Sample records for important public policy

  1. Energy education and its importance to public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Gordon

    2009-11-01

    Energy education is gaining increasing importance as society faces new challenges meeting its energy needs. Students find the topic interesting, and a physics department is a natural place for such courses. At the University of Virginia (UVa) we have developed an introductory course that covers, from a physicist's perspective, various topics related to energy. Included are the production and consumption of energy in our society, the underlying technologies involved, and the implications of resource limitations. While the course includes some basic physics concepts, the material quickly moves into a broader sphere that would not normally be the focus of an introductory-level course in a physics department. The course has attracted a broad range of students from those in their first year seeking to fulfill a science requirement to engineering students with an interest in environmental science. We are also developing at UVa an energy concentration for physics majors in an effort to broaden our offerings in this important area. In addition to addressing a growing interest among students, courses related to energy are arguably an important element in the development of public policy. Indeed, the very types of discussion that occur in such courses represent precisely the types of debates that one would hope to see as politicians develop a viable strategy for the future. Thus, energy education is filling a very real demand from the students, and is serving an important public function as well. Courses related to energy are also an excellent way to attract students that might otherwise not consider studying physics.

  2. Energy education and its importance to public policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Cates

    2009-01-01

    Energy education is gaining increasing importance as society faces new challenges meeting its energy needs. Students find the topic interesting, and a physics department is a natural place for such courses. At the University of Virginia (UVa) we have developed an introductory course that covers, from a physicist's perspective, various topics related to energy. Included are the production and consumption

  3. Does public subsidy of the cost of malaria chemoprophylaxis reduce imported malaria? A comparative policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemoprophylaxis is recommended for at-risk travellers visiting malaria endemic regions. The majority of travellers with imported malaria have not used this, and travellers visiting friends and relatives have the largest burden of malaria and the lowest compliance to chemoprophylaxis. In 1995, the UK’s Department of Health (DH) implemented a policy to make travellers fully responsible for the cost when purchasing chemoprophylaxis. This policy was not implemented in three Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in London due to concern about the potential increase of imported malaria in their residents, and they maintained the public subsidy. An impact evaluation of the policy change was undertaken to determine if the continued subsidy reduced the incidence of imported malaria in one of the boroughs where the subsidy was maintained when compared to a borough where no subsidy was provided. Methods Between 2007 and 2010 prescriptions for malaria chemoprophylaxis were collected from pharmacy records and PCTs, and all cases of imported malaria reported from the tertiary hospital in each of the two boroughs were compared. Results The dispensed chemoprophylaxis prescriptions were nearly 8.8 times higher in Lambeth (where subsidized drugs were provided), than in Hackney. A Poisson model revealed significantly fewer reports of imported malaria per capita were made in Lambeth compared to Hackney (p?=?0.042). Conclusions The difference in malaria reports between the boroughs only just reached statistical significance, despite the considerable difference in chemoprophylaxis prescribing between the boroughs. Some travellers may not consider using chemoprophylaxis, irrespective of the cost. Regular evaluations of the recent policy changes in areas where malaria is subsidized will be important. PMID:23848986

  4. Contested Communities in a Debate over Dual-Language Education: The Import of "Public" Values on Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how public debate can shape school district policy. Using qualitative methods and an interdisciplinary framework that weaves an interpretive approach to policy implementation with the language policy and planning literature, the analysis demonstrates that immigrant voices were mostly absent in a debate over a new dual-language…

  5. Shaping public policy.

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, G M

    1987-01-01

    Public policy is an area of increasing study. Of concern in this presentation is the consensus-building feature of policymaking in the United States. The role of government in following the procedures established to achieve consensus and the importance of citizen participation in this open process cannot be under-estimated. The five central features of American consensus building are separation of powers, multiple levels of government, citizen participation, policymaker accountability, and individual freedoms. These features frame the efforts of those who shape the public policies that determine the ways laws are made and enforced and public funds are spent. PMID:3120226

  6. Effect on Public Policy from Macro to Nano Aspects of the Deadliest Illness of Mankind: Important Role of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Arjun

    2013-04-01

    The effect on public policy of macro to nano aspects of the deadliest Illness known to mankind is given. The focus is on the important role of physics which has been ignored so far to solve its problems. It is now acknowledged that the deadliest illness is actually a group of illnesses which are lumped together as mental illnesses. They are the most widespread and damaging illnesses in the world. Their impact on the entire society globally is huge because they afflict majority of the people irrespective of race, religion, sex, age, education and economic status. In USA alone, the number afflicted according to the official count is about 80 million (out of a total population of 315 million), and it is projected to increase to about 25 to 30% of the population within two decades. A model is given in this paper to address some of the key issues from macro to nano aspects of the deadliest illness. The information given in this paper is scientific though easy to understand. It will help the elected policy makers, public, physicists, neuroscientists, doctors, and care giving personnel world wide. The model explains the missing links in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Additional evidence from other recent studies shall also be given.

  7. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  8. Geoscience and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Many current public policy issues have a geoscience component: climate change, natural hazards, energy, and mineral resources to name just a few. In addition, Congress makes decisions that directly affect scientists, such as funding allocations and visa and travel policy. Yet few geoscientists are engaged in the policy-making process. Members of Congress have called on scientists to become more active, including Ph.D. physicist and former-Representative Vernon Ehlers (R-MI). In an address at the 2010 AAAS Forum on Science and Technology Policy, he told scientists, "The gulf between the scientifically minded and those who are not scientifically minded is still tremendous. I think we are keeping far too quiet about what we know and how we would go about solving problems. We have so much to offer this country ŕ solutions to various difficulties." This talk will provide information on avenues for geoscientists to more effectively engage in the public policy arena.

  9. Rhetorically Representing Public Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rae Lynn Schwartz-DuPre

    2007-01-01

    This essay offers a critical reading of National Geographic's 2002 documentary The Search for the Afghan Girl as a means to suggest how, and in what ways, communication scholars can retheorize the relationship between media representations and policy. Reading critically National Geographic's strategic redeployment of the Afghan Girl, I argue that the text functions rhetorically to refigure the public understanding

  10. Astronomy and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy is an unusual science in that almost all of what we study can only be passively observed. We enjoy tremendous public support for our research and education, both domestically and abroad. Our discoveries in cosmology and exoplanets have captured world-wide attention, as have stunning images from the Great Observatories of NASA, and ground based telescopes. Despite the passive nature of our science, it touches humanity profoundly. There are groups of amateur astronomers in every conceivable country who meet to look at the sky. Almost one billion people from 150 countries participated in The International Year of Astronomy 2009. No other science reaches humanity as ours does. In a recent poll, it was found that the among all the things the US does abroad, US science is seen by the world as our most positive face. We as astronomers can use this good will to affect positive changes in the world through public policy. I would like to explore how astronomy has impacted public policy, especially foreign policy, and what more we can do in the future. I also hope to encourage astronomers that a career path into public policy is an excellent use of a Ph.D. in astronomy.

  11. Human exposure monitoring and evaluation in the Arctic: the importance of understanding exposures to the development of public health policy.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P

    2004-02-01

    Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this important public health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders. PMID:14757538

  12. Human exposure monitoring and evaluation in the Arctic: the importance of understanding exposures to the development of public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P

    2004-01-01

    Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this important public health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders. PMID:14757538

  13. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Kenneth, Ed.; Schwandt, Thomas A., Ed.; Straf, Miron L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy" encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation…

  14. Financing Higher Standards in Public Education: The Importance of Accounting for Educational Costs. Policy Brief, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    This policy brief explains why performance focus and educational cost indexes must go hand in hand, discusses alternative methods for estimating educational cost indexes, and shows how these costs indexes can be incorporated into a performance-based state aid program. A shift to educational performance standards, whether these standards are…

  15. Public Policy RegionalPlanning

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    , statistics, and data analysis. Acquireforeignlanguagecompetencyandtravel experienceforinternationalpositions in statistics, computer science, environmental protection, or public policy. Develop a network of personalRaising BUSINESS Sales HumanResources Management Advertising Public Relations

  16. Preparing for public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plapp, Brendan

    2002-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the tight job market for Ph.D. recipients in physics led to a reexamination of graduate programs by some departments. The speaker participated in this reanalysis at his graduate institution and arranged presentations of alternative careers to the physics graduate student body. What became clear was that diverse options were open; job seekers just needed flexible expectations. However, there are a number of additions or modifications to graduate programs which could further help to prepare Ph.D. recipients as they move into non-traditional roles, such as additional and more formal experience in communicating science to a wide range of audiences. In particular, it would be advantageous to learn how to explain the role that basic scientific research projects play in the larger public policy arena. Examples from the speaker's experience of working as a staff member in the U.S. Congress will be presented to illustrate the skills needed in that environment.

  17. Family Economic Issues & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimsey, Peggy Poling; Paynter, Mary Ann

    Emerging from two graduate seminars designed to increase the involvement of home economists in public policy, this publication includes course outlines, models, and papers on selected issues concerning family-related government policy. The structure and requirements of the two seminars, held in 1978 at the University of Kentucky, are described. A…

  18. Professors, Politicians, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, John Charles; And Others

    The edited transcript of an AEI Public Policy Forum explores the relationship of academia to political life generally, and the the formation of public policy specifically. Themes discussed by the panelists include the effects of academia as an attitude-generating body, the universtiy as an adversary culture, and the changing social and political…

  19. Morrison Institute for Public Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Morrison Institute was created in 1982 at Arizona State University with a grant provided by Marvin and June Morrison of Arizona. The Institute "bridges the gap between academic scholarship and public policy through services to public and private sector clients and independent research." Today, the Institute's work includes research on water resources, health care, human services, urban growth, and economic development. On the homepage, visitors will find the very helpful Recent Reports & Publications area, full of compelling new works such as "Digital Learning: How to Enhance the Learning of Any Child at Any Time, and in Any Place" and "Dropped? Latino Education and Arizona's Economic Future." Moving on, the Important Links area contains easy access to video and multimedia archives, along with blogs and information about upcoming seminars and presentations. Policy makers will want to make a beeline for the State Of Our State section. Here they can learn about the annual conference that provides stakeholders with information about the overall health of the state, with sections on the state's deficit problems and other germane matters.

  20. Health education and public policy.

    PubMed

    Service, A

    1986-01-01

    The UK's Minister for Health has again raised the debate about the role of health educators, and in particular that of the Health Education Council, in what is termed public policy work. 1 possible definition of public policy work as regards health education is that aspect that seeks to establish certain health promoting principles as part of the conscious factors always to be considered by individuals, by opinion leaders, by manufacturers, by employers and trade unions, by service providers, by local authorities, and by central government in their plans and decisions. The Health Education Council (HEC) has no power to make or impose public policy; the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) has that task. The world of health education providers includes the Health Education Officers working for the Health Authorities and with the Education Authorities, an increasing number of important academic workers in the field, the HEC, the Scottish Health Education Group (SHEG), the DHSS, and some of the members of various professions who provide health education to the public as part of their daily work. Most of the HEC's work consists of providing these people with health educational tools. If the HEC begins to do more in the public policy field, it will not be at the cost of providing health educational tools. At the HEC a staff of 4 liaison workers is responsible for keeping field workers informed about future and imminent HEC work programs. They also assess needs and ideas by holding periodic meetings with Health Education Officers and others in various parts of the country. HEC's efforts have contributed substantially to increasing attention to preventive health measures on the part of the DHSS, parliamentary committees, the Royal Colleges, other professional bodies, and the media. In regard to the future, several paths deserve exploration as part of the HEC's education of decision-makers and opinion-formers. These include: local authorities, relevant professions of the National Health Service, the press and media, business and trade unions, voluntary organizations, and parliament. PMID:3783557

  1. Behavior analysis and public policy

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernstein, Gail S.; Czyzewski, Mare J.; Greene, Brandon F.; Hannah, Gerald T.; Iwata, Brian A.; Jason, Leonard A.; Mathews, R. Mark; Morris, Edward K.; Otis-Wilborn, Amy; Seekins, Tom; Winett, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    The Task Force on Public Policy was created to examine ways for behavior analysts to be more functional citizen scientists in the policymaking arena. This report informs readers about the contexts and processes of policymaking; and it outlines issues regarding the roles of behavior analysts in crating policy-relevant conceptual analyses, generating research data, and communicating policy-relevant information. We also discuss a possible role for the professional association in enhancing analysis, research, and advocacy on policies relevant to the public interest. PMID:22477991

  2. Good Chemical Measurements, Good Public Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Larry R.

    2005-02-01

    At every turn now, one encounters sharply debated issues and important public policies that rest on chemical information. This is true in practically any arena where public interest intersects with the material world: health care practice and public health; energy; quality of air, water, and food; manufacturing standards and product liability; criminal justice; national and international security, including the defense against terrorism. The scale can be truly global, as in the case of the current debate over climate change, which extends into international efforts to regulate gaseous emissions. Sometimes the relevant chemical measurements and applicable theory are sound and their scope is appropriate to the policy; often they are inadequate and a policy or debate overreaches the analytical capability needed to support it. In the decades ahead, the issues with us today will become even more pressing and will drive a still greater reliance on analytical chemistry. This presentation will have four parts covering (a) illustrations of the impact of analytical chemistry on public debate and public policy, including instances where analytical capabilities actually gave rise to new issues and policies, (b) the manner in which chemical information is handled and understood in public debates, (c) areas of analytical chemistry that will be critical to sound public policy in the future, and (d) implications for the education of leaders and general citizens of modern societies.

  3. Writing public policy: A practicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine F. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Practical experience teaches the difficulty and the messiness of democratic public policy processes. A discourse analytic perspective on rhetorical action in the institutional settings of policy work reveals the dynamics of effective agency. By simulating practical experience and by developing a discourse analytic perspective, academic instruction in professional and technical communication can show students what elected officials, governmental staff, and

  4. Ethical issues in public health policy.

    PubMed

    Anand, K; Baridalyne, N; Moorthy, D; Kapoor, S K; Sankar, R; Pandav, C S

    2002-01-01

    Ethics in public health policy is given the least importance and rarely discussed. Resolving ethical issues in public health is often an arduous task as these are complicated and require careful handling. Using four case studies, we discuss issues pertaining to pertussis and brain damage, water fluoridation and dental caries, infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and the right to marriage, and the debate surrounding universal salt iodization. The core issue in all these examples pertains to the relevance of ethics in public health policy. PMID:12044125

  5. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Christopher E.; Halligan, Michelle H.; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the ‘policy diffusion’ process, enabling governments to learn from another’s enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada. PMID:25379125

  6. HUBERT H. HUMPHREY SOCIAL POLICY & POLICY ANALYSIS SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AREA CHAIR: JOE SOSS

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    Concentration Information Public policy is gendered. That means that men and women are affected differently, and that public policies are an important component in the ongoing construction of gender differences, and a site Gender/Bodies: Reproduction and Sexual Violence PA 5431 Public Policies on Work and Pay * Suggestions

  7. The Public and Science Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Kenneth

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of public opinion (views and images held by the general public which political leaders find prudent) on science policy, defined as government decisions affecting where, how, and with what resources science is practiced in the United States. Includes discussions of scientific literacy and scientific attitudes. (Author/SK)

  8. Career Goals and Academic Focus Public Policy/

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Tony R.

    / Criminology Family/ Social Work/Public Policy Business Liberal Education Degree Academic Sociology Development degrees in Sociology, as well as Public Policy, Political Science, Social Work, Education Policy, etc. Program evaluation for NGOs, government agencies, development agencies Recommended minor Statistics

  9. Trustees and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Charles B.; Bellows, Everett H.

    1980-01-01

    Washington-based national organizations are seen as effective in dealing with the government, especially on technical questions. But when major policy issues are to be decided, it is suggested that a college president or board member is more effective. Knowing the committee structure is seen as necessary for influencing legislation. (Author/MLW)

  10. Public Participation in the Process of Local Public Health Policy, Using Policy Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yukyung; Kim, Chang-yup; You, Myoung Soon; Lee, Kun Sei; Park, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the current public participation in-local health policy and its implications through the analysis of policy networks in health center programs. Methods: We examined the decision-making process in sub-health center installations and the implementation process in metabolic syndrome management program cases in two districts (‘gu’s) of Seoul. Participants of the policy network were selected by the snowballing method and completed self-administered questionnaires. Actors, the interactions among actors, and the characteristics of the network were analyzed by Netminer. Results: The results showed that the public is not yet actively participating in the local public health policy processes of decision-making and implementation. In the decision-making process, most of the network actors were in the public sector, while the private sector was a minor actor and participated in only a limited number of issues after the major decisions were made. In the implementation process, the program was led by the health center, while other actors participated passively. Conclusions: Public participation in Korean public health policy is not yet well activated. Preliminary discussions with various stakeholders, including civil society, are needed before making important local public health policy decisions. In addition, efforts to include local institutions and residents in the implementation process with the public officials are necessary to improve the situation. PMID:25475197

  11. Career Development and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    Career development specialists need to find ways to adapt their knowledge and skills to become agents of social action. Public policy is one area where career development specialists can involve themselves to help bring about social change. This paper attempts to raise the consciousness of Society of Vocational Psychology (SVP) members and to…

  12. Personnel testing and public policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron Fincher

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the major features of the Supreme Court ruling in Griggs vs Duke Power Company, the guidelines of the Equal Opportunity Employment Commission and of the Office of Federal Contract Compliance, and the revised Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972. The convergence of thinking present in the 4 documents is interpreted as the formulation of public policies that are increasingly

  13. Race, Economics, and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Vivian W.

    1975-01-01

    Reflecting upon the thought of W.E.B. DuBois, it is argued that the black person's fundamental problem today is not one of race but rather is a hard core economic class problem. The implications of this analysis for social strategy and public policy are discussed. (EH)

  14. Cross-Cutting Public Policies

    Cancer.gov

    A variety of statutory or administrative requirements cut across federal programs and impact the administration of grants. These “cross-cutting” public policies, which apply to almost every grant program, are intended to ensure fairness and equity, as well as physical and other protections in activities receiving federal financial assistance.

  15. Public Policy Institute of California

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the early 1990s, a group of concerned Californians (including William R. Hewlett) decided that there should be a policy research institution dedicated to providing both wise counsel and expertise on the issues and events that were of great concern to the residents of the state. With a sizable gift of $70 million, the Public Policy Institute of California was formally created in 1994, and since that time they have continued their research with great vigor, along with disseminating their findings to the broader public. Visitors to the Institute's homepage can look over their reports listed by topic area, such as demography, education, or political participation. Scholars and policy analysts will appreciate the "Data Depot" area which includes information on the natural resource budget over the past three decades and information on the federal transit grants provided to different parts of the state.

  16. Social cost of imported oil and US import policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Bohi; W. D. Montgomery

    1982-01-01

    Attempts at estimating and applying the oil import premium require a large number of uncertain assumptions about economic behavior. Analysts can easily construct opposing arguments that the premium is large or small, and that the benefit of import reduction is correspondingly large or small, depending on the choice of assumptions. Long-run oil import policy depends most critically on the nature

  17. Vaccines and public policy.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, William

    2012-06-01

    My commitment to vaccines had its beginnings in an unlikely fashion. I just had completed two years of an internal medicine residency as well as two years of clinical and research training in infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee. Now it was time to fulfill my national service obligation (Selective Service--"the draft") that all young men had back in the 1960s. Because of my interest in infectious diseases, it had been suggested that, rather than serving in the Army, I apply for a Commission in the US Public Health Service. To my delight and considerable surprise I had been accepted and I reported for training and further assignment to the Communicable Disease Center in Atlanta (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-CDC) as a newly minted Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Officer. Under the stern guidance of Alexander Langmuir, CDC's chief epidemiologist, each cadre of novice EIS Officers were immersed in the principles and practice of investigative field epidemiology which transformed clinicians such as myself who had heretofore focused on the illnesses of single patients into public health physicians who worked to ensure the health of entire communities. The 6-week instruction period was both demanding and inspiring. It instilled an esprit de corps; and at the completion of our training we were eager to undertake our new roles as "disease detectives" in our duty assignments. Mine was to be at the state health department in Rhode Island. Which is where I encountered measles and measles vaccine. PMID:22699441

  18. System Architecture and Public Policy: How the Internet's Design Impacts the Policy Process

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    1 System Architecture and Public Policy: How the Internet's Design Impacts the Policy Process of technology and policy is especially manifest in system architecture. Architecture defines the enduring architecture is recognized as an important part of system engineering, but its significance for policy has

  19. Public Policy, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Peter

    1998-05-01

    Congressman George Brown (D-CA) has agreed to speak. This should be a speech worth hearing. Known as one of the most thoughtful men in Congress, Representative Brown has been a longtime friend of science. He is currently the Ranking Minority Member of the House Science Committee. The meeting schedule has been rearranged to accommodate the Congressman's need to return to Washington for an important vote.

  20. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  1. Food and beverage policies and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-01

    Government food and beverage policies can play an important role in promoting public health. Few people would question this assumption. Difficult questions can arise, however, when policymakers, public health officials, citizens, and businesses deliberate about food and beverage policies, because competing values may be at stake, such as public health, individual autonomy, personal responsibility, economic prosperity, and fairness. An ethically justified policy strikes a reasonable among competing values by meeting the following criteria: (1) the policy serves important social goal(s); (2) the policy is likely to be effective at achieving those goal(s); (3) less burdensome options are not likely to be effective at achieving the goals; (4) the policy is fair. PMID:24132618

  2. Communication management in the public sector: Consequences for public communication about policy intentions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Gelders; Geert Bouckaert; Betteke van Ruler

    2007-01-01

    Public communication about policy intentions is important but delicate. Government officials are confronted with four main constraints typical of the public sector compared to the private sector: more complicated and unstable environment, additional legal and formal restrictions, more rigid procedures, and more diverse products and objectives. These constraints imply that ministers communicating about policy intentions face specific communication issues such

  3. NMFS Policy on Scientific & Technical Publications

    E-print Network

    · Publications · Scientific Publishing · Publishing Privileges and Responsibility · Publishing Ethics · Publishing Ethics and Oversight · PAC oversight limited to scientific writing, editing and publishing limitedNMFS Policy on Scientific & Technical Publications PD 04-101 April 10, 2013 Office of Science

  4. Automobile crisis and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    As the American automobile industry's problems deepened in 1980 to include layoffs of 300,000 auto workers and billion-dollar losses in domestic operations, and just as Ford began producing front-wheel drive cars to compete with Japanese imports, Harvard Business Review interviewed Philip Caldwell, chairman of the Ford Motor Company. Mr. Caldwell describes the predicament of the automobile industry and relates it to the state of the economy. He proposes interim protection for the industry, resolution of the chaos characterizing business-government relations, and adoption of a national industrial policy.

  5. Marriage, Poverty, and Public Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Coontz, Stephanie.

    According to recent census statistics, the poverty level for families headed by single moms is 33%, while the poverty level for two parent families with children is only 6%. For this reason, many people feel the solution to poverty reduction is merely to marry off single moms. However, according to the report "Marriage, Poverty, and Public Policy," the solution to lessening this percentage gap is not one-dimensional. Written by Stephanie Coontz, Professor of History and Family Studies at Evergreen State College, and Nancy Folbre, Professor of Economics at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, the report finds that "lack of marriage is sometimes a symptom rather than a root cause of poverty, and that encouraging people to marry without giving them long term support systems may actually do more harm than good." Prepared for the fifth annual conference of the Council on Contemporary Families (which will be held at Fordham University in New York from April 26-28), the report offers several governmental solutions ranging from the elimination of disincentives or penalties for marriage, to investigating ways to help couples form and sustain relationships. The authors make clear that such policies, however, should not be confused with antipoverty programs, and should not be a cause to divert money from welfare programs.

  6. Public Policies and Public Resale Housing Prices in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Tu; Grace K. M. Wong

    2002-01-01

    In Singapore, the public resale housing market is an active second-hand housing market, whereby previously subsidised new public housing units were being transacted at market prices. In contrast to the private housing price determinants that have been identified in the international literature, the prices of public resale housing in Singapore are largely determined by public policies rather than by economic

  7. Graduate School of Business & Public Policy

    E-print Network

    Sciences Peter Purdue Dean, Graduate School of Operational and Information Sciences James Wirtz DeanGraduate School of Business & Public Policy Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California, USA www School of Business and Public Policy Philip Durkee Dean, Graduate School of Engineering and Applied

  8. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND PUBLIC POLICY IN EMERGING CLUSTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Carlsson

    This paper reviews the emergence of 10 industry clusters and examines the role of individual actors as well as public policy in each case. Some empirical regularities in the form of path dependence, knowledge spillovers from previous or related activities, the necessity of a triggering event, and an entrepreneurial\\/organizational response are observed. Six functions of public policy in cluster formation

  9. Families of nations and public policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Obinger; Uwe Wagschal

    2001-01-01

    Employing cluster analysis, this article reconsiders a concept formulated by Francis G. Castles that stresses the existence of four families of nations, which markedly differ in respect of public policy?making. For two policy fields — social and economic policy — the hypothesised families of nations can be shown to exist, and they are quite robust and stable over time. Cluster

  10. Public Policy and Community Colleges... Challenges Yet Unmet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This issue of State Education Leader titled "Public Policy and Community Colleges" focuses on issues of importance to community colleges. The highlighted articles in this issue discuss current legislation and reform that has impacted community colleges. In "Challenges Yet Unmet," Katherine Boswell discusses how state policy leaders look to…

  11. Consistency between Public Preferences and National Policy Decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan D. Monroe

    1979-01-01

    While the importance of the question of how often American policy decisions are in agree ment with the preferences of the mass public is clear, there have been only a few limited attempts to provide an empirical answer. The research reported here uses available pub lished national survey results and compares them with policy outcomes. Overall, about two-thirds of the

  12. Public policy action and CCC implementation: benefits and hurdles.

    PubMed

    Steger, Carter; Daniel, Kelley; Gurian, Gary L; Petherick, J T; Stockmyer, Chris; David, Annette M; Miller, Sara E

    2010-12-01

    Policy change continues to be an increasingly effective means of advancing the agenda of comprehensive cancer control. Efforts have moved progressively from describing how public policy can enhance the comprehensive cancer control agenda to implementation of public policy best practices at both the state and federal levels. The current political and economic contexts bring additional challenges and opportunities to the efforts surrounding comprehensive cancer control and policy. The purpose of this paper is to highlight recent policy successes, to illustrate the importance of policy as a means of advancing the comprehensive cancer control agenda, and to discuss continued policy action as we move forward in a time of healthcare reform and continuing economic uncertainty. PMID:21086034

  13. Foreword: Public health, public policy, politics and policing.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Reducing harm from drug use lies at the intersection of public health, public policy, politics and policing. In an ideal world, evidence of public health gains achievable through new approaches or technologies should inform public policy, should help shape political agendas in support of policy change, which should translate into law and regulations - and then to their application. The goal of this transformative process should be to yield the highest attainable health benefits to vulnerable individuals and communities and to society as a whole. PMID:22769027

  14. 40 CFR 707.20 - Chemical substances import policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical substances import policy. 707.20...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS General Import Requirements and Restrictions § 707.20 Chemical substances import policy. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 707.20 - Chemical substances import policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances import policy. 707.20...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS General Import Requirements and Restrictions § 707.20 Chemical substances import policy. (a)...

  16. Understanding Evidence-Based Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Public health policy has a profound impact on health status. Missing from the literature is a clear articulation of the definition of evidence-based policy and approaches to move the field forward. Policy-relevant evidence includes both quantitative (e.g., epidemiological) and qualitative information (e.g., narrative accounts). We describe 3 key domains of evidence-based policy: (1) process, to understand approaches to enhance the likelihood of policy adoption; (2) content, to identify specific policy elements that are likely to be effective; and (3) outcomes, to document the potential impact of policy. Actions to further evidence-based policy include preparing and communicating data more effectively, using existing analytic tools more effectively, conducting policy surveillance, and tracking outcomes with different types of evidence. PMID:19608941

  17. Is College Opportunity Slipping Away? Parents and the Public Voice Concerns about Higher Education Access and Affordability. Policy Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Policy Alert" is a publication series that summarizes important policy findings affecting the future of higher education. This issue is based on an earlier study, "Squeeze Play: How Parents and the Public Look at Higher Education Today," from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education and Public Agenda. This "Policy Alert"…

  18. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA PUBLIC POLICY/ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA PUBLIC POLICY/ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY Assistant Professor The Department of Political Science and the Environment and Sustainability Program at the University of South Carolina invite at the University of South Carolina. The successful candidate will have teaching responsibilities in both units

  19. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  20. Policies Governing Admission to Jordanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massadeh, Nassar

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to discuss the policy of admission to Jordanian public universities. This admission rules are variable and open to almost 100% of the graduates from secondary schools. This might refer to the historical events and economic conditions that the country has gone through since its establishment. Furthermore, the admission policy is…

  1. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted. PMID:20176304

  2. Duke University: Sanford School of Public Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With their breadth of experience and policy expertise, the scholars at Duke University's Sanford School of Public Policy have authored hundreds of papers and reports. This site provides access to these reports and includes such papers as "Diehard Fans and the Ivory Tower's Populist Reach" and "Racial and Economic Diversity in North Carolina's Schools: An Update.â?ť This current archive dates back to 2001 and visitors can search the reports by title, date of publication, or author. It's a great way to get acquainted with the Sanford Schoolâ??s research and policy observations. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive updates about new works.

  3. Public Policy and Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchild, Lester F., Ed.; Lovell, Cheryl D., Ed.; Hines, Edward R., Ed.; Gill, Judith I., Ed.

    The essays in this collection explore issues related to public policy and higher education. They are intended to provide foundational readings in public policy and to explore contemporary public policy issues facing higher education. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of the Policy Process" (Randall B. Ripley); (2) "Promoting Policy Theory:…

  4. Genetics and Public Policy Center

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Finds Government-sponsored analysis led by Johns Hopkins bioethics scholar published in Pediatrics. 11/24/10 Study ... Policy Center Johns Hopkins University Berman Institute of Bioethics 1779 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 605 Washington, DC ...

  5. MICHIGAN PUBLIC POLICY SURVEY (MPPS) LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    MICHIGAN PUBLIC POLICY SURVEY (MPPS) LOCAL GOVERNMENT FISCAL & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ISSUES For more. Thinking about the financial needs of your jurisdiction, would you say that your unit of government is less development programs Amount of debt Sale of public assets (i.e., parks, buildings, etc

  6. The Public Policy Context of Education Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, James A.

    The intent of these comments is to discuss the increasingly fragmented and conflictive politics of school finance in the context of the broader domains of public finance and public policy, and to comment on differences that have emerged between two groups interested in fairer school financing programs. The sources of conflict are in the struggle…

  7. Frequency of policy recommendations in epidemiologic publications.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, L W; Lee, N L; Samet, J M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and character of policy statements in epidemiologic reports. METHODS: The first author followed a standardized protocol and reviewed a random sample of articles selected from the American Journal of Epidemiology, Annals of Epidemiology, and Epidemiology. The second author reviewed all articles with policy statements and a 10% sample without such statements. RESULTS: Overall, 23.8% of the articles contained policy statements. Annals of Epidemiology and the American Journal of Epidemiology had similar frequencies of articles with policy statements (30% and 26.7%, respectively), while Epidemiology evidenced the lowest frequency (8.3%). The majority of policy statements (55%) pertained to public health practice; 27.5% involved clinical practice, and the remainder (17.5%) focused on corporate policies, regulatory actions, or undefined arenas. The frequency of policy statements differed according to first author's affiliation, type of publication, area of research, research design, and study population. CONCLUSIONS: Although a minority of publications included policy statements, the inclusion of a statement seemed to be influenced by specific study characteristics. PMID:10432907

  8. Shaping of Public Environmental Policy: User Community Impact

    E-print Network

    Shaping of Public Environmental Policy: User Community Impact Samuel P. Williamson Federal PolicyMethods to Shape Public Policy · There are many ways for the user community to influence public community to influence public environmental policy · Three possible methods: ­ User input to the OFCM

  9. The Importance of Hormesis to Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ralph; Calabrese, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Hormesis is a specific type of nonmonotonic dose response whose occurrence has been documented across a broad range of biological models, diverse types of exposure, and a variety of outcomes. The effects that occur at various points along this curve can be interpreted as beneficial or detrimental, depending on the biological or ecologic context in which they occur. Objective Because hormesis appears to be a relatively common phenomenon that has not yet been incorporated into regulatory practice, the objective of this commentary is to explore some of its more obvious public health and risk assessment implications, with particular reference to issues raised recently within this journal by other authors. Discussion Hormesis appears to be more common than dose–response curves that are currently used in the risk assessment process [e.g., linear no-threshold (LNT)]. Although a number of mechanisms have been identified that explain many hormetic dose–response relationships, better understanding of this phenomenon will likely lead to different strategies not only for the prevention and treatment of disease but also for the promotion of improved public health as it relates to both specific and more holistic health outcomes. Conclusions We believe that ignoring hormesis is poor policy because it ignores knowledge that could be used to improve public health. PMID:17107845

  10. The Thomas S. Foley Institute for Public Policy & Public Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a native son of Washington, it makes sense that Thomas S. Foley might have a policy institute named after him, particularly given his long track record of public service as the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Based at Washington State University, the mission of the Thomas S. Foley Institute for Public Policy and Public Service is "to foster civic education, public service, and public policy research in a nonpartisan, cross-disciplinary setting." First-time visitors to the site can get acclimated to the material by checking out the latest report from the Foley Institute or watching one of the recent videos from the Institute, such as "Women in Public Service" and an interview with Bill Gates, Sr. On the left-hand of the homepage, visitors will find six additional thematic areas, including "Events", "Internships", "Foley Archives", and "Public Policy Research". Finally, the site also includes links to social media and a link where users can sign up to receive updates from the Institute.

  11. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  12. [Human rights, an opportunity for public policies in health].

    PubMed

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Human rights outlined a better scenario for public policies in health. For it requires intersectoral and interdisciplinary approach. This article emphasizes the perspective of public health policies based on human rights, clarifies the relationship of public policies with the exercise of human rights, beyond the right to health. It recognizes the need to implement genuinely democratic and participatory mechanisms. It considers the universal declaration of human rights and other institutional expressions about the same as the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights, discusses the ranking of the same and defend its entirety on the determinants of health through its cohesion and political factor. It defines a framework for public health and human rights that trend by strengthening social rights, as a new area of operation, based on public policies to address the determinants of health, upholding social justice, beyond the health field and the biological and behavioural risk factors to decisions arising from political power, exceeds medical solutions and access to health services. In conclusion, it promoting respect for human rights by greater understanding of them and strengthens the importance of indirect health policies (such as food, environment and health, violence gender) and the role of international policies in the global world. PMID:18579055

  13. AGU Public Affairs: How to Get Involved in Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    AGU Public Affairs offers many ways for its members to get involved in science policy at different levels of participation, whether you would love to spend a year working as a resident science expert in a congressional office in Washington, D.C., or would rather simply receive email alerts about Earth and space science policy news. How you can get involved: Sign up for AGU Science Policy Alerts to receive the most relevant Earth and space science policy information delivered to your email inbox. Participate in one of AGU's Congressional Visits Days to speak with your legislators about important science issues. Attend the next AGU Science Policy Conference in spring 2013. Participate in events happening on Capitol Hill, and watch video of past events. Learn about AGU Embassy Lectures, where countries come together to discuss important Earth and space science topics. Learn how you can comment on AGU Position Statements. Apply to be an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, where you can work in a congressional office for one year and serve as a resident science expert, or to be an AGU Public Affairs Intern, where you can work in the field of science policy for three months. The AGU Public Affairs Team will highlight ways members can be involved as well as provide information on how the team is working to shape policy and inform society about the excitement of AGU science.

  14. Airline Deregulation and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Steven A.; Winston, Clifford

    1989-08-01

    An assessment of the effects of airline deregulation on travelers and carriers indicates that deregulation has provided travelers and carriers with 14.9 billion of annual benefits (1988 dollars). Airport congestion, airline safety, airline bankruptcy, and mergers are also analyzed and found in most cases to have reduced benefits. But, these costs should not be attributed to deregulation per se, but to failures by the government to pursue appropriate policies in these areas. Pursuit of policies that promote airline competition and efficient use of airport capacity would significantly increase the benefits from deregulation and would provide valuable guidance for other industries undergoing the transition to deregulation.

  15. Representative Albert R. Public Policy

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    Georgetown University Law Center, J.D., 1977 Bar and Court Admissions Maryland Albert Wynn is a senior research with an amendment to the FY08 Energy Appropriations bill. As a Conferee on the Energy Policy Act on myriad health issues including the Medicare prescription drug program, health information technology

  16. Adolescent Sexuality and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Joseph A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed data from three national surveys of teenage sexual behavior. Defines sexually active teenager by frequency of sexual intercourse rather than one who has had intercourse. Found adolescents to be substantially less sexually active than has been previously reported. Uses finding to examine various policy decisions in areas of sex education,…

  17. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...1211). Basically, the Policy states that in order to...it is the Commission's policy to assure that importers and...and comments of the import community, including importers and foreign...in the application of this policy, it appears that...

  18. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...1211). Basically, the Policy states that in order to...it is the Commission's policy to assure that importers and...and comments of the import community, including importers and foreign...in the application of this policy, it appears that...

  19. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...1211). Basically, the Policy states that in order to...it is the Commission's policy to assure that importers and...and comments of the import community, including importers and foreign...in the application of this policy, it appears that...

  20. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...1211). Basically, the Policy states that in order to...it is the Commission's policy to assure that importers and...and comments of the import community, including importers and foreign...in the application of this policy, it appears that...

  1. Presidential Address 1986: Public Policy and Professional Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

    1986-01-01

    The 1985-86 president of the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) discusses AAMD's past and future, emphasizing public policy development directed at liberty, equality, and community for mentally retarded persons. Growth of the AAMD's Ethics Committee and the importance of supporting professional behavior are also addressed. (CB)

  2. Community experiments in public health law and policy.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Angela K; Musicant, Gretchen G; Williams, Sharonda R; Niehaus, Virginia R

    2015-03-01

    Community-level legal and policy innovations or "experiments" can be important levers to improve health. States and localities are empowered through the 10th Amendment of the United States Constitution to use their police powers to protect the health and welfare of the public. This article describes innovative approaches to public health law and policy from Minneapolis and New Orleans, communities who have been honored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) for addressing health by focusing not solely on health care access and quality, but the wider environment, including transforming neighborhoods, schools, and businesses and addressing inequities. Specifically, this article discusses examples of how these cities have used public health legal and policy approaches and novel partnerships to promote healthy eating and active living, reduce exposure to secondhand smoke, and prevent violence. PMID:25846155

  3. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  4. Involving Citizens in Making Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Silas B.

    1970-01-01

    Citizen participation in public policy making is a serious jeopardy because of the frustration cause by an enormous avalanche of information, by the impersonalization of our institutions, and by the technological revolution. A small social action committee dedicated to the collective interchange of ideas and information and working in an…

  5. Public Telecommunications Policies and Education's Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Frank W.

    The use of satellite telecommunications for educational and other public service purposes has been restricted by educators' lack of awareness of the potential that exists. While industry actively promotes its own interests, educators rarely even realize that international policies being made today will affect critically the options available for…

  6. MICHIGAN PUBLIC POLICY SURVEY (MPPS) LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    MICHIGAN PUBLIC POLICY SURVEY (MPPS) LOCAL GOVERNMENT FISCAL & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ISSUES For more that your unit of government isless able or better able to meet its financial needs in... Significantly of debt ! ! ! ! ! ! Privatizing or contracting out of services ! ! ! ! ! ! Number and/or scope

  7. MICHIGAN PUBLIC POLICY SURVEY (MPPS) LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    MICHIGAN PUBLIC POLICY SURVEY (MPPS) LOCAL GOVERNMENT FISCAL & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ISSUES For more. Thinking about the financial needs of your jurisdiction, would you say that your unit of government is less for services, licenses, transfers, etc. Amount of debt Ability of your jurisdiction to repay its

  8. Decision Support Systems and Public Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Owen P., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines an approach for developing and applying computerized decision support systems to the formulation and evaluation of public policy. To meet the challenge of financial resource limitations, new management systems must be developed to improve both governmental efficiency and decision-making effectiveness. (Author/BS)

  9. Training and Public Policy: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James

    Developed by an advisory board of industry and education representatives to raise issues for the consideration of policy makers, community college administrators, labor leaders, and managers in Michigan, this report discusses the increasing significance of training to industry; the challenge to public education and, in particular, to community…

  10. Asbestos: Mineralogy, Health Hazards, and Public Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Helen Lang

    In this laboratory exercise students will have an opportunity to examine the crystal structures, optical properties and health hazards of the common asbestos minerals. The laboratory will reinforce optical microscopic skills that students have learned in mineralogy and show them how mineralogy can be critical to understanding a current public policy issue.

  11. Public Policy Institute of California: Map Room

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Public Policy Institute of California provides timely research papers and policy briefs on various issues affecting the Golden State, including those related to public education financing, economic development, immigration, and transportation. As of late, they have also been beefing up their online map room area, which is a great resource for those with an interest in policy matters, geography, and urban studies. The interactive maps here are divided into four categories, including housing, population, water, and environment. With each map, visitors can click through to learn about different details and features, and many of the maps have additional layers of data as well. Perhaps the most interesting maps here include "Inland Empire Demographics: 2005 and 2015" and "Home Affordability in California's Counties".

  12. Controlling birth: science, politics, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Nancy Felipe; Denious, Jean E

    2005-03-01

    Reproductive technologies raise a host of social and legal issues that challenge basic values and create intense controversy. If researchers wish to inform public policies related to reproductive technologies, they must understand how the scientific enterprise is being manipulated and research findings are being misrepresented to justify a particular social agenda and restrict access to contraception and abortion. To counter these distortions, scientists must defend the science advisory process, be involved in dissemination of their research findings beyond simply publication in scientific journals, and actively work to ensure that the findings are not misrepresented to the public. PMID:17073030

  13. Suicide, Guns, and Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is a serious public health concern that is responsible for almost 1 million deaths each year worldwide. It is commonly an impulsive act by a vulnerable individual. The impulsivity of suicide provides opportunities to reduce the risk of suicide by restricting access to lethal means. In the United States, firearms, particularly handguns, are the most common means of suicide. Despite strong empirical evidence that restriction of access to firearms reduces suicides, access to firearms in the United States is generally subject to few restrictions. Implementation and evaluation of measures such as waiting periods and permit requirements that restrict access to handguns should be a top priority for reducing deaths from impulsive suicide in the United States. PMID:23153127

  14. Public Policy in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J., Ed; Reis, Sally M., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Raising some of the most challenging questions in the field, this call-to-arms focuses on the important services gifted programs provide, the potential crisis gifted educators face, and what must be done to keep the gifted child movement alive and well. Key features include: (1) James J. Gallagher's unflinching account of the issues that continue…

  15. The effect of voter control on public policy

    E-print Network

    Sances, Michael William

    2014-01-01

    In democracies, the public make decisions that affect policy. In some situations, these decisions are only indirectly related to policy: voters choose an elected executive, who then appoints an unelected policy-maker, who ...

  16. Georgetown Law: Center on Poverty, Inequality and Public Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Law Center of Georgetown and the Georgetown Public Policy Institute have teamed up to assist policymakers, lawmakers, researchers, and others to effectively address poverty and inequality as a function of public policy. Their website allows anyone to read publications by the Center's esteemed thinkers. In the "Current Projects" link on the menu of the left side of any page, visitors can read the center's Youth Policy, Low-Income Tax Policy, and Cross-Cutting Policy Poverty Initiatives.

  17. WISE: Journal of Engineering and Public Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "The Journal of Engineering and Public Policy is an electronic compendium of research papers prepared by engineering students participating in the annual Washington Internships for Students of Engineering (WISE)." Papers are currently available for the first six years of the program, and those for 2003 will be available later in the fall. A continuing theme studied by many of the WISE students is homeland security, ranging from critical infrastructure protection to computer and Internet security. Other topics include communications, transportation, engineering policy, and more.

  18. Willingness to pay for public health policies to treat illnesses.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, Ryan; Cameron, Trudy Ann; DeShazo, J R

    2015-01-01

    As the US pursues health care reform, it is important to understand the patterns in demand for, and opposition to, public provision of medical treatments. Using data from a nationally representative survey, we develop and estimate a utility-theoretic choice model to quantify demand for publicly provided medical treatment policies. We find diminishing marginal utility for increased recoveries and avoided premature deaths. We also show how the utility associated with different types of treatment policies varies with the socio-demographic group that would benefit (e.g. men, women, children, and seniors) and the program's duration and scope. Our model further permits utility, and hence willingness to pay, to vary with each respondent's own gender, age, race, income, community ethnic fractionalization and immigrant composition, as well as the respondent's expected private benefits from the policy and attitude toward government interventions and overall health care funding allocations. Self-interest is a prevailing finding. PMID:25531749

  19. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies--1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

    This publication reports the major discussions at a conference that was held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. It begins with abstracts of the 22 presentations. Four papers deal with public policy education in the 1990s: "To Inform Their Discretion: Policy Education and Democratic…

  20. Roundtable on public policy affecting patient safety.

    PubMed

    Crane, Robert M; Raymond, Brian

    2011-03-01

    On April 15, 2010, patient safety experts were assembled to discuss the adequacy of the public policy response to the Institute of Medicine report "To Err is Human" 10 years after its publication. The experts concluded that additional government actions should be considered. Actions that deserve consideration include the development of an educational campaign to improve public and provider understanding of the issue as a means to support change similar to successful public health campaigns, support the evolution of payment reform away from fee for service, create a clearer aim or goal for patient safety activities, support the development and use of better safety measures to judge status and improvement, and support for additional learning of what works particularly on implementation issues. Participants included: Moderator Robert Crane, senior advisor, Kaiser Permanente Participants Doug Bonacum, vice president, Safety Management, Kaiser Permanente Janet Corrigan, PhD, president and CEO, National Quality Forum Helen Darling, MA, president and CEO, National Business Group on Health Susan Edgman-Levitan, PA, executive director, John D. Stoeckle Center for Primary Care Innovation, Massachusetts General Hospital David M. Lawrence, MD, MPH, chairman and CEO (Retired), Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals, Inc Lucian Leape, MD, adjunct professor of Health Policy, Harvard School of Public Health Diane C. Pinakiewicz, president, National Patient Safety Foundation Robert M. Wachter, MD, professor and associate chairman, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. PMID:22026014

  1. The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1998, the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education is an independent, nonprofit, and nonpartisan organization dedicated to "ensuring educational opportunity, affordability, and quality in American higher education." The Center's work focuses around several important questions, such as "Who should be served by higher education?" and "How can state and federal policies stimulate and encourage increased quality?" Perhaps the most important information the site provides are the reports issued and researched by the Center. Recent papers of note include "College Affordability in Jeopardy" (released February 2003), "Coping with Recession," and "Competition and Collaboration in California Higher Education." Another helpful feature provided on the site is National Crosstalk, a quarterly publication published by the Center, which features news stories, opinion pieces from persons in higher education, and interviews. The site is rounded out by a collection of links relevant to American higher education and the opportunity for visitors to sign up to receive email updates from the Center.

  2. 06.02 1 Public Records REGENTS' POLICY

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    confidential by a federal law or regulation or by state law; medical and related public health records; certain06.02 1 Public Records REGENTS' POLICY PART VI - BOARD OF REGENTS' POLICIES ADOPTED AS REGULATIONS Chapter 06.02 ­ Public Records P06.02.010. Access to Public Records. In accordance with AS 14

  3. The Policy Implications of Internet Connectivity in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Langa, Lesley A.

    2006-01-01

    The provision of public Internet access and related networked services by public libraries is affected by a number of information policy issues. This article analyzes the policy dimensions of Internet connectivity in public libraries in light of the data and findings from a national survey of public libraries conducted by the authors of this…

  4. The Policy Implications of Internet Connectivity in Public Libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul T. Jaeger; John Carlo Bertot; Charles R. McClure; Lesley A. Langa

    2006-01-01

    The provision of public Internet access and related networked services by public libraries is affected by a number of information policy issues. This article analyzes the policy dimensions of Internet connectivity in public libraries in light of the data and findings from a national survey of public libraries conducted by the authors of this article. After providing a summary of

  5. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  6. Parents, Public Policy, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper jointly examines the importance of parental influences, prices, and tobacco control policies on the smoking behavior of youths. Data are drawn from the Audits & Surveys (A&S) 1996 survey of high school students across the United States from "The Study of Smoking and Tobacco Use Among Young People" to examine the impact of parental…

  7. From Public Understanding to Public Policy: Public Views on Energy, Technology & Climate Science in the United States

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    From Public Understanding to Public Policy: Public Views on Energy, Technology & Climate Science battles over energy and environmental policy often invoke public opinion to justify their preferred to the issues involved in energy or environmental policy and so will be unaware of many of the issues of concern

  8. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. Methods A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC?=?27; ON?=?20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Results Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. Conclusion This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be addressed and later documents providing evidence of beginning policy development and implementation. While many similarities exist between the provinces, the context distinctive to each province has influenced and shaped how they have focused their public health human resources policies. PMID:24564931

  9. Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Chelsea A.

    2010-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322

  10. RESPONSE OF PUBLIC LAND RANCHERS TO POLICY CHANGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Tanaka; Bradley J. Gentner

    2001-01-01

    Policy analysis and planning requires that we know what the likely responses of affected parties to given policy changes. We conducted a random survey of ranchers holding 1998 public land grazing permits in all western states to determine the social and economic characteristics of permit holders, to assess their attitudes about public land policies, and to gauge their responses to

  11. Noncitizen Eligibility for Federal Public Assistance: Policy Overview and Trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Ellen Wasem

    2010-01-01

    [Excerpt] The extent to which residents of the United States who are not U.S. citizens should be eligible for federally funded public aid has been a contentious issue for more than a decade. This issue meets at the intersection of two major policy areas: immigration policy and welfare policy. The eligibility of noncitizens for public assistance programs is based on

  12. Influencing Public Policy to Improve the Lives of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Kietzman, Kathryn G.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Hensel, Brian K.; Miles, Toni P.; Segev, Dorry L.; Zerzan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous public policy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related public policy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging…

  13. udall centerfor studies in public policy native nations institutefor leadership, management, and policy

    E-print Network

    McCallum, William G.

    ANNUAL REPORT 2009­10 udall centerfor studies in public policy native nations institutefor, immigration policy, and Indigenous nations policy. The Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management leadership, management, and policy policy research and outreach for decision-making #12;mission Established

  14. Cape Wind: A Public Policy Debate for the Physical Sciences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shannon Mayer

    2007-07-01

    Since the industrial revolution, technological innovation and the application of basic scientific research have transformed society. Increasingly, critical conversations and legislation regarding national and international public policy have sophisticated scientific underpinnings. It is crucial that we prepare scientists and engineers with an informed scientific worldview and technical expertise to be advisors and participants in these important conversations. This paper describes the use of a debate about a proposed wind farm off the coast of Cape Cod as a platform to explore public-policy issues in a physical- science course. The subject of wind power fits naturally into curriculum related to energy, and is therefore applicable to a broad range of courses found in the disciplines of physics, chemistry, environmental science, and engineering, including general-science courses for nonscience majors.

  15. GLOBAL PUBLIC POLICY 2011-2012 concentration information

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    Security Cohen (3cr) PA 8821 National Security Policy Andreasen (3cr) PA 5890 Crisis Management Andreasen Security Policy PA 8821 National Security Policy PA 5821 Humanitarianism PA 5890 Crisis Management LAW 60224/27/2012 GLOBAL PUBLIC POLICY 2011-2012 concentration information Applies to MPP concentrations

  16. A Graduate Seminar on Science, Public Policy, and Outreach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    I offered a seminar course titled, `Science, Public Policy and Outreach' for graduate students of the College of Agricultural and Natural Resources (CASNR) at Texas Tech University. The underlying theme of the course was that today's graduate students in the natural resource management disciplines should be familiar with public policy and public outreach processes in order to be successful professionals

  17. Punitive Damages and French Public Policy Lyon Symposium, France

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Punitive Damages and French Public Policy - Lyon Symposium, France Nagoya University, Japan from smoking cigarettes manufactured by Phillip Morris, was awarded $821,000 in compensatory damages awarded by a US court contrary to French public policy or enforceable in France? This concept of public

  18. Abortion and the search for public policy.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, R L

    1993-01-01

    The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The public policy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the public policy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set forth by Justice Harry Blackmun in Roe vs. Wade. This approach gives a woman freedom to decide to have an abortion during the first 2 trimesters of her pregnancy only. This approach has essentially dictated public policy in the US since 1973. The last position considered is that which maintains that a woman's right to equality demands that she have sole control over whether or not to have an abortion. PMID:8118140

  19. Navigating public health chemicals policy in Australia: a policy maker's and practitioner's guide.

    PubMed

    Capon, Adam; Smith, Wayne; Gillespie, James A

    2013-03-01

    Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday life. Environmental health practitioners rely on a complex web of regulators and policy bodies to ensure the protection of public health, yet few understand the full extent of this web. A lack of understanding can hamper public health response and impede policy development. In this paper we map the public health chemicals policy landscape in Australia and conclude that an understanding of this system is essential for effective environmental health responses and policy development. PMID:23490093

  20. A rational approach to formulating public policy on substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Trunkey, Donald D; Bonnono, Carol

    2005-09-01

    Unlike alcohol, which is legal and regulated, current public policy makes drugs such as heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, and marijuana illegal. This article summarizes the history of drug and alcohol use in the United States, compares our public policies on alcohol to those on drugs, and shows the direct link between alcohol or drug use and crime, corruption, violence, and health problems in other countries and in our own. A rational approach to formulating a workable public policy is presented. PMID:16355066

  1. Aligning Food Systems Policies to Advance Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mark; Tagtow, Angie; Roberts, Susan L.; MacDougall, Erin

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of public health professionals in food and agricultural policy provides tremendous opportunities for advancing the public's health. It is particularly challenging, however, for professionals to understand and consider the numerous policy drivers that impact the food system, which range from agricultural commodity policies to local food safety ordinances. Confronted with this complexity in the food system, policy advocates often focus on narrow objectives with disregard for the larger system. This commentary contends that, in order to be most effective, public health professionals need to consider the full range of interdependent policies that affect the system. Food policy councils have proven to be an effective tool, particularly at the local and state level, for developing comprehensive food systems policies that can improve public health. PMID:23144671

  2. 5 CFR 294.201 - Public information policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Public information policy. 294.201 Section...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AVAILABILITY OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION The Public Information Function § 294.201...

  3. The State of Asian Pacific America: Policy Issues to the Year 2020. A Public Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    Nineteen chapters consider major public policy implications for demographic projections of the Asian Pacific American population to the year 2020. A preface by D. T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama introduces the studies. Policy recommendations from the Asian American Public Policy Institute follow, recommending multiculturalism and intracultural…

  4. HUBERT H. HUMPHREY SOCIAL POLICY & POLICY ANALYSIS SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AREA CHAIR: JOE SOSS

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    for the United States and Third World 3 PA 5311 Program Evaluation 3 PA 5421 Racial Inequality and Public PolicyPage 1/2 HUBERT H. HUMPHREY SOCIAL POLICY & POLICY ANALYSIS SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AREA CHAIR courses. A wide variety of suitable courses can also found in other units of the University of Minnesota

  5. Comparing public discourses in stem cell policy debates.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Tamra

    2007-05-01

    Public policy debates surrounding stem cell research are becoming increasingly more complex as governance considerations move beyond the moral status of human embryos. This complexity is evident in the public discourses surrounding these debates globally. This article draws on the results of an analysis conducted on the media coverage of a recent stem cell policy episode in the United States to demonstrate the complexity of public discourses surrounding stem cell research and to reflect upon similar debates in Australia. Observations made from the public discourses in California are reframed within the Australian context to discuss ways in which future public policy debates surrounding stem cell research may be enriched. PMID:17571787

  6. How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs. PMID:22635185

  7. New England Public Policy Center Working Papers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-30

    The regional Federal Reserve Banks located across the United States produce a range of reports on economic indicators, housing statistics, local industry, and other related topics. The New England Public Policy Center (NEPPC) at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston has been archiving its working papers series since 2005, and visitors to this site can look over all of the published titles. Currently, there are over 25 papers by NEPPC staff members available here. Some of the more recent titles include "Are American Homeowners Locked Into Their Houses? The Impact of Housing Market Conditions on State-to-State Migration" and "Childhood Lead and Academic Performance in Massachusetts." The site also includes a full range of social media links, which makes it easy to share these valuable works with others.

  8. On failures in education and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2007-04-01

    Education of the public and the resulting policies in many matters are grossly inadequate. Included as a small list of four samples of failings in vital matters are: 1. Societal Cohesiveness: A profound change in the school system will yield great benefit for the nation (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/publicservice.html.). 2. Lack of understanding regarding the coming avian flu pandemic (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/ElyFluMES.pdf). 3. Severe Hg intoxication from dentistry due to profound multifaceted ignorance (Ely JTA, Mercury induced Alzheimer's disease: accelerating incidence? Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001; 67(6),800-6). 4. The end of the world by global warming due to Christian religion forcing family planning money to be withheld from UN leading to population excess (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/CO2runaway.html).

  9. Promotion of Healthy Eating Through Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian; Taksler, Glen B.; Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney B.; Dixon, L. Beth

    2013-01-01

    Background To induce consumers to purchase healthier foods and beverages, some policymakers have suggested special taxes or labels on unhealthy products. The potential of such policies is unknown. Purpose In a controlled field experiment, researchers tested whether consumers were more likely to purchase healthy products under such policies. Methods From October to December 2011, researchers opened a store at a large hospital that sold a variety of healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages. Purchases (N=3680) were analyzed under five conditions: a baseline with no special labeling or taxation, a 30% tax, highlighting the phrase “less healthy” on the price tag, and combinations of taxation and labeling. Purchases were analyzed in January–July 2012, at the single-item and transaction levels. Results There was no significant difference between the various taxation conditions. Consumers were 11 percentage points more likely to purchase a healthier item under a 30% tax (95% CI=7%, 16%, <0.001) and 6 percentage points more likely under labeling (95% CI=0%, 12%, p=0.04). By product type, consumers switched away from the purchase of less-healthy food under taxation (9 percentage points decrease, p<0.001) and into healthier beverages (6 percentage point increase, p=0.001); there were no effects for labeling. Conditions were associated with the purchase of 11–14 fewer calories (9%–11% in relative terms) and 2 fewer grams of sugar. Results remained significant controlling for all items purchased in a single transaction. Conclusions Taxation may induce consumers to purchase healthier foods and beverages. However, it is unclear whether the 15%–20% tax rates proposed in public policy discussions would be more effective than labeling products as less healthy. PMID:23790988

  10. The role of surveillance and data use in the development of public health policies.

    PubMed

    Stachenko, Sylvie

    2008-09-01

    Decision makers consider numerous factors besides surveillance data in establishing public health policies and programmes. In an evidence-informed system, it is important to collect, interpret, and present information that has maximum impact on the broader policy agenda.Successful policies and programmes are rational, feasible, and practical, with wide public support. Surveillance systems must align and interact with the other parts of the policy infrastructure. There must be continuous links between data providers, collectors, and users. Data must be representative of population variations.For chronic diseases, the major challenge is multiple risks. Surveillance systems must capture many factors from many sources. Data must be presented in plain language and tailored to the needs of various users - politicians, policy makers, health providers, researchers, and the public. Data must be linked to other policy areas such as taxation. Economic arguments, including modelling, strongly influence decisions. Broad data ownership through alliances also has significant impact. PMID:18784050

  11. Juvenile Justice and Public Policy: Toward a National Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ira M., Ed.

    Some of the most critical and troubling issues in juvenile justice are addressed to serve as a catalyst and resource for developing sound juvenile justice public policy decisions. The following chapters examine juvenile court policies, special issues, and cost-effective interventions, and present findings of a national survey of public attitudes…

  12. Sport Policy and the New Public Management in the Caribbean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy McCree

    2009-01-01

    One of the major themes in the literature on the New Public Management is the extent to which it can be seen as an expression of policy convergence globally, although there is significant divergence as to the meaning, causes, character and consequences of this convergence. In the context of public sport policy, however, the issue has not been directly examined.

  13. Environment and economy: Property rights and public policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Bromley

    1991-01-01

    For much of its history, environmental economics has sought to modify public policy in order to achieve efficient use and management of environmental resources. The results of this attempt, however, have been dismaying for the most part, and environment public policy continues to differ from the course of action prescribed by economic analysis. Some economists have begun to acknowledge that

  14. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  15. Public Policy and Teacher Education in Brazil after 1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Selva

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates public policy concerning teacher education in Brazil. It is a critical rereading of historical documents focusing on laws, legal documents, projects, institutional and public policies and teaching careers developed by the Brazilian state, as well as social and scientific organisations. Emphasis is given to current…

  16. Integrated Energy Policy Report Subsidiary Volume: PUBLIC INTEREST

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Integrated Energy Policy Report Subsidiary Volume: PUBLIC INTEREST Energy Policy Report Cheri Davis Gerald Pine Jennifer Williams Mike Messenger Pamela Doughman Sylvia Interest Energy Strategies Report was completed under the auspices of the Ad Hoc Integrated Energy Policy

  17. Child Care and Public Policy: A Dilemma at All Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Tom

    This report provides an analysis of public policy issues associated with state and federal child care developments, laws, regulations, and bills. It is intended to aid policy makers, government officials, consumers, and practitioners of child care programs. The report examines three major areas of policy: (1) federal legislative action which…

  18. Undergraduate PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS CERTIFICATE PROGRAM University of Nebraska -Lincoln

    E-print Network

    Logan, David

    Law CRIM 335 Criminology CRIM 337 Juvenile Delinquency CRIM 338 Minorities and Criminal Justice CRIM of Juvenile Delinquency Cultural/Ethnic Policy CRIM 338 Minorities and Criminal Justice GERO 469 Working-Pacific POLS 471 Comparative Public Policy: A Cross National Approach Criminal Justice Policy CRIM 331 Criminal

  19. Forest policies and the supply of public goods in the European Union

    E-print Network

    Pettenella, Davide

    sequestration, Water supply, ... loc.reg. localregional localreg. loc.reg. localregional loc.reg. localregional27-03-2012 1 Forest policies and the supply of public goods in the European) and the policy- implemen9ng level (project) are important when dealing with governance issues

  20. Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…

  1. Latent tuberculous infection: ethical considerations in formulating public health policy.

    PubMed

    Denholm, J T; Matteelli, A; Reis, A

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing interest in the introduction of public health policies relating to latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). However, there has been little previous systematic engagement with LTBI from an ethical perspective. This article offers a general overview of ethical issues in relation to LTBI, with particular focus on those aspects relevant to the development and implementation of public health policy. Key characteristics of LTBI are discussed from an ethical perspective, with examples of challenging situations for policy makers. PMID:25574909

  2. How Important is Money in the Conduct of Monetary Policy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Woodford

    2006-01-01

    This paper was presented as the 2006 W.A. Mackintosh Lecture at Queen's University. I consider some of the leading arguments for assigning an important role to tracking the growth of monetary aggregates when making decisions about monetary policy. First, I consider whether ignoring money means returning to the conceptual framework that allowed the high inflation of the 1970s. Second, I

  3. How Important Is Money in the Conduct of Monetary Policy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL WOODFORD

    2008-01-01

    I consider some of the leading arguments for assigning an important role to tracking the growth of monetary aggregates when making decisions about monetary policy. First, I consider whether ignoring money means returning to the conceptual framework that allowed the high inflation of the 1970s. Second, I consider whether models of inflation determination with no role for money are incomplete,

  4. How Important is Money in the Conduct of Monetary Policy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Woodford; Stefan Gerlach

    2007-01-01

    I consider some of the leading arguments for assigning an important role to tracking the growth of monetary aggregates when making decisions about monetary policy. First, I consider whether ignoring money means returning to the conceptual framework that allowed the high inflation of the 1970s. Second, I consider whether models of inflation determination with no role for money are incomplete,

  5. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 1994. AGB Public Policy Series No. 94-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This publication addresses 10 "front-burner" public policy issues in higher education for 1994 which were identified and discussed by higher education policy experts in two meetings during the fall of 1993. A single page at the beginning of the document presents all 10 issues in a format designed for easy photocopying or overhead projector…

  6. Shaping public policy from the perspective of a data builder

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Allen; Bialek, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    During the past six decades, data analysis and research studies have been instrumental in shaping public and private health care policy. Policymakers obtain the knowledge they need for making policy decisions through exposure to and examination of data generated through research studies, experimentation, demonstrations, and analyses. In this article, U.S. hospital care policy has been divided into phases. As the development of health care policy has progressed in each phase, decisionmakers have consistently increased their reliance on data. PMID:10311336

  7. Florida public hurricane loss model: Research in multi-disciplinary system integration assisting government policy making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Ching Chen; Min Chen; Na Zhao; Shahid Hamid; Kasturi Chatterjee; Michael Armella

    2009-01-01

    Homeowner insurance rate making is an important public policy issue in the State of Florida. The State of Florida has over 2 trillion dollars of residential properties exposed to hurricane risk. The State has declared that it shall adopt public policy to encourage the use of sophisticated actuarial methods to assure that consumers are charged lawful insurance rates (Section 627.0628(1)(a)). To

  8. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  9. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  10. [Disability, public policies and bioethics: the perception of public administrators and legal counselors].

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Liliane Cristina Gonçalves; de Araújo, Tereza Cristina Cavalcanti Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    A descriptive study of the perception of public administrators and counselors regarding disability was conducted on the basis of bioethical reflections on human rights. The survey involved 50 participants, divided into two groups: 29 counselors on the rights of disabled people and 21 specialists in public policies and government administration. The data obtained was submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. In general, the results showed that for counselors disability is a social issue and should be shared by society, whereas for public administrators it is predominantly a personal tragedy limited to the individual and family sphere. It is considered that this differentiated view arises from different perspectives regarding the allocation of public resources. It is also necessary to stress the importance of living with a disability, or living with people with disabilities, to base the assessment of quality and satisfaction with life experienced by people with disabilities and contribute to the elaboration of public policies. Similar studies with more comprehensive and diversified samples are recommended, as well as the adoption of participative and qualitative methodologies. PMID:22996894

  11. Center for Urban Policy Research Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Public Finance Data Base Data Base Derived from NJ State Government and US Census Sources for Policy............................................................................3 -The Future--Property Tax Reform for New Jersey and the Local Public Finance Data Base

  12. Tobacco industry tactics for resisting public policy on health.

    PubMed Central

    Saloojee, Y.; Dagli, E.

    2000-01-01

    The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Formerly secret internal tobacco industry documents provide evidence of a 50-year conspiracy to "resist smoking restrictions, restore smoker confidence and preserve product liability defence". The documents reveal industry-wide collusion on legal, political and socially important issues to the tobacco industry and clearly demonstrate that the industry is not disposed to act ethically or responsibly. Societal action is therefore required to ensure that the public health takes precedence over corporate profits. Recommendations for reducing the political influence of the tobacco industry include the following. Every tobacco company in every market should publicly disclose what it knew about the addictiveness and harm caused by tobacco, when it obtained this information, and what it did about it. The industry should be required to guarantee internationally recognized basic consumer rights to its customers. Trade associations and other industry groupings established to deceive the public should be disbanded. These recommendations should be incorporated into WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:10994263

  13. Improving the Integration of Public Reading in Cultural Policies of Francophone Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Weber

    2007-01-01

    The question of public reading - of access to published works, newspapers, and to information in general - is a major challenge in developing countries. Public reading does not replace education or literacy policies. It is far more important because it fi rmly establishes access to knowledge into day-to-day reality, and gives everyone the possibility of an opening to the

  14. How energy policies affect public health.

    PubMed Central

    Romm, J J; Ervin, C A

    1996-01-01

    The connection between energy policy and increased levels of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease has become clearer in the past few years. People living in cities with high levels of pollution have a higher risk of mortality than those living in less polluted cities. The pollutants most directly linked to increased morbidity and mortality include ozone, particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen. Energy-related emissions generate the vast majority of these polluting chemicals. Technologies to prevent pollution in the transportation, manufacturing, building, and utility sectors can significantly reduce these emissions while reducing the energy bills of consumers and businesses. In short, clean energy technologies represent a very cost-effective investment in public health. Some 72% of the Federal government's investment in the research, development, and demonstration of pollution prevention technologies is made by the Department of Energy, with the largest share provided by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This article will examine the connections between air pollution and health problems and will discuss what the Department of Energy is doing to prevent air pollution now and in the future. Images p390-a p391-a p392-a p393-a p394-a p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8837627

  15. Understanding Policy: Why Health Education Policy Is Important and Why It Does Not Appear to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian; Rich, Emma; DePian, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on research investigating the impact of health imperatives around obesity, diet and exercise on the actions of teachers and pupils in schools, this paper offers a reflexive account of the relationships between the "noise" of obesity discourse in the public domain, policies forged to tackle health issues and the realities of teaching in…

  16. Food policy in India: the importance of electoral politics in policy implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos Mooij

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses, compares and contrasts the politics of food policy implementation in two Indian States: Karnataka in South India and Bihar in North India. Both states are covered by the Public Distribution System (PDS), a major intervention in the Indian food economy intended to reduce food insecurity and improve welfare. As in most South Indian States, the PDS in

  17. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. This brief also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  18. Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2003-01-01

    Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. Public ecology is an approach to environmental inquiry and decision making that does not expect scientific knowledge to be perfect or complete. Rather, public ecology requires that science be produced in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of knowledge that will reflect the

  19. Public Concern: New Force in Science Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the science policy, including those (1) of Harvey Brooks in "Science and Technology Policy for the 1980's"; (2) in the National Science Foundations'"Five Year Outlook"; and (3) of Christopher Wright, Director of Science Policy Program at Carnegie Institute of Washington. (SK)

  20. Public Responses to National Park Environmental Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey C. Smith; David Alderdice

    1979-01-01

    The behavioral responses of urban and semirural residents to a newly initiated national park environmental policy are investigated. The policy broadly involves the reduction of service facilities within the park and a concomitant emphasis on the park's natural environment. It is disclosed that (1) awareness of the park policy and (2) overt patronage of the park are related to relative

  1. A Role for Simulations in Public Policy Disputes: The Case of National Energy Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolin, Eric Jay; Susskind, Lawrence E.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the use of consensus-building techniques to resolve public policy disputes focuses on the use of a simulation of the conflict that needs to be resolved. An example is given of the National Energy Policy Simulation that was designed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-Harvard Public Disputes Program. (38 references)…

  2. Environmental Science & Policy 7 (2004) 369383 Science and public policy: what's proof

    E-print Network

    Callender, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Science & Policy 7 (2004) 369­383 Science and public policy: what's proof got to do the effects of our choices. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Environmental policy; Science with it? Naomi Oreskes Department of History and Science Studies Program, University of California, San

  3. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1994. [National Public Policy Education Conference (44th, Boise, Idaho, September 18-21, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

    The National Public Policy Education Conference is held annually to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The 1994 conference addressed the following topics: (1) ethical perspectives in public policy education; (2) transition of food and agricultural policy; (3) building human…

  4. Policy Education: Making a Difference in the Public Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carol L.; Miles, C. Sue

    1990-01-01

    Extension home economists have a role in public policy education regarding the individual and family concerns of their constituencies. Examples of their involvement include the issues of housing for the elderly, prenatal care, child care needs, and waste disposal. (SK)

  5. Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness–feasibility loop

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Sarah; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a “policy effectiveness–feasibility loop” (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach. PMID:23226897

  6. Public health vaccination policies for containing an anthrax outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Brookmeyer; Elizabeth Johnson; Robert Bollinger

    2004-01-01

    Concern about biological weapons has raised questions about the most effective public health policies to contain an anthrax outbreak. We developed a probability model to predict the impact of different anthrax antibiotic and vaccination policies. An anthrax outbreak can be significantly contained by minimizing the delay until initiation of antibiotic prophylaxis. However, even if mass distribution of antibiotics is completed

  7. Public Policy for the Private Sector: World Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    _Public Policy for the Private Sector_ is a quarterly journal published by the World Bank's Finance, Private Sector, and Infrastructure Network (FPSI). Recently, new documents concerning Finance, Water, and Post-Privatization Performance have been added to this ongoing collection of policy and case study notes.

  8. Midnight Dumping: Public Policies and Illegal Disposal of Used Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilary Sigman

    1998-01-01

    Many public policies for hazardous waste raise the costs of legal disposal. Concerned about substitution of illegal disposal, economists have instead recommended policies that reward desirable waste management alternatives. This article studies the empirical determinants of dumping as reported to the U.S. Emergency Response Notification Systems (ERNS). It analyzes the frequency of used oil dumping using count-data models. The results

  9. Happiness Surveys and Public Policy: What’s the Use?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Adler

    2013-01-01

    This Article provides a comprehensive, critical overview of proposals to use happiness surveys for steering public policy. Happiness or “subjective well-being” surveys ask individuals to rate their present happiness, life-satisfaction, affective state, etc. A massive literature now engages in such surveys or correlates survey responses with individual attributes. And, increasingly, scholars argue for the policy relevance of happiness data: in

  10. Rational choice theory, public policy and the liberal state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Stewart

    1993-01-01

    Liberalism requires a high order of responsible behaviour from its citizens in order to be sustainable. Yet when the modern liberal state makes policy, it is the stereotyped ‘economic man’, driven by self-interest and influenced only by carrots and sticks, who occupies center stage. This regulatory approach to public policy can be shown theoretically to give rise to a paradox

  11. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  12. Essays on Causal Inference for Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    Effective policymaking requires understanding the causal effects of competing proposals. Relevant causal quantities include proposals' expected effect on different groups of recipients, the impact of policies over time, the potential trade-offs between competing objectives, and, ultimately, the optimal policy. This dissertation studies causal…

  13. Child Poverty, Public Policies and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra K.; Danziger, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the articles in this special issue on child poverty, policy, and welfare reform. Introduces and discusses the four major themes addressed by these articles: (1) poverty and economic policies affecting children; (2) consequences of poverty for child well-being; (3) qualitative research on family life and child poverty; and (4) programs…

  14. Public Responses to National Park Environmental Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Geoffrey C.; Alderdice, David

    1979-01-01

    This study investigates the behavioral responses of urban and semirural residents to a newly initiated Canadian national park environmental policy. The policy involved the reduction of service facilities within the park and a concomitant emphasis on the park's natural environment. (BT)

  15. Energy-Efficiency Investments and Public Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam B. Jaffe; Robert N. Stavins

    1994-01-01

    Concern about carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas has focused renewed attention on energy conservation because fossil fuel combustion is a major source of CO? emissions. Since it is generally acknowledged that energy use could be significantly reduced through broader adoption of existing technologies, policy makers need to know how effective various policy instruments might be in accelerating the diffusion

  16. Masters in Public Policy UTD ID: Sem

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    CRIM 6309 Communities and Crime CRIM 6310 Delinquency and Juvenile Justice CRIM 6311 Crime and Justice Policy CRIM 6317 Courts CRIM 6322 Crime Prevention CRIM 6324 Correlates of Crime and Justice Domestic Control CRIM 6311 Crime and Justice Policy Other Concentration Proposed by Student and Approved

  17. From research to public policy: an essential extension of the translation research agenda.

    PubMed

    Mirvis, David M

    2009-10-01

    Research translation typically includes translation from basic science into clinical research and from clinical research into everyday clinical practice. In this essay, we propose a greater emphasis on applying research findings, both basic and clinical, into effective public policies that promote health. Research can have important influences on policy by providing a scholarly basis for action research, and translation science units within academic health centers are in powerful positions to build bridges between the research and policy making communities to promote the development of evidence based policy. The results will benefit the researcher and the decision maker, as well as the research itself. PMID:20443923

  18. Issue 10 Apr-Jun 2011 Energy and sustainability Democracy Role of a public policy school

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    matter 21 Wanted and needed: women leaders in Asia 22 Europe's importance in the global village 24 reminds Asia of the importance of Europe in the global village. 22 Public policy schools find it difficult thought of the recent revolutions in North Africa. Presi- dent Ben Ali of Tunisia fled on 15 January

  19. Pensions, corporate finance, and public policy

    E-print Network

    Rauh, Joshua David, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three papers that explore the links between corporate finance and corporate pension policy. The first chapter exploits the funding rules for defined benefit pension plans in order to identify ...

  20. Uncertain Benefit: The Public Policy of Approving Smallpox Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Rosemary B

    2004-01-01

    Without an accurate assessment of the prospect of bioterrorist attack, it is especially challenging to evaluate the protocols for testing smallpox vaccines in the pediatric population. Usual regulatory mechanisms cannot shepherd research protocols with benefits that can only be characterized as “uncertain” in the face of more than minimal risk. When a protocol is placed in a government forum for analysis, the public has a unique opportunity to debate the balancing of research risks and benefits on behalf of children who are unable to assent to research themselves, as well as to express views about vaccination policy broadly. This model for review of pediatric research that may be without benefit will be especially important as challenging studies of various vaccines against a range of infectious properties, such as anthrax and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), emerge. PMID:15249295

  1. Public Participation in the Making of Science Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darrin Durant

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that, because Science and Technology Studies (STS) lost contact with political philosophy, its defense of public participation in policy-making involving technical claims is normatively unsatisfactory. Current penchants for political under-laboring and normative individualism are critiqued, and the connections between STS and theorists of deliberative democracy are explored. A conservative normativity is proposed, and STS positions on public

  2. The Role of Public Policy in Worker Training in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croce, Giuseppe; Montanino, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The training received by workers depends predominantly on the organisational choices and funds allocated by businesses. It is therefore justifiable to ask whether public policy should either endorse the spontaneous distribution of training or take measures to correct it. This paper analyses the motivations and limitations of public intervention,…

  3. Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Eight essays address a range of topics including government serials and economic analysis, crime statistics and the F.B.I., nuclear holocaust and public policy, the history of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, Congressman William Steiger and the Congressional Record, and the public papers of Richard Nixon. (EM)

  4. PUBLIC LAND POLICY AND THE VALUE OF GRAZING PERMITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Allen Torell; John P. Doll

    1991-01-01

    This article provides an empirical test of the traditional theory of permit value and investigates the impact of recent changes in public land policies on the value of grazing permits. Results suggest that the cost advantage for grazing on public lands has been capitalized into substantial permit values, but other economic and hedonic factors influencing land prices also have contributed

  5. The Public Sector Reform Movement: Mapping the Global Policy Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie A. Pal; Derek Ireland

    2009-01-01

    Public sector reform in both developed and developing countries has now become a routine matter of public policy—reform is almost continuous, if not always successful. While the role of international transfer agents such as the World Bank and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in promoting reforms has often been noted, there has been no comprehensive mapping of

  6. Fidelity in Public Education Policy: Reclaiming the Deweyan Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth-Schai, Ruthanne

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the legacy of John Dewey, reconsidered and reconstructed within the challenging context of neo-liberal globalization. A free-market approach to the delivery of public education and other social services has come to dominate public policy, with increasingly well-documented and potentially devastating consequences. As prospects…

  7. Nonindigenous Species: Ecological Explanation, Environmental Ethics, and Public Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Lodge; Kristin Shrader-Frechette

    2003-01-01

    The public is getting a mixed message from ecologists, other scholars, and journalists on the topic of nonindigenous species. Misunderstandings and tension exist regarding the science, values, environmental ethics, and public policy relevant to invasive species, which are the subset of nonindigenous species that cause economic or environmental damage. Although there is a natural background rate at which species invasions

  8. Geneticists' views on science policy formation and public outreach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra J. H. Mathews; Andrea Kalfoglou; Kathy Hudson

    2005-01-01

    Though much research about the public's views of scientists, genetic research and its moral, ethical, and social implications exists, little has been done to investigate how scientists view their own role(s) in public discussions and policy formation related to genetic research and technologies. We interviewed 20 academic geneticists in the United States about their perceptions of the roles they and

  9. The Public Policy Pedagogy of Corporate and Alternative News Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Deirdre M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues for seeing in-depth news coverage of political, social, and economic issues as "public policy pedagogy." To develop my argument, I draw on Nancy Fraser's democratic theory, which attends to social differences and does not assume that unity is a starting point or an end goal of public dialogue. Alongside the formation of…

  10. A Graduate Seminar on Science, Public Policy, and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. F.

    2006-12-01

    I offered a seminar course titled, `Science, Public Policy and Outreach' for graduate students of the College of Agricultural and Natural Resources (CASNR) at Texas Tech University. The underlying theme of the course was that today's graduate students in the natural resource management disciplines should be familiar with public policy and public outreach processes in order to be successful professionals of tomorrow. In US system of government, scientific knowledge about an environmental problem does not have much practical impact without a corresponding legislation aimed at solving that problem. Elected officials feel pressure to legislate laws only if their constituents have a strong opinion in favor of solving that problem. Constituents tend to have strong opinion on things that are frequently mentioned in the media. Hence, public policy, outreach through media, and scientific explorations are intertwined in the US system. I invited state and national level policy makers, lobbyists, and radio and television personnel to present their perspectives on this issue and to discuss the roles and potentials for scientists in public policy and outreach processes. Students were divided into groups at the start of the semester. Each group focused on a current resource management topic, researched the policy and outreach issues related to their topic, wrote a well organized essay, and finally made a group presentation of the case study at the end of the semester. I shall present the experience of the class and outcomes of that course in this presentation, with future directions and suggestions for others who are interested to offer similar courses.

  11. The place of public inquiries in shaping New Zealand's national mental health policy 1858–1996

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, Warwick

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the role of public inquiries as an instrument of public policy-making in New Zealand, using mental health as a case study. The main part of the paper analyses the processes and outcomes of five general inquiries into the state of New Zealand's mental health services that were held between 1858 and 1996. Results The membership, form, style and processes used by public inquiries have all changed over time in line with constitutional and social trends. So has the extent of public participation. The records of five inquiries provide periodic snapshots of a system bedevilled by long-standing problems such as unacceptable standards, under-resourcing, and poor co-ordination. Demands for an investigation no less than the reports and recommendations of public inquiries have been the catalyst of some important policy changes, if not immediately, then by creating a climate of opinion that supported later change. Inquiries played a significant role in establishing lunatic asylums, in shaping the structure of mental health legislation, establishing and maintaining a national mental health bureaucracy within the machinery of government, and in paving the way for deinstitutionalisation. Ministers and their departmental advisers have mediated this contribution. Conclusion Public inquiries have helped shape New Zealand's mental health policy, both directly and indirectly, at different stages of evolution. In both its advisory and investigative forms, the public inquiry remains an important tool of public administration. The inquiry/cause and policy/effect relationship is not necessarily immediate but may facilitate changes in public opinion with corresponding policy outcomes long after any direct causal link could be determined. When considered from that long-term perspective, the five inquiries can be linked to several significant and long-term contributions to mental health policy in New Zealand. PMID:16216131

  12. Chronic disease prevention policy in British Columbia and Ontario in light of public health renewal: a comparative policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public health strategies that focus on legislative and policy change involving chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthy diet and physical inactivity have the potential to prevent chronic diseases and improve quality of life as a whole. However, many public health policies introduced as part of public health reform have not yet been analyzed, such as in British Columbia and Ontario. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a descriptive, comparative analysis of public health policies related to the Healthy Living Core Program in British Columbia and Chronic Disease Prevention Standard in Ontario that are intended to prevent a range of chronic diseases by promoting healthy eating and physical activity, among other things. Methods Policy documents were found through Internet search engines and Ministry websites, at the guidance of policy experts. These included government documents as well as documents from non-governmental organizations that were implementing policies and programs at a provincial level. Documents (n?=?31) were then analysed using thematic content analysis to classify, describe and compare policies in a systematic fashion, using the software NVivo. Results Three main categories emerged from the analysis of documents: 1) goals for chronic disease prevention in British Columbia and Ontario, 2) components of chronic disease prevention policies, and 3) expected outputs of chronic disease prevention interventions. Although there were many similarities between the two provinces, they differed somewhat in terms of their approach to issues such as evidence, equity, and policy components. Some expected outputs were adoption of healthy behaviours, use of information, healthy environments and increased public awareness. Conclusions The two provincial policies present different approaches to support the implementation of related programs. Differences may be related to contextual factors such as program delivery structures and different philosophical approaches underlying the two frameworks. These differences and possible explanations for them are important to understand because they serve to contextualize the differences in health outcomes across the two provinces that might eventually be observed. This analysis informs future public health policy directions as the two provinces can learn from each other. PMID:24099140

  13. Research Ethics Review: Identifying Public Policy and Program Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Strosberg, Martin A.; Gefenas, Eugenijus; Famenka, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical frame-work for use by fellows of the Fogarty International Center–sponsored Advanced Certificate Program in Research Ethics for Central and Eastern Europe to identify gaps in the public policies establishing research ethics review systems that impede them from doing their job of protecting human research subjects. The framework, illustrated by examples from post-Communist countries, employs a logic model based on the public policy and public management literature. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum program. PMID:24782068

  14. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Texas Trilogy on Public Education and Taxes. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCown, F. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. It also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  15. Policy approach to federalism: cases of public lands and water policy

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This study considers the relationship of federalism to public lands and water policy, challenging the prevailing wisdom that federalism is irrelevant and questioning the eagerness with which structural solutions are embraced. It argues that a more thorough understanding of how federalism works in public lands and water policy is a necessary first step toward understanding federal-state relations. Seeking identifiable patterns of politics, this study reviews the voluminous federalism literature and applies the theories of dual and cooperative federalism to the history of public lands and water policy, and to five contemporary controversies. A policy perspective on federalism was developed that adds levels of government to discussions of arenas and policy types. It finds that federal-level decision makers are more willing to make policy when policies can potentially reflect federal-level advantages such as broad geographic jurisdiction, general rule-making capability, constitutional powers or opportunities to offer divisible benefits. State-level decision makers will resist federal policies when they disagree with policy goals or methods, lack necessary resources, or perceive unfair burdens. Thus, the state role includes states acting as claimants in distributive politics, as conduits in self-regulatory politics, as platforms for disadvantaged interests in regulatory politics, or as supplicants in redistributive politics. Further, shifts from one policy type to another serve to signal major structural shifts.

  16. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (ed)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  17. A Gap in Perceived Importance of Privacy Policies between Individuals and Companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efrim Boritz; Won Gyun No

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have examined individuals' privacy concerns and companies' privacy policy disclosures, only a few studies examined whether customers' privacy concerns are adequately addressed in companies' privacy policy disclosures. This study investigates companies' privacy policy statements and important privacy policies that individuals want to know. We examine the privacy policy statements of 136 companies from the U.S. and Canada

  18. Kitzmiller v. Dover: A Public Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The Intelligent Design Movement has attempted to infuse Intelligent Design into the curriculum of public schools ever since the Edwards decision, which ruled that "creation science" was a violation of the the "Establishment Clause. Kitzmiller v. Dover" was the first legal case to challenge the teaching of Intelligent Design in public schools. In…

  19. Model Policy on Student Publications Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    In 1989, the Iowa Legislature created a new code section that defines and regulates student exercise of free expression in "official school publications." Also, the Iowa State Department of Education was directed to develop a model publication code that includes reasonable provisions for regulating the time, place, and manner of student…

  20. Centre for Population, Poverty, and Public Policy Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based at the International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives Development (INSTEAD) in Luxembourg, the Centre for Population, Poverty, and Public Policy Studies (CEPS) studies and develops microdatabases in order to develop "instruments for analysing, programming and simulating socio-economic policies." CEPS/INSTEAD is home to such studies as the Luxembourg Income Study and the Luxembourg Employment Study (these two studies were reviewed in the February 12, 1998 and the July 15, 1999 Scout Report for Business and Economics, respectively) as well as several other databases and studies. The Panel Comparability Project (PACO), for example, is a "centralised approach to create an international comparative database integrating micro-data from various national household panels over a large number of years." The database contains information on countries including France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Luxembourg, the UK, and the US, and data may be compared by households and individuals, by year or by longitudinal information. Each study is accompanied by a collection of related working papers. The site also contains a small but important links page, as well as information on CEPS/INSTEAD.

  1. Sex Crimes, Children, and Pornography: Public Views and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake

    2008-01-01

    "Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…

  2. Visitor management policy of national parks, national wildlife areas and refuges in Canada and the united states: A policy analysis of public documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine E. Hyslop; Paul F. J. Eagles

    2007-01-01

    The published visitor management policies of national parks, national wildlife areas and refuges in Canada and the United States are important components of the overall management system. This paper analyses how the visitor management policies that apply to all units operated by each agency compare to each other and compare to an ideal framework, using data from publicly?available sources. Analysis

  3. Toward a National Public Policy on Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smitherman-Donaldson, Geneva

    1987-01-01

    Calls for speech, language, and composition professionals to take up the unfinished business of the Committee on the Students' Right to Their Own Language, bring to fruition the Ann Arbor ruling, and move to counteract reactionary sociolinguistic forces. Proposes a three-pronged national language policy. (FL)

  4. Improving Accountability in Public Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Brian; Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This is one in a series of policy briefs on key education issues prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Obama administration. The accountability systems put in place by No Child Left Behind have not produced enough improvement to meet the goal of all students meeting proficiency standards by 2014. While the current accountability system has…

  5. WILLIAM VICKREY CONTRIBUTIONS TO PUBLIC POLICY

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Papers by William Vickrey. This essay will have done its job if it persuades the reader to peruse's contributions in the same way as does the book: social choice and allocation mechanisms, taxation, marginal-cost pricing, urban transportation, urban economics, macroeconomic policy, and miscellany. Social Choice

  6. Public Policy Toward Children: Identifying the Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doris Bergen Sponseller; Joel S. Fink

    1982-01-01

    This article identifies four problems with the way American society deals with children's needs: the discussion of children's problems seldom results in effective legislation or social action; child advocates are unable to achieve sufficient consensus on policy recommendations to provide direction to legislators; services needed by all children are provided only to special groups and even in these cases the

  7. September 2011 UCL Public Policy Strategy

    E-print Network

    Saunders, Mark

    and exploite examples of research and expertise - further develop UCL's reputation as a source of high quality the UCL Grand Challenges. The strategy considers UCL's current position in terms of our institutional policy wherever possible. To foster excellence, UCL will need to implement a strategic programme

  8. Public policies and Early Childhood Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bengt-Erik Andersson

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the distinguishing attributes of the Swedish family support system. This system fulfils two major functions and is organized according to at least four different principles. The Swedish family policy is very comprehensive in its nature, trying to include as many families as possible. The programs are, as far as possible, general and not selective, and offered by

  9. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  10. Child Development and Public Policy: Juvenile Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wald, Michael

    This paper presents arguments for a closer relationship between the American legal system and developmental research in such areas as attachment, the effects of early home environment, cognitive development, and the consequences of giving children decision-making power. It is suggested that greater knowledge in these areas would allow policy

  11. Withdrawal Policies of Michigan's Public Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Edward; Dulaney-Sorochak, Jeanne

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the drop or withdrawal policies of the 29 tax-supported community colleges in Michigan, and to determine whether Macomb County Community College (MCCC) will have proportionately more hours dropped than most. As MCCC does not require formal withdrawal applications, permits withdrawal at any time,…

  12. Policy: Public support for clean energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanemann, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The political deadlock around national renewable energy mandates in the US does not reflect the public's position. Research shows that people there would support a renewable energy standard even with a cost attached.

  13. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement.

  14. Public health: disconnections between policy, practice and research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health includes policy, practice and research but to sufficiently connect academic research, practice and public health policy appears to be difficult. Collaboration between policy, practice and research is imperative to obtaining more solid evidence in public health. However, the three domains do not easily work together because they emanate from three more or less independent 'niches'. Work cycles of each niche have the same successive steps: problem recognition, approach formulation, implementation, and evaluation, but are differently worked out. So far, the research has focused on agenda-setting which belongs to the first step, as expressed by Kingdon, and on the use of academic knowledge in policy makers' decision-making processes which belongs to the fourth step, as elaborated by Weiss. In addition, there are more steps in the policy-making process where exchange is needed. Method A qualitative descriptive research was conducted by literature search. We analyzed the four steps of the policy, practice and research work cycles. Next, we interpreted the main conflicting aspects as disconnections for each step. Results There are some conspicuous differences that strengthen the niche character of each domain and hamper integration and collaboration. Disconnections ranged from formulating priorities in problem statements to power roles, appraisal of evidence, work attitudes, work pace, transparency of goals, evaluation and continuation strategies and public accountability. Creating awareness of these disconnections may result in more compatibility between researchers, policy makers and practitioners. Conclusion We provide an analysis that can be used by public health services-related researchers, practitioners and policy makers to be aware of the risk for disconnections. A synthesis of the social, practical and scientific relevance of public health problems should be the starting point for a dialogue that seeks to establish a joint approach. To overcome the above mentioned disconnections, face-to-face encounters consistently emerge as the most efficient way to transfer knowledge, achieve higher quality and acknowledge mutual dependence. We recommend practice and policy based research networks to establish strong links between researchers, policy makers and practitioners to improve public health. PMID:21194428

  15. Public support for policies to reduce risk after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael R; Weiner, Marc D; Noland, Robert; Herb, Jeanne; Kaplan, Marjorie; Broccoli, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    A phone survey was conducted in New Jersey in 2013 four months after the second of two major devastating tropical storms (Sandy in 2012 and Irene in 2011). The objective was to estimate public support for restricting land uses in flood zones, requiring housing to be built to resist storm waters, and otherwise increasing mitigation and resilience. Respondents who supported these mitigation and resilience policies disproportionately were concerned about global climate change, trusted climate scientists and the federal government, and were willing to contribute to a redevelopment program through taxes, bonds, and fees. They also tended to have collectivist and egalitarian worldviews. Half of the respondents supported at least four of the seven risk-reducing policies. How their support translates into public policy remains to be seen. Lack of willingness to personally fund these policies is an obstacle. PMID:24708068

  16. Brookings Institution: Initiative on Business and Public Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The focus on the Brooking Institution's Initiative on Business and Public Policy is to provide "analytical research and constructive recommendations on public policy issues affecting the business sector in the United States and around the world." The Initiative is primarily concerned with working in the areas of financial reform and competitiveness. Scholars, policy analysts, and others can click through the site to look at their latest policy briefs, op-ed pieces, and conference proceedings. In terms of thematic offerings, visitors shouldn't miss the "Fixing Finance" series of papers, which include documents such as, "The Origins of the Financial Crisis" and "Regulating Insurance After the Crisis". Also, visitors should look through the "Top Topics" area and sign up to receive their periodic Economic Studies Bulletin via email.

  17. Advancing Public Health Obesity Policy Through State Attorneys General

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity. PMID:21233428

  18. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston: Public Policy Discussion Papers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    All of the Federal Reserve Banks produce discussion papers, working papers, policy briefs and other similar publications. This particular site takes visitors to the public policy discussion papers produced by the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. The series began in 2004, and visitors can view an archive of previously published works in the series. Recent titles in the series have included "Social Dynamics of Obesity", "Managing the Risk in Pension Plans and Recent Pension Reforms", and "The Theory of Life-Cycle Saving and Investing". If visitors are interested in other related topics, they should also look at the "Related Links" section, which features direct links to their policy brief archives and other Boston Federal Reserve publications.

  19. Robert D. Burch Center for Tax Policy and Public Finance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    An affiliate of the Institute of Business and Economic Research at the University of California, Berkeley, the Robert D. Burch Center for Tax Policy and Public Finance aims to promote, disseminate, and stimulate "informed discussion of tax policies of national significance." The site hosts Burch Center Working Papers in full-text (1995-present) in addition to recent conference paper abstracts, course syllabi, and Matlab generational accounting programs and data for the calculation of tax burdens on future generations (in compressed file format).

  20. Internet Filters: A Public Policy Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cho, Christina.

    This recently released report from the National Coalition Against Censorship (NCAC) reports on their research about products and software used to filter Internet content. Over the spring and summer, NCAC's Free Expression Policy Project reviewed all of the studies and tests it could find covering the nineteen most common Internet filtering tools. This report, summarizing the review, gives a general introduction and results for each of the nineteen products as well as a bibliography and appendices covering blocked sites by subject and blocking categories. In the main, NCAC finds that the technology used in blocking is too indiscriminate because of its dependance, to at least some degree, on mechanized means of filtering. NCAC suggests that "Ultimately, less censorial approaches such as media literacy, sexuality education, and Internet acceptable-use training may be better policy choices than Internet filters."

  1. Is public discourse about language policy really public discourse about immigration? A corpus-based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon Fitzsimmons-Doolan

    2009-01-01

    The pluralist narrative of language policies suggests that language policies are influenced by public perceptions of immigrants\\u000a (Darder 2004; González 2000; Pavlenko 2002; Valdés 1997). This paper investigates the relationship between newspaper discourse about language policies and newspaper discourse about\\u000a immigration. It asks how much key, lexical overlap exists between the discourses. This study compared Arizona newspaper corpora\\u000a representing discourse

  2. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 11, Number 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Jason, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) U.S. Senators Harkin and Enzi Release Draft Language to Revise NCLB: Senate Committee to Consider Draft Containing Important

  3. Viewers' Evaluations of Product Placements in Movies: Public Policy Issues and Managerial Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pola B. Gupta; Siva K. Balasubramanian; Michael L. Klassen

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review of product placements from multiple perspectives (marketers, movie-makers and consumer advocates) is presented. We analyze data from a large-scale survey that capture viewersn' attitudes toward placements and important public policy issues. Consistent with prior research, respondents' attitudes toward placements were found to be generally positive. However, our analyses reveal differences across two large, distinct and statistically defensible

  4. Who Owns the Children? An Ecological Perspective on Public Policy Affecting Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Criticizes Joseph Goldstein, Anna Freud, and Albert Solnit for their emphasis on family autonomy versus social interdependence in dealing with family problems. Stresses the importance of preventive services and holds that the best interests of children lie in public policy that empowers the community as a family support system. (Author/MJL)

  5. A Guide to Grassroots Activism: Moving Nursing Education's Public Policy Agenda. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to help people in the nursing profession, especially deans at schools of nursing, to effectively influence public policy at the federal level. Introductory material identifies key Senate and House committees and stresses the importance of establishing and maintaining a relationship with one's representatives in the Congress.…

  6. Are Charter Schools More Racially Segregated Than Traditional Public Schools? Policy Report 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Yongmei

    2007-01-01

    Are most charter schools more racially segregated than traditional public schools (TPS)? How do local circumstances affect the degree to which charter schools are more racially segregated or diverse than TPSs? As the charter school movement in Michigan and nationwide gains popularity, these questions have become important policy issues. In order…

  7. Settling the Smoke: Public Policy and Shareholder Wealth in the Cigarette Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossitza B. Wooster; Craig A. Gallet

    2005-01-01

    This article uses daily data on stock returns of five U.S. publicly traded cigarette producers to document the wealth effects of antismoking policies initiated in the period 1964 to 1971. The authors find significant abnormal returns across 23 dates corresponding to important regulatory events. The second-stage estimation shows that wealth effects are also influenced by firm characteristics, such as market

  8. How to Make Big Improvements in the Small PR Shop. Samples of Policy Statements, Guidelines, and Forms Collected from Educational Institutions with Small Public Relations Staffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. Keith, Comp.

    Sample policy statements, guidelines, and forms collected from 16 educational institutions with small public relations staffs are presented as a guide to campus relations personnel. The importance of written policies for small public relations staffs is emphasized, and it is proposed that there be a written job description for the public relations…

  9. Public Understanding of Science in Pacific Northwest Salmon Recovery Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave D. White; Troy E. Hall

    2006-01-01

    In the arena of salmon recovery policy, stakeholders often propose that science should guide policy, frame their positions in scientific terms, and construct scientific arguments to support their positions. However, there are also appeals to involve citizens more thoroughly in policymaking. An important step in bringing science and citizens together is to investigate how citizens understand the processes, actors, institutions,

  10. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies. PMID:23748884

  11. Making public health policy: what place for the alcohol-dependent?

    PubMed

    McLean, Sheila A M

    2009-12-01

    Although public policy in general, and health policy in particular, can be powerful and effective tools in shaping a "healthy" environment for citizens, the influences and agendas that underpin them are often lacking in transparency. In the case of the alcohol-dependent, the critical importance of identifying strategies appropriate to their specific needs is often sidelined. This, it is argued, results in part from the influence of the alcohol industry on governments and on social conditions and in part from the ethical underpinnings of public health policy, which depends on maximising social benefits even at the expense of "hard to reach" groups. In addition, much of alcohol policy rests on the kind of' "healthy living" message that appeals to the otherwise healthy While not infantilising people who are dependent on alcohol, consideration must be given to the extent to which their ability to choose health is compromised by the nature of dependence itself. PMID:20169798

  12. Developing policy solutions for a more active nation: Integrating economic and public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Sara N; Sturm, Roland

    2009-10-01

    Both economic and public health/medical perspectives play an important role in the policy process but often approach policy questions in an incompatible way. Harnessing any synergy requires an understanding of the other perspective. We begin by comparing and contrasting the economic and public health perspectives, including introducing relevant economic concepts. We next identify economic considerations for the development of environmental incentives that promote physical activity. We then assess features of the political environment which could impact the success of policy alternatives aimed at increasing physical activity. We conclude with several policy levers that may promote active living. Throughout the manuscript, we use the term economics to refer to classical economics and utility maximization rather than behavioral economics. In addition, we focus mostly on normative economics (which offers prescriptions for what should be done) rather than positive economics (which offers predictions of economic outcomes conditional on various hypothetical scenarios). PMID:19616575

  13. MMR – public policy in crisis: whose tragedy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Stroud

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – To explore the issues surrounding the falling rates of MMR vaccination following the publication of a controversial study by Wakefield et al. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In order to take a fresh look at the MMR crisis, the Greek tragedy, Antigone, was used as a “strong plot” to de-contextualise the underlying social and political issues. In this short paper, two

  14. Silent Money: Political Persuasion and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role that Political Action Committees (PACs) have played in school choice initiatives in public school systems nationwide. Suggests that the popular sentiment is in favor of school choice but that the PACs, through their overwhelming resources, are preventing its implementation in school districts nationwide. (MAB)

  15. Poverty and Public Policy. Final Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveson, Irving

    This comprehensive document studies poverty in the U.S. and develops a set of recommendations for dealing with the problems. It examines poverty from the perspectives of both the national economy and local areas. It considers circumstances in both labor and consumer markets and looks at public and private activities, at revenue and spending…

  16. Primary health care and public policy.

    PubMed

    Mangelsdorf, K L; Luna, J; Smith, H L

    1988-01-01

    The health problems of Ecuador are similar to those in other developing countries where the standard of living is low, and housing and sanitation are inadequate. Women, children, and those living in rural areas are those most severely affected. National policy has been to attempt to increase access to health care in rural areas through the construction of new facilities and the appointment of highly paid medical staff. However, little attention was paid to sociocultural factors, which caused the peasantry to reject the medical care system, or to problems of internal efficiency which inhibited utilization. Since the 1970s various national and international organizations have attempted to implement primary health care (PHC) through the use of trained community health workers (CHWs). The primary problems faced by the CHWs were shortages of medicines and supplies, an almost total lack of supervision, and lack of transportation available to take staff to isolated villages. The poor supervision is blamed for the 17% drop out rate among CHWs since 1980. Independent PHC programs have also been established in Ecuador by voluntary organizations. These work best when coordinated with governmental programs, in order to allow monitoring and to avoid the duplication of services. Problems with the establishment of PHC programs in Ecuador will continue, as the government has no clear cut policy, and difficulties financing on a broad national scale. Other problems include the absence of effective supervision and logistical support for even small pilot programs, and inconsistencies in the training and role definition for CHWs. These problems need to be met in the implementation of a national PHC policy. PMID:3252848

  17. Anthrax vaccine and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Martin Meyer; Weiss, Peter D; Weiss, Joseph B

    2007-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified Bacillus anthracis, the causative organism of anthrax, as a category A potential bioterrorism agent. There are critical shortcomings in the US anthrax vaccine program. Rather than depending on the private sector, the government must assume direct production of anthrax vaccine. The development of a capacity capable of preemptive immunization of the public against anthrax should be considered. PMID:17901434

  18. Anthrax Vaccine and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Martin Meyer; Weiss, Peter D.; Weiss, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified Bacillus anthracis, the causative organism of anthrax, as a category A potential bioterrorism agent. There are critical shortcomings in the US anthrax vaccine program. Rather than depending on the private sector, the government must assume direct production of anthrax vaccine. The development of a capacity capable of preemptive immunization of the public against anthrax should be considered. PMID:17901434

  19. Space policy responsiveness: The relationship between public opinion and NASA funding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Steinberg

    Is the government responsive to public opinion of space policy? In 1995, Stimson et al. demonstrated that changes in domestic public policy were in response to changes in public opinion. Ten years later, Jacobs and Page demonstrated that foreign policy was not responsive to public opinion, and instead responds to the opinion of business leaders. This research builds off these seminal

  20. The public face of teacher identity—narrative construction of teacher identity in public policy documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunn Elisabeth Sřreide

    2007-01-01

    This article will illuminate how public narratives about teachers within the Norwegian national curriculum documents regulating teacher education (1999 and 2003) and elementary school (1997) construct teacher identities. The aim is not to define what identity Norwegian teachers as a group or individuals possess, but to describe how teacher identity is narratively constructed in some selected public policy texts. The

  1. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy. PMID:23318750

  2. Public policy for solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Recent analyses indicated that solar heating and cooling systems for residential buildings are nearly economically competitive with conventional fossil fuel or electric systems, the former having higher initial cost but a lower operating cost than the latter. The paper examines obstacles to the widespread acceptance and use of solar space conditioning systems and explores some general policies which could help to overcome them. The discussion covers such institutional barriers limiting the adoption of solar technologies as existing building codes, financing constraints, and organizational structure of the building industry. The potential impact of financial incentives is analyzed. It is noted that a tax incentive of 25% could speed the use of solar energy by 7 to 8 years and produce an 8% reduction in fossil fuel use by 1990. A preliminary incentive package which could be helpful in promoting solar energy both at federal and state levels is proposed, and the necessary incentive level is analysed.

  3. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary to immediately adjust employment and wages for existing workers. Using Quarterly Workforce Indicator data, we are able to measure the impact on hires, new hire earnings, separations and extended leaves among young women. Earnings for young female new hires fell in California relative to other workers, but changed little relative to country-wide comparison groups. We find strong evidence that separations (of at least three months) among young women and the number and shares of young female new hires increased. Many young women that separate (leave the payroll) eventually return to the same firm. Increased separation and hiring rates among young women in the labor market ("churning") may reflect both increased time spent with children and greater job mobility (i.e., reduced job lock) as the result of mandated paid family leave across the labor market. The third essay, Evidence of an Energy Management Gap in U.S. Manufacturing: Spillovers from Firm Management Practices to Energy Efficiency, merge a well-cited survey of firm management practices into confidential plant level U.S. Census manufacturing data to examine whether generic, i.e. non-energy specific, firm management practices, "spillover" to enhance energy efficiency in the United States. For U.S. manufacturing plants we find this relationship to be more nuanced than prior research on UK plants. Most management techniques are shown to have beneficial spillovers to energy efficiency, but an emphasis on generic targets, conditional on other management practices, results in spillovers that increase energy intensity. Our specification controls for industry specific effects at a detailed 6-digit NAICS level and finds the relationship between management and energy use to be strongest for firms in energy intensive industries. We interpret the empirical result that generic management practices do not necessarily spillover to improved energy performance as evidence of an "energy management gap."

  4. The "Gainful Employment Rule" and Student Loan Defaults: How the Policy Frame Overlooks Important Normative Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines normative aspects of the gainful employment rule and how the policy frame and image miss important implications for student aid policy. Because the economic and social burdens associated with the policy are typically borne by certain socioeconomic and ethnic groups, the policy frame and image do not identify possible negative…

  5. A Policy Analysis of Public School Retirement Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tara; Teeter, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this policy analysis was to examine the Missouri Public School Retirement System (PSRS). The team investigated the under-funding of PSRS, relating to sustainability and the feasibility of the system's use of one lever, contribution rate, to stabilize the retirement system, and to meet actuary needs and governmental requirements. The…

  6. Social Structure, Public Policy, and Ethics Carnegie Mellon University

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    Social Structure, Public Policy, and Ethics 80-136 Carnegie Mellon University Spring 2013 Course Hall 4301 B email: prich@andrew.cmu.edu office hours: after class and by appointment Philosophy Writing Tutor: Dave Zornek office: Doherty Hall 4301 D email: dzornek@andrew.cmu.edu office hours: TBA TA

  7. Office of National Drug Control Policy Public Health Fellowship

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    in Washington, D.C., and will be subject to the Agency's ethics and security requirements. ONDCP has flexibility; A commitment to science and evidence-based approaches to drug- related public policy issues; A recognized; and Writing sample, to include a copy of a published work, if applicable. For further information, please

  8. Recursive Governance: Contemporary Political Communication and Public Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Crozier

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates aspects of the new relationships that are emerging between contemporary trends in political communication and public policy. In particular, it identifies and analyzes how these relationships are extending beyond the traditional domain of political communication as information and persuasion. This is traced through a consideration of the notion of political communication as “recursive governance”—a form of governance

  9. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Merry, Carroll E., Ed.

    This document contains abstracts and the complete texts of 19 papers that were presented at a conference held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. The following papers are included: "Microwave Society and Crock-Pot Government" (Bill Graves); "Citizen Participation, Social Capital and…

  10. Public Policy and the Sale of Human Organs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia B. Cohen

    2002-01-01

    Gill and Sade, in the preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, argue that living individuals should be free from legal constraints against selling their organs. The present commentary responds to several of their claims. It explains why an analogy between kidneys and blood fails; why, as a matter of public policy, we prohibit the

  11. Education in Science, Engineering and Public Policy: A Stocktaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Albert H.; Gold, Barry D.

    1986-01-01

    Contains the preliminary report on the study examining the relationship between education and professional practice in science engineering and public policy (SEPP) undertaken by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The study focused on academic programs that prepared students at the postgraduate level for careers in the…

  12. Agricultural public policy: green or sustainable? L. Mouysseta,b

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    show that, when the biodiversity objectives are either very limited or very demanding, grassland regions. Keywords: Agriculture, Biodiversity, Public policy instrument, Poverty, Bird, Land-use, Cost pollution (Carpenter et al. 2012, Volk et al. 2009, Tong & Chen 2002) and the loss of biodiversity (Foley et

  13. ENTERPRISE BRITAIN Growth, Innovation and Public Policy in the

    E-print Network

    de Gispert, AdriĂ 

    ENTERPRISE BRITAIN Growth, Innovation and Public Policy in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprise research institute with the study of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises as one of its core programmes comprehensive survey of Britain's small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) since the Bolton inquiry.' The Guardian

  14. Information Policy: Public Laws from the 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on House Administration.

    This compilation of abstracts provides brief descriptions of the 74 new public laws relating to computers and information policy that were enacted during the 95th Congress. Each of these bills is concerned with information, although the diverse subject matter--e.g., energy and clean water, food and health, foreign investments, ethics in…

  15. Cape Wind: A Public Policy Debate for the Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, technological innovation and the application of basic scientific research have transformed society. Increasingly, critical conversations and legislation regarding national and international public policy have sophisticated scientific underpinnings. It is crucial that we prepare scientists and engineers with an…

  16. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  17. Public—Private Partnerships in Ireland: Policy and Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eoin Reeves

    2003-01-01

    Ireland's National Development Plan 2000–2006 includes a significant programme of public—private partnerships (PPPs). The Irish Government's policy on PPPs has been shaped to ensure that capital investments under PPP are not included when calculating key fiscal aggregates. This article traces the origins of Ireland's PPP programme and outlines the extent of PPP activity to date. It details how the PPP

  18. Durable products recycling: Stakeholder perspectives and directions for public policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Nash

    1995-01-01

    A recent MIT conference on durable products recycling highlights different challenges facing suppliers, manufacturers, and recyclers. These challenges include uncertainty about the environmental benefits of recycling, unstable markets for recycled materials, variable quality, and lack of support from citizens and government. Conference discussions suggest directions for public and private policy in the US. Government should focus upon strengthening market opportunities

  19. Political Journalism and its Impact on Public Policy Summer 2014

    E-print Network

    Political Journalism and its Impact on Public Policy Derek Slap Summer 2014 It is well known will explore these changes and their impact on government. Specifically, students will examine how the media three will feature a `deep dive' into the news media's influence on the Clinton Health Care initiative

  20. The Effectiveness of Alcohol Policies in 4-Year Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Gayle T.

    2010-01-01

    A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public

  1. How to correctly assess mortality benefits in public policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Chanel; Pascale Scapecchi; Jean-Christophe Vergnaud

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the difficulty of taking long-term effects on health into account in an economic valuation. Indeed, public decision makers should incorporate the cessation lag between implementation of an abatement policy and achievement of all of the expected mortality-related benefits for any projects involving health impacts. This paper shows how this time lag problem can be handled by proposing

  2. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  3. Importance of scientific resources among local public health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Fields, Robert P; Stamatakis, Katherine A; Duggan, Kathleen; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-04-01

    Objectives. We examined the perceived importance of scientific resources for decision-making among local health department (LHD) practitioners in the United States. Methods. We used data from LHD practitioners (n?=?849). Respondents ranked important decision-making resources, methods for learning about public health research, and academic journal use. We calculated descriptive statistics and used logistic regression to measure associations of individual and LHD characteristics with importance of scientific resources. Results. Systematic reviews of scientific literature (24.7%) were most frequently ranked as important among scientific resources, followed by scientific reports (15.9%), general literature review articles (6.5%), and 1 or a few scientific studies (4.8%). Graduate-level education (adjusted odds ratios [AORs]?=?1.7-3.5), larger LHD size (AORs?=?2.0-3.5), and leadership support (AOR?=?1.6; 95% confidence interval?=?1.1, 2.3) were associated with a higher ranking of importance of scientific resources. Conclusions. Graduate training, larger LHD size, and leadership that supports a culture of evidence-based decision-making may increase the likelihood of practitioners viewing scientific resources as important. Targeting communication channels that practitioners view as important can also guide research dissemination strategies. PMID:25689176

  4. Healthy public policy in poor countries: tackling macro-economic policies.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, K S

    2007-06-01

    Large segments of the population in poor countries continue to suffer from a high level of unmet health needs, requiring macro-level, broad-based interventions. Healthy public policy, a key health promotion strategy, aims to put health on the agenda of policy makers across sectors and levels of government. Macro-economic policy in developing countries has thus far not adequately captured the attention of health promotion researchers. This paper argues that healthy public policy should not only be an objective in rich countries, but also in poor countries. This paper takes up this issue by reviewing the main macro-economic aid programs offered by international financial institutions as a response to economic crises and unmanageable debt burdens. Although health promotion researchers were largely absent during a key debate on structural adjustment programs and health during the 1980s and 1990s, the international macro-economic policy tool currently in play offers a new opportunity to participate in assessing these policies, ensuring new forms of macro-economic policy interventions do not simply reproduce patterns of (neoliberal) economics-dominated development policy. PMID:17355995

  5. American Public Opinion and US Foreign Policy 1999

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of its effort to promote public understanding of the foreign policy of the US, the non-partisan Chicago Council on Foreign Relations (CCFR) has sponsored seven quadrennial surveys of public opinion since 1974. The key question in the recently released 1999 survey, as in previous surveys, was the extent to which "the American public and leaders support an active role for the United States overseas." For the most part, the CCFR found strong support for an active American role in world affairs. At the site, users can read the full text (in .pdf format) or a summary of the report, which examines issues such as foreign policy priorities, globalization, security, the role of the US in the world, perspectives on particular regions and countries, and the current adminstration's performance. The report also contains a brief but helpful account of the political and economic context of the survey, which was carried out in the fall of 1998.

  6. The JohnsonShoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, with campuses at the University of Saskatchewan and the University of Regina, is an interdisciplinary centre for public policy

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    of Saskatchewan and the University of Regina, is an interdisciplinary centre for public policy research, teaching policy issues and debate. In Saskatchewan, the main dailies are The Regina LeaderPost, http; The JohnsonShoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, with campuses at the University of Saskatchewan

  7. Career Development and Public Policy in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Jean

    Three conditions characterize employment in France today: (1) high unemployment; (2) the importance of degrees in employment; and (3) significant differences between the sexes. The differences between national government initiatives and regional issues also are of concern. The main strategic issues facing career development focus on reducing…

  8. Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2010-03-01

    Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children's energy density by using a pre- and post-policy evaluation. Analysis of variance/covariance and nonparametric tests compared energy density after the Texas policy change to intakes at baseline. Two years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in Southeast Texas at three public middle schools: baseline (2001-2002) and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded the amount and source of foods consumed. The Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was designed to promote a healthy school environment by restricting portion sizes of high-fat and high-sugar snacks and sweetened beverages, fat content of foods, and serving of high-fat vegetables like french fries. Energy density (kcal/g): energy density-1 was the energy of foods only (no beverages) divided by the gram weight and has been previously associated with obesity and insulin resistance; energy density-2 included all food and beverages to give a complete assessment of all sources of calories. Following implementation of the Texas policy, students' energy density-1 significantly decreased from 2.80+/-1.08 kcal/g to 2.17+/-0.78 kcal/g (P<0.0001). Similarly, energy density-2 significantly decreased from 1.38+/-0.76 kcal/g to 1.29+/-0.53 kcal/g (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was associated with desirable reductions in energy density, which suggests improved nutrient intake as a result of student school lunch consumption. PMID:20184994

  9. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 1997 and 1998. AGB Public Policy Paper Series, No. 97-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of yearly efforts to identify the top 10 public-policy issues facing higher education. Each of the issues is discussed in terms of likely developments in 1997-98, the issue's various aspects, and sources of further information. Issues identified are: (1) the Higher Education Act Reauthorization (issues relating…

  10. Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 1996. AGB Public Policy Paper Series No. 96-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of yearly efforts to identify the top public-policy issues facing higher education. Each of the 10 issues is discussed in terms of likely developments in 1996 and the near future, the issue's various aspects, and sources of further information on the issue. Issues identified and discussed are: (1) cost…

  11. A Call for Public Policy Review: Ensuring the Fairness and Accuracy of Mandated Tests. Test Equity Considerations: Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-West, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public policy making relies on accurate information, but standardized and other mandated tests may not accurately evaluate the abilities and knowledge of individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Many individuals find tests difficult, but individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing may find them especially so. Reports from the 2008 Test Equity…

  12. Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making

    SciTech Connect

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran, E-mail: Ciaran.Ofaircheallaigh@griffith.edu.a [Department of Politics and Public Policy, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

  13. Chimeras, moral status, and public policy: implications of the abortion debate for public policy on human/nonhuman chimera research.

    PubMed

    Streiffer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in public policy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras. PMID:20579247

  14. Public Policy, Science, and Environmental Risk. Brookings Dialogues on Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panem, Sandra, Ed.

    This workshop explored the complex issues involved in scientific measurement of environmental risk. Specific purposes were to articulate policy issues that concern the use of scientific data in environmental risk assessment and to contribute to the dialogue from which better policy might emerge. Viewpoints of workshop participants from the…

  15. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    PubMed Central

    Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia. PMID:25210820

  16. PARADIGMS, POLICIES, AND PEOPLE: EXPLORING THE LINKAGES BETWEEN NORMATIVE BELIEFS, PUBLIC POLICIES AND UTILITY CONSUMER PAYMENT PROBLEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drew Hyman; Jeffrey Bridger; John Shingler; Mollie Loon

    2001-01-01

    This article takes a step toward unifying normative and empirical policy analysis by examining the convergence of societal metatheories, public policy models, and empirical data on consumers. It begins with the premise that policies rest on a foundation of normative beliefs or metatheories that, in turn, put boundaries around the possible and give social meaning to the policies and programs

  17. AGU Celebrates Leaders for Contributions to Policy and Public Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Joan

    2014-05-01

    In recognition of outstanding leadership and vision in shaping policy and heightening public awareness of the value of Earth and space science, AGU has chosen Sen. Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.), chairwoman of the Senate Appropriations Committee; Naomi Oreskes, a science historian and author of the book Merchants of Doubt; and Eugenie Scott, former executive director for the National Center for Science Education (NCSE), as recipients of the 2014 AGU Presidential Citations for Science and Society. The awards will be presented on Tuesday, 17 June, during the 2014 AGU Science Policy Conference at a reception on Capitol Hill.

  18. Same strategy different industry: corporate influence on public policy.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Donna; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Elbel, Brian

    2014-04-01

    In March 2013 a state judge invalidated New York City's proposal to ban sales of sugar-sweetened beverages larger than 16 ounces; the case is under appeal. This setback was attributable in part to opposition from the beverage industry and racial/ethnic minority organizations they support. We provide lessons from similar tobacco industry efforts to block policies that reduced smoking prevalence. We offer recommendations that draw on the tobacco control movement's success in thwarting industry influence and promoting public health policies that hold promise to improve population health. PMID:24524535

  19. Public Finance Policy Strategies to Increase Access to Preconception Care

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15–44) lack adequate health coverage (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers and opportunities for financing preconception care, based on a review and analysis of state and federal policies. We describe states’ experiences with and opportunities to improve health coverage, through public programs such as Medicaid, Medicaid waivers, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The potential role of Title V and of community health centers in providing primary and preventive care to women also is discussed. In these and other public health and health coverage programs, opportunities exist to finance preconception care for low-income women. Three major policy directions are discussed. To increase access to preconception care among women of childbearing age, the federal and state governments have opportunities to: (1) improve health care coverage, (2) increase the supply of publicly subsidized health clinics, and (3) direct delivery of preconception screening and interventions in the context of public health programs. PMID:16802188

  20. Public finance policy strategies to increase access to preconception care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kay A

    2006-09-01

    Policy and finance barriers reduce access to preconception care and, reportedly, limit professional practice changes that would improve the availability of needed services. Millions of women of childbearing age (15-44) lack adequate health coverage (i.e., uninsured or underinsured), and others live in medically underserved areas. Service delivery fragmentation and lack of professional guidelines are additional barriers. This paper reviews barriers and opportunities for financing preconception care, based on a review and analysis of state and federal policies. We describe states' experiences with and opportunities to improve health coverage, through public programs such as Medicaid, Medicaid waivers, and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The potential role of Title V and of community health centers in providing primary and preventive care to women also is discussed. In these and other public health and health coverage programs, opportunities exist to finance preconception care for low-income women. Three major policy directions are discussed. To increase access to preconception care among women of childbearing age, the federal and state governments have opportunities to: (1) improve health care coverage, (2) increase the supply of publicly subsidized health clinics, and (3) direct delivery of preconception screening and interventions in the context of public health programs. PMID:16802188

  1. THE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY RICE UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Tom

    POLICY REPORT, THE CHANGING ROLE OF NATIONAL OIL COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MARKETS. WHERE AND THE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY #12;ABOUT THE POLICY REPORT THE CHANGING ROLE OF NATIONALTHE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY RICE UNIVERSITY VENEZUELA'S PDVSA AND WORLD

  2. Broadband for Public Libraries: Importance, Issues, and Research Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Lauren H.; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. public libraries provide free public internet services to the communities that they serve, but require robust, high-speed broadband internet connections to continue meeting public demands. The 2008-2009 "Public Library Funding & Technology Access Study" ("PLFTAS") illustrates challenges that public libraries encounter in achieving broadband…

  3. Structuring Public Engagement for Effective Input in Policy Development on Human Tissue Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, Kieran; Hawkins, Alice

    2010-01-01

    We begin with the premise that human tissue biobanking is associated with ethical ambiguities and regulatory uncertainty, and that public engagement is at least one important element in addressing such challenges. One is then confronted with how to achieve public engagement that is both meaningful and effective. In particular, how can public engagement on the topic of biobanking be implemented such that: It is perceived broadly as legitimate.The results of the engagement are relevant and useful to the institutional and regulatory context. In this paper we build on previous work that has addressed the former point, and focus primarily on the latter point. We argue that one way to increase the likelihood of results of public engagement being taken up in policy is through framing the issues that are deliberated by members of the public based in part on the practical policy questions for which input is sought. In this approach, we move discussion on the social and ethical implications of biobanking from abstract principles, to their consideration in the context of local biobanking practices. This is illustrated using a practical example involving a public engagement conducted to inform institutional policy for biobanking in British Columbia, Canada. PMID:20395688

  4. Explaining Local Authority Choices on Public Hospital Provision in the 1930s: A Public Policy Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  5. Science-policy challenges for biodiversity, public health and urbanization: examples from Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keune, H.; Kretsch, C.; De Blust, G.; Gilbert, M.; Flandroy, L.; Van den Berge, K.; Versteirt, V.; Hartig, T.; De Keersmaecker, L.; Eggermont, H.; Brosens, D.; Dessein, J.; Vanwambeke, S.; Prieur-Richard, A. H.; Wittmer, H.; Van Herzele, A.; Linard, C.; Martens, P.; Mathijs, E.; Simoens, I.; Van Damme, P.; Volckaert, F.; Heyman, P.; Bauler, T.

    2013-06-01

    Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human-nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem-human/public health-urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed.

  6. Is Policy Important? Technology Policy and Its Practices in K-12 Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Brian; Smith, Richard; Jenson, Jennifer

    This paper examines the implementation of computer technologies in schools across Canada, focusing on the problem of managing change. The first section discusses what policy is and how policy is made in a global age. The second section addresses policy convergence, i.e., new, harmonized policy alignments brought on by the communications…

  7. Human dignity in international policy documents: a useful criterion for public policy?

    PubMed

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    Current developments in biomedicine are presenting us with difficult ethical decisions and raising complex policy questions about how to regulate these new developments. Particularly vexing for governments have been issues related to human embryo experimentation. Because some of the most promising biomedical developments, such as stem cell research and nuclear somatic transfer, involve such experimentation, several international bodies have drafted documents aimed to provide guidance to governments when developing biomedical science policy. Here I focus on two such documents: the Council of Europe's Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being and the Additional Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being. I argue that by using human dignity as a criterion to determine the permissibility of particular human embryo research practices, these documents cannot aid in identifying research that would be contrary to human dignity. Thus, they fail to guide public policy on embryo experimentation. Their use of human dignity as a criterion makes their task of offering guidance unfeasible because the concept as used in these documents is too vague and is applied in contradictory ways. I discuss the main goals of these documents and their claims in relation to human embryo research. I then discuss how they have influenced public policy in several countries. Finally, I show that although these Council of Europe treaties attempt to serve as public policy guides in the area of embryo research, they fail to do so. PMID:19594727

  8. Traveling Policies: Mobility, Transformation and Continuities in Higher Education Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britez, Rodrigo G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an assessment of the impact and implications of the international mobilities operating in the national public policy environment. In fact, patterns of transformations that take place in national higher education systems are generating diverse and complex outcomes in different countries, in ways that may preclude a simple…

  9. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Raji?, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts. PMID:24528517

  10. The “geotoxicology” of airborne particulate matter: implications for public health, public policy, and environmental security (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been documented and hypothesized as the cause of a wide variety of adverse health effects. Most attention has focused on potential health effects of occupational and environmental exposures to many types of anthropogenic PM, such as mineral dusts or combustion byproducts of fossil fuels. However, geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources but modified by human activities) are also increasingly of concern as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Geotoxicology can be defined as the study of the toxicological characteristics and potential health effects of geogenic and geoanthropogenic earth materials. Acute exposures to high PM concentrations are associated with exacerbated asthma, other pulmonary inflammatory responses, cardiovascular problems, and other issues. Some diseases can result from inhalation of dust-borne pathogens. PM can contain bioaccessible (readily dissolved in the body’s fluids) contaminants that, if absorbed in sufficient doses, can trigger toxicity. Acutely bioreactive PM, such as alkaline wildfire ash or acidic volcanic fog, can trigger acute irritation or damage of the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Biodurable PM such as asbestos fibers and crystalline silica are poorly cleared by lung macrophages, do not readily dissolve in the fluids lining the lungs, and can therefore persist in the lungs for decades. In sufficient dose, pneumoconioses can result from exposure to biodurable minerals, and chronic fluid-mineral reactions in the body (such as redox cycling and formation of free radicals) are thought to help promote cancers such as lung cancer and (in the case of asbestos) mesothelioma. Many key research questions remain, such as the exact mechanisms by which many types of PM cause disease, or the levels of exposure above which various types of PM begin to pose a substantial public health risk. PM is at the core of diverse policy issues related to air quality, public health, and environmental security, at scales from local to global. Interdisciplinary earth and health science investigations are crucial to the development of effective policy. For example, earth science input will be key for understanding and managing potential risks associated with living on or near asbestos-containing rocks. Particularly in dry climates, a better understanding of the roles of geogenic PM versus anthropogenic PM as triggers of disease is needed in the development of appropriate air quality regulations at local to regional scales; this issue will only increase in importance in the future as human inhabitation increases in some arid regions, and as arid regions expand or shift due to climate change or human-induced stresses. Over the last decade, it has been recognized that dusts can transport contaminants and pathogens between continents. Hence, human practices and policies that influence dust generation in one continent or country may ultimately have an impact on public health, policy, and environmental security in distant downwind countries.

  11. The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: a zoonosis of global importance.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2013-11-01

    Toxocariasis, caused by infection with larvae of Toxocara canis, and to a lesser extent by Toxocara cati and other ascaridoid species, manifests in humans in a range of clinical syndromes. These include visceral and ocular larva migrans, neurotoxocariasis and covert or common toxocariasis. Toxocara canis is one of the most widespread public health and economically important zoonotic parasitic infections humans share with dogs, cats and wild canids, particularly foxes. This neglected disease has been shown through seroprevalence studies to be especially prevalent among children from socio-economically disadvantaged populations both in the tropics and sub-tropics and in industrialised nations. Human infection occurs by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs or larvae from a range of wild and domestic paratenic hosts. Most infections remain asymptomatic. Clinically overt infections may go undiagnosed, as diagnostic tests are expensive and can require serological, molecular and/or imaging tests, which may not be affordable or available. Treatment in humans varies according to symptoms and location of the larvae. Anthelmintics, including albendazole, thiabendazole and mebendazole may be given together with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids. The development of molecular tools should lead to new and improved strategies for the treatment, diagnosis and control of toxocariasis and the role of other ascaridoid species in the epidemiology of Toxocara spp. Molecular technologies may also help to reveal the public health importance of T. canis, providing new evidence to support the implementation of national control initiatives which have yet to be developed for Toxocara spp. A number of countries have implemented reproductive control programs in owned and stray dogs to reduce the number of young dogs in the population. These programs would positively impact upon T. canis transmission since the parasite is most fecund and prevalent in puppies. Other control measures for T. canis include the regular and frequent anthelmintic treatment of dogs and cats, starting at an early age, education and enforcement of laws for the disposal of canine faeces, dog legislation and personal hygiene. The existence of wild definitive and paratenic hosts complicates the control of T. canis. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change will all serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. This review examines the transmission, diagnosis and clinical syndromes of toxocariasis, its public health importance, epidemiology, control and current research needs. PMID:23954435

  12. Effect of Transportation Policies on Modal Shift from Private Car to Public Transport in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdden, Abdullah; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Ismail, Amiruddin

    The car is the second (40%) most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. The rapid increase in the use of personal transportation has its roots in the weak Malaysian public transport system. As a result, traffic congestion, accidents, air pollution and need for parking space among other evils, have escalated. In this study, policies aimed at discouraging the use of private transportation were studied. In addition, this study sought to identify factors that prevent personal transport users from utilizing public transport so that rational policies could be formulated to encourage greater utilization of public transport. A survey was carried out on users of private and public (both bus and urban train transport) (n = 1200). A binary logit model was developed for the three alternative modes, Car, Bus and Train. This study found that age, gender, car ownership, travel time, travel cost, household size and income are significant factors in influencing the individual`s choice of transportation. The most important variables found likely to encourage the use of public transport were reduced travel time, reduce the distance from home to public transportation stations and subsidized fares. In conclusion, for the commuter to switch to public transport, proper incentives need to be provided for a successful implementation.

  13. Taming the Obesity Beast: Children, Marketing, and Public Policy Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross D. Petty

    2007-01-01

    This essay explores the policy implications of the findings in this special section for potential remedies and opportunities for further research in the critical area of obesity. Children are an important focus here both because of the dramatic increase in childhood obesity in recent decades and because they lack the cognitive development and social experience to process marketing communications with

  14. Strategizing for Public Policy: The Information Literacy State Proclamation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Jackman, Lana W.; Prause, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project designed to raise the awareness of policymakers about the importance of information literacy to achieve societal goals. Issues benefit from the governmental support, prioritization, mandates, and funding that can result when there is policy behind them. Studies indicate that many people lack the ability to draw on…

  15. The creation of spin-off firms at public research institutions: Managerial and policy implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Lockett; Donald Siegel; Mike Wright; Michael D. Ensley

    2005-01-01

    We consider the managerial and policy implications of the rise of spin-offs at public research institutions (PRIs), based on a knowledge-based view (KBV) of the firm. This framework highlights the importance of knowledge in the creation and development of spin-offs. We argue that in order to understand the development of spin-offs, researchers should focus on “knowledge gaps” these new ventures

  16. Queensland Health Public Service Employees Engaging in Other Employment Human Resources Policy

    E-print Network

    unknown authors

    To specify the action to be taken when Queensland Health public service employees engage or will be engaging in other employment, whether within the public service or elsewhere. 2 APPLICATION This policy applies to all Queensland Health public service employees whether they are permanent, temporary, contract or casual employees. This policy does not apply to health service employees. 3 GUIDELINES Guidelines may be developed to facilitate implementation of this policy. The guidelines must be consistent with this policy. 4

  17. Are economic evaluations an important tool in vaccine policy decisions?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Philip

    2011-10-01

    In the 1980s, drug prices began rising considerably worldwide, and in the 1990s, countries began incorporating health economics into the scientific review process. Rising prices in vaccines began around the year 2000 and national bodies began to use health economics to review vaccines in the next decade. Health economics is a discipline that evaluates alternative interventions, balancing costs and health outcomes. There are characteristics of infectious diseases that differ from other illnesses, most notably the herd effect. We reviewed the role of economics in conducting vaccine scientific reviews. We conclude that health economics can move some of the considerations in vaccine policy decision-making from the political to the scientific arena, but there are still many unresolved issues. Health economists will continue to address these issues in the coming years, but there will always be a need for a separate policy review. PMID:21958095

  18. Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences

    E-print Network

    Lotko, William

    is provided by the Ford Foundation. Contact: Nelson A. Rockefeller Center, 6082 Rockefeller Hall, DartmouthRockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy under the direction of professors in the Rockefeller Center. Support for the Policy Research Shop

  19. Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences

    E-print Network

    Lotko, William

    in the Rockefeller Center. Support for the Policy Research Shop is provided by the Ford Foundation. Contact: Nelson ARockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy. Rockefeller Center, 6082 Rockefeller Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 http://rockefeller

  20. Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences

    E-print Network

    Lotko, William

    for the Policy Research Shop is provided by the Ford Foundation. Contact: Nelson A. Rockefeller Center, 6082Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy students at Dartmouth College under the direction of professors in the Rockefeller Center. Support

  1. Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences

    E-print Network

    Lotko, William

    for the Policy Research Shop is provided by the Ford Foundation. Contact: Nelson A. Rockefeller Center, 6082Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy by undergraduate students at Dartmouth College under the direction of professors in the Rockefeller Center. Support

  2. Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences

    E-print Network

    Lotko, William

    Research Shop is provided by the Ford Foundation. Contact: Nelson A. Rockefeller Center, 6082 RockefellerRockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop The Center for Public Policy at Dartmouth College under the direction of professors in the Rockefeller Center. Support for the Policy

  3. Indicators and Policy Decisions: The Important Role of Experimental Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAMELA MORRIS; LISA GENNETIAN

    Many strong arguments can be made to support the collection of good indicators of children’s well-being and for using such indicators to informpolicy and practice. Indeed, indicators such as rates of teen pregnancy, high school graduation, or dropping out can support, contradict, or generally inform public and political opinion about the circumstances of young people today and that is why

  4. How experts are chosen to inform public policy: can the process be improved?

    PubMed

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Drew, Christa; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Westring, M Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of the food supply has magnified the importance of ongoing research into nutrition and food safety issues that have significant impact on public health. At the same time, ethical questions have been raised regarding conflict of interest, making it more challenging to form the expert panels that advise government agencies and public health officials in formulating nutrition and food safety policy. Primarily due to the growing complexity of the interactions among government, industry, and academic research institutions, increasingly stringent conflict-of-interest policies may have the effect of barring the most experienced and knowledgeable nutrition and food scientists from contributing their expertise on the panels informing public policy. This paper explores the issue in some depth, proposing a set of principles for determining considerations for service on expert advisory committees. Although the issues around scientific policy counsel and the selection of advisory panels clearly have global applicability, the context for their development had a US and Canadian focus in this work. The authors also call for a broader discussion in all sectors of the research community as to whether and how the process of empaneling food science and nutrition experts might be improved. PMID:23415508

  5. Chapter 15: Public health policy and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Sue J

    2003-01-01

    Recent scientific advances are providing an opportunity to revisit strategies for cervical cancer prevention. How to invest health resources wisely, such that public health benefits are maximized-and opportunity costs are minimized-is a critical question in the setting of enhanced cytologic screening methods, human papillomavirus DNA testing, and vaccine development. Developing sound clinical guidelines and public health policy will require careful consideration of the incremental benefits, harms, and costs associated with new interventions compared with existing interventions, at both an individual and a population level. In addition to an intervention's effectiveness, public health decision making requires the consideration of its feasibility, sustainability, and affordability. No clinical trial or single cohort study will be able to simultaneously consider all of these components. Cost-effectiveness analysis and disease-simulation modeling, capitalizing on data from multiple sources, can serve as a valuable tool to extend the time horizon of clinical trials, to evaluate more strategies than possible in a single clinical trial, and to assess the relative costs and benefits of alternative policies to reduce mortality from cervical cancer. PMID:12807953

  6. History of Public Policies for Research, Development and Deployment for Solar Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Osamu

    Developing new renewable energy sources, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is a key to establishing climate-friendly economy. Japan has been one of the centers of research, development, and diffusion (RD&D) of PV since the 1970's. While it is true that Japan was outnumbered by Germany in installed capacity and by US and Chinese companies in production in recent years, Japan still retains an important position in the world PV market. This paper examines the history of public policies for RD&D of PV in Japan, focusing on two kinds of policies, namely, public support for R&D under the Sunshine Program and various market creation policies in the early 1990's. Based on literature survey and interviews with key persons involved, the paper reveals that those support policies played an indispensable role to accelerate RD&D of PV technology. The Sunshine Program provided stable R&D budgets and space for technology learning throughout the 1980's to 1990's, and contributed to the progress of solar cell efficiency and cost reduction. The various market creation policies in the early 1990's also created regulatory and economic conditions that were necessary to commercialize residential PV systems, and became the direct driver to launch the initial PV market.

  7. Agent-based modeling as organizational and public policy simulators

    PubMed Central

    Lempert, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Agent-based models are an increasingly powerful tool for simulating social systems because they can represent important phenomenon difficult to capture in other mathematical formalisms. But, agent-based models have provided only limited support for policy-making because their distinctive abilities are often most useful in situations where the future is unpredictable. In such situations, the traditional analytic methods for applying simulation models to support decision-making are least effective. Fortunately, new analytic approaches for decision-making under conditions of deep uncertainty—emphasizing large ensembles of model-created scenarios and adaptive policies evaluated with the criteria of robustness, rather than with optimality or efficiency—can unleash the full potential of agent-based policy simulators. PMID:12011397

  8. Famine relief and imperial policy in early modern Morocco: the political functions of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, A R

    1981-01-01

    There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7027811

  9. Beyond public perceptions of gene technology: community participation in public policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Heather; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-10-01

    Public policy assumptions, which view "the public" as passive consumers, are deeply flawed. "The public" are, in fact, active citizens, who constitute the innovation end of the seamless web of relationships, running from research and development laboratory to shop, hospital or farm, or local neighborhood. "The public" do not receive the impact of technology; they are the impact, in that they determine with gene technology (GT) developers and sellers what happens to the technology in our society. In doing so, they, or more rightly we, exercise particular, contextual knowledges and actions. We suggest that it is the ignorance of this aspect of innovation in policy processes that produces the distrust and resentment that we found in our interviews with "publics" interested in gene technology. This is consistent with Beck's description of the deep structural states of risk and fear in modern advanced societies with respect to new technologies, such as gene technology. Only policy processes that recognize the particular, local and contextual knowledges of "the public", which co-construct innovation, can achieve deep, social structural consideration of gene technology. And only such a deep consideration can avoid the polarized attitudes and deep suspicions that we have seen arise in places such as Britain. Such consideration needs the type of processes that involve active consultation and inclusion of "the public" in government and commercial innovation, the so-called deliberative and inclusionary processes (DIPs), such as consensus conferences and citizen juries. We suggest some measures that could be tried in Australia, which would take us further down the path of participation toward technological citizenship. PMID:14971401

  10. Advertising to Communicate Public Policy: Applying Lessons from Federal Tax Law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betsy D. Gelb; Janet A. Meade

    2005-01-01

    The admittedly unusual example of advertising to raise the likelihood that federal tax policies meet their objectives offers a starting point for exploring questions about the appropriateness and effectiveness of advertising with government dollars. Advertising paid for with public money, designed for communication concerning a public policy, may be the way to attain the objectives of that policy, it is

  11. Science, Technology, and the Issues of the Eighties: Policy Outlook. Westview Special Studies in Science, Technology, and Public Policy/Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Albert H., Ed.; Thornton, Ray, Ed.

    Recognizing that science and technology (S/T) have become increasingly relevant to important public policy issues, Congress has mandated the periodic preparation of a "Five Year Outlook for Science and Technology" to help U.S. policymakers anticipate and deal with these issues more effectively. This book, the result of a study conducted by the…

  12. ACADEMIC GENEALOGIES WITH RESPECT TO NARRATIVE IN HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THEIR IMPLICATION FOR PUBLIC POLICIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Taiki; Nakano, Takeshi; Hatori, Tsuyoshi

    In human and society science, narrative is regarded as an important issue to understand dynamic actions of human being and society. Therefore, narrative is also expected to be important for public policies that try to improve dynamic actions of human being and society. In th is study, we review academic genealogies with respect to narratives including western philosophy, hermeneutics, historical science, historical philosophy, literary criticism, clinical psychology and sociology, narrative psychology and folklore. Then we discuss how narrative can be pragmatically applied for public policies.

  13. Important interactional strategies for everyday public health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Porr, Caroline J

    2015-01-01

    This Clinical Concepts article concerns the relational tools required by public health nurses to establish relationships with single mothers living on public assistance, mothers who are vulnerable and often stigmatized. The implications of stigmatization for relationship building are highlighted based on previous research investigating how public health nurses working in Canadian jurisdictions establish professional caring relationships with this cohort of mothers. Public health nurses employed interactional strategies including engaging in a positive manner and offering verbal commendations which served as effective relational tools to break through mothers' walls of defensiveness and to resume the dynamic process of relationship building. Building Relationship is a key practice standard for public health nurses and is instrumental to their work at both individual and community levels to improve social determinants of health. The author concludes with recommendations to facilitate building relationships during everyday public health nursing practice. PMID:24320117

  14. [Public Health is an important tool of health care].

    PubMed

    Hol?ík, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Public Health as the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts of society has a long tradition and promising results in the Czech Republic. In the contemporary financial and economic crisis Public Health in the CR does not use its potential. In the article some problems of Public Health in the CR are presented (e.g. terminology, finance, education and training). Possible solutions are outlined. PMID:22913762

  15. Biomedical informatics: precious scientific resource and public policy dilemma.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Donald A. B.

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical informatics includes the application of computers, information networks and systems, and a growing body of scientific understanding to a range of problems. As skill in this field increases and as progress in virtually all modern biomedical science becomes more data intensive, informatics becomes a precious resource. Applications areas include access to knowledge, discovery in genomics, medical records, mathematical modeling, and bioengineering. At the same time, progress in informatics is deeply dependent on resolution of four major public policy issues: digital intellectual property rights, genetic testing protection, medical data privacy, and the role of biomedical data in the context of information warfare and homeland security. PMID:12813915

  16. Criminalization of HIV transmission: poor public health policy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Edwin

    2009-12-01

    Criminalization of HIV transmission and exposure is an ineffective tool for combating AIDS and a costly distraction from programs that we know work--programs such as effective prevention, protection against discrimination, reducing stigma, empowering women and providing access to testing and treatment. In this article, which is based on a public lecture he gave at "From Evidence and Principle to Policy and Action," the 1st Annual Symposium on HIV, Law and Human Rights, held on 12-13 June 2009 in Toronto, Canada, Justice Edwin Cameron analyzes the surge in criminal prosecutions, discusses the role that stigma plays in these prosecutions and makes the case against criminalization. PMID:20225503

  17. The essential elements of health impact assessment and healthy public policy: a qualitative study of practitioner perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Patrick John; Kemp, Lynn Amanda; Sainsbury, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study uses critical realist methodology to identify the essential and contingent elements of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) and Healthy Public Policy (HPP) as operationalised by practitioners. Design Data collection—qualitative interviews and a workshop were conducted with HIA and HPP practitioners working in differing contexts. Data analysis Critical realist analytical questions identified the essential elements of HIA and HPP, the relationship between them, and the influences of public policy and other contingencies on the practice of both. Participants Nine interviews were conducted with purposively sampled participants working in Europe, USA and Australasia. 17 self-selected participants who worked in Europe, South East Asia and Australasia attended the workshop. Results The results clarify that HIA and HPP are different but mutually supporting. HIA has four characteristics: assessing a policy proposal to predict population health and equity impacts, a structured process for stakeholder dialogue, making recommendations and flexibly adapting to the policy process. HPP has four characteristics: concern with a broad definition of health, designing policy to improve people's health and reduce health inequities, intersectoral collaboration and influencing the policy cycle from inception to completion. HIA brings to HPP prediction about a policy's broad health impacts, and a structured space for intersectoral engagement, but is one approach within a broader suite of HPP activities. Five features of public policy and seven contingent influences on HIA and HPP practice are identified. Conclusions This study clarifies the core attributes of HIA and HPP as separate yet overlapping while subject to wider influences. This provides the necessary common language to describe the application of both and avoid conflated expectations of either. The findings present the conceptual importance of public policy and the institutional role of public health as distinct and important influences on the practice of HIA and HPP. PMID:23166121

  18. The Importance of Policies in E-Learning Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Shirley; Rogers, Rodney O.

    2004-01-01

    Most professionals interested in the use of technology in education understand the importance of an e-learning course site, whether the course is taught totally online or in a hybrid environment where the instructor has some face-to-face contact with students. However, many instructors have not thoroughly considered the importance of posting…

  19. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  20. How do we translate science into public health policy and law?

    PubMed

    Fielding, Jonathan E; Marks, James S; Myers, Bradford W; Nolan, Patricia A; Rawson, Raymond D; Toomey, Kathleen E

    2002-01-01

    Scientific knowledge concerning effective preventive measures to preserve and protect the health of the public continues to grow exponentially. Methods for assessing the impact of population-based interventions such as policies and laws have also greatly increased in the past decade, including systematic approaches that allow general findings to be drawn from various studies, especially those developed as part of the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). However, the translation of the collected scientific evidence gathered to date has been spotty and problematic. Success stories do exist, including community water fluoridation, a significant factor in improvements in reduction of tooth decay over the past 50 years. Even for interventions with a strong science base, such as community water fluoridation, significant barriers to implementation of effective strategies discovered through research remain. Barriers include public misunderstanding of health issues and proposed solutions such as fluoridation; lack of engagement on the part of the media in communicating known effective strategies; and reluctance on the part of policymakers to champion approaches that concern but may not be advocated by their constituencies. The increasing burden of chronic disease places public policymakers into non-traditional roles, such as advocating behavior change as a preventive measure. Science is a critical tool to help legislators and policymakers "connect the dots" between public policies. For example, the elimination or degrading of physical education programs in schools is an important factor in addressing the national epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity in addition to the increase in rates of Type II diabetes among children. This article provides an overview of the past, present, and future associated with translating science into public health policy and law, including a review of tools and strategies to address existing and expanding public health challenges. The article also provides and discusses examples of translating and implementing science-based solutions to address public health problems effectively. PMID:12508498

  1. The policy of public health genomics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Simone, Benedetto; Mazzucco, Walter; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Agodi, Antonella; Coviello, Domenico; Dagna Bricarelli, Francesca; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Di Maria, Emilio; Federici, Antonio; Genuardi, Maurizio; Varesco, Liliana; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2013-05-01

    Italy has a monitoring system for genetic testing, consisting in a periodic census of clinical and laboratory activities performed in the country. The experience is limited, however, concerning the translation of genomic testing for complex diseases into clinical practice. For the first time the Italian Ministry of Health has introduced a policy strategic plan on genomics and predictive medicine within the 2010-2012 National Prevention Plan. This achievement was supported by the Italian Network for Public Health Genomics (GENISAP) and will likely contribute to the integration of public health genomics into health care in the country. Our experience might be of interest not only in Italy, but in other high-income countries, struggling to keep a healthy economy and healthy citizens. PMID:23466031

  2. Health Policy and Cost Containment Laws: Lessons for Public Health Education in Social and Behavioral Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jose Joel

    1986-01-01

    From a descriptive model of policy in health care delivery, the author theorizes that government has effectively attained economic and budgetary goals, but policy is creating displacements and attacking the national commitment to social welfare policy. Asserts that public health disciplines must collaborate to strengthen policy and empower…

  3. The Urban Public Hospital: Its Importance to the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mitchell F.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the health care functions provided for the Black community by urban public hospitals; considers the impact of Federal retrenchment on these institutions; and examines the negative impact on Blacks, other minorities, and the poor that the sale of urban public hospitals to private, for-profit chains will have. (GC)

  4. Pandemic H1N1 in Canada and the use of evidence in developing public health policies--a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosella, Laura C; Wilson, Kumanan; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Chu, Anna; Upshur, Ross; Willison, Donald; Deeks, Shelley L; Schwartz, Brian; Tustin, Jordan; Sider, Doug; Goel, Vivek

    2013-04-01

    When responding to a novel infectious disease outbreak, policies are set under time constraints and uncertainty which can limit the ability to control the outbreak and result in unintended consequences including lack of public confidence. The H1N1 pandemic highlighted challenges in public health decision-making during a public health emergency. Understanding this process to identify barriers and modifiable influences is important to improve the response to future emergencies. The purpose of this study is to examine the H1N1 pandemic decision-making process in Canada with an emphasis on the use of evidence for public health decisions. Using semi-structured key informant interviews conducted after the pandemic (July-November 2010) and a document analysis, we examined four highly debated pandemic policies: use of adjuvanted vaccine by pregnant women, vaccine priority groups and sequencing, school closures and personal protective equipment. Data were analysed for thematic content guided by Lomas' policy decision-making framework as well as indicative coding using iterative methods. We interviewed 40 public health officials and scientific advisors across Canada and reviewed 76 pandemic policy documents. Our analysis revealed that pandemic pre-planning resulted in strong beliefs, which defined the decision-making process. Existing ideological perspectives of evidence strongly influenced how information was used such that the same evidentiary sources were interpreted differently according to the ideological perspective. Participants recognized that current models for public health decision-making failed to make explicit the roles of scientific evidence in relation to contextual factors. Conflict avoidance theory explained policy decisions that went against the prevailing evidence. Clarification of roles and responsibilities within the public health system would reduce duplication and maintain credibility. A more transparent and iterative approach to incorporating evidence into public health decision-making that reflects the realities of the external pressures present during a public health emergency is needed. PMID:23465198

  5. Postsecondary Education Opportunity. The Mortenson Report on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a collection of 12 issues of a monthly publication on public policy and postsecondary education opportunity. Each issue contains one or two main articles providing an analysis of research on trends in postsecondary education. The major articles in these issues are: (1) "The Challenge of Educational Opportunity in Public Policy:…

  6. Lyndon B. Johnson School ofPublic Affairs Policy Research Project Report

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Lyndon B. Johnson School ofPublic Affairs Policy Research Project Report Number 138 Maritime-471-4218 or write to: Office ofPublications, LyndonB. Johnson School ofPublic Affairs, The University of Texas Transportation in Latin America and the Caribbean Project directed by Leigh B. Boske A report by the Policy

  7. The Public Policy Process: Its Role in Community Growth. Coping with Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florea, Bruce

    Extension community resource development (CRD) is primarily public affairs education at the local level, dealing with local issues. Two methods of public policy education are the advocacy model which picks two people with opposing views on a subject and lets them debate the issue, and the public policy education process which provides all relevant…

  8. CANONS OF PRACTICE FOR PUBLIC POLICY RESEARCH AND EDUCATION WITHIN THE

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    to make decisions about public issues is increased by education about both the issues and the decision-makingCANONS OF PRACTICE FOR PUBLIC POLICY RESEARCH AND EDUCATION WITHIN THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL and Purpose: By definition, public policy issues2 are controversial or they would not be "issues." Because

  9. US policy for disease control among imported nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    DeMarcus, T A; Tipple, M A; Ostrowski, S R

    1999-02-01

    In 1990, in response to the occurrence of Ebola virus (subsequently identified as subtype Reston) infection among cynomolgus monkeys imported from the Philippines, the United States implemented strict disease control measures for handling nonhuman primates during transit and quarantine and initiated importer facility compliance inspections. Disease control measures emphasized protection of workers from exposure, use of containment facilities and procedures, measures to prevent spread of infection among animals, and laboratory testing of animals that die or become ill during quarantine. From 1991-1995, no outbreaks of filovirus infection occurred, and only one other disease outbreak (caused by Mycobacterium species) was recognized. In April 1996, Ebola virus (subtype Reston) infection was identified in another group of cynomolgus monkeys imported from the Philippines. The disease control measures implemented since the first Ebola virus (subtype Reston) outbreak appeared to work well. Currently, the 27 registered importer facilities import approximately 8500 nonhuman primates annually, and mortality rates are <1.0%. Importer facilities receive regular inspections, and compliance with disease control measures and disease reporting is excellent. PMID:9988196

  10. DELINQUENT MEDICAL RECORD POLICY The timely completion of medical records is of importance to all institutions. It is an important

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Page 127 DELINQUENT MEDICAL RECORD POLICY The timely completion of medical records is of importance during this time. If the resident/fellow has graduated prior to completion of medical records/fellow fails to complete required patient records within the time limit determined by the relevant clinical

  11. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    PubMed

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise regarding whether agriculture sectoral policy is coherent with public health sectoral policy across the region. PMID:21859775

  12. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in the United States are in areas where NOA is known to exist and therefore this issue takes on national significance. This ongoing national dilemma has raised public and business concerns. There has been continuing political and scientific debate and widespread miscommunication over perceived versus actual health risks, the validity of various analytical sampling and testing methods, the questionable necessity and escalating costs of remediation procedures, and the combined negative impact on numerous commercial and public interests. Thus, conflicting research and regulatory positions on the distinctions between and hazards of true asbestos and ordinary rock fragments is all that is presently available to the public until the differing scientific communities and government agencies arrive at a consensus on these issues. The risk assessment methodology and the analytical technology needed to support inferences drawn from existing research are available, but have not been organized and implemented in the manner needed to resolve the NOA controversy. There should exist nationally adopted and peer-reviewed NOA standards (developed jointly by the scientific community, health risk professionals, and government regulators) that establish: (1) a scientific basis for risk evaluation and assessment of NOA and rock fragments; (2) accepted analytical protocols for determining if NOA actually exists in a given area and for separating NOA from related non-asbestos rock fragments and single crystal minerals; and (3) effective public policies for managing NOA, minimizing potential hazards, and protecting public health. This article will review some of the key issues involved with the current NOA debate, propose improved analytical methodologies, describe potential solutions for dealing with NOA, and outline the benefits to be gained by creating a practical national NOA public policy. PMID:18180100

  13. Fathers' integration in Quebec's perinatal and early childhood public policies.

    PubMed

    St-Arneault, Kate; De Montigny, Francine; Villeneuve, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Mothers' physical and mental health, as well as their socio-economic status, are currently acknowledged as determining factors in the health and development of young children in Quebec. It is thus not surprising to find that the majority of government perinatal and early childhood initiatives are directed toward mothers. Yet, fathers today are increasingly involved in the care and education of their children, and scientific studies have shown that their involvement is just as crucial as that of mothers. It is recognized that a father's involvement optimizes the physical, cognitive, affective and social development of his children. The purpose of this text is to examine how fathers are taken into account in two public perinatal and early childhood policies. It has been found that fathers are virtually absent from Quebec government's objectives and orientations, and when they do appear, no concrete means are offered to reach them. Considering that health care workers have difficulty offering truly inclusive services to fathers, recommendations with regard to inclusion of fathers in public policies are necessary in order to optimize the health of children and their families. PMID:24735694

  14. The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1994, the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania conducts research on a variety of topics, including political communication, journalism, and the role of the media in the lives of developing children. With offices in Philadelphia and Washington, D.C., the Center is well poised to also disseminate its research findings to various governmental organizations and other policy groups. The siteâ??s homepage provides direct link to some of their more recent work, which includes excerpts from a talk by National Intelligence Director John D. Negroponte and Geneva Overholserâ??s compelling report, â??On Behalf of Journalism: A Manifesto for Changeâ?ť. While visitors can just scroll down through the homepage to review these documents, they may also wish to click on the tabs near the top of the page to move directly to a thematic area of interest. The site is rounded out by a number of links to other Annenberg-sponsored sites, such as â??Justice Learningâ?ť, which is a joint project sponsored by National Public Radio and the New York Times Learning Network.

  15. Pesticide testing in humans: ethics and public policy.

    PubMed Central

    Oleskey, Christopher; Fleischman, Alan; Goldman, Lynn; Hirschhorn, Kurt; Landrigan, Philip J; Lappé, Marc; Marshall, Mary Faith; Needleman, Herbert; Rhodes, Rosamond; McCally, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide manufacturers have tested pesticides increasingly in human volunteers over the past decade. The apparent goal of these human studies is to establish threshold levels for symptoms, termed "no observed effect levels." Data from these studies have been submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for consideration in standard setting. There are no required ethical guidelines for studies of pesticides toxicity conducted in humans, no governmental oversight is exercised, and no procedures have been put in place for the protection of human subjects. To examine ethical and policy issues involved in the testing of pesticides in humans and the use of human data in standard setting, in February 2002 the Center for Children's Health and the Environment of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine convened an expert workshop for ethicists, physicians, toxicologists, and policy analysts. After a peer consensus process, participants developed a number of ethical and public policy recommendations regarding the testing of pesticides in humans. Participants also strongly encouraged active biomonitoring of every pesticide currently in use to track human exposure, particularly in vulnerable populations, and to assess adverse effects on health. PMID:15175182

  16. Utilization of Science-Based Information on Climate Change in Decision Making and the Public Policy Process - Phase 2

    E-print Network

    Vedlitz, Arnold; Lindquist, Eric; Liu, Xinsheng; Zahran, Sammy; Wood, B. Dan; Alston, Letitia T.; North, Gerald

    2013-12-19

    Utilization of Science-Based Information on Climate Change in Decision Making and the Public Policy Process - Phase 2 Institute for Science, Technology and Public Policy The Bush School of Government and Public Service Texas A&M University Dr.... Arnold Vedlitz, Director & Bob Bullock Chair in Government and Public Policy Institute for Science, Technology and Public Policy The Bush School of Government and Public Service Texas A&M University College Station, Texas 77843-4350 Phone 979...

  17. Cognitive enhancement kept within contexts: neuroethics and informed public policy

    PubMed Central

    Shook, John R.; Galvagni, Lucia; Giordano, James

    2014-01-01

    Neurothics has far greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements arriving from novel brain-centered biotechnologies and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize the best cognitive and neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could possibly count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely “cognitive” enhancement. Where cognitive processing and the mental life is concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what has actually been cognitively improved. And what can concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by the classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. Additionally, where the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements, we mustn’t presume that public approval towards enhancers will somehow automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of any nuanced appreciation for the control which performance contexts and public contexts exert over what “cognitive” enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can all too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as surely good for us and for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of oft-heard observations about serious hurdles for reliable enhancement from neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications to those hurdles for a sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and a wise policy review over cognitive enhancement. We offer some crucial recommendations for undertaking such investigations, so that cognitive enhancers that truly deserve public approval can be better identified. PMID:25538573

  18. Shaping the future of nursing: developing an appraisal framework for public engagement with nursing policy reports.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Ann

    2015-03-01

    It is accepted that research should be systematically examined to judge its trustworthiness and value in a particular context. No such appraisal is required of reports published by organizations that have possibly even greater influence on policy that affects the public. This paper explores a philosophical framework for appraising reports. It gives the reasons why informed engagement is important, drawing on Popper's concept of the open society, and it suggests a method for appraisal. Gadamer's concept of the two horizons and Jauss's reception theory offer a methodological framework to enable the individual citizen, whether professional or lay, to engage in debate about policy that affects him or her. By way of a worked example, the framework is applied to two international reports on nursing. Conclusions suggest that nursing policy should be subjected to robust interrogatory appraisal by both profession and public for a democratic debate and creative discourse. Although this analysis is related to international nursing policy, it has a wider relevance and application beyond nursing. PMID:24954477

  19. Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Berer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

  20. The schoolroom asbestos abatement program: a public policy debacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    1995-10-01

    It is estimated that nearly 100 billion has been spent on removal of asbestos-bearing materials from schoolrooms, public and commercial buildings, and homes. This removal continues to this day despite the publication of an advisory document in 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency that states most removal is unnecessary and is even counterproductive both in terms health protection and costs. Concern over low exposure to substances that are designated as carcinogens is based on the false concept that even the smallest exposure to such substances can increase cancer risk. The expression “one molecule of a chemical or one asbestos fiber can possibly produce a tumor” is repeated over and over until it is accepted as a truth. Over 1400 air samples taken in 219 North American school buildings show the average fiber level to be 0.00022 fibers per milliliter of air. Using the most pessimistic models and attendance in the school for 6 h a day, five days a week, for 14 years, the calculated risk is one excess cancer death per million lifetimes. In contrast, the risk of dying from a lightning strike is 35 deaths per million lifetimes. Ambient air asbestos concentrations measured in the chrysotile asbestos mining towns of Quebec are 220 to 2200 times greater than that measured in the average schoolroom, yet the women living their entire lives in these towns show no increased cancer risk. The asbestos abatement program in the United States is a public policy debacle.

  1. Ranking Fiscal Policy Rules: the Golden Rule of Public Finance vs. the Stability and Growth Pact

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Ranking Fiscal Policy Rules: the Golden Rule of Public Finance vs. the Stability and Growth Pact of the application of a "golden rule of public finance" to the European Union (EU). Blanchard and Giavazzi (2003

  2. LAIS 498/598: Rhetoric, Energy, and Public Policy Fall 2011 Syllabus

    E-print Network

    energy. Unlike the common modern usage of the term rhetoric, rhetoric has long 1 LAIS 498/598: Rhetoric, Energy, and Public Policy Fall 2011 Syllabus Description This course will examine the ways in which rhetoric shapes public

  3. Media Bias, Public Opinion, and Policy Liberalism from 1956 to 2004: A Second-Level Agenda-Setting Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Tan; David H. Weaver

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore second-level agenda-setting at the national level. In particular, it examines the relationships among the citation bias of the New York Times, national level public opinion, and Congressional policies from 1956 to 2004 in order to better understand mass media's role in national policymaking. In addition, it also tests one important intervening variable of the relationships

  4. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes for energy conservation and efficiency, fossil fuels, nuclear energy, hydropower, and renewable energy. All participants saw a 7-person diverse energy expert panel. Some participants attended deliberation sessions; some received a 35-page briefing document that included pros and cons of the different energy options.

  5. Financing end-use solar technologies in a restructured electricity industry: Comparing the cost of public policies

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Eto, J.

    1997-09-01

    Renewable energy technologies are capital intensive. Successful public policies for promoting renewable energy must address the significant resources needed to finance them. Public policies to support financing for renewable energy technologies must pay special attention to interactions with federal, state, and local taxes. These interactions are important because they can dramatically increase or decrease the effectiveness of a policy, and they determine the total cost of a policy to society as a whole. This report describes a comparative analysis of the cost of public policies to support financing for two end-use solar technologies: residential solar domestic hot water heating (SDHW) and residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the cost of the technologies under five different ownership and financing scenarios. Four scenarios involve leasing the technologies to homeowners in return for a payment that is determined by the financing requirements of each form of ownership. For each scenario, the authors examine nine public policies that might be used to lower the cost of these technologies: investment tax credits (federal and state), production tax credits (federal and state), production incentives, low-interest loans, grants (taxable and two types of nontaxable), direct customer payments, property and sales tax reductions, and accelerated depreciation.

  6. An analysis of the impact of alternative import management policies for shrimp

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, Jane Chadwick

    1983-01-01

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE IMPORT MANAGEMENT POLICIES FOR SHRIMP A Thesis by 3ANE CHADWICK HOPKINS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE IMPORT MANAGEMENT POLICIES FOR SHRIMP A Thesis JANE CHADWICK HOPKINS approved as to style and content by: John P. Nichols (Chairman of...

  7. How Can We Make the Pain Go Away? Public Policies to Manage Pain at the End of Life

    PubMed Central

    Imhof, Sara; Kaskie, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The continued undertreatment of pain at the end of life is a substantive public health problem that has not been resolved through increased public awareness, the issuance of clinical guidance for providers, or expanded organizational commitments. In this forum, we illuminate the role of public policies in promoting pain management. We review federal and state policies and consider empirical evaluations that compared the quality of state policies and the factors that contributed to their formation. We resolve that any organized interest in improving end-of-life care should begin by focusing on the development and expansion of those state policies that support the provision of evidence-based medicine for reducing the amount of pain an individual experiences at the end of life. Although empirical research is needed to determine which particular aspects of state pain policy are most critical and how these policies can be implemented most effectively, any organized effort that advances state medical board activity or another state policy would appear to be making an important step toward making the pain at the end of life go away. PMID:18728292

  8. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Benn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures – e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions – to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

  9. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

  10. Securing Our Future: The Importance of Quality Education for Minorities. Policy Research Project Report Number 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs.

    This report on the education of minorities results from policy research projects conducted at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at Texas University (Austin) as part of the Quality Education for Minorities project to provide background research for development of a national action plan on improving the quality of education for Alaska…

  11. The Growing (But Still Limited) Importance of Evidence in Education Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Amanda; Levin, Ben; Campbell, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The last decade of education change has been characterized by the rise of evidence-based policy and practice agendas. Internationally, we are witnessing efforts to increase and incorporate research use in public services. This article examines efforts in education to address the research-practice gap through an emerging field we term knowledge…

  12. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  13. Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop A Center for Public Policy and the Social Sciences

    E-print Network

    Lotko, William

    Shop is provided by the Ford Foundation Contact: Nelson A. Rockefeller Center, 6082 Rockefeller HallRockefeller Center at Dartmouth College Policy Research Shop A Center for Public Policy of professors in the Rockefeller Center. We are also thankful for the services received from the Student Center

  14. Conservative Think Tanks and Higher Education Policy: Selected Public Policy Research Institutes and Their Views on Issues in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Susan Marie

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to describe four conservative public policy research institutions as organizations in comparison with more traditional policy organizations such as the Brookings Institution, and (2) to examine their views on current issues in higher education in relation to selected national higher education reports.…

  15. Environmental factors influencing public health and medicine: policy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rueben; Walker, Bailus; Nathan, Vincent R.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health threats are increasing throughout the United States, particularly in low-income populations and in communities of color. Environmental science researchers are investigating plausible associations between the environment and human health. As a result, the role and responsibility of the primary care physicians and other health care providers are changing. This paper highlights selected lines of evidence suggesting that clinicians should now consider interactions between humans and their environment as central to providing effective primary care. Subject areas include: exposure to environmental agents, reproductive toxicity, pulmonary disease, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, mechanisms of environmental disease, and cultural competence. Concerns about these and other environmentally related issues influence the manner in which primary care is practiced now, and will be practiced in the future. Biomedical technology and community awareness demand that physicians pay more attention to advances in environmental medicine. Ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school is environmental medicine. To effectively respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health, clinicians, researchers, educators, public policy officials, and the general public must join together to reduce the risk of environmental health threats and improve quality of life. PMID:11995631

  16. Public health strategies for confronting AIDS. Legislative and regulatory policy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    1989-03-17

    Legislation and regulation can make an important contribution to efforts to confront AIDS by promoting professional standards through reasoned guidelines; by mandating appropriate health care services and public education, particularly in sex education in schools, condom advertising, and outreach programs for drug-dependent people; by funding research; and by safeguarding confidentiality and protecting against discrimination. AIDS-related legislative and regulatory policy across the United States is reported and categorized, and an assessment is made of the likely impact of laws covering treatment and education, protection of the blood supply, screening, reporting, isolation, criminalization of HIV transmission, confidentiality, and discrimination. PMID:2645452

  17. End-of-life care issues: a personal, economic, public policy, and public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Morhaim, Dan K; Pollack, Keshia M

    2013-06-01

    Advance directive documents are free, legal, and readily available, yet too few Americans have completed one. Initiating discussions about death is challenging, but progress in medical technology, which leads to increasingly complex medical care choices, makes this imperative. Advance directives help manage decision-making during medical crises and end-of-life care. They allow personalized care according to individual values and a likely reduction in end-of-life health care costs. We argue that advance directives should be part of the public health policy agenda and health reform. PMID:23597338

  18. Videotex: A Dozen Public Policy Concerns and a Design to Understand Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tydeman, John; And Others

    Noting that the introduction of Videotex into the United States might precipitate significant public policy choices, this paper argues for a systematic assessment of the new technology and presents a methodological framework for dealing with its social impact. It then discusses 12 preliminary public policy concerns: (1) economic barriers to entry,…

  19. The Uneasy Public Policy Triangle in Higher Education: Quality, Diversity, and Budgetary Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finifter, David H., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents essays inspired by an October, 1988, conference on recent changes in the relationship between public policy and higher education. The essays appear in five sections, the first of which, titled "Looking Backward: The Historical Context of Public Policy and Higher Education," serves as a retrospective and prospective examination…

  20. Public Policy Center Projects Work With Small Communities For Development and

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Public Policy Center Projects Work With Small Communities For Development and Safe Drinking Water identified many communities needing help meeting the new EPA standard. Public Policy Center director Alan By Steve Ress More than one small Nebraska community is wondering how to meet new federal regulations

  1. Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs Policy Research Project Report

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs Policy Research Project Report Number 135 Transportation infonnation and book availability call 512-471-4218 or write to: Office ofPublications, Lyndon B. Johnson directed by Leigh B. Boske A report by the Policy Research Project on Transportation in the Americas 2000

  2. Lyndon B. Johnson School ofPublic Affairs Policy Research Project Report

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Lyndon B. Johnson School ofPublic Affairs Policy Research Project Report Number 130 Multimodal, and Programs Project directed by Leigh B. Boske A report by the Policy Research Project on Multimodal B. Boske, Ph.D. Professor ofEconomics and Public Affairs Students Valerie A. Briggs, B.S. (Civil

  3. Poverty, Children, and Public PoliciesThe Need for Diversity in Programs and Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT F. KELLY; SARAH H. RAMSEY

    1991-01-01

    The articles in the special issue on Families, Poverty, and Public Policies focus on poor families with children and develop a central theme: that current policies are not sufficiently responsive to the emerging reality of large numbers of children living in poverty. This article first provides a context for considering the results reported in these articles by noting recent public

  4. Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    spend money on their children during parenting time. This increase in father involvement and spendingGerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working on Outdated Data William M. Rodgers III Bloustein School of Public Policy, Rutgers University And John J

  5. Faculty Search: Department of Engineering and Public Policy Junior or Senior Hire in

    E-print Network

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    Faculty Search: Department of Engineering and Public Policy Junior or Senior Hire in the Management, Economics, or Organization of Technology The Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) and Carnegie of Carnegie Mellon University and in the Engineering and Technology Innovation Management (E&TIM) master

  6. Breaking the Policy Gridlock on Grazing Fees and Other Public Land Use Disputes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Sanchez; Jeffrey B. Nugent

    1994-01-01

    Few national economic policies have been mired in policy gridlock as deeply and for as long a period of time as grazing fees and other issues with respect to the use of public lands. The purpose of this paer is to provide an economic framework for analyzing grazing fees and other public land disputes that is sufficiently broad to integrate

  7. December 19, 2012 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Announces Enforcement of Public Access Policy

    E-print Network

    Grishok, Alla

    December 19, 2012 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Announces Enforcement of Public Access Policy: Continuations will be delayed for non-compliance Since 2008, recipients of NIH grant awards arising from that award are not in compliance with the NIH public access policy. The award

  8. Risk Analysis DOI: 10.1111/risa.12203 Public Support for Policies to Reduce Risk After

    E-print Network

    Broccoli, Anthony J.

    @rci.rutgers.edu. Hurricane Katrina, which struck the U.S. Gulf Coast in 2005, was the single most destructive U.S. hurricaneRisk Analysis DOI: 10.1111/risa.12203 Public Support for Policies to Reduce Risk After Hurricane: Building codes; Hurricane Sandy; land-use controls; public preferences; risk-reducing policies 1

  9. Evaluation of Alabama Public School Wellness Policies and State School Mandate Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Alisha B.; Lonis-Shumate, Steven R.; Gropper, Sareen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated wellness policies created by Alabama public school districts and progress made in the implementation of Alabama State Department of Education (ALSDE) school food and nutrition mandates. Methods: Wellness policies from Alabama public school districts were compared to minimum requirements under the Child Nutrition…

  10. State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies: For Public Colleges and Universities, 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Allison C.; Carnahan, Julie; L'Orange, Hans P.

    2011-01-01

    This report, "State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies for Public Colleges and Universities: 2010-11", examines the philosophies, policies, and procedures that influence decision-making regarding public college and university tuition, student fees, and student financial aid programs. This report also provides information related to…

  11. GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND PUBLIC POLICY Faculty Positions in Defense Acquisition Management

    E-print Network

    operate year-round. Most tenure-track faculty members teach two quarters per year. The most qualifiedGRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND PUBLIC POLICY Faculty Positions in Defense Acquisition Management The Graduate School of Business and Public Policy (GSBPP) at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) seeks

  12. Toward a Pragmatic Understanding of the Advertising and Public Policy Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Jack Rotfeld; Marla Royne Stafford

    2007-01-01

    Research on advertising and public policy has been both plentiful and cross-disciplinary. Despite the vast knowledge base on the topic, an understanding of this body of research from different perspectives has not been achieved. This paper examines all articles on advertising and public policy that were published in five primary journals over a 24-year period. Categorical descriptive information on these

  13. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.

  14. Public Policy for the Poor? A Randomized Evaluation of the Mexican Universal Health Insurance Program

    E-print Network

    Public Policy for the Poor? A Randomized Evaluation of the Mexican Universal Health Insurance, with Application to the Mexican Universal Health Insurance Program Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 26, 3 to the Mexican Universal Health Insurance Program Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 26, 3 (2007): 479

  15. An Evaluation of Public School District Tobacco Policies in St. Louis County, Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbero, Colleen; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Bach, Laura E.; Cyr, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    Background: One way to address tobacco use by youth is for primary and secondary schools to adopt and implement comprehensive tobacco policies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comprehensiveness of tobacco policies in St. Louis County, Missouri public school districts. Methods: We evaluated the strength of tobacco policies from all 23…

  16. Health Policy and Cost Containment Laws: Lessons for Public Health Education in Social and Behavioral Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Joel Garcia

    1986-01-01

    As an extension of a contribution by Health Policy and Law to Public Health Education in areas of mutual concern, a descriptive model of cost containment policy in health care delivery is developed. The model starts from the basis of a typology of key Congressional enactments promoting economically motivated policymaking in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. These policies and laws

  17. 75 FR 1656 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0485] Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public...ACTION: Issuance of draft safety culture policy statement and notice of opportunity...comment a draft policy statement on safety culture to include the unique aspects of...

  18. As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    As sustainability becomes integrated into public policy decision making,comprehensive and easily accessible sustainability information will be needed to assist policy analysis.As visual analytics emerges as a major tool of policy analysis,sustainability information,particularly sustainability indicators

  19. Limitations and Analysis of FERPA Policies within Florida Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sheryl D.

    2012-01-01

    The study was a policy analysis of student records policies within Florida public K-12 school districts. The researcher gathered all student records policies for the sixty-seven school districts. In addition, traditional legal research was used involving applicable federal acts, state statutes, case law, as well as legal and educational…

  20. Abstinence Promotion and the Provision Of Information About Contraception in Public School District Sexuality Education Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Landry; Lisa Kaeser; Cory L. Richards

    Context: For more than two decades, abstinence from sexual intercourse has been promoted by some advocates as the central, if not sole, component of public school sexuality education policies in the United States. Little is known, however, about the extent to which policies actual- ly focus on abstinence and about the relationship, at the local district level, between policies on

  1. Designing for an Informal Learning Environment: Towards a Participatory Simulation Design Process for Public Policy Planning

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Leilah

    Sciences1 , Comp. Sci.2 , Urban Plan. & Policy3 , Inst. for Env. Sci. & Policy4 University of Illinois for Public Policy Planning Chandan Dasgupta1 , Leilah Lyons1,2 , Moira Zellner3,4 , Andrew Greenlee3 Learning@uic.edu, agreen4@uic.edu Abstract: Modern planning practices recruit stakeholders to add specialized expertise

  2. Asian tsunami relief: Department of Defense public health response: policy and strategic coordination considerations.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Dave

    2006-10-01

    The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004, was one of the most devastating natural disasters in modern history. In particular, this disaster created massive, unique, public health threats, necessitating equally massive public health response efforts. The U.S. government (USG), including the Department of Defense (DoD), played a pivotal role in the response. This article examines some of the central policy issues and strategic coordination and planning measures involved in the public health response. The nearly unanimous consensus of international public health experts has been that the potential public health crisis in the aftermath of the Asian tsunami was averted largely because of the coordinated efforts of host nation officials and professionals, international and nongovernmental health organizations, and bilateral donors, especially the USG, including the DoD. The DoD played a central role in public health efforts through coordination and communication assistance, logistical and materiel support, disease surveillance activities, health needs assessments, and the contributions of the USS Mercy hospital ship. The core lessons involve the importance of an early, dedicated, public health response as a component of the overall disaster relief effort, as well as seamless coordination of health sector stakeholders in the USG and with those of the international community and affected host nations, which allows each organization to play to its strengths and to avoid duplication. The Asian tsunami relief effort highlighted the value of civil-military cooperation in disaster relief, particularly in the area of public health. The prominent role of the DoD in tsunami relief efforts, including public health efforts, also yielded beneficial secondary effects by bolstering security cooperation and winning "hearts and minds" in the region. PMID:17447615

  3. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform. PMID:22069793

  4. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    PubMed

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas. PMID:22699644

  5. Public regulation and passengers importance in port infrastructure costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramón Núńez-Sánchez; Sergio Jara-Díaz; Pablo Coto-Millán

    2011-01-01

    Because ports are conceived and designed mainly to be the transfer point of various types of freight, passengers tend to be forgotten in the analysis of port costs. In this paper first we investigate the importance of passengers in port infrastructure costs by means of a multi-output cost function estimated from 20 annual observations (1986–2005) for 26 Spanish Port Authorities.

  6. Impacts of Import Liberalization Policy on Economic Growth in Vietnam: A Channel Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DINH Thi Hoang Yen

    2009-01-01

    Vietnam, a transitional economy that started its historic economic reform in 1986, has been pursuing both the market-oriented and state-controlled developments for more than twenty years. This study focuses on the country's liberalization on internal and international trade polices, an important path of economic reform, by measuring an index for import liberalization policy and then employing \\

  7. [Bacterial biofilms: their importance in animal health and public health].

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Yannick D N; Hathroubi, Skander; Jacques, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymer matrix that is attached to a surface. Biofilms protect and allow bacteria to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Bacteria within biofilms can withstand host immune responses, and are much less susceptible to antibiotics and disinfectants when compared to their planktonic counterparts. The ability to form biofilms is now considered an attribute of many microorganisms. Diseases associated with biofilms require novel methods for their prevention, diagnosis and treatment; this is largely due to the properties of biofilms. Furthermore, the presence of biofilms on surfaces found at farms, slaughterhouses or food processing plants will have an impact on the efficacy of disinfection protocols. Surprisingly, biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens of veterinary or zoonotic importance has received relatively little attention. The objective of this brief Review article is to bring awareness about the importance of biofilms to animal health stakeholders.(Translated by the authors). PMID:24688172

  8. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  9. Public policy measures to support new technology-based firms in the European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Storey; B. S. Tether

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a review of public policy measures implemented in EU countries to support New Technology-Based Firms (NTBFs) during the 1980s and early 1990s. It identifies five policy areas and provides a synthesis of the policy developments during this period and an assessment of their effectiveness. The policy areas examined are: Science Parks; the Supply of PhDs in Science

  10. Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time and regained its popularity after Sept 2001 incidence in United States. The present review article describes the history, biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology and potential of B. anthracis as biological weapon. PMID:25610847

  11. Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-16

    Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time and regained its popularity after Sept 2001 incidence in United States. The present review article describes the history, biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology and potential of B. anthracis as biological weapon. PMID:25610847

  12. Virology Experts in the Boundary Zone Between Science, Policy and the Public: A Biographical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to open up the biographical black box of three experts working in the boundary zone between science, policy and public debate. A biographical-narrative approach is used to analyse the roles played by the virologists Albert Osterhaus, Roel Coutinho and Jaap Goudsmit in policy and public debate. These figures were among the few leading virologists visibly active in the Netherlands during the revival of infectious diseases in the 1980s. Osterhaus and Coutinho in particular are still the key figures today, as demonstrated during the outbreak of novel influenza A (H1N1). This article studies the various political and communicative challenges and dilemmas encountered by these three virologists, and discusses the way in which, strategically or not, they handled those challenges and dilemmas during the various stages of the field’s recent history. Important in this respect is their pursuit of a public role that is both effective and credible. We will conclude with a reflection on the H1N1 pandemic, and the historical and biographical ties between emerging governance arrangements and the experts involved in the development of such arrangements. PMID:20676213

  13. Public participation in environmental policy: considering scientific, counter-scientific and non-scientific contributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Eden

    1996-01-01

    Environmental policy depends for its success on public participation. However, the scientific construction of environmental issues often means that such participation in policy-making is difficult when the public is not considered scientifically 'expert'. Even if the notion of 'expertise' is broadened to deal with this problem, this does not ensure truly 'public'—i.e. lay—involvement, because lay ideas are still not included

  14. Using public policy to improve outcomes for asthmatic children in schools.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Jewlya; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Zimmer, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    School-based services to improve asthma management need to be accompanied by public policies that can help sustain services, scale effective interventions, create greater equity across schools, and improve outcomes for children. Several national organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, have recommended specific public policies the adoption of which in school settings can improve asthma outcomes for children. Although many states and school districts have adopted some of these policies, adoption is not universal, and implementation is not always successful, leaving inequities in children's access to asthma services and supports. These issues can be addressed by changing public policy. Policy change is a complex process, but it is one that will benefit from greater involvement by asthma experts, including the researchers who generate the knowledge base on what services, supports, and policies have the best outcomes for children. Asthma experts can participate in the policy process by helping to build awareness of the need for school-based asthma policy, estimating the costs associated with policy options and with inaction, advocating for the selection of specific policies, assisting in implementation (including providing feedback), conducting the research that can evaluate the effectiveness of implementation, and ultimately providing information back into the policy process to allow for improvements to the policies. PMID:25482868

  15. 24 CFR 964.320 - HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of public housing residents. 964.320 Section 964... HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of public housing residents. In accordance with...

  16. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.

    PubMed

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences. PMID:24187065

  17. Public Perception of Prenatal Genetic Testing: Arguments Put forward by the Public during a Participatory Policy Project in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tjard de Cock Buning; Jacqueline E. W. Broerse; Joske F. G. Bunders

    2008-01-01

    In early 2002, the Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sport piloted the application of an interactive process to policy development in the field of medical biotechnology. In such an approach, relevant societal actors, including the public at large, are actively involved in an open exchange, planning, action and reflection process. This paper reports on the findings of one

  18. Extension Publication Policies and Direction 1. All official publications from Extension Entomology should be made available electronically

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    should be made available electronically and maintained at the Texas Cooperative Extension Bookstore webExtension Publication Policies and Direction 1. All official publications from Extension Entomology for that purpose are available. Printing priority with project group funds will be determined by the Extension

  19. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of institutional commitment to energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy resources, colleges and universities must focus public and professional attention on the imperative for action and the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and countering global warming.

  20. Cigarette smoking in China: public health, science, and policy.

    PubMed

    Au, William W; Su, Daisy; Yuan, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, cigarette smoking is a habit that causes serious health, economic, and social problems. Therefore, many countries have taken an active role to control and to ban smoking. The chronic smoking problem in China is particularly acute because China has the largest population of smokers in the world, over 300 million currently. If 30% of these smokers were to die of smoke-related diseases in the next 20 years, the impact from the more than 90 million premature deaths could be damaging to China. In addition, numerous non-smokers also experience health problems from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. China's efforts to reduce or to ban smoking in certain public places have not been well-coordinated or enforced compared with those in other countries. Therefore, success has been minimal. Consequently, leaders in China should not be complacent about combating the serious national health problem. A multiprong approach in combination with the MPOWER policy from the World Health Organization that targets different levels of acquisition of the smoking habit must be used. Examples may include the government's reduced reliance on profits from the sale of cigarettes, the elimination of advertisements that encourage smoking among young individuals, the presentation of more graphic illustration of harmful effects from smoking on every pack of cigarettes, higher taxes/prices on cigarettes, and the implementation of enforceable bans on smoking in public places. As shown in other countries, such coordinated effort can be highly effective in the reduction of smoking and can have healthy consequences. PMID:22755266

  1. Do health policy advisors know what the public wants? An empirical comparison of how health policy advisors assess public preferences regarding smoke-free air, and what the public actually prefers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health policy-making, a complex, multi-factorial process, requires balancing conflicting values. A salient issue is public support for policies; however, one reason for limited impact of public opinion may be misperceptions of policy makers regarding public opinion. For example, empirical research is scarce on perceptions of policy makers regarding public opinion on smoke-free public spaces. Methods Public desire for smoke-free air was compared with health policy advisor (HPA) perception of these desires. Two representative studies were conducted: one with the public (N = 505), and the other with a representative sample of members of Israel’s health-targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020 (N = 34), in December 2010. Corresponding questions regarding desire for smoke-free areas were asked. Possible smoke-free areas included: 100% smoke-free bars and pubs; entrances to health facilities; railway platforms; cars with children; college campuses; outdoor areas (e.g., pools and beaches); and common areas of multi-dweller apartment buildings. A 1–7 Likert scale was used for each measure, and responses were averaged into a single primary outcome, DESIRE. Our primary endpoint was the comparison between public preferences and HPA assessment of those preferences. In a secondary analysis, we compared personal preferences of the public with personal preferences of the HPAs for smoke-free air. Results HPAs underestimated public desire for smoke-free air (Public: Mean: 5.06, 95% CI:[4.94, 5.17]; HPA: Mean: 4.06, 95% CI:[3.61, 4.52]: p < .0001). Differences at the p = .05 level were found between HPA assessment and public preference for the following areas: 100% smoke-free bars and pubs; entrances to healthcare facilities; train platforms; cars carrying children; and common areas of multi-dweller apartment buildings. In our secondary comparison, HPAs more strongly preferred smoke-free areas than did the public (p < .0001). Conclusions Health policy advisors underestimate public desire for smoke-free air. Better grasp of public opinion by policy makers may lead to stronger legislation. Monitoring policy-maker assessment of public opinion may shed light on incongruities between policy making and public opinion. Further, awareness of policy-maker misperceptions may encourage policy-makers to demand more accurate information before making policy. PMID:23692687

  2. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy. PMID:21624915

  3. Altruism, blood donation and public policy: a reply to Keown.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, H V

    1999-01-01

    This is a continuation of and a development of a debate between John Keown and me. The issue discussed is whether, in Britain, an unpaid system of blood donation promotes and is justified by its promotion of altruism. Doubt is cast on the notions that public policies can, and, if they can, that they should, be aimed at the promotion and expression of altruism rather than of self-interest, especially that of a mercenary sort. Reflections upon President Kennedy's proposition, introduced into the debate by Keown, that we should ask not what our country can do for us but what we can do for our country is pivotal to this casting of doubt. A case is made for suggesting that advocacy along the lines which Keown presents of an exclusive reliance on a voluntary, unpaid system of blood donation encourages inappropriate attitudes towards the provision of health care. Perhaps, it is suggested, and the suggestion represents, on my part, a change of mind as a consequence of the debate, a dual system of blood provision might be preferable. PMID:10635510

  4. ["Debris" public policies and exclusion. Their effects on subjective constitution].

    PubMed

    Perugino, Aída

    2013-01-01

    The following paper formulates a critical and conceptual analysis based on a territorial experience. It is enshrined in the field of mental health, understood as the collection of practices and problems aiming at addressing subjectivity, that is, they are inseparable from social and health practices. Some of the causes and effects of exclusion in subjective constitution become problems when institutional, group, community and individual interventions -always of a singular nature- take place. The existing relationship between public policies and population appears in the very core of an intervention or consultation; we, as professionals, are a part of it. People living in conditions of poverty often feel alien to traditional healthcare settings and they end up excluding such facilities from their resources. We will work on childhood and adolescence, as they are constituent stages in history, and the ways in which such history develops in situations with social exclusion. Some of such ways are paco (cocaine paste), violence, conflict with the law or ignorance of it. These are singular ways, but they involve a common and recurring mark related to rejection, neglect and subjective de-structuring. This is what I will refer to as debris hereafter. Lastly, the reconstruction of a Social Other and an approach based on the bond will be emphasized. This will also allow for a social bond, and the building of a care mechanism, which through transference may accommodate an individual who could make certain requests. PMID:24151669

  5. A comparison of public policies for lead recycling

    E-print Network

    Sigman, Hilary

    1992-01-01

    Policies that encourage recycling may be used to reduce environmental costs from waste disposal when direct restrictions on disposal are difficult to enforce. Four recycling policies have been advanced: (i) taxes on the ...

  6. Federal policy on criminal offenders who have substance use disorders: how can we maximize public health and public safety?

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The Obama Administration is striving to promote both public health and public safety by improving the public policy response to criminal offenders who have substance use disorders. This includes supporting drug courts, evidence-based probation and parole programs, addiction treatment and re-entry programs. Scientists and clinicians in the addiction field have a critical role to play in this much-needed effort to break the cycle of addiction, crime and incarceration. PMID:22263708

  7. Reshaping public space? Devolution and policy change in British early childhood education and care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Wincott

    2005-01-01

    Devolution has reshaped the ‘public space(s)’ within which policy is made in the UK, but with sometimes unexpected and paradoxical results. Focusing on the case of early childhood education and care provision, which has experienced a remarkable expansion in provision across the UK in recent years, this article analyses the impact of devolution on public policymaking. The ‘public space’ concept

  8. Taxation with Representation?Examining Public Fiscal Support for Diverse Correctional Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Mancini; Kelle Barrick; Julia DiPonio; Marc Gertz

    2010-01-01

    Few criminological studies have investigated what factors influence the public’s fiscal support for correctional policies. This study addresses this gap by exploring public support for increasing taxes to fund five diverse correctional measures—inmate education, drug treatment for inmates, psychiatric care for mentally ill prisoners, child counseling for inmates’ children, and the building of new prisons. Findings suggest that citizen dissatisfaction

  9. Energy Policy 35 (2007) 15841598 Public opinion about large offshore wind power: Underlying factors

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Energy Policy 35 (2007) 1584­1598 Public opinion about large offshore wind power: Underlying opinion regarding offshore wind power based on a survey of residents near a proposed development off Cape reserved. Keywords: Wind power; Public opinion; Climate change 1. Introduction Public opposition has

  10. The public opinion–foreign policy paradox in Germany: integrating domestic and international levels of analysis conditionally

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Davis

    2012-01-01

    Does public opinion influence foreign policy? International relations theory is divided on whether foreign policy outputs follow public opinion in advanced democratic countries. Using the case of cold war and post-cold war Germany, I offer an integrated realist theory of the effect of public opinion on foreign policy. I test the theory and the generalizability of the hypothesis of a

  11. Equity in public health standards: a qualitative document analysis of policies from two Canadian provinces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Promoting health equity is a key goal of many public health systems. However, little is known about how equity is conceptualized in such systems, particularly as standards of public health practice are established. As part of a larger study examining the renewal of public health in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and British Columbia (BC), we undertook an analysis of relevant public health documents related to equity. The aim of this paper is to discuss how equity is considered within documents that outline standards for public health. Methods A research team consisting of policymakers and academics identified key documents related to the public health renewal process in each province. The documents were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to identify key themes related to the conceptualization and integration of health equity as part of public health renewal in Ontario and BC. Documents were coded inductively with higher levels of abstraction achieved through multiple readings. Sets of questions were developed to guide the analysis throughout the process. Results In both sets of provincial documents health inequities were defined in a similar fashion, as the consequence of unfair or unjust structural conditions. Reducing health inequities was an explicit goal of the public health renewal process. In Ontario, addressing “priority populations” was used as a proxy term for health equity and the focus was on existing programs. In BC, the incorporation of an equity lens enhanced the identification of health inequities, with a particular emphasis on the social determinants of health. In both, priority was given to reducing barriers to public health services and to forming partnerships with other sectors to reduce health inequities. Limits to the accountability of public health to reduce health inequities were identified in both provinces. Conclusion This study contributes to understanding how health equity is conceptualized and incorporated into standards for local public health. As reflected in their policies, both provinces have embraced the importance of reducing health inequities. Both concepualized this process as rooted in structural injustices and the social determinants of health. Differences in the conceptualization of health equity likely reflect contextual influences on the public health renewal processes in each jurisdiction. PMID:22632097

  12. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  13. Science Under Attack! Public Policy, Science Education, and the Emperor's New Clothes

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Lawrence (Case Western Reserve University) [Case Western Reserve University

    2005-12-05

    The popular debate about the teaching of intelligent design in public schools is but one quandary for scientists and policy makers. Given recent developments which have worked to breed a general distrust of science, it is evident that researchers and politicians alike should be wary of using popular opinion as a guide for policy and pedagogy when it comes to science in public education. Dr. Krauss will qualify this complex issue and will address how educators, policy makers and scientists can work effectively to prevent public misconceptions of science.

  14. Policy Analysis of Supply Chains for Asia USA Containerized Imports Robert C. Leachman and Evan T. Davidson

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 Policy Analysis of Supply Chains for Asia ­ USA Containerized Imports Robert C. Leachman and Evan supply chain of a large importer distributing retail goods nation-wide, leading to our first policy to adopt a portfolio of supply chain strategies corresponding to the importer's portfolio of imported goods

  15. Post-war smoking policy in the UK and the redefinition of public health.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Virginia

    2003-01-01

    Current analyses of UK smoking policy within two frameworks--the 'heroes and villains' view of journalist accounts and a political science emphasis on rival 'producer' and 'issue' networks in policy making. It is often assumed that the US experience provides a universal historical model. This paper sees smoking policy in the UK as a case study in the relationship between 'scientific fact creation' and policy, which has also been emblematic of wider changes in public health ideology. The issue of smoking and lung cancer symbolized the post-war shift from infectious to chronic disease and the rise of a new 'lifestyle'-oriented public health. In the 1980s passive smoking brought a revival of environmentalism; in the 1990s the rediscovered concept of addiction symbolized developments in public health in which curative and preventive initiatives were entwined. Despite the rise of a militant 'healthism' within both anti-smoking and public health since the 1970s, British policy retained a dual focus, an emphasis on risk reduction as well as risk elimination in which policy networks were entwined rather than distinct. Some public health scientists worked in policy milieux, notably the expert committee, which crossed this apparent divide and which linked with industry. Connections between government and industry changed as public health 'treatment' brought the pharmaceutical industry into the picture. PMID:12688300

  16. Developing an Evidence Base for Policies and Interventions to Address Health Inequalities: The Analysis of “Public Health Regimes”

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, Sheena; Halliday, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Systematic reviews have become an important methodology in the United Kingdom by which research informs health policy, and their use now extends beyond evidence-based medicine to evidence-based public health and, particularly, health inequalities policies. This article reviews the limitations of systematic reviews as stand-alone tools for this purpose and suggests a complementary approach to make better use of the evidence. That is, systematic reviews and other sources of evidence should be incorporated into a wider analytical framework, the public health regime (defined here as the specific legislative, social, political, and economic structures that have an impact on both public health and the appropriateness and effectiveness of public health interventions adopted). At the national level this approach would facilitate analysis at all levels of the policy framework, countering the current focus on individual interventions. It could also differentiate at the international level between those policies and interventions that are effective in different contexts and are therefore potentially generalizable and those that depend on particular conditions for success. PMID:16953811

  17. Against the Very Idea of the Politicization of Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    I criticize the concern over the politicization of public health policy as a justification for preferring a narrow to a broad model of public health. My critique proceeds along 2 lines. First, the fact that administrative structures and actors are primary sources of public health policy demonstrates its inescapably political and politicized nature. Second, historical evidence shows that public health in Great Britain and the United States has from its very inception been political and politicized. I conclude by noting legitimate ethical concerns regarding the political nature of public health policy and argue that open deliberation in a democratic social order is best served by acknowledging the constraints of the inescapably politicized process of public health policymaking. PMID:22095345

  18. University of Connecticut Health Center Policy for Transporting, Shipping, Importing / Exporting Hazardous Materials

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    University of Connecticut Health Center Policy for Transporting, Shipping, Importing / Exporting classified as "hazardous materials" by the U.S. Department of Transportation and/or the State of Connecticut be transported in approved containers and in compliance with all transportation regulations. Hazardous materials

  19. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics AGENCY: Centers for...and practice environment in public health genomics. HHS/CDC is currently...assess the most important steps for public health genomics in the next five...

  20. Social Impact Management Plans: Innovation in corporate and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, Daniel M., E-mail: d.franks@uq.edu.au [Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining, The University of Queensland, Sustainable Minerals Institute, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, The University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, The University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has traditionally been practiced as a predictive study for the regulatory approval of major projects, however, in recent years the drivers and domain of focus for SIA have shifted. This paper details the emergence of Social Impact Management Plans (SIMPs) and undertakes an analysis of innovations in corporate and public policy that have put in place ongoing processes – assessment, management and monitoring – to better identify the nature and scope of the social impacts that might occur during implementation and to proactively respond to change across the lifecycle of developments. Four leading practice examples are analyzed. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards require the preparation of Environmental and Social Management Plans for all projects financed by the IFC identified as having significant environmental and social risks. Anglo American, a major resources company, has introduced a Socio-Economic Assessment Toolbox, which requires mine sites to undertake regular assessments and link these assessments with their internal management systems, monitoring activities and a Social Management Plan. In South Africa, Social and Labour Plans are submitted with an application for a mining or production right. In Queensland, Australia, Social Impact Management Plans were developed as part of an Environmental Impact Statement, which included assessment of social impacts. Collectively these initiatives, and others, are a practical realization of theoretical conceptions of SIA that include management and monitoring as core components of SIA. The paper concludes with an analysis of the implications for the practice of impact assessment including a summary of key criteria for the design and implementation of effective SIMPs. -- Highlights: • Social impact management plans are effective strategies to manage social issues. • They are developed in partnership with regulatory agencies, investors and community. • SIMPs link assessment to ongoing management and address social and community issues. • SIMPs clarify responsibilities in the management of impacts, opportunities and risks. • SIMPs demonstrate a shift to include management as a core component of SIA practice.

  1. Obesity, health at every size, and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Bombak, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic diseases that may negatively affect individuals' health and the sustainability of the health care system. Despite increasing emphasis on obesity as a major health care issue, little progress has been made in its treatment or prevention. Individual approaches to obesity treatment, largely composed of weight-loss dieting, have not proven effective. Little direct evidence supports the notion of reforms to the "obesogenic environment." Both these individualistic and environmental approaches to obesity have important limitations and ethical implications. The low levels of success associated with these approaches may necessitate a new non-weight-centric public health strategy. Evidence is accumulating that a weight-neutral, nutrition- and physical activity-based, Health at Every Size (HAES) approach may be a promising chronic disease-prevention strategy. PMID:24328657

  2. Policy options for alcohol price regulation: the importance of modelling population heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Meier, Petra Sylvia; Purshouse, Robin; Brennan, Alan

    2010-03-01

    Context and aims Internationally, the repertoire of alcohol pricing policies has expanded to include targeted taxation, inflation-linked taxation, taxation based on alcohol-by-volume (ABV), minimum pricing policies (general or targeted), bans of below-cost selling and restricting price-based promotions. Policy makers clearly need to consider how options compare in reducing harms at the population level, but are also required to demonstrate proportionality of their actions, which necessitates a detailed understanding of policy effects on different population subgroups. This paper presents selected findings from a policy appraisal for the UK government and discusses the importance of accounting for population heterogeneity in such analyses. Method We have built a causal, deterministic, epidemiological model which takes account of differential preferences by population subgroups defined by age, gender and level of drinking (moderate, hazardous, harmful). We consider purchasing preferences in terms of the types and volumes of alcoholic beverages, prices paid and the balance between bars, clubs and restaurants as opposed to supermarkets and off-licenses. Results Age, sex and level of drinking fundamentally affect beverage preferences, drinking location, prices paid, price sensitivity and tendency to substitute for other beverage types. Pricing policies vary in their impact on different product types, price points and venues, thus having distinctly different effects on subgroups. Because population subgroups also have substantially different risk profiles for harms, policies are differentially effective in reducing health, crime, work-place absence and unemployment harms. Conclusion Policy appraisals must account for population heterogeneity and complexity if resulting interventions are to be well considered, proportionate, effective and cost-effective. PMID:19839965

  3. Paradigms and public policies on drought in northeast Brazil: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Campos, José Nilson B

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the evolution of drought-related public policies in Northeast Brazil (NEB). Using a historical approach, we show that the evolution of public policy has not been characterized by abrupt shifts, but has instead been shaped through debates between renowned intellectuals. The resulting public policies formed a hydrological infrastructure that delivers clean water needed for robust economic activity. However, outcomes of the 2012-2013 drought show that populations that depend on rain fed agriculture are as vulnerable to drought as they were at the start of the 20th century. Although government, social, and emergency programs have aided drought victims, drought analysts agree that rain fed agriculture has remained vulnerable since drought policies were first formulated. Drought policies formulate integrated water resources management (IWRM) strategies that are geared toward supplying safe drinking water, and debates surrounding the IWRM paradigm have been affected by outcomes of major international events such as the World Water Forum. PMID:25604214

  4. Public opinion and policymaking in the states: the case of post-Roe abortion policy.

    PubMed

    Norrander, B; Wilcox, C

    1999-01-01

    Whether public opinion should be expected to play a role in the shaping of abortion legislation in the states is a debatable question. Representation is a difficult task, especially if legislators receive mixed cues from the public, activists, and the political parties. In this study, we find that grass-roots activism and public opinion tend to match, and both are reflected in state abortion policy. In addition, more Pro-Life policies are found in states with a tradition of conservative policies in other areas, Republican majorities in the state legislature, more Catholic residents, and fewer women legislators. These patterns hold true for a composite index of abortion policies and for the specific policy area of government funding of abortions. Slightly different patterns occur for parental consent law, though these statutes also tend to reflect general preferences on abortion and interest group activity in a state. PMID:16211767

  5. 78 FR 45996 - Connected Vehicle Planning and Policy Stakeholder Meeting; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Connected Vehicle Planning and Policy Stakeholder Meeting; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: ITS Joint Program...later than Wednesday, September 4, 2013 with your name and a business email address to Elizabeth Machek of the Research and...

  6. Dollars, lobbying, and secrecy: how campaign contributions and lobbying affect public policy.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Whitney North; Seymour, Gabriel North

    2013-01-01

    Public policy is too often determined not by the merits of the case but, rather, by individuals, corporations, and even countries who buy influence and alter public policy for the benefit of only a few. As a wrap-up for this conference on "Corporate Interference with Science and Health: Fracking, Food and Wireless," it is our intent to provide a personal story of how money can buy favors and determine policies that are often counter to the public interest and can even lead to failure to protect the health of the public. Given our background in law specific to the US, the basis of our evidence comes from legal rulings as well as legislative actions that have had an impact on policies in the US. While the specifics of governments vary, related activities surrounding money, lobbying, who knows who, and how decisions are made in secret to benefit a few are events that occur everywhere. PMID:24413211

  7. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 7 - USAID's Academic Publication Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...to Chapter 7—USAID's Academic Publication Policy 1. Statement...developed under contracts with academic institutions. 2. Underlying...rule, will not require an academic institution to obtain permission...and the manner and place of performance, that the written...

  8. Deceptive nature of Dial-a-Porn commercials and public policy alternatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaheen Borna; Joseph Chapman; Dennis Menezes

    1993-01-01

    This research investigates consumers' perceptions of claims made in Dial-a-Porn commercials. The empirical findings support the view that some of the claims are deceptive. Based on research findings, preliminary public policy guidelines are suggested.

  9. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 7 - USAID's Academic Publication Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false USAID's Academic Publication Policy I Appendix I to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Ch. 7, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 7—USAID's Academic...

  10. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 7 - USAID's Academic Publication Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false USAID's Academic Publication Policy I Appendix I to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Ch. 7, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 7—USAID's Academic...

  11. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 7 - USAID's Academic Publication Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false USAID's Academic Publication Policy I Appendix I to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Ch. 7, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 7—USAID's Academic...

  12. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 7 - USAID's Academic Publication Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false USAID's Academic Publication Policy I Appendix I to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Ch. 7, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 7—USAID's Academic...

  13. THE ROCKEFELLER CENTER FOR PUBLIC POLICY & THE SOCIAL SCICNCES AT DARTMOUTH

    E-print Network

    Lotko, William

    to develop my own definition of leadership through discussions with influential individuals and peersTHE ROCKEFELLER CENTER FOR PUBLIC POLICY & THE SOCIAL SCICNCES AT DARTMOUTH Leadership Social Marketing for Leaders Facilitative Leadership: Blending Individual Styles to Achieve Common Goals

  14. Technology: Enabling Healthcare Microsoft and Health IT Public Policy and Healthcare Likeotherbreakthroughsinmedicineoverthelastfewhundredyears,breakthroughsintechnology

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Technology: Enabling Healthcare Microsoft and Health IT Public Policy and Healthcare Likeotherbreakthroughsinmedicineoverthelastfewhundredyears,breakthroughsintechnology have the potential to revolutionize healthcare. Advances in genomics of healthcare costs. Specifically, these technology advances will: · Offer healthcare professionals the data

  15. Public perception of sex offender social policies and the impact on sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Stacey Katz; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2009-12-01

    This study examines the public perception of sex offender policies and the perceived impact of sex offender policies on the sex offenders themselves. Specifically, this study explores how the community feels about the effectiveness of policies such as registration and community notification (Megan's Law), and housing restrictions in reducing sexual recidivism. Data are collected from 115 participants from a nationwide online community message board. Results suggest that although most individuals support Megan's Law, they do not feel the policy reduces recidivism. Furthermore, the majority of the participants also do not believe that housing restriction statutes are effective in reducing sexual recidivism. When questioned about the policy impact on sex offenders, the majority of respondents agree that as a consequence of Megan's Law, sex offenders are afraid for their safety; however, they do not believe that residence restrictions hinder sex offenders' employment opportunities. Findings from this study are discussed as they pertain to public policy and sex offender reintegration. PMID:18728128

  16. Integrating Psychotherapy Research with Public Health and Public Policy Goals for Incarcerated Women and other Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I review my research applying interpersonal treatments and interpersonal principles from psychotherapy for major depression and substance use to broader public health goals for incarcerated women and other vulnerable populations. A public health focus has led me to expand the boundaries of psychotherapy research to include partners such as prisons, parole officers, and bachelor's level providers; behaviors like risky sex; service delivery challenges; and ultimately to research with an eye toward informing policy and advocacy. A public health perspective provides context and rationale for conducting sound psychotherapy research; the combination of public health and psychotherapy-specific perspectives can lead to novel research. PMID:24188727

  17. [Health Inequalities and Cost-Effectiveness: What do Important Health Policy Actors say about this Potential Conflict Situation?].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, M; Mielck, A

    2015-02-01

    The German statutory health-care system is based on the principle of solidarity and thus it is committed to the objective of 'equal chances'. From an economic perspective it is also important to emphasise that scarcity of resources continuously pushes the services towards cost control and towards increasing cost-effect-iveness. There could be conflicts between the 2 objectives 'equal chances' and 'cost-effectiveness', of course, for example if measures for increasing cost-effectiveness lead to increased financial burdens of the insured. To date it has not been studied if and how this potential conflict is discussed in Germany.In a first step we searched for German publications discussing this potential conflict focusing on 3 major public health journals (Das Gesundheitswesen, Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Ethik in der Medizin) and on the internet portal "gerechte-gesundheit.de". For the main part of the paper, we looked for publications from 4 major health policy actors (Bundesärztekammer, Zentrale Ethikkommission bei der Bundesärztekammer, Deutscher Ethikrat, Sachverständigenrat zur Begutachtung der Entwicklung im Gesundheitswesen). All papers published since the year 2000 were included in the system-atic qualitative analysis.The analyses show that the potential conflict between 'equal chances' and 'cost-effectiveness' is rarely discussed in any detail, at most in an implicit way. It would be important, though, to have an explicit discussion, supported by scientifically based analyses and recommendations. One step towards this objective could be, for example, a closer cooperation between social-epidemiologists and health--economists. PMID:24918869

  18. An approach to developing the market for space shuttle payloads: Business/public policy issues and international marketing considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, W. A. W.

    1974-01-01

    The business and public policies were assessed that were determined to be important for NASA to consider in the design of a program for stimulating use of the space transportation system (STS) among potential users in the U.S. private sector and in foreign countries, in preparation for operations of the space shuttle in the early 1980's. Salient factors related to international cooperation in space are identified for special consideration in the development of user potential of the STS.

  19. Inequities in the freedom to lead a flourishing and healthy life: issues for healthy public policy

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons for the health inequities that we see around the world today. Public policy and the way society organises its affairs affects the economic, social and physical factors that influence the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age - the social determinants of health. Tackling health inequities is a political issue that requires leadership, political courage, progressive public policy, social struggle and action, and a sound evidence base. PMID:25279377

  20. TIMOTHY PATRICK McCARTHY Lecturer on History and Literature and on Public Policy

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    , and Radicalism Slavery and Abolition in the Modern World Race, Gender, and Sexuality Studies CommunicationsTIMOTHY PATRICK McCARTHY Lecturer on History and Literature and on Public Policy Director, Sexuality, Gender, and Human Rights Program Carr Center for Human Rights Policy | Harvard Kennedy School 79

  1. Education, Training and Youth Affairs--Issues and Public Policy Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedgwick, Steve

    Education and training in Australia represent a significant sector of the economy, comprising some 7 percent of the Gross Domestic Product. Public policy is fashioned to support three main sectors: schools, vocational education and training, and higher education. The mix of Commonwealth policy across these sectors is determined by distribution of…

  2. Wake Up the Nation: Public Libraries, Policy Making, and Political Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; Gorham, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Public libraries are heavily affected by political and policy-making processes that shape the funding, activities, and roles of libraries in society, with the explosion of information policy decisions in the past two decades significantly increasing the responsibilities of libraries while also increasing limitations on their activities. Research…

  3. Commissioning the University of Excellence: Swedish Research Policy and New Public Research Funding Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallonsten, Olof; Silander, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, current research policy is dominated by managerialism and excellence, manifesting the aim of making universities into national strategic assets in the globally competitive knowledge economy. This article discusses these policy trends and their mirror in recent developments in public funding for academic research, with special…

  4. Nuclear energy: the accuracy of policy makers' perceptions of public beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry Thomas; Elisabeth Swaton; Martin Fishbein; Harry J. Otway

    1980-01-01

    The policy makers' attitudes were found to be significantly more favorable than those of the total public sample. The policy makers were able to shift their own (personal) responses in the directions indicated by their role-play assignments to reproduce accurately the overall attitudes of the PRO and CON groups on this controversial topic, although there was a tendency to overestimate

  5. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 9, Number 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) "Informing Adolescent Literacy Policy and Practice": Alliance Brief Offers Lessons Learned from Federal Efforts to Improve…

  6. Stories of (social) distress: Applied narrative analysis and public policy for the homeless

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven L. VanderStaay

    1994-01-01

    Recent attention to the use of social science research in the formation of social policy highlights the role of narratives in the mediation of the relationships between research and practice, science and policy. This paper demonstrates the value of applied narrative analysis in revealing the function of narratives in this mediation. Public debate over a universal “right to shelter” for

  7. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 9, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Senate Committee Passes Education Appropriations Bill; (2) Upside Down: New Alliance Brief Says Federal Education Policy Needs…

  8. Teacher Quality Roadmap: Improving Policies and Practices in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In partnership with the Urban League of Greater Miami, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) released "Teacher Quality Roadmap: Improving Policies and Practices in Miami," an in-depth study of the work rules Miami-Dade teachers. This look at the state of teacher policies in Miami-Dade County Public Schools explores the district's contract…

  9. PUBLIC SCHOOL SUBSTANCE ABUSE POLICIES: ENDORSEMENT-EXECUTION PROFILES AS MEASURES OF EFFICACY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cable P. Starlings; David M. Paschane; Dennis G. Fisher

    Substance abuse among students is a serious problem, and administrative interven- tions are limited to the guidelines included within school policies. To better under- stand the status of such guidelines, school district superintendents were provided a self-administered questionnaire regarding the content of district policies. The ques- tionnaire was delivered to all 50 Alaska public school district superintendents. Clus- ter analysis

  10. The Public Controversy Over the Panama Canal Treaties: An Analysis of American Foreign Policy Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties. Examines three foreign policy dramas that emerged: Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics. Argues that these dramas provide insight into how foreign policy rhetoric reflects Americans' conceptions of themselves and their global responsibility. (JD)

  11. Linking Transnational Logics: A Feminist Rhetorical Analysis of Public Policy Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingo, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the circulation and appropriation of representations of women in public policy. The author effectively mobilizes the metaphor of the network to examine the discursive intersections and transnational links between U.S. welfare programs and the World Bank gender mainstreaming policies. Her analysis reveals…

  12. Legislating Unequal Treatment: An Exploration of Public Policy on Same-Sex Marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill M. Chonody; Kenneth Scott Smith; Melanie A. Litle

    2012-01-01

    Social policy surrounding same-sex marriage has resulted in subsequent changes to public policy. Over the past 15 years, increased discussion surrounding the issue has emerged, inciting the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and the proposed Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA). It is particularly salient for social workers to keep abreast of legislation that is impacting vulnerable and disenfranchised populations. Since the

  13. A Functional Analysis of the Evolution of Public Policy for Handicapped Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.

    1985-01-01

    Major changes in Massachusetts public policy governing early intervention programs for very young disabled children were described. The process of policy change and formation was analyzed by focusing on the principal catalysts for change. Factors were examined in terms of issue definition, proposal formulation, support mobilization, and decision…

  14. Use of the Means/Ends Test to Evaluate Public School Dress-Code Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.; Studak, Cathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain how a means/ends test can be adapted for the school environment. Public school officials can use a means/ends test to document an analysis of whether dress-code policies will be effective in diminishing risks to the health, safety, or morality of the school population. Elements of policy evaluation--ends,…

  15. Dress Codes Blues: An Exploration of Urban Students' Reactions to a Public High School Uniform Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaCosta, Kneia

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explores the responses of 22 U.S. urban public high school students when confronted with their newly imposed school uniform policy. Specifically, the study assessed students' appraisals of the policy along with compliance and academic performance. Guided by ecological human development perspectives and grounded in…

  16. Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #04-12 June 2004 Why did the Welfare Caseload Decline? Caroline Danielson, Welfare Policy at the National Poverty Center Working Paper Series index at: http

  17. Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University Of Michigan National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #03-10 Third revision, May 2004 The Disparate Labor Market Impacts of Monetary Policy Seth, The State University of New Jersey, John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development National Poverty

  18. Texas Public School Nutrition Policy Changes Sources of Middle School Student Food Choices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the impact of school food policy changes on student intake. This study assessed changes in student intake by food source after the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was implemented. Anonymous lunch food records, with food source identified, were collected from students ...

  19. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy: Laurence Steinberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Laurence Steinberg, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, is cited for his extraordinary impact on policy in juvenile justice and child labor and on research into the role of parent and peer relationships in the development of children and adolescents. His groundbreaking research is marked by a…

  20. The importance of public health agency independence: Marcellus shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Bernard D

    2014-02-01

    Public health often deals with inconvenient truths. These are best communicated and acted on when public health agencies are independent of the organizations or individuals for whom the truths are inconvenient. The importance of public health independence is exemplified by the lack of involvement of the Pennsylvania Department of Health in responding to health concerns about shale gas drilling. Pennsylvania Department of Health involvement has been forestalled by the state governor, who has intensely supported shale gas development. PMID:24328620

  1. Canadian Provinces and Public Policies for University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing attention to sub-national regions in science and technology (S&T) policy. This paper examines the recent evolution of provincial S&T policies in the Canadian provinces, focusing on how they link university research to regional technological development. Drawing on multiple sources of data and evidence, this study identifies and…

  2. A Public Policy Perspective on English Medium Instruction in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; Alsagoff, Lubna

    2010-01-01

    Language education for ethnic majority and minority students alike has recently received much policy attention in the People's Republic of China. An outcome of this policy attention is the Chinese-English bilingual education initiative which turns on the use of English as a medium of instruction for Han majority students at the primary and…

  3. Institutional Policy Issues for Providing Public Internet Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Rosanne M.; Wootton, Nancy A.

    1996-01-01

    Considers policy formation for libraries providing Internet access to users. Topics include budget issues; staffing, including training; patron use, including time limits, downloading, and printing; library service and programs; legal issues, including intellectual freedom, copyright, and institutional liability; and sample policies available on…

  4. Developmental Psychology and Public Policy: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a framework for developmentally oriented policy research. Drawing from U. Bronfenbrenner's (1995) dynamic developmental systems theory, the authors suggest ways in which the key tenets of process, persons, context, and time can inform policy research in developmental psychology and can be used to support a causal…

  5. Comparative Research and Public Policy: From Authoritarianism to Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Jose Joaquin

    2005-01-01

    Latin America's tumultuous changes over the last 30 years have posed dramatic challenges for educational policy and practice. Today, almost everywhere there is the realization that education holds the key to contemporary development; however, academic achievement and greater equity involve a complex relation among policy, school structure, and…

  6. Evaluation of scientific criteria for identifying allergenic foods of public health importance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. M. van Bilsen; S. Ronsmans; R. W. R. Crevel; R. J. Rona; H. Przyrembel; A. H. Penninks; L. Contor; G. F. Houben

    2011-01-01

    Identification of allergenic foods of public health importance should be based on well-defined criteria. Björkstén et al. (2008) proposed that the criteria should assess the evidence for an IgE mechanism, the reaction, the potency and the severity of the effect of the food and its prevalence. This study evaluated the application of the proposed criteria based on published reports. Publications

  7. All creatures great and minute: a public policy primer for companion animal zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Reaser, J K; Clark, E E; Meyers, N M

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 63% of US households have at least one pet, a large percentage of which are considered family members. Pet owners can derive substantial physical and psychological benefits from interaction with companion animals. However, pet ownership is not without risks; zoonotic diseases are increasingly drawing the attention of healthcare professionals, policy makers and the general public. While zoonoses of 'traditional' pets are widely recognized and their prevention and treatment factors are generally known, the growing popularity of 'non-traditional' pets has the potential to facilitate human exposure to novel zoonoses. However, the greatest risk of zoonoses probably arises from animals taken directly from the wild to serve as pets. Non-governmental organizations, state veterinary associations and others have been calling for increased regulation of animal imports, some proposing that all 'exotics' be banned from the pet trade. Because zoonotic diseases of companion animals are influenced by interacting factors of ecological, technical, socio-economic, and political origin, efforts to minimize their impact need be multi-dimensional, simultaneously addressing both the ecological and socio-political drivers of disease emergence and transmission. This study is intended to serve as a primer for animal care professionals seeking to engage with policy makers and the pet industry on the prevention of companion animal zoonoses. We provide background on the human-animal bond, risks of zoonoses associated with groups of companion animals, and the public policy context, as well as identify the factors needed to build a comprehensive approach to companion animal zoonoses risk management. Also included are examples of innovative, non-regulatory initiatives designed to limit the spread and impact of companion animal zoonoses, including a reptile salmonella poster, the National Reptile Improvement Plan, Habitattitude campaign, Pet Zoonoses Committee, and a wildlife disease surveillance initiative known as Project TripWire. PMID:18399943

  8. Reasons and Public Policy Brian Zaharatos December 19, 2013

    E-print Network

    Public Schools in Illinois hosted a forum to present information about guns and public safety. During the New Trier Public Schools reasoned with the veteran as follows: when the second amendment of his time and culture, he did not consider enslaved Africans to be "men", this is no reason to believe

  9. Public policies, political cleavages and urban space: state infrastructure policies in Săo Paulo, Brazil, 1975-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Cesar Marques; Renata Mirandola Bichir

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the state policies of urban infrastructure in Săo Paulo, Brazil, from 1975 to 2000. Working with primary information about the investments made by the state in public works, we discuss a series of arguments present in the urban studies literature about the patterns of state investment in urban spaces and propose an alternative explanation for state

  10. Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher; Kristen C. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This paper provides a

  11. 38th TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY RESEARCH CONFERENCE, Oct. 2010 Policies for Public Safety Use of Commercial Wireless Networks*

    E-print Network

    Peha, Jon M.

    , Carnegie Mellon University, hallahan@cmu.edu, www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~rhallaha/ Jon M. Peha, Professor of Commercial Wireless Networks* Ryan Hallahan and Jon M. Peha Carnegie Mellon University Abstract Wireless of Electrical Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, peha@cmu.edu, www.ece.cmu.edu/~peha All

  12. Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratge, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…

  13. Application of Catastrophe Risk Modelling to Evacuation Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2009-04-01

    The decision by civic authorities to evacuate an area threatened by a natural hazard is especially fraught when the population in harm's way is extremely large, and where there is considerable uncertainty in the spatial footprint, scale, and strike time of a hazard event. Traditionally viewed as a hazard forecasting issue, civil authorities turn to scientists for advice on a potentially imminent dangerous event. However, the level of scientific confidence varies enormously from one peril and crisis situation to another. With superior observational data, meteorological and hydrological hazards are generally better forecast than geological hazards. But even with Atlantic hurricanes, the track and intensity of a hurricane can change significantly within a few hours. This complicated and delayed the decision to call an evacuation of New Orleans when threatened by Hurricane Katrina, and would present a severe dilemma if a major hurricane were appearing to head for New York. Evacuation needs to be perceived as a risk issue, requiring the expertise of catastrophe risk modellers as well as geoscientists. Faced with evidence of a great earthquake in the Indian Ocean in December 2004, seismologists were reluctant to give a tsunami warning without more direct sea observations. Yet, from a risk perspective, the risk to coastal populations would have warranted attempts at tsunami warning, even though there was significant uncertainty in the hazard forecast, and chance of a false alarm. A systematic coherent risk-based framework for evacuation decision-making exists, which weighs the advantages of an evacuation call against the disadvantages. Implicitly and qualitatively, such a cost-benefit analysis is undertaken by civic authorities whenever an evacuation is considered. With the progress in catastrophe risk modelling, such an analysis can be made explicit and quantitative, providing a transparent audit trail for the decision process. A stochastic event set, the core of a catastrophe risk model, is required to explore the casualty implications of different possible hazard scenarios, to assess the proportion of an evacuated population who would owe their lives to an evacuation, and to estimate the economic loss associated with an unnecessary evacuation. This paper will review the developing methodology for applying catastrophe risk modelling to support public policy in evacuation decision-making, and provide illustrations from across the range of natural hazards. Evacuation during volcanic crises is a prime example, recognizing the improving forecasting skill of volcanologists, now able to account probabilistically for precursory seismological, geodetic, and geochemical monitoring data. This methodology will be shown to help civic authorities make sounder risk-informed decisions on the timing and population segmentation of evacuation from both volcanoes and calderas, such as Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, which are in densely populated urban regions.

  14. Training's Policies: Public and Private Reinforcement for the American Economy. Final Report. The Impact of Public Policy on Education and Training in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Martin; Zemsky, Robert

    A study examined the impact of public policy on education and training in the private sector. During the study, the following research activities were completed: a statistical examination of the scope and nature of firm-supplied training, 20 case studies of the training supplied by large firms representing a diverse set of industries across the…

  15. The role of critical social analysis in public policy and administration: A service learning course application in race, inequality, and public policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Martin

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a course application in service learning and the use of critical social analysis as an instructional tool in teaching a masters program course in public policy and administration. The article initially sets out to identify the historical development of social analysis beginning in the Enlightenment and culminating in its application within critical theory. The formulation of critical

  16. Impacts of public timber harvest policies--October 25, 2000 Page 1 AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACTS OF PUBLIC TIMBER HARVEST POLICIES ON

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    and management of private land for timber production in the United States. We develop an intertemporal model of U from the six products less costs of timber management, log production and transportation plusImpacts of public timber harvest policies--October 25, 2000 Page 1 AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACTS

  17. Public Science and Participatory Policy Development: Reclaiming Policy as a Democratic Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle; Ayala, Jennifer; Zaal, Mayida

    2012-01-01

    People witness today in the US what might be considered a "generous hijacking" of educational policy. Policy debates on charters, vouchers, for profit schools, testing and evaluation companies, and "education reform" reveal a triple privatization of educational policy. Varied enactments of educational privatization dot the globe, linked in a…

  18. Asbestos in New York City public school buildings--public policy: is there a scientific basis?

    PubMed

    Wilson, R; Langer, A M; Nolan, R P; Gee, J B; Ross, M

    1994-10-01

    The most recent of New York City's asbestos emergencies occurred in the late summer of 1993. It prevented schools from opening that fall, precipitated much media excitement, and caused a flurry of widespread abatement activities. This resulted in large measure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's subjective school building inspection policy concerning identification of asbestos hazards in buildings and the subsequent Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act mandate for inspection. Data on concentrations of asbestos in the air, important for the calculation of risk to building occupants, were not required and therefore not obtained, as part of the abatement strategy or priority setting. Based on fiber-in-air measurements obtained elsewhere, the calculated risk to NYC school children, using the most pessimistic models, was less than six excess cancer deaths per million lifetimes equivalent to smoking less than a dozen cigarettes in a lifetime. The NYC administration responded to pressure from parent groups concerned with perceived asbestos risks to their children by closing the schools. The hysteria occurred because much of EPA's policy lacked a scientific basis for risk evaluation and assessment. PMID:7846303

  19. Forensic services, public mental health policy, and financing: charting the course ahead.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A

    2014-01-01

    High-quality forensic evaluations can be critical for criminal cases brought before the court. In addition, forensic practitioners and mental health and forensic administrators have increasingly taken a broader view of the revolving door between the mental health and criminal justice systems. More attention is now paid to why individuals with mental disorders, including co-occurring substance use, come into the criminal justice system and the challenges that they face on re-entry into the community. In particular, individuals who receive care across civil, forensic, and correctional systems are at especially increased risk of disrupted health care access and coverage. With health care reform on the horizon, it is important to understand public financing and its impact on forensic services for this crossover population. This article is a review of historical and future trends in public mental health funding focused on Medicaid and other federal resources, the movement toward community-based services, and the impact of these areas on forensic practice and forensic systems. Tensions between recovery principles and legal mandates are also addressed as community services are emphasized, even in forensic contexts. This article calls forensic practitioners to action and offers suggested areas of focus for training to increase knowledge of public mental health funding, policy, and practice from a forensic perspective. PMID:24618515

  20. Congestion pricing : policy dimensions, public rejection and impacts

    E-print Network

    Chingcuanco, Franco (Franco Felipe)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis makes three related contributions to the broad literature on congestion pricing. First, it examines three policy dimensions that underlie pricing: the economic arguments that motivate it, the technological ...

  1. Compensating wage differentials and public policy: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Smith

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the theory of compensating wage differentials associated with disagreeable job characteristics. Discussion of the theory of compensating wage differentials; Job characteristics viwed as disagreeable by the marginal worker; Policy implications. (Abstract copyright EBSCO.)

  2. Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef and soy supply chains.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Daniel; McGrath, David; Stickler, Claudia; Alencar, Ane; Azevedo, Andrea; Swette, Briana; Bezerra, Tathiana; DiGiano, Maria; Shimada, Joăo; Seroa da Motta, Ronaldo; Armijo, Eric; Castello, Leandro; Brando, Paulo; Hansen, Matt C; McGrath-Horn, Max; Carvalho, Oswaldo; Hess, Laura

    2014-06-01

    The recent 70% decline in deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon suggests that it is possible to manage the advance of a vast agricultural frontier. Enforcement of laws, interventions in soy and beef supply chains, restrictions on access to credit, and expansion of protected areas appear to have contributed to this decline, as did a decline in the demand for new deforestation. The supply chain interventions that fed into this deceleration are precariously dependent on corporate risk management, and public policies have relied excessively on punitive measures. Systems for delivering positive incentives for farmers to forgo deforestation have been designed but not fully implemented. Territorial approaches to deforestation have been effective and could consolidate progress in slowing deforestation while providing a framework for addressing other important dimensions of sustainable development. PMID:24904156

  3. [Contributions by food demand studies to the development of public policies in nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sarti, Flávia Mori; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2011-04-01

    Food choice in diet composition is a determinant of individual health status. Currently, there are gradually fewer conditions involving food scarcity and more involving excess food. Changes in income and relative prices generate measurable effects on the population's food intake patterns. Economic models have significant explanatory power for food demand, and the interactions between consumption, income, and prices are usually expressed as elasticity. However, the construction of some studies shows important shortcomings, especially for public policy application. This conceptual article discusses the potential contribution of food demand studies, suggesting improvements in the structural design of such studies with the inclusion of current nutritional concepts for redirecting the nutritional transition from under-nutrition to healthy eating, avoiding the present trend towards epidemic obesity. PMID:21603747

  4. THE GLOBAL "GO-TO THINK TANKS" The Leading Public Policy Research Organizations In The World

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    1 THE GLOBAL "GO-TO THINK TANKS" 2010 The Leading Public Policy Research Organizations In The World, publications and programs in one or more substantive areas of research. The Global Go To Think Tank Rankings TANKS BY REGION 28 TOP THINK TANKS BY RESEARCH AREA (GLOBAL) 35 SPECIAL CATEGORIES _ 41 APPENDICES 50

  5. Energy Policy 36 (2008) 2333 Change in public attitudes towards a Cornish wind farm

    E-print Network

    Energy Policy 36 (2008) 23­33 Viewpoint Change in public attitudes towards a Cornish wind farm independently conducted polls suggest significant public support for wind energy, there are often objections, this has seen the development of onshore wind energy to meet these targets (Strachan and Lal, 2004

  6. How to Reduce Property Taxes. Texas Trilogy on Public Education and Taxes. Policy Brief No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Dick

    2006-01-01

    This is the third in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing education and taxation. The first brief explained Texas' need to increase its investment in public education. The second brief explained how a Texas-style personal income tax is the best way both to adequately support public education and to reduce reliance on the property tax. That brief…

  7. PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY VS. COLONIAL LAISSEZ-FAIRE: STDs AND PROSTITUTION IN REPUBLICAN SHANGHAI

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY VS. COLONIAL LAISSEZ-FAIRE: STDs AND PROSTITUTION IN REPUBLICAN SHANGHAI present the general situation of prostitution and public health in China to avoid giving an unduly biased with the role of physicians among the population and the prostitutes. Coming to terms with STDs: Laissez-faire

  8. The Impact of Emerging Market-based Public Policy on Urban Schools and a Democratic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Lasley, Thomas J., II; Bainbridge, William L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of a market approach to school reform (charter schools and choice options), noting that public education should serve the public good. Discusses the move from democratic to market theory, describing losers and winners in market-driven schools. Suggests that most disadvantaged students will be forgotten if market-based policy

  9. Using Public Policy-Oriented Community-Based Research to Boost Both Community and Political Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, William J.

    The Leadership in Public Affairs program at the College of New Jersey has begun to implement a developmental model designed to increase the community and political engagement of students. The primary tool to achieve these ends is public policy-oriented, community-based research (CBR). To date, two courses and a student fellowship based on…

  10. From "Public Health" to "Safeguarding Children": British Health Visiting in Policy, Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckover, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the location of British health visiting in contemporary policy discourses concerned with public health and safeguarding children. It argues that professional identity and orientation can be understood through health visiting's long history of public health work with children and families, which has included an engagement…

  11. Lyndon B. Johnson School ofPublic Affairs Policy Research Project Report

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Lyndon B. Johnson School ofPublic Affairs Policy Research Project Report Number 114 The Texas Participants Project Directors Leigh B. Boske, Ph.D. Professor ofEconomics and Public Affairs Lyndon B. Johnson ofTexas at Austin Students Carol Kim, B.A. (Government), Pomona College Josh LaPort, B.A. (Journalism

  12. Lyndon B. Johnson School ofPublic Affairs Policy Research Project Report

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Lyndon B. Johnson School ofPublic Affairs Policy Research Project Report Number 113 U Directors Leigh B. Boske, Ph.D. Professor of Economics and Public Affairs Lyndon B. Johnson School of at Austin Students Steven W. Eichenauer, B.A. (History), University of Texas at Austin Yolanda Fang, B. S

  13. Vaccination Practices, Policies, and Management Factors Associated With High Vaccination Coverage Levels in Georgia Public Clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vance J. Dietz; Andrew L. Baughman; Eugene F. Dini; John M. Stevenson; Bennett K. Pierce; James C. Hersey

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors associated with the in- crease in childhood vaccination coverage levels from 53% in 1988 to 89% in 1994 in Georgia's public health clinics. Design: A 1994 mail survey obtaining information on clinic vaccination policies and practices and manage- ment practices. Setting: All 227 public health clinics in Georgia. Participants: Clinic nurses responsible for vaccina- tion

  14. Adoption of an Outdoor Residential Hall Smoking Policy in a California Public University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Trit; Fradkin, Nicholas; Moskowitz, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because secondhand smoke is a public health concern, many colleges have adopted bans to ensure healthier environments. This study demonstrates how outdoor smoking policy change can be accomplished at a large public university. Participants: The participants were 1,537 students housed in residential communities at the University of…

  15. Public Sector Training: A "Blind" Spot in the 1999 South African National Levy-Grant Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, South Africa implemented a levy-grant policy (Skills Development Levies Act, 1999) to give an incentive for workplace training across private and public sector workplaces alike, but the impact of the levy-grant scheme in the public sector was restricted by financial and management processes unique to that environment. This article shows…

  16. IRB and EDRC Release New Policy Governing Public Databases Date: February 22, 2013

    E-print Network

    Director. The new policy identifies several well-known databases as meeting the definition of publicly in the Division of Epidemiology in MCW's Institute for Health and Society, with leadership from EDRC Director and Human Services definition of publicly available for exemption purposes. We are pleased to be able

  17. Urban passenger transport in the United States and Europe: a comparative analysis of public policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Pucher

    1995-01-01

    This is the second part of a two?part series that examines recent developments in urban passenger transport in the United States and Europe, focusing on the roles and impacts of the public sector as these have varied by country and over time. The first part of the series described public policies for roadway systems and private car use, whereas this

  18. Transgressive actions and the production of public space : policy, people and urban space in Winnipeg's downtown

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etoile Catherine Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Public space is planned space. The discourse that takes place among federal, municipal and local governments, as well as the interaction that takes place on the street between people, informs the agenda and values inherent in policy and social norms. Urban revitalization strategies and city bylaws produce public and private spaces, thereby informing the cityscape within which everyone interacts. This

  19. The Spectre of Coercion: Is Public Health Genetics the Route to Policies of Enforced Disease Prevention?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang van den Daele

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses options for disease prevention in Public Health Genetics and attempts to assess the probability that coercive strategies might be chosen in public health policies that impose duties to undergo genetic testing. Given the social values, legal and political cultures and professional orientations in Western Europe and the United States, which provide the terms of reference for this

  20. The place of public inquiries in shaping New Zealand's national mental health policy 1858–1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warwick Brunton

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper discusses the role of public inquiries as an instrument of public policy-making in New Zealand, using mental health as a case study. The main part of the paper analyses the processes and outcomes of five general inquiries into the state of New Zealand's mental health services that were held between 1858 and 1996. RESULTS: The membership, form,