with New Orleans and southern Louisiana, devastated by hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005? Unfortunately, not very well. In the aftermath of those storms, an opportunity existed to educate engineers, policy makers, and the public about long-term hazards associated with land subsidence and sea level rise. This message was not conveyed, and expensive rebuilding has proceeded under the false assumption of relative coastal stability and slow sea level rise.

  8. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  9. The Importance of Policies in E-Learning Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Shirley; Rogers, Rodney O.

    2004-01-01

    Most professionals interested in the use of technology in education understand the importance of an e-learning course site, whether the course is taught totally online or in a hybrid environment where the instructor has some face-to-face contact with students. However, many instructors have not thoroughly considered the importance of posting…

  10. Genetic control of insects of public health importance

    PubMed Central

    Knipling, E. F.; Laven, H.; Craig, G. B.; Pal, R.; Kitzmiller, J. B.; Smith, C. N.; Brown, A. W. A.

    1968-01-01

    During recent years many advances have been made in the development of insect control by genetic manipulation. These methods include the sterile-male technique, now well known, which depends on ionizing radiation or chemosterilization. The recent field experiment carried out by WHO in Rangoon, Burma, on Culex fatigans has demonstrated that naturally occurring cytogenetic mechanisms such as cytoplasmic incompatibility can be used successfully without the use of radiations or chemosterilants. The paper not only describes the experiment on Culex fatigans but also discusses basic concepts and theoretical considerations involved in genetic control of insects of public health importance. The possibility of using genetic mechanisms for the control of other vector species is also discussed. There are a number of problems which require study before genetic control can be used on an operational scale. These problems and suggestions for future research in this field are also outlined. PMID:5302334

  11. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts

  12. [The population policy in Egypt: a case in public policy analysis].

    PubMed

    Hassan, A S

    1984-01-01

    This study, which attempts to shed some light on population policies adopted by the Egyptian government since 1962, examines 3 factors, which include: congruency of population policies with the prevalent religious beliefs; responsiveness of these policies to the actual needs of the people of Egypt; and legitimacy of the policies. 3 stages of the population policy are identified. The 1st stage started in 1962 when the Egyptian government adopted a policy which aimed at fertility reduction. The 2nd stage began in 1973 and involved a socioeconomic approach to fertility reduction, which considered 9 factors with known effects on fertility. These factors include: the socioeconomic standard of the family; education; women's status; mechanization of agriculture; industrialization; infant mortality reduction; social security; information, education, and communication (IEC); and family planning services. The 3rd stage was initiated in 1975 and involved a developmental approach to Egypt's population problem. This approach defined the problem as a reduction in the level of welfare of the people, attributable to any of the population factors such as size, distribution, and characteristics. The government took these factors into consideration when the Strategy of National Development was formulated for the 1978-82 period. In discussing family planning from the religious perspective, 2 levels should be distinguished. The first is the level of the individual family which involves its social, economic, and health conditions. The second is the level of the society as a whole, when birth control is viewed as a public policy adopted and enforced by the state. At this level, there is a consensus among Moslem Ulemas to disapprove such policies completely. The population policy failed to distinguish between these 2 levels. The agencies charged with the responsibility of policy implementation have misued the permission granted for the 1st level in propagating the cause of family planning

  13. Workplace diversity and public policy: challenges and opportunities for psychology.

    PubMed

    Fassinger, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An overview of employment participation patterns for these groups is presented, workplace barriers arising from marginalized status are highlighted, and the article concludes with a discussion of work-related legislative and public policy fronts that can be informed and influenced by the contributions of psychologists. PMID:18473610

  14. The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: a zoonosis of global importance.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2013-11-01

    Toxocariasis, caused by infection with larvae of Toxocara canis, and to a lesser extent by Toxocara cati and other ascaridoid species, manifests in humans in a range of clinical syndromes. These include visceral and ocular larva migrans, neurotoxocariasis and covert or common toxocariasis. Toxocara canis is one of the most widespread public health and economically important zoonotic parasitic infections humans share with dogs, cats and wild canids, particularly foxes. This neglected disease has been shown through seroprevalence studies to be especially prevalent among children from socio-economically disadvantaged populations both in the tropics and sub-tropics and in industrialised nations. Human infection occurs by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs or larvae from a range of wild and domestic paratenic hosts. Most infections remain asymptomatic. Clinically overt infections may go undiagnosed, as diagnostic tests are expensive and can require serological, molecular and/or imaging tests, which may not be affordable or available. Treatment in humans varies according to symptoms and location of the larvae. Anthelmintics, including albendazole, thiabendazole and mebendazole may be given together with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids. The development of molecular tools should lead to new and improved strategies for the treatment, diagnosis and control of toxocariasis and the role of other ascaridoid species in the epidemiology of Toxocara spp. Molecular technologies may also help to reveal the public health importance of T. canis, providing new evidence to support the implementation of national control initiatives which have yet to be developed for Toxocara spp. A number of countries have implemented reproductive control programs in owned and stray dogs to reduce the number of young dogs in the population. These programs would positively impact upon T. canis transmission since the parasite is most fecund and prevalent in puppies. Other control measures for T

  15. Ethical Principles Associated with the Publication of Research in ASHA's Scholarly Journals: Importance and Adequacy of Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Janis C.; Minifie, Fred D.; Horner, Jennifer; Robey, Randall R.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2-part study was to determine the importance of specific topics relating to publication ethics and adequacy of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) policies regarding these topics. Method: A 56-item Web-based survey was sent to (a) ASHA journal editors, associate editors, and members of the…

  16. Legal and Policy Barriers to Sharing Data Between Public Health Programs in New York City: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Gasner, M. Rose; Drobnik, Ann; Varma, Jay K.

    2014-01-01

    Integration of public health surveillance data within health departments is important for public health activities and cost-efficient coordination of care. Access to and use of surveillance data are governed by public health law and by agency confidentiality and security policies. In New York City, we examined public health laws and agency policies for data sharing across HIV, sexually transmitted disease, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis surveillance programs. We found that recent changes to state laws provide greater opportunities for data sharing but that agency policies must be updated because they limit increased data integration. Our case study can help other health departments conduct similar reviews of laws and policies to increase data sharing and integration of surveillance data. PMID:24825197

  17. Public policies and communication affecting forest cover in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami Savaget, E.; Batistella, M.; Aguiar, A. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The research program Amazalert was based on information delivered by the IPCC through its 2007 report, which indicates forest degradation processes in the Amazonian region as a consequence of anthropogenic actions. Such processes affecting the structural and functional characteristics of ecosystems would harm environmental services that guarantee, for example, the regulation of climate and the provision of fresh water. A survey was organized, through a multidisciplinary perspective, on the main policies and programs that can affect forest cover in the Amazon. These rules and norms seek to regulate societal actions by defining a developmental model for the region. Although deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, some locations maintain high levels of deforestation. In 2013, for example, the municipalities of Monte Alegre, Óbidos, Alenquer, Oriximiná, Curuá and Almeirin, in the northern region of the state of Para, showed the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon. Managers and stakeholders within these areas are being interviewed to provide insights on how policies are interpreted and applied locally. There is an understanding delay between discourses normalized by federal governmental institutions and claims of local societies. The possible lack of clarity in official discourses added to the absence of a local communicative dynamics cause the phenomenon of incomplete information. Conflicts often occur in local institutional arenas resulting in violence and complex social and historical dissonances, enhanced by other public policies idealized in different temporal and spatial conditions.

  18. Pesticide testing in humans: ethics and public policy.

    PubMed Central

    Oleskey, Christopher; Fleischman, Alan; Goldman, Lynn; Hirschhorn, Kurt; Landrigan, Philip J; Lappé, Marc; Marshall, Mary Faith; Needleman, Herbert; Rhodes, Rosamond; McCally, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide manufacturers have tested pesticides increasingly in human volunteers over the past decade. The apparent goal of these human studies is to establish threshold levels for symptoms, termed "no observed effect levels." Data from these studies have been submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for consideration in standard setting. There are no required ethical guidelines for studies of pesticides toxicity conducted in humans, no governmental oversight is exercised, and no procedures have been put in place for the protection of human subjects. To examine ethical and policy issues involved in the testing of pesticides in humans and the use of human data in standard setting, in February 2002 the Center for Children's Health and the Environment of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine convened an expert workshop for ethicists, physicians, toxicologists, and policy analysts. After a peer consensus process, participants developed a number of ethical and public policy recommendations regarding the testing of pesticides in humans. Participants also strongly encouraged active biomonitoring of every pesticide currently in use to track human exposure, particularly in vulnerable populations, and to assess adverse effects on health. PMID:15175182

  19. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  20. Effect of Transportation Policies on Modal Shift from Private Car to Public Transport in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdden, Abdullah; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Ismail, Amiruddin

    The car is the second (40%) most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. The rapid increase in the use of personal transportation has its roots in the weak Malaysian public transport system. As a result, traffic congestion, accidents, air pollution and need for parking space among other evils, have escalated. In this study, policies aimed at discouraging the use of private transportation were studied. In addition, this study sought to identify factors that prevent personal transport users from utilizing public transport so that rational policies could be formulated to encourage greater utilization of public transport. A survey was carried out on users of private and public (both bus and urban train transport) (n = 1200). A binary logit model was developed for the three alternative modes, Car, Bus and Train. This study found that age, gender, car ownership, travel time, travel cost, household size and income are significant factors in influencing the individual`s choice of transportation. The most important variables found likely to encourage the use of public transport were reduced travel time, reduce the distance from home to public transportation stations and subsidized fares. In conclusion, for the commuter to switch to public transport, proper incentives need to be provided for a successful implementation.

  1. Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach.

    PubMed Central

    Nestle, M; Jacobson, M F

    2000-01-01

    Traditional ways of preventing and treating overweight and obesity have almost invariably focused on changing the behavior of individuals, an approach that has proven woefully inadequate, as indicated by the rising rates of both conditions. Considering the many aspects of American culture that promote obesity, from the proliferation of fast-food outlets to almost universal reliance on automobiles, reversing current trends will require a multifaceted public health policy approach as well as considerable funding. National leadership is needed to ensure the participation of health officials and researchers, educators and legislators, transportation experts and urban planners, and businesses and nonprofit groups in formulating a public health campaign with a better chance of success. The authors outline a broad range of policy recommendations and suggest that an obesity prevention campaign might be funded, in part, with revenues from small taxes on selected products that provide "empty" calories-such as soft drinks-or that reduce physical activity-such as automobiles. Images p13-a p15-a p17-a p18-a p22-a PMID:10968581

  2. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    PubMed

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. PMID:26041731

  3. A Mixed Methods Approach for Identifying Influence on Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2014-01-01

    Fields from political science to critical education policy studies have long explored power relations in policy processes, showing who influences policy agendas, policy creation, and policy implementation. Yet showing particular actors' influence on specific points in a policy text remains a methodological challenge. This article presents a…

  4. Which public and why deliberate?--A scoping review of public deliberation in public health and health policy research.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Deliberative methods are of increasing interest to public health researchers and policymakers. We systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature to identify public health and health policy research involving deliberative methods and report how deliberative methods have been used. We applied a taxonomy developed with reference to health policy and science and technology studies literatures to distinguish how deliberative methods engage different publics: citizens (ordinary people who are unfamiliar with the issues), consumers (those with relevant personal experience e.g. of illness) and advocates (those with technical expertise or partisan interests). We searched four databases for empirical studies in English published 1996-2013. This identified 78 articles reporting on 62 distinct events from the UK, USA, Canada, Australasia, Europe, Israel, Asia and Africa. Ten different types of deliberative techniques were used to represent and capture the interests and preferences of different types of public. Citizens were typically directed to consider community interests and were treated as a resource to increase democratic legitimacy. Citizens were preferred in methodological studies (those focused on understanding the techniques). Consumers were directed to focus on personal preferences; thus convened not as a source of policy decisions, but of knowledge about what those affected by the issue would accept. Advocates-who are most commonly used as expert witnesses in juries-were sometimes engaged to deliberate with consumers or citizens. This almost always occurred in projects directly linked to policy processes. This suggests health policymakers may value deliberative methods as a way of understanding disagreement between perspectives. Overall however, the 'type' of public sought was often not explicit, and their role not specified. This review provides new insight into the heterogeneity and rising popularity of deliberative methods, and indicates a need for greater

  5. Debates—Perspectives on socio-hydrology: Modeling flood risk as a public policy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gober, Patricia; Wheater, Howard S.

    2015-06-01

    Socio-hydrology views human activities as endogenous to water system dynamics; it is the interaction between human and biophysical processes that threatens the viability of current water systems through positive feedbacks and unintended consequences. Di Baldassarre et al. implement socio-hydrology as a flood risk problem using the concept of social memory as a vehicle to link human perceptions to flood damage. Their mathematical model has heuristic value in comparing potential flood damages in green versus technological societies. It can also support communities in exploring the potential consequences of policy decisions and evaluating critical policy tradeoffs, for example, between flood protection and economic development. The concept of social memory does not, however, adequately capture the social processes whereby public perceptions are translated into policy action, including the pivotal role played by the media in intensifying or attenuating perceived flood risk, the success of policy entrepreneurs in keeping flood hazard on the public agenda during short windows of opportunity for policy action, and different societal approaches to managing flood risk that derive from cultural values and economic interests. We endorse the value of seeking to capture these dynamics in a simplified conceptual framework, but favor a broader conceptualization of socio-hydrology that includes a knowledge exchange component, including the way modeling insights and scientific results are communicated to floodplain managers. The social processes used to disseminate the products of socio-hydrological research are as important as the research results themselves in determining whether modeling is used for real-world decision making.

  6. History of Public Policies for Research, Development and Deployment for Solar Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Osamu

    Developing new renewable energy sources, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is a key to establishing climate-friendly economy. Japan has been one of the centers of research, development, and diffusion (RD&D) of PV since the 1970's. While it is true that Japan was outnumbered by Germany in installed capacity and by US and Chinese companies in production in recent years, Japan still retains an important position in the world PV market. This paper examines the history of public policies for RD&D of PV in Japan, focusing on two kinds of policies, namely, public support for R&D under the Sunshine Program and various market creation policies in the early 1990's. Based on literature survey and interviews with key persons involved, the paper reveals that those support policies played an indispensable role to accelerate RD&D of PV technology. The Sunshine Program provided stable R&D budgets and space for technology learning throughout the 1980's to 1990's, and contributed to the progress of solar cell efficiency and cost reduction. The various market creation policies in the early 1990's also created regulatory and economic conditions that were necessary to commercialize residential PV systems, and became the direct driver to launch the initial PV market.

  7. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained. PMID:16580128

  8. The Effect of Public Policies on the Demand for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John

    A model for estimating the effect of public policies on the demand for higher education is presented, with attention focused on the influences of public policy and the economic environment, and the interaction of these factors with student ability and parental income. Policy instruments are tuition, admissions requirements, location of different…

  9. It's Academic: Public Policy Activities Among Faculty Members in a Department of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Douglas B.; Greene, Meredith; Bindman, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    Problem To investigate whether and how faculty members in a Department of Medicine are engaged in public policy activities. Approach Between February and April 2011 the authors conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of all active Department of Medicine (DOM) faculty members at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Survey questions covered demographics, academic role, academic rank, and participation in three specific public policy activities during the past five years: (1) policy related research, (2) expert advice to government officials, and (3) public policy advocacy in collaboration with organizations outside government. Outcomes Two hundred twenty of 553 faculty (40%) responded to the survey. One hundred twenty-four faculty members (56% of respondents and 22% of total active faculty) reported that they were engaged in at least one of the three types of policy related activities: 51 (23%) conducted policy related research, 67 (30%) provided expert advice to government officials, and 93 (42%) collaborated with organizations to advocate for public policy. Higher faculty rank was significantly associated with faculty members reporting that they were involved in one or more of the three policy activities (P = .04). Next Steps Academic departments should identify public policy expertise among their faculty and leverage this expertise by facilitating opportunities to develop a shared faculty awareness of their public policy activities, by supporting the establishment of mentoring relationships for less experienced faculty in the area of public policy, and by incorporating standards of excellence for work in public policy into the promotions process. PMID:23969373

  10. Cognitive enhancement kept within contexts: neuroethics and informed public policy

    PubMed Central

    Shook, John R.; Galvagni, Lucia; Giordano, James

    2014-01-01

    Neurothics has far greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements arriving from novel brain-centered biotechnologies and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize the best cognitive and neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could possibly count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely “cognitive” enhancement. Where cognitive processing and the mental life is concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what has actually been cognitively improved. And what can concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by the classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. Additionally, where the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements, we mustn’t presume that public approval towards enhancers will somehow automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of any nuanced appreciation for the control which performance contexts and public contexts exert over what “cognitive” enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can all too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as surely good for us and for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of oft-heard observations about serious hurdles for reliable enhancement from neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications to those hurdles for a sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and a wise policy review over cognitive enhancement. We offer some crucial recommendations for undertaking such investigations, so that cognitive

  11. Important interactional strategies for everyday public health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Porr, Caroline J

    2015-01-01

    This Clinical Concepts article concerns the relational tools required by public health nurses to establish relationships with single mothers living on public assistance, mothers who are vulnerable and often stigmatized. The implications of stigmatization for relationship building are highlighted based on previous research investigating how public health nurses working in Canadian jurisdictions establish professional caring relationships with this cohort of mothers. Public health nurses employed interactional strategies including engaging in a positive manner and offering verbal commendations which served as effective relational tools to break through mothers' walls of defensiveness and to resume the dynamic process of relationship building. Building Relationship is a key practice standard for public health nurses and is instrumental to their work at both individual and community levels to improve social determinants of health. The author concludes with recommendations to facilitate building relationships during everyday public health nursing practice. PMID:24320117

  12. Public policy and the sale of human organs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    2002-03-01

    Gill and Sade, in the preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, argue that living individuals should be free from legal constraints against selling their organs. The present commentary responds to several of their claims. It explains why an analogy between kidneys and blood fails; why, as a matter of public policy, we prohibit the sale of human solid organs, yet allow the sale of blood; and why their attack on Kant's putative argument against the sale of human body parts is misplaced. Finally, it rejects the claim that the state is entitled to interfere with the actions of individuals only if such actions would harm others. We draw certain lines grounded in what Rawls has termed "public reason" beyond which we do not give effect to the autonomous self-regarding decisions of individuals. Public resistance to the sale of human body parts, no matter how voluntary or well informed, is grounded in the conviction that such a practice would diminish human dignity and our sense of solidarity. A system of organ donation, in contrast, conveys our respect for persons and honors our common humanity. PMID:12211266

  13. The schoolroom asbestos abatement program: a public policy debacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    1995-10-01

    It is estimated that nearly 100 billion has been spent on removal of asbestos-bearing materials from schoolrooms, public and commercial buildings, and homes. This removal continues to this day despite the publication of an advisory document in 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency that states most removal is unnecessary and is even counterproductive both in terms health protection and costs. Concern over low exposure to substances that are designated as carcinogens is based on the false concept that even the smallest exposure to such substances can increase cancer risk. The expression “one molecule of a chemical or one asbestos fiber can possibly produce a tumor” is repeated over and over until it is accepted as a truth. Over 1400 air samples taken in 219 North American school buildings show the average fiber level to be 0.00022 fibers per milliliter of air. Using the most pessimistic models and attendance in the school for 6 h a day, five days a week, for 14 years, the calculated risk is one excess cancer death per million lifetimes. In contrast, the risk of dying from a lightning strike is 35 deaths per million lifetimes. Ambient air asbestos concentrations measured in the chrysotile asbestos mining towns of Quebec are 220 to 2200 times greater than that measured in the average schoolroom, yet the women living their entire lives in these towns show no increased cancer risk. The asbestos abatement program in the United States is a public policy debacle.

  14. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  15. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  16. Earthquake Early Warning and Public Policy: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltz, J. D.; Bourque, L.; Tierney, K.; Riopelle, D.; Shoaf, K.; Seligson, H.; Flores, P.

    2003-12-01

    Development of an earthquake early warning capability and pilot project were objectives of TriNet, a 5-year (1997-2001) FEMA-funded project to develop a state-of-the-art digital seismic network in southern California. In parallel with research to assemble a protocol for rapid analysis of earthquake data and transmission of a signal by TriNet scientists and engineers, the public policy, communication and educational issues inherent in implementation of an earthquake early warning system were addressed by TriNet's outreach component. These studies included: 1) a survey that identified potential users of an earthquake early warning system and how an earthquake early warning might be used in responding to an event, 2) a review of warning systems and communication issues associated with other natural hazards and how lessons learned might be applied to an alerting system for earthquakes, 3) an analysis of organization, management and public policy issues that must be addressed if a broad-based warning system is to be developed and 4) a plan to provide earthquake early warnings to a small number of organizations in southern California as an experimental prototype. These studies provided needed insights into the social and cultural environment in which this new technology will be introduced, an environment with opportunities to enhance our response capabilities but also an environment with significant barriers to overcome to achieve a system that can be sustained and supported. In this presentation we will address the main public policy issues that were subjects of analysis in these studies. They include a discussion of the possible division of functions among organizations likely to be the principle partners in the management of an earthquake early warning system. Drawing on lessons learned from warning systems for other hazards, we will review the potential impacts of false alarms and missed events on warning system credibility, the acceptability of fully automated

  17. Public involvement in health priority setting: future challenges for policy, research and society.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David James; Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter; Staniszewska, Sophie; Tumilty, Emma; Weale, Albert; Williams, Iestyn

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the findings of this special issue and discusses the future challenges for policy, research and society. The findings suggest that challenges emerge as a result of legitimacy deficits of both consensus and contestatory modes of public involvement in health priority setting. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on the discussions and findings presented in this special issue. It seeks to bring the country experiences and case studies together to draw conclusions for policy, research and society. Findings - At least two recurring themes emerge. An underlying theme is the importance, but also the challenge, of establishing legitimacy in health priority setting. The country experiences suggest that we understand very little about the conditions under which representative, or authentic, participation generates legitimacy and under which it will be regarded as insufficient. A second observation is that public participation takes a variety of forms that depend on the opportunity structures in a given national context. Given this variety the conceptualization of public participation needs to be expanded to account for the many forms of public participation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that the challenges of public involvement are closely linked to the question of how legitimate processes and decisions can be generated in priority setting. This suggests that future research must focus more narrowly on conditions under which legitimacy are generated in order to expand the understanding of public involvement in health prioritization. PMID:27468775

  18. Famine relief and imperial policy in early modern Morocco: the political functions of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, A R

    1981-01-01

    There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7027811

  19. Breadth of Perspective--An Important Concept for Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Hugh M.

    "Breadth of perspective" is a significant concept for definition of public goals, especially in line with the two-way symmetric model of public relations practice. The concept involves four components: (1) awareness that more than one definition, stand, or conclusion is possible and is probably accepted as valid by significant persons or groups;…

  20. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  1. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  2. The Importance of Language Games in School Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusarelli, Lance; Sanders, Marla

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the language games played by superintendents as they work with school boards and community activists to craft school policy. We begin by examining the role of language in problem definition and the agenda-setting process. We then examine how political culture and the media affect problem definition. We argue that school…

  3. [Public health policies as regards the elderly in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cardona Arango, Doris; Segura Cardona, Angela María

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the laws passed, and adopted in accordance with international regulations, in Colombia and which currently benefit or affect the quality of life of the elderly. Public policies in Colombia are inclined towards the well-being of the elderly, but this documental analysis concludes that the elderly Colombian is unprotected and defenseless against the obstacles and difficult situations due to the biological, political, social, economic and environmental conditions. This makes them vulnerable as it is a scheme that only benefits in cases of poverty and by being a member of the General Social Security in Health system, with transfer of obligations to the family, society and likewise the elderly. PMID:21388713

  4. The nuclear controversy: Unequal competition in public policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, I.

    1980-05-01

    The public policy making process as regards nuclear power is analized and the epistemological basis for such an analysis is examined. It is asserted that disputes over the development of nuclear power are not primarily about the objective facts of the matter but rather derive from differences in basic assumptions about, and evaluatory perceptions of, society, technology and the nature of progress. The balance of power in such disputes is therefore not mainly determined by the 'correctness' of the facts upon which a position rests but rather by the extent to which underlying assumptions and values accord with prevailing ideological themes. A meaningful debate can be guaranteed only through the establishment of institutional structures which provide a framework of truely democratic participation and equality of power and influence.

  5. [Public policies for the detection of breast cancer in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montañez, Olga Georgina; Uribe-Zúñiga, Patricia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Breast Cancer is a significant public health problem associated with epidemiological and demographic transitions that are currently taking place in Mexico. Aging and increased exposure to risk factors are thought to increase breast cancer incidence, having great relevance for the society and health services. Under this scenario, the health system must respond to the growing needs for better breast cancer screening services. In this paper we present an update of breast cancer mortality, general international recommendations for breast cancer screening programs and key aspects of the Mexico Action Program for Breast Cancer Screening and Control 2007-2012. Breast cancer policies are aimed at organizing and increasing the infrastructure to develop a National Program for Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer with optimal quality, friendliness and respect for patient's rights. PMID:19967293

  6. Philosophy as news: bioethics, journalism and public policy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, K W

    1999-04-01

    News media accounts of issues in bioethics gain significance to the extent that the media influence public policy and inform personal decision making. The increasingly frequent appearance of bioethics in the news thus imposes responsibilities on journalists and their sources. These responsibilities are identified and discussed, as is (i) the concept of "news-worthiness" as applied to bioethics, (ii) the variable quality of bioethics reportage and (iii) journalists' reliance on ethicists to pass judgment. Because of the potential social and other benefits of high quality reporting on ethical issues, it is argued that journalists and their bioethics sources should explore and accommodate more productive relationships. An optimal journalism-ethics relationship will be one characterized by "para-ethics," in which journalistic constraints are noted but also in which issues and arguments are presented without oversimplification and credible disagreement is given appropriate attention. PMID:10344425

  7. How do we translate science into public health policy and law?

    PubMed

    Fielding, Jonathan E; Marks, James S; Myers, Bradford W; Nolan, Patricia A; Rawson, Raymond D; Toomey, Kathleen E

    2002-01-01

    Scientific knowledge concerning effective preventive measures to preserve and protect the health of the public continues to grow exponentially. Methods for assessing the impact of population-based interventions such as policies and laws have also greatly increased in the past decade, including systematic approaches that allow general findings to be drawn from various studies, especially those developed as part of the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). However, the translation of the collected scientific evidence gathered to date has been spotty and problematic. Success stories do exist, including community water fluoridation, a significant factor in improvements in reduction of tooth decay over the past 50 years. Even for interventions with a strong science base, such as community water fluoridation, significant barriers to implementation of effective strategies discovered through research remain. Barriers include public misunderstanding of health issues and proposed solutions such as fluoridation; lack of engagement on the part of the media in communicating known effective strategies; and reluctance on the part of policymakers to champion approaches that concern but may not be advocated by their constituencies. The increasing burden of chronic disease places public policymakers into non-traditional roles, such as advocating behavior change as a preventive measure. Science is a critical tool to help legislators and policymakers "connect the dots" between public policies. For example, the elimination or degrading of physical education programs in schools is an important factor in addressing the national epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity in addition to the increase in rates of Type II diabetes among children. This article provides an overview of the past, present, and future associated with translating science into public health policy and law, including a review of tools and strategies to address existing and expanding public health

  8. Science, Technology, and the Issues of the Eighties: Policy Outlook. Westview Special Studies in Science, Technology, and Public Policy/Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Albert H., Ed.; Thornton, Ray, Ed.

    Recognizing that science and technology (S/T) have become increasingly relevant to important public policy issues, Congress has mandated the periodic preparation of a "Five Year Outlook for Science and Technology" to help U.S. policymakers anticipate and deal with these issues more effectively. This book, the result of a study conducted by the…

  9. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  10. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Martinasek, Mary P; Gibson-Young, Linda M; Davis, Janiece N; McDermott, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs) from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations. PMID:26346473

  11. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  12. Challenging Ideology: Could a Better Understanding of Academic Enquiry Lead to Better Public Policy Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Does the present level of public unhappiness with the conduct of governance offer an opportunity to revisit the quality of public policy making and the pernicious role of ideology? In this article I argue that there are some strong parallels between academic enquiry and public policy making, and that a better understanding of the former could lead…

  13. 10 CFR 1004.3 - Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records... Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records. (a) The DOE Headquarters will maintain, in the public reading facilities, the materials which are required by 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) to be...

  14. 10 CFR 1004.3 - Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records... Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records. (a) The DOE Headquarters will maintain, in... environment, public health or safety, or employee grievances. (4) For purposes of § 1004.3(e)(2),...

  15. 10 CFR 1004.3 - Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records... Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records. (a) The DOE Headquarters will maintain, in... environment, public health or safety, or employee grievances. (4) For purposes of § 1004.3(e)(2),...

  16. 10 CFR 1004.3 - Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records... Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records. (a) The DOE Headquarters will maintain, in... environment, public health or safety, or employee grievances. (4) For purposes of § 1004.3(e)(2),...

  17. [Paradigms in the analysis of public health policies: limitations and challenges].

    PubMed

    Salas-Zapata, Walter; Ríos-Osorio, Leonardo; Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Alvarez-Del Castillo, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Research on health policies is considered essential to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of public policies. Analyses of public health policies have various objectives, including helping to solve the problems for which the policy was originated. That objective faces two large obstacles: (1) the ambiguity and heterogeneity of the models applied for the analysis of public policies, conditions that hinder the selection of analytical methods and the assessment of the scope of the objective; and (2) the traditional methodological approaches that limit the capacity of analyses to help solve the problems detected. This paper reviews the epistemology of the predominant models of public health policy analysis in order to assess their scope and limitations. It concludes that the development of new conceptual approaches could improve the quality of research on public policies and their ability to favorably impact decisions. PMID:22910729

  18. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    do not have the luxury of thinking about the quality of food. Only two policy makers in the semi-structured interviews perceived there to be a possible health problems due to heavy metal contaminated food in Zambia. However, this was from personal experience and not a corporate view. Policy makers did not think that food safety was an issue in Zambia, with several interviewees stating that food security was more of a priority, reflecting the urban agriculture cultivators' views that quantity is the more important issue than quality of food. Risks due to environmental contamination are not high in the public and policy makers' priorities, even when asked directly about the issue. Both urban agriculturalists and policy stakeholders believe that academics have a key role to play in communicating the possible and actual risks to the affected populations and institutional stakeholders.

  19. ACADEMIC GENEALOGIES WITH RESPECT TO NARRATIVE IN HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THEIR IMPLICATION FOR PUBLIC POLICIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Taiki; Nakano, Takeshi; Hatori, Tsuyoshi

    In human and society science, narrative is regarded as an important issue to understand dynamic actions of human being and society. Therefore, narrative is also expected to be important for public policies that try to improve dynamic actions of human being and society. In th is study, we review academic genealogies with respect to narratives including western philosophy, hermeneutics, historical science, historical philosophy, literary criticism, clinical psychology and sociology, narrative psychology and folklore. Then we discuss how narrative can be pragmatically applied for public policies.

  20. The essential elements of health impact assessment and healthy public policy: a qualitative study of practitioner perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Patrick John; Kemp, Lynn Amanda; Sainsbury, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study uses critical realist methodology to identify the essential and contingent elements of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) and Healthy Public Policy (HPP) as operationalised by practitioners. Design Data collection—qualitative interviews and a workshop were conducted with HIA and HPP practitioners working in differing contexts. Data analysis Critical realist analytical questions identified the essential elements of HIA and HPP, the relationship between them, and the influences of public policy and other contingencies on the practice of both. Participants Nine interviews were conducted with purposively sampled participants working in Europe, USA and Australasia. 17 self-selected participants who worked in Europe, South East Asia and Australasia attended the workshop. Results The results clarify that HIA and HPP are different but mutually supporting. HIA has four characteristics: assessing a policy proposal to predict population health and equity impacts, a structured process for stakeholder dialogue, making recommendations and flexibly adapting to the policy process. HPP has four characteristics: concern with a broad definition of health, designing policy to improve people's health and reduce health inequities, intersectoral collaboration and influencing the policy cycle from inception to completion. HIA brings to HPP prediction about a policy's broad health impacts, and a structured space for intersectoral engagement, but is one approach within a broader suite of HPP activities. Five features of public policy and seven contingent influences on HIA and HPP practice are identified. Conclusions This study clarifies the core attributes of HIA and HPP as separate yet overlapping while subject to wider influences. This provides the necessary common language to describe the application of both and avoid conflated expectations of either. The findings present the conceptual importance of public policy and the institutional role of public health as

  1. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... criminal prosecution persons who have in good faith received such guarantees (15 U.S.C. 1197(a); 16 CFR 302..., and compliance philosophy of this Commission. Any existing procedures which have been inherited from... philosophy of this Commission. (g) The Commission recognizes that the importer may not be the only person...

  2. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... criminal prosecution persons who have in good faith received such guarantees (15 U.S.C. 1197(a); 16 CFR 302..., and compliance philosophy of this Commission. Any existing procedures which have been inherited from... philosophy of this Commission. (g) The Commission recognizes that the importer may not be the only person...

  3. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... criminal prosecution persons who have in good faith received such guarantees (15 U.S.C. 1197(a); 16 CFR 302..., and compliance philosophy of this Commission. Any existing procedures which have been inherited from... philosophy of this Commission. (g) The Commission recognizes that the importer may not be the only person...

  4. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... criminal prosecution persons who have in good faith received such guarantees (15 U.S.C. 1197(a); 16 CFR 302..., and compliance philosophy of this Commission. Any existing procedures which have been inherited from... philosophy of this Commission. (g) The Commission recognizes that the importer may not be the only person...

  5. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... criminal prosecution persons who have in good faith received such guarantees (15 U.S.C. 1197(a); 16 CFR 302..., and compliance philosophy of this Commission. Any existing procedures which have been inherited from... philosophy of this Commission. (g) The Commission recognizes that the importer may not be the only person...

  6. Elective ventilation for organ donation: law, policy and public ethics

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: ‘basic elective ventilation’; ‘epistemically complex elective ventilation’; ‘practically complex elective ventilation’; and ‘epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation’. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation. PMID:23222143

  7. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    PubMed

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise

  8. Shaping the future of nursing: developing an appraisal framework for public engagement with nursing policy reports.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Ann

    2015-03-01

    It is accepted that research should be systematically examined to judge its trustworthiness and value in a particular context. No such appraisal is required of reports published by organizations that have possibly even greater influence on policy that affects the public. This paper explores a philosophical framework for appraising reports. It gives the reasons why informed engagement is important, drawing on Popper's concept of the open society, and it suggests a method for appraisal. Gadamer's concept of the two horizons and Jauss's reception theory offer a methodological framework to enable the individual citizen, whether professional or lay, to engage in debate about policy that affects him or her. By way of a worked example, the framework is applied to two international reports on nursing. Conclusions suggest that nursing policy should be subjected to robust interrogatory appraisal by both profession and public for a democratic debate and creative discourse. Although this analysis is related to international nursing policy, it has a wider relevance and application beyond nursing. PMID:24954477

  9. Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Berer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

  10. A New Agenda for Teaching Public Administration and Public Policy in Brazil: Institutional Opportunities and Educational Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Sandra; Almeida, Lindijane S. B.; Lucio, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons and teaching objectives of an array of new undergraduate courses on public administration and public policy management which have emerged recently in Brazil. While in 2001 there were only two undergraduate courses teaching formal public administration in the country, by 2015, they had risen to 40, and also…

  11. How Can We Bring Public Health in All Policies? Strategies for Healthy Societies

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Fabrizio; Scaioli, Giacomo; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Siliquini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    New scenarios are emerging in the European and worldwide context: the ageing of society, the climate changes, the increasing of health inequalities and the financial crisis. In this context, the scientific community and the decision-makers agree on the role of health in all policies (HiAP) strategy in improving the population’s health. The HiAP takes into account factors not strictly related to health but with important health consequences. To bring public health in all policies a change is needed, but there are some obstacles to overcome: for instance, the lack of evidence regarding the governance tools and frameworks for HiAP, the difficulty of convincing stakeholders and producing a cultural change in the political positioning of decision-makers. Consequently, it is necessary: i) to implement stronger and responsible decision-support approaches, such as health impact assessment and health technology assessment; ii) to encourage and coordinate all relevant sectors in playing their part in reducing health gaps within the European Union; iii) to strengthen cooperation and make better use of existing networks and existing public health and related institutions. The final aim will be to monitor the impact of the health determinants in order to promote the effective implementation of HiAP approach. Significance for public health This paper makes public health professionals aware of the pivotal role that they could play in reducing health inequalities and in helping to overcome the crisis of the European health systems. It discusses how, thanks to a systematic approach based on new instruments like health impact assessment and health technology assessment, and thanks also to a stronger cooperation among stakeholders and policy makers, it is possible to monitor the health determinants and consequently to bring health in all policies. PMID:25918692

  12. How can we bring public health in all policies? Strategies for healthy societies.

    PubMed

    Bert, Fabrizio; Scaioli, Giacomo; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Siliquini, Roberta

    2015-02-20

    New scenarios are emerging in the European and worldwide context: the ageing of society, the climate changes, the increasing of health inequalities and the financial crisis. In this context, the scientific community and the decision-makers agree on the role of health in all policies (HiAP) strategy in improving the population's health. The HiAP takes into account factors not strictly related to health but with important health consequences. To bring public health in all policies a change is needed, but there are some obstacles to overcome: for instance, the lack of evidence regarding the governance tools and frameworks for HiAP, the difficulty of convincing stakeholders and producing a cultural change in the political positioning of decision-makers. Consequently, it is necessary: i) to implement stronger and responsible decision-support approaches, such as health impact assessment and health technology assessment; ii) to encourage and coordinate all relevant sectors in playing their part in reducing health gaps within the European Union; iii) to strengthen cooperation and make better use of existing networks and existing public health and related institutions. The final aim will be to monitor the impact of the health determinants in order to promote the effective implementation of HiAP approach. Significance for public healthThis paper makes public health professionals aware of the pivotal role that they could play in reducing health inequalities and in helping to overcome the crisis of the European health systems. It discusses how, thanks to a systematic approach based on new instruments like health impact assessment and health technology assessment, and thanks also to a stronger cooperation among stakeholders and policy makers, it is possible to monitor the health determinants and consequently to bring health in all policies. PMID:25918692

  13. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

  14. Implications of the tobacco industry documents for public health and policy.

    PubMed

    Bero, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    The release of previously secret internal tobacco industry documents has given the public health community unprecedented insight into the industry's motives, strategies, tactics, and data. The documents provide information that is not available from any other source and describe the history of industry activities over the past 50 years. The documents show that the tobacco industry has been engaged in deceiving policy makers and the public for decades. This paper begins with a brief history of the tobacco industry documents and describes the methodological challenges related to locating and analyzing an enormous number of poorly indexed documents. It provides an overview of selected important findings of document research conducted to date, including analyses of industry documents on nicotine and addiction, product design, marketing and promotion, passive smoke, and internal activities. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of tobacco document research for public health and the application of such research to fields other than tobacco control. PMID:12415145

  15. Public health policy research: making the case for a political science approach.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole

    2011-03-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion. PMID:21296911

  16. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of

  17. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Benn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures – e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions – to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

  18. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

    2014-02-01

    Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

  19. Preventing chronic diseases by promoting healthy diet and lifestyle: public policy implications for China.

    PubMed

    Hu, F B; Liu, Y; Willett, W C

    2011-07-01

    Fuelled by rapid urbanization and changes in dietary and lifestyle choices, chronic diseases have emerged as a critical public health issue in China. The Healthy China 2020 programme recently announced by the Chinese government has set an overarching goal of promoting public health and making health care accessible and affordable for all Chinese citizens by year 2020. One of important components of the programme is to reduce chronic diseases by promoting healthy eating and active lifestyles. Chronic diseases not only affect health and quality of life, but also have economical and social consequences. With a limited infrastructure for chronic disease care, China is ill-equipped to deal with the escalating chronic disease epidemic, which threatens to reverse the gains of economic development in recent decades. Population-based intervention studies conducted in China and elsewhere have demonstrated the efficacy and effectiveness of several preventive strategies to reduce risk of chronic diseases in high-risk individuals and the general population. However, translating these findings into practice requires changes in health systems and public policies. To achieve the goals set by the Healthy China 2020 programme, prevention of chronic diseases should be elevated to a national public policy priority. PMID:21366840

  20. Hopes and Realities of Public Health Accountability Policies

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Robert; Price, Alex; Deber, Raisa B.; Manson, Heather; Scott, Fran

    2014-01-01

    Holding local boards of health accountable presents challenges related to governance and funding arrangements. These challenges result in (a) multiple accountability pressures, (b) population health outcomes whose change is measureable only over long time periods and (c) board of health activity that is often not the key immediate direct contributor to achieving desired outcomes. We examined how well these challenges are addressed in Ontario, Canada at early stages of implementation of a new accountability policy. Findings reveal that senior and middle management are open to being held accountable to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC), but are more oriented to local boards of health and local/regional councils. These managers perceive the MOHLTC system as compliance oriented, and find internal accountability systems most helpful for performance improvement. Like health-care system accountability metrics, performance indicators are largely focused on structures and processes owing to the challenges of attributing population health outcomes to public health unit (PHU) activities. MOHLTC is in the process of responding to these challenges. PMID:25305391

  1. Regarding zygotes as persons: implications for public policy.

    PubMed

    Wall, L Lewis; Brown, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the notion put forward by certain groups (largely as a consequence of their opposition to elective abortion) that the immediate post-fertilization cellular entity - the zygote - is a person and should be given full moral status. Because the zygote has none of the inherent characteristics necessary to be regarded as a person in the traditional philosophical sense (e.g., John Locke or Immanuel Kant), some advocates of this position attempt to advance their case with arguments based on the genetic potential of the human zygote to develop into a person. We argue that this position represents a flawed use of human genetics and ignores the extraordinarily inefficient and wasteful nature of human reproduction. We then explore the public policy consequences that would follow from granting the zygote full moral status. We conclude that the logical consequences of granting the zygote full moral status would require a revolutionary restructuring of many basic social institutions, especially the health care system. The social, political, and economic changes that would be required if the zygote is enshrined as a person in law constitute a convincing reductio ad absurdum that demonstrates the danger in taking this position seriously. PMID:17146143

  2. Hopes and realities of public health accountability policies.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert; Price, Alex; Deber, Raisa B; Manson, Heather; Scott, Fran

    2014-09-01

    Holding local boards of health accountable presents challenges related to governance and funding arrangements. These challenges result in (a) multiple accountability pressures, (b) population health outcomes whose change is measureable only over long time periods and (c) board of health activity that is often not the key immediate direct contributor to achieving desired outcomes. We examined how well these challenges are addressed in Ontario, Canada at early stages of implementation of a new accountability policy. Findings reveal that senior and middle management are open to being held accountable to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC), but are more oriented to local boards of health and local/regional councils. These managers perceive the MOHLTC system as compliance oriented, and find internal accountability systems most helpful for performance improvement. Like health-care system accountability metrics, performance indicators are largely focused on structures and processes owing to the challenges of attributing population health outcomes to public health unit (PHU) activities. MOHLTC is in the process of responding to these challenges. PMID:25305391

  3. Public-academic partnerships: a rapid small-grant program for policy-relevant research: motivating public-academic partnerships.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carolyn I; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Simpson, Helen B; Herman, Daniel B; Stroup, T Scott; Skrobala, Anne M; Sederer, Lloyd I; Appel, Anita; Essock, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    To help grow a cadre of researchers with the knowledge and skills to pursue topics of great utility to public mental health systems, the director of the Division of Mental Health Services and Policy Research at Columbia University used funding from the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) to create a rapid small-grant program called the OMH Policy Scholars Program. This column uses two case examples to describe how this public-academic partnership exposes early-career researchers to the needs and complexities of large public mental health systems while providing them with senior research and policy mentors to help ensure the success of the scholars' projects and oversee their introduction to and work within the public mental health system. This type of collaboration is one model of encouraging early-career psychiatric researchers to pursue policy-relevant research. PMID:23370621

  4. An Evaluation of Public School District Tobacco Policies in St. Louis County, Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbero, Colleen; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Bach, Laura E.; Cyr, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    Background: One way to address tobacco use by youth is for primary and secondary schools to adopt and implement comprehensive tobacco policies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comprehensiveness of tobacco policies in St. Louis County, Missouri public school districts. Methods: We evaluated the strength of tobacco policies from all 23…

  5. Government Accountability Reports and Public Education Policy: Studying Political Actors' Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Timothy Ross

    2013-01-01

    This study asks how government accountability reports are used to influence public education policy. Government accountability reports, called "audits" in Utah, prove to be useful tools for examining education policy. Using a collective case study design examining Utah's Class Size Reduction (CSR) policy, government accountability…

  6. Limitations and Analysis of FERPA Policies within Florida Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sheryl D.

    2012-01-01

    The study was a policy analysis of student records policies within Florida public K-12 school districts. The researcher gathered all student records policies for the sixty-seven school districts. In addition, traditional legal research was used involving applicable federal acts, state statutes, case law, as well as legal and educational…

  7. [Participation and creativity as tools of analysis of public policies].

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Joselma Cavalcanti; Villasante, Tomás Rodriguez Pietro; de Araújo, José Luiz do Amaral Correa

    2010-07-01

    In the context of current globalization, important modifications of the international relations and of the ideological, technical, and cultural components in the administration of the States are expressed by non-legitimate public action principles which account for social iniquity and the weakening of the role of the State. Regardless of its political origin or ideological orientation, the economic development plans and programs exhibit a prevailing uniformity. The challenge today implies mobilizing in local capacities with the objective of changing the quality of public action through the adoption of new development strategies able to integrate new social dimensions with other mechanisms of action. One of them, the intersectoral action, demands the structural revision of the administrative and cultural frontiers of the public and private social agents as a means of making a new tentative sociopolitical arrangement. The complexity of politics, projects and programs is taken as a methodological landmark based on the following theoretical presuppositions: integrality, social networks, and sociopraxis, constructing a participative process of knowledge to a political analysis in search of a change in the approach of the sociopolitical processes, starting from local social networks. PMID:20694334

  8. Statewide assessment of local wellness policies in Pennsylvania public school districts.

    PubMed

    Probart, Claudia; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, J Elaine; Schilling, Lisa; Fekete, Vonda

    2008-09-01

    With the passage of the Child Nutrition and Women, Infants, and Children Reauthorization Act of 2004, schools that sponsor school meals programs are required to establish local wellness policies to address childhood obesity. Little is known about how school districts will respond to this mandate, the nature of local wellness policies, and their compliance with this mandate. The objectives of this cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in early 2007, were to assess local wellness policies established by Pennsylvania public school districts, compare these policies to local wellness policy mandate requirements, and provide information about local wellness policy development and implementation. Local wellness policies were collected from all Pennsylvania public school districts that sponsor school meals programs (N=499). School district representatives also completed and submitted a local wellness policy checklist, providing information about local wellness policy development and implementation. Policy goal data were abstracted and entered into a Microsoft Access database along with local wellness policy data. Frequencies were calculated. All required public school districts (N=499) submitted local wellness policies. Most school district local wellness policies (85.6%-100%) met each mandate requirement (eg, included goals for nutrition education, physical activity, etc.). The most common policy goals were general and may be difficult to measure, suggesting school staff may need assistance developing action plans and measuring policy implementation. Most respondents identified the superintendent (n=377; 75.6%) and school foodservice director (n=301; 60.3%) as responsible for ensuring local wellness policy implementation. Questions remain about feasibility of these district-level personnel to ensure policy implementation at the school level. The ability of local wellness policies to impact childhood obesity will depend on efforts at both the school and district

  9. Living kidney donation: the importance of public education.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Rasiah, Rajah; Noh, Abdillah; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Ng, Kok-Peng

    2014-04-01

    A sample of Malaysians in the Klang Valley indicating their decision on becoming unrelated living kidney donors was surveyed regarding huge amounts of financial incentives to be rewarded to them. From the 1310 respondents, 72.1% said "no" on becoming a living donor. The reason "I don't think humans can live with only one kidney" scored the highest (35.6%), and from the 27.9% of the respondents who are willing to donate their organ with the right financial incentive, most of the respondents picked the reasons "I want to do something noble in life" (50%), and monetary reason scored the lowest (6.2%), indicating that financial incentive is not a major reason guiding individuals' decision on becoming living donors. We suggest that the government should put priority at targeting public education to raise the understanding on the risk, safety and the quality of life of donation and transplantation, and improving the public trust on the donation and the surgical methods to carry out transplantation. PMID:24617562

  10. How Can We Make the Pain Go Away? Public Policies to Manage Pain at the End of Life

    PubMed Central

    Imhof, Sara; Kaskie, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The continued undertreatment of pain at the end of life is a substantive public health problem that has not been resolved through increased public awareness, the issuance of clinical guidance for providers, or expanded organizational commitments. In this forum, we illuminate the role of public policies in promoting pain management. We review federal and state policies and consider empirical evaluations that compared the quality of state policies and the factors that contributed to their formation. We resolve that any organized interest in improving end-of-life care should begin by focusing on the development and expansion of those state policies that support the provision of evidence-based medicine for reducing the amount of pain an individual experiences at the end of life. Although empirical research is needed to determine which particular aspects of state pain policy are most critical and how these policies can be implemented most effectively, any organized effort that advances state medical board activity or another state policy would appear to be making an important step toward making the pain at the end of life go away. PMID:18728292

  11. 70 FR 53362 - Public Workshop: Competition Policy and the Real Estate Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-09-08

    ... Public Workshop: Competition Policy and the Real Estate Industry AGENCIES: Federal Trade Commission (FTC...: The FTC and DOJ are planning to host a public workshop, ``Competition Policy and the Real Estate Industry.'' The workshop will focus on issues related to the competitiveness of the residential real...

  12. 32 CFR 643.34 - Policy-Public utilities on installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Public utilities on installations. 643.34... utilities upon installations, as part of the contract for furnishing to the Government electricity, water... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.34 Policy—Public utilities on installations. (a) Contracting...

  13. Conceptualizing an Agenda for Social Responsibility and Public Policy at Montgomery College. A Briefing Paper. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Michelle T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this briefing paper is to conceptualize a social responsibility and public policy agenda for Montgomery College. The briefing paper provides (a) a well researched perspective to embed a College culture to actualize social responsibility and public policy as institutional practices; (b) examines some of the opportunities and…

  14. [Symposium on Public Policy and Educating Handicapped Persons (Racine, Wisconsin, September 10-12, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Studies Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at a symposium on public policy and educating handicapped persons. Included are: (1) "Public Policy and the Special Education Task for the 1980s: Report of the Wingspread Conference" (M. C. Reynolds et al.); (2) "The Emerging System for Educating Handicapped Children" (L. E. Lynn, Jr.); (3) "Effectiveness of…

  15. Towards a Public Policy for Adult Education in B.C.: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dampier, Lawrence Paul

    This document's purpose is to trace the growing acceptance of adult education in British Columbia (Canada) by the government, using public policy as the key indicator. The document consists of an introduction, four substantive sections, and a 31-item bibliography. The first section develops an overview of public policy. Included are considerations…

  16. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  17. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  18. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  19. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  20. Participation of Children with Dyslexia in Compulsory Education: Current Public Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konur, Ozcan

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and placement of children with dyslexia at appropriate schools has been regulated in the UK by a series of laws since 1944. Recent public policy developments such as the introduction of new duties and rights, and the development of law regarding educational negligence have sharpened the public policy debate on the effectiveness of…

  1. 32 CFR 643.34 - Policy-Public utilities on installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Public utilities on installations. 643.34... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.34 Policy—Public utilities on installations. (a) Contracting officers, with the approval of Installation Commanders, are authorized to permit the extension of...

  2. Computers and Public Policy. Proceedings of the Symposium Man and the Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oden, Teresa, Ed.; Thompson, Christine, Ed.

    Experts from the fields of law, business, government, and research were invited to a symposium sponsored by Dartmouth College to examine public policies which are challenged by the advent of computer technology. Eleven papers were delivered addressing such critical social issues related to computing and public policies as the man-computer…

  3. The Public Looks at Foreign Policy: A Report from Five Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; Holm, John D.

    The document examines the American public stand on foreign policy and explores the extent of citizen support for six basic foreign policy orientations--anti-Communism, internationalism, democracy, isolationism, interventionism, and self-interest. The extent of public support within these orientations among subgroups in the populace is also…

  4. 77 FR 31677 - Request for Public Comment on Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Arctic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... contiguous seas, including the Arctic Ocean and the Beaufort, Bering, and Chukchi Seas; and the Aleutian... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request for Public Comment on Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Arctic Research Plan: FY2013-2017 May 22, 2012. ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Arctic...

  5. 10 CFR 1004.3 - Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records. 1004.3 Section 1004.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 1004.3 Public reading facilities and policy on contractor records. (a) The DOE Headquarters will maintain,...

  6. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  7. Evaluation of Alabama Public School Wellness Policies and State School Mandate Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Alisha B.; Lonis-Shumate, Steven R.; Gropper, Sareen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated wellness policies created by Alabama public school districts and progress made in the implementation of Alabama State Department of Education (ALSDE) school food and nutrition mandates. Methods: Wellness policies from Alabama public school districts were compared to minimum requirements under the Child Nutrition…

  8. State Policy and Postsecondary Education: The Relationship of the Independent and Public Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The relationship between the public and independent sector of higher education in Florida is examined in this conference publication. The problems and issues involved in formulating state policy with respect to postsecondary education in Florida are examined. An overview of policy positions of other states is presented as well as an assessment of…

  9. State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies: For Public Colleges and Universities, 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Allison C.; Carnahan, Julie; L'Orange, Hans P.

    2011-01-01

    This report, "State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies for Public Colleges and Universities: 2010-11", examines the philosophies, policies, and procedures that influence decision-making regarding public college and university tuition, student fees, and student financial aid programs. This report also provides information related to…

  10. Dan Olweus: Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy. The 2012 winner is Dan Olweus for his rigorous scientific research on bullying among children and youth and his early and tireless attention to its public policy implications. Dan Olweus's…

  11. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform. PMID:22069793

  12. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.

  13. Employee Participation, Work Redesign, and New Technology: Implications for Public Policy in the 1990s. Background Paper No. 35A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochan, Thomas; And Others

    The 1980s have been a period during which important private experiments with innovations have occurred in employee participation, work redesign, and the introduction of new technologies and new systems of production. It is now time to move beyond the experimental stage. The following four interrelated policy initiatives should guide public efforts…

  14. Use of ADR in Extension Public Policy Education Programs and Roles Extension Can Play in Dispute Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Leon E.; Garber, Simon K.

    The extension educator in public policy education and alternative dispute resolution (ADR) has many roles from which to choose. These include information provider, technical advisor, convener, facilitator and program developer. The increased importance of issues programming and the increased priority given to measurement of results are creating…

  15. Getting Research to the Policy Table: A Qualitative Study With Public Health Researchers on Engaging With Policy Makers

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Siddiqi, Sameer; Quinn, Emilee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little attention has been given to how researchers can best provide evidence to policy makers so that it informs policy making. The objectives of this study were to increase understanding about the current state of public health nutrition and obesity researcher practices, beliefs, barriers, and facilitators to communicating and engaging with policy makers, and to identify best practices and suggest improvements. Methods Eighteen semistructured interviews were conducted from 2011 to 2013 with public health nutrition and obesity researchers who were highly involved in communicating research to policy makers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to identify common themes. Results Study participants described wide variation in practices for communicating and engaging with policy makers and had mixed beliefs about whether and when researchers should engage. Besides a lack of formal policy communication training, barriers noted were promotion and tenure processes and a professional culture that does not value communicating and engaging with policy makers. Study participants cited facilitators to engaging with policy makers as ranging from the individual level (eg, desire to make a difference, relationships with collaborators) to the institutional level (eg, training/mentorship support, institutional recognition). Other facilitators identified were research- and funding-driven. Promising strategies suggested to improve policy engagement were more formal training, better use of intermediaries, and learning how to cultivate relationships with policy makers. Conclusion Study findings provide insights into the challenges that will need to be overcome and the strategies that might be tried to improve communication and engagement between public health researchers and policy makers. PMID:25927604

  16. Governing UK Biobank: the importance of ensuring public trust.

    PubMed

    Tutton, Richard; Kaye, Jane; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2004-06-01

    In the autumn of 2003, UK Biobank published the first draft of its Ethics and Governance Framework. Subsequently, this document has been available for interested parties to comment on and the UK Biobank Board of Directors is expected to adopt the final version in 2004. Here, we aim to contribute to this process and highlight to a wider audience some of the inconsistencies in the issues of consent, governance and right of withdrawal that emerge from the draft of the Framework. These issues will have implications for securing the public trust and long-term support that the success of the project depends on. Therefore, they must be considered carefully because the UK Biobank will be the first ever genetic database of a general population of this size to become operational, and will be used as a model for other projects of this kind. PMID:15158057

  17. Publicity as policy: the changing role of press and public relations at the BMA, 1940s-80s.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between policy and publicity or public relations (PR) have been questioned since the emergence of professional public relations in the early-twentieth century. In the field of health and medicine organised PR activity began to flourish in the decades following World War Two. Its presence became evident in government departments, in professional associations, voluntary bodies and campaigning groups. Increasingly, policy decisions had to be publicly performed through rituals like the press conference. This chapter documents the development of press and PR activity at the British Medical Association (BMA) from the 1950s to the 1980s. The BMA provides a well-documented case, which can be used to suggest broader shifts in the association between policy and publicity. PMID:16212734

  18. [Bacterial biofilms: their importance in animal health and public health].

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Yannick D N; Hathroubi, Skander; Jacques, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymer matrix that is attached to a surface. Biofilms protect and allow bacteria to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Bacteria within biofilms can withstand host immune responses, and are much less susceptible to antibiotics and disinfectants when compared to their planktonic counterparts. The ability to form biofilms is now considered an attribute of many microorganisms. Diseases associated with biofilms require novel methods for their prevention, diagnosis and treatment; this is largely due to the properties of biofilms. Furthermore, the presence of biofilms on surfaces found at farms, slaughterhouses or food processing plants will have an impact on the efficacy of disinfection protocols. Surprisingly, biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens of veterinary or zoonotic importance has received relatively little attention. The objective of this brief Review article is to bring awareness about the importance of biofilms to animal health stakeholders.(Translated by the authors). PMID:24688172

  19. Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time and regained its popularity after Sept 2001 incidence in United States. The present review article describes the history, biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology and potential of B. anthracis as biological weapon. PMID:25610847

  20. Smoke-Free Public Policies and Voluntary Policies in Personal Settings in Tbilisi, Georgia: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Smith, Samantha A; Bascombe, Ta Misha; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Topuridze, Marina

    2016-02-01

    Georgia has limited tobacco control policies, particularly in the area of smoke-free public policies, which may influence the adoption of smoke-free home rules. We qualitatively examined knowledge about and reactions to public and personal smoke-free policies among Tbilisi residents. In Spring 2014, we conducted six focus groups among 47 total participants--two among male smokers, one among male nonsmokers, two among female smokers, and one among female nonsmokers. Our sample was 48.9% male and 70.2% past 30-day smokers. Most believed that SHS was dangerous, with particular concern regarding the impact of SHS on children and pregnant women. Many had misconceptions about how to protect others from SHS and the effectiveness of some approaches. Many indicated that they had some type of home rules, but few reported a complete ban on smoking in the home. Even when some restrictions were in place, they rarely were effective or enforced. Common concerns about the partial smoke-free public policy in Georgia included its economic impact, perceived discrimination among smokers, and the policy being against the Georgian culture. These concerns were heightened when participants were asked about the possible implementation of a complete smoke-free policy. Educational programs are needed to promote smoke-free policies in Georgia. PMID:26821035

  1. Smoke-Free Public Policies and Voluntary Policies in Personal Settings in Tbilisi, Georgia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Smith, Samantha A.; Bascombe, Ta Misha; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Topuridze, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Georgia has limited tobacco control policies, particularly in the area of smoke-free public policies, which may influence the adoption of smoke-free home rules. We qualitatively examined knowledge about and reactions to public and personal smoke-free policies among Tbilisi residents. In Spring 2014, we conducted six focus groups among 47 total participants—two among male smokers, one among male nonsmokers, two among female smokers, and one among female nonsmokers. Our sample was 48.9% male and 70.2% past 30-day smokers. Most believed that SHS was dangerous, with particular concern regarding the impact of SHS on children and pregnant women. Many had misconceptions about how to protect others from SHS and the effectiveness of some approaches. Many indicated that they had some type of home rules, but few reported a complete ban on smoking in the home. Even when some restrictions were in place, they rarely were effective or enforced. Common concerns about the partial smoke-free public policy in Georgia included its economic impact, perceived discrimination among smokers, and the policy being against the Georgian culture. These concerns were heightened when participants were asked about the possible implementation of a complete smoke-free policy. Educational programs are needed to promote smoke-free policies in Georgia. PMID:26821035

  2. Sun protection policies in Miami-Dade County public schools: opportunities for skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, Robert S; Parker, Dorothy F; Brathwaite, Noel; Thomas, Andrea; Tejada, Francisco; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-01-01

    Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and a history of sunburns are risk factors for skin cancer. Because children spend time outdoors when they are at school, school sun protection policies are an important health issue, particularly in areas of the country with year-round warm and sunny climates, such as Florida. To better understand the sun protection policies and practices in South Florida schools, a sample (n = 51) of elementary and middle schools in Miami-Dade County public schools were surveyed as part of a CDC-funded cancer control program at the University of Miami. Of the principals and teachers surveyed, most (78%) knew about the county school system's guidelines for avoiding excessive heat exposure, which include two sun protection measures. Two-thirds reported that they shared these guidelines with teachers; 21% shared them with parents. Few schools monitor implementation of the guidelines, although 70% schedule outdoor activities to avoid peak sun hours. No schools required sunscreen, hats, or protective clothing. Physical education teachers and students spend an average of 4.5 and 0.6 hours per day outdoors, respectively. Improved school sun protection policies and monitoring of such policies is needed to reduce sun exposure and skin cancer risk for both students and staff. PMID:16354252

  3. Public attitudes toward risk tradeoffs in energy policy choices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis that will be placed on each of a number of energy policy alternatives will be determined by the tradeoffs among many factors. Important among these factors are public preferences for different levels of power availability and risk to health and safety. Also important in determining support for energy alternatives is public perception of the consequences of those policies. To assess public perception and evaluation of these factors, a number of respondents were selected to answer questions about these issues. Respondents' judgements of the acceptability of thirty-six hypothetical energy policies were analyzed using two complementary methods, discriminant analysis and judgement analysis. The first method is a statistical procedure that examines how well task variables discriminate among groups of respondents. The second method is a procedure which is used to construct models that describe the judgement processes used by respondents. Results of the discriminant analysis showed that differences among respondents' judgements were strongly related to the TECH dimension but only weakly affected by RISK and PA. On the TECH dimension, antinuclear respondents indicated relative acceptance of conservation and solar and relative rejection of nuclear and coal. Although pronuclear respondents showed slightly greater support of nuclear and coal than conservation and solar. The six clusters differed most strongly on nuclear, followed by conservation and solar, then coal. The PA dimension had more effect on the judgements of pronuclear respondents than on the judgements of antinuclear respondents. The analysis of the data indicated that the judgements of pro- and antinuclear respondents were better fit by separate models. The antinuclear respondents placed a slightly greater weight on the more RISK part of the RISK dimension relative to the PA dimension.

  4. Taking guns from batterers: public support and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Susan B

    2006-06-01

    Federal law prohibits the purchase or possession of a firearm by persons convicted of misdemeanor domestic violence and those under certain domestic violence restraining orders. The purpose of this investigation is to examine public sentiment about the removal of firearms in the absence of a restraining order or misdemeanor conviction following domestic violence. An experimental vignette design was used in a telephone survey of a cross-sectional statewide sample of 522 community-residing adults in California. Study design and population weights were applied; the findings, thus, are a reasonable approximation for the population of California. In more than 3,500 vignettes, the abusive behavior was judged to be wrong, illegal, or should be illegal (98.7%, 73.1%, and 77.7%, respectively). Although only about one half (56.5%) of the scenarios were thought to merit the issuance of a restraining order, three fourths (77.4%) were thought to merit the removal of firearms. Multivariate analyses indicated greater support for firearms removal when the abuse involved sexual or physical abuse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ranged from 2.65 to 5.64) or a gun (AOR = 6.54). Men were the sole population group with significantly lower support for firearm removal following domestic violence (AOR = 0.39). The men who wanted firearms to remain did not differ from other men on any of the measured variables. In sum, there is substantial support, especially when a gun is displayed in a domestic violence incident, for policies requiring the removal of firearms from abusers. PMID:16679501

  5. Social Impact Management Plans: Innovation in corporate and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, Daniel M.; Vanclay, Frank

    2013-11-15

    Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has traditionally been practiced as a predictive study for the regulatory approval of major projects, however, in recent years the drivers and domain of focus for SIA have shifted. This paper details the emergence of Social Impact Management Plans (SIMPs) and undertakes an analysis of innovations in corporate and public policy that have put in place ongoing processes – assessment, management and monitoring – to better identify the nature and scope of the social impacts that might occur during implementation and to proactively respond to change across the lifecycle of developments. Four leading practice examples are analyzed. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards require the preparation of Environmental and Social Management Plans for all projects financed by the IFC identified as having significant environmental and social risks. Anglo American, a major resources company, has introduced a Socio-Economic Assessment Toolbox, which requires mine sites to undertake regular assessments and link these assessments with their internal management systems, monitoring activities and a Social Management Plan. In South Africa, Social and Labour Plans are submitted with an application for a mining or production right. In Queensland, Australia, Social Impact Management Plans were developed as part of an Environmental Impact Statement, which included assessment of social impacts. Collectively these initiatives, and others, are a practical realization of theoretical conceptions of SIA that include management and monitoring as core components of SIA. The paper concludes with an analysis of the implications for the practice of impact assessment including a summary of key criteria for the design and implementation of effective SIMPs. -- Highlights: • Social impact management plans are effective strategies to manage social issues. • They are developed in partnership with regulatory agencies, investors and community.

  6. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    PubMed

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism. PMID:21591306

  7. Using public policy to improve outcomes for asthmatic children in schools.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Jewlya; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Zimmer, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    School-based services to improve asthma management need to be accompanied by public policies that can help sustain services, scale effective interventions, create greater equity across schools, and improve outcomes for children. Several national organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, have recommended specific public policies the adoption of which in school settings can improve asthma outcomes for children. Although many states and school districts have adopted some of these policies, adoption is not universal, and implementation is not always successful, leaving inequities in children's access to asthma services and supports. These issues can be addressed by changing public policy. Policy change is a complex process, but it is one that will benefit from greater involvement by asthma experts, including the researchers who generate the knowledge base on what services, supports, and policies have the best outcomes for children. Asthma experts can participate in the policy process by helping to build awareness of the need for school-based asthma policy, estimating the costs associated with policy options and with inaction, advocating for the selection of specific policies, assisting in implementation (including providing feedback), conducting the research that can evaluate the effectiveness of implementation, and ultimately providing information back into the policy process to allow for improvements to the policies. PMID:25482868

  8. Conceptualizing the use of public involvement in health policy decision-making.

    PubMed

    Li, Kathy K; Abelson, Julia; Giacomini, Mita; Contandriopoulos, Damien

    2015-08-01

    The concept of public involvement use is not well-defined in the literature. Previous research studies have provided brief accounts of how public involvement may influence health policy, but have not detailed the internal dynamics and process through which it is actually used in the policy process. The study objective is to examine and clarify the concept and process of public involvement use in health policy decision-making. Using qualitative concept analysis methods, we reviewed the literature on the use of public involvement and conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants who have theoretical and/or practical insights on public involvement and its use in policy decision-making. Our findings are organized around interrelated questions that animate how the concept of use is understood, interpreted, and operationalized. In asking, "How is 'use' perceived in relation to health policy decision-making?" meanings are constructed for the concept by identifying differences and drawing connections between "use" and related terms. In asking "How would one know if public involvement was used in health policy decision-making?" our findings weigh in on the act of listening as a precursor to use, the ways in which use is mediated, and responses to the input obtained from public involvement processes as signals of use. These findings are a first step toward improving conceptual clarity about what public involvement use means, how it is understood and interpreted by relevant actors in the public involvement and public policy fields, and how it might be operationalized. We expect our findings to be particularly useful for public involvement practitioners who are often confronted with questions from public involvement participants regarding how their input will be used in health policy decision-making. PMID:26043073

  9. Privatizing Educational Choice: Consequences for Parents, Schools, and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Levin, Henry M.

    2005-01-01

    Controversies over the merits of public and private education have never been more prominent than today. This book evaluates public and private schooling, especially in regard to choices families must make for their children. While choice among public schools is widely advocated today by families and states, public support for private…

  10. Obesity, Health at Every Size, and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic diseases that may negatively affect individuals’ health and the sustainability of the health care system. Despite increasing emphasis on obesity as a major health care issue, little progress has been made in its treatment or prevention. Individual approaches to obesity treatment, largely composed of weight-loss dieting, have not proven effective. Little direct evidence supports the notion of reforms to the “obesogenic environment.” Both these individualistic and environmental approaches to obesity have important limitations and ethical implications. The low levels of success associated with these approaches may necessitate a new non–weight-centric public health strategy. Evidence is accumulating that a weight-neutral, nutrition- and physical activity–based, Health at Every Size (HAES) approach may be a promising chronic disease-prevention strategy. PMID:24328657

  11. Obesity, health at every size, and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Bombak, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic diseases that may negatively affect individuals' health and the sustainability of the health care system. Despite increasing emphasis on obesity as a major health care issue, little progress has been made in its treatment or prevention. Individual approaches to obesity treatment, largely composed of weight-loss dieting, have not proven effective. Little direct evidence supports the notion of reforms to the "obesogenic environment." Both these individualistic and environmental approaches to obesity have important limitations and ethical implications. The low levels of success associated with these approaches may necessitate a new non-weight-centric public health strategy. Evidence is accumulating that a weight-neutral, nutrition- and physical activity-based, Health at Every Size (HAES) approach may be a promising chronic disease-prevention strategy. PMID:24328657

  12. Brazilian public policies for reproductive health: family planning, abortion and prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, Dirce; Azevedo, Anamaria Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    This study is an ethical reflection on the formulation and application of public policies regarding reproductive health in Brazil. The Integral Assistance Program for Women's Health (PAISM) can be considered advanced for a country in development. Universal access for family planning is foreseen in the Brazilian legislation, but the services do not offer contraceptive methods for the population in a regular and consistent manner. Abortion is restricted by law to two cases: risk to the woman's life and rape. This reality favors the practice of unsafe abortion, which is the third largest cause of maternal death in Brazil. Legal abortion is regulated by the State and the procedure is performed in public health centers. However, there is resistance on the part of professionals to attend these women. Prenatal care is a priority strategy for promoting the quality of life of these women and of future generations. Nonetheless, it is still difficult for these women to access the prenatal care services and to have the required number of consultations. Moreover, managers and health professionals need to be made aware of the importance of implementing the actions indicated by the public policies in the area of sexual and reproductive health, favoring respect for autonomy in a context of personal freedom. PMID:17614992

  13. Virology Experts in the Boundary Zone Between Science, Policy and the Public: A Biographical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to open up the biographical black box of three experts working in the boundary zone between science, policy and public debate. A biographical-narrative approach is used to analyse the roles played by the virologists Albert Osterhaus, Roel Coutinho and Jaap Goudsmit in policy and public debate. These figures were among the few leading virologists visibly active in the Netherlands during the revival of infectious diseases in the 1980s. Osterhaus and Coutinho in particular are still the key figures today, as demonstrated during the outbreak of novel influenza A (H1N1). This article studies the various political and communicative challenges and dilemmas encountered by these three virologists, and discusses the way in which, strategically or not, they handled those challenges and dilemmas during the various stages of the field’s recent history. Important in this respect is their pursuit of a public role that is both effective and credible. We will conclude with a reflection on the H1N1 pandemic, and the historical and biographical ties between emerging governance arrangements and the experts involved in the development of such arrangements. PMID:20676213

  14. Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

  15. Research Issues in Information and Public Policy. Occasional Paper 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Thomas J.

    This paper addresses the very timely issue of national information policy, particularly in view of the pending second White House Conference on Libraries and Information Services in July 1991. Information policy is examined from economic, political, and social points of view and the national government is urged to address the challenging task of…

  16. Policies for America's Public Schools: Teachers, Equity, and Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Ron, Ed.; MacRae, Duncan, Ed.

    This book focuses on the education commission and its policy recommendations and provides an evaluation of policies on teachers and teaching, equity, and uses of educational testing to assess the effects of reform. The volume examines both equity and excellence in American education. After an introductory chapter providing an overview of the…

  17. Public Policy and the Medical Establishment: Who's on First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor R.

    1979-01-01

    Everything in health policy affects medical education, and everything done in medical education has implications for health policy, suggests this economics professor. Medical educators must face the inevitability of change and shape medical education to relate to the social and economic structure. (LBH)

  18. A Public Policy Perspective on English Medium Instruction in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; Alsagoff, Lubna

    2010-01-01

    Language education for ethnic majority and minority students alike has recently received much policy attention in the People's Republic of China. An outcome of this policy attention is the Chinese-English bilingual education initiative which turns on the use of English as a medium of instruction for Han majority students at the primary and…

  19. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.

    PubMed

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

  20. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain.

    PubMed

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-07-12

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy. PMID:21624915

  1. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy. PMID:21624915

  2. Do health policy advisors know what the public wants? An empirical comparison of how health policy advisors assess public preferences regarding smoke-free air, and what the public actually prefers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health policy-making, a complex, multi-factorial process, requires balancing conflicting values. A salient issue is public support for policies; however, one reason for limited impact of public opinion may be misperceptions of policy makers regarding public opinion. For example, empirical research is scarce on perceptions of policy makers regarding public opinion on smoke-free public spaces. Methods Public desire for smoke-free air was compared with health policy advisor (HPA) perception of these desires. Two representative studies were conducted: one with the public (N = 505), and the other with a representative sample of members of Israel’s health-targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020 (N = 34), in December 2010. Corresponding questions regarding desire for smoke-free areas were asked. Possible smoke-free areas included: 100% smoke-free bars and pubs; entrances to health facilities; railway platforms; cars with children; college campuses; outdoor areas (e.g., pools and beaches); and common areas of multi-dweller apartment buildings. A 1–7 Likert scale was used for each measure, and responses were averaged into a single primary outcome, DESIRE. Our primary endpoint was the comparison between public preferences and HPA assessment of those preferences. In a secondary analysis, we compared personal preferences of the public with personal preferences of the HPAs for smoke-free air. Results HPAs underestimated public desire for smoke-free air (Public: Mean: 5.06, 95% CI:[4.94, 5.17]; HPA: Mean: 4.06, 95% CI:[3.61, 4.52]: p < .0001). Differences at the p = .05 level were found between HPA assessment and public preference for the following areas: 100% smoke-free bars and pubs; entrances to healthcare facilities; train platforms; cars carrying children; and common areas of multi-dweller apartment buildings. In our secondary comparison, HPAs more strongly preferred smoke-free areas than did the public (p < .0001). Conclusions Health policy advisors

  3. Public Science and Participatory Policy Development: Reclaiming Policy as a Democratic Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle; Ayala, Jennifer; Zaal, Mayida

    2012-01-01

    People witness today in the US what might be considered a "generous hijacking" of educational policy. Policy debates on charters, vouchers, for profit schools, testing and evaluation companies, and "education reform" reveal a triple privatization of educational policy. Varied enactments of educational privatization dot the globe, linked in a…

  4. Workforce Designs: A Policy Blueprint for State Early Childhood Professional Development Systems. NAEYC Public Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMoine, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This blueprint focuses on the policies that connect professional development activities and that support and make possible an effective implementation of a state system of professional development. It highlights policy principles and essential policy areas that build or sustain an integrated system--a system that ensures quality in all settings in…

  5. Anti-Harassment Policies in Public Schools: How Vulnerable Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes recent federal court decision striking down school anti-harassment policy on First Amendment grounds. Discusses freedom of expression rights in public setting as compared to public-school context. Argues decision incorrectly relies on law developed outside public-school context, unjustifiably finds violation of First Amendment, and may…

  6. 44 CFR 5.20 - Publication of rules and general policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Publication of or Availability of General Agency Information, Rules, Orders, Policies, and Similar Material § 5.20 Publication of... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of rules...

  7. The public health approach to motor vehicles, tobacco, and alcohol, with applications to firearms policy.

    PubMed

    Hemenway, D

    2001-01-01

    The public health approach that has been used to reduce problems caused by motor vehicles, tobacco and alcohol is applied to firearms policy. Manufacturers try to focus prevention efforts on the user rather than the product, and promote education and law enforcement policies directed toward the consumer. Public health efforts emphasize the systematic collection of data, scientific inquiry, and a multi-faceted policy approach that includes modifying the product and the environment. The endeavor to reduce gun violence is part of the general and continuing public health struggle to reduce harms caused by consumer products. PMID:11787305

  8. State Policy Snapshot: School District Facilities and Public Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simnick, Russ

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to the health of the public charter school movement is access to adequate facilities in which the schools operate. Public charter school facilities are rarely funded on par with school district facilities. Over the years, more states have come to realize that they have an obligation to ensure that all public school…

  9. The Public Television Library Policies and Procedures Manual 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Television Library, Washington, DC.

    The Public Television Library (PTL), an integral part of the services provided by the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), provides a national centralized storage and retrieval system for Public Television (PTV) programing distinct from the real time program offerings of the PBS interconnected network, and offers an opportunity for varied sources to…

  10. Care of the ventilator-dependent patient: public policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, M E

    1986-04-01

    Because traditional cost-based reimbursement for acute hospital care has been replaced by the DRG system and other limited-payment approaches, hospital managers are seeking more cost-effective provision of care. This has shortened patient-stay periods in hospitals and increased demand for such alternatives as nursing home and private home care for chronically ill persons, including those dependent on ventilators. At the same time that hospitals seek to discharge patients earlier, patients themselves would prefer to remain in hospitals for long-term care because adequate financial coverage is not available to most of them for alternative-site care. In this setting of conflict between the financial policies of hospitals and those of Medicare and private insurance carriers, it is important to keep quality of care, not financial considerations, as the first consideration when a facility is chosen for long-term care. But the long-term patient, including the patient requiring ventilator support, is caught in the web of competing financial incentives and the fact that there is no consensus on how such care should be organized, delivered, or paid for. The only significant source of funding for long-term nursing home care is Medicaid, which requires the patient to give up his personal assets, including his home; this makes it nearly certain that he will always remain institutionalized. Private insurance carriers have not yet come to terms with the idea that long-term ventilator care can be made less expensive at sites other than hospitals--and thus many patients have no satisfactory answer to the problem of where to receive such care or how it can be financed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10315693

  11. Equity in public health standards: a qualitative document analysis of policies from two Canadian provinces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    into standards for local public health. As reflected in their policies, both provinces have embraced the importance of reducing health inequities. Both concepualized this process as rooted in structural injustices and the social determinants of health. Differences in the conceptualization of health equity likely reflect contextual influences on the public health renewal processes in each jurisdiction. PMID:22632097

  12. Post-war smoking policy in the UK and the redefinition of public health.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Virginia

    2003-01-01

    Current analyses of UK smoking policy within two frameworks--the 'heroes and villains' view of journalist accounts and a political science emphasis on rival 'producer' and 'issue' networks in policy making. It is often assumed that the US experience provides a universal historical model. This paper sees smoking policy in the UK as a case study in the relationship between 'scientific fact creation' and policy, which has also been emblematic of wider changes in public health ideology. The issue of smoking and lung cancer symbolized the post-war shift from infectious to chronic disease and the rise of a new 'lifestyle'-oriented public health. In the 1980s passive smoking brought a revival of environmentalism; in the 1990s the rediscovered concept of addiction symbolized developments in public health in which curative and preventive initiatives were entwined. Despite the rise of a militant 'healthism' within both anti-smoking and public health since the 1970s, British policy retained a dual focus, an emphasis on risk reduction as well as risk elimination in which policy networks were entwined rather than distinct. Some public health scientists worked in policy milieux, notably the expert committee, which crossed this apparent divide and which linked with industry. Connections between government and industry changed as public health 'treatment' brought the pharmaceutical industry into the picture. PMID:12688300

  13. Against the Very Idea of the Politicization of Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    I criticize the concern over the politicization of public health policy as a justification for preferring a narrow to a broad model of public health. My critique proceeds along 2 lines. First, the fact that administrative structures and actors are primary sources of public health policy demonstrates its inescapably political and politicized nature. Second, historical evidence shows that public health in Great Britain and the United States has from its very inception been political and politicized. I conclude by noting legitimate ethical concerns regarding the political nature of public health policy and argue that open deliberation in a democratic social order is best served by acknowledging the constraints of the inescapably politicized process of public health policymaking. PMID:22095345

  14. Issues of public policy in the USA raised by amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Etzioni, A

    1976-03-01

    Amniocentesis, a procedure which can detect during pregnancy whether or not the fetus will develop into a mongol or one affected by other serious chromosomal defects, if given to all pregnant women aged 40 and over, would save both human suffering and economic loss to the community. The procedure is not at present widely used for various reasons, not all of them medical, and, if the test result is positive abortion is the remedy. The author describes an important clinical trial being conducted in the USA at the present time but suggests that an educational programme should be undertaken to inform the public of the existence of this procedure and its applications even before the results of the American large-scale trial can be known and evaluated. Amniocentesis and its use, Professor Etzioni concludes, is not the only genetic tool which should be reviewed in a manner which would give an overall picture. He compares those who are concerned with these matters to the citizens of Britain when they saw the first steam engine. They did not perceive the social changes--the industrial revolution--that would follow. In our time a 'genetic revolution' may not be long delayed. PMID:822165

  15. 17 CFR 200.13b - Director of the Office of Public Affairs, Policy Evaluation, and Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Public Affairs, Policy Evaluation, and Research. 200.13b Section 200.13b Commodity and Securities..., Policy Evaluation, and Research. The Director of the Office of Public Affairs, Policy Evaluation, and Research is the chief public information officer for the Commission, and oversees activities...

  16. [Health in all policies, a challenge for public health in Spain. SESPAS report 2010].

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Oliva, Juan; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Zurriaga, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    The objective of SESPAS Report 2010 is to enhance the incorporation of the principle of Health in all Policies in public health in Spain. The fundamental principle behind this slogan is very simple: Health is strongly influenced by the environment, how we live, work, eat, walk or enjoy our leisure time. Moreover, these living conditions depend not only on individual decisions but are determined by social, cultural, economic or environmental factor. Consequently, policy decisions that influence the health of people not just those related to services or health policy, but primarily those taken in other public, private, political and civic contexts. SESPAS Report 2010 has four parts. It begins with and introductory chapter on the challenges of incorporating the principle of Health in all Policies in public health. The second part consists of several articles of reflection on the relationship between the health care system and public health. The third part focuses on cross-sectoral public health policies. The report ends with several articles on cross-cutting issues such as public health education, information, research, evaluation and ethics in public health policies. PMID:21075491

  17. Paradigms and Public Policies on Drought in Northeast Brazil: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, José Nilson B.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the evolution of drought-related public policies in Northeast Brazil (NEB). Using a historical approach, we show that the evolution of public policy has not been characterized by abrupt shifts, but has instead been shaped through debates between renowned intellectuals. The resulting public policies formed a hydrological infrastructure that delivers clean water needed for robust economic activity. However, outcomes of the 2012-2013 drought show that populations that depend on rain fed agriculture are as vulnerable to drought as they were at the start of the 20th century. Although government, social, and emergency programs have aided drought victims, drought analysts agree that rain fed agriculture has remained vulnerable since drought policies were first formulated. Drought policies formulate integrated water resources management (IWRM) strategies that are geared toward supplying safe drinking water, and debates surrounding the IWRM paradigm have been affected by outcomes of major international events such as the World Water Forum.

  18. Improving Indoor Environmental Quality for Public Health: Impediments and Policy Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia; Jacobs, David; Mitchell, Clifford; Miller, David; Karol, Meryl H.

    2007-01-01

    Background People in modern societies spend more than 90% of their time indoors. Hence, indoor environmental quality (IEQ) has a significant impact on public health. In this article we describe health risks associated with indoor environments, illuminate barriers to overcoming these risks, and provide policy recommendations to achieve healthier indoor environments. Objectives The weight of evidence suggests that indoor environmental contaminants pose significant public health risks, particularly among children and the poor, and the societal costs of illnesses related to indoor environments are considerable. Despite the evidence of harm to human health, poor indoor environments are generally difficult to regulate and not of sufficient concern to the general public. We discuss several reasons for this lack of concern about IEQ, focusing specifically on home environments. Discussion Economics plays a large role both in political inaction and individual-level indifference. Because little effort has been made to quantify the value of the societal and individual costs of poor housing quality, as well as the benefits achievable by simple interventions, policymakers lack motivation to act on IEQ. Similarly, individual homeowners lack the incentive to remediate homes, as other problems may be more pressing than home environmental quality. Conclusions Although the problem of IEQ involves multiple stakeholders and multiple levels of governance, it is possible to establish economic incentives that would set the wheels in motion for action at all levels to achieve healthy home environments. Also important are education and information dissemination on the public health risks associated with indoor environments. These recommendations are intended for all decision makers who have an influence in developing policy to improve indoor environmental quality. PMID:17589606

  19. NUDGING FOR HEALTH: ON PUBLIC POLICY AND DESIGNING CHOICE ARCHITECTURE

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    There have been recent policy moves aimed at encouraging individuals to lead healthier lives. The Cabinet Office has set up a ‘nudge unit’ with health as one of its priorities and behavioural approaches have started to be integrated into health-related domestic policy in a number of areas. Behavioural research has shown that that the way the environment is constructed can shape a person's choices within it. Thus, it is hoped that, by using insights from such research, people can be nudged towards making decisions which are better for their health. This article outlines how nudges can be conceived of as part of an expanding arsenal of health-affecting regulatory tools being used by the Government and addresses some concerns which have been expressed regarding behavioural research-driven regulation and policy. In particular, it makes the case that, regardless of new regulatory and policy strategies, we cannot escape the myriad of influences which surround us. As such, we can view our health-affecting decisions as already being in some sense shaped and constructed. Further, it argues we may in fact have reason to prefer sets of health-affecting options which have been intentionally designed by the state, rather than those that stem from other sources or result from random processes. Even so, in closing, this article draws attention to the largely unanswered questions about how behavioural research translates into policy and regulatory initiatives. PMID:24081425

  20. Nudging for health: on public policy and designing choice architecture.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    There have been recent policy moves aimed at encouraging individuals to lead healthier lives. The Cabinet Office has set up a 'nudge unit' with health as one of its priorities and behavioural approaches have started to be integrated into health-related domestic policy in a number of areas. Behavioural research has shown that that the way the environment is constructed can shape a person's choices within it. Thus, it is hoped that, by using insights from such research, people can be nudged towards making decisions which are better for their health. This article outlines how nudges can be conceived of as part of an expanding arsenal of health-affecting regulatory tools being used by the Government and addresses some concerns which have been expressed regarding behavioural research-driven regulation and policy. In particular, it makes the case that, regardless of new regulatory and policy strategies, we cannot escape the myriad of influences which surround us. As such, we can view our health-affecting decisions as already being in some sense shaped and constructed. Further, it argues we may in fact have reason to prefer sets of health-affecting options which have been intentionally designed by the state, rather than those that stem from other sources or result from random processes. Even so, in closing, this article draws attention to the largely unanswered questions about how behavioural research translates into policy and regulatory initiatives. PMID:24081425

  1. 77 FR 75443 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... protection of people and the environment. Further, it is important for all lessees, the owners or holders of... Policy Statement that are also important in a positive safety culture. It should be noted that these... Safety Culture Policy Statement provides a description of attributes that are important to safety...

  2. Ethnic-Racial Stigma and Health Disparities: From Psychological Theory and Evidence to Public Policy Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of diverse ethnic-racial groups in the United States today is a source of national pride. However, this cultural sentiment is overshadowed by the reality that those ethnic-racial groups that are stigmatized carry a disproportionate burden of negative physical health outcomes. These systematic differences are referred to as health disparities. Although this phenomenon is fairly well documented, relatively little is understood about the social contexts and the psychological processes they activate that contribute to poor health. More importantly, to demonstrate the processes underlying health disparities does not single-handedly address the issue of social injustice in the health of disadvantaged people. Scientists must assume the burden of facilitating the translation of their laboratory and community-based research to public policy recommendations. This volume of the Journal of Social Issues brings together social, developmental, cognitive, and clinical psychological research on the physical health of ethnic-racial stigmatized individuals in the United States. Each contribution explicitly discusses the implications of research for public health policy. PMID:25530632

  3. Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratge, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…

  4. Environmental risks and future generations: Criteria for public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines alternative normative approaches to the policy challenges posed by long-term environmental problems such as toxic and radioactive waste disposal, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. The paper argues that cost-benefit analysis is limited in its ability to handle the issues of intergenerational equity and uncertainty that are intrinsic to such problems. Also considered is the precautionary principle, which holds that policies should seek to reduce threats to the welfare of future generations if the costs of doing so would not significantly reduce the subjective well-being of existing persons. Although the precautionary principle depends on an explicit value judgement, it yields a policy criterion that is operationally decisive under a wide array of circumstances.

  5. Integrating Psychotherapy Research with Public Health and Public Policy Goals for Incarcerated Women and other Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I review my research applying interpersonal treatments and interpersonal principles from psychotherapy for major depression and substance use to broader public health goals for incarcerated women and other vulnerable populations. A public health focus has led me to expand the boundaries of psychotherapy research to include partners such as prisons, parole officers, and bachelor's level providers; behaviors like risky sex; service delivery challenges; and ultimately to research with an eye toward informing policy and advocacy. A public health perspective provides context and rationale for conducting sound psychotherapy research; the combination of public health and psychotherapy-specific perspectives can lead to novel research. PMID:24188727

  6. Dress Codes Blues: An Exploration of Urban Students' Reactions to a Public High School Uniform Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaCosta, Kneia

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explores the responses of 22 U.S. urban public high school students when confronted with their newly imposed school uniform policy. Specifically, the study assessed students' appraisals of the policy along with compliance and academic performance. Guided by ecological human development perspectives and grounded in…

  7. School Violence and Its Effect on the Constitutionality of Public School Uniform Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    The Arizona Court of Appeals, in the first court decision regarding public school uniform policies, held that mandatory school uniforms do not violate students' First Amendment rights. Discusses the Arizona decision and its effect on the structuring of school uniform policies and their potential successful institution at the high school level. (31…

  8. Resolving the Contradictions of Federal Public Assistance and College Opportunity Policies: Legislative Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, David Paul

    Barriers to college attendance for the low income individual that are created by contradictory public assistance and college opportunity policies and practices are discussed, and short- and long-range recommendations to eliminate these barriers are suggested. Policies that create financial hardships for low income students are noted for the Aid to…

  9. Teacher Quality Roadmap: Improving Policies and Practices in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In partnership with the Urban League of Greater Miami, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) released "Teacher Quality Roadmap: Improving Policies and Practices in Miami," an in-depth study of the work rules Miami-Dade teachers. This look at the state of teacher policies in Miami-Dade County Public Schools explores the district's contract…

  10. Computer-Based National Information Systems. Technology and Public Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    A general introduction to computer based national information systems, and the context and basis for future studies are provided in this report. Chapter One, the introduction, summarizes computers and information systems and their relation to society, the structure of information policy issues, and public policy issues. Chapter Two describes the…

  11. Looking into New Mirrors: Lessons for Early Childhood Finance and System Building. Public Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Louise

    1999-01-01

    Highlights findings and recommendations of research examining public policy in housing, health care, higher education, and transportation, and how these policies can be applied to improve early childhood financing and systems. Stresses goal of universal access for early childhood programs through financial stability in forming business alliances,…

  12. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy: Laurence Steinberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Laurence Steinberg, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, is cited for his extraordinary impact on policy in juvenile justice and child labor and on research into the role of parent and peer relationships in the development of children and adolescents. His groundbreaking research is marked by a…

  13. Linking Transnational Logics: A Feminist Rhetorical Analysis of Public Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingo, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the circulation and appropriation of representations of women in public policy. The author effectively mobilizes the metaphor of the network to examine the discursive intersections and transnational links between U.S. welfare programs and the World Bank gender mainstreaming policies. Her analysis reveals…

  14. Analysis of Public Policies for Sexuality Education in Germany and The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronowitz, Teri; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of the philosophical, historical, sociological, political, and economic perspectives reflected in the public policies about lifespan sexuality education of Germany and The Netherlands. A new conceptual framework for analysis and evaluation of sexuality education policies that integrates the…

  15. Black Americans and Public Policy: Perspectives of the National Urban League.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Urban League, Inc., New York, NY.

    This collection of six commentaries represents the National Urban League's perspective on public policies needed to promote the interests of black Americans. Each commentary focuses on the present condition of blacks, details the impact of recent policy intiatives, and delineate's the League's proposals for improvement. "Black Americans and Public…

  16. Building Public Awareness of Development: Communicators, Educators and Evaluation. Policy Brief No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheunpflug, Annette; McDonnell, Ida

    2008-01-01

    Using evaluation to improve performance has become a priority for Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) policy makers and practitioners in the field of public information/communication and education about development. This Policy Brief is an introduction to evaluation, with proposals on how official donors and civil society…

  17. Education, Training and Youth Affairs--Issues and Public Policy Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedgwick, Steve

    Education and training in Australia represent a significant sector of the economy, comprising some 7 percent of the Gross Domestic Product. Public policy is fashioned to support three main sectors: schools, vocational education and training, and higher education. The mix of Commonwealth policy across these sectors is determined by distribution of…

  18. 77 FR 61816 - Trade Policy Staff Committee: Request for Comments From the Public Regarding Granting Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Trade Policy Staff Committee: Request for Comments From the Public Regarding Granting Certain Trade Benefits to Aruba, Cura ao, Sint Maarten, the Turks and Caicos Islands, the Bahamas... submission at www.regulations.gov , please contact Don Eiss, Trade Policy Staff Committee, at (202)...

  19. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 9, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Senate Committee Passes Education Appropriations Bill; (2) Upside Down: New Alliance Brief Says Federal Education Policy Needs…

  20. Commissioning the University of Excellence: Swedish Research Policy and New Public Research Funding Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallonsten, Olof; Silander, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, current research policy is dominated by managerialism and excellence, manifesting the aim of making universities into national strategic assets in the globally competitive knowledge economy. This article discusses these policy trends and their mirror in recent developments in public funding for academic research, with special…

  1. Public Education and Multicultural Policy in Canada: The Special Case of Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna

    2004-01-01

    Education is a provincial responsibility in Canada, but there is a sharing of expenditure and strong support of public education, health and other welfare programs between the provinces and the federal government. Although the federal policy of multiculturalism has been aimed at making Canada a "just" society, the implementation of this policy in…

  2. Examining Charter School Policy and Public School District Resource Allocation in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linick, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This project focuses on the competitive pressure, or the threat of competitive pressure, generated by charter school policy. This paper uses longitudinal district-level data and multiple quasi-experimental designs to examine the relationship between two Ohio charter school policies and changes in public school district instructional resource…

  3. The Public Controversy Over the Panama Canal Treaties: An Analysis of American Foreign Policy Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties. Examines three foreign policy dramas that emerged: Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics. Argues that these dramas provide insight into how foreign policy rhetoric reflects Americans' conceptions of themselves and their global responsibility. (JD)

  4. Texas Public School Nutrition Policy Changes Sources of Middle School Student Food Choices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the impact of school food policy changes on student intake. This study assessed changes in student intake by food source after the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was implemented. Anonymous lunch food records, with food source identified, were collected from students ...

  5. Wake Up the Nation: Public Libraries, Policy Making, and Political Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; Gorham, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Public libraries are heavily affected by political and policy-making processes that shape the funding, activities, and roles of libraries in society, with the explosion of information policy decisions in the past two decades significantly increasing the responsibilities of libraries while also increasing limitations on their activities. Research…

  6. Planned Diversity: A Public Policy for Independent Higher Education in North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Center for Independent Higher Education, Raleigh.

    Policy assumptions, concerns, and recommendations from the leaders of independent colleges and universities are offered to contribute to the development of a public policy for higher education in North Carolina. The independent sector differs from the state sector in patterns of funding and governance. Benefits provided by the independent college…

  7. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 8, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Jason, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "From No Child Left Behind to Every Child a Graduate": New Alliance Report Outlines Policy Framework for Improving America's…

  8. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 11, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Jason, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Alliance for Excellent Education Announces New Center for Secondary School Digital Learning and Policy: Center's Work in…

  9. The texas public school nutrition policy positively impacts middle school student dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    School food environments are rapidly undergoing change due to state and local policy initiatives. This study assessed the impact of the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy that introduced nutrition standards to promote a healthier school food environment in Texas schools. Two years of lunch fo...

  10. Inequities in the freedom to lead a flourishing and healthy life: issues for healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon

    2014-09-01

    There are many reasons for the health inequities that we see around the world today. Public policy and the way society organises its affairs affects the economic, social and physical factors that influence the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age - the social determinants of health. Tackling health inequities is a political issue that requires leadership, political courage, progressive public policy, social struggle and action, and a sound evidence base. PMID:25279377

  11. Inequities in the freedom to lead a flourishing and healthy life: issues for healthy public policy

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons for the health inequities that we see around the world today. Public policy and the way society organises its affairs affects the economic, social and physical factors that influence the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age - the social determinants of health. Tackling health inequities is a political issue that requires leadership, political courage, progressive public policy, social struggle and action, and a sound evidence base. PMID:25279377

  12. Public-Interest and Level-of-Evidence Considerations in Cold Fusion Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinshaw, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Cold fusion (CF) protagonists and antagonists would no doubt agree that scientific processes have been challenged in the CF case. The public interest in CF turns on two questions: What are the potential benefits? What is the probability that CF is ``real''? Potential benefits have been agreed on since CF announcement in 1989. The probability of CF reality may be assessed based on level of evidence (LoE): preponderance of evidence (PoE); clear and convincing evidence (CCE); and beyond a reasonable doubt (BRD). PoE, from civil law, indicates a probability of 50% or higher. BRD, from criminal law, has a probability approaching 90%. CCE, in between, thus has a 70-75% probability. CF experimental evidence, based on: 1) initial affirmations, 2) the large number of corroborations since marginalization, and 3) particularly demonstrative experiments, reasonably indicates at least a PoE level of evidence for excess heat. A case can also be made for a CCE (but probably not for a BRD) LoE. In either the PoE or CCE scenario a clear need is demonstrated for change in policy toward CR, given its potential benefits to humanity.

  13. Business Schools' Policies Regarding Publications in Electronic Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Geraldine E.; Stretcher, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Perhaps the most obvious example of innovation in faculty performance is the adoption of new technologies for research. Both administrators and faculty have expressed concern about the role that electronic publications play in their research evaluation processes, particularly in business schools, where scholarly publication is often emphasized…

  14. Educational Marketing and the Public Schools: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    Public schools face many of the same marketing problems found in private-sector organizations. These include reputation building, resource mobilization, personnel employment, program development, client satisfaction, community good will, and public political support. This paper analyzes the marketing concept and illustrates its application to…

  15. Sanctions for Sex Offenders: Fear and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Kernsmith, Roger M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated public attitudes regarding sex offender sanctions through telephone surveys (n = 703). The greatest support was for residency and work restrictions. There was less support for publication of names in a newspaper, curfews, life in prison, and castration. Support for nonsevere sanctions correlated with socioeconomic status,…

  16. Landslides in Flanders (Belgium): Where science meets public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Vandekerckhove, L.

    2009-04-01

    landslide inventory map and landslide susceptibility map and (5) practical information on the application of both maps for landslide risk reduction through prevention and remediation is available at (http://www.lne.be/themas/bodem/grondverschuiving/grondverschuiving). Equally important, however, are the digital landslide inventory map and landslide susceptibility map which can be consulted at ‘The geographical database of Flanders' (http://dov.vlaanderen.be). This database enables persons to easily combine the landslide inventory and landslide susceptibility maps with topographical and lithological maps allowing them to check the susceptibility to landslides throughout the Flemish Ardennes. For each landslide on the landslide inventory map, there is a corresponding file containing specific information on this landslide. After a simple mouse click on a mapped landslide, the file belonging to this landslide pops up. Finally, guidelines for assessing the impact of planned interventions (e.g. construction of buildings, roads, …) on landsliding can be consulted at (http://www.mervlaanderen.be/uploads/b332.pdf). Thus, we present here an example of how ‘Science meets policy'. The created susceptibility map is an important tool for improving land use planning, and in particular for zoning the susceptibility classes with very high, high and moderate landslide susceptibility where prevention measures are needed and human interference should be limited. The on-line availability of all project documentation opens perspectives for managing landslide-affected areas through both top-down and bottom-up initiatives.

  17. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  18. The Effects of Gratz and Grutter: A Public Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Kari Ann

    2009-01-01

    Despite the precedent established in the "University of California Board of Regents v. Bakke," that race may be used as a factor in admissions policies at state institutions of higher education, state and federal court decisions were divided over whether the use of race in admissions decisions was a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the…

  19. Cultural Implications for Public Health Policy for Pregnant Hispanic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy B.; Weinman, Maxine L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines cultural factors associated with pregnancy among Hispanic adolescents, highlighting policy areas within the health care delivery system that must be addressed. The paper discusses migratory patterns and service needs, acculturation and pregnancy, valuing of children, access to health services, the role of the health practitioner, and…

  20. Condemning Students to Debt: College Loans and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard, Ed.; Bateman, Mark, Ed.

    The 10 chapters of this book on the effects of the federal student loan program focus on five major issues: first, that expanding access to postsecondary education is in the national interest; second, the inconsistency in student loan policy; third, increasing federal regulation of higher education; fourth, the fact that rising costs are making…

  1. Public Policy Implications of Changing Student Attendance Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longanecker, David A.; Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the challenges that changing student characteristics and attendance patterns pose for policymakers. Describes how federal and state policies can influence attendance patterns (through funding programs, contracting with private entities to provide services, creating incentives for private action, and mandating action through law or…

  2. Confidentiality and Public Policy Regarding Children with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between law and policy, examining significant gains in establishing legal precedents for protecting the educational rights of children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in confronting HIV-related discrimination. The article looks at legal principles of confidentiality, disclosure, negligence and potential…

  3. NSF Public Television Project Brings Science Policy to the People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Robin Marantz

    1979-01-01

    This new half-hour show, produced at KPBS-TV in San Diego, focuses on science policy. Topics include: an interview with White House science advisor Frank Press, the trans-Alaska pipeline, and analysis of the West Coast's future water needs, and the scientific and regulatory debate surrounding short-term mutagenicity tests. (BB)

  4. Alliance between tobacco and alcohol industries to shape public policy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Aims The tobacco and alcohol industries share common policy goals when facing regulation, opposing policies such as tax increases and advertising restrictions. The collaboration between these two industries in the tobacco policy arena is unknown. This study explored if tobacco and alcohol companies built alliances to influence tobacco legislation, and if so, how those alliances worked. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Findings In the early 1980s, tobacco companies started efforts to build coalitions with alcohol and other industries to oppose cigarette excise taxes, clean indoor air policies, and tobacco advertising and promotion constraints. Alcohol companies were often identified as a key partner and source of financial support for the coalitions. These coalitions had variable success interfering with tobacco control policymaking. Conclusions The combined resources of tobacco and alcohol companies may have affected tobacco control legislation. These alliances helped to create the perception that there is a broader base of opposition to tobacco control. Advocates should be aware of the covert alliances between tobacco, alcohol, and other industries and expose them to correct this misperception. PMID:23587076

  5. Good Policy Tips for Public Use of School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Helen

    To allow school district staff to administer community organizations' use of school facilities, school boards should set strong but flexible policies on such use, as has the Akron (OH) Board of Education. Although Ohio law allows schools to be used for a wide range of social, recreational, and religious activities, the board--acknowledging its…

  6. Public Policy and the Frail Elderly: A Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dorethea, Ed.

    This Federal Council on Aging report contains recommendations for a national policy regarding services for the frail elderly and describes the principles on which the recommendations are based. Recommended core services are discussed and characteristics and statistics relating to the frail elderly are identified. The report describes existing…

  7. The Research System in the 1980's. Public Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, John M., Ed.

    U.S. research institutions are undergoing significant changes from patterns established in the decade following World War II. Declining undergraduate enrollments are predicted to lead to "steady-state" universities; federal policy is emphasizing industry-university research cooperation and calling for a decreased federal role in the direct support…

  8. Transitions to Adulthood for Homeless Adolescents: Education and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Gupton, Jarrett T.; Hallett, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Education plays a critical role in how adolescents mature into adults. A vulnerable, and often forgotten, sub-population of the poor is homeless youth, for whom lack of a stable or adequate residence creates a unique set of educational barriers. The Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA) spent 18 months documenting the experiences of…

  9. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity: Tools and Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-sponsored, multi-year initiative designed to further improve the quality of, effectiveness of, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. This catalog is one element of the BEPS information dissemination process. The…

  10. The Effectiveness of Alcohol Policies in 4-Year Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Gayle T.

    2010-01-01

    A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public…

  11. Telecommunications and Higher Education: In Search of a Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    The historic concepts of open competition in the delivery of higher education and of strict regulation of telecommunications are undergoing changes that have consequences for the delivery of educational services. A new set of policies based on an evolving marketplace approach will result along with the evolution of interstate agreements.…

  12. Movement Organizations, Synergistic Tactics and Environmental Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik W.; Agnone, Jon; McCarthy, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on political mediation and movement infrastructure models to highlight contingent and synergistic ways in which social movements may impinge upon the U.S. national policy-making process. Analyses employ a variety of datasets to examine the role of environmental movement organizational capacity, protest and institutional activity…

  13. Public Health Professionals as Policy Entrepreneurs: Arkansas's Childhood Obesity Policy Experience

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Rebekah L.; Felix, Holly C.; Phillips, Martha M.

    2010-01-01

    In response to a nationwide rise in obesity, several states have passed legislation to improve school health environments. Among these was Arkansas's Act 1220 of 2003, the most comprehensive school-based childhood obesity legislation at that time. We used the Multiple Streams Framework to analyze factors that brought childhood obesity to the forefront of the Arkansas legislative agenda and resulted in the passage of Act 1220. When 3 streams (problem, policy, and political) are combined, a policy window is opened and policy entrepreneurs may advance their goals. We documented factors that produced a policy window and allowed entrepreneurs to enact comprehensive legislation. This historical analysis and the Multiple Streams Framework may serve as a roadmap for leaders seeking to influence health policy. PMID:20864715

  14. All creatures great and minute: a public policy primer for companion animal zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Reaser, J K; Clark, E E; Meyers, N M

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 63% of US households have at least one pet, a large percentage of which are considered family members. Pet owners can derive substantial physical and psychological benefits from interaction with companion animals. However, pet ownership is not without risks; zoonotic diseases are increasingly drawing the attention of healthcare professionals, policy makers and the general public. While zoonoses of 'traditional' pets are widely recognized and their prevention and treatment factors are generally known, the growing popularity of 'non-traditional' pets has the potential to facilitate human exposure to novel zoonoses. However, the greatest risk of zoonoses probably arises from animals taken directly from the wild to serve as pets. Non-governmental organizations, state veterinary associations and others have been calling for increased regulation of animal imports, some proposing that all 'exotics' be banned from the pet trade. Because zoonotic diseases of companion animals are influenced by interacting factors of ecological, technical, socio-economic, and political origin, efforts to minimize their impact need be multi-dimensional, simultaneously addressing both the ecological and socio-political drivers of disease emergence and transmission. This study is intended to serve as a primer for animal care professionals seeking to engage with policy makers and the pet industry on the prevention of companion animal zoonoses. We provide background on the human-animal bond, risks of zoonoses associated with groups of companion animals, and the public policy context, as well as identify the factors needed to build a comprehensive approach to companion animal zoonoses risk management. Also included are examples of innovative, non-regulatory initiatives designed to limit the spread and impact of companion animal zoonoses, including a reptile salmonella poster, the National Reptile Improvement Plan, Habitattitude campaign, Pet Zoonoses Committee, and a wildlife disease

  15. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Many countries have enacted legislation to protect animals. In the 1800's the primary concern was to protect animals from cruelty but more recent legislative changes also seek to ensure that human beings uphold a duty of care towards those animals for which they are responsible. Today animal welfare concerns all aspects of our interaction with other animals. Although, the diversity of views in society can present challenges, the whole community needs to be engaged in the development and implementation of policies and initiatives so as to achieve sustainable improvements in animal welfare. Abstract Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted

  16. The importance of environmental variability and management control error to optimal harvest policies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, C.M.; Runge, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    State-dependent strategies (SDSs) are the most general form of harvest policy because they allow the harvest rate to depend, without constraint, on the state of the system. State-dependent strategies that provide an optimal harvest rate for any system state can be calculated, and stochasticity can be appropriately accommodated in this optimization. Stochasticity poses 2 challenges to harvest policies: (1) the population will never be at the equilibrium state; and (2) stochasticity induces uncertainty about future states. We investigated the effects of 2 types of stochasticity, environmental variability and management control error, on SDS harvest policies for a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) model, and contrasted these with a harvest policy based on maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Increasing stochasticity resulted in more conservative SDSs; that is, higher population densities were required to support the same harvest rate, but these effects were generally small. As stochastic effects increased, SDSs performed much better than MSY. Both deterministic and stochastic SDSs maintained maximum mean annual harvest yield (AHY) and optimal equilibrium population size (Neq) in a stochastic environment, whereas an MSY policy could not. We suggest 3 rules of thumb for harvest management of long-lived vertebrates in stochastic systems: (1) an SDS is advantageous over an MSY policy, (2) using an SDS rather than an MSY is more important than whether a deterministic or stochastic SDS is used, and (3) for SDSs, rankings of the variability in management outcomes (e.g., harvest yield) resulting from parameter stochasticity can be predicted by rankings of the deterministic elasticities.

  17. College Readiness Policy Implementation in the Massachusetts Public Higher Education System from Policy to Practice: An Analysis of the Implementation of the State College Placement Testing (CPT) Policies at the Four Year Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Jibril

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, the Massachusetts Board of Higher Education, with assistance from the Developmental Assessment and Placement Advisory Committee, adopted an assessment policy that set standards for college placement testing at Massachusetts public colleges and universities. The purposes of the policy were to place students more adequately suited for…

  18. Publication selection in health policy research: the winner's curse hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair; Stanley, Tom

    2013-01-01

    There is a widely discussed problem of publication bias in medical and health services research. Where quantitative effects form the basis of a publication a 'winner's curse' curse may apply. This phenomenon may occur as prospective authors of research papers compete by reporting 'more extreme and spectacular results' in order to increase the chances of their paper being accepted for publication. This paper examines this phenomenon using quantitative findings on income and price elasticities as reported in health economics research. We find robust statistical evidence that higher-impact journals preferentially report larger empirical estimates of these elasticities. That is, we find robust evidence of a winner's curse hypothesis contributing to the existence of publication bias found in both the income and the price elasticities of health care and drugs, as well as value of life research. PMID:23182564

  19. Skyrocketing Public-College Tuition Renews Calls for Better Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebel, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Describes how public colleges in some states have levied their biggest tuition increases in decades, while others are tightening residency requirements and charging new students more than their returning peers. (EV)

  20. Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science

    PubMed Central

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character. PMID:24452252